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1

Omani Twelfth Grade Students' Most Common Misconceptions in Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study, undertaken in the Sultanate of Oman, explored twelfth grade students' common misconceptions in seven chemistry conceptual areas. The sample included 786 twelfth grade students in Oman while the instrument was a two-tier test called Chemistry Misconceptions Diagnostic Test (CMDT), consisting of 25 items with 12 items…

Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah K.; Al-Shuaili, Ali H.; Taylor, Neil

2012-01-01

2

Common Student Misconceptions in Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study represents a preliminary investigation designed to identify common misconceptions in students' understanding of physiological and biochemical topics within the academic domain of sport and exercise sciences. A specifically designed misconception inventory (consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions) was administered to a cohort…

Morton, James P.; Doran, Dominic A.; MacLaren, Don P. M.

2008-01-01

3

Common student misconceptions in exercise physiology and biochemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The present study represents a preliminary investigationdesigned to identify common misconceptions in students' understanding of physiological and biochemical topics within the academic domain of sport and exercise sciences. A specifically designed misconception inventory (consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions) was administered to a cohort of level 1, 2, and 3 undergraduate students enrolled in physiology and biochemistry-related modules of the BSc Sport Science degree at the authors' institute. Of the 10 misconceptions proposed by the authors, 9 misconceptions were confirmed. Of these nine misconceptions, only one misconception appeared to have been alleviated by the current teaching strategy employed during the progression from level 1 to 3 study. The remaining eight misconceptions prevailed throughout the course of the degree program, suggesting that students enter and leave university with the same misconceptions in certain areas of exercise physiology and biochemistry. The possible origins of these misconceptions are discussed, as are potential teaching strategies to prevent and/or remediate them for future years.

James P. Morton (Liverpool John Moores University Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences)

2008-01-28

4

COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS  

E-print Network

Children with sexual behavior problems (SBPs) are children 12 years and under who demonstrate developmentally inappropriate or aggressive sexual behavior. This definition includes self-focused sexual behavior, such as excessive masturbation, and aggressive sexual behavior towards others that may include coercion or force. Recognizing these children and understanding the causes, impact, and treatment of the sexual behavior problems is a relatively new area of research and clinical practice. Some early assumptions about children with SBPs have not been supported by current research. This Fact Sheet will examine common misconceptions of children with SBPs along with the most recent findings.

unknown authors

5

Ten Common NWP Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module introduces forecasters to ten of the most commonly encountered or significant misconceptions about NWP models. This list of ten misconceptions includes issues surrounding data assimilation, model resolution, physical parameterizations, and post-processing of model forecast output.

Comet

2002-05-02

6

Common Misconceptions about Biomes and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes some common misconceptions that elementary students may have about biomes and ecosystems. It also includes suggestions for formative assessment and teaching for conceptual change.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

7

Common Misconceptions about Heat and Insulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes some common misconceptions that elementary students may have about energy, heat, and insulation. It also includes suggestions for formative assessment and teaching for conceptual change.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

8

Common Misconceptions about Day and Night, Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes common misconceptions held by elementary students about the cause of day and night and seasons. The article provides ideas for formative assessment, teaching strategies, and the National Science Education Standards.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

9

Student Misconceptions in Introductory Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defining a "misconception" as an error of translation (transformation, correspondence, interpolation, interpretation) between two different kinds of information which causes students to have incorrect expectations, a Taxonomy of Errors has been developed to examine student misconceptions in an introductory biology course for science majors. Two…

Fisher, Kathleen M.; Lipson, Joseph I.

10

Science Sampler: Correcting student misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Before learning any formal science, children try to make sense of natural phenomena on their own. However, several studies have shown that it can be difficult to convince a student to give up a long-held misconception in favor of an accurate scientific explanation. Misconceptions can be confronted through hands-on and minds-on activities. The strategies outlined in this article will foster a climate of inquiry within the classroom.

Abdi, S. W.

2006-01-01

11

Common Errors and Misconceptions in Mathematical Proving by Education Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ninety-seven education students majoring or minoring in mathematics had their math homework examined in a Number Theory or Abstract Algebra course. Each student's homework was observed for the purpose of identifying common errors and misconceptions when writing mathematical proofs. The results showed that students collectively made four…

Stavrou, Stavros Georgios

2014-01-01

12

Diagnosing Portuguese Students' Misconceptions about the Mineral Concept  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational researchers and teachers are well aware that misconceptions--erroneous ideas that differ from the scientifically accepted ones--are very common amongst students. Daily experiences, creative and perceptive thinking and science textbooks give rise to students' misconceptions which lead them to draw erroneous conclusions that become…

Monteiro, Antonio; Nobrega, Clevio; Abrantes, Isabel; Gomes, Celeste

2012-01-01

13

Students' Misconceptions in Psychology: How You Ask Matters...Sometimes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions about psychology are prevalent among introductory students. Just how prevalent and what can be done to change these misconceptions depends on valid methods of assessment. The most common method of assessment, the true/false questionnaire, is problematic. The present study compared true/false with forced choice formats to determine…

Taylor, Annette Kujawski; Kowalski, Patricia

2012-01-01

14

Misconceptions - What Students Think They Know  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

StudentsÂ? understanding of many physiological phenomena is often seriously flawed. That is, students have faulty mental models of many of the things we ask them to learn. Such conceptual difficulties are often referred to as misconceptions. The problem with misconceptions is that they are often quite persistent, and they seriously interfere with the studentsÂ? ability to learn physiology.

PhD Joel A. Michael (Rush Medical College Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology)

2002-03-01

15

Pre-Service Teachers' and Students' (Mis)Conceptions About the Equal Sign  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis was to investigate pre-service teachers and student misconceptions of the equal sign, and then offer suggestions to pre-service teachers, teachers, university programs, and schools to prevent common misconceptions from...

Vela, Katherine

2012-02-14

16

Misconceptions about Sound among Engineering Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our first objective was to detect misconceptions about the microscopic nature of sound among senior university students enrolled in different engineering programmes (from chemistry to telecommunications). We sought to determine how these misconceptions are expressed (qualitative aspect) and, only very secondarily, to gain a general idea of the…

Pejuan, Arcadi; Bohigas, Xavier; Jaen, Xavier; Periago, Cristina

2012-01-01

17

Linking neuroscientific research on decision making to the educational context of novice students assigned to a multiple-choice scientific task involving common misconceptions about electrical circuits.  

PubMed

Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty and certainty associated with answers to multiple-choice questions involving common misconceptions about electric circuits. Twenty-two scientifically novice participants (humanities and arts college students) were asked, in an fMRI study, whether or not they thought the light bulbs in images presenting electric circuits were lighted up correctly, and if they were certain or uncertain of their answers. When participants reported that they were unsure of their responses, analyses revealed significant activations in brain areas typically involved in uncertainty (anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula cortex, and superior/dorsomedial frontal cortex) and in the left middle/superior temporal lobe. Certainty was associated with large bilateral activations in the occipital and parietal regions usually involved in visuospatial processing. Correct-and-certain answers were associated with activations that suggest a stronger mobilization of visual attention resources when compared to incorrect-and-certain answers. These findings provide insights into brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty that are activated when common misconceptions, identified as such by science education research literature, interfere in decision making in a school-like task. We also discuss the implications of these results from an educational perspective. PMID:24478680

Potvin, Patrice; Turmel, Elaine; Masson, Steve

2014-01-01

18

Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The authors of this website have identified 8 common misconceptions that lead to errors in mathematics (and promise to add more as time permits). Topics include: Rounding Numbers, Multiplication can Increase or Decrease a Number, Multiplying Decimals, Decimals and their Equivalent Fractions, Dividing Whole Numbers by Fractions, Adding with Negative Numbers, Calculations with Negative Numbers, and Calculations with Hundreds and Thousands. Each misconception is described in a pdf document which explains how the misconception arises, the rationale for the correct concept, and exercises aimed at reinforcing the correction.

Ilan Samson & David Burghes

19

Common Earth Science Misconceptions in Science Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of the Earth science content of science textbooks found a wide range of misconceptions. These are discussed in this article with reference to the published literature on Earth science misconceptions. Most misconceptions occurred in the "sedimentary rocks and processes" and "Earth's structure and plate tectonics" categories; the most…

King, Chris

2012-01-01

20

Identifying and Reconstructing Common Cold Misconceptions among Developing K-12 Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Common cold misconceptions may contribute to ill-informed decisions and recommendations made by K-12 educators who often encounter infected students. Understanding the structure of educators' misconceptions can be used to improve health instruction in teacher professional preparation programs. Purpose: The purposes of this project were…

Johnson, Marcus Lee; Bungum, Timothy

2013-01-01

21

Common Misconceptions About Fossils and the History of the Polar Regions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes common misconceptions held by elementary students about the history of the polar regions, fossils, and geologic time. The article provides ideas for formative assessment, teaching strategies, and the National Science Education Standards.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

22

Students' Misconceptions about Random Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes some misconceptions about random variables and related counter-examples, and makes suggestions about teaching initial topics on random variables in general form instead of doing it separately for discrete and continuous cases. The focus is on post-calculus probability courses. (Contains 2 figures.)

Kachapova, Farida; Kachapov, Ilias

2012-01-01

23

Targeting Students' Physical Science Misconceptions Using the Conceptual Change Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handbook is dedicated to giving teachers clear information on how to correct physical science misconceptions in the classroom. It aims to help teachers help students develop appropriate understanding based on hands-on, inquiry-based experiences that challenge preconceptions. The book is organized into units ranging from matter to heat and waves. Each unit includes a list of common misconceptions and activities that help students develop an accurate understanding of each concept. Background information and lessons are provided. The National Science Education Standards for content and instructional strategies in the physical sciences are also addressed.

Stepans, Joseph

2007-11-01

24

Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Photosynthesis and Plant Respiration: Preliminary Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated the common misconceptions of lower secondary school students regarding the concepts of photosynthesis and plant respiration. These are abstract concepts which are difficult to comprehend for adults let alone for lower secondary school students. Research of the students misconceptions are conducted worldwide. The researches…

Svandova, Katerina

2014-01-01

25

Applying Scientific Principles to Resolve Student Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions about sinking and floating phenomena are some of the most challenging to overcome (Yin 2005), possibly because explaining sinking and floating requires students to understand challenging topics such as density, force, and motion. Two scientific principles are typically used in U.S. science curricula to explain sinking and floating:…

Yin, Yue

2012-01-01

26

Airside Economizer – Comparing Different Control Strategies and Common Misconceptions  

E-print Network

-enabled economizer and points out some important misconceptions that could significantly impact the energy savings of economizer operation. Specifically, it challenges the simplistic control strategy for the enthalpy based economizer control that is commonly used...

Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.

27

Airside Economizer- Comparing Different Control Strategies and Common Misconceptions  

E-print Network

-enabled economizer and points out some important misconceptions that could significantly impact the energy savings of the economizer operation. Specifically, it challenges the simplistic control strategy for the enthalpy-based economizer control that is commonly used...

Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.

28

85The Space Shuttle Fly me to the moon? A common misconception shared by  

E-print Network

85The Space Shuttle ­ Fly me to the moon? A common misconception shared by many students, and perhaps some members of the public, is that the Space Shuttle could have been used to travel to the Moon to the other as a series of speed (velocity) changes. For example, the orbit of the Space Shuttle

29

Addressing Students' Misconceptions about Gases, Mass, and Composition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much research has been published that describes the misconceptions students have about gases; however, not much research has been published that suggests how to change these misconceptions. The action research presented in this article examined how using laboratories to contradict students' preconceived ideas would affect their learning. High…

Mayer, Kristin

2011-01-01

30

On Misconceptions about Behavior Analysis among University Students and Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students frequently show misconceptions regarding scientific psychology in general and basic concepts in behavior analysis in particular. We wanted to replicate the study by Lamal (1995) and to expand the study by including some additional statements. In the current study, the focus was on misconceptions about behavior analysis held by…

Arntzen, Erik; Lokke, Jon; Lokke, Gunn; Eilertsen, Dag-Erik

2010-01-01

31

Students' Misconceptions about Heat Transfer Mechanisms and Elementary Kinetic Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heat and thermodynamics is a conceptually rich area of undergraduate physics. In the Indian context in particular there has been little work done in this area from the point of view of misconceptions. This prompted us to undertake a study in this area. We present a study of students' misconceptions about heat transfer mechanisms, i.e. conduction,…

Pathare, S. R.; Pradhan, H. C.

2010-01-01

32

Student Misconceptions of an Electric Circuit: What Do They Mean?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a common misconception in the area of electric circuits at the level of introductory college physics. The data, collected from clinical interviews, shed light on the cognitive sources of misconception. Also discusses some implications for laboratory approaches used in science courses. (Author/SK)

Fredette, Norman H.; Clement, John J.

1981-01-01

33

Student misconceptions of an electric circuit: What do they mean?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discusses a common misconception in the area of electric circuits at the level of introductory college physics. The data, collected from clinical interviews, shed light on the cognitive sources of misconception. Also discusses some implications for laboratory approaches used in science courses.

Fredette, Norman H.; Clement, John J.

2006-05-08

34

Students' Misconceptions in Electrochemistry: Current Flow in Electrolyte Solutions and the Salt Bridge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines students' misconceptions and proposed mechanisms related to current flow in electrolyte solutions and the salt bridge. Confirms reported misconceptions and identifies several new ones. Discusses probable sources of misconceptions and some methods for preventing them. Contains 27 references. (JRH)

Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

1997-01-01

35

Unraveling Students' Misconceptions about the Earth's Shape and Gravity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study designed to test the effectiveness of a constructivist-historical teaching strategy in changing students' misconceptions about the earth's shape and gravity at the upper elementary and middle school levels. Contains 27 references. (DDR)

Sneider, Cary I.; Ohadi, Mark M.

1998-01-01

36

Identifying student misconceptions in biomedical course assessments in dental education.  

PubMed

Dental student performance on examinations has traditionally been estimated by calculating the percentage of correct responses rather than by identifying student misconceptions. Although misconceptions can impede student learning and are refractory to change, they are seldom measured in biomedical courses in dental schools. Our purpose was to determine if scaling student confidence and the clinical impact of incorrect answers could be used on multiple-choice questions (MCQs) to identify potential student misconceptions. To provide a measure of student misconception, faculty members indicated the correct answer on twenty clinically relevant MCQs and noted whether the three distracters represented potentially benign, inappropriate, or harmful application of student knowledge to patient treatment. A group of 105 third-year dental students selected what they believed was the most appropriate answer and their level of sureness (1 to 4 representing very unsure, unsure, sure, and very sure) about their answer. Misconceptions were defined as sure or very sure incorrect responses that could result in inappropriate or harmful clinical treatment. In the results, 5.2 percent of the answers represented student misconceptions, and 74 percent of the misconceptions were from four case-based interpretation questions. The mean student sureness was 3.6 on a 4.0 scale. The students' sureness was higher with correct than with incorrect answers (p<0.001), yet there was no difference in sureness levels among their incorrect (benign, inappropriate, or harmful) responses (p>0.05). This study found that scaling student confidence and clinical impact of incorrect answers provided helpful insights into student thinking in multiple-choice assessment. PMID:22942414

Curtis, Donald A; Lind, Samuel L; Dellinges, Mark; Schroeder, Kurt

2012-09-01

37

Misconceptions about Traumatic Brain Injury among Students Preparing to Be Special Education Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The researchers performed a survey study to determine the effectiveness of collegiate programmes in dispelling common misconceptions about traumatic brain injury (TBI) while preparing undergraduate and graduate students for special education (SpEd) careers. Respondents included 136 undergraduate and 147 graduate SpEd students in their final…

Hux, Karen; Bush, Erin; Evans, Kelli; Simanek, Gina

2013-01-01

38

COMPUTER SCIENCE: MISCONCEPTIONS, CAREER PATHS  

E-print Network

COMPUTER SCIENCE: MISCONCEPTIONS, CAREER PATHS AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES School of Computing Undergraduate Student) #12;Computer Science Misconceptions Intro to Computer Science - Florida International University 2 Some preconceived ideas & stereotypes about Computer Science (CS) are quite common

Hristidis, Vagelis

39

Students' Misconceptions about Medium-Scale Integrated Circuits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To improve instruction in computer engineering and computer science, instructors must better understand how their students learn. Unfortunately, little is known about how students learn the fundamental concepts in computing. To investigate student conceptions and misconceptions about digital logic concepts, the authors conducted a qualitative…

Herman, G. L.; Loui, M. C.; Zilles, C.

2011-01-01

40

Students' Misconceptions About Medium-Scale Integrated Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve instruction in computer engineering and computer science, instructors must better understand how their students learn. Unfortunately, little is known about how students learn the fundamental concepts in computing. To investigate stu- dent conceptions and misconceptions about digital logic concepts, the authors conducted a qualitative interview-based study. In the interviews, students verbalized their thinking while they solved digital logic

Geoffrey L. Herman; Michael C. Loui; Craig Zilles

2011-01-01

41

Comparing Misconceptions in Physics between Chinese and American Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares misconceptions associated with electric circuits between high school students in the People's Republic of China and in the United States. In general, findings indicate that the Chinese students did better on the problems than did the American students. Discusses the importance of physics in the Chinese curriculum. (JRH)

Unruh, Roy D.; And Others

1997-01-01

42

Interpreting Students' Writings: Misconception or Misrepresentation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article demonstrates one particular difficulty of interpreting students' use of language in science classrooms: determining whether a student's writing indicates a misconception or a misrepresentation. Students' written assignments from a case study are used to illustrate instances where multiple interpretations are possible.…

Seah, Lay Hoon

2013-01-01

43

Secondary & College Biology Students' Misconceptions About Diffusion & Osmosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests on diffusion and osmosis given to (n=116) secondary biology students, (n=123) nonbiology majors, and (n=117) biology majors found that, even after instruction, students continue to have misconceptions about these ideas. Appendix includes diffusion and osmosis test. (MKR)

Odom, Arthur Louis

1995-01-01

44

Common Origins of Diverse Misconceptions: Cognitive Principles and the Development of Biology Thinking  

PubMed Central

Many ideas in the biological sciences seem especially difficult to understand, learn, and teach successfully. Our goal in this feature is to explore how these difficulties may stem not from the complexity or opacity of the concepts themselves, but from the fact that they may clash with informal, intuitive, and deeply held ways of understanding the world that have been studied for decades by psychologists. We give a brief overview of the field of developmental cognitive psychology. Then, in each of the following sections, we present a number of common challenges faced by students in the biological sciences. These may be in the form of misconceptions, biases, or simply concepts that are difficult to learn and teach, and they occur at all levels of biological analysis (molecular, cellular, organismal, population, and ecosystem). We then introduce the notion of a cognitive construal and discuss specific examples of how these cognitive principles may explain what makes some misconceptions so alluring and some biological concepts so challenging for undergraduates. We will argue that seemingly unrelated misconceptions may have common origins in a single underlying cognitive construal. These ideas emerge from our own ongoing cross-disciplinary conversation, and we think that expanding this conversation to include other biological scientists and educators, as well as other cognitive scientists, could have significant utility in improving biology teaching and learning. PMID:22949417

Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

2012-01-01

45

How Confident Are Students in Their Misconceptions about Hypothesis Tests?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both researchers and teachers of statistics have made considerable efforts during the last decades to re-conceptualize statistics courses in accordance with the general reform movement in mathematics education. However, students still hold misconceptions about statistical inference even after following a reformed course. The study presented in…

Sotos, Ana Elisa Castro; Vanhoof, Stijn; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Onghena, Patrick

2009-01-01

46

Predicting Students' Performance in Introductory Psychology from their Psychology Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students bring many misconceptions about psychology to the introductory psychology course. We investigated whether scores on a 10-item Knowledge of Psychology Test (adapted from Vaughan, 1977) taken on the first class day were related to final class grades in 11 introductory psychology classes taught by the same instructor at three colleges. A…

Kuhle, Barry X.; Barber, Jessica M.; Bristol, Adam S.

2009-01-01

47

Faring with Facets: Building and Using Databases of Student Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of educational researchers have developed pedagogical approaches that involve the teacher in discovering and helping to correct misconceptions that students bring to their study of their subject matter. During the last decade, several computer systems have been developed to support teaching and learning using this kind of approach. A…

Madhyastha, Tara; Tanimoto, Steven

2009-01-01

48

Misconceptions highlighted among medical students in the annual International Intermedical School Physiology Quiz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

THE ANNUAL Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe, as previously described in this journal (4). We report here some illuminating insights gleaned from this international physiology quiz event. This report also highlights some common misconceptions among students of physiology, as has been previously described in definite studies by others (5, 8, 10, 13, 14).

Hwee-Ming Cheng (Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya Physiology)

2012-09-01

49

Differences in Brain Activation between Novices and Experts in Science during a Task Involving a Common Misconception in Electricity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science education studies have revealed that students often have misconceptions about how nature works, but what happens to misconceptions after a conceptual change remains poorly understood. Are misconceptions rejected and replaced by scientific conceptions, or are they still present in students' minds, coexisting with newly acquired…

Masson, Steve; Potvin, Patrice; Riopel, Martin; Foisy, Lorie-Marlène Brault

2014-01-01

50

Scientific Methods: Using the movie "Awakenings" to dispel common misconceptions about the scientific method.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is to dispel the misconception that there is one single structured scientific method used by all scientists, and tackle some ethical issues raised in life. This is accomplished using the popular movie "Awakenings" and student observations and reflections.

Lauris Grundmanis, Hill-Murray School, Maplewood, MN 55109

51

Students' Misconceptions and Errors in Transformation Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyses the students' performances in two-dimensional transformation geometry and explores the mistakes made by the students taking the analytic geometry course given by researchers. An examination was given to students of Education Faculties who have taken the analytic geometry course at Eskisehir Osmangazi University in Turkey. The…

Ada, Tuba; Kurtulus, Aytac

2010-01-01

52

Student Misconceptions Caused by Misuse of Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calculators used widely by students, teachers, scientists, engineers and many others provide an interesting case study of a compelling technology that has helped change the way many professionals work. They not only help in enhancing problem solving skills of most individuals, but also help visualise solutions to problems in a better way. Research…

Paige, Robert

2007-01-01

53

Exploring lecturers' views of first-year health science students' misconceptions in biomedical domains.  

PubMed

Research has indicated that misconceptions hamper the process of knowledge construction. Misconceptions are defined as persistent ideas not supported by current scientific views. Few studies have explored how misconceptions develop when first year health students conceptually move between anatomy and physiology to construct coherent knowledge about the human body. This explorative study analysed lecturers' perceptions of first-year health science students' misconceptions in anatomy and physiology to gain a deeper understanding of how and why misconceptions could potentially arise, by attempting to link sources of misconceptions with four schools of thought, namely theories on concept formation, complexity, constructivism and conceptual change. This was a qualitative study where ten lecturers involved in teaching anatomy and physiology in the health science curricula at the University of Cape Town were interviewed to explore perceptions of students' misconceptions. Analytical induction was used to uncover categories within the interview data by using a coding system. A deeper analysis was done to identify emerging themes that begins to explore a theoretical understanding of why and how misconceptions arise. Nine sources of misconceptions were identified, including misconceptions related to language, perception, three dimensional thinking, causal reasoning, curricula design, learning styles and moving between macro and micro levels. The sources of misconceptions were then grouped together to assist educators with finding educational interventions to overcome potential misconceptions. This explorative study is an attempt in theory building to understand what is at the core of biomedical misconceptions. Misconceptions identified in this study hold implications for educators as not all students have the required building blocks and cognitive skills to successfully navigate their way through biomedical courses. Theoretical insight into the sources of misconceptions can assist educators in addressing potential hampering factors in the construction of coherent scientific knowledge. PMID:25099944

Badenhorst, Elmi; Mamede, Sílvia; Hartman, Nadia; Schmidt, Henk G

2014-08-01

54

Student Misconceptions and the Conservation of Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interesting, quick, and inexpensive lab that we do with our students is to tape one end of a string just less than halfway around the back side of a uniform solid cylinder m[subscript 1] and attach the other end of the string to a mass m[subscript 2] that is below a pulley (Fig. 1). Data can be collected using either an Ultra Pulley (Fig. 2) or…

Froehle, Peter; Miller, Charles H.

2012-01-01

55

Thai high-school students' misconceptions about and models of light refraction through a planar surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the optics misconceptions of 220 year 11 Thai high-school students. These misconceptions became apparent when the students attempted to explain how an object submerged in a water tank is 'seen' by an observer looking into the tank from above and at an angle. The two diagnostic questions used in the study probe the students' ability to use

Kreetha Kaewkhong; Alex Mazzolini; Narumon Emarat; Kwan Arayathanitkul

2010-01-01

56

Student Misconceptions and the Conservation of Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interesting, quick, and inexpensive lab that we do with our students is to tape one end of a string just less than halfway around the back side of a uniform solid cylinder m1 and attach the other end of the string to a mass m2 that is below a pulley (Fig. 1). Data can be collected using either an Ultra Pulley (Fig. 2) or a motion detector with a protective cage designed to stop the falling mass (Fig. 3). We found that each measuring device worked equally well. When experimenting, let m2 hang freely and release the cylinder. The mass m2 is allowed to fall a defined distance h. Note that many motion detectors do not measure accurately within 15 cm of the detector.

Froehle, Peter; Miller, Charles H.

2012-09-01

57

A Study on Student Teachers’ Misconceptions and Scientifically Acceptable Conceptions About Mass and Gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were considered under three headings. The first was to elicit misconception that science and physics\\u000a student teachers (pre-service teachers) had about the terms, ‘‘inertial mass’’, ‘‘gravitational mass’’, ‘‘gravity’’, ‘‘gravitational\\u000a force’’ and “weight”. The second was to understand how prior learning affected their misconceptions, and whether teachers’\\u000a misconceptions affected their students’ learning. The third was to

Selahattin Gönen

2008-01-01

58

Studentsmisconceptions about Newton's second law in outer space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studentsmisconceptions about Newton's second law in frictionless outer space were investigated. The research was formed according to an epistemic game theoretical framework. The term ‘epistemic’ refers to students’ participation in problem-solving activities as a means of constructing new knowledge. The term ‘game’ refers to a coherent activity that consists of moves and rules. A set of questions in which students are asked to solve two similar Newton's second law problems, one of which is on the Earth and the other in outer space, was administered to 116 undergraduate students. The findings indicate that there is a significant difference between students’ epistemic game preferences and race-type (outer space or frictional surface) question. So students who used Newton's second law on the ground did not apply this law and used primitive reasoning when it came to space. Among these students, voluntary interviews were conducted with 18 students. Analysis of interview transcripts showed that: (1) the term ‘space’ causes spontaneity among students that prevents the use of the law; (2) students hesitate to apply Newton's second law in space due to the lack of a condition—the friction; (3) students feel that Newton's second law is not valid in space for a variety of reasons, but mostly for the fact that the body in space is not in contact with a surface.

Temiz, B. K.; Yavuz, A.

2014-07-01

59

Common omissions and misconceptions of wave propagation in turbulence: discussion.  

PubMed

This review paper addresses typical mistakes and omissions that involve theoretical research and modeling of optical propagation through atmospheric turbulence. We discuss the disregard of some general properties of narrow-angle propagation in refractive random media, the careless use of simplified models of turbulence, and omissions in the calculations of the second moment of the propagating wave. We also review some misconceptions regarding short-exposure imaging, propagation of polarized waves, and calculations of the scintillation index of the beam waves. PMID:22561929

Charnotskii, Mikhail

2012-05-01

60

Identifying Students' Misconceptions about Nuclear Chemistry: A Study of Turkish High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study represents the first attempt to elucidate and detail the types of misconceptions high school students hold relating to basic concepts and topics of nuclear chemistry. A diagnostic multiple-choice test was administered to 157 tenth-grade students (15-16 years old) and the data were analyzed. The results show that high school students

Nakiboglu, Canan; Tekin, Berna Bulbul

2006-01-01

61

Elementary Teachers' Understanding of Students' Science Misconceptions: Implications for Practice and Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine what elementary teachers know about student science misconceptions and how teachers address student misconceptions in instruction. The sample included 30 teachers from California with at least 1-year of experience teaching grades 3, 4, and 5. A semistructured interview was used. The interview transcripts were…

Gomez-Zwiep, Susan

2008-01-01

62

Thai High-School Students' Misconceptions about and Models of Light Refraction through a Planar Surface  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the optics misconceptions of 220 year 11 Thai high-school students. These misconceptions became apparent when the students attempted to explain how an object submerged in a water tank is "seen" by an observer looking into the tank from above and at an angle. The two diagnostic questions used in the study probe the…

Kaewkhong, Kreetha; Mazzolini, Alex; Emarat, Narumon; Arayathanitkul, Kwan

2010-01-01

63

An Analysis of Students' Misconceptions Concerning Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study were to diagnose students' misconceptions concerning photosynthesis and respiration in plants, and to investigate reasons behind these misconceptions. The subjects were 45 ninth grade high school students and 11 high school teachers. Data were collected by interview technique. All of the interviews were audiotaped and…

Capa, Yesim; Yildirim, Ali; Ozden, M. Yasar

64

"Holes" in Student Understanding: Addressing Prevalent Misconceptions regarding Atmospheric Environmental Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a misconception among undergraduate students that global warming is caused by holes in the ozone layer. In this study, we evaluated the presence of this and other misconceptions surrounding atmospheric chemistry that are responsible for the entanglement of the greenhouse effect and the ozone hole in students' conceptual frameworks. We…

Kerr, Sara C.; Walz, Kenneth A.

2007-01-01

65

Enhancing Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Students' Thinking from Assessing and Analyzing Misconceptions in Homework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on teacher learning of student thinking through grading homework, assessing and analyzing misconceptions. The data were collected from 10 teachers at fifth-eighth grade levels in the USA. The results show that assessing and analyzing misconceptions from grading homework is an important approach to acquiring knowledge of…

An, Shuhua; Wu, Zhonghe

2012-01-01

66

Myths and Misconceptions in Popular Psychology: Comparing Psychology Students and the General Public  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the prevalence of psychological myths and misconceptions among psychology students and within the general population. In total, 829 participants completed a 249-item questionnaire designed to measure a broad range of psychological myths. Results revealed that psychological myths and misconceptions are numerous and widely held.…

Furnham, Adrian; Hughes, David J.

2014-01-01

67

Highly Prevalent but Not Always Persistent: Undergraduate and Graduate Student's Misconceptions about Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although past research has documented the prevalence of misconceptions in introductory psychology classes, few studies have assessed how readily upper-level undergraduate and graduate students endorse erroneous beliefs about the discipline. In Study 1, we administered a 30-item misconception test to an international sample of 670 undergraduate,…

Hughes, Sean; Lyddy, Fiona; Kaplan, Robin; Nichols, Austin Lee; Miller, Haylie; Saad, Carmel Gabriel; Dukes, Kristin; Lynch, Amy-Jo

2015-01-01

68

Misconceptions of High School Students Related to the Conceptions of Absolutism and Constitutionalism in History Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study is to analyze the 10th grade high school students' misconceptions related to the sense of ruling in the Ottoman State during the absolutist and constitutional periods and to investigate the causes of these misconceptions. The data were collected through eight open-ended questions related to the concepts of absolutism and…

Bal, Mehmet Suat

2011-01-01

69

Black Boxes in Analytical Chemistry: University Students' Misconceptions of Instrumental Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions of chemistry and chemical engineering university students concerning instrumental analysis have been established from coordinated tests, tutorial interviews and laboratory lessons. Misconceptions can be divided into: (1) formal, involving specific concepts and formulations within the general frame of chemistry; (2)…

Carbo, Antonio Domenech; Adelantado, Jose Vicente Gimeno; Reig, Francisco Bosch

2010-01-01

70

Observations on Student Misconceptions--A Case Study of the Build-Heap Algorithm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data structures and algorithms are core issues in computer programming. However, learning them is challenging for most students and many of them have various types of misconceptions on how algorithms work. In this study, we discuss the problem of identifying misconceptions on the principles of how algorithms work. Our context is algorithm…

Seppala, Otto; Malmi, Lauri; Korhonen, Ari

2006-01-01

71

Student Acquisition of Biological Evolution-Related Misconceptions: The Role of Public High School Introductory Biology Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to eliminate student misconceptions concerning biological evolution, it is important to identify their sources. The purposes of this study were to: (a) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma public high school Biology I teachers; (b) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma…

Yates, Tony Brett

2011-01-01

72

A Analysis of Saudi Arabian High School Students' Misconceptions about Physics Concepts.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted to explore Saudi high students' misconceptions in selected physics concepts. It also detected the effects of gender, grade level and location of school on Saudi high school students' misconceptions. In addition, a further analysis of students' misconceptions in each question was investigated and a correlation between students' responses, confidence in answers and sensibleness was conducted. There was an investigation of sources of students' answers in this study. Finally, this study included an analysis of students' selection of reasons only in the instrument. The instrument used to detect the students' misconceptions was a modified form of the Misconception Identification in Science Questionnaire (MISQ). This instrument was developed by Franklin (1992) to detected students' misconceptions in selected physics concepts. This test is a two-tier multiple choice test that examines four areas of physics: Force and motion, heat and temperature, light and color and electricity and magnetism. This study included a sample of 1080 Saudi high school students who were randomly selected from six Saudi educational districts. This study also included both genders, the three grade levels of Saudi high schools, six different educational districts, and a city and a town in each educational district. The sample was equally divided between genders, grade levels, and educational districts. The result of this study revealed that Saudi Arabian high school students hold numerous misconceptions about selected physics concepts. It also showed that tenth grade students were significantly different than the other grades. The result also showed that different misconceptions are held by the students for each concept in the MISQ. A positive correlation between students' responses, confidence in answers and sensibleness in many questions was shown. In addition, it showed that guessing was the most dominant source of misconceptions. The result revealed that gender and grade level had an affect on students' choice of decision on the MISQ items. A positive change in the means of gender and grade levels in the multiple choice test and gender differences in selection of reason may be associated with specific concepts. No significant difference in frequencies of the reasons chosen by the student to justify their answers were found in most of the items (10 items).

Al-Rubayea, Abdullah A. M.

73

Student Misconceptions in Writing Balanced Equations for Dissolving Ionic Compounds in Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to identify student misconceptions and difficulties in writing symbolic-level balanced equations for dissolving ionic compounds in water. A sample of 105 college students were asked to provide balanced equations for dissolving four ionic compounds in water. Another 37 college students participated in semi-structured…

Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

2012-01-01

74

Development and Application of an Instrument to Identify Students Misconceptions: Diffusion and Osmosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large number of undergraduate students have naive understandings about the processes of Diffusion and Osmosis. Some students overcome these misconceptions, but others do not. The study involved nineteen undergraduate movement science students at a Midwest University. Participants' were asked to complete a short answer (fill-in the blank) test,…

Misischia, Cynthia M.

2010-01-01

75

Ecological Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a summary of the research literature on students' ecological conceptions and the implications of misconceptions. Topics include food webs, ecological adaptation, carrying capacity, ecosystem, and niche. (Contains 35 references.) (MKR)

Munson, Bruce H.

1994-01-01

76

The Persistence of Misconceptions about the Human Blood Circulatory System among Students in Different Grade Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the persistence of misconceptions in the topic of the human blood circulatory system among students in different grade levels. For this reason, after discussions with biology educators, two tests consisting of open-ended questions were developed by the researcher and administered to students in four…

Ozgur, Sami

2013-01-01

77

Improving Algebra Preparation: Implications from Research on Student Misconceptions and Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through historical and contemporary research, educators have identified widespread misconceptions and difficulties faced by students in learning algebra. Many of these universal issues stem from content addressed long before students take their first algebra course. Yet elementary and middle school teachers may not understand how the subtleties of…

Welder, Rachael M.

2012-01-01

78

Student's Mistakes and Misconceptions on Teaching of Trigonometry Nevin ORHUN(1)  

E-print Network

208 Student's Mistakes and Misconceptions on Teaching of Trigonometry Nevin ORHUN(1) Abstract:Trigonometry relationships. For most of the students in higher education,it is necessary the analytical part of trigonometry.Namely,the trigonometry of the numbers is more important than the other subjects.Creativeness and understanding of its

Spagnolo, Filippo

79

Student Misconceptions, Declarative Knowledge, Stimulus Conditions, and Problem Solving in Basic Electricity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of students' misconceptions, declarative knowledge, and stimulus conditions on students' solutions to a problem in basic electricity were studied for 80 undergraduates at Iowa State University (Ames). The implications of the findings of influence by knowledge and stimulus conditions are discussed. (SLD)

Andre, Thomas; Ding, Pin

1991-01-01

80

Learning Difficulties Experienced by Students and their Misconceptions of the Inverse Function Concept  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to determine students' learning difficulties and misconceptions related to the "inverse function". The study group was composed of 137 first-grade students enrolled in the elementary mathematics teaching program of an Eastern Anatolia University in Turkey during the fall term of the academic year 2010-2011.…

Okur, Muzaffer

2013-01-01

81

Identifying and Addressing Student Difficulties and Misconceptions: Examples from Physics and from Materials Science and Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Here I present my work identifying and addressing student difficulties with several materials science and physics topics. In the first part of this thesis, I present my work identifying student difficulties and misconceptions about the directional relationships between net force, velocity, and acceleration in one dimension. This is accomplished…

Rosenblatt, Rebecca

2012-01-01

82

High School 9th Grade Students' Understanding Level and Misconceptions about Temperature and Factors Affecting It  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to explore students' understanding levels and misconceptions about temperature and factors affecting it. The concept of the study was chosen from Geography National Curriculum. In this study, a questionnaire was developed after a pilot study with an aim to ascertain the students' understanding levels of temperature and…

Akbas, Yavuz

2012-01-01

83

Preservice Chemistry Teachers in Action: An Evaluation of Attempts for Changing High School Students' Chemistry Misconceptions into More Scientific Conceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has revealed that students may hold several misconceptions regarding fundamental topics of chemistry. With the idea that teachers play a critical role in diagnosis and remediation of students' misconceptions, a "course" for preservice chemistry teachers was designed. The purpose of this study was to describe the views and…

Yakmaci-Guzel, Buket

2013-01-01

84

Biology Undergraduates' Misconceptions about Genetic Drift  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores biology undergraduates' misconceptions about genetic drift. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to describe students' definitions, identify common misconceptions, and examine differences before and after instruction on genetic drift. We identify and describe five overarching categories that include 16 distinct…

Andrews, T. M.; Price, R. M.; Mead, L. S.; McElhinny, T. L.; Thanukos, A.; Perez, K. E.; Herreid, C. F.; Terry, D. R.; Lemons, P. P.

2012-01-01

85

Common Myths, Misconceptions and Assumptions About Mtbe: Where Are We Now?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical review of twelve (12) myths and misconceptions about MTBE reveals they were conceived to rationalize early field observations and/or incomplete data sets. Closer scrutiny, in light of recent laboratory investigations, field data, case studies and world literature, indicates the myths are unsubstantiated misconceptions and as- sumptions about the behavior of ether oxygenates in the environment. Commonly held myths focus on four general areas of fuel and fuel oxygenates management: stor- age/dispensing, hydrology, remediation and health effects. Storage/dispensing mis- conceptions address materials stability to ethers in fuel and the environmental foren- sics of fuel systems failure. Groundwater and hydrology myths deal with plume dy- namics and the impact of fuel on drinking water resources. Remediation myths focus on the performance of traditional hydrocarbon remediation technologies, recent de- velopments in biodegradation and natural attenuation, drivers of remedial design and remediation costs. Health effects myths address both acute and chronic exposure risk evaluations by national and international health agencies. MTBE is manageable by the same processes and precautions used for gasoline and other fuel hydrocarbons.

Woodward, R. E.

86

Development of the Bonding Representations Inventory to Identify Student Misconceptions about Covalent and Ionic Bonding Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers use multiple representations to communicate the concepts of bonding, including Lewis structures, formulas, space-filling models, and 3D manipulatives. As students learn to interpret these multiple representations, they may develop misconceptions that can create problems in further learning of chemistry. Interviews were conducted with 28…

Luxford, Cynthia J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

2014-01-01

87

An Investigation of Fifth and Eighth Grade Korean Students' Misconceptions of Photosynthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many researchers believe that prior knowledge is the single most important variable influencing learning. Learning in the classroom is determined or affected positively or negatively, to some degree, by the knowledge people bring to the classroom. This study was designed to: (1) assess fifth- and eighth-grade Korean students' misconceptions of…

Cho, Jung-il

88

Factors Mediating the Effect of Gender on Ninth-Grade Turkish Students' Misconceptions Concerning Electric Circuits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to identify and analyze possible factors that mediate the effect of gender on ninth-grade Turkish students' misconceptions concerning electric circuits. A Simple Electric Circuit Concept Test (SECCT), including items with both practical and theoretical contexts, and an Interest-Experience Questionnaire about Electricity…

Sencar, Selen; Eryilmaz, Ali

2004-01-01

89

Growing Pebbles and Conceptual Prisms - Understanding the Source of Student Misconceptions about Rock Formation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes narrative essays--stories of rock formation--written by pre-service elementary school teachers. Reports startling misconceptions among preservice teachers on pebbles that grow, human involvement in rock formation, and sedimentary rocks forming as puddles as dry up, even though these students had completed a college level course on Earth…

Kusnick, Judi

2002-01-01

90

The Investigation of 6th Grade Student Misconceptions Originated from Didactic about the "Digestive System" Subject  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the misconceptions emerged as a result of instruction were examined from the viewpoint of the Didactic Transposition Theory. To this end, two randomly selected sample groups (n = 33 and n = 31) from the students of two nearby schools in downtown Balikesir were included in the study. It was observed that different knowledge…

Ozgur, Sami; Pelitoglu, Fatma Cildir

2008-01-01

91

The Effects of Computer-Assisted Material on Students' Cognitive Levels, Misconceptions and Attitudes Towards Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Computer-Assisted Instruction Material (CAIM) related to "photosynthesis" topic on student cognitive development, misconceptions and attitudes. The study conducted in 2002-2003 academic year and was carried out in two different classes taught by the same teacher, in which there were…

Cepni, Salih; Tas, Erol; Kose, Sacit

2006-01-01

92

Overcoming Students' Misconceptions Concerning Thermal Physics with the Aid of Hints and Peer Interaction during a Lecture Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As has been shown by previous research, students may possess various misconceptions in the area of thermal physics. In order to help them overcome misconceptions observed prior to instruction, we implemented a one-hour lecture-based intervention in their introductory thermal physics course. The intervention was held after the conventional lectures…

Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

2013-01-01

93

Some Misconceptions in Meiosis Shown by Students Responding to an Advanced Level Practical Examination Question in Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are problems revealed in student responses to a practical task which formed part of an advanced level examination. The frequencies with which some misconceptions about cell reproduction and genetics occurred are presented. The nature of these misconceptions is analyzed and their implications discussed. (CW)

Brown, C. R.

1990-01-01

94

The effects of computer-assisted material on students cognitive levels, misconceptions and attitudes towards science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Computer-assisted Instruction Material (CAIM) related to ''photosynthesis'' topic on student cognitive development, misconceptions and attitudes. The study conducted in 2002-2003 academic year and was carried out in two different classes taught by the same teacher, in which there were fifty two 11th grade high school students, in central

Salih Cepni; Erol Ta; Sacit Kose

95

Research and Teaching: Two-Dimensional, Implicit Confidence Tests as a Tool for Recognizing Student Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The misconceptions that students bring with them, or that arise during instruction, are a critical barrier to learning. Implicit-confidence tests, a simple modification of the multiple-choice test, can be used as a strategy for recognizing student misconceptions. An important issue, however, is whether such tests are gender-neutral. We analyzed the results of exams administered to students (both majors and nonmajors) in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology (MCDB) 1111: Biofundamentals at the University of Colorado at Boulder. At a statistically significant level ( 95%), there was no difference between women and men regardless of whether their answers were confidently correct or incorrect, suggesting that such two-dimensional tests are a gender-neutral tool.

Linda B. Taylor

2006-11-01

96

Identifying Students' Misconceptions in Writing Balanced Equations for Dissolving Ionic Compounds in Water and Using Multiple-Choice Questions at the Symbolic and Particulate Levels to Confront These Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students who harbor misconceptions often find chemistry difficult to understand. To improve teaching about the dissolving process, first semester introductory chemistry students were asked to complete a free-response questionnaire on writing balanced equations for dissolving ionic compounds in water. To corroborate errors and misconceptions

Naah, Basil M.

2012-01-01

97

An Astronomical Misconceptions Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions that students bring with them to the introductory science classroom plague every area of science and are especially prevalent in astronomy. One way to identify and possibly dispel some of these misconceptions is through the use of a misconceptions survey. The following is a report on the development, implementation, and some early…

LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.

2011-01-01

98

Advanced Undergraduate and Early Graduate Physics Students' Misconception about Solar Wind Flow: Evidence of Students' Difficulties in Distinguishing Paradigms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anecdotal evidence has suggested that advanced undergraduate students confuse the spiral structure of the interplanetary magnetic field with the flow of the solar wind. Though it is a small study, this paper documents this misconception and begins to investigate the underlying issues behind it. We present evidence that the traditional presentation…

Gross, Nicholas A.; Lopez, Ramon E.

2009-01-01

99

Invisible Misconceptions: Student Understanding of Ultraviolet and Infrared Radiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of nonvisible wavelengths for the study of astronomy suggests that student understanding of nonvisible light is an important consideration in astronomy classrooms. Questionnaires, interviews, and panel discussions were used to investigate 6-12 student and teacher conceptions of ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR). Alternative…

Libarkin, Julie C.; Asghar, Anila; Crockett, C.; Sadler, Philip

2011-01-01

100

Students' Misconceptions about U.S. Westward Migration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifth-grade students with learning disabilities (LD) and their typically achieving (TA) peers participated in an 8-week investigation about 19th-century U.S. westward migration. During their investigations, the students analyzed primary and secondary sources to understand the experiences of these emigrants and Native peoples. The analysis of…

Ferretti, Ralph P.; MacArthur, Charles A.; Okolo, Cynthia M.

2007-01-01

101

Eliminating Common Misconceptions about Behavioral Psychology: One Step toward Increasing Academic Productivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizes compatibility of behavioral psychology and behavioral interventions in classroom with demands for educational excellence and accountability by teachers. Discusses teacher resistance to implementation of behavioral interventions. Corrects misconceptions involving perceived practical obstacles. Suggests ways for implementing behavioral…

Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Edwards, Ron

1989-01-01

102

Examining the impact of the Guided Constructivist teaching method on students' misconceptions about concepts of Newtonian physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Guided Constructivism (Interactivity-Based Learning Environment) and Traditional Expository instructional methods on students' misconceptions about concepts of Newtonian Physics was investigated. Four groups of 79 of University of Central Florida students enrolled in Physics 2048 participated in the study. A quasi-experimental design of nonrandomized, nonequivalent control and experimental groups was employed. The experimental group was exposed to the

Hyatt Abdelhaleem Ibrahim

2001-01-01

103

The Effect of Conceptual Change Approach to Eliminate 9th Grade High School Students' Misconceptions about Air Pressure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of teaching based on conceptual change overcome misconceptions of 9th grade high school students about the subject of air pressure. The sampling of the study was formed with two classes of 9th grade students from a general high school in the city-center of Trabzon. A quasi-experimental…

Akbas, Yavuz; Gencturk, Ebru

2011-01-01

104

Addressing Student Misconceptions Concerning Electron Flow in Aqueous Solutions with Instruction Including Computer Animations and Conceptual Change Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effects of both computer animations of microscopic chemical processes occurring in a galvanic cell and conceptual-change instruction based on chemical demonstrations on students' conceptions of current flow in electrolyte solutions. Finds that conceptual change instruction was effective at dispelling student misconceptions but…

Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

2000-01-01

105

Free fall misconceptions: results of a graph based pre test of sophomore civil engineering students  

E-print Network

A partially unusual behaviour was found among 14 sophomore students of civil engineering who took a pre test for a free fall laboratory session, in the context of a general mechanics course. An analysis contemplating mathematics models and physics models consistency was made. In all cases, the students presented evidence favoring a correct free fall acceleration model, whilst their position component versus time, and velocity component versus time graphs revealed complex misconceptions both on the physical phenomenon and it's implicit mathematics consistency. The last suggests an inability to make satisfactory connections through definitions between graphed variables. In other words, evidence strongly suggests that students are perfectly able to memorize the free fall acceleration model, whilst not understanding it's significance at any level. This small study originated the develope and validation of a tutorial on free fall graphs for position, velocity and acceleration models, as part of a following cross u...

Montecinos, Alicia M

2014-01-01

106

Identifying Senior High School Students' Misconceptions about Statistical Correlation, and Their Possible Causes: An Exploratory Study Using Concept Mapping with Interviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Correlation is an essential concept in statistics; however, students may hold misconceptions about correlation, even after receiving instruction. This study aimed to elucidate (1) the misconceptions held by senior high school students about correlation, using the tool of concept mapping along with interviewing, (2) the possible causes of these…

Liu, Tzu-Chien; Lin, Yi-Chun; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2009-01-01

107

Students' Misconceptions in Interpreting Center and Variability of Data Represented via Histograms and Stem-and-Leaf Plots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper identifies and discusses misconceptions that students have in making judgments of center and variability when data are presented graphically. An assessment addressing interpreting center and variability in histograms and stem-and-leaf plots was administered to, and follow-up interviews were conducted with, undergraduates enrolled in…

Cooper, Linda L.; Shore, Felice S.

2008-01-01

108

Comparing the Impacts of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students' Achievements, Misconceptions, and Attitudes towards Biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment design of instructional software programs related to the "cell division" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the cell division achievement test (CAT), the cell division concept test (CCT) and biology attitude scale (BAS) was applied at the beginning and at the end of the research. After the treatment, general achievement in CAT increased in favor of experimental groups. Instructional software programs also had the positive effect to the awareness of students' understandings to the general functions of mitosis and meiosis. However, the current study revealed that there were still some misconceptions in the experimental groups even after the treatment. It was also noticed that only using edutainment software program significantly changed students' attitudes towards biology.

Kara, Y?lmaz; Ye?ilyurt, Selami

2008-02-01

109

RETRACTED ARTICLE: What Are They Thinking? The Development and Use of an Instrument That Identifies Common Science Misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the rationale for, and development of, an online instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. Science Beliefs is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. It utilizes a true or false, along with a written-explanation, format. The true or false responses provide a cursory view of the extent to which specific beliefs are prevalent, while the accompanying explanations reveal underlying reasons for those beliefs. The stages of instrument development, reliability and validity information, along with the original sources of the items are discussed. The developed instrument has the potential to help science educators understand some specific barriers to deepening understanding across a range of science topics.

Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles R.; Larrabee, Timothy

2007-04-01

110

The Impact of Language and Response Format on Student Endorsement of Psychological Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the possibility that the language and response format used in self-report questionnaires influences how readily people endorse misconceptions. Four versions of a 40-item misconception test were administered to European ("n" = 281) and North American ("n" = 123) psychology and nonpsychology…

Hughes, Sean; Lyddy, Fiona; Kaplan, Robin

2013-01-01

111

Misconceptions are "so yesterday!".  

PubMed

At the close of the Society for the Advancement of Biology Education Research conference in July 2012, one of the organizers made the comment: "Misconceptions are so yesterday." Within the community of learning sciences, misconceptions are yesterday's news, because the term has been aligned with eradication and/or replacement of conceptions, and our knowledge about how people learn has progressed past this idea. This essay provides an overview of the discussion within the learning sciences community surrounding the term "misconceptions" and how the education community's thinking has evolved with respect to students' conceptions. Using examples of students' incorrect ideas about evolution and ecology, we show that students' naïve ideas can provide the resources from which to build scientific understanding. We conclude by advocating that biology education researchers use one or more appropriate alternatives in place of the term misconception whenever possible. PMID:24006383

Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

2013-01-01

112

Misconceptions Are “So Yesterday!”  

PubMed Central

At the close of the Society for the Advancement of Biology Education Research conference in July 2012, one of the organizers made the comment: “Misconceptions are so yesterday.” Within the community of learning sciences, misconceptions are yesterday's news, because the term has been aligned with eradication and/or replacement of conceptions, and our knowledge about how people learn has progressed past this idea. This essay provides an overview of the discussion within the learning sciences community surrounding the term “misconceptions” and how the education community's thinking has evolved with respect to students’ conceptions. Using examples of students’ incorrect ideas about evolution and ecology, we show that students’ naïve ideas can provide the resources from which to build scientific understanding. We conclude by advocating that biology education researchers use one or more appropriate alternatives in place of the term misconception whenever possible. PMID:24006383

Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

2013-01-01

113

N-Squad Episode 1. Students learn misconceptions about alcohol, medical examination, the role of the digestive system in processing alcohol, and liver histology.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In N-Squad Episode 1 students work with forensic scientists to solve an alcohol related crime. Along the way, they will learn about alcohol's interaction with the digestive system, misconceptions about alcohol, medical examination, and liver histology.

Learning, Center F.

2011-09-28

114

Overcoming Misconceptions in Neurophysiology Learning: An Approach Using Color-Coded Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anyone who has taught neurophysiology would be aware of recurring concepts that students find difficult to understand. However, a greater problem is the development of misconceptions that may be difficult to change. For example, one common misconception is that action potentials pass directly across chemical synapses. Difficulties may be…

Guy, Richard

2012-01-01

115

Pre-Service Teachers' Preconceptions, Misconceptions, and Concerns about Virtual Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last decade, online distance education has become a common mode of study in most states in the USA, where it is known as virtual schooling (VS), but many people have misconceptions about it. Pre-service teachers' personal histories as students and their preconceptions, misconceptions, and concerns influence pre-service teacher training…

Compton, Lily; Davis, Niki; Correia, Ana-Paula

2010-01-01

116

Reducing Plate Tectonic Misconceptions with Lecture Tutorials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to address student difficulties with and common misconceptions about plate tectonics, we created five Lecture Tutorials suitable for introductory geoscience courses. Lecture Tutorials are 10-15 minute worksheets that students complete in class in small groups to make learning more student-centered. Students build their knowledge with questions that progressively become more difficult, requiring them think about their misconceptions. Our research indicates that the Lecture Tutorials successfully decrease student misconceptions. For example, few introductory students identify the mantle wedge as the location of melting at subduction zones. Instead, students frequently think melting occurs at the trench, in magma chambers within volcanoes, or where images commonly show the subducting slab disappearing. One of the Lecture Tutorials helps the students determine why melting occurs and therefore identify the correct locations of melting at convergent boundaries, divergent boundaries, and hotspots. This Lecture Tutorial includes a hypothetical “debate” with statements expressing the misconceptions and one expressing the correct scientific idea of where melting occurs. Students are asked to explain why they agree with one of the statements, so they must directly think about any misconceptions they may have. Additional difficulties addressed by the Lecture Tutorials include identification of the direction of plate movement at ocean ridges and the locations and formation of basic plate tectonic features, such as trenches, volcanoes, ocean ridges, and plate boundaries. After instruction, students completed questionnaires that probed their understanding of plate tectonics, and students who completed the Lecture Tutorials performed significantly better on relevant questions. For example, when asked to circle the locations on a diagram where melting occurred, students who completed the Lecture Tutorials correctly circled the mantle wedge more often than other students (33% vs. 8%). The percentage of students who drew incorrect arrows indicating converging plates at ocean ridges was smaller for students who completed the Lecture Tutorials (9%) than for those who did not (21%). Because the Lecture Tutorials frequently asked students to identify, explain, and draw basic features relevant to plate tectonics, we hypothesized that students who completed the Lecture Tutorials would correctly identify more of these features, and this is what we observed. Students who completed the Lecture Tutorials identified 6.3 features on average, compared to 2.8 for those students who did not complete the Lecture Tutorials. The Lecture Tutorial students correctly labeled 82% of the identified features, compared to 71% for other students. The plate tectonic Lecture Tutorials along with others on additional introductory geoscience topics are available as a workbook called Lecture Tutorials for Introductory Geoscience published by W. H. Freeman.

Kortz, K. M.; Smay, J. M.; Mattera, A. V.; Clark, S. K.

2009-12-01

117

The Xs and Whys of Algebra: Key Ideas and Common Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many ways, algebra can be as challenging for teachers as it is for students. With so much emphasis placed on procedural knowledge and the manipulations of variables and symbols, it can be easy to lose sight of the key ideas that underlie algebraic thinking and the relevance algebra has to the real world. In the The Xs and Whys of Algebra: Key…

Collins, Anne; Dacey, Linda

2011-01-01

118

Mathematics, Thermodynamics, and Modeling to Address Ten Common Misconceptions about Protein Structure, Folding, and Stability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To fully understand the roles proteins play in cellular processes, students need to grasp complex ideas about protein structure, folding, and stability. Our current understanding of these topics is based on mathematical models and experimental data. However, protein structure, folding, and stability are often introduced as descriptive, qualitative…

Robic, Srebrenka

2010-01-01

119

Overcoming students' misconceptions concerning thermal physics with the aid of hints and peer interaction during a lecture course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As has been shown by previous research, students may possess various misconceptions in the area of thermal physics. In order to help them overcome misconceptions observed prior to instruction, we implemented a one-hour lecture-based intervention in their introductory thermal physics course. The intervention was held after the conventional lectures and homework sessions, and it consisted of three phases: individual working, hinting, and peer discussion. To probe students’ conceptual understanding before, during, and after the intervention, use was made of a diagnostic test related to the multiphased process of an ideal gas [D. E. Meltzer, Am. J. Phys. 72, 1432 (2004)AJPIAS0002-950510.1119/1.1789161]. The students’ conceptions were monitored by analyzing the explanations they provided and by recording the peer discussions of five voluntary pairs. The intervention helped students to realize the flaws in their explanations and increased the proportion of their scientific explanations, the increase being statistically significant in five tasks out of seven. When the same themes were addressed in a post-test, it was shown that the level of accurate explanations remained almost constant after the intervention, and hence it could be deduced that the impact had not been short-lived. In comparison with earlier studies conducted with the same material, our intervention produced a better learning outcome, the difference being 15-20 percentage points. In addition, the number of misconceptions on the part of the students was smaller in our study, although with individual exceptions. Hence, we conclude that the intervention was successful and that similar interventions could also be designed and implemented in other areas of physics.

Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

2013-12-01

120

Understanding the Common Elements of Evidence-Based Practice: Misconceptions and Clinical Examples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors proposed a distillation and matching model (DMM) that describes how evidence-based treatment operations can be conceptualized at a lower order level of analysis than simply by their manuals. Also referred to as the "common elements" approach, this model demonstrates the feasibility of coding and identifying the…

Chorpita, Bruce F.; Becker, Kimberly D.; Daleiden, Eric L.

2007-01-01

121

Effect of Cabri-Assisted Instruction on Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Graphs of Quadratic Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pre-existing misconceptions are serious impediments to learning in mathematics. Means for detecting and correcting them have received much attention in the literature of educational research. Dynamic geometry software has been tried at different grade levels. This quasi-experimental study investigates the effect of Cabri-assisted instruction on…

Koklu, Oguz; Topcu, Abdullah

2012-01-01

122

The Effects and Side-Effects of Statistics Education: Psychology Students' (Mis-)Conceptions of Probability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In three studies we looked at two typical misconceptions of probability: the representativeness heuristic, and the equiprobability bias. The literature on statistics education predicts that some typical errors and biases (e.g., the equiprobability bias) increase with education, whereas others decrease. This is in contrast with reasoning theorists'…

Morsanyi, Kinga; Primi, Caterina; Chiesi, Francesca; Handley, Simon

2009-01-01

123

Impact of an integrated science and reading intervention (INSCIREAD) on bilingual students' misconceptions, reading comprehension, and transferability of strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes a research study that resulted in an instructional model directed at helping fourth grade diverse students improve their science knowledge, their reading comprehension, their awareness of the relationship between science and reading, and their ability to transfer strategies. The focus of the instructional model emerged from the intersection of constructs in science and reading literacy; the model identifies cognitive strategies that can be used in science and reading, and inquiry-based instruction related to the science content read by participants. The intervention is termed INSCIREAD (Instruction in Science and Reading). The GoInquire web-based system (2006) was used to develop students' content knowledge in slow landform change. Seventy-eight students participated in the study. The treatment group comprised 49 students without disabilities and 8 students with disabilities. The control group comprised 21 students without disabilities. The design of the study is a combination of a mixed-methods quasi-experimental design (Study 1), and a single subject design with groups as the unit of analysis (Study 2). The results from the quantitative measures demonstrated that the text recall data analysis from Study 1 yielded near significant statistical levels when comparing the performance of students without disabilities in the treatment group to that of the control group. Visual analyses of the results from the text recall data from Study 2 showed at least minimal change in all groups. The results of the data analysis of the level of the generated questions show there was a statistically significant increase in the scores students without disabilities obtained in the questions they generated from the pre to the posttest. The analyses conducted to detect incongruities, to summarize and rate importance, and to determine the number of propositions on a science and reading concept map data showed a statistically significant difference between students without disabilities in the treatment and the control groups on post-intervention scores. The analysis of the data from the number of misconceptions of students without disabilities showed that the frequency of 4 of the 11 misconceptions changed significantly from pre to post elicitation stages. The analyses of the qualitative measures of the think alouds and interviews generally supported the above findings.

Martinez, Patricia

124

Lunar Phases: Addressing Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise was designed to address student misconceptions about why the Moon exhibits phases. Using a sketchbook, digital camera, or flex cam, a student sits at the center of a darkened room illuminated by a single light source in a stationary position. Stools are set up surrounding the student in the center and other students take those positions, always keeping their faces toward the center. The center student sketches or take pictures of the faces at each of the positions. Substituting a sphere (such as a ball) for the students' faces provides an even more vivid illustration of the shadowing of the sphere and connects directly to the rationale for lunar phases.

Childs, Philip

125

Examining the impact of the Guided Constructivist teaching method on students' misconceptions about concepts of Newtonian physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of Guided Constructivism (Interactivity-Based Learning Environment) and Traditional Expository instructional methods on students' misconceptions about concepts of Newtonian Physics was investigated. Four groups of 79 of University of Central Florida students enrolled in Physics 2048 participated in the study. A quasi-experimental design of nonrandomized, nonequivalent control and experimental groups was employed. The experimental group was exposed to the Guided Constructivist teaching method, while the control group was taught using the Traditional Expository teaching approach. The data collection instruments included the Force Concept Inventory Test (FCI), the Mechanics Baseline Test (MBT), and the Maryland Physics Expectation Survey (MPEX). The Guided Constructivist group had significantly higher means than the Traditional Expository group on the criterion variables of: (1) conceptions of Newtonian Physics, (2) achievement in Newtonian Physics, and (3) beliefs about the content of Physics knowledge, beliefs about the role of Mathematics in learning Physics, and overall beliefs about learning/teaching/appropriate roles of learners and teachers/nature of Physics. Further, significant relationships were found between (1) achievement, conceptual structures, beliefs about the content of Physics knowledge, and beliefs about the role of Mathematics in learning Physics; (2) changes in misconceptions about the physical phenomena, and changes in beliefs about the content of Physics knowledge. No statistically significant difference was found between the two teaching methods on achievement of males and females. These findings suggest that differences in conceptual learning due to the nature of the teaching method used exist. Furthermore, greater conceptual learning is fostered when teachers use interactivity-based teaching strategies to train students to link everyday experience in the real physical world to formal school concepts. The moderate effect size and power of the study suggest that the effect may not be subtle, but reliable. Physics teachers can use these results to inform their decisions about structuring learning environment when conceptual learning is important.

Ibrahim, Hyatt Abdelhaleem

126

Graphing Misconceptions and Possible Remedies Using Microcomputer-Based Labs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphing is a common and powerful symbol system for representing concrete data. Yet research has shown that students often have graphical misconceptions about how graphs are related to the concrete event. Currently, the Technical Education Research Center (TERC) is developing microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) science units that use probes to…

Barclay, William L.

127

What Research Says: The Cardiovascular System: Children's Conceptions and Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports findings of a study on children's perceptions and alternate conceptions about the human circulatory system. Summarizes the responses of fifth and eighth grade students on questions dealing with the heart and blood. Offers examples of hands-on activities and confrontation strategies that address common misconceptions on circulation. (ML)

Arnaudin, Mary W.; Mintzes, Joel J.

1986-01-01

128

Idea Bank: Changing Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During student-centered learning activities, students actively engage in their own learning based on individual prior understandings. It can be difficult for a teacher to know if students fully understand the concepts being presented, especially if they do not comment or ask questions because they are shy or afraid of getting something wrong. Teachers may not know students' true ideas until they express themselves on a written summative exam, and then it is often too late to correct them before rushing off to the next topic. Therefore, the author uses pretests, daily learning logs, and posttests to assess student learning and change misconceptions. She shares her strategy in this month's Idea Bank.

Tara Holzmiller

2008-12-01

129

Astronomical Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do you think that the Moon does not rotate? Do you think that the phases of the Moon are created by the Earth's shadow? Do you think that the seasons are a result of the Earth's distance from the Sun? If you answered "yes" to any of these, then you are one of many who possess misconceptions about astronomy.

Barrier, Regina M.

2010-01-01

130

Misconceptions in Astronomy: Before and After a Constructivist Learning Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of a pilot study on college studentsmisconceptions in astronomy. The study was conducted on the campus of a Midwestern university among 43 non-science major students enrolled in an introductory astronomy laboratory course. The laboratory course was based on a constructivist learning environment where students learned astronomy by doing astronomy. During the course, students worked with educational simulations created by Project CLEA team and RedShift College Education Astronomy Workbook by Bill Walker as well as were involved in think-pair-share discussions based on Lecture-Tutorials (Prather et al 2008). Several laboratories were prompted by an instructor's brief presentations. On the first and last days of the course students were surveyed on what their beliefs were about causes of the seasons, the moon's apparent size in the sky and its phases, planetary orbits, structure of the solar system, the sun, distant stars, and the nature of light. The majority of the surveys’ questions were based on Neil Comins’ 50 most commonly cited misconceptions. The outcome of the study showed that while students constructed correct understanding of a number of phenomena, they also created a set of new misconceptions. For example, if on the first day of the course, nine out of 43 students knew what caused the seasons on Earth; on the last day of the course, 20 students gained the similar understanding. However, by the end of the course more students believed that smaller planets must rotate faster based on the conservation of angular momentum and Kepler's laws. Our findings suggest that misconceptions pointed out by Neil Comins over a decade ago are still relevant today; and that learning based exclusively on simulations and collaborative group discussions does not necessarily produce the best results, but may set a ground for creating new misconceptions.

Ruzhitskaya, Lanika; Speck, A.

2009-01-01

131

Addressing the Misconceptions of Middle School Students About Becoming a Scientist or Engineer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessment of our educational outreach program shows that students and their parents are excited about space science, but stereotypes about science and scientists drastically effect student attitudes about science and pursuing a technical career.

Newsom, H. E.; Sorge, C.; Hagerty, J. J.

2000-01-01

132

Cognitive analysis of students' errors and misconceptions in variables, equations, and functions  

E-print Network

high-achieving and low-achieving students’ understanding of these three concepts at the object (structural) or process (operational) levels. In addition, high achieving students were found to prefer using object (structural) thinking to solve problems...

Li, Xiaobao

2009-05-15

133

The Effect of Refuting Misconceptions in the Introductory Psychology Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students often come into the introductory psychology course with many misconceptions and leave with most of them intact. Borrowing from other disciplines, we set out to determine whether refutational lecture and text are effective in dispelling student misconceptions. These approaches first activate a misconception and then immediately counter it…

Kowalski, Patricia; Taylor, Annette Kujawski

2009-01-01

134

Undergraduate Chemistry Students' Perceptions of and Misconceptions about Buffers and Buffer Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both upper- and lower-level chemistry students struggle with understanding the concept of buffers and with solving corresponding buffer problems. While it might be reasonable to expect general chemistry students to struggle with this abstract concept, it is surprising that upper-level students in analytical chemistry and biochemistry continue to…

Orgill, MaryKay; Sutherland, Aynsley

2008-01-01

135

Diversions: Fixing Misconceptions--Length, Area and Volume  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents situations involving perimeter, area, volume and mass, and the misconceptions often encountered with these measurements. The author suggests possible interventions that teachers can use to correct these misconceptions and help students to better understand these properties.

Gough, John

2008-01-01

136

Exothermic Bond Breaking: A Persistent Misconception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The misconceptions regarding the nature of ATP hydrolysis and bond breaking are discussed. The students' knowledge in this area is quantitatively measured by a survey of over 600 biochemistry and physiology students.

Galley, William C.

2004-01-01

137

An Analysis of Undergraduate General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions of the Submicroscopic Level of Precipitation Reactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how 21 college-level general chemistry students, who had received instruction that emphasized the symbolic level of ionic equations, explained their submicroscopic-level understanding of precipitation reactions. Students' explanations expressed through drawings and semistructured interviews revealed the nature of the…

Kelly, Resa M.; Barrera, Juliet H.; Mohamed, Saheed C.

2010-01-01

138

Using Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Students' Misconceptions of States of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study involves the development of a three-tier diagnostic test to measure high school students' understanding of states of matter concepts. The States of Matter Diagnostic Test (SMDT) is a 19-item three-tier diagnostic test consisting of three-tier items for assessing students' understanding of states of matter concepts. The SMDT…

Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet; Geban, Omer

2014-01-01

139

Misconceptions Highlighted among Medical Students in the Annual International Intermedical School Physiology Quiz  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The annual Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe. The 8th IMSPQ, in 2010, hosted by the Department of Physiology, University of Malaya, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, had 200 students representing 41…

Cheng, Hwee-Ming; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

2012-01-01

140

Rate of Change: AP Calculus Students' Understandings and Misconceptions after Completing Different Curricular Paths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined Advanced Placement Calculus students' mathematical understanding of rate of change, after studying four years of college preparatory (integrated or single-subject) mathematics. Students completed the Precalculus Concept Assessment (PCA) and two open-ended tasks with questions about rates of change. After adjusting for prior…

Teuscher, Dawn; Reys, Robert E.

2012-01-01

141

The Negative Sign and Exponential Expressions: Unveiling Students' Persistent Errors and Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not certain errors made when simplifying exponential expressions persist as students progress through their mathematical studies. College students enrolled in college algebra, pre-calculus, and first- and second-semester calculus mathematics courses were asked to simplify exponential…

Cangelosi, Richard; Madrid, Silvia; Cooper, Sandra; Olson, Jo; Hartter, Beverly

2013-01-01

142

Remediating High School Students' Misconceptions Concerning Diffusion and Osmosis through Concept Mapping and Conceptual Change Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effectiveness of combining conceptual change text and concept mapping strategies on students' understanding of diffusion and osmosis. Results indicate that while the average percentage of students in the experimental group holding a scientifically correct view rose, the percentage of correct responses in the control group…

Tekkaya, Ceren

2003-01-01

143

Correcting Students' Misconceptions about Automobile Braking Distances and Video Analysis Using Interactive Program Tracker  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper informs about an analysis of students' conceptions about car braking distances and also presents one of the novel methods of learning: an interactive computer program Tracker that we used to analyse the process of braking of a car. The analysis of the students' conceptions about car braking distances consisted in…

Hockicko, Peter; Trpišová, Beáta; Ondruš, Ján

2014-01-01

144

Misconceptions on the Biological Concept of Food: Results of a Survey of High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explains the results of a survey of students' ideas about food as a scientific concept. The survey found that high school students in Singapore (n=66) displayed an anthropocentric view of food that was not generally applied across living organisms in heterotrophs (animals) or autotrophs (plants) as a whole. It is also noted that…

Lee, Y. J.; Diong, C. H.

145

Gender differences in science misconceptions in eighth grade astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between gender and science misconceptions at the eighth grade level. This study attempted to ascertain if there are significant differences between genders in the number and types of science misconceptions eighth grade science students have. The specific misconceptions used in this investigation concern gravity, seasons, and phases of the moon. It remains a serious problem in science education that girls are being inadequately trained to question and reflect on their science understandings. It has been suggested that girls may have more problems with misconceptions than do boys. In keeping with the constructivist ideas as to what constitutes an effective way to teach science (Burke, 1995; Lorsbach & Tobin, 2000) this study explored the ability of students to understand theoretical and conceptual principles of science. The data for this study was obtained using the methodology of a multiple choice survey which contains common misconceptions and the correct answers as choices. This survey was administered to eighth grade students in a large suburban school district by their science teachers. Interviews of a randomly selected sample group of 20 (10 boys and 10 girls) were conducted by the researcher. The results of the study used a t-test to compare boys and girls to see if there was a significant difference in types and/or number of science misconceptions. A matrix of possible answers to the survey was used to analyze the results of the interviews. There was a statistically significant difference between the means for the two groups, indicating a gender difference in knowledge of astronomy concepts. The results of the interviews also showed a difference in astronomy knowledge and background information. In addition the interviews showed that girls were very unsure of their answers while boys defended their answers even when they were incorrect.

Gray, Pamela A.

146

Seeing is believing - reducing misconceptions about children's hospice care through effective teaching with undergraduate nursing students.  

PubMed

Children's palliative care has evolved in recent years and is now recognised as a distinct area of health and social care practice. Whilst children's hospices are viewed as central to quality care for these children and families, lack of knowledge regarding the exact nature of care they provide exists. Education can go part way to changing attitudes and knowledge about the key contribution of hospices, thus improving future care. Alternative and innovative strategies to stimulate meaningful learning are pivotal to children's nurse education and this paper examines one such innovation adopted with 2nd year children's nursing students. Aiming to help students explore the ethos of children's hospice an educational visit was arranged, followed by an on line discussion. Although some practical challenges were encountered, the visit heightened student awareness moving them from the readily held perception that children's hospices were exclusively for dying children and was viewed by students as more effective than a traditional classroom session. PMID:23111411

Price, Jayne; Dornan, Jean; Quail, Lorraine

2013-09-01

147

Misconceptions Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow  

PubMed Central

A recent essay in CBE—Life Sciences Education criticized biology education researchers’ use of the term misconceptions and recommended that, in order to be up-to-date with education research, biology education researchers should use alternative terms for students’ incorrect ideas in science. We counter that criticism by reviewing the continued use and the meaning of misconceptions in education research today, and describe two key debates that account for the controversy surrounding the term. We then identify and describe two areas of research that have real implications for tomorrow's biology education research and biology instruction: 1) hypotheses about the structure of student knowledge (coherent vs. fragmented) that gives rise to misconceptions; and 2) the “warming trend” that considers the effects of students’ motivation, beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning (their epistemic beliefs), and learning strategies (their cognitive and metacognitive skills) on their ability to change their misconceptions in science. We conclude with a description of proposed future work in biology education research related to misconceptions.

Kalinowski, Steven T.; Andrews, Tessa C.

2014-01-01

148

StudentsÃÂ Misconception About Energy-Yielding Metabolism: Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Energy-yielding metabolism is a subject that is particularly important, because energy production is a fundamental requirement for cells even though they execute many other processes simultaneously. An integrated view of metabolism is essential for understanding how the whole organism functions, including activities of studentsÃÂ daily life, such as eating, dieting, and physical exercise. In fact, the media constantly exert pressure on young people, stimulating students to undergo countless diet and exercise programs. Additionally, diabetes mellitus and obesity, which are diseases with close ties to metabolism, have been increasing among adolescents.

Dr. Gabriel A. Oliveira (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Departamento de Bioquímica Médica); Dr. Cristiane R. Sousa (Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Departamento de Ultra-estrutura e Biologia Celular); Dr. Andrea T. Da Poian (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Departamento de Bioquímica Médica,); Dr. Maurício R. M. P. Luz (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Setor Curricular de Biologia)

2003-09-01

149

Mathematical misconceptions in graphing and central tendency among sixth grade and undergraduate students  

E-print Network

, because the order of the arrangement is strictly arbitrary and one student's name does not have any higher value than any other name. Number of pets is ratio scaled, since zero pets represents a lack of pets. Time is intervally scaled, since zero hours... graph of the given data so that would represent how many people have no pets, one pet, two pets, and so on (see Appendix A). Then, the students were asked to complete the title of the article, filling in the number of pets that a typical future...

Hammer, Mary Elizabeth

2012-06-07

150

Investigating Knowledge Acquisition and Developing Misconceptions of High School Students Enrolled in an Invasion Games Unit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grounded within constructivist theory, the purpose of this investigation was to investigate knowledge acquisition and developing conceptions of high school-aged students during a unit of instruction in badminton. Six different qualitative methods were utilized: (a) observations, (b) formal interviews, (c) informal interviews, (d) think aloud…

Hare, Molly K.; Graber, Kim C.

2007-01-01

151

Data-Driven Intervention: Correcting Mathematics Students' Misconceptions, Not Mistakes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an age when reform is based on standards and instruction is based on research, this article gives practical advice for how mathematics teachers can analyze errors in student problems to create interventions that aid not only the individual's development, but the entire class's as well. By learning how to correct mathematics…

Holmes, Vicki-Lynn; Miedema, Chelsea; Nieuwkoop, Lindsay; Haugen, Nicholas

2013-01-01

152

Overcoming Student Misconceptions about Photosynthesis: A Model- and Inquiry-Based Approach Using Aquatic Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though photosynthesis is an obligatory part of the science curriculum, research has shown that students often have a poor understanding of it. The authors advocate that classroom coverage of the topic of photosynthesis should include not only its biochemical properties but also the role of photosynthesis or photosynthetic organisms in matter…

Ray, Andrew M.; Beardsley, Paul M.

2008-01-01

153

Using Writing to Confront Student Misconceptions in Physics Teresa L. Hein  

E-print Network

-science majors suggests that it can be an effective vehicle to allow students to develop their critical thinking for non- science majors. The development of higher order critical thinking skills is a key objective of . Tobias (1990) has been critical of introductory college science courses and has argued that typical

Larkin, Teresa L.

154

A Testing System for Diagnosing Misconceptions in DC Electric Circuits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a test-based diagnosis system for misconceptions in DC electric circuits and its three parts: problem library, problem selector and diagnoser. Discusses misconception discrimination and diagnosis theories, and reports the system supports satisfactory diagnosis. Includes an analysis of nine student misconceptions about electrical circuits…

Chang, Kuo-En; Liu, Sei-Hua; Chen, Sei-Wang

1998-01-01

155

Children's misconceptions about weather: A review of the literature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper from Project ALERT reports a synthesis of the existing research about children's misconceptions relating to weather, climate and the atmosphere. The scientifically accepted interpretations are presented in tandem with the children's naÃve ideas. When possible, the source of the misconception is also presented. In many cases, students' misconceptions are not addressed in the curriculum, allowing them to exist unchallenged.

Henriques, Laura; California State University, Long B.

156

Misconceptions Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent essay in "CBE-Life Sciences Education" criticized biology education researchers' use of the term "misconceptions" and recommended that, in order to be up-to-date with education research, biology education researchers should use alternative terms for students' incorrect ideas in science. We counter that…

Leonard, Mary J.; Kalinowski, Steven T.; Andrews, Tessa C.

2014-01-01

157

Idea Bank: Melting a Misconception  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following lab was originally designed to teach the importance of manipulating a single variable in an experiment. However, the lab also dispels a common misconception, teaches the value of following lab instructions, and provides a good working definition of the term variable.

Jill Merolla

2004-03-01

158

Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel: The Possible Influence of Formal Teaching on the Establishment of a Misconception about Energy-Yielding Metabolism among Students from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy-yielding metabolism is an important biochemistry subject that is related to many daily experiences and health issues of students. An adequate knowledge of the general features of EYM is therefore important, both from an academic and social point of view. In a previous study, we have shown that high-school students present the misconception

Luz, Mauricio R. M. P.; de Oliveira, Gabriel Aguiar; de Sousa, Cristiane Ribeiro; Da Poian, Andrea T.

2008-01-01

159

Addressing Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The law of conservation of mass can be counterintuitive for most students because they often think the mass of a substance is related to its physical state. As a result, students may hold a number of alternative conceptions related to this concept, including, for example, the believe that gas has no mass, that solids have greater mass than fluids,…

Dial, Katrina; Riddley, Diana; Williams, Kiesha; Sampson, Victor

2009-01-01

160

Common Sense Concepts of Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common sense (CS) misconceptions are not arbitrary or trivial. Indeed, every one of the misconceptions about motion common among students today was seriously advocated by leading intellectuals in pre-Newtonian times. If the evaluation of CS was so difficult for the intellectual giants from Aristotle to Galileo, we should not be surprised it is a problem for ordinary students today. Accordingly, common sense beliefs should be treated with genuine respect by instructors and regarded as serious alternative hypotheses to be evaluated by scientific procedures. A taxonomy of common sense concepts which conflict with Newton s laws is presented. Elementary teachers who are aware of these CS beliefs can teach deliberately to avoid contributing to student development of misconceptions.

Ibrahim Abou Halloun

1985-01-01

161

Misconceptions Surrounding Climate Change: A Review of the Literature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Misconceptions about climate change abound in every corner of society. The result manifests itself ranging from apprehension to total disregard for climate change conditions. According to several sources, however, a large percentage of the U. S. population do, indeed indicate some concern over global warming and climate change in general. These climate change misconceptions are numerous and include, to name a few; confusion between weather and climate, how greenhouse gases are affecting the earth, the effects of ozone depletion, earth's natural cycles, volcanic activity, nuclear waste and a host of other anthropogenic influences. This paper is a review of the current research literature relating to climate change misconceptions. These errant views will be addressed, cataloged, enumerated, and ranked to get a grasp on where the general population, politicians, scientists, and educators as well as students stand on informed climate change information. The categories where misconceptions arise have been identified in this literature review study and include the following: Natural cycles of the earth, ecological which include deforestation, urban development and any human intervention on the environment, educational - including teacher strategies, student understanding and textbook updates, emotional, ozone layer and its interactions, polar ice, political regulations, mandates and laws, pollution from human sources as well as from nature, religious beliefs and dogma and social beliefs. We suggest appropriate solutions for addressing these misconceptions, especially in the classroom setting, and broadly include available funding sources for work in climate change education. Some solutions include need for compilation of appropriate education resources and materials for public use, need for the development of educational materials that appropriately address the variety of publics, and need for programs that are conducting climate change education research and EPO work to communicate and share resources in a common community. Many organizations are addressing these critical needs and we will compile these efforts in our analysis as well.

Templeton, C. M.; McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.

2011-12-01

162

Understandings and Misconceptions of Biology Concepts Held by Students Attending Small High Schools and Students Attending Large High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the relationship of school size to understanding of scientific concepts. Results indicated that students in small high schools had fewer instances of understanding and more instances of misunderstanding of the concepts of diffusion and homeostasis. No difference was observed for concepts related to food production in plants and…

Simpson, William D.; Marek, Edmund A.

1988-01-01

163

Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

Olson, Mark

2013-01-01

164

Misconceptions about astronomical magnitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present system of astronomical magnitudes was created as an inverse scale by Claudius Ptolemy in about 140 A.D. and was defined to be logarithmic in 1856 by Norman Pogson, who believed that human eyes respond logarithmically to the intensity of light. Although scientists have known for some time that the response is instead a power law, astronomers continue to use the Pogson magnitude scale. The peculiarities of this system make it easy for students to develop numerous misconceptions about how and why to use magnitudes. We present a useful exercise in the use of magnitudes to derive a cosmologically interesting quantity (the mass-to-light ratio for spiral galaxies), with potential pitfalls pointed out and explained.

Schulman, Eric; Cox, Caroline V.

1997-10-01

165

Misconceptions about astronomical magnitudes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The present system of astronomical magnitudes was created as an inverse scale by Claudius Ptolemy in about 140 A.D. and was defined to be logarithmic in 1856 by Norman Pogson, who believed that human eyes respond logarithmically to the intensity of light. Although scientists have known for some time that the response is instead a power law, astronomers continue to use the Pogson magnitude scale. The peculiarities of this system make it easy for students to develop numerous misconceptions about how and why to use magnitudes. We present a useful exercise in the use of magnitudes to derive a cosmologically interesting quantity (the mass-to-light ratio for spiral galaxies), with potential pitfalls pointed out and explained.

Schulman, Eric; Cox, Caroline

2005-11-23

166

Common misconceptions of critical thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the ® rst of two, we analyse three widely-held conceptions of critical thinking: as one or more skills, as mental processes, and as sets of procedures. Each viewis, wecontend, wrong-headed, misleadingor, atbest, unhelpful. Somewhowrite about critical thinking seemtomuddle all three views in an unenlightening me lange. Apartfromtheerrorsorinadequaciesof the conceptionsthemselves, theypromote or abet misconceived practices for teaching critical

SHARON BAILIN; ROLAND CASE; JERROLD R. COOMBS; LEROI B. DANIELS

1999-01-01

167

Common Sense: Using Common Finals to Measure Postsecondary Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College completion rates in the U.S. are stubbornly low despite the large and rising returns to a college degree. Efforts to increase student success in college have largely ignored a potentially key factor: the instruction that students receive in the sequence of courses that add up to a college education. Improving the quality of instruction may…

Chingos, Matthew M.

2013-01-01

168

Ten misconceptions about antioxidants.  

PubMed

Oxidative damage is a common cellular event involved in numerous diseases and drug toxicities. Antioxidants prevent or delay oxidative damage, and therefore there has been extensive research into the discovery of natural and newly designed antioxidants. Initial excitement regarding the potential health benefits of antioxidants has diminished. Currently, it is even claimed that antioxidants increase mortality. The antioxidant pendulum appears to swing from healthy to toxic and from general panacea to insignificant ingredient. Owing to the polarity of views towards antioxidants, nutritional recommendation ranges from advice to increase antioxidant status in plasma to the notion that it is a useless measurement. Such views, lacking sufficient scientific support, lead to misconceptions, which in our opinion hinder the rational use of food supplements and impedes the design and development of new antioxidant drugs. As a result, good opportunities might easily be missed. PMID:23806765

Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M

2013-08-01

169

Classroom Terraria: Enhancing Student Understanding of Plant-Related Gas Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite our best teaching efforts, many students hold misconceptions related to the roles plants play in gas-related processes (Amir and Tamir 1994; Hershey 1992; 2004). In an effort to remedy this problem, the author presents a series of activities that address common plant-related gas-process misconceptions held by middle school students. The…

Thompson, Stephen

2010-01-01

170

Student Difficulties with Energy in Quantum Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains the results of a study on student difficulties in understanding energy in quantum mechanics. The most common misconceptions are listed. This content was presented to the 1997 meeting of the AAPT.

Redish, Edward F.; Bao, Lei; Jolly, Pratibha

2005-07-26

171

Parental reports of children’s biological knowledge and misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children’s misconceptions about five specific biological concepts—life, aging, reproduction, illness, and death—were investigated using a parent survey. Parents of 3- to 4-year-olds (N 1\\/4 125) and parents of 5- to 6-year-olds (N 1\\/4 145) completed a questionnaire about their child’s knowledge and misconceptions involving these concepts. Parents reported that misconceptions were common among 3- to 6-year-olds, particularly for reproduction and

Simone P. Nguyen; Karl S. Rosengren

2004-01-01

172

Effect of Misconception on Transfer in Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We examine the effect of misconceptions about friction on students' ability to solve problems and transfer from one context to another. We analyze written responses to paired isomorphic problems given to introductory physics students and discussions with a subset of students. Misconceptions associated with friction in problems were sometimes so robust that pairing them with isomorphic problems not involving friction did not help students fully discern their underlying similarities.

Singh, Chandralekha

2009-06-24

173

Overcoming Misconceptions in Quantum Mechanics with the Time Evolution Operator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, there have been many efforts to use the research techniques developed in the field of physics education research to improve the teaching and learning of quantum mechanics. In particular, part of this research is focusing on misconceptions held by students. For instance, a set of misconceptions is associated with the concept of stationary…

Quijas, P. C. Garcia; Aguilar, L. M. Arevalo

2007-01-01

174

Photosynthesis and "Inverse Respiration" in Plants: An Inevitable Misconception?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflects on the origin of the misconception of inverse respiration in green plants. Proposes a series of conceptual schemes that could form the basis for teaching the subject of green plants in a way that prevents or substantially reduces the appearance of this misconception in primary- and secondary-school students. Contains 33 references.…

Canal, Pedro

1999-01-01

175

Teaching to What Students Have in Common  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although students vary in their abilities and interests, "hyper-individualizing" the curriculum in an attempt to accommodate these differences is not the best way to help each student excel, write Willingham and Daniel. Drawing on educational research, the authors give examples of several cognitive must haves (things that the cognitive system…

Willingham, Daniel; Daniel, David

2012-01-01

176

Building a Common Platform on Students' Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article sets out to examine how school science activities can encourage students' participation while supporting a specific science content. One ordinary class with 12-year-old students was chosen and their regular classroom work was studied without intervention and with a minimum of interference. Lessons were video filmed, transcribed and…

Lundin, Mattias

2007-01-01

177

The Effect of Online Collaboration on Middle School Student Science Misconceptions as an Aspect of Science Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative, quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design examined the effects of online collaborative learning on middle school students' science literacy. For a 9-week period, students in the control group participated in collaborative face-to-face activities whereas students in the experimental group participated in…

Wendt, Jillian L.; Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda

2014-01-01

178

Using PCR to Target Misconceptions about Gene Expression †  

PubMed Central

We present a PCR-based laboratory exercise that can be used with first- or second-year biology students to help overcome common misconceptions about gene expression. Biology students typically do not have a clear understanding of the difference between genes (DNA) and gene expression (mRNA/protein) and often believe that genes exist in an organism or cell only when they are expressed. This laboratory exercise allows students to carry out a PCR-based experiment designed to challenge their misunderstanding of the difference between genes and gene expression. Students first transform E. coli with an inducible GFP gene containing plasmid and observe induced and un-induced colonies. The following exercise creates cognitive dissonance when actual PCR results contradict their initial (incorrect) predictions of the presence of the GFP gene in transformed cells. Field testing of this laboratory exercise resulted in learning gains on both knowledge and application questions on concepts related to genes and gene expression. PMID:23858358

Wright, Leslie K.; Newman, Dina L.

2013-01-01

179

Teachers' Misconceptions about the Effects of Addition of More Reactants or Products on Chemical Equilibrium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of research on misconceptions about chemical equilibrium is well recognized by educators, but in the past, researchers' interest has centered on student misconceptions and has neglected teacher misconceptions. Focusing on the effects of adding more reactants or products on chemical equilibrium, this article discusses the various…

Cheung, Derek; Ma, Hong-jia; Yang, Jie

2009-01-01

180

Does Prior Knowledge Matter? Do Lamarckian Misconceptions Exist? A Critique of Geraedts and Boersma (2006)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The existence, preponderance, and stability of misconceptions related to evolution continue as foci of research in science education. In their 2006 study, Geraedts and Boersma question the existence of stable Lamarckian misconceptions in students, challenging the utility of Conceptual Change theory in addressing any such misconceptions. To support…

Enderle, Patrick J.; Smith, Mike U.; Southerland, Sherry

2009-01-01

181

Bariatric Surgery Misconceptions  

MedlinePLUS

... healthy nutrient levels. Misconception: Obesity is only an addiction, similar to alcoholism or drug dependency. Truth: Although ... complex disease caused by many factors. When treating addiction, such as alcohol and drugs, one of the ...

182

Tutoring Strategies for LD College Students' Common Writing Errors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the repeated adage that "no two LD (learning disabled) students are alike, it is not only possible but important to focus on the most common errors of LD college writers in order to learn how best to serve these students. There are in fact two main categories of these students: severely learning disabled and classically learning disabled.…

deBeer, Liz

183

Student Aid: Common Sense and Civil Disobedience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criticism of Harvard's financial aid policy for Selective Service nonregistrants focuses on the example it sets to other institutions and the offering of jobs and loans to students in close association with their act of civil disobedience, the violation of a public law. (MSE)

Fisher, James L.

1983-01-01

184

Overcoming misconceptions in neurophysiology learning: an approach using color-coded animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online self-directed e-learning module was developed, using best-practice approaches (1), to engage students and help them overcome some common neurophysiology misconceptions. The essential features of the module were: the use of well-designed (9) and simple (low cognitive load) (12, 13) animations intended to promote good learning outcomes (5) and the use of multiple-choice questions linked with the animations to provide immediate feedback.

Richard Guy (RMIT University)

2012-09-01

185

A Comparison of the Misconceptions about the Time-Efficiency of Algorithms by Various Profiles of Computer-Programming Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on how students in vocational high schools and universities interpret the algorithms in structural computer programming that concerns time-efficiency. The targeted research group consisted of 242 students from two vocational high schools and two departments of the Faculty of Education in Istanbul. This study used qualitative and…

Ozdener, Nesrin

2008-01-01

186

Technology Rich Biology Labs: Effects of Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a study conducted on the lab sections of the general biology course for non-science majors at the University of New England, and reports findings of student misconceptions about photosynthesis and the mass/carbon uptake during plant growth. The current study placed high technology analytic tools in the hands of introductory…

Kuech, Robert; Zogg, Gregory; Zeeman, Stephan; Johnson, Mark

187

More than misconceptions: Multiple perspectives on student knowledge and reasoning, and an appropriate role for education research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article analyzes an excerpt of a discussion from a high school physics class from several different perspectives on students' knowledge and reasoning, illustrating a range in what an instructor might perceive in students' work and take as tasks for instruction. It suggests a view of current education research as providing perspectives to expand, refine, and support instructors' perceptions and judgment, rather than as providing definitive principles or proven methods.

Hammer, David

2005-10-27

188

Misconceptions and their change in university-level astronomy courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students enter courses with prior knowledge of the subject area. Unfortunately, these naive notions often are misconceptions (or ``folk concepts'') that hinder learning of appropriate concepts in the field.

Michael Zeilik; Candace Schau; Nancy Mattern

1998-01-01

189

Relationship of beliefs, epistemology, and alternate conceptions to college student understanding of evolution and common descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were combined to explore the relationships between an understanding of evolution and 4 epistemology factors: (a) control of learning, (b) speed of learning , (c) stability of knowledge, and (d) belief in evolution/creationism. A 17-item instrument was developed that reliably measured a belief in creationism and subtle differences between this belief and an acceptance of evolution. The subjects were 45 students enrolled in a biology course at a 2-year community college. Evolution was taught in a traditional format, and common descent was taught in an inquiry-based laboratory session consisting of: (a) a comparison of hemoglobin DNA sequences of the human, chimpanzee, and gorilla; and (b) a comparison of 8 primate skull casts, including the modern human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and five prehistoric fossils. Prior to instruction the students completed an epistemology questionnaire and a knowledge test about evolution. Five weeks after instruction, the students completed a posttest. A t-test revealed no differences between the pretest and the posttest. However, the group of students that scored higher on the posttest than on the pretest was found to have a stronger belief in the uncertainty of knowledge. Pearson r was computed to check for relationships between the 4 epistemological factors and the understanding of evolution. There was a significant relationship between a belief in creationism and a lessor understanding of evolution as measured on both the pretest and the posttest (ps < .05). The relationship between gender and test scores was also examined with men demonstrating statistically significantly higher scores on the common descent component than women did. Narrative data included interviews and branching/grouping activities. Four alternate conceptions about common descent were identified. Even after instruction, 16 out of 39 students thought humans evolved from the chimpanzee. Additionally, students grouped the 8 primate skulls into just 2 categories: human and animals. Other misconceptions included a nonevolutionary use of the term, related, and the use of naive organizers leading to incorrect conclusions about the relatedness of certain organisms, such as a connection between fish and whales. These organizers included: (a) similarity of traits, (b) environment, (c) relative size, (d) function, and (e) complexity.

Miller, Joyce Catherine

190

Student Teacher Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the results of a survey designed to ascertain details of student teachers' knowledge and misconceptions about the greenhouse effect, acid rain, and ozone layer depletion. Results indicate familiarity with the issues but little understanding of the concepts involved and many commonly held misconceptions. (JRH)

Dove, Jane

1996-01-01

191

Common Core State Standards, Writing, and Students with LD: Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the Common Core State Standards as they apply to writing and students with learning disabilities (LD). We first consider why the implementation of these standards is advantageous to writing instruction for students with LD as well as the challenges in implementing them. Next, we make the following four recommendations in…

Graham, Steve; Harris, Karen R.

2013-01-01

192

Addressing Common Student Errors with Classroom Voting in Multivariable Calculus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One technique for identifying and addressing common student errors is the method of classroom voting, in which the instructor presents a multiple-choice question to the class, and after a few minutes for consideration and small group discussion, each student votes on the correct answer, often using a hand-held electronic clicker. If a large number…

Cline, Kelly; Parker, Mark; Zullo, Holly; Stewart, Ann

2012-01-01

193

Dispositional Statements on Student Teacher Evaluation Instruments: Commonalities across Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate summative student teacher evaluation instruments to determine the most common dispositions evaluated by teacher preparatory programs. Thirty-two (32) final student teaching instruments were purposely selected from across the United States and examined. Thirteen disposition categories emerged from the…

Young, Alice; Wilkins, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

194

Transforming Misconceptions: Using Transformative Experience to Promote Positive Affect and Conceptual Change in Students Learning about Biological Evolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching and learning about complex scientific content, such as biological evolution, is challenging in part because students have a difficult time seeing the relevance of evolution in their everyday lives. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of the Teaching for Transformative Experiences in Science (TTES) model (Pugh, 2002)…

Heddy, Benjamin C.; Sinatra, Gale M.

2013-01-01

195

Creationism as a Misconception: Socio-cognitive conflict in the teaching of evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This position paper argues that students' understanding and acceptance of evolution may be supported, rather than hindered, by classroom discussion of creationism. Parallels are drawn between creationism and other scientific misconceptions, both of the scientific community in the past and of students in the present. Science teachers frequently handle their students' misconceptions as they arise by offering appropriate socio-cognitive conflict,

Colin Foster

2012-01-01

196

The Retention of Geologic Misconceptions: Alternative Ideas That Persist After Instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used a 30 item multiple-choice instrument called the geoscience concept test (GCT) to study learning in introductory college-level science courses. The GCT uses common misconceptions as wrong answers, and allows us to pre- and post-test individual courses to gauge the effectiveness of instruction. The GCT was given at the beginning of the semester to 2215 college students in 42 classes at 32 different institutions in 19 different states (21 public and 6 private four-year institutions, 4 community colleges, and one tribal college). The pilot was also given to 1907 students as a semester-end post-test in 30 different classes. We were able to match pre- and post-test results for 967 students through an analysis of volunteered personal and demographic data. Although statistical analysis shows that learning occurred in all classes, closer inspection of the data show that the student population retained a number of misconceptions. Students retained several incorrect ideas relating to geologic time despite instruction. For example, 71% of post-tested students believe that the study of fossils, rock layers, or carbon is the most accurate means for calculating the age of the Earth. Nearly 25% of students believed that dinosaurs only existed on Earth for 500,000 years, and 40% believe dinosaurs came into existence about halfway through the geologic time scale. Many alternative ideas about plate tectonics and the formation of rocks also existed after instruction. Nearly half of the post-tested students (47%) believed that tectonic plates do not extend all way to the surface of the Earth, and 65% did not believe that animals could form oceanic rocks. Identification of strongly held misconceptions in a post-tested student population provides instructors with information that could impact the way they present material to their introductory classes.

Wandersee, J. H.; Clary, R. M.; Anderson, S. W.; Libarkin, J.

2003-12-01

197

Vaccine myths and misconceptions.  

PubMed

Communicable diseases are on the rise worldwide. Some of the increase in prevalence of these nearly eradicated diseases is due to a decrease in vaccination rates. This decrease is primarily due to parental concerns over vaccine safety and the increasing rates of autism spectrum disorders. Medical providers must address the growing antivaccine movement and misconceptions about immunizations. Physician assistants are in a unique position to offer evidence-based medical advice and encourage immunizations in order to prevent disease outbreaks. PMID:25003847

Clift, Kathy; Rizzolo, Denise

2014-08-01

198

Common Standards Ignite Debate over Student "Prereading" Exercises  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sparked by the Common Core State Standards, teachers and literacy experts are arguing about the role of a time-honored pillar of English/language arts instruction: classroom activities designed to help students understand what they are about to read. The attacks on--and defenses of--"prereading" are unfolding largely in cyberspace, through online…

Gewertz, Catherine

2012-01-01

199

Understanding Science: Misconceptions About Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page explores misinterpretations of the scientific process and explains why these commonly-held beliefs are incorrect. A few examples of such misconceptions are: "Without an experiment, a study is not rigorous or scientific"; "There is a single scientific method that all scientists follow"; "Scientific ideas are absolute"; "The job of a scientist is to find support for his/her hypothesis"; "Investigations that don't reach a firm conclusion are useless." The authors also clarify vocabulary mix-ups that occur when lay language and scientific language use the same words differently (such as "uncertainty", "law", and "error"). This web page is part of the Understanding Science project developed by the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with a diverse group of scientists and teachers.

2010-09-29

200

Harnessing Technology to Improve Formative Assessment of Student Conceptions in STEM: Forging a National Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concept inventories, consisting of multiple-choice questions designed around common student misconceptions, are designed to reveal student thinking. However, students often have complex, heterogeneous ideas about scientific concepts. Constructed-response assessments, in which students must create their own answer, may better reveal students'…

Haudek, Kevin C.; Kaplan, Jennifer J.; Knight, Jennifer; Long, Tammy; Merrill, John; Munn, Alan; Nehm, Ross; Smith, Michelle; Urban-Lurain, Mark

2011-01-01

201

Case Study Analysis and the Remediation of Misconceptions about Respiratory Physiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most students enter the physiology classroom with one or more fundamental misconceptions about respiratory physiology. This study examined the prevalence of four respiratory misconceptions and determined the role of case analysis in the remediation of one of them. A case study was used to help students learn about oxygen transport in the blood and…

Cliff, William H.

2006-01-01

202

Even honors physics students have conceptual difficulties with physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Honors students in an introductory physics course are shown to exhibit some of the same kinds of misconceptions as do students in the usual standard introductory courses. Examples are given of exercises and written exam questions that probe for conceptual understanding, and student responses to these questions are used to identify conceptual difficulties common to many students. Because these misconceptions were found in a very select group of students, the implication may be drawn that conceptual difficulties of the same kind are present in students in all levels of introductory physics.

Peters, P. C.

2005-10-27

203

Commonsense conceptions of emergent processes: Why some misconceptions are robust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article offers a plausible domain-general explanation for why some concepts of processes are resistant to instructional remediation although other, apparently similar concepts are more easily understood. The explanation assumes that processes may differ in ontological ways: that some processes (such as the apparent flow in diffusion of dye in water) are emergent and other processes (such as the flow of blood in human circulation) are direct. Although precise definition of the two kinds of processes are probably impossible, attributes of direct and emergent processes are described that distinguish them in a domain-general way. Circulation and diffusion, which are used as examples of direct and emergent processes, are associated with different kinds of misconceptions. The claim is that students' misconceptions for direct kinds of processes, such as blood circulation, are of the same ontological kind as the correct conception, suggesting that misconceptions of direct processes may be nonrobust. However, students' misconceptions of emergent processes are robust because they misinterpret emergent processes as a kind of commonsense direct processes. To correct such a misconception requires a re-representation or a conceptual shift across ontological kinds. Therefore, misconceptions of emergent processes are robust because such a shift requires that students know about the emergent kind and can overcome their (perhaps even innate) predisposition to conceive of all processes as a direct kind. Such a domain-general explanation suggests that teaching students the causal structure underlying emergent processes may enable them to recognize and understand a variety of emergent processes for which they have robust misconceptions, such as concepts of electricity, heat and temperature, and evolution.

Chi, Michelene T.

2013-02-13

204

Air Pollution: The Knowledge and Attitudes of Secondary School Students in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the knowledge and understanding of Hong Kong secondary school students about the composition of unpolluted and polluted air, and the nature and effects of air pollutants. A number of misconceptions are highlighted, including the common belief amongst younger students that oxygen was more common in unpolluted air than nitrogen. Along with their cognitive understanding, students were questioned

Edward Boyes; Martin Stanisstreet; Stephen Pui-ming Yeung

2004-01-01

205

Student Success: The Common Goal. Integrating Student Services within the Community College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Educational Services Process Model described in this guide is made up of six interactive and interdependent elements functionally related to the common goal of student success. After part I traces the evolution of student services in the community college, part II presents 10 assumptions for planning, highlighting the need for staff…

Lindemann, William H., Jr.; And Others

206

Internet as a Source of Misconception: "Radiation and Radioactivity"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine students' usage styles of the Internet for seeking information and to investigate whether information obtained from the Internet is a source of misconceptions. For this reason, a two-stage study was conducted. At the first stage, a questionnaire was developed to get information about students' Internet usage…

Acar Sesen, Burcin; Ince, Elif

2010-01-01

207

Using a Teaching Model To Correct Known Misconceptions in Electrochemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a concrete teaching model designed to eliminate students' misconceptions about current flow in electrochemistry. The model uses a semi-permeable membrane rather than a salt bridge to complete the circuit and demonstrate the maintenance of cell neutrality. Concludes that use of the model led to improvement in students' understanding at…

Huddle, Penelope Ann; White, Margaret Dawn; Rogers, Fiona

2000-01-01

208

Misconceptions in Optics: Their Persistence at University Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study on misconceptions in optics with the objective of checking their persistence over time in spite of the continued academic instruction of students. Involves (n=4000) students of all levels of the Spanish educational system as well as with those at a Spanish university with degrees in medicine, chemical sciences, technical…

Gil Llinas, J.; Suero Lopez, M. I.; Perez Rodriguez, A. L.; Solano Macias, F.

2003-01-01

209

Turkish Undergraduates' Misconceptions of Evaporation, Evaporation Rate, and Vapour Pressure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on students' misconceptions related to evaporation, evaporation rate, and vapour pressure. Open-ended diagnostic questions were used with 107 undergraduates in the Primary Science Teacher Training Department in a state university in Turkey. In addition, 14 students from that sample were interviewed to clarify their written…

Canpolat, Nurtac

2006-01-01

210

Remediating Misconceptions Concerning Chemical Bonding through Conceptual Change Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of conceptual change texts oriented instruction on 9th grade students' understanding of chemical bonding concepts. In this study, the main aim of the preparation of conceptual change texts was to activate students' prior knowledge and misconceptions and to help them to understand the chemical…

Pabuccu, Aybuke; Geban, Omer

2006-01-01

211

Exothermic Bond Breaking: A Persistent Misconception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surveys taken the past several years at the onset of an introductory physical chemistry course reveal that the vast majority of students believe that bond breaking is exothermic. This misconception applies, in particular, to the high-energy phosphate bond in ATP, but over 80% of the students also select bond breaking in the reactants as the origin of the exothermic nature of a simple combustion reaction as well. Following a thorough review of the nature of a chemical bond and the overall energy changes in chemical reactions, the students are introduced to the misconceptions that appear in textbooks. In a second questionnaire students are asked for their opinion as to where they have been informed, or misinformed, in their education about bond breaking and bond making. High-school, junior-college, and university biology courses are identified as being primarily responsible, but a sizeable fraction of students feel that they had been misled in chemistry courses as well, particularly at the high-school level. Drawing students' attention early in the course to the confusion surrounding this issue has had the effect of markedly reducing the errors that had always appeared on later exams.

Galley, William C.

2004-04-01

212

Uphill Water Flow - An Example of the Crucial Role of Students' Prior Knowledge in Geoscience Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important, but often underappreciated, challenges in geoscience education is posed by student misconceptions. Instructors of large geoscience undergraduate class seldom have the time to identify student misconceptions and are often forced to assume a certain base level of student knowledge upon which the course material is built. Empirical results from the past two decades of misconception research in mathematics and physics, however, reveal just how risky this assumption can be. Students' prior knowledge and misconceptions can greatly hinder their acquisition of new expertise and often result in short term rather than long term retention of course concepts. Successful transformation of student misconceptions has been achieved by coupling constructive learning with specific challenges to common misconceptions, but this approach necessitates knowing what those misconceptions are. At present, much more research is needed to identify the misconceptions and prior knowledge students bring to geoscience classes. As an example, the idea that water flows downhill is one of the simplest concepts we have in earth science. A logical, familiar and easily demonstrated concept, it seems a safe assumption that students already know, or will readily accept, that water flows downhill. Yet a recent study of students' map interpretation revealed a remarkable suite of often deeply-held misconception regarding surface water flow. Although the study's original goal was to measure the relative effectiveness of anaglyph and traditional topographic contour maps in conveying the geometry of the land surface, post-study interviews of participating students discovered many misconceptions about surface water flow and factors such as elevation, earth rotation, distance to a large water body, and compass directions. Of fifty-three students interviewed, only six students confidently expressed the idea that water flow is primarily controlled by changes in elevation. Many erroneous responses arose, such as equating `south' with `into the earth', asserting a hemispherical dependence of water flow on earth, equating water flow on familiar spherical objects with water flow on the Earth's surface, an inability to explain east-west river flow, and errors in predicting changes in river flow direction due to hypothetical changes in the Earth's rotation. In addition, our interview results suggest a large percentage of students have problems with small to large scale transfer and that students' confusion regarding water flow exists on multiple conceptual layers. Some of these ideas were so deeply held that students, even when confronted, were willing to believe that water would flow uphill to match their understanding of how it should behave. While it is still unclear how these basic misconceptions impair students' ability to grasp other concepts in an introductory geology course, our interview results serve to demonstrate that assuming students and instructors share common base level knowledge is surprisingly risky.

Chen, A. P.; Kirkby, K. C.; Morin, P. J.

2006-12-01

213

Spore: Spawning Evolutionary Misconceptions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of computer simulations as educational tools may afford the means to develop understanding of evolution as a natural, emergent, and decentralized process. However, special consideration of developmental constraints on learning may be necessary when using these technologies. Specifically, the essentialist (biological forms possess an immutable essence), teleological (assignment of purpose to living things and/or parts of living things that may not be purposeful), and intentionality (assumption that events are caused by an intelligent agent) biases may be reinforced through the use of computer simulations, rather than addressed with instruction. We examine the video game Spore for its depiction of evolutionary content and its potential to reinforce these cognitive biases. In particular, we discuss three pedagogical strategies to mitigate weaknesses of Spore and other computer simulations: directly targeting misconceptions through refutational approaches, targeting specific principles of scientific inquiry, and directly addressing issues related to models as cognitive tools.

Bean, Thomas E.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Schrader, P. G.

2010-10-01

214

Utility of Concept Cartoons in Diagnosing and Overcoming Misconceptions Related to Photosynthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the effectiveness of concept cartoons in diagnosing and overcoming students' misconceptions related to photosynthesis subject was examined. Firstly, the literature has been thoroughly examined and misconceptions about photosynthesis subject have been listed and then grouped. Concept cartoons related to these groups have been…

Ekici, Fatma; Ekici, Erhan; Aydin, Fatih

2007-01-01

215

Common misconceptions about data analysis and statistics.  

PubMed

Ideally, any experienced investigator with the right tools should be able to reproduce a finding published in a peer-reviewed biomedical science journal. In fact, however, the reproducibility of a large percentage of published findings has been questioned. Undoubtedly, there are many reasons for this, but one reason may be that investigators fool themselves due to a poor understanding of statistical concepts. In particular, investigators often make these mistakes: 1) P-hacking, which is when you reanalyze a data set in many different ways, or perhaps reanalyze with additional replicates, until you get the result you want; 2) overemphasis on P values rather than on the actual size of the observed effect; 3) overuse of statistical hypothesis testing, and being seduced by the word "significant"; and 4) over-reliance on standard errors, which are often misunderstood. PMID:25204545

Motulsky, Harvey J

2014-10-01

216

Common misconceptions about data analysis and statistics.  

PubMed

Ideally, any experienced investigator with the right tools should be able to reproduce a finding published in a peer-reviewed biomedical science journal. In fact, the reproducibility of a large percentage of published findings has been questioned. Undoubtedly, there are many reasons for this, but one reason maybe that investigators fool themselves due to a poor understanding of statistical concepts. In particular, investigators often make these mistakes: 1. P-Hacking. This is when you reanalyze a data set in many different ways, or perhaps reanalyze with additional replicates, until you get the result you want. 2. Overemphasis on P values rather than on the actual size of the observed effect. 3. Overuse of statistical hypothesis testing, and being seduced by the word "significant". 4. Overreliance on standard errors, which are often misunderstood. PMID:25213136

Motulsky, Harvey J

2014-11-01

217

Better Categorizing Misconceptions Using a Contemporary Cognitive Science Lens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of the last three decades of discipline-based education research in the geosciences has focused on the important work of identifying the range and domain of misconceptions students bring into undergraduate science survey courses. Pinpointing students' prior knowledge is a cornerstone for developing constructivist approaches and learning environments for effective teaching. At the same time, the development of a robust a priori formula for professors to use in mitigating students' misconceptions remains elusive. An analysis of the literature and our own research has persuaded researchers at the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research to put forth a model that will allow professors to operate on students' various learning difficulties in a more productive manner. Previously, much of the field's work binned erroneous student thinking into a single construct, and from that basis, curriculum developers and instructors addressed student misconceptions with a single instructional strategy. In contrast, we propose a model based on the notion that 'misconceptions' are a mixture of at least four learning barriers: incorrect factual information, inappropriately applied mental algorithms (phenomenological primitives), insufficient cognitive structures (e.g. spatial reasoning), and affective/emotional difficulties (e.g. students' spiritual commitments). In this sense, each of these different types of learning barriers would be more effectively addressed with an instructional strategy purposefully targeting these different attributes. Initial applications of this model to learning problems in geosciences have been fruitful, suggesting that an effort towards categorizing persistent learning difficulties in the geosciences beyond the single generalized category of 'misconceptions' might allow our community to more effectively design learning experiences for our students and the general public

Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

2013-12-01

218

The impact of discovery learning on middle grade students' conceptions of the water cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the use of discovery learning in science and how it affects students' academic performance as well as their self-efficacy in science. It also used a diagnostic tool to identify students' misconceptions about processes in the water cycle and where the misconceptions originated. While the study showed that the treatment group had a statistically significant greater academic gain from the pre-test to the post- test than did the no-treatment comparison group, from a teachers view point the gain would not be enough to benefit a student's performance on high stakes tests. Because the study was able to identify eight common misconceptions, it suggests that the misconceptions that students possess are difficult to uproot even using teaching methods that have been proven successful.

Yoder, John D.

219

Misconceptions about School Leadership--Or, Who Is Buried in King Tut's Tomb?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author draws on personal experience and leadership literature to develop this story about learning from misconceptions. Specifically, comparisons are drawn between the author's historical misconceptions and common beliefs about the nature and administration of schools. The article uses the dispelled historical fallacies as a vehicle for…

Zimmerman, Judith A.

2009-01-01

220

HIV/AIDS Misconceptions among Latinos: Findings from a Population-Based Survey of California Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS among Latino adults (N=454) in California were examined using data from a population-based telephone survey conducted in 2000. Common misconceptions concerning modes of HIV transmission included transmission via mosquito or animal bite (64.1%), public facilities (48.3%), or kissing someone on the cheek (24.8%). A…

Ritieni, Assunta; Moskowitz, Joel; Tholandi, Maya

2008-01-01

221

Some Misconceptions and Misunderstandings Perpetuated by Teachers and Textbooks of Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists 15 commonly encountered misconceptions/misunderstandings in biology, together with specific suggestions to help teachers and textbook authors clarify each misconception. Included are problems related to understanding differences between acellular and multicellular, respiration and photosynthesis, egestion and excretion, and homeostasis and…

Barrass, Robert

1984-01-01

222

Early Childhood Teachers' Misconceptions about Mathematics Education for Young Children in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we discuss nine common misconceptions about learning and teaching mathematics for young children that are widespread among prospective and practicing early childhood teachers in the United States. These misconceptions include: 1. Young children are not ready for mathematics education; 2. Mathematics is for some bright kids with…

Lee, Joon Sun; Ginsburg, Herbert P.

2009-01-01

223

Using Analogies to Prevent Misconceptions about Chemical Equilibrium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to find the effectiveness of using analogies to prevent misconceptions about chemical equilibrium. Nineteen analogies, which were based on dynamic aspects of chemical equilibrium and application of Le Chatelier's principle, were developed. The participations of this study consisted of 11th grade students (n: 151)…

Sahin Pekmez, Esin

2010-01-01

224

A Misconception in Biology: Amino Acids and Translation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated a persistent error among introductory college biology and genetics students, namely, that amino acids are produced by genetic translation (protein synthesis). Contributors to this misconception were revealed through multiple-choice items and interviews. Implications for education are discussed with specific steps suggested to correct…

Fisher, Kathleen M.

1985-01-01

225

Naive Psychological Science: The Prevalence, Strength, and Sources of Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies show that misconceptions about psychology are pervasive. This study examined how the strength of prior beliefs and the sources of misinformation relate to conceptual change following an introductory psychology course. Ninety introductory psychology students completed a 36-item "Psychological Information" questionnaire. Testing during the…

Taylor, Annette Kujawski; Kowalski, Patricia

2004-01-01

226

Using Analogy to Overcome Misconceptions about Conservation of Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study (n=192) examined the use of analogical instruction to overcome misconceptions about conservation of matter. Students who understood the concept conservation of matter when iodine was evaporated were able to transfer their understanding to the evaporation of acetone. This indicates that teaching by analogy can be an effective tool in…

Stavy, Ruth

1991-01-01

227

Prevalence of Blood Circulation Misconceptions Among Prospective Elementary Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study sought to to investigate the prevalence and persistence of blood circulation misconceptions among prospective elementary teachers and 2) to evaluate the effectiveness of learning activities for discovering what students know and can explain about blood circulation and lung function

PhD Nancy J. Pelaez (California State University Fullerton Department of Biological Science, MH282); Denise D. Boyd (Santa Ana Community Col Math and Hlth Sci Div); Jacqueline B. Rojas (Sciences and Mathematics, California State University Department of Biological Science); Ms. Mildred A. Hoover (Curtin Univ Technol)

2005-09-01

228

1 Misconceptions in Halliday, Resnick and Walker’s textbook  

E-print Network

By perusing several University Physics textbooks [1], [2], [3], [4], I was astonished with the inclusion in those textbooks of misconceptions dealing with Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology. I have to confess that all the cited textbooks can be recommended for freshmen University students and the overall picture is that the books cited are all excellent, except

Editora Albert; Marcelo Samuel Berman

2005-01-01

229

Air Pollution: The Knowledge and Attitudes of Secondary School Students in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the knowledge and understanding of Hong Kong secondary school students about the composition of unpolluted and polluted air, and the nature and effects of air pollutants. A number of misconceptions are highlighted, including the common belief amongst younger students that oxygen was more common in unpolluted air than nitrogen.…

Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin; Yeung, Stephen Pui-ming

2004-01-01

230

Moving Beyond Misconceptions: A New Model for Learning Challenges in Cognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For over 40 years, the science education community has given its attention to cataloging the substantial body of "misconceptions" in individual's thinking about science, and to addressing the consequences of those misconceptions in the science classroom. Despite the tremendous amount of effort given to researching and disseminating information related to misconceptions, and the development of a theory of conceptual change to mitigate misconceptions, progress continues to be less than satisfying. An analysis of the literature and our own research has persuaded the CAPER Center for Astronomy and Physics Education Research to put forth model that will allow us to operate on students' learning difficulties in a more fruitful manner. Previously, much of the field's work binned erroneous student thinking into a single construct, and from that basis, curriculum developers and instructors addressed student misconceptions with a single instructional strategy. In contrast this model suggests that "misconceptions" are a mixture of at least four learning barriers: incorrect factual information, inappropriately applied mental algorithms (phenomenological primitives), insufficient cognitive structures (e.g. spatial reasoning), and affective/emotional difficulties. Each of these types of barriers should be addressed with an appropriately designed instructional strategy. Initial applications of this model to learning problems in the Earth & Space Sciences have been fruitful, suggesting that an effort towards categorizing persistent learning difficulties in the geosciences beyond the level of "misconceptions" may allow our community to craft tailored and more effective learning experiences for our students and the general public.

Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

2011-12-01

231

The Gauss and Ampere Laws: Different Laws but Similar Difficulties for Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to analyse university students' reasoning regarding two laws of electromagnetism: Gauss's law and Ampere's law. It has been supposed that the problems seen in understanding and applying both laws do not spring from students' misconceptions. Students habitually use reasoning known in the literature as 'common sense' methodology that…

Guisasola, Jenaro; Almudi, Jose M.; Salinas, Julia; Zuza, Kristina; Ceberio, Mikel

2008-01-01

232

Junior High School Students' Ideas about the Shape and Size of the Atom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of the atom is one of the building blocks of science education. Although the concept is a foundation for students' subsequent learning experiences, it is difficult for students to comprehend because of common misconceptions and its abstractness. The purpose of this study is to examine junior high school students' (ages 12-13) ideas…

Cokelez, Aytekin

2012-01-01

233

Teaching to the Misconception: Critical Thinking and Pre-Service Elementary Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few decades, numerous studies have demonstrated that pre-service and in-service teachers fall victim to the same misconceptions as the students they are or will be teaching. At the same time, research has shown that addressing the misconceptions head-on and leading students to a deep, personal understanding of why their previous conceptions were erroneous aids in replacement of misconceptions with an accurate understanding of the natural world. This paper demonstrates how this was accomplished in a required university-level Earth/space/physical science course for pre-service elementary school teachers, with an emphasis on examples from the Sun-Earth-Moon system.

Larsen, K.

2014-07-01

234

Kindergarten Common Core State Standards Flip Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 42-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the Kindergarten level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades 1-5.

2012-06-01

235

Avoid Misconceptions When Teaching about Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The resource is useful for teacher's professional development by alerting educators to many plant misconceptions in teaching literature. In the thought provoking, peer reviewed resource fifty misconceptions are identified. Some misconceptions are easier to identify because they are oversimplifications, overgeneralizations, or misidentifications. Others are more difficult to identify because they are obsolete concepts and terms or flawed research.

David Hershey (;)

2004-08-01

236

A Test of Contemporary Misconceptions in Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to construct and evaluate a contemporary misconception test based on popular myths in psychology. Misconceptions in psychology are commonplace, strongly held, and can be problematic for teaching accurate information. This study examined several predictors of misconceptions in eleven psychological topic areas. We also…

Gardner, Rick M.; Brown, Dana L.

2013-01-01

237

Addressing climate and energy misconceptions - teaching tools offered by the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite a prevalence of peer-reviewed scientific research and high-level reports by intergovernmental agencies (e.g., IPCC) that document changes in our climate and consequences for human societies, the public discourse regards these topics as controversial and sensitive. The chasm between scientific-based understanding of climate systems and public understanding can most easily be addressed via high quality, science-based education on these topics. Well-trained and confident educators are required to provide this education. However, climate science and energy awareness are complex topics that are rapidly evolving and have a great potential for controversy. Furthermore, the interdisciplinary nature of climate science further increases the difficulty for teachers to stay abreast of the science and the policy. Research has shown that students and educators alike hold misconceptions about the climate system in general and the causes and effects of climate change in particular. The NSF-funded CLEAN Pathway (http://cleanet.org) as part of the National Science Digital Library (http://www.nsdl.org) strives to address these needs and help educators address misconceptions by providing high quality learning resources and professional development opportunities to support educators of grade levels 6 through 16. The materials focus on teaching climate science and energy use. The scope and framework of the CLEAN Pathway is defined by the Essential Principles of Climate Science (CCSP, 2009) and the Energy Literacy Principles recently developed by the Department of Energy. Following this literacy-based approach, CLEAN helps with developing mental models to address misconceptions around climate science and energy awareness through a number of different avenues. These are: 1) Professional development opportunities for educators - interactive webinars for secondary teachers and virtual workshops for college faculty, 2) A collection of scientifically and pedagogically reviewed, high-quality learning resources on climate and energy topics, 3) Detailed information on effective approaches for teaching climate and energy science for a range of grade levels, and 4) A community support forum (http://iceeonline.org, coordinated by a partner project - Inspiring Climate Education Excellence, ICEE), where educators can exchange information and share advice regarding climate and energy education. In this presentation we focus on our experience coordinating professional development opportunities as well as the "Teaching about Climate and Energy" web pages that are offered through the CLEAN Pathway to show-case how misconceptions can be addressed by educators when teaching or learning about climate and energy topics. Providing educators with a robust foundation of topical knowledge, guiding them through common misconceptions and providing them with a collection of well-vetted learning resources is the approach offered by CLEAN to address student misconceptions of climate and energy topics.

Gold, A. U.; Ledley, T. S.; Kirk, K. B.; Grogan, M.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Manduca, C. A.; Fox, S.; Niepold, F.; Howell, C.; Lynds, S. E.

2011-12-01

238

Prototypical Concepts and Misconceptions of Plate Tectonic Boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students of geology encounter many prototypical/exemplar concepts* that include representative, but not necessarily defining, features and characteristics. This study of students' prototypical representations of plate tectonic boundaries indicates that their representations are rich sources of information about their misconceptions about plate tectonics. After lectures in plate tectonics and mountain building, 353 students in a general education geology class were asked to draw a continent-continent convergent boundary. For this study, a correct answer is defined as having the major features in correct proportions as depicted in the plate boundary diagrams on the USGS web. Fifty-two percent of the drawings were either incorrect or incomplete such that they could not be interpreted. Only 48% were readily interpretable, and of these 22% drew the boundary correctly, showing a thickening of crust where two continents collide. Thirty-three percent drew the boundary showing concave slabs of continental crust as one might imagine two pieces of firm rubber pushed together on a rigid surface and 45% depicted mountains as one might imagine inverted ice cream cones on a rigid plank. Twenty-one senior class geology majors and graduate students were given the same assignment. Forty-eight percent rendered a correct drawing, whereas 38% drew the same ice cream cone on a plank type picture that 45% of the general education students drew. In a second class of 12 geology majors, only 1 student drew a cross section of a continent-ocean boundary similar to standard representation. Four of 12 drew mountains on the top of continental crust over a subduction zone but did not draw a compensating mass within the crust or lithosphere. Prototypical drawings provide more information about students' concepts than do most multiple-choice questions. For example, sixty-two percent of theses students who drew mountains similar to foam rubber pads pushed together on a desk or ice cream cones on a plank correctly answered a multiple-choice question that would appear to indicate a better understanding than the drawings reveal. Furthermore, 12 interviewed students made statements that could be interpreted to indicate that they understood the concept of mountain building at plate tectonic boundaries better than their drawings suggest. Incoherence of multiple-choice responses, verbal statements and drawings may be common in novice learners. If cognitive scientists are correct in their model of multiple types of mental representations for the same term, then the fact that novices may hold inconsistent representations is not surprising. The fact that students at various academic levels draw very similar prototypes that are incorrect is evidence that students have distinct and persistent prototype misconceptions. * Cognitive scientists define a prototypical/exemplar concept as a mental representation of the best examples or central tendencies of a term.

Sibley, D. F.; Patino, L. C.

2003-12-01

239

From Misconceptions to Conceptual Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We all have misconceptions about the world in which we live--how it works, how we interact with it, how it changes, and the reasons behind those changes. These misunderstandings are personal notions we create to make meaning of our surroundings. Often, these misunderstandings go unchallenged for a lifetime. This article addresses how these…

Gooding, Julia; Metz, Bill

2011-01-01

240

Myths and Misconceptions of Acceleration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accelerating students through school at a faster than normal rate is routinely met with skepticism and doubt pertaining to its effectiveness. In the research community, however, the topic is nearly dead. Research has continually supported this practice as effective when carefully implemented. This article attempts to debunk common myths (such as…

Anderson, Daniel

2008-01-01

241

A Study on Identifying the Misconceptions of Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers about Basic Astronomy Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nowadays, the importance given to astronomy teaching in science and physics education has been gradually increasing. At the same time, teachers play an important role in remediating the misconceptions about astronomy concepts held by students. The present study aims to determine the misconceptions of pre-service physics teachers (n = 117),…

Kanli, Uygar

2014-01-01

242

Student Misinterpretations and Misconceptions Based on Their Explanations of Two Computer Animations of Varying Complexity Depicting the Same Oxidation-Reduction Reaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of 55 students were shown unnarrated versions of two different particulate-level computer animations of varying complexity depicting the oxidation-reduction reaction of aqueous silver nitrate and solid copper metal. These students were asked to explain their understanding of the chemical reaction based on their interpretations of these…

Rosenthal, Deborah P.; Sanger, Michael J.

2012-01-01

243

An Introduction to Technologies Commonly Used by College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's college students, the Net generation, have woven technology into their everyday repertoire of communication and connection tools. They use the Internet, e-mail, instant messaging, blogs, and social networking Web sites like Facebook and MySpace at higher rates than individuals from any other generation. Student affairs professionals,…

Junco, Reynol; Cole-Avent, Gail A.

2008-01-01

244

Primary-Grade Students' Knowledge and Thinking about Food Production and the Origins of Common Foods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual interviews were conducted with 96 K-3 students, stratified according to grade level, achievement level, and gender. The students were asked to explain land-to-hand progressions involved in bringing several common foods to our tables, identify products derived from common farm animals, explain why a pound of cereal costs more than a…

Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet; O'Mahony, Carolyn

2003-01-01

245

Changing Misconceptions in Newton's Laws of Motion Through Playing Computer Games and Peer Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to acquire information about students' misconceptions on Newton's laws of motion. Three major hypotheses were examined: (1) students' performance on the posttest after playing the games set in the context of a Newtonian microworld will be significantly better than their performance on the pretest; (2) performance of the students playing the games in a peer cooperative

Hyejoo Back

1996-01-01

246

Using Lecture Tutorials to Increase Student Learning in Introductory Geoscience Courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students often leave introductory geoscience courses with their misconceptions still intact, and we developed Lecture Tutorials (LTs) to help alleviate this problem. LTs are 10-15 minute interactive worksheets that students complete in small groups in class, after a short introductory lecture. Topics for the LTs (e.g., climate change, the rock cycle, etc.) were chosen because they are commonly taught in

K. M. Kortz; J. J. Smay; D. P. Murray

2007-01-01

247

Helping Students Make Sense of Graphs: An Experimental Trial of SmartGraphs Software  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphs are commonly used in science, mathematics, and social sciences to convey important concepts; yet students at all ages demonstrate difficulties interpreting graphs. This paper reports on an experimental study of free, Web-based software called SmartGraphs that is specifically designed to help students overcome their misconceptions regarding…

Zucker, Andrew; Kay, Rachel; Staudt, Carolyn

2014-01-01

248

Critical Evaluation by Students of Websites in Web 2.0 Landscapes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's classrooms, students now turn to the Internet as their primary source of information, though the common belief in the idea that "digital natives" can easily traverse a landscape littered with misconceptions, multiple perspectives, and competing ideas has large implications in the classroom. Research into students reading multiple online…

McVerry, J. Gregory

2011-01-01

249

Meeting the Common Core State Standards for Students with Autism: The Challenge for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can we ensure that students with autism spectrum disorders are provided access to the curriculum that is provided to all students? This article discusses the specific challenges presented by students with autism spectrum disorders that can impact their access to the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts. Specific evidence-based…

Constable, Susan; Grossi, Barrie; Moniz, Alexis; Ryan, Lynne

2013-01-01

250

Learning Commons: Bridging the Academic and Student Affairs Divide to Enhance Learning across Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Guelph Learning Commons brings student affairs professionals and librarians together to offer students a coherent and integrated approach to learning, writing, research, and technology support. It is distinguished by three characteristics: (1) a partnership model between academic and student affairs; (2) a solid foundation of…

Schmidt, Nancy; Kaufman, Janet

2005-01-01

251

The Differentiation of Heat and Temperature: An Evaluation of the Effect of Microcomputer Teaching on Students' Misconceptions. Technical Report 87-5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two classroom studies, one conducted in the spring of 1985 and the second in the spring of 1986, showed that many high school students do not differentiate between heat and temperature; instead, they have a single concept that contains some of the features of heat and some of the features of temperature. Because the distinction between these two…

Wiser, Marianne

252

Commonly Known, Commonly Not Known, Totally Unknown: A Framework for Students becoming Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing undergraduate students with research experience has been asserted as a way of reinventing university education. This assertion lacks both substantial empirical evidence and a coherent theoretical framework. In this paper, the authors consider both research and theory relating to undergraduate research and present the Research Skill…

Willison, John; O'Regan, Kerry

2007-01-01

253

Common Fractions. [Student Worksheets for Vocational Agricultural Courses].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning module provides students with practice in applying mathematical operations to vocational agriculture. The module consists of unit objectives, definitions, information, problems to solve, worksheets suitable for various levels of vocational agriculture instruction, and answer keys for the problems and worksheets. This module, which…

Jewell, Larry R.

254

Five popular misconceptions about osmosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Osmosis is the flow of solvent across a semipermeable membrane from a region of lower to higher solute concentration. It is of central importance in plant and animal physiology and finds many uses in industry. A survey of published papers, web resources, and current textbooks reveals that numerous misconceptions about osmosis continue to be cited and taught. To clarify these issues, we re-derive the thermodynamics of osmosis using the canonical formalism of statistical mechanics and go on to discuss the main points that continue to lead to misunderstandings.

Kramer, Eric M.; Myers, David R.

2012-08-01

255

Investigating Climate Science Misconceptions Using a Teacher Professional Development Workshop Registration Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EarthLabs Climate project, an NSF-Discovery Research K12 program, has developed a suite of three online classroom-ready modules: Climate and the Cryosphere; Climate and the Carbon Cycle; and Climate and the Biosphere. The EarthLabs Climate project included week-long professional development workshops during June of 2012 and 2013 in Texas and Mississippi. Evaluation of the 2012 and 2013 workshops included participant self-reported learning levels in many areas of climate science. Teachers' answers indicated they had increased their understanding of the topics addressed in the workshops. However, the project team was interested in refining the evaluation process to determine exactly those areas of climate science in which participants increased content knowledge and ameliorated misconceptions. Therefore, to enhance the investigation into what teachers got out of the workshop, a pre-test/post-test design was implemented for 2013. In particular, the evaluation team was interested in discovering the degree to which participants held misconceptions and whether those beliefs were modified by attendance at the workshops. For the 2013 workshops, a registration survey was implemented that included the Climate Concept Inventory (a climate content knowledge quiz developed by the education research team for the project). The multiple-choice questions are also part of the pre/post student quiz used in classrooms in which the EarthLabs Climate curriculum was implemented. Many of the questions in this instrument assess common misconceptions by using them as distractors in the multiple choice options. The registration survey also asked respondents to indicate their confidence in their answer to each question, because, in addition to knowledge limitations, lack of confidence also can be a barrier to effective teaching. Data from the registration survey informed workshop managers of the topic content knowledge of participants, allowing fine-tuning of the professional development to address attendee's knowledge levels. In addition, the pre-test/post-test design allowed evaluators to investigate changes in participant understanding in a way more robust than self-reported learning. In this presentation, we will address the findings from these analyses and discuss implications for addressing misconceptions in teacher professional development.

Lynds, S. E.; Gold, A. U.; McNeal, K.; Libarkin, J. C.; Buhr Sullivan, S. M.; Ledley, T. S.; Haddad, N.; Ellins, K. K.

2013-12-01

256

1st Grade Common Core State Standards Flip Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 46-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the grade 1 level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades K and 2-5.

2012-06-01

257

2nd Grade Common Core State Standards Flip Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 51-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the grade 2 level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades K-1 and 3-5.

2012-06-01

258

5th Grade Common Core State Standards Flip Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 68-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the grade 5 level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades K-4.

2012-01-01

259

3rd Grade Common Core State Standards Flip Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 60-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the grade 3 level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades K-2 and 4-5.

2012-06-01

260

4th Grade Common Core State Standards Flip Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 75-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the grade 4 level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades K-3 and 5.

2012-06-01

261

Facts, Misconceptions, and Myths about Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Misconceptions about cancer may increase the level of fear in the general public and render coping more difficult in cancer patients. The aim of this survey was to study the level of knowledge and misconceptions. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire comprising 27 questions related to cancer etiology, treatment, and prognosis was mailed to 100 patients with gynecological cancers and to

Maria E. Carlsson; Peter M. Strang

1997-01-01

262

Textbook Errors & Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Metabolism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea that errors and misconceptions in biology textbooks are often slow to be discovered and corrected is discussed. Selected errors, misconceptions, and topics of confusion about cell metabolism are described. Fermentation, respiration, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, uniformity of catabolism, and metabolic pathways as models are…

Storey, Richard D.

1991-01-01

263

A Data Generating Review that Bops,Twists and Pulls at Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics is an integral part of the K-12 mathematics curriculum (age 5-18). Naturally, students construct misconceptions of what they learn. This article discusses The Bop It[C]Challenge, a review activity assesses student understanding and reveals their misunderstandings of statistical concepts. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

Gardner, Kimberly

2013-01-01

264

College students' misunderstandings about copyright laws for digital library resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper has two primary purposes: to explore common copyright-related problems that arise when librarians promote the use of digital library resources; and to investigate college students' misconceptions of copyright laws that arise when the students use these resources. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Four librarians in charge of the management of digital library resources were interviewed regarding student-users' problematic copyright-infringement

Huan-Chueh Wu; Chien Chou; Hao-Ren Ke; Mei-Hung Wang

2010-01-01

265

Daytime Sleepiness, Poor Sleep Quality, Eveningness Chronotype, and Common Mental Disorders among Chilean College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To evaluate whether daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, and morningness and eveningness preferences are associated with common mental disorders (CMDs) among college students. Methods: A total of 963 college students completed self-administered questionnaires that collected information about sociodemographic characteristics, sleep…

Concepcion, Tessa; Barbosa, Clarita; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Pepper, Micah; Andrade, Asterio; Gelaye, Bizu; Yanez, David; Williams, Michelle A.

2014-01-01

266

Student Reading Growth Illuminates the Common Core Text-Complexity Standard: Raising Both Bars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) establish a challenging text-complexity standard for all high school graduates to read at college and workplace text-complexity levels. We argue that implementation of the CCSS standard requires concurrent examination of historical student reading-growth trends. An example of a historical student average…

Williamson, Gary L.; Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, Jackson A.

2014-01-01

267

Reliability and Validity Issues for Two Common Measures of Medical Students' Attitudes toward Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results are reported from 2 common measures of medical student attitudes toward older adults: Maxwell-Sullivan Attitude Survey (MSAS); and UCLA Geriatrics Attitude Survey (GAS), with students entering the University of South Carolina School of Medicine (USCSM) in the period 2000--2005. A reliability analysis incorporating item means, Cronbach's…

Stewart, T. J.; Roberts, E.; Eleazer, P.; Boland, R.; Wieland, D.

2006-01-01

268

Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault: A Common Problem among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This article summarizes research on the role of alcohol in college students' sexual assault experiences. Sexual assault is extremely common among college students. At least half of these sexual assaults involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, the vic- tim or both. Method: Two research literatures were reviewed: the sexual assault literature and the literature that examines alcohol's effects on

ANTONIA ABBEY

2002-01-01

269

Solving the Common Core Equation: Teaching Mathematics CCSS to Students with Moderate and Severe Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in mathematics were created to help all students become prepared for the demands of future careers and life in an age of technology. Similarly, students with moderate and severe disability will need these skills to meet these changing expectations. Although mathematics instruction could focus on a few of the…

Saunders, Alicia F.; Bethune, Keri S.; Spooner, Fred; Browder, Diane

2013-01-01

270

Student perceptions of staff in the Information Commons: a survey at the University of Sheffield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Technology has transformed teaching and learning environments in tertiary education, introducing new collaborative library spaces and developing the roles and skills of library staff. Academic libraries need continually to re-examine their services to ensure they meet student needs. The current survey aimed to discover how students perceived staff in the Information Commons (IC) and whether their perceptions of

Rachel Bickley; Sheila Corrall

2011-01-01

271

Conceptual versus Algorithmic Learning in High School Chemistry: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts--Part 2. Students' Common Errors, Misconceptions and Difficulties in Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part 2 of the findings are presented of a quantitative study (n = 125) on basic quantum chemical concepts taught at twelfth grade (age 17-18 years) in Greece. A paper-and-pencil test of fourteen questions was used that were of two kinds: five questions that tested recall of knowledge or application of algorithmic procedures (type-A questions);…

Papaphotis, Georgios; Tsaparlis, Georgios

2008-01-01

272

Common Assessment and Progression System (CAPS) Information for Postgraduate Taught Students  

E-print Network

Common Assessment and Progression System (CAPS) ­ Information for Postgraduate Taught Students The Common Assessment and Progression System (CAPS) applies to all taught postgraduate courses at Heriot at Grade D are the minimum requirements for progression to Masters level (although your programme may

Painter, Kevin

273

Physical Activity and the Common Cold in Undergraduate University Students: Implications for Health Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The common cold, known as upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), is the world's most prevalent illness. The purpose of this study was to determine if physical activity is linked to the incidence and/or duration of the common cold. Method: Undergraduate university students (n=200) were asked to complete two questionnaires. The…

Vossen, Deborah P.; McArel, Heather; Vossen, Jeffery F.; Thompson, Angela M.

2004-01-01

274

Flip-Flops in Students' Conceptions of State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors conducted a qualitative interview-based study to reveal students' misconceptions about state in sequential circuits. This paper documents 16 misconceptions of state, how students' conceptions of state shift and change, and students' methodological weaknesses. These misconceptions can be used to inform and direct instruction. This study…

Herman, G. L.; Zilles, C.; Loui, M. C.

2012-01-01

275

Misconceptions concerning the behavior, fate and transport of the fuel oxygenates TBA and MTBE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The release of gasoline from underground storage tanks and the subsequent appearance of dissolved constituents in drinking water has focused attention on the use of MTBE in reformulated fuels. Natural biodegradation of MTBE in soil, photo-oxidation in the atmosphere or chemical oxidation during remediation of gasoline releases can produce the intermediate tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). TBA is also a fuel oxygenate and can be found as a co-product in MTBE synthesized from methanol and TBA. Because the physical properties of ethers and alcohols differ somewhat from the predominant hydrocarbon compounds in gasoline, misconceptions have developed about the behavior of fuel oxygenates in storage and in the subsurface. Critical review of several misconceptions about MTBE and TBA in gasoline reveals the concepts were conceived to rationalize early field observations and/or incomplete data sets. Closer scrutiny, in light of recent laboratory investigations, field data, case studies and world literature, clarifies these misconceptions and assumptions about the behavior of ether oxygenates and their degradation products in the environment. Commonly held misconceptions focus on four general areas of fuel and fuel oxygenate management: storage/dispensing, hydrology, remediation, and health effects. Storage/dispensing misconceptions address materials stability to ethers and alcohols in fuel and the environmental forensics of fuel systems failure. Groundwater and hydrology misconceptions deal with plume dynamics and the impact of fuel on drinking water resources. Remediation misconceptions focus on the performance of traditional hydrocarbon remediation technologies, recent developments in biodegradation and natural attenuation, drivers of remedial design and remediation costs. Health effects misconceptions address both acute and chronic exposure risk evaluations by national and international health agencies. Generally MTBE and TBA are manageable by the same processes and precautions used for gasoline and other fuel hydrocarbons. Indeed specific physical properties of ethers and alcohols expedite their treatment by traditional remediation methods of pump and treat, soil vapor extraction and bioventing.

Woodward, R.; Sloan, R.

2003-04-01

276

Misconceptions about Evolution and the Mechanisms of Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource will help teachers deal with common misconceptions about evolution, those that are simple misunderstandings and others that may stem from purposeful attempts to interfere with the teaching of evolution. First, five common misunderstandings about evolution and how it works are examined. They include the origin of life, ladder of progress, randomness of evolution, trying to adapt, and satisfying needs. The next section indicates that evolution explains the history of life and has no other implications. This site also debunks the alleged incompatibility of religion and evolution.

277

How prepared are medical students to diagnose and manage common ocular conditions  

PubMed Central

It is essential that primary care physicians have a solid fund of knowledge of the diagnosis and management of common eye conditions as well as ocular emergencies, as management of these diseases commonly involves appropriate referral to an ophthalmologist. Thus, it is crucial to receive comprehensive clinical knowledge of ophthalmic disease in the primary care setting during medical school. This study investigated how well prepared medical students are to diagnose and manage common ocular conditions. The study used scores from a standardized 12-question quiz administered to fourth-year medical students (N = 97; 88% response rate) and second-year medical students (N = 97; 97% response rate). The quiz comprising diagnosis and referral management questions covered the most frequently tested ophthalmology topics on board exams and assessed students’ ability to recognize when referral to an ophthalmologist is appropriate. Fourth-year medical students had quiz scores ranging from 0%-94.5% with an average score of 68.7%. Second-year students had quiz scores ranging from 27.2%–86.4%, with an average score of 63.8%. Passing rate was 70%. Student’s t-test showed fourth-year students had a significantly higher quiz average (P = 0.003). In general, both classes performed better on diagnostic questions (fourth-year, 73.7%; second year, 65.8%) rather than on management questions (fourth-year, 64.8%; second year, 61.8%). Both second-year and fourth-year students on average fell short on passing the ophthalmology proficiency quiz, and in general students were more adept at diagnosing rather than managing ocular conditions and emergencies. PMID:25417863

Esparaz, Elizabeth Shanika; Binder, S. Bruce; Borges, Nicole J.

2014-01-01

278

How prepared are medical students to diagnose and manage common ocular conditions.  

PubMed

It is essential that primary care physicians have a solid fund of knowledge of the diagnosis and management of common eye conditions as well as ocular emergencies, as management of these diseases commonly involves appropriate referral to an ophthalmologist. Thus, it is crucial to receive comprehensive clinical knowledge of ophthalmic disease in the primary care setting during medical school. This study investigated how well prepared medical students are to diagnose and manage common ocular conditions. The study used scores from a standardized 12-question quiz administered to fourth-year medical students (N = 97; 88% response rate) and second-year medical students (N = 97; 97% response rate). The quiz comprising diagnosis and referral management questions covered the most frequently tested ophthalmology topics on board exams and assessed students' ability to recognize when referral to an ophthalmologist is appropriate. Fourth-year medical students had quiz scores ranging from 0%-94.5% with an average score of 68.7%. Second-year students had quiz scores ranging from 27.2%-86.4%, with an average score of 63.8%. Passing rate was 70%. Student's t-test showed fourth-year students had a significantly higher quiz average (P = 0.003). In general, both classes performed better on diagnostic questions (fourth-year, 73.7%; second year, 65.8%) rather than on management questions (fourth-year, 64.8%; second year, 61.8%). Both second-year and fourth-year students on average fell short on passing the ophthalmology proficiency quiz, and in general students were more adept at diagnosing rather than managing ocular conditions and emergencies. PMID:25417863

Esparaz, Elizabeth Shanika; Binder, S Bruce; Borges, Nicole J

2014-01-01

279

Textbook Misconceptions: The Climax Concept of Succession.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the development of the climax concept of succession, illustrates the misconceptions in current textbooks, and provides a conceptual model for an updated view of succession useful in teaching at the introductory level. Contains 38 references. (JRH)

Gibson, David J.

1996-01-01

280

Misconceptions in Halliday, Resnick and Walker's textbook  

E-print Network

Eleven misconceptions involving Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology are exposed, that appeared in the textbook: Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition, by Halliday, Resnick and Walker, Willey, New York (2005), or other companion textbooks.

Berman, M S

2005-01-01

281

Therapeutic misconception: hope, trust and misconception in paediatric research.  

PubMed

Although the therapeutic misconception (TM) has been well described over a period of approximately 20 years, there has been disagreement about its implications for informed consent to research. In this paper we review some of the history and debate over the ethical implications of TM but also bring a new perspective to those debates. Drawing upon our experience of working in the context of translational research for rare childhood diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, we consider the ethical and legal implications of the TM for parental consent to research. In this situation, it is potentially the parent who is vulnerable to TM. In our analysis we not only consider the context of informed consent for research but also the wider environment in which the value of research is promoted, more broadly through the media but also more specifically through the communication strategies of patient organizations. All dissemination about developments in research for health runs the risk of portraying an overly optimistic view of the promise of biotechnological solutions and has the potential to encourage a 'collective' TM. In this paper we consider the challenge that TM presents to parents as well as explore the ethical and legal responsibilities of researchers to ensure an appropriately informed consent: compatible with a hopeful disposition of parents who consent for the their children whilst avoiding a blind and misleading optimism. PMID:22350619

Woods, Simon; Hagger, Lynn E; McCormack, Pauline

2014-03-01

282

Genesis & the Human Ribcage: An Opportunity to Correct a Misconception & Introduce an Evolution Lesson into the Anatomy Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many anatomy students begin the course with a misconception that human males and females do not have the same number of ribs. At the root of that misconception is Genesis 2:21-22, in which God removes a rib from Adam to make Eve. Removal of a body part is a surgical procedure, and one does not pass on the results of surgery to one's offspring. The…

Senter, Phil

2013-01-01

283

Shampoo, Soy Sauce, and the Prince's Pendant: Density for Middle-Level Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a series of activities that are designed to clear up common student misconceptions regarding the difficult concepts of mass and density at the middle-level. Concept development, problem solving, design, measurement, and quantitative activities are interwoven throughout these lessons. Each set of lessons is designed to conform to one full cycle of the 5E learning model.

Chandrasekhar, Meera; Litherland, Rebecca

2006-10-01

284

Teaching Simple Experimental Design to Undergraduates: Do Your Students Understand the Basics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides instructors with guidelines for teaching simple experimental design for the comparison of two treatment groups. Two designs with specific examples are discussed along with common misconceptions that undergraduate students typically bring to the experiment design process. Features of experiment design that maximize power and…

Hiebert, Sara M.

2007-01-01

285

Miners' Misconceptions of Flow Distribution Within Circuits as a Factor Influencing Underground Mining Accidents.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Misconceptions can be thought of as naive approaches to problem solving that are perceptually appealing but incorrect and inconsistent with scientific evidence (Piaget, 1929). One type of misconception involves flow distributions within circuits. This concept is important because miners' conceptual errors about flow distribution changes within complex circuits may be in part responsible for fatal mine disasters. Based on the theory that misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits were responsible for underground mine disasters involving mine ventilation circuits, a series of studies was undertaken with mining engineering students, professional mining engineers, as well as mine foremen, mine supervisors, mine rescue members, mine maintenance personnel, mining researchers and working miners to identify these conceptual errors and errors in mine ventilation procedures. Results indicate that misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits exist in over 70 percent of the subjects sampled. It is assumed that these misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits result in errors of judgment when miners are faced with inferring and changing ventilation arrangements when two or more mine sections are connected. Furthermore, it is assumed that these misconceptions are pervasive in the mining industry and may be responsible for at least two mine ventilation disasters. The findings of this study are consistent with Piaget's (1929) model of figurative and operative knowledge. This model states that misconceptions are in part due to a lack of knowledge of dynamic transformations and how to apply content information. Recommendations for future research include the development of an interactive expert system for training miners with ventilation arrangements. Such a system would meet the educational recommendations made by Piaget (1973b) by involving a hands-on approach that allows discovery, interaction, the opportunity to make mistakes and to review the cognitive concepts on which the subject relied during his manipulation of the ventilation system.

Passaro, Perry David

286

Organic Chemistry Educators' Perspectives on Fundamental Concepts and Misconceptions: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study was conducted with 23 organic chemistry educators to discover what general chemistry concepts they typically review, the concepts they believe are fundamental to introductory organic chemistry, the topics students find most difficult in the subject, and the misconceptions they observe in undergraduate organic chemistry…

Duis, Jennifer M.

2011-01-01

287

Using Structured Examples and Prompting Reflective Questions to Correct Misconceptions about Thermodynamic Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the effectiveness of using "structured examples in concert with prompting reflective questions" to address misconceptions held by mechanical engineering students about thermodynamic principles by employing pre-test and post-test design, a structured questionnaire, lecture room observation, and participants'…

Olakanmi, E. O.; Doyoyo, M.

2014-01-01

288

Opening the Common Core: How to Bring ALL Students to College and Career Readiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do you wish you could leverage the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) to equip all students--not just high achievers--with the higher-level thinking skills they need? You can, and this book will show you how. The authors helped lead their district--Rockville Centre in Long Island, New York--in closing achievement gaps and increasing the number of…

Burris, Carol Corbett; Garrity, Delia T.

2012-01-01

289

Applying Symmetries of Common Objects to Help Students Understand Stereoselectivity for Apparently Symmetric Substrates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have found it an effective way of teaching symmetry in the context of stereoselectivity, to use common everyday objects with the same point groups as the substrates involved. This has helped students to distinguish between those symmetry elements which allow for stereospecificity and those which preclude it. Two symmetry elements, the simple…

Jittam, Piyachat; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

2008-01-01

290

Challenges posed by some misconceptions in mathematical physics: A case study of work done and potential energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is focused on the concept and formalism of work done and potential energy on the very fundamental level. A detailed analysis of the incomplete presentations of the topics found a major misconception that precluded acknowledgement of existence of certain nonradial effects caused by classical radial/center-bound gravitational force fields is offered. Certain consequences of this and some related misconceptions are also discussed as well the adverse impact of these misconceptions on research on education, teaching and learning of these topics, and on the future development of physical and mathematical theories related to, or relying on, these topics. The most noticeable conclusion of this study is that a more complete and transparent mathematical approach to physics is needed in order to prevent generating similar misconception in the future theories of physics and mathematical sciences in general. A conclusion of importance to educators is that they cannot rely on research scientists anymore, but should evaluate the contents of topics presented to undergraduate and graduate students in order to recognize possible misconceptions and reformulate presentations of topics whose mathematical incompleteness might lead to cognitive conflicts. These conclusions, when generalized, provide specific guidelines for educators, and especially for academic teachers, curriculum designers and researchers on issues pertinent to education. This study is not dealing with misconceptions created by students.

Yah, Jake K.

2011-12-01

291

Setting the Record Straight: Applied Linguistics and the Dispelling of Misconception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of scholarly publications in applied linguistics focuses on the use of such publications as "dialogue" between applied linguists to promote social responsibility in the application of their work. A review of 40 citations representing 63 papers is presented and results are discussed. Common strategies found for dispelling misconceptions

Davidson, Fred

292

Addressing the Multiplication Makes Bigger and Division Makes Smaller Misconceptions via Prediction and Clickers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a lesson that uses prediction items, clickers and visuals via PowerPoint slides to help prospective middle-school teachers address two common misconceptions: multiplication makes bigger and division makes smaller (MMB-DMS). Classroom research was conducted to explore the viability of such a lesson. Results show that the…

Lim, Kien H.

2011-01-01

293

Scientific and Cultural Knowledge in Intercultural Science Education: Student Perceptions of Common Ground  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no consensus in the science education research community on the meanings and representations of western science and indigenous knowledge or the relationships between them. How students interpret these relationships and their perceptions of any connections has rarely been studied. This study reports student perceptions of the meaning and relationship between scientific and cultural knowledge. Personal meaning maps adapted for small groups were conducted in seven culturally diverse schools, school years 7-9 (with students aged 12-15 years) (n = 190), with six schools in Western Australia and one school in Malawi, Africa. Of the six Australian school groups, two comprised Australian Aboriginal students in an after-school homework programme and the other four schools had a multicultural mix of students. Students in this study identified connections between scientific and cultural knowledge and constructed connections from particular thematic areas—mainly factual content knowledge as opposed to ideas related to values, attitudes, beliefs and identity. Australian Aboriginal students made fewer connections between the two knowledge domains than Malawian students whose previous science teacher had made explicit connections in her science class. Examples from Aboriginal culture were the most dominant illustrations of cultural knowledge in Australian schools, even in school groups with students from other cultures. In light of our findings, we discuss the construction of common ground between scientific knowledge and cultural knowledge and the role of teachers as cultural brokers and travel agents. We conclude with recommendations on creating learning environments that embrace different cultural knowledges and that promote explicit and enquiring discussions of values, attitudes, beliefs and identity associated with both knowledge domains.

Gondwe, Mzamose; Longnecker, Nancy

2014-06-01

294

Scientific and Cultural Knowledge in Intercultural Science Education: Student Perceptions of Common Ground  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no consensus in the science education research community on the meanings and representations of western science and indigenous knowledge or the relationships between them. How students interpret these relationships and their perceptions of any connections has rarely been studied. This study reports student perceptions of the meaning and relationship between scientific and cultural knowledge. Personal meaning maps adapted for small groups were conducted in seven culturally diverse schools, school years 7-9 (with students aged 12-15 years) ( n = 190), with six schools in Western Australia and one school in Malawi, Africa. Of the six Australian school groups, two comprised Australian Aboriginal students in an after-school homework programme and the other four schools had a multicultural mix of students. Students in this study identified connections between scientific and cultural knowledge and constructed connections from particular thematic areas—mainly factual content knowledge as opposed to ideas related to values, attitudes, beliefs and identity. Australian Aboriginal students made fewer connections between the two knowledge domains than Malawian students whose previous science teacher had made explicit connections in her science class. Examples from Aboriginal culture were the most dominant illustrations of cultural knowledge in Australian schools, even in school groups with students from other cultures. In light of our findings, we discuss the construction of common ground between scientific knowledge and cultural knowledge and the role of teachers as cultural brokers and travel agents. We conclude with recommendations on creating learning environments that embrace different cultural knowledges and that promote explicit and enquiring discussions of values, attitudes, beliefs and identity associated with both knowledge domains.

Gondwe, Mzamose; Longnecker, Nancy

2015-02-01

295

Misconceptions in Rational Numbers, Probability, Algebra, and Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the author examined the relationship of probability misconceptions to algebra, geometry, and rational number misconceptions and investigated the potential of probability instruction as an intervention to address misconceptions in all 4 content areas. Through a review of literature, 5 fundamental concepts were identified that, if…

Rakes, Christopher R.

2010-01-01

296

Investigating Common Descent: Formulating Explanations and Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students formulate explanations and models that simulate structural and biochemical data as they investigate the misconception that humans evolved from apes. Students should recognize that present-day species evolved from earlier species and the relatedness of organisms is the result of common ancestry. They will also discover that similarities among existing organisms provide evidence for evolution, anatomical similarities of living things reflect common ancestry, and all life forms use the same basic DNA building blocks. Basic concepts also include the fact that scientists pose, test, and revise multiple hypotheses to explain what they observe, our understanding of life through time is based upon multiple lines of evidence, the similarity of DNA nucleotide sequences can be used to infer the degree of kinship between species, and anatomical evidence is also used to infer lines of descent. This site includes a list of materials and all information required for this activity.

297

Perception and Landscape: Conceptions and Misconceptions1  

E-print Network

241 Perception and Landscape: Conceptions and Misconceptions1 Stephen Kaplan 2/ 1/ Submitted intuitively meaningful. INTRODUCTION It would seem that the psychology of perception should have something- tions about the nature of perception. While certain of these favorite assumptions are probably false

Standiford, Richard B.

298

Clarification of Selected Misconceptions in Physical Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some misconceptions relating to location and to the earth's hydrosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. Provides correction and explanation of various phenomena. Includes ocean names and sizes, sea level, coriolis effect, greenhouse effect, lightning, magma, and mass wasting. Suggests that myths can be dispelled by exposure combined with…

Nelson, Burton D.; And Others

1992-01-01

299

'Misconceptions' Research: A Problem-Oriented Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this survey, an attempt is made to summarize the perspective on so-called 'misconceptions' research of those whose work in this field has not been guided by learning theory. Following the terminology of Driver and Erickson (1983), this research is called 'problem-oriented' in this paper. Its epistemological assumptions and assumptions about…

Helm, Hugh

300

Detecting and Correcting Misconceptions with Lifelike Avatars  

E-print Network

detector tracks their problem-solving activities by inspecting task networks, (2) when they take sub are substantial. By creating the illusion of life, animated agents offer much promise for increasing both to navigate through the world and to manipulate objects within it, a misconception detector tracks her problem

Zettlemoyer, Luke

301

Using Lecture Tutorials to Increase Student Learning in Introductory Geoscience Courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students often leave introductory geoscience courses with their misconceptions still intact, and we developed Lecture Tutorials (LTs) to help alleviate this problem. LTs are 10-15 minute interactive worksheets that students complete in small groups in class, after a short introductory lecture. Topics for the LTs (e.g., climate change, the rock cycle, etc.) were chosen because they are commonly taught in introductory classes and include recognized misconceptions. The LTs typically follow a sequence beginning with factual-based questions that progressively become more difficult and culminating in application-type questions designed to provoke both discussion and critical thinking. Often, one of the latter questions is presented in the form of a debate between two students, where one student expresses the scientifically held view and the other espouses a view based on a common misconception. Students in the class must determine with which student in the LT they agree and explain why. These hypothetical debates allow students to confront their own misconceptions and replace them with the accepted scientific views. Lecture Tutorials increase student learning more than lectures alone. After a short lecture, students correctly answered 58% of multiple-choice questions (including embedded Geoscience Concept Inventory questions), and that value increased by 18% after they completed the LT. To determine if the increase resulted from extra time spent on the topic rather than the unique approach of LTs, we also tested how an extended lecture, in lieu of LTs, affected student scores. After an extended lecture, student scores increased by only 5% on multiple-choice questions. Therefore, we conclude that LTs are more effective than lecture alone in increasing student knowledge. LTs have been written to be relatively easy to implement in classrooms without a large time commitment or dramatic course redesign. Thirteen LTs have currently been tested, and more are being developed. They are available for instructor use by visiting the webpage: http://faculty.ccri.edu/kkortz/lt.shtml.

Kortz, K. M.; Smay, J. J.; Murray, D. P.

2007-12-01

302

Concept Mapping--An Effective Mode to Impart Content Knowledge for Elementary Student Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students hold many misconceptions in school science. Research reveals that teachers themselves, at times, are one source of misconceptions among students. A good number of such misconceptions, carried on to the next generation via school, are held by teachers; from their own school days and kept uncorrected even after their teacher education…

Gafoor, K. Abdul; Ragisha, K. K.

2013-01-01

303

Re-Examining the Similarities between Teacher and Student Conceptions about Physical Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a large body of research that has explored students' misconceptions about science phenomena. Less research, however, has been devoted to identifying teachers' misconceptions, but the results of the few existing studies demonstrate that teachers and students possess similar misconceptions. This study explored the physical science…

Burgoon, Jacob N.; Heddle, Mandy L.; Duran, Emilio

2010-01-01

304

Common misconceptions about data analysis and statistics1  

PubMed Central

Ideally, any experienced investigator with the right tools should be able to reproduce a finding published in a peer-reviewed biomedical science journal. In fact, the reproducibility of a large percentage of published findings has been questioned. Undoubtedly, there are many reasons for this, but one reason may be that investigators fool themselves due to a poor understanding of statistical concepts. In particular, investigators often make these mistakes: (1) P-Hacking. This is when you reanalyze a data set in many different ways, or perhaps reanalyze with additional replicates, until you get the result you want. (2) Overemphasis on P values rather than on the actual size of the observed effect. (3) Overuse of statistical hypothesis testing, and being seduced by the word “significant”. (4) Overreliance on standard errors, which are often misunderstood.

Motulsky, Harvey J

2015-01-01

305

How Do Students Misunderstand Number Representations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We used both student interviews and diagnostic testing to reveal students' misconceptions about number representations in computing systems. This article reveals that students who have passed an undergraduate level computer organization course still possess surprising misconceptions about positional notations, two's complement representation, and…

Herman, Geoffrey L.; Zilles, Craig; Loui, Michael C.

2011-01-01

306

Reef talus: A popular misconception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reef fronts have traditionally been regarded as comprising debris derived by contemporaneous erosion of 'the reef'. However, evidence from wave transport indicates that on present-day reefs the bulk of the debris generated in this way accumulates in the back-reef area, with only finer-grained sediment carried off-reef by retreating flows or by overwash. Nevertheless, in contrast to this observation, 'fore-reef' debris slopes are commonly considered "characteristic" of Phanerozoic reefs. This apparent error reflects the conflation of processes defining contemporary growth and accretion of the reef, and the corresponding long-term accretion of the carbonate platform on which it rests. Present-day reefs are commonly (although not exclusively) additions to long-lived carbonate platforms. Growth of the latter is intermittent and has been moderated by changes in sea-level that, for recent reefs, have been on time scales of less than 100 ka. During low sea-level stands, growth ceases or is translated downslope and earlier deposits are subject to lithification and subaerial erosion. Similar changes are applied on a larger scale to the aggrading growth of carbonate platforms, but the bulk accretion of these includes quite different processes and reflects far longer timescales. During low sea-level stands, the margins of platforms commonly become unstable, with instability reflected in slope failure and in the shedding of blocks, ranging from metres to kilometres in diameter, associated with the generation of debris flows and turbidites. It is argued that these are the materials that are commonly described as 'reef talus' in ancient structures, although their formation is largely independent of any contemporary reef growth. Difficulties arise where 'the reef' and 'the platform' are treated as a single functional entity. It is important to recognize the conceptual distinction between them, 'reef talus' is a misleading description of the debris predominantly generated by platform erosion and slope failure.

Braithwaite, Colin J. R.

2014-01-01

307

Student-Centered Service and Support: A Case Study of the University of Arizona Libraries’ Information Commons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University Libraries’ Information Commons opened its doors on January 2, 2002. Its mission is to create an inviting out-of-classroom environment for learning, growth, and enrichment through student-focused research assistance, outreach to all students, and innovative instructional services. This case study details the history of the Information Commons at the University of Arizona, the planning strategy, available services and high-tech

Carla J. Stoffle; Cheryl Cuillier

2010-01-01

308

More Misconceptions to Avoid When Teaching about Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The resource is useful for teacher's professional development by alerting educators to many plant misconceptions in teaching literature. In the thought provoking, peer reviewed resource fifty additional misconceptions are identified. In this complementary article to "Avoid Misconceptions When Teaching about Plants" the author addresses undergeneralizations, overgeneralizations, obsolete concepts and terms, misidentifications, and flawed research. A glossary at the end of the article compares words used in botany with their popular usage.

David R. Hershey (;)

2005-10-01

309

Will Writing Awareness Transfer to Writing Performance? Response to Douglas Downs and Elizabeth Wardle, "Teaching about Writing, Righting Misconceptions"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author offers his critiques on Downs and Wardle's course, Introduction to Writing Studies. Downs and Wardle use their course to alert students to the very misconceptions that prompt the shift from "teaching writing" to "teaching about writing"--namely the inability of first-year composition courses to make good on the pledge…

Kutney, Joshua P.

2007-01-01

310

Campus Library 2.0: The Information Commons Is a Scalable, One-Stop Shopping Experience for Students and Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 2003, Mt. Holyoke, an elite, largely undergraduate liberal arts college with a student population of roughly 2000, unveiled its take on the information commons. Located in an area known as Miles-Smith 4, the commons functions as a conduit between the main library and Dwight Hall, which houses the library offices, state-of-the-art media…

Albanese, Andrew Richard

2004-01-01

311

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report The carbon sequestration potential of three common turfgrasses  

E-print Network

of a project/report. #12;2 The carbon sequestration potential of three common turfgrasses: Lolium perenne1 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report The carbon sequestration potential of three common turfgrasses: Lolium perenne; Fescue rubra; and Poa pratensis Yihan Wu

312

Sociology and the Pedagogy of Common Sense: Dialogues with "Non-Traditional" Sociology Students in a New Scottish University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I examine the problem of common-sense democracy, understood here as a habitus of equal participation in social and political dialogue, through the teaching of sociology to non-traditional students at a Scottish post-1992 university. For the eighteenth century Scottish philosopher Thomas Reid, common sense was intrinsically…

Law, Alex

2007-01-01

313

Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.  

PubMed

It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(?); (?)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented. PMID:25053101

Lee, Jungmin

2015-01-01

314

Real time: further misconceptions (or half-truths) [real-time systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

J.A. Stankovic (see ibid., vol. 21, no. 10, p. 10-19, 1988) analyzed some common misconceptions about real-time computing. His analysis addressed the very notion of real-time computing and touched upon the applicability of concepts that have proven useful in nonreal-time modeling of reactive systems, such as interleaving models, nondeterminism, and fairness. From his viewpoint, such concepts are no longer appropriate

Reino Kurki-Suonio

1994-01-01

315

Common sense treatment for common lipid disorders.  

PubMed

Dyslipidemia is a common, major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Screening for lipid disorders is simple, and available treatments decrease disease risk. However, secondary causes of dyslipidemia are probably underappreciated, and severe lipid elevations should be referred to a lipid specialist. Patients usually respond to lifestyle modifications and drug therapy guided by a stepwise approach supported by the results of clinical trials, but several misconceptions may interfere with treatment strategies. PMID:21568232

Johnson, Mariko; Semenkovich, Clay F

2011-01-01

316

Factors that affect the physical science career interest of female students: Testing five common hypotheses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using multivariate matching methods on national data drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project (n=7505), we test the following five commonly held beliefs regarding what factors might impact females’ physical science career interest: (i) having a single-sex physics class, (ii) having a female physics teacher, (iii) having female scientist guest speakers in physics class, (iv) discussing the work of female scientists in physics class, and (v) discussing the underrepresentation of women in physics class. The effect of these experiences on physical science career interest is compared for female students who are matched on several factors, including prior science interests, prior mathematics interests, grades in science, grades in mathematics, and years of enrollment in high school physics. No significant effects are found for single-sex classes, female teachers, female scientist guest speakers, and discussing the work of female scientists. However, discussions about women’s underrepresentation have a significant positive effect.

Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

2013-12-01

317

Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The…

Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

2013-01-01

318

Design Practices and Misconceptions: Helping Beginners in Engineering Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes beginner habits and misconceptions related to design practices. Once teachers are aware of these habits and misconceptions, they can more easily recognize them and work to remedy them through instruction. Presented herein are eight practice habits. Each item begins with the practice, describes a related design habit or…

Crismond, David

2013-01-01

319

Clarifying the Misconception about the Principle of Floatation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to clarify the misconception about the violation of the principle of floatation. Improper understanding of the definition of "displaced fluid" by a floating body leads to the misconception. With the help of simple experiments, this article shows that there is no violation of the principle of floatation.

Yadav, Manoj K.

2014-01-01

320

Resolution of Misconceptions of Latency and Adolescent Sicklers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions regarding sickle cell disease are qualitatively different among latency age patients as compared to adolescents. The evolution and resolution of these misconceptions determine the effectiveness of self-help programs for sickle cell patients. The Mount Sinai Hospital Sickle Cell Counseling Service is a coordinated center for sickle…

Christy-Levine, Diane

321

Misconceptions about Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…

Syed, Khalida Tanvir

2008-01-01

322

More Misconceptions to Avoid When Teaching about Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As follow-up to a previous article "Avoid Misconceptions When Teaching about Plants," the author identifies fifty additional misconceptions. Undergeneralizations are added to the list of oversimplifications, obsolete concepts, terms, misidentifications, and flawed research. A glossary at the end of the article compares words used in botany with…

Hershey, David R.

2005-01-01

323

Prevalence of Blood Circulation Misconceptions among Prospective Elementary Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that misconceptions about human blood circulation and gas exchange persist across grade levels. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to investigate the prevalence and persistence of blood circulation misconceptions among prospective elementary teachers; and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of learning activities for…

Pelaez, Nancy J.; Boyd, Denise D.; Rojas, Jacqueline B.; Hoover, Mildred A.

2005-01-01

324

The ear and its malformations: strange beliefs and misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the strange beliefs and misconceptions related to the ear and its malformations, and how these have changed from ancient times until today.Methods. Ancient documents, journal articles, and history books were studied to research ancient and current beliefs and misconceptions with regard to the ear and its malformations.Results. The ear has been the centre of various beliefs and

Irene E Gamatsi; Thomas P Nikolopoulos; Dimitra E Lioumi

2003-01-01

325

The Greenhouse Effect Misconceptions of the Elementary School Teacher Candidates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to find out the greenhouse effect misconceptions of the elementary school teacher candidates. The participants of the study were 171 teacher candidates enrolled in the science and classroom teacher education program in the faculty of education. In the study the misconceptions related to the causes and consequences of the greenhouse effect and the ways

Zeki ARSAL

326

Clarifying the misconception about the principle of floatation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims to clarify the misconception about the violation of the principle of floatation. Improper understanding of the definition of ‘displaced fluid’ by a floating body leads to the misconception. With the help of simple experiments, this article shows that there is no violation of the principle of floatation.

Yadav, Manoj K.

2014-09-01

327

An Intervention Using Concept Sketching for Addressing Dislocation-Related Misconceptions In Introductory Materials Classes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In materials science and engineering (MSE) a major goal of the discipline is to effectively teach learners from other engineering disciplines about engineering a material's macroscale properties based on the knowledge and understanding of its atomic-scale structure. This goal is a significant intellectual challenge because learners must develop a conceptual framework to understand and solve materials-related problems in their own discipline. There are significant difficulties in addressing materials-related problems in a discipline because robust misconceptions are used by students attempting to understand and correlate the concrete "macroworld" of everyday objects, properties, and phenomena to the abstract "atomic and micro-scale world" of atoms, molecules and microstructure, which are types of features of a material that actually control its properties. These misconceptions, which are scientifically-inaccurate interpretations about materials, can neither explain nor predict materials' phenomena or properties. In this study, different teaching methods were used to address the question, "What is the effect of pedagogy on student conceptual understanding of deformation and thermal processing and associated property changes of metals in an introductory materials class?" For classes in 2002, 2003, and 2007, content delivered by lectures, pair-based discussions, and team-based concept sketching, respectively, were compared in teaching the effect of deformation or annealing on a metal's properties by invoking the atomic-level structural feature of dislocations to understand macroscopic-level property changes in strength, ductility, and fracture toughness. The effect of the pedagogy was assessed from responses to dislocation-related questions on the Materials Concept Inventory (MCI). Results showed that a team-based concept sketching pedagogy was most effective in achieving conceptual change of faulty mental models about deformation-related misconceptions. This indicates that concept sketching may be an effective pedagogy both for revealing misconceptions and achieving conceptual change about other physical phenomena in materials engineering, as well as diverse physical phenomena in other engineering disciplines.

Krause, Stephen; Tasooji, Amaneh

2009-11-03

328

The preventive misconception: experiences from CAPRISA 004.  

PubMed

Overestimating personal protection afforded by participation in a preventive trial, e.g. harboring a "preventive misconception" (PM), raises theoretical ethical concerns about the adequacy of the informed consent process, behavioral disinhibition, and adherence to prevention interventions. Data from the CAPRISA 004 1 % tenofovir gel trial were utilized to empirically evaluate these concerns. We found it necessary to re-think the current definition of PM during evaluation to distinguish between true misconception and reasonable inferences of protection based on increased access to evidence-based prevention interventions and/or clinical care. There was a significant association between PM and decreased condom use (p < 0.0001) and between PM and likelihood to present with an STI symptom (p = 0.023). There was, however, limited evidence in support of PM representing a lack of meaningful informed consent, or to suggest that it impacts adherence. Moreover, considering current insufficiencies in female-initiated HIV prevention interventions, PM is perhaps of limited concern in microbicide trials. PMID:24715227

Dellar, Rachael C; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Mansoor, Leila E; Grobler, Anneke; Humphries, Hilton; Werner, Lise; Ntombela, Fanelesibonge; Luthuli, Londiwe; Abdool Karim, Salim S

2014-09-01

329

Knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Fever is an extremely common sign in paediatric patients and the most common cause for a child to be taken to the doctor. The literature indicates that physicians and parents have too many misconceptions and conflicting results about fever management. In this study we aim to identify knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in April-May 2010 involving primary care physicians (n=80). The physicians were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used. Results In our study only 10% of the physicians knew that a body temperature of above 37.2°C according to an auxiliary measurement is defined as fever. Only 26.2% of the physicians took into consideration signs and symptoms other than fever to prescribe antipyretics. 85% of the physicians prescribed antipyretics to control fever or prevent complications of fever especially febrile seizures. Most of the physicians (76.3%) in this study reported that the height of fever may be used as an indicator for severe bacterial infection. A great majority of physicians (91.3%) stated that they advised parents to alternate the use of ibuprofen and paracetamol. Conclusions There were misconceptions about the management and complications of fever. There is a perceived need to improve the recognition, assessment, and management of fever with regards to underlying illnesses in children. PMID:22950655

2012-01-01

330

Common Literacy Struggles with College Students: Using the Reciprocal Teaching Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many college students struggle with the literacy skills needed to be successful in higher education (Bettinger & Long, 2009; Snyder, Tan, & Hoffman, 2004). The difficulties emerge within students' capabilities in reading and writing. Students must be taught the skills needed to be successful to complete the tasks assigned in college classes and in…

Gruenbaum, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

331

Knowledge Sharing among University Students Facilitated with a Creative Commons Licensing Mechanism: A Case Study in a Programming Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creative Commons (CC) mechanism has been suggested as a potential means to foster a reliable environment for online knowledge sharing activity. This study investigates the role of the CC mechanism in supporting knowledge sharing among a group of university students studying programming from the perspectives of social cognitive and social capital…

Liu, Chen-Chung; Lin, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yi; Chao, Po-Yao

2014-01-01

332

Is There a Global Common Core to Social Work?: A Cross-National Comparative Study of BSW Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports findings from a cross-national comparative study that examined the commonalities and differences in professional ideology among social work graduates in 10 countries by studying their attitudes toward poverty and the goals of social work. The major finding is the substantial similarity in the students' professional ideology…

Weiss, Idit

2005-01-01

333

Results from a Common Final Examination: A Comparison Between On-Campus Students and Off-Campus Students. Research and Planning Report 96-17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the scores of on-campus and off-campus students taking a common final examination in similar graduate education courses offered by the Abraham S. Fischler Center for the Advancement of Education at Nova Southeastern University. Data were obtained from final examinations administered in courses covering methods for teaching…

MacFarland, Thomas W.

334

Prevailing Misconceptions of Vitiligo among Saudi School Children  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify the prevailing myths and misconception about vitiligo among the school students in Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in 18 schools of Qassim Regions in Saudi Arabia, Data was collected by 486 pre-tested, self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaires included a section on social-demographic information (age, sex, education of parents) besides prevailing myths on vitiligo. Data was analyzed by using SPSS (version 17 for Windows). Results The response rate: Males 46.3%, and females 53.3%. With vitiligo disease: 24.1% and non-diseased 75.9%, with positive family history: Males 9.3%, female 13.8%. Myths among students compared with gender: Vitiligo with; Fish/milk food (P= 0.374), calcium deficiency (P= 0.001), iron deficiency (P= <0.001), Vit C deficiency (P= 0.225), infectious (P= <0.001), Chicken pox like disease (P= <0.001), precancerous (P= 0.212) and not curable (P= <0.001). Myths among students compared with diseased/not diseased, namely that relation of vitiligo with: Fish/milk food (P= 0.006), calcium deficiency (P= <0.001), iron deficiency (P= 0.022), Vit C deficiency (P= <0.001), infectious (P= 0.228), Chicken pox like disease (P= <0.001), precancerous (P= 0.051) and not curable (P= 0.231). Conclusion The prevailing myths and conceptions delay seeking medical advice and should be addressed by focused health education programs through school health services. PMID:24899877

Sharaf, Fawzy Khalil

2014-01-01

335

Myths and misconceptions about tuberculosis transmission in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Myths and misconceptions about TB can serve as a barrier to efforts at reducing stigmatisation of people infected and affected by the disease. Understanding such drivers of myths and misconceptions is important for improving information, education and communication (IEC) efforts of national control and preventive interventions. This study therefore assesses the influence of interaction of spatial, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics on myths and misconceptions. Methods Data was drawn from male (N?=?4,546) and female (N?=?4,916) files of the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. A myth and misconception variable was created from five-related constructs with internal consistency score of r?=?0. 8802 for males (inter-item correlation: 0.5951) and for females, r?=?0. 0.9312 (inter-item correlation: 0.7303). The Pearson Chi-square was used to test the bivariate relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable. Logistic regression was subsequently used to explore the factors determining myths and misconceptions of TB transmission. Results Majority of Ghanaians (males: 66.75%; females: 66.13%) did not hold myths and misconceptions about TB transmission. Females resident in the Upper East (aOR?=?0.31, CI?=?0.17-0.55) and Upper West (aOR?=?0.41, CI?=?0.24-0.69) and males resident in the Northern (aOR?=?0.23, CI?=?0.13-0.39) and the Greater Accra (aOR?=?0.25, CI?=?0.16-0.39) regions were independently associated with no misconceptions about TB transmission. Significant differences were also found in education, ethnicity and age. Conclusion That spatial and other socioeconomic difference exists in myths and misconceptions suggest the need for spatial, socioeconomic and demographic segmentations in IEC on TB. This holds potentials for reaching out to those who are in critical need of information and education on the transmission processes of TB. PMID:24028419

2013-01-01

336

Misconceptions in Newtonian Physics: Testing Teaching Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even after instruction, introductory physics students maintain incorrect Aristotelian ideas. This can become a repetitive or more severe problem in large classes where students cannot get the individual attention needed to fully understand the subject. An experiment on student comprehension in Newtonian mechanics was performed through supplemental instruction (SI) on a set of students enrolled in introductory physics. Two test

Samantha Schwartz

2012-01-01

337

Commonalities and Differences among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual College Students: Considerations for Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the appropriateness of collapsing lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students into a single category in quantitative research designs as well as the nature of their engagement with the collegiate environment. Data were collected as part of a national study and represent a total of 980 LGB self-identified college students

Dugan, John P.; Yurman, Lauren

2011-01-01

338

Students in Higher Education Governance in Europe: Contrasts, Commonalities and Controversies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a synthesizing overview of the roles of students in higher education governance in Europe. We first review the existing literature on student involvement in higher education governance in order to locate the contribution of this special issue of "Tertiary Education and Management." Second, we summarize the key findings of the…

Pabian, Petr; Minksova, Lenka

2011-01-01

339

Assessing Middle School and College Students' Conceptions About Wind, Fog, and Tornadoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological content is presented in K-12 educational standards and in university general education courses, yet little research has been done to explore how students conceptualize weather phenomena. This investigation probes the understanding of students at three cognitive levels-6th grade earth science students, university non-meteorology majors, and meteorology major students-of three meteorological phenomena-wind, fog, and tornadoes. All students were enrolled in schools in San Francisco, CA. The meteorological content chosen for this project-wind, fog, and tornadoes-was deliberate. Wind is a fundamental process on our planet, and has the potential to cause great damage. Students have direct experience with wind on a daily basis. Fog is a dominant feature of San Francisco climatology, and a familiar phenomenon to students living in our region. Tornadoes are associated with devastating winds and represent a destructive weather phenomenon that students only experience indirectly through movies representations and other media outlets. The phases consisted of (a) a fifteen-question survey, (b) written essay assessments, and (c) videotaped interviews. Phase I, a weather survey, was given to the entire population (65 middle school students, 50 university non-meteorology majors, and 10 university meteorology majors) and consisted of 10-15 challenge statements. Challenge statements assert a common misconception or truism and ask the students to rank their level of agreement on a 4-point Likert scale (strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree). Phase II presented the students a subset of statements and questions, and they were given 5 minutes to explain why they chose their response. To quantify the resulting qualitative data, the written essay assessments were scored using a developed conceptual rubric by multiple observers, using inter-observer reliability to measure agreement in scoring. The results from this phase helped to structure the interview protocol utilized in Phase III. A subset of the population was interviewed, allowing us to probe deeper into students' conceptions about weather. This three-phase approach allowed us to identify and explore misconceptions concerning wind, fog, and tornadoes. Preliminary results from phase I and II probing student conceptions of wind show that over 54% of 6th grade students do not see any connection between the sun and wind, offering instead that the moon, clouds, and the ocean are key contributors to wind development. 13% of students observe that because there is wind at night, and conclude from this that the sun could not play a role in creating wind. By identifying students' misconceptions about wind, fog, and tornadoes, scientists and educators can create more effective learning experiences that address student misconceptions, promote conceptual change, and move students toward a more scientific viewpoint.

Polito, E.; Monteverdi, J. P.; Garcia, O.; Tanner, K. D.

2008-12-01

340

Savant syndrome: realities, myths and misconceptions.  

PubMed

It was 126 years ago that Down first described savant syndrome as a specific condition and 70 years ago that Kanner first described Early Infantile Autism. While as many as one in ten autistic persons have savant abilities, such special skills occur in other CNS conditions as well such that approximately 50 % of cases of savant syndrome have autism as the underlying developmental disability and 50 % are associated with other disabilities. This paper sorts out realities from myths and misconceptions about both savant syndrome and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that have developed through the years. The reality is that low IQ is not necessarily an accompaniment of savant syndrome; in some cases IQ can be superior. Also, savants can be creative, rather than just duplicative, and the skills increase over time on a continuum from duplication, to improvisation to creation, rather than diminishing or suddenly disappearing. Genius and prodigy exist separate from savant syndrome and not all such highly gifted persons have Asperger's Disorder. This paper also emphasizes the critical importance of separating 'autistic-like' symptoms from ASD especially in children when the savant ability presents as hyperlexia (children who read early) or as Einstein syndrome (children who speak late), or have impaired vision (Blindisms) because prognosis and outcome are very different when that careful distinction is made. In those cases the term 'outgrowing autism' might be mistakenly applied when in fact the child did not have ASD in the first place. PMID:23918440

Treffert, Darold A

2014-03-01

341

Matter Scatter and Energy Anarchy. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is Simply Common Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows that the second law of thermodynamics is in the common experience of many people and if taught first, before the law of conservation, can result in fewer misconceptions among pupils. Stresses the use of common experiences in teaching. (CW)

Ross, Keith A.

1988-01-01

342

Subjective Theories of Indonesian Agronomy and Biology Teacher Students on Environmental Commons Dilemmas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fostering the cognitive skills to analyse environmental "commons dilemmas" is an urgent task of environmental education globally. Commons dilemmas are characterised by structural incentives to overexploit a natural resource; their solution is particularly pressing in threatened biodiversity "hotspot" areas. Solutions to these dilemmas require…

Koch, Sebastian; Barkmann, Jan; Sundawati, Leti; Bogeholz, Susanne

2013-01-01

343

Prospective Teachers' Misconceptions about the Atomic Structure in the Context of Electrification by Friction and an Activity in Order to Remedy Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science educators have generally agreed that understanding the atom concept is the basis of science education. However, the numerous research studies have shown that many students at all educational levels have difficulties understanding this concept. This study was developed under three headings. The first was to identify misconceptions that…

Sarikaya, Mustafa

2007-01-01

344

DISPELLING MYTHS AND MISCONCEPTIONS TO IMPLEMENT A SAFETY CULTURE  

SciTech Connect

Industrial accidents are typically reported in terms of technological malfunctions, ignoring the human element in accident causation. However, over two-thirds of all accidents are attributable to human and organizational factors (e.g., planning, written procedures, job factors, training, communication, and teamwork), thereby affecting risk perception, behavior and attitudes. This paper reviews the development of WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Program that addresses human and organizational factors from a top-down, bottom-up approach. This approach is derived from the Department of Energy's Integrated Safety Management System. As a result, dispelling common myths and misconceptions about safety, while empowering employees to ''STOP work'' if necessary, have contributed to reducing an unusually high number of vehicle, ergonomic and slip/trip/fall incidents successfully. Furthermore, the safety culture that has developed within WESKEM, LLC's workforce consists of three common characteristics: (1) all employees hold safety as a value; (2) each individual feels responsible for the safety of their co-workers as well as themselves; and (3) each individual is willing and able to ''go beyond the call of duty'' on behalf of the safety of others. WESKEM, LLC as a company, upholds the safety culture and continues to enhance its existing ES&H program by incorporating employee feedback and lessons learned collected from other high-stress industries, thereby protecting its most vital resource - the employees. The success of this program is evident by reduced accident and injury rates, as well as the number of safe work hours accrued while performing hands-on field activities. WESKEM, LLC (Paducah + Oak Ridge) achieved over 800,000 safe work hours through August 2002. WESKEM-Paducah has achieved over 665,000 safe work hours without a recordable injury or lost workday case since it started operations on February 28, 2000.

Potts, T. Todd; Smith, Ken; Hylko, James M.

2003-02-27

345

Misconceptions About Incline Speed for Nonlinear Slopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 3 experiments, college students provided qualitative predictions about a marble’s speed along nonlinear inclines. When predicting the outcome of a race between identical marbles along differently shaped ramps, most students predicted incorrectly that the shorter path was necessarily quicker (the shorter-quicker belief). When comparing instantaneous speed at 2 points, most students predicted incorrectly that incline speed depended on the

Doug Rohrer

2002-01-01

346

Common future and personal responsibilities: a comparison between Italian and Burundian students.  

PubMed

The political, social, and cultural history of a nation modulates the representations of rights and duties. The aim of this research is to compare students from two countries (Italy and Burundi) in terms of how they define their rights and duties. In the two countries, there are differences both in the legal protection of fundamental rights and in regard to material conditions, which in turn ensure the effectiveness of rights. Focus groups structured around nine questions were conducted in Burundi and in Italy. The discussions with Italian and Burundian students showed some clear differences. Although both groups speak of rights as something to be safeguarded and something that everyone is born with, Italian students do not recognize the complementarity of rights and duties and consider the latter simply as a limit and an obstacle to individual enhancement. On the contrary, Burundian adolescents seem more aware of their personal responsibilities and their role in protecting human rights. PMID:22853565

Berti, Chiara; Passini, Stefano

2013-01-01

347

Clinical misconceptions dispelled by epidemiological research.  

PubMed

The epidemiological approach to investigation of cardiovascular disease was innovated in 1948 by Ancel Keys' Seven Countries Study and T.R. Dawber's Framingham Heart Study. Conducted in representative samples of the general population, these investigations provided an undistorted perception of the clinical spectrum of cardiovascular disease, its incidence and prognosis, the lifestyles and personal attributes that predispose to cardiovascular disease, and clues to pathogenesis. The many insights gained corrected numerous widely held misconceptions derived from clinical studies. It was learned, for example, that the adverse consequences of hypertension do not derive chiefly from the diastolic pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy was not an incidental compensatory phenomenon, and small amounts of proteinuria were more than orthostatic trivia. Exercise was considered dangerous for cardiovascular disease candidates; smoking, cholesterol, and a fatty diet were regarded as questionable promoters of atherosclerosis. The entities of sudden death and unrecognized myocardial infarction were not widely appreciated as prominent features of coronary disease, and the disabling and lethal nature of cardiac failure and atrial fibrillation was underestimated. It took epidemiological research to coin the term "risk factor" and dispel the notion that cardiovascular disease must have a single origin. Epidemiological investigation provided health professionals with multifactorial risk profiles to more efficiently target candidates for cardiovascular disease for preventive measures. Clinicians now look to epidemiological research to provide definitive information about possible predisposing factors for cardiovascular disease and preventive measures that are justified. As a result, clinicians are less inclined to regard usual or average values as acceptable and are more inclined to regard optimal values as "normal." Cardiovascular events are coming to be regarded as a medical failure rather than the first indication of treatment. PMID:7586324

Kannel, W B

1995-12-01

348

Students' Argumentative Writing Skills in Science and First-Language Education: Commonalities and Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to build arguments is a crucial skill and a central educational goal in all school subjects including science as it enables students to formulate reasoned opinions and thus to cope with the increasing complexity of knowledge. In the present cross-sectional study, we examined the domain-specificity of argumentative writing in science by…

Heitmann, Patricia; Hecht, Martin; Schwanewedel, Julia; Schipolowski, Stefan

2014-01-01

349

Most Common Teacher Characteristics Related to Intentionality in Student Spiritual Formation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers have the important commission of guiding students in their spiritual formation, which is the process through which an individual accepts Jesus Christ as Savior and continually becomes more like Him. Given this task, Christian teachers are able to be intentional within classroom management, through instruction, and by modeling. Teachers…

Moore, Deborah

2014-01-01

350

Characteristics of Learning Computer-Controlled Mechanisms by Teachers and Students in a Common Laboratory Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing popularity of robotics education motivates developing its didactics and studying it in teacher training programs. This paper presents a study conducted in the Department of Education in Technology and Science, Technion, in which university students and school pupils cope with robotics challenges of designing, building and operating…

Korchnoy, Evgeny; Verner, Igor M.

2010-01-01

351

Exploring How Non-Native Teachers Can Use Commonalities with Students to Teach the Target Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a qualitative study demonstrating how teachers who are non-native speakers (NNS) of the target language and who have learned the target language in a similar environment as their students can use their past learning experiences as pedagogical tools in their classes. An analysis of transcripts from classrooms with NNS and…

Reynolds-Case, Anne

2012-01-01

352

Collaborative Strategies for Teaching Common Acid-Base Disorders to Medical Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to recognize and diagnose acid-base disorders is of the utmost importance in the clinical setting. However, it has been the experience of the authors that medical students often have difficulties learning the basic principles of acid-base physiology in the respiratory physiology curriculum, particularly when applying this knowledge to…

Petersen, Marie Warrer; Toksvang, Linea Natalie; Plovsing, Ronni R.; Berg, Ronan M. G.

2014-01-01

353

Misconceptions about incline speed for nonlinear slopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 3 experiments,college students provided qualitative predictions about a marble's speed along nonlinear inclines. When predicting the outcome of a race between identical marbles along differently shaped ramps,most students predicted incorrectly that the shorter path was necessarily quicker (the shorter- quicker belief). When comparing instantaneous speed at 2 points,most students predicted incorrectly that incline speed depended on the slope at

Doug Rohrer

2002-01-01

354

A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test…

Arslan, Harika Ozge; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

2012-01-01

355

Teaching Business Ethics: The Effectiveness of Common Pedagogical Practices in Developing Students' Moral Judgment Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effectiveness of pedagogical practices used to teach business ethics. The business community has greatly increased its demands for better ethics education in business programs. Educators have generally agreed that the ethical principles of business people have declined. It is important, then, to examine how common

Bosco, Susan M.; Melchar, David E.; Beauvais, Laura L.; Desplaces, David E.

2010-01-01

356

The Common Core and the Future of Student Assessment in Ohio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ohio adopted the Common Core standards in English language arts (ELA) and math last year, but now stands at a crossroad in making sure statewide assessments are aligned to those standards. Ohio is a participating member in two federally funded assessment consortia--the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) and the Partnership for the…

Porter-Magee, Kathleen

2011-01-01

357

Misconceptions in Australian Students' Understanding of Ozone Depletion  

E-print Network

% had the correct conceptual model for the relationship between ozone depletion, global warming and UV environmental issues. In the last twenty years, global ozone trends show that concentrations are decreasing by 2 highly effective in getting across the message of the sun's potential harm. In a survey by the Victorian

Cordero, Eugene

358

Conceptions of evolution among urban middle school students in Los Angeles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To uncover student ideas regarding evolution, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 eighth grade students at a Los Angeles urban public charter school. This study was designed to learn about student understandings regarding speciation, the mechanisms and purposes of trait development, and differences in how students explain human versus non-human examples. Hybridization and adaption to the environment emerged as major themes for non-human speciation. Other than a basic recognition that trait development is related to genetics and some understanding of mutation, students' understanding of genetic diversity and natural selection was limited, and they thought traits mainly developed because species must purposely adapt to their environment. When explaining evolutionary processes in humans, students did not discuss hybridization or predator-prey interactions, and they thought that humans could consciously affect their trait development. Overall, these students appear to represent transitional reasoning, incorporating common misconceptions with ideas from initial instruction.

Diaz, Michael A.

359

Patient misconceptions and ethical challenges in radioactive iodine scanning and therapy.  

PubMed

The use and nature of radioactive iodine (RAI) are complex topics for patients with thyroid conditions to understand. Fear and anxiety over its use, misinformation in patient advocacy books and on the Internet, medical jargon, confusion regarding postscanning and posttreatment procedures, patient literacy, thyroid health status, and several other socioeconomic factors can create serious barriers to genuine informed consent in RAI scanning and treatment. The following discussion will review the origins of patient misconceptions and misinterpretations, including international differences in physician attitudes regarding RAI usage. Next, this article will present the core ethical duties, problems, and moral dilemmas that can arise in the RAI setting. Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to describe the core ethical principles of respect for persons (patient autonomy), beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice; describe the 3 components of informed consent; identify common barriers to informed consent and describe how such barriers can lead to misconceptions, misinformation, and refusal of treatment with RAI; and summarize where RAI candidates and patients first look for information and identify the common ways in which misinformation surfaces. PMID:16951283

Rosenthal, M Sara

2006-09-01

360

Core Knowledge Confusions Among University Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have demonstrated that university students hold several paranormal beliefs and that paranormal beliefs can be best explained with core knowledge confusions. The aim of this study was to explore to what extent university students confuse the core ontological attributes of lifeless material objects (e.g. a house, a stone), living organisms (e.g. plants), and mental states (e.g., thoughts); whether some core knowledge confusions are more common than others; whether the confusions differ between students from different fields of study, and to replicate the finding that paranormal beliefs increase together with core knowledge confusions. The results showed that half of the participants considered at least four, and one quarter of the participants considered 8-30 confusion statements to be literally true and that the confusions were strongly and positively associated with the amount of paranormal beliefs. The findings indicate that university education does not abolish the misconceptions that characterize children's thinking.

Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm, Annika M.; Takada, Mikito; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Verkasalo, Markku

2011-05-01

361

Morningness/eveningness chronotype, poor sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness in relation to common mental disorders among Peruvian college students.  

PubMed

The study was designed to investigate the association between sleep disturbances and common mental disorders (CMDs) among Peruvian college students. A total of 2538 undergraduate students completed a self-administered questionnaire to gather information about sleep characteristics, sociodemographic, and lifestyle data. Evening chronotype, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness were assessed using the Horne and Ostberg morningness-eveningness questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale, respectivelty. Presence of CMDs was evaluated using the General Health Questionnaire. Logistic regression procedures were used to examine the associations of sleep disturbances with CMDs while accounting for possible confounding factors. Overall, 32.9% of the participants had prevalent CMDs (39.3% among females and 24.4% among males). In multivariable-adjusted logistic models, those with evening chronotype (odds ratios (OR) = 1.43; 95% CI 1.00-2.05), poor sleep quality (OR = 4.50; 95% CI 3.69-5.49), and excessive daytime sleepiness (OR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.41-2.01) were at a relative increased odds of CMDs compared with those without sleep disturbances. In conclusion, we found strong associations between sleep disturbances and CMDs among Peruvian college students. Early education and preventative interventions designed to improve sleep habits may effectively alter the possibility of developing CMDs among young adults. PMID:25162477

Rose, Deborah; Gelaye, Bizu; Sanchez, Sixto; Castañeda, Benjamín; Sanchez, Elena; Yanez, N David; Williams, Michelle A

2015-04-01

362

Open Access to Field Research: Engaging the General Public and Dispelling Misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general public holds many misconceptions about the geosciences. Often, people confuse geologists with archaeologists, or believe geoscience careers are limited to petroleum and/or mineral exploration. People in resource-rich areas may have had only negative experiences with geoscientists, where resource extraction has come at the expense of quality of life and property. These misconceptions and negative perceptions are serious threats that can result in uninformed and biased teaching of the geosciences. To address these threats, the true nature and relevance of the geosciences need to be communicated to students and the general public whenever possible. Field work, an essential component of geoscience research and education, offers an ideal opportunity for such communication by bringing researchers and students in direct contact with private citizens and local agencies. By providing open access to field research, a meaningful outreach opportunity can be seamlessly integrated into a research program. Encouraging all students and the general public to participate in field-based research activities can promote understanding of the scientific process, the nature of the geosciences, and the importance of scientific research to a wide variety of audiences, dispelling misconceptions. For a field project conducted in the Warner Range of northeastern California, we initially had two goals: to corroborate an NSF-funded seismic experiment with surface geologic mapping, and to offer a research opportunity for undergraduates. The nature of a seismic experiment necessitates extensive communication with local citizens and agencies. This logistical communication soon led us to add more goals to the project: to conduct outreach activities in the small, rural communities in and around the field area and to collaborate with the many researchers from multiple institutions and government agencies with projects in the region. These outreach and collaboration efforts have now become essential components of the field work and have led us to continue and expand the research goals of the project as well. Throughout the project, we took steps to ensure that misconceptions were minimized. These included school presentations, public presentation of data from the seismic experiment, and sharing of mapping and data with local agencies and other researchers. In addition, we invited local landowners, reporters, and representatives from local agencies to spend time in the field with us - and many did. The Warner Range lies in a volcanically and seismically active region with numerous hot springs and geothermal energy resources under development. We found that locals wanted to know more about their surroundings, and in addition to providing specific information about our research in the region, we were very successful in educating many people about the nature of scientific research and the geosciences in general. Field work provides an unequaled opportunity for outreach. A minimal investment of time reaps huge rewards in public perception of scientific research and the nature of geoscientists, and begins to mitigate the damage caused by misconceptions and negative experiences. Additionally, outreach can feed back into the research goals of the project and expand opportunities for collaboration and cross-disciplinary studies. This synergy between research and education must be highlighted and encouraged if we wish to reduce threats to the teaching of the geosciences.

Egger, A. E.

2005-12-01

363

Using Simple Manipulatives to Improve Student Comprehension of a Complex Biological Process: Protein Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biological systems and living processes involve a complex interplay of biochemicals and macromolecular structures that can be challenging for undergraduate students to comprehend and, thus, misconceptions abound. Protein synthesis, or translation, is an example of a biological process for which students often hold many misconceptions. This article…

Guzman, Karen; Bartlett, John

2012-01-01

364

Effectiveness of Refutational Teaching for High- and Low-Achieving Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assessed the effectiveness of refutational readings and lecture on decreasing psychological misconceptions for students of high versus low levels of achievement. During the course of a semester we addressed introductory psychology students' misconceptions with refutational readings, refutational lecture, or not at all. From pre- and post-test…

Kowalski, Patricia; Taylor, Annette Kujawski

2011-01-01

365

Concepts and Misconceptions in Comprehension of Hierarchical Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hierarchical graphs represent relationships between objects (like computer file systems, family trees etc.). Graph nodes represent the objects and interconnecting lines represent the relationships. In two experiments we investigated what concepts are necessary for understanding hierarchical graphs, what misconceptions evolve when some of the…

Korner, Christof

2005-01-01

366

A Compilation and Review of over 500 Geoscience Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper organizes and analyses over 500 geoscience misconceptions relating to earthquakes, earth structure, geologic resources, glaciers, historical geology, karst (limestone terrains), plate tectonics, rivers, rocks and minerals, soils, volcanoes, and weathering and erosion. Journal and reliable web resources were reviewed to discover (1) the…

Francek, Mark

2013-01-01

367

Textbook Errors and Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Energetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses misconceptions and outdated models appearing in biology textbooks for concepts involving bioenergetics and chemical reactions; adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as the energy currency of cells; the myth of high energy phosphate bonds; structural properties of ATP; ATP production from respiration and fermentation; ATP as an energy storage…

Storey, Richard D.

1992-01-01

368

Prevention of Problem Gambling: Modifying Misconceptions and Increasing Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on gambling clearly demonstrates that today's youth are very much involved in gambling activities. As they take part in these activities, young people develop and entertain irrational thoughts about gambling and become at risk for developing severe gambling problems. In this study, a video specifically designed to correct misconceptions and increase knowledge about gambling was tested on 424 grade

Francine Ferland; Robert Ladouceur; Frank Vitaro

2002-01-01

369

Palestinian Physicians' Misconceptions about and Approval of Wife Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents the results of a study that examined Palestinian physicians' misconceptions about abused wives and abusive husbands and the extent to which Palestinian physicians approve of wife abuse. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 396 physicians. The results revealed that between 10% and 49% of the Palestinian physicians…

Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.

2010-01-01

370

Problems in research integrity arising from misconceptions about the ownership of research.  

PubMed

Many allegations of scientific misconduct result from activities that are perceived by the complainants as the "theft" of ideas, experimental results, or other intellectual property. The authors' thesis is that many of these allegations originate in misconceptions about the ownership of publicly supported scientific research. Some universities and medical schools may have their own codes for authorship, and journals and professional societies have codes or guidelines. In the NIH intramural programs, research data are considered to be the property of the institutes, not the individual researchers. In contrast, the training and experience of most scientists lead them to consider research data as being theirs. The paper discusses the origins of this attitude toward data and the ways that the structures of university laboratories and training programs lead to confusion and misunderstandings of researchers' "rights" to data. Also, emotional and personality factors often complicate these issues and lead to confrontations. Other misconceptions widely held among researchers: the false concepts of "my grant" and the "co-principal" investigator, ideas about who is and is not qualified to be an author, and ideas about sharing data. The authors emphasize the importance of scientifically literate legal advisers and the necessity for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and professors to understand their institutions' and grantors' guidelines and their obligations as scientists. At the heart of these obligations at all levels of research is honesty. PMID:8373493

Fields, K L; Price, A R

1993-09-01

371

Student Center Activities Aligned to the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects K-5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication helps educators create differentiated reading instruction experiences for their students by showing the relationship between two distinct resources: Student Center Activities (SCAs) and the Common Core State Standards (CCSSs). Reading specialists, reading coaches, and teachers will find this document useful in lesson planning, as…

Verhagen, Connie

2012-01-01

372

Uncovering Misconceptions About the Resting Membrane Potential  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Resting membrane potential is one of the most difficult physiological concepts that students must master. Although the upper-division undergraduates in my physiology course have completed a semester of neurophysiology in which they worked problems using the Nernst and Goldman equations, they often fail to retain conceptual understanding of the underlying phenomena. I developed the following question to show them (and myself) what they donÃÂt understand.

PhD Dee U. Silverthorn (University of Texas at Austin Section of Neurobiology)

2002-06-01

373

Using Models to Address Misconceptions in Size and Scale Related to the Earth, Moon, Solar System, and Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many children and adults have misconceptions about space-related concepts such as size and distance: Earth-Moon size and distance, distances between the planets, distances to the stars (including the Sun), etc. Unfortunately, when images are used to illustrate common phenomena, such as Moon phases and seasons, they may do a good job of explaining the phenomenon, but may reinforce other misconceptions. For topics such as phases and seasons, scale (size and distance) can easily lead to confusion and reinforce misconceptions. For example, when showing Moon phases, the Moon is usually represented as large relative to the Earth and the true relative distance cannot be easily shown. Similarly, when showing the tilt of the Earth’s axis as the reason for the seasons, the Earth is usually almost as large as the Sun and the distance between them is usually only a few times Earth’s diameter.What lessons have we learned? It is critical with any model to engage the participants: if at all possible, everyone should participate. A critical part of any modeling needs to be a discussion, involving the participants, of the limitations of the model: what is modeled accurately and what is not? This helps to identify and rectify misconceptions and helps to avoid creating new ones. The activities highlighted on our poster represent programs and collaborations that date back more than two decades: The University of Arizona, Tucson Unified School District, Science Center of Inquiry, Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona, and the Planetary Science Institute. Examples of activities that we will present on our poster include: •Earth/Moon size and distance •Macramé model of the Solar System •Human orrery and tabletop orrery •3-D nature of the constellations •Comparing our Solar System to other planetary systems •Origin of the Universe: scale of time and distance

Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Salthouse, K.; Canizo, T. L.

2012-10-01

374

Myths and misconceptions: the origin and evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Much effort has been spent trying to work out the origin and history of tuberculosis. Understanding these concepts could have important consequences for the development of vaccines and therapies that are effective against all strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We discuss a series of misconceptions about the origin of both M. tuberculosis and the disease it causes that have arisen over the years, and identify a number of unanswered questions that could provide insight into both these areas. PMID:19483712

Smith, Noel H; Hewinson, R Glyn; Kremer, Kristin; Brosch, Roland; Gordon, Stephen V

2009-07-01

375

School Students' Ideas about Air Pollution: Hindrance or Help for Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a free-form questionnaire to explore 10- and 11-year-old students' ideas about the nature of air pollution and its biological and physical effects. Suggests that students hold misconceptions in this area. (DDR)

Thornber, Jillian; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

1999-01-01

376

Coadaptation and conflict, misconception and muddle, in the evolution of genomic imprinting.  

PubMed

Common misconceptions of the 'parental conflict' theory of genomic imprinting are addressed. Contrary to widespread belief, the theory defines conditions for cooperation as well as conflict in mother-offspring relations. Moreover, conflict between genes of maternal and paternal origin is not the same as conflict between mothers and fathers. In theory, imprinting can evolve either because genes of maternal and paternal origin have divergent interests or because offspring benefit from a phenotypic match, or mismatch, to one or other parent. The latter class of models usually require maintenance of polymorphism at imprinted loci for the maintenance of imprinted expression. The conflict hypothesis does not require maintenance of polymorphism and is therefore a more plausible explanation of evolutionarily conserved imprinting. PMID:24129605

Haig, D

2014-08-01

377

Patterns of thinking about phylogenetic trees: A study of student learning and the potential of tree thinking to improve comprehension of biological concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolution education is a critical yet challenging component of teaching and learning biology. There is frequently an emphasis on natural selection when teaching about evolution and conducting educational research. A full understanding of evolution, however, integrates evolutionary processes, such as natural selection, with the resulting evolutionary patterns, such as species divergence. Phylogenetic trees are models of evolutionary patterns. The perspective gained from understanding biology through phylogenetic analyses is referred to as tree thinking. Due to the increasing prevalence of tree thinking in biology, understanding how to read phylogenetic trees is an important skill for students to learn. Interpreting graphics is not an intuitive process, as graphical representations are semiotic objects. This is certainly true concerning phylogenetic tree interpretation. Previous research and anecdotal evidence report that students struggle to correctly interpret trees. The objective of this research was to describe and investigate the rationale underpinning the prior knowledge of introductory biology students' tree thinking Understanding prior knowledge is valuable as prior knowledge influences future learning. In Chapter 1, qualitative methods such as semi-structured interviews were used to explore patterns of student rationale in regard to tree thinking. Seven common tree thinking misconceptions are described: (1) Equating the degree of trait similarity with the extent of relatedness, (2) Environmental change is a necessary prerequisite to evolution, (3) Essentialism of species, (4) Evolution is inherently progressive, (5) Evolution is a linear process, (6) Not all species are related, and (7) Trees portray evolution through the hybridization of species. These misconceptions are based in students' incomplete or incorrect understanding of evolution. These misconceptions are often reinforced by the misapplication of cultural conventions to make sense of trees. Chapter 2 explores the construction, validity, and reliability of a tree thinking concept inventory. Concept inventories are research based instruments that diagnose faulty reasoning among students. Such inventories are tools for improving teaching and learning of concepts. Test scores indicate that tree thinking misconceptions are held by novice and intermediate biology students. Finally, Chapter 3 presents a tree thinking rubric. The rubric aids teachers in selecting and improving introductory tree thinking learning exercises that address students' tree thinking misconceptions.

Naegle, Erin

378

Reducing HIV stigma among nursing students: a brief intervention.  

PubMed

HIV stigma can be devastating and is common among health care providers, particularly nurses. The objectives of this study were to (a) assess the acceptability and feasibility of a brief stigma-reduction curriculum among a convenience sample of Indian nursing students and (b) examine the preliminary effect of this curriculum on their knowledge, attitudes, and intent to discriminate. At baseline, 57% of students had at least one misconception about HIV transmission, 38% blamed people living with HIV for their infection, and 87% and 95% demonstrated intent to discriminate while dispensing medications and drawing blood, respectively. Following the curriculum, HIV-related knowledge increased while blame, endorsement of coercive policies, and intent to discriminate decreased significantly. In addition, more than 95% of participants described the curriculum as practice changing. This brief intervention resulted in decreased stigma levels and was also highly acceptable to the nursing students. Next steps include rigorous evaluation in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:24569699

Shah, Shilpa M; Heylen, Elsa; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Perumpil, Sheeja; Ekstrand, Maria L

2014-11-01

379

‘I think a lot of it is common sense. …’ Early years students, professionalism and the development of a ‘vocational habitus’  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on research from a small-scale project investigating the vocational training of students in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in England. We draw on data from interviews with 42 students and five tutors in order to explore the students’ understandings of professionalism in early years. In the paper, we discuss first, the then Labour Government’s drive to

Carol Vincent; Annette Braun

2011-01-01

380

‘I think a lot of it is common sense…’ Early years students, professionalism and the development of a ‘vocational habitus’  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on research from a small-scale project investigating the vocational training of students in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in England. We draw on data from interviews with 42 students and five tutors in order to explore the students’ understandings of professionalism in early years. In the paper, we discuss first, the then Labour Government’s drive to

Carol Vincent; Annette Braun

2011-01-01

381

"I Think a Lot of It Is Common Sense. ..." Early Years Students, Professionalism and the Development of a "Vocational Habitus"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on research from a small-scale project investigating the vocational training of students in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in England. We draw on data from interviews with 42 students and five tutors in order to explore the students' understandings of professionalism in early years. In the paper, we discuss first, the…

Vincent, Carol; Braun, Annette

2011-01-01

382

Science and Nonscience Students' Ideas about Basic Astronomy Concepts in Preservice Training for Elementary School Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 14-item questionnaire was given to 100 students in preservice training to become primary and secondary education faculty. Results showed that science and non-science majors held a series of misconceptions about several basic topics central to astronomy. The changes in astronomy misconceptions were analyzed by means of a written questionnaire…

Kalkan, Huseyin; Kiroglu, Kasim

2007-01-01

383

Bacterially induced bone destruction: mechanisms and misconceptions.  

PubMed Central

Normal bone remodelling requires the coordinated regulation of the genesis and activity of osteoblast and osteoclast lineages. Any interference with these integrated cellular systems can result in dysregulation of remodelling with the consequent loss of bone matrix. Bacteria are important causes of bone pathology in common conditions such as periodontitis, dental cysts, bacterial arthritis, and osteomyelitis. It is now established that many of the bacteria implicated in bone diseases contain or produce molecules with potent effects on bone cells. Some of these molecules, such as components of the gram-positive cell walls (lipoteichoic acids), are weak stimulators of bone resorption in vitro, while others (PMT, cpn60) are as active as the most active mammalian osteolytic factors such as cytokines like IL-1 and TNF. The complexity of the integration of bone cell lineage development means that there are still question marks over the mechanism of action of many well-known bone-modulatory molecules such as parathyroid hormone. The key questions which must be asked of the now-recognized bacterial bone-modulatory molecules are as follows: (i) what cell population do they bind to, (ii) what is the nature of the receptor and postreceptor events, and (iii) is their action direct or dependent on the induction of secondary extracellular bone-modulating factors such as cytokines, eicosanoids, etc. In the case of LPS, this ubiquitous gram-negative polymer probably binds to osteoblasts or other cells in bone through the CD14 receptor and stimulates them to release cytokines and eicosanoids which then induce the recruitment and activation of osteoclasts. This explains the inhibitor effects of nonsteroidal and anticytokine agents on LPS-induced bone resorption. However, other bacterial factors such as the potent toxin PMT may act by blocking the normal maturation pathway of the osteoblast lineage, thus inducing dysregulation in the tightly regulated process of resorption and replacement of bone matrix. At the present time, it is not possible to define a general mechanism by which bacteria promote loss of bone matrix. Many bacteria are capable of stimulating bone matrix loss, and the information available would suggest that each organism possesses different factors which interact with bone in different ways. With the rapid increase in antibiotic resistance, particularly with Staphylococcus aureus and M. tuberculosis, organisms responsible for much bone pathology in developed countries only two generations ago, we would urge that much greater attention should be focused on the problem of bacterially induced bone remodelling in order to define pathogenetic mechanisms which could be therapeutic targets for the development of new treatment modalities. PMID:8698454

Nair, S P; Meghji, S; Wilson, M; Reddi, K; White, P; Henderson, B

1996-01-01

384

Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment and Staff Counts from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2010-11. First Look. NCES 2012-327  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings on the numbers of public school students and staff in the United States and other jurisdictions for school year 2010-11, using data from the State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that are reported by state…

Keaton, Patrick

2012-01-01

385

Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment and Staff Counts from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2008-09. First Look. NCES 2010-347  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings on the numbers of public school students and staff in the United States and other jurisdictions in school year 2008-09, using data from the State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that are reported by state…

Sable, Jennifer; Plotts, Chris

2010-01-01

386

Common Issues and Collaborative Solutions: A Comparison of Student Alcohol Use Behaviors at the Community College and 4-Year Institutional Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature exploring commonalities between four-year and community college student alcohol use is relatively scarce. A possible reason for this discrepancy is the heavy focus on alcohol issues at university colleges. Coll (1999) presented one of the first brief assessments comparing community and four-year colleges on alcohol use and related…

Blowers, Jerimy

2009-01-01

387

Fees for UC Berkeley Students at Tang 2014 Below are fees for some of our most common services, effective June 5, 2014  

E-print Network

Fees for UC Berkeley Students at Tang 2014 Below are fees for some of our most common services fees at Tang, not including Primary and Urgent Care visit fees. Where applicable, the amount shown: Fees subject to change. Fees as of 6/5/14; see updates at: uhs.berkeley.edu/samplefees TANG TIP: Don

Kammen, Daniel M.

388

Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment and Staff from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2006-07. First Look. NCES 2009-305  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings on the numbers of public school students and staff in the United States and other jurisdictions in school year 2006-07, using data from the State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that are reported by State…

Sable, Jennifer; Noel, Amber; Hoffman, Lee

2008-01-01

389

WHAT DO KOALAS AND FUNGI HAVE IN COMMON IN PRETORIA? Prepared by: Happy Maleme (MSc student whose project is entitled: "Survey of native  

E-print Network

WHAT DO KOALAS AND FUNGI HAVE IN COMMON IN PRETORIA? Prepared by: Happy Maleme (MSc student whose resource for studying and understanding the fungi that are present on these species in South Africa. Eucalyptus trees are under constant attack by a number of fungal pathogens. Among the fungi present

390

Common Ground: Education & the Military Meeting the Needs of Students. The Report of the NASBE Study Group on Education and the Military  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community, higher education, and business partnerships are often touted as critical links to helping students graduate from high school and making sure that they are college- and career-ready when they do. Now a panel of state board of education members from across the country has found common ground for partnerships with the country's single…

National Association of State Boards of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

391

University Students' Conceptions of Different Physical Phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine how widespread university students' misconceptions of 3 physical phenomena were: namely, the motions of objects, seasonal changes, and aggregate changes of matter. One hundred and thirty-two university students completed a written questionnaire composed of 2 types of tasks. First, students evaluated the adequacy of a given explanation as compared to their knowledge

Eve Kikas

2003-01-01

392

Examining Students' Conceptions Using Sum Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' understanding of functions is a topic that has been researched extensively. In this qualitative study, five university students of varying mathematical backgrounds were interviewed to reveal strategies and misconceptions as they struggled with graphical and analytical tasks relating to sum functions. Weaker students are seen to rely…

Ratliff, Kevin; Garofalo, Joe

2006-01-01

393

Student Difficulties with Wave Concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation contains the results of a research study on misconceptions students have concerning wave mechanics and motion. The results indicate that many students have incorrect mental models of waves and use these erroneous models to interpret problems related to wave mechanics. The study also tested instructional methods to help students overcome their difficulties, which represent an obstacle to learning quantum mechanics. Student thinking on classical wave motion and the related mathematics is also examined.

Wittmann, Michael C.

2005-08-07

394

Factors Associated with Misconceptions about HIVTransmission of Ever-married Women in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic continues to be subjected too much misconceptions and misinformed opinions which increases the risk of HIV transmission. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify the determinant factors of different socioeconomic and demographic factors on misconceptions about HIV transmission of ever-married women in Bangladesh. Data and necessary information of 9,272 ever-married women were extracted Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011. The three types of misconceptions were considered. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were used as the statistical tools to determine the factors of misconceptions about HIV transmission. The results revealed that misconceptions are more prevalent among the women of older aged, less educated, husband's less education, rural areas, poor economic condition, and less access to mass media. The respondent's age, education, husband's education, place of residence, wealth index, and exposure to mass media are significantly associated with the misconceptions. Finally, logistic regression analysis indentified age, education, place of residence, wealth index, and exposure to mass media are as the significant predictors. The socioeconomic factors are the key determinants of misconceptions about HIV transmission. Therefore, intervention programs should be aimed at HIV prevention through education and awareness programs to reduce misconceptions treating as the important parts of the prevention strategy. PMID:25420661

Islam Mondal, Md Nazrul; Hoque, Nazrul; Chowdhury, Md Rocky Khan; Hossain, Md Sabbir

2014-11-25

395

Prevalence of Misconceptions, Dogmas, and Popular Views about Giftedness and Intelligence: A Case from Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of misconceptions, dogmas and popular views about giftedness and intelligence among Turkish lay people. A survey questionnaire consisting of 12 forced-choice items about global misconceptions, dogmatic beliefs and popular views related to giftedness and intelligence was used to collect…

Sak, Ugur

2011-01-01

396

Playing with Science: An Investigation of Young Children's Science Conceptions and Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to investigate the conceptions and misconceptions of young children (ages 3-8) related to science concepts, skills, and phenomena. These conceptions and misconceptions were investigated within the framework of the Pennsylvania Early Learning Standards for Pre-Kindergarten and the Pennsylvania Standards for…

Smolleck, Lori; Hershberger, Vanessa

2011-01-01

397

Students' Knowledge of "Things That Go Bump in the Night."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questionnaires designed to tap misconceptions of the content of psychology courses can serve as pedagogical devices useful for introducing students to topics and for evaluating student learning. The topic of sleep and dreams is of particular interest to students. To develop a useful introductory tool and to evaluate students' knowledge of sleep,…

Palladino, Joseph J.; Carducci, Bernardo J.

398

Undergraduate Students' Preferences of Knowledge to Solve Particle Mechanics Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the nature of undergraduate students' errors and misconceptions in particle mechanics. This paper provides in-depth descriptions of the errors presented by students and accounts for them in terms of students' procedural or conceptual knowledge. Specifically, this study analyses students' written responses to questions on…

Luneta, Kakoma; Makonye, Judah P.

2011-01-01

399

Targeted Prevention of Common Mental Health Disorders in University Students: Randomised Controlled Trial of a Transdiagnostic Trait-Focused Web-Based Intervention  

PubMed Central

Background A large proportion of university students show symptoms of common mental disorders, such as depression, anxiety, substance use disorders and eating disorders. Novel interventions are required that target underlying factors of multiple disorders. Aims To evaluate the efficacy of a transdiagnostic trait-focused web-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of common mental disorders in university students. Method Students were recruited online (n?=?1047, age: M?=?21.8, SD?=?4.2) and categorised into being at high or low risk for mental disorders based on their personality traits. Participants were allocated to a cognitive-behavioural trait-focused (n?=?519) or a control intervention (n?=?528) using computerised simple randomisation. Both interventions were fully automated and delivered online (trial registration: ISRCTN14342225). Participants were blinded and outcomes were self-assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks and at 12 weeks after registration. Primary outcomes were current depression and anxiety, assessed on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9) and Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD7). Secondary outcome measures focused on alcohol use, disordered eating, and other outcomes. Results Students at high risk were successfully identified using personality indicators and reported poorer mental health. A total of 520 students completed the 6-week follow-up and 401 students completed the 12-week follow-up. Attrition was high across intervention groups, but comparable to other web-based interventions. Mixed effects analyses revealed that at 12-week follow up the trait-focused intervention reduced depression scores by 3.58 (p<.001, 95%CI [5.19, 1.98]) and anxiety scores by 2.87 (p?=?.018, 95%CI [1.31, 4.43]) in students at high risk. In high-risk students, between group effect sizes were 0.58 (depression) and 0.42 (anxiety). In addition, self-esteem was improved. No changes were observed regarding the use of alcohol or disordered eating. Conclusions This study suggests that a transdiagnostic web-based intervention for university students targeting underlying personality risk factors may be a promising way of preventing common mental disorders with a low-intensity intervention. Trial Registration ControlledTrials.com ISRCTN14342225 PMID:24736388

Musiat, Peter; Conrod, Patricia; Treasure, Janet; Tylee, Andre; Williams, Chris; Schmidt, Ulrike

2014-01-01

400

Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about epilepsy and their predictors among university students in Jordan.  

PubMed

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge about epilepsy and the attitudes toward people with epilepsy (PWE) and their predictors among university students in Jordan. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed in three of the largest public universities in Jordan, and a total of 500 questionnaires were collected from each university. The number of students who reported that they had heard or read about epilepsy was 1165 (77.6%), and their data were analyzed. A significant proportion of students thought that epilepsy could be caused by the evil spirit (31.5%) and the evil eye (28.1%) or that it could be a punishment from God (25.9%). Epilepsy's most commonly reported treatment methods were the Holy Quran (71.4%), medications (71.3%), and herbs (29.3%). The most common negative attitudes toward PWE were that the students would refuse to marry someone with epilepsy (50.5%) and that children with epilepsy must join schools for persons with disabilities (44.4%). Male students, students of humanities, and students with a low socioeconomic status tended to have more negative attitudes toward PWE. In conclusion, many students have misconceptions about the causes, treatment, and nature of epilepsy, and students have moderate negative attitudes toward PWE. Universities should have health promotion programs to increase awareness of their students about major public health problems such as epilepsy. PMID:25461223

Hijazeen, Jameel Khaleel; Abu-Helalah, Munir Ahmad; Alshraideh, Hussam Ahmad; Alrawashdeh, Omar Salameh; Hawa, Fadi Nather; Dalbah, Tariq Asem; Abdallah, Fadi Walid

2014-12-01

401

Mass Media and Visual Literacy Skills: Report 6. Assessing Student Progress on the Common Curriculum Goals. English Language Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides suggestions on how a language arts mass media and visual 1iteracy skills assessment program might be structured to ensure that school districts meet the Common Curriculum Goals of the public elementary and secondary schools in Oregon. This report includes: (1) a list of Common Curriculum Goals that relate to mass media and…

DeHaven, Edna

402

Experimenter Confirmation Bias and the Correction of Science Misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a randomised educational experiment ( n = 47) that examined two different teaching methods and compared their effectiveness at correcting one science misconception using a sample of trainee primary school teachers. The treatment was designed to promote engagement with the scientific concept by eliciting emotional responses from learners that were triggered by their own confirmation biases. The treatment group showed superior learning gains to control at post-test immediately after the lesson, although benefits had dissipated after 6 weeks. Findings are discussed with reference to the conceptual change paradigm and to the importance of feeling emotion during a learning experience, having implications for the teaching of pedagogies to adults that have been previously shown to be successful with children.

Allen, Michael; Coole, Hilary

2012-06-01

403

Uncovering Student Ideas in Science, Volume 2: 25 More Formative Assessment Probes (e-Book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If Hollywood filmed this sequel, the studio would call it "Probes II: More Battles Against Misunderstandings." Like the blockbuster before it, Volume 2 will reveal the surprising misconceptions students bring to the classroom--so you can adjust your teachi

Francis Eberle

2009-06-23

404

Spotting the Camouflaged Gifted Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gifted students sometimes camouflage themselves behind a facade of underachievement. Causes of underachievement include: (1) social and emotional conflict due to societal misconceptions, expectations, and stereotypes; low self-concept; and family instability; (2) a stifling or inhibiting academic environment; and (3) physiological and neurological…

Gleason, Joni J.

1988-01-01

405

Students' Preconceptions in Introductory Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses data from tests and videotaped interviews indicating conceptual primitives as a source of student difficulty in physics. These include key concepts (mass, acceleration) and fundamental principles/models (Newton's and conservation laws, atomic model). Demonstrates that misconceptions can be studied using problems of minimum complexity to…

Clement, John

1982-01-01

406

Commons Request Form Organization Information  

E-print Network

Commons Request Form Organization Information Organization: _______________________________________________________________ Phone: __________________ Email:______________________________________ Event Information Date Date Received ______ Time Received ______ Event Time: _____ to _____ ___ Student Organization

407

The Earth's Mantle Is Solid: Teachers' Misconceptions About the Earth and Plate Tectonics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the misconceptions revealed by the teachers' answers and outlines more accurate answers and explanations based on established evidence and uses these to provide a more complete understanding of plate tectonic process and the structure of Earth. (Author/YDS)

King, Chris

2000-01-01

408

TASER(®) conducted electrical weapons: misconceptions in the scientific/medical and other literature.  

PubMed

TASER(®) conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) have become an important law-enforcement tool. Controversial questions are often raised during discussion of some incidents in which the devices have been used. The main purpose of this paper is to point out some misconceptions about CEWs that have been published in the scientific/medical and other literature. This is a narrative review, using a multidisciplinary approach of analyzing reports from scientific/medical and other literature sources. In previous reports, durations of incapacitating effects and possible associations of CEWs with deaths-in-custody have often been overstated or exaggerated. Comparisons of CEW effects with "electrocution" are misleading. Clarification of these misconceptions may be important during policymaker decisions, practitioner operations, expert witness testimonies, and court proceedings. Despite misconceptions in the literature, CEWs can still be a valuable tool for law enforcement activities. Scientists, medical professionals, legal advisors, and investigators of police tactics should be aware of these misconceptions. PMID:25549958

Jauchem, James R

2015-03-01

409

Work in Progress: Assessing Student Confidence of Introductory Statistics Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A goal of concept inventories is to assess students' misconceptions. However, it is often unclear whether students possess an incorrect conceptual framework or are merely guessing. To distinguish between these possibilities, students who completed the statistics concept inventory (SCI) rated confidence in their answers. A positive trend was found between percent correct and mean item confidence across items (r =

Kirk Allen; Teri Reed Rhoads; Robert Terry

2006-01-01

410

Secondary Students' Interpretations of Photosynthesis and Plant Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies misconceptions held by grade 9 students (14-15-years old) in Turkey about photosynthesis and plant nutrition. Uses a questionnaire to test students' conceptions and reports conflicting and often incorrect ideas about photosynthesis, respiration, and energy flow in plants. Suggests that there are difficulties in changing students' prior…

Ozay, Esra; Oztas, Haydar

2003-01-01

411

Science Sampler: Enhancing Student Understanding of Physical and Chemical Changes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students within the Findlay, Ohio, City School District, as well as students across the country, struggle with understanding physical and chemical changes. Therefore, in this article, the authors suggest some standards-based activities to clarify misconceptions and provide formative assessments to measure your students' progress as they determine…

McIntosh, Julie; White, Sandra; Suter, Robert

2009-01-01

412

Springing into Inquiry: Using Student Ideas to Investigate Seasons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although inquiry is more engaging and results in more meaningful learning (Minner, Levy, and Century 2010) than traditional science classroom instruction, actually involving students in the process is difficult. Furthermore, many students have misconceptions about Earth's seasons, which are supported by students' prior knowledge of heat sources.…

Wilcox, Jesse; Kruse, Jerrid

2012-01-01

413

The Effects of Scripted Peer Tutoring and Programming Common Stimuli on Social Interactions of a Student with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of scripted peer-tutoring reading activities, with and without programmed common play-related stimuli, on social interactions between a kindergartner with autism spectrum disorder and his typically developing peer-tutoring partners during free play. A withdrawal design with multiple baselines across peers showed no effects of peer tutoring on social interactions. A withdrawal design with 1 peer and continuing baselines across the other 2 peers showed that adding play-related common stimuli to the peer-tutoring activity increased social interactions during free play. PMID:17624077

Petursdottir, Anna-Lind; McComas, Jennifer; McMaster, Kristen; Horner, Kathy

2007-01-01

414

A Sociocognitive Perspective on Assessing EL Students in the Age of Common Core and Next Generation Science Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subject-area standards such as Common Core State Standards for Language Arts and Mathematics and Next Generation Science Standards offer deeper, richer views of subject-area proficiency. In science, they underscore doing things with facts and concepts, such as explaining, planning, and investigating--activities that are intertwined with language,…

Mislevy, Robert J.; Durán, Richard P.

2014-01-01

415

Forty years of stress research: principal remaining problems and misconceptions.  

PubMed Central

An overview of the main problems and misconceptions in the clinical application and theoretic evaluation of the stress concept reveals that the same 10 problems appear to cause the greatest difficulties in its application, irrespective of the specialty in which it is used: (1) the correct definition of stress, stressors and the general adaptation syndrome; (2) the concept of nonspecificity in biology and medicine; (3) the conditioning of stress responses by diverse endogenous (mainly genetically determined) and exogenous (environmental) factors; (4) the relation between the genral and the local adaptation syndromes; (5) the difference between direct and indirect pathogens; (6) the definition of the morbid lesions in whose pathogenesis stress plays a particularly prominent role--the so-called diseases of adaptation; (7) the role of genetics versus that of factors under voluntary self-control in mastering biologic stress; (8) the mode of action of syntoxic and catatoxic hormones, drugs and behavioural attitudes; (9) the so-called first mediator of the stress response, which carries the message that a state of stress exists from the directly affected area to the neurohormonal regulatory centres; and (10) the prophylaxis and treatment of stress-induced damage by pharmacologic and behavioural techniques. PMID:1277062

Selye, H.

1976-01-01

416

Read-across approaches--misconceptions, promises and challenges ahead.  

PubMed

Read-across is a data gap filling technique used within category and analogue approaches. It has been utilized as an alternative approach to address information requirements under various past and present regulatory programs such as the OECD High Production Volume Programme as well as the EU's Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of CHemicals (REACH) regulation. Although read-across raises a number of expectations, many misconceptions still remain around what it truly represents; how to address its associated justification in a robust and scientifically credible manner; what challenges/issues exist in terms of its application and acceptance; and what future efforts are needed to resolve them. In terms of future enhancements, read-across is likely to embrace more biologically-orientated approaches consistent with the Toxicity in the 21st Century vision (Tox-21c). This Food for Thought article, which is notably not a consensus report, aims to discuss a number of these aspects and, in doing so, to raise awareness of the ongoing efforts and activities to enhance read-across. It also intends to set the agenda for a CAAT read-across initiative in 2014-2015 to facilitate the proper use of this technique. PMID:25368965

Patlewicz, Grace; Ball, Nicholas; Becker, Richard A; Booth, Ewan D; Cronin, Mark T D; Kroese, Dinant; Steup, David; van Ravenzwaay, Ben; Hartung, Thomas

2014-01-01

417

The New Common School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Horace Mann's goal of creating a common school that brings our society's children together in mutual respect and common learning need not be frustrated by residential segregation and geographical separation of the haves and have-nots. Massachusetts' new common school vision boasts a Metro Program for minority students, 80 magnet schools, and…

Glenn, Charles L.

1987-01-01

418

Which common clinical conditions should medical students be able to manage by graduation? A perspective from Australian interns.  

PubMed

The objectives of the study were to report the development of a core curriculum that details the clinical conditions medical students should be able to manage upon graduation; and to canvass the opinion of interns (first-year postgraduate doctors) regarding their perceptions of the level of skill required to manage each condition. Literature relating to core curriculum development and training of junior medical officers was reviewed and stakeholders in the education and training of medical students and junior doctors in the state of New South Wales, Australia (intern supervisors, academics, registrars, nurses and interns) were consulted. The final curriculum spanned 106 conditions, 77 'differentiated' and 29 'undifferentiated'. Four levels of skill at which conditions should potentially be managed were also identified: 'Theoretical knowledge only'; 'Recognize symptoms and signs without supervision'; Initiate preliminary investigations, management and/or treatment without supervision'; and 'Total investigation, management and/or treatment without supervision'. The list of conditions in the curriculum was converted to a survey format and a one-in-two random sample of interns (n = 193) practising in New South Wales who graduated from the state's three medical schools were surveyed regarding the level of skill required for managing each clinical condition at graduation. A total of 51.3% of interns responded to the survey. Interns felt they should be able to initiate preliminary investigation, management and/or treatment for most conditions in the curriculum, with more than half acknowledging this level of management for 53 of the differentiated and 28 of the undifferentiated conditions. It is concluded that developing core curricula in medical education can involve multiple stakeholders, including junior doctors as the consumers of educational experiences. The data gathered may be useful to medical schools revising their curricula. PMID:12098452

Rolfe, I E; Pearson, S-A; Sanson-Fisher, R W; Ringland, C; Bayley, S; Hart, A; Kelly, S

2002-01-01

419

Drawing rocks at primary school: a tool for emerging misconceptions and promoting conceptual change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drawing rocks at primary school: a tool for emerging misconceptions and promoting conceptual change Luca Benciolini Dipartimento di Fisica, Chimica e Ambiente, Università di Udine (Italy) and Giuseppe Muscio Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale (Udine, Italy) In order to investigate spontaneous ideas of children about rock samples, the Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale in collaboration with the Università di Udine submitted six classrooms of fifth and fourth grade-students to a specific test. One hundred thirty-three students without a specific background in Earth Sciences were asked to give a) a written description of a rock sample; b) a drawing of the sample; c) a written short story about the sample. The selected thirty-five samples in the opinion of the researchers contain 255 geologically relevant self-evident characters such as fossils, clastic textures, planar discontinuities and so on. Childs spontaneously described 209 geological characters. Forty-seven fifth-grade students (group A) have been previously followed specific training in multisensory description of objects and observed the 90% of the geologically relevant characters. Group B (forty-three fifth-grade) and group C (forty-three fourth-grade) on the contrary, without any previous instructions discovered the 77%. In order to follow childs building their knowledge through experience we found that the main problem was the lack of consistency between written and drawing description. Heterogeneities as evident as a magmatic contact have been correctly represented by the drawing but it has not been worth of any attention in the written description. On the contrary, written description may sometimes contain careful description of the clastic sedimentary process but these criteria are applied for example to a travertine, without any relations with observed characters. Descriptions and drawing of rock outcrops performed by university students demonstrate the persistence of this attitude. Thus, groups B and C were then asked to describe their drawings. We found encouraging progress stimulated by thinking on their own work. We suggest that drawing activities and laboratory book notes could represent useful strategies in order to stimulate specific skill in observing reality, and to understand complex and heterogeneous natural objects. Conceptual change is promoted by comparing children experiences with their previous ideas.

Benciolini, L.; Muscio, G.

2012-04-01

420

Helping Students Make Sense of Graphs: An Experimental Trial of SmartGraphs Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphs are commonly used in science, mathematics, and social sciences to convey important concepts; yet students at all ages demonstrate difficulties interpreting graphs. This paper reports on an experimental study of free, Web-based software called SmartGraphs that is specifically designed to help students overcome their misconceptions regarding graphs. SmartGraphs allows students to interact with graphs and provides hints and scaffolding to help students, if they need help. SmartGraphs activities can be authored to be useful in teaching and learning a variety of topics that use graphs (such as slope, velocity, half-life, and global warming). A 2-year experimental study in physical science classrooms was conducted with dozens of teachers and thousands of students. In the first year, teachers were randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions. Data show that students of teachers who use SmartGraphs as a supplement to normal instruction make greater gains understanding graphs than control students studying the same content using the same textbooks, but without SmartGraphs. Additionally, teachers believe that the SmartGraphs activities help students meet learning goals in the physical science course, and a great majority reported they would use the activities with students again. In the second year of the study, several specific variations of SmartGraphs were researched to help determine what makes SmartGraphs effective.

Zucker, Andrew; Kay, Rachel; Staudt, Carolyn

2014-06-01

421

Neuromyths in Education: Prevalence and Predictors of Misconceptions among Teachers.  

PubMed

The OECD's Brain and Learning project (2002) emphasized that many misconceptions about the brain exist among professionals in the field of education. Though these so-called "neuromyths" are loosely based on scientific facts, they may have adverse effects on educational practice. The present study investigated the prevalence and predictors of neuromyths among teachers in selected regions in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. A large observational survey design was used to assess general knowledge of the brain and neuromyths. The sample comprised 242 primary and secondary school teachers who were interested in the neuroscience of learning. It would be of concern if neuromyths were found in this sample, as these teachers may want to use these incorrect interpretations of neuroscience findings in their teaching practice. Participants completed an online survey containing 32 statements about the brain and its influence on learning, of which 15 were neuromyths. Additional data was collected regarding background variables (e.g., age, sex, school type). Results showed that on average, teachers believed 49% of the neuromyths, particularly myths related to commercialized educational programs. Around 70% of the general knowledge statements were answered correctly. Teachers who read popular science magazines achieved higher scores on general knowledge questions. More general knowledge also predicted an increased belief in neuromyths. These findings suggest that teachers who are enthusiastic about the possible application of neuroscience findings in the classroom find it difficult to distinguish pseudoscience from scientific facts. Possessing greater general knowledge about the brain does not appear to protect teachers from believing in neuromyths. This demonstrates the need for enhanced interdisciplinary communication to reduce such misunderstandings in the future and establish a successful collaboration between neuroscience and education. PMID:23087664

Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki C; Howard-Jones, Paul; Jolles, Jelle

2012-01-01

422

The role of genetics in students' understandings of biological evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important element of an education is an understanding of biology. Science education researchers have shown that both high school and college biology students finish their biology instruction with a poor understanding of evolution, an important unifying concept of the discipline. The goal of this study is to examine the role of genetics in students understanding of evolution. Eight introductory college biology students' understandings of evolutionary biology and their use of genetics concepts as they addressed problems in evolution were examined. Data collected included students' classwork and individual student interviews. Data analysis began with an examination of each students understanding of evolution concepts. The framework for this analysis was based on Mayr's (1982) description of Darwin's five theories: evolution as such, common descent, natural selection, gradualism, and multiplication of species. The descriptions of students' understandings of evolution are followed by an account of how students used genetics concepts to support their explanations of evolutionary processes. The data from this study illustrate how students used transmission genetics, molecular biology and population genetics to support their understandings of evolution. The students in this study constructed syntheses of genetics and evolution concepts that they employed to solve problems. These syntheses fell into three categories: productive, semi-productive and obstructive. Students who achieved a productive synthesis of genetics and evolution concepts also held appropriate understandings of common descent, natural selection, gradualism, and speciation. Students who constructed either a semi-productive or obstructive synthesis of genetics and evolution did not benefit in the same way. Productive synthesis students benefited from their syntheses of genetics and evolution concepts in three ways. They were able to construct complete problem solutions for evolutionary problems, to dismiss common misconceptions associated with natural selection, and to construct an appropriate understanding of evolutionary processes, particularly natural selection and speciation. The findings of this study suggest one way teachers can help their students to develop an understanding of evolution is to teach genetics first. Knowledge of genetics provided students in this study a tool to explain the origin of variations in populations, evidence for common descent, and strengthened their understandings of the mechanisms of evolution.

Rowe, Mary Frances

2001-10-01

423

Students' Conceptions of Scale Regarding Groundwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study involved surveying three groups of students regarding their ideas about the structure, scale, and percieved importance of groundwater. The survey results show that many participants selected sizes of groundwater structures that mirrored surface analogs; however, some students applied scales on the order of houses and skyscrapers to typical pore and crack structures. The authors' research indicates that students bring to the classroom many misconceptions that are well-positioned to interfere with their understanding of hydrogeologic principles.

Dickerson, Daniel; Callahan, Timothy; Van Sickle, Meta; Hay, Genny

424

Student resources for learning introductory physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With good reason, physics education research has focused almost exclusively on student difficulties and misconceptions. This work has been productive for curriculum development as well as in motivating the physics teaching community to examine and reconsider methods and assumptions, but it is limited in what it can tell us about student knowledge and learning. This article reviews perspectives on student resources for learning, with an emphasis on the practical benefits to be gained for instruction.

Hammer, David

2005-11-23

425

A Comparative Qualitative Study of Misconceptions Associated with Contraceptive Use in Southern and Northern Ghana  

PubMed Central

Evidence from Ghana consistently shows that unmet need for contraception is pervasive with many possible causes, yet how these may differ by cultural zone remains poorly understood. This qualitative study was designed to elicit information on the nature and form of misconceptions associated with contraceptive use among northern and southern Ghanaians. Twenty-two focus group discussions (FGDs) with married community members were carried out. Community health officers, community health volunteers, and health care managers were also interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. FGDs and in-depth interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using QSR Nvivo 10 to compare contraceptive misconceptions in northern and southern Ghana. Results indicate that misconceptions associated with the use of contraceptives were widespread but similar in both settings. Contraceptives were perceived to predispose women to both primary and secondary infertility, uterine fibroids, and cancers. As regular menstrual flow was believed to prevent uterine fibroids, contraceptive use-related amenorrhea was thought to render acceptors vulnerable to uterine fibroids as well as cervical and breast cancers. Contraceptive acceptors were stigmatized and ridiculed as promiscuous. Among northern respondents, condom use was generally perceived to inhibit erection and therefore capable of inducing male impotence, while in southern Ghana, condom use was believed to reduce sensation and sexual gratification. The study indicates that misconceptions associated with contraceptive use are widespread in both regions. Moreover, despite profound social and contextual differences that distinguish northern and southern Ghanaians, prevailing fears and misconceptions are shared by respondents from both settings. Findings attest to the need for improved communication to provide accurate information for dispelling these misconceptions. PMID:25250307

Adongo, Philip B.; Tabong, Philip T.-N.; Azongo, Thomas B.; Phillips, James F.; Sheff, Mallory C.; Stone, Allison E.; Tapsoba, Placide

2014-01-01

426

Misconceptions about High-Fructose Corn Syrup: Is It Uniquely Responsible for Obesity, Reactive Dicarbonyl Compounds, and Advanced Glycation Endproducts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Misconceptions about high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) abound in the scientific literature, the advice of health professionals to their patients, media reporting, product advertising, and the irrational behavior of consumers. Foremost among these is the misconception that HFCS has a unique and substantive responsibility for the current obesity crisis. Inaccurate information from ostensibly reliable sources and selective presentation of research data

John S. White

2009-01-01

427

Students' Conceptions as Dynamically Emergent Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is wide consensus that learning in science must be considered a process of conceptual change rather than simply information accrual. There are three perspectives on students' conceptions and conceptual change in science that have significant presence in the science education literature: students' ideas as misconceptions, as…

Brown, David E.

2014-01-01

428

Describing Changes in Undergraduate Students' Preconceptions of Research Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that students bring naive scientific conceptions to learning situations which are often incongruous with accepted scientific explanations. These preconceptions are frequently determined to be misconceptions; consequentially instructors spend time to remedy these beliefs and bring students' understanding of scientific concepts to…

Cartrette, David P.; Melroe-Lehrman, Bethany M.

2012-01-01

429

Science Sampler: Enhancing student understanding of physical and chemical changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students within the Findlay, Ohio, City School District, as well as students across the country, struggle with understanding physical and chemical changes. Therefore, in this article, the authors suggest some standards-based activities to clarify misconceptions and provide formative assessments to measure your studentsâ progress as they determine the difference between chemical and physical changes.

Mcintosh, Julie; White, Sandra; Suter, Robert

2010-10-01

430

Generating Cognitive Dissonance in Student Interviews through Multiple Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores what students understand about enzyme-substrate interactions, using multiple representations of the phenomenon. In this paper we describe our use of the 3 Phase-Single Interview Technique with multiple representations to generate cognitive dissonance within students in order to uncover misconceptions of enzyme-substrate…

Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

2012-01-01

431

Are You Teaching Your Students about Stem Cells?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity targets students' misconceptions about embryonic and adult stem cells while also addressing an important grades 9-12 science content standard. The authors designed the activity to provide students an opportunity to explore differences between embryonic and adult stem cells prior to formal explanation. The overarching goal of this…

Concannon, James; Brown, Patrick L.; Brandt, Trisha

2009-01-01

432

Students' Perceptions and Designs of Simple Control Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a framework characterizing cognitive models generated by sixth-grade students for simple opening/closing control mechanisms, like the elevator door. The students' conceptions, missing conceptions, and misconceptions are analyzed at three levels: device knowledge; perception of the control process; and perceptions of information flow. (LAM)

Mioduser, David; And Others

1996-01-01

433

Student Difficulties in Learning Density: A Distributed Cognition Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Density has been reported as one of the most difficult concepts for secondary school students (e.g. Smith et al. 1997). Discussion about the difficulties of learning this concept has been largely focused on the complexity of the concept itself or student misconceptions. Few, if any, have investigated how the concept of density was constituted in…

Xu, Lihua; Clarke, David

2012-01-01

434

How Do Organic Chemistry Students Understand and Apply Hydrogen Bonding?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how students completing a two-semester organic sequence understand, explain, and apply hydrogen bonding to determine the physical attributes of molecules. Suggests that some students completing what is typically their second year of college-level chemistry still possess misconceptions about hydrogen bonds. (Contains 21 references.) (ASK)

Henderleiter, J.; Smart, R.; Anderson, J.; Elian, O.

2001-01-01

435

Using Analogies to Overcome Misconceptions: A Technology Course Example.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both a control group and experimental group (23 students each) received a lecture on direct current circuits; the experimental group also participated in a lab using a device explaining an analogy for electric current. The experimental group's posttest scores were much higher, indicating that the analogical device helped overcome student

Gokhale, Anu A.

1996-01-01

436

Freshman Biology Majors' Misconceptions about Diffusion and Osmosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The data for this study were obtained from a sample of 117 biology majors enrolled in an introductory biology course. The Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test, composed of 12 two-tier items, was administered to the students. Among the major findings are: (1) there was no significant difference in scores of male and female students; (2) math…

Odom, A. Louis; Barrow, Lloyd H.

437

Subtraction with Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers can use this interactive tool to help students build a conceptual understanding of subtracting fractions with common denominators by linking visual models to procedures. The page includes a video demonstration of the tool. Free registration is required to use the tool. A paid subscription is necessary to access curriculum materials and allow full student use.

2011-01-01

438

Discovering Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use pattern blocks to represent fractions with unlike denominators. Students discover that they need to convert all the pattern blocks to the same shape in order to add them. Therefore, they find and use common denominators for the addition of fractions.

Kloper, Adam

2012-07-22

439

Turkish Students' Ideas about Global Warming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global warming in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global warming were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this study.…

Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

2008-01-01

440

Student Illustrations and Writing About the Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity used to identify students' initial ideas and potential scientific misconceptions about the Sun. Learners will draw and label the Sun and write a supplemental paragraph containing what they know about the Sun. This is Activity 1 of a larger resource entitled Eye on the Sky.

441

Making Mathematics Relevant for Students in Bali  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reactions of students towards mathematics in Bali (in the NW Province of Cameroon) are appalling. This is due to a misconception regarding its uses. The author thinks that these problems derive partly from the influence that the Western curriculum has had in Bali--mathematical contexts are based around train times in Liverpool instead of from…

Sema, Pryde Nubea

2008-01-01

442

Leading the Common Core State Standards: From Common Sense to Common Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many educators agree that we already know how to foster student success, so what is keeping common sense from becoming common practice? The author provides step-by-step guidance for overcoming the barriers to adopting the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and achieving equity and excellence for all students. As an experienced teacher and…

Dunkle, Cheryl A.

2012-01-01

443

Beyond the Looking Glass: Bringing Students into the Conversation of Historical Inquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is an examination of the divide between high school students' conceptions of historical inquiry and those articulated in current proposals for curricular and instructional reform. The author argues that students acquire stubborn misconceptions in the course of schooling about what constitutes historical knowledge; specifically, students learn that historical truth is taught by teacher and text, and that photography

Marcy Singer Gabella

1994-01-01

444

Concept Development of Decimals in Chinese Elementary Students: A Conceptual Change Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine the concept development of decimal numbers in 244 Chinese elementary students in grades 4-6. Three grades of students differed in their intuitive sense of decimals and conceptual understanding of decimals, with more strategic approaches used by older students. Misconceptions regarding the density nature of…

Liu, Ru-De; Ding, Yi; Zong, Min; Zhang, Dake

2014-01-01

445

Six Classroom Exercises to Teach Natural Selection to Undergraduate Biology Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in introductory biology courses frequently have misconceptions regarding natural selection. In this paper, we describe six activities that biology instructors can use to teach undergraduate students in introductory biology courses how natural selection causes evolution. These activities begin with a lesson introducing students to natural…

Kalinowski, Steven T.; Leonard, Mary J.; Andrews, Tessa M.; Litt, Andrea R.

2013-01-01

446

Primary Student-Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect: A mixed method study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greenhouse effect is a reasonably complex scientific phenomenon which can be used as a model to examine students' conceptual understanding in science. Primary student-teachers' understanding of global environmental problems, such as climate change and ozone depletion, indicates that they have many misconceptions. The present mixed method study examines Finnish primary student-teachers' understanding of the greenhouse effect based on the

Ilkka Johannes Ratinen

2011-01-01

447

A Cross-Age Study of Student Understanding of the Concept of Diffusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines seventh grade life science students, tenth grade biology students, and college zoology students for understanding of the concept of diffusion. Describes the differences among the grade levels in sound or partial understanding, misconceptions, and no understanding. Discusses the effect of developmental level on understanding. (KR)

Westbrook, Susan L.; Marek, Edmund A.

1991-01-01

448

Student Understanding of Function Composition and the Effect of Dynamic Visualization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine (1) strategies students use when solving composition problems and the difficulties they encounter; (2) conceptions and/or misconceptions students have with respect to composition of functions; and (3) the effect of using dynamic visualization during instruction on students' understanding of composition of…

Ratliff, Bobby Kevin

2009-01-01

449

The Ideas of Greek High School Students about the "Ozone Layer."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study of Greek high school students' (n=116) perceptions of the ozone layer. Finds that students have a good understanding of the position and purpose of the ozone layer in terms of protection from ultraviolet rays, but students also hold misconceptions linking the ozone layer to the greenhouse effect and other forms of local…

Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin; Papantoniou, Vasso Spiliotopoulou

1999-01-01

450

The Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When winter rolls around and we begin to spend more time indoors, the common cold becomes an unfortunate reality for many of us. But for something as common as the cold, misconceptions about it are remarkably common as well. The following collection of Web sites provides an in-depth look at the cold and the cold virus.The first site (1) comes from the Common Cold Care Center of Cardiff University in Wales, and offers a thorough and highly readable introduction to the common cold, including sections on conventional and alternative cold medications. Readers can brush up on their basic virology with the next Web site from HowStuffWorks to get a clear, general idea of how the cold virus infects the body (2). This site also explains why antibiotics have no effect on a virus, and includes numerous hypertext links to related HowStuffWorks Web pages. KidsHealth for Parents, a service of the Nemours Foundation, provides a straightforward guide to the symptoms of cold vs. flu, while also offering information on flu treatment options (3). The next Web site, from University of Guelph, contains an easy-to-understand comparison of bacteria and viruses (4). Readers can learn more about rhinoviruses, the family of viruses which account for about one-third of all colds, in the following Web site from the University of South Carolina's Microbiology and Immunology Online (5). The next Web site offers visitors a close-up look at human rhinovirus 14 with over a dozen 3-D images and movies from the University of Wisconsin-Madison Bock Laboratory (6). The following site describes the findings, as detailed in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, of a Purdue University research team that has analyzed on an atomic scale the structure of the cellular receptor that binds cold-causing viruses (7). And finally, find out about common cold clinical trials with ClinicalTrial.gov, a service of the National Institutes of Health (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

451

Common sense concepts about motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common sense beliefs of college students about motion and its causes are surveyed and analyzed. A taxonomy of common sense concepts which conflict with Newtonian theory is developed as a guide to instruction.

Ibrahim Abou Halloun; David Hestenes

1985-01-01

452

Seafarers, Great Circles, and a Tad of Rhumb: Understanding the Mercator Misconception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being flat, Mercator maps inherently misrepresent some aspects of Earth's geography. That's because there is absolutely no way to simultaneously conserve all of the elements of three-dimensional space in a two-dimensional model. To dispel misconceptions, check out the Activity Worksheet and the website resources included in this article. Along…

DiSpezio, Michael A.

2010-01-01

453

Issues in Sexuality for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: Myths, Misconceptions, and Mistreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The myths and misconceptions surrounding the topic of sexuality and people with developmental disabilities were examined to better understand the detrimental effects they were having on the sexual health of individuals with developmental disabilities. Persons with developmental disabilities are often infantilised and viewed as asexual. This…

Irvine, Angela

2005-01-01

454

Therapeutic misconception in research subjects: development and validation of a measure. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Therapeutic misconception (TM) occurs when patients are not able to make a distinction between the goals of research and the aims of routine treatment. TM is experienced by over 50% of potential participants and may be a barrier to obtaining meaningful consent. This study validated a new, theoretically grounded measure of TM.

455

Coherent Backscattering: Conceptions and Misconceptions (Reply to Comments by Bruce W. Hapke and Robert M. Nelson)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the note by Hapke and Nelson has virtually no relevance to our original publication, it contains a number of statements that are misleading and/or wrong. We, therefore, use this opportunity to dispel several profound misconceptions that continue to hinder the progress in remote sensing of planetary surfaces.

Tishkovets, Victor P.; Mishchenko, Michael

2010-01-01

456

Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Misconceptions about Colligative Properties: Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed at identifying prospective chemistry teachers' misconceptions of colligative properties. In order to fulfill this aim, a diagnostic test composed of four open-ended questions was used. The test was administered to seventy-eight prospective chemistry teachers just before qualifying to teaching in secondary schools. Nine different…

Pinarbasi, Tacettin; Sozbilir, Mustafa; Canpolat, Nurtac

2009-01-01

457

An Analysis of Misconceptions in Science Textbooks: Earth Science in England and Wales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys of the earth science content of all secondary (high school) science textbooks and related publications used in England and Wales have revealed high levels of error/misconception. The 29 science textbooks or textbook series surveyed (51 texts in all) showed poor coverage of National Curriculum earth science and contained a mean level of one…

King, Chris John Henry

2010-01-01

458

Why is it so difficult? Misconceptions about Eastern European education in transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eastern European educational systems today face many problems, frequently described in recent publications. This paper discusses several misconceptions both in Western and in Eastern countries, which render more difficult the change process. These concern the inherited situation, reforms underway, power relationships, decentralisation, the roles of tradition and Western assistance, curriculum, financial and statistical data and the relationship between education and society.

Sandi, Ana Maria

1992-11-01

459

Prevention of Problem Gambling: Modifying Misconceptions and Increasing Knowledge Among Canadian Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on gambling demonstrates that youths are involved in gambling activities. As they take part in these activities, young people develop and maintain irrational thoughts about gambling and become at risk for developing severe gambling problems. In a previous study, a French video was designed specifically to correct misconceptions and increase knowledge about gambling (Ferland, Ladouceur, & Vitaro, 2002). Findings

Robert Ladouceur; Francine Ferland; Frank Vitaro

2004-01-01

460

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

461

Crafting an International Study of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large international investigations into the learning of science, such as the TIMSS and PISA studies, have been enlightening with regard to effective instructional practices. Data from these studies revealed weaknesses and promising practices within nations' educational systems, with evidence to suggest that these studies have led to international reforms in science education. However, these reforms have focused on the general characteristics of teaching and learning across all sciences. While extraordinarily useful, these studies have provided limited insight for any given content domain. To date, there has been no systematic effort to measure individual's conceptual astronomy understanding across the globe. This paper describes our motivations for a coordinated, multinational study of astronomy understanding. First, reformed education is based upon knowing the preexisting knowledge state of our students. The data from this study will be used to assist international astronomy education and public outreach (EPO) professionals in their efforts to improve practices across global settings. Second, while the US astronomy EPO community has a long history of activity, research has established that many practices are ineffective in the face of robust misconceptions (e.g.: seasons). Within an international sample we hope to find subpopulations that do not conform to our existing knowledge of student misconceptions, leading us to cultural or educational practices that hint at alternative, effective means of instruction. Finally, it is our hope that this first venture into large-scale disciplinary collaboration will help us to craft a set of common languages and practices, building capacity and leading toward long-term cooperation across the international EPO community. This project is sponsored and managed by the Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research (CAPER), in collaboration with members of the International Astronomical Union-Commission 46. We are actively welcoming and seeking partners in this work.

Slater, Stephanie; Bretones, P. S.; McKinnon, D.; Schleigh, S.; Slater, T. F.; Astronomy, Center; Education Research, Physics

2013-01-01

462

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.

Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

2010-10-01

463

Mutations and Misconceptions: The Isolation and Study of Mutant Bacteria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes simple, inexpensive activities for teaching students about mutants and mutations in bacteria. Explains how to isolate bacteria from soil and leaves and how to grow bacteria on agar or in broth. Describes how to construct a gradient plate for finding the minimum inhibitory concentration of a substance and how to use this set up to find…

Corner, Thomas R.

1992-01-01

464

Environmental Science Misconceptions--Resolution of an Anomaly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on research on the ability of a short-term intervention to substantially increase elementary pre-service teacher knowledge of major environmental science issues. The study was conducted each semester over seven years. Student understanding of such issues as global warming, ozone depletion, and local groundwater problems was…

Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

465

The Persuasion Model of conceptual change and its application to misconceptions in evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work has attempted to account for the factors involved in conceptual change (e.g. Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982; Pintrich, Marx & Boyle, 1993). While progress has been made, cognitive restructuring remains to be positioned within a unifying theory of change. Here, a new model of conceptual change is put forward. The Persuasion Model of conceptual change builds on previous frameworks (Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982; Pintrich, Marx & Boyle, 1993; Vosniadou, 1994) including the psychology of persuasion (Heuristic-Systematic Model, Chaiken, 1980; Elaboration Likelihood Model, Petty & Cacioppo, 1986; Social Judgement Theory, Sherif & Hovland, 1953) and cognitive and motivational theories of learning (Johnson-Laird, 1983; Mayer & Moreno, 1988; Wittrock, 1974b). High quality, elaborative processing of a persuasive message leads to change. Mental models are positioned as the mechanism by which meaning is created, manipulated, inspected and evaluated. These processes result in a continuum of cognitive restructuring. A study of conceptual change in Evolutionary Biology examined the viability of the Persuasion Model. It was predicted that knowledge, beliefs, interest and cognitive style would predict elaborative processing. Processing was hypothesized to influence information comprehensibility, plausibility, fruitfulness and compatibility with prior knowledge. Judgments were hypothesized to influence learning outcomes. Evolutionary knowledge and beliefs were assessed at pre- and posttest in 375 college students using multiple choice, likert-scale and extended response items. Need for Cognition, Need for Cognitive Closure, Epistemological Beliefs, Religiosity, Dogmatism, Moral Values and Argument Evaluation Ability were measured using paper-and-pencil questionnaires. Participants read a text and indicated elaborative processing and information evaluation. Ninety percent of participants held at least one misconception at pre-test. Significant gains on outcome measures were found. More sophisticated responses were found for items pertaining to non-human than human topics. Elaborative processing was predicted by individual differences in knowledge, beliefs, interest and Need for Cognition. Elaborative processing influenced favorability ratings of the information, and these contributed to learning outcomes. The results show support for hypotheses derived from the Persuasion Model, as conceptual change could not be predicted without reference to multiple factors that have not previously been measured in concert.

Garner, Joanna Kate

466

What Do Middle and High School Students Know about the Particulate Nature of Matter after Instruction? Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores middle and high school students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter after they were taught the concept. A total of 87 students (41 high school and 46 middle school) participated in the study. Findings suggest that students held misconceptions about the law of conservation of matter, chemical composition of matter…

Aydeniz, Mehmet; Kotowski, Erin Leigh

2012-01-01

467

Investigating the Nature of Third Grade Students' Experiences with Concept Maps to Support Learning of Science Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To support and improve effective science teaching, educators need methods to reveal student understandings and misconceptions of science concepts and to offer all students an opportunity to reflect on their own knowledge construction and organization. Students can benefit by engaging in scientific activities in which they build personal…

Merrill, Margaret L.

2012-01-01

468

A qualitative study of high school students' pre- and post instructional conceptions in chemical bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated high school students' understanding of chemical bonding prior to and after formal chemistry instruction. Two sets of clinical interviews were conducted prior to and after formal instructions on the topic of chemical bonding using a teacher-as-researcher protocol. Twenty-two students enrolled in a New York Regents Chemistry course were interviewed. Six students participated in the pilot study and the other sixteen were involved in the full study. Oral and pictorial data from the interviews were collected and analyzed in two parts; first, the students' conceptual understanding of chemical bonding including common themes, ideas and misconceptions were identified; second, profiles of each student were made to determine conceptual changes due to formal instruction. The findings showed that students were not familiar with the basic components and structure of atoms, especially the electrostatic properties of the sub-atomic particles. Inter-particle distance, rather than the electrostatic forces between particles, was believed to be the determining cause of the state of matter of a substance. The role of repulsive and attractive electrostatic forces in chemical bonding was not recognized. Students were unable to accurately describe the underlying scientific concepts for all types of chemical bonding and revealed a number of misconceptions, which were resistant to change by instruction. Specific areas of difficulty included the accurate descriptions of ionic bonding, covalent bonding and hydrogen bonding. Further, almost all the students could not use electrostatic forces to explain three states of water and phase changes and most students were unable to describe the energy that was released or absorbed due to bond formation or breaking. Student difficulties stemmed from a lack of understanding of some of the underlying, fundamental chemistry, such as the basic atomic structure, the particulate nature of mater and the role of electrostatic forces in chemical bonding. Some factors were identified as contributing to these difficulties, and included the overstuffed content of high school chemistry, not enough time to complete the curriculum, cook-book laboratories, shortage of qualified chemistry teachers and traditional teacher-centered methods of instruction. The study suggests an introduction of Coulomb's law in chemistry course and a greater emphasis on repulsive and attractive electrostatic forces in the instruction of chemical bonding. It further suggests the use of more appropriate teaching strategies, the re-organization of the sequence of teaching topics in the introductory chemistry curriculum. Finally the study recommends that diagrams and descriptions of chemical bonding found in chemistry textbooks be re-examined for their appropriateness and accuracy.

Wang, Renhong

469

Modeling student thinking: An example from special relativity.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our understanding of the nature of student ideas informs our instructional and research agendas. In this paper, I characterize student ideas in terms of five observable properties (determinacy, coherence, context-dependence, variability, and malleability) and describe how those observable properties correspond to the âmisconceptionsâ and âpiecesâ models of student reasoning. I then analyze instructional materials and student thinking in a particular topic area (special relativity) in terms of each of those two models. I show that specific instructional strategies reflect specific theoretical orientations, and explore the extent to which observed student behavior corresponds to predictions made by the theoretical models. The analysis suggests that while both the misconceptions and pieces models are flexible enough to accommodate all of the data, some aspects of student thinking seem best described in terms of pieces, and others seem better characterized as misconceptions. The purpose of the analysis is to illustrate the effect of theoretical orientation on instruction, instructional research, and curriculum development.

Scherr, Rachel E.

2009-04-13

470

Biogeochemistry Science and Education Part One: Using Non-Traditional Stable Isotopes as Environmental Tracers Part Two: Identifying and Measuring Undergraduate Misconceptions in Biogeochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation is presented in two sections. First, I explore two methods of using stable isotope analysis to trace environmental and biogeochemical processes. Second, I present two related studies investigating student understanding of the biogeochemical concepts that underlie part one. Fe and Hg are each biogeochemically important elements in their own way. Fe is a critical nutrient for phytoplankton, while Hg is detrimental to nearly all forms of life. Fe is often a limiting factor in marine phytoplankton growth. The largest source, by mass, of Fe to the open ocean is windblown mineral dust, but other more soluble sources are more bioavailable. To look for evidence of these non-soil dust sources of Fe to the open ocean, I measured the isotopic composition of aerosol samples collected on Bermuda. I found clear evidence in the fine size fraction of a non-soil dust Fe source, which I conclude is most likely from biomass burning. Widespread adoption of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) has increased their importance as a source of environmental Hg. Isotope analysis would be a useful tool in quantifying this impact if the isotopic composition of Hg from CFL were known. My measurements show that CFL-Hg is isotopically fractionated, in a unique pattern, during normal operation. This fractionation is large and has a distinctive, mass-independent signature, such that CFL Hg can be uniquely identified from other sources. Misconceptions research in geology has been a very active area of research, but student thinking regarding the related field of biogeochemistry has not yet been studied in detail. From interviews with 40 undergraduates, I identified over 150 specific misconceptions. I also designed a multiple-choice survey (concept inventory) to measure understanding of these same biogeochemistry concepts. I present statistical evidence, based on the Rasch model, for the reliability and validity of this instrument. This instrument will allow teachers and researchers to easily quantify learning outcomes in biogeochemistry and will complement existing concept inventories in geology, chemistry, and biology.

Mead, Chris

471

Therapeutic misconception in clinical trials: fighting against it and living with it.  

PubMed

A clinical trial seeks information for the benefit of future patients and not necessarily for those who participate in the study. However, there are patients who believe that they will receive a direct therapeutic benefit by participating in a clinical trial, the so-called «therapeutic misconception». In this article, we describe the nature and extent of therapeutic misconception, which researchers can also experience. Its presence is especially important in phase 1 oncology trials and those with placebo group. To limit its occurrence, investigators have to ensure that participant information sheet are well written and to establish an effective and transparent discussion during the process of obtaining informed consent so that patients understand all aspects of their participation in the research and appreciate what this participation entails. PMID:24837147

Dal-Ré, R; Morell, F; Tejedor, J C; Gracia, D

2014-11-01

472

Determination of Misconceptions that are Encountered by Teacher Candidates and Solution Propositions for Relieving of These Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to think, to interpret and judge correctly, the humans have to comprehend what they have learned. Concepts are the abstract representatives of the classifications that are formed by objects, events, ideas and behaviors which have common specifications. (Fidan, N., 1985). Concepts reduce the complexity by simplifying the environment that…

Kesan, Cenk; Kaya, Deniz

2007-01-01

473

Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Students about the Algebraic Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to evaluate preservice primary mathematics teachers' ability to discuss and investigate students' thinking process about the concepts of variable, equality and equation, to analyse their ability to predict student difficulties and misconceptions and, in this respect, to present their subject-matter knowledge and…

Tanisli, Dilek; Kose, Nilufer Yavuzsoy

2013-01-01

474

Conceptual Understandings of Seasonal Change by Middle School Students with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to understand and describe the misconceptions of students with visual impairments about seasonal change. Students who participated in traditional instruction exhibited alternative conceptions before and after instruction, whereas those who participated in inquiry-based instruction had alternative conceptions before…

Wild, Tiffany A.; Trundle, Kathy Cabe

2010-01-01

475

Enhancing Students' Understanding of Risk and Geologic Hazards Using a Dartboard Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses dartboards to represent magnitude-frequency relationships of natural hazards which engage students at different levels of preparation in different contexts, and for different lengths of time. Helps students to mitigate the misconceptions that processes occur periodically by emphasizing the random nature of hazards. Includes 12 references.…

Lutz, Timothy M.

2001-01-01

476

The Relationship between College Zoology Students' Beliefs about Evolutionary Theory and Religion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers administered surveys to college zoology students prior to, and immediately following a study of evolutionary theory, to assess their understanding and acceptance of evidence supporting the theory. Results showed students had many misconceptions about the theory. Their beliefs interfered with their ability to objectively view scientific…

Sinclair, Anne; And Others

1997-01-01

477

Students' Understanding of Light Concepts Primary School: A Cross-Age Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we investigated 4th, 6th, and 8th grade students' misconceptions about light, sight, vision, source of light and examined students' conceptual development of these concepts at different grade levels. Data collection was done using five two-tiered test questions with one open-ended question, an interview about concepts and a drawing…

Sahin, Cigdem; Ipek, Hava; Ayas, Alipasa

2008-01-01

478

Examining Learner Autonomy Dimensions: Students' Perceptions of Their Responsibility and Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper was written to clarify misconceptions that East Asian students are somehow less autonomous than learners from other cultural backgrounds. Specifically, based on motivational levels, it examines Japanese university students' perceptions of their responsibility and ability of autonomous English learning and what they can do inside and…

Gamble, Craig; Yoshida, Keiko; Aliponga, Jonathan; Ando, Shirley; Koshiyama, Yasuko; Wilkins, Michael

2012-01-01

479

Student Teacher Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion and Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview and discussion of a study of student teachers’ knowledge and understanding of the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion and acid rain. It describes the results of a small scale survey designed to ascertain details of student knowledge and misconceptions about these environmental issues. The study reveals familiarity with the term ‘greenhouse effect’, but little understanding

Jane Dove

1996-01-01

480

Students' Alternative Conceptions of the Human Circulatory System: A Cross-Age Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concept maps and structured/clinical interviews were completed by 25 fourth graders and 25 college freshmen to determine knowledge of the human circulatory system. Students (N=945) at various levels were then measured for misconception frequencies. Student preconceptions appear to be tenacious, but confrontation strategies may assist fundamental…

Arnaudin, Mary W.; Mintzes, Joel J.

1985-01-01

481

The Parallelism between Scientists' and Students' Resistance to New Scientific Ideas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares resistance by scientists to new ideas in scientific discovery with students' resistance to conceptual change in scientific learning. Studies the resistance by students to abandoning their misconceptions concerning scientific topics and the resistance by scientists to scientific discovery. (Contains 64 references.) (Author/YDS)

Campanario, Juan Miguel

2002-01-01

482

Primary Student Teachers' Ideas of Atoms and Molecules: Using Drawings as a Research Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to reveal the primary student teachers' basic knowledge and misconceptions about atoms and molecules by use of a drawing method. Data collected from drawings of 92 primary student teachers at the second term of 2007-2008 educational period in Faculty of Education in Adiyaman University. The analysis of their drawings…

Ozden, Mustafa

2009-01-01

483

What Clients of Couple Therapy Model Developers and Their Former Students Say about Change, Part II: Model-Independent Common Factors and an Integrative Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proponents of the common factors movement in marriage and family therapy (MFT) suggest that, rather than specific models of therapy, elements common across models of therapy and common to the process of therapy itself are responsible for therapeutic change. This article--the second of two companion articles--reports on a study designed to further…

Davis, Sean D.; Piercy, Fred P.

2007-01-01

484

Student Conceptions of Ionic Compounds in Solution and the Influences of Sociochemical Norms on Individual Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the symbolic interactionist perspective that meaning is constituted as individuals interact with one another, this study examined how group thinking during cooperative inquiry-based activity on chemical bonding theories shaped and influenced college students' understanding of the properties of ionic compounds in solution. The analysis revealed the development of sociochemical norms and specific ways of reasoning about chemical ideas that led to shifts in student thinking and understanding of the nature of dissolved ionic solids. The analysis similarly revealed two kinds of teacher-initiated discourses, dialogical and monologic, that impacted student learning differently. I discuss the nature of this teacher-initiated discourse and number of moves, such as confirming, communicative, and re-orienting, that the course instructor made to communicate to students what counts as justifiable chemical reasoning and appropriate representations of chemical knowledge. I further describe the use of sociochemical dialogues as lens to study the ways in which chemistry instructors and students develop normative ways of reasoning and chemical justifications. Because the activity was designed as an intervention to target student misconceptions about ionic bonding, I also examined the extent to which the activity elicited and corrected commonly found student chemical misconceptions. To do so, student-generated particulate drawings were coded qualitatively into one of four broad themes: i) use of molecular framework with discrete atoms, ii) use of ionic framework with discrete ionic species, iii) use of quasi-ionic framework with partial ionic-molecular thinking, or iv) use of an all-encompassing "other" category. The findings suggested the intervention significantly improved students' conceptual knowledge of ionic compounds in solution - there was statistically significant increase in the number of drawings using ionic and quasi-ionic frameworks in the pre-activity vs. post-activity (2.3% vs. 59.5%, chi²(1) = 129.16, p < 0.001) and significant reduction in the number of ionic compounds represented as molecular in the pre-activity vs. post-activity (71.2% vs. 24.1%, chi²(1) = 72.24, p < 0.001). I discuss these findings and their implications for research and teaching.

Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M.

485

Helping Students Choose Tools To Search the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes areas where faculty members can aid students in making intelligent use of the Web in their research. Differentiates between subject directories and search engines. Describes an engine's three components: spider, index, and search engine. Outlines two misconceptions: that Yahoo! is a search engine and that search engines contain all the…

Cohen, Laura B.; Jacobson, Trudi E.

2000-01-01

486

Perceptions of college students on the theory of evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Darwinian Theory of Evolution is a well accepted concept among the scientific community, the controversy remains in the culture and consequently the educational system. Studies have suggested that students enroll in college with various misconceptions of evolution. The misunderstanding of evolution may be caused by two main factors: (1) belief that evolution contradicts the Bible and goes against

Rosalind S Holloway

2010-01-01

487

The Profession of Psychology Scale: Sophisticated and Naive Students' Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Profession of Psychology Scale (Rosenthal, McKnight & Price, 2001) was used to investigate whether taking more psychology courses results in a more accurate understanding of what is required to become a psychologist. Data indicate that though misconceptions exist in both Naive students (those who had not completed any psychology courses) and…

Rosenthal, Gary T.; Soper, Barlow; Rachal, Chris; McKnight, Richard R.; Price, A. W.

2004-01-01

488

Improving the climate literary of students, educators and the public - The Climate Literacy Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Climate Literacy Initiative of the Association of American Geographers (AAG) was largely born out of the growing realization of the misconceptions held by university students about the atmosphere, weather, climate and increasingly, climate variability and change. One way to quantify students' perceptions and scientific understanding about a topic like global warming, was via the reflection rubric common to service-learning pedagogy. This revealed the dichotomy that students, and society in general, face between a research-style presentation of scientific results versus an opinion article that might appear in a local news outlet. These reflections also revealed the underlying gaps in student knowledge about basic atmospheric dynamics and the complexities of the linkages across the air-land-ocean interface. In order to address these knowledge gaps, climate pedagogy and resources are critical. A weather and climate needs assessment of some Vermont K-8 teachers revealed that their primary interests revolved around curriculum development and enhancement; experimental learning for their students; innovative activities using existing Internet-based resources and; professional development. This presentation will highlights the activities of the Climate Literacy Initiative, including its collaboration with the ESPERE group in Germany and the Climate Change Education Working group, sponsored by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program.

Dupigny-Giroux, L. L.

2007-12-01

489

Comparative Impact of Two Training Packages on Awareness and Practices of First Aid for Injuries and Common Illnesses among High School Students in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge about various illnesses and their management is not satisfactory among high school students especially in rural areas in India. Various incorrect practices and myths associated with illnesses and injuries still exit. Training and education about correct management of injuries and illnesses for students is a sound and logical investment.…

Goel, Sonu; Singh, Amarjeet

2008-01-01

490

Teaching and Learning in the Era of the Common Core: An Introduction to the Project and the Nine Research Papers in the "Students at the Center" Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the wide interest in and need for student-centered approaches to learning, educators have scant access to a comprehensive accounting of the key components of it. To build the knowledge base for the emerging field of student-centered learning, Jobs for the Future, a national nonprofit based in Boston, commissioned papers from nine teams of…

Jobs for the Future, 2012

2012-01-01

491

Common Standards for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

Principal, 2010

2010-01-01

492

Information Commons to Go  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

Bayer, Marc Dewey

2008-01-01

493

Common cold  

MedlinePLUS

The common cold usually causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. You may also have a sore throat, cough, ... It is called the “common cold” for good reason. There are over one billion colds in the United States each year. You and your children will ...

494

Common Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

495

Probing Student Understanding of Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, powerful new observations and advances in computation and visualization have led to a revolution in our understanding of the origin, evolution and structure of the universe. These gains have been vast, but their impact on education has been limited. At Chicago State (CSU), we are implementing new inquiry-based instructional materials in our astronomy lab course. We are researching the effectiveness of these materials, focusing on student understanding of cosmology. As part of a collaborative effort with the University of Nevada Las Vegas and Sonoma State (SSU) to develop a cosmological subject inventory, we administered an open-ended survey prior to instruction and conducted student interviews using the survey. Students taking the CSU course were also required to write a guided essay on their beliefs about cosmology. We have collected open-ended post-test data through student exams. Preliminary results regarding student misconceptions in cosmology and student attitudes toward inquiry will be presented.

Coble, Kimberly A.; Cochran, G.; Larrieu, D.; Bailey, J.; Sanchez, R.; Cominsky, L.; McLin, K.

2010-01-01

496

Effects of participation in inquiry science workshops and follow-up activities on middle school science teachers' content knowledge, teacher-held misconceptions, and classroom practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important aspect of developing science literacy for all students is developing science-literate teachers. With the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act, many middle school teachers found themselves in a position where they were no longer qualified to teach middle school science. This study was designed to help science teachers increase their science content knowledge, identify and resolve misconceptions/errors they may have, and assist them in their teaching by providing strategies for inquiry-based teaching, science laboratory exercises, and science equipment. Teachers enrolled in biology courses offered by the Rocky Mountain Middle School Math and Science Partnership participated in this study. They were required to take pre-, post-, and follow-up assessments over course concepts, complete a survey over their background and teaching pedagogy, and be observed teaching in their classrooms for three class periods followed by an interview after each observation. The results included key findings: (1) These assessments indicated that science teachers can increase their science content knowledge by attending high-quality professional development courses designed to help increase basic science content knowledge on science content. (2) Teachers held numerous misconceptions as shown by the assessments and classroom observations. Some were resolved, some that appeared to be resolved at the time of the post test reappeared again on the follow-up test, and some were not resolved. (3) Teacher observations showed that they did use science equipment provided by the course instructors and they taught the content from the Biology course where appropriate. Teachers teaching classes other than biology demonstrated their ability to teach inquiry science by employing inquiry activities and teaching with a "scientific method" approach.

Cepeda, Linda F.

497

Students' understandings of the behavior of a gaseous substance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One hundred sixteen community college students enrolled in a basic chemistry class who had completed a unit on the behavior of a gaseous substance were given a written instrument that presented several mathematical and conceptual problems describing the behavior of a gas. Nine students representing a range of achievement levels were chosen for more intensive clinical interviews. Interview results revealed that students commonly experience difficulties at three different levels: (1) Mathematical understanding. Most students could manipulate the gas law equations, but few had a real understanding of the equation. There were some unique understanding of proportional relationships. (2) Conceptual understanding. Many students could represent pictorially the notion that gas molecules randomly occupy the entire space of its container. Many, however, had a different conception of this when the air was compressed. The reason for this seemed to be due to a misunderstanding of the kinetic molecular theory. (3) Real-world application . Students' use of their mathematical understanding to explain the behavior of air in a real syringe revealed some internal consistency found in mathematical explanations of real-world phenomena. Many students used mathematical strategies consistent with their mathematical understanding and satisfactory for producing reasonable estimates of numerical values. All of the 9 students had misconceptions about mathematical proportionality with most of them understanding proportional relationships as being additive in nature. Although some of the students were able to state the relationship between two variables, they could only do so outside of the context of the gas law equation. Only one student was able to propose a reasonable explanation of the proportional relationships between variables in a gas law equation. All 9 students were classified as either transitional or naive in the real-world use of their mathematical understandings with 3 of the 9 clearly having naive conceptions of the mathematics of gas behavior. Also, a majority of the 9 students could clearly represent the nature of the submicroscopic level of gas behavior when asked to draw it during the clinical interview. However, only 2 of these students had the chemist's understanding of this concept when put to use with a real-world task.

Jones, Edward Louis, II

498

Investigating Undergraduate Students’ Conceptions of Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation is an essential topic to the physical sciences yet is often misunderstood by the general public. The last time most people have formal instruction about radiation is as students in high school and this knowledge will be carried into adulthood. Peoples’ conceptions of radiation influence their attitude towards research regarding radiation, radioactivity, and other work where radiation is prevalent. In order to understand students’ ideas about radiation after having left high school, we collected science surveys from nearly 12,000 undergraduates enrolled in introductory science courses over a span of 25 years. This research investigates the relationship between students’ conceptions of radiation and students’ personal beliefs and academic field of study.Our results show that many students in the sample were unable to adequately describe radiation. Responses were typically vague, brief, and emotionally driven. Students’ field of study was found to significantly correlate with their conceptions. Students pursuing STEM majors were 60% more likely to describe radiation as an emission and/or form of energy and cited atomic or radioactive sources of radiation twice as often as non-STEM students. Additionally, students’ personal beliefs also appear to relate to their conceptions of radiation. The most prominent misconception shown was that radiation is a generically harmful substance, which was found to be consistent throughout the duration of the study. In particular, non-science majors in our sample had higher rates of misconceptions, often generalized the idea of radiation into a broad singular topic, and had difficulty properly identifying sources.Generalized ideas of radiation and the inability to properly recognize sources of radiation may contribute to the prevalent misconception that radiation is an inexplicably dangerous substance. A basic understanding of both electromagnetic and particulate radiation and the existence of radiation at various energy levels may substantially deter fear-based generalizations and increase students’ abilities to make rational decisions when encountering various types of radiation in daily life.

Romine, James M.; Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, Chris; Nieberding, Megan; Antonellis, Jessie C.

2014-11-01

499

The Persistence of Personal and Social Themes in Context: Long- and Short-Term Studies of Students' Scientific Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we will examine the persistence of "misconceptions." We used data from a longitudinal study of personal ideas in 24 students' thinking about ecological processes. The results show students often speaking about personal experiences dating from an early age, to which they had also referred in similar interviews conducted years before.…

Hellden, Gustav F.; Solomon, Joan

2004-01-01

500

Using Prior Knowledge to Aid Teaching and Learning: What Do First-Year Psychology Students Know about Old Age?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students attending a lecture usually have a wide range of prior knowledge about the topic in question. Rather than seeing this as a problem, lecturers can take advantage of such differences. This article shows how students' misconceptions about old age were used to inform a lecture on the topic. Prior knowledge can thus be used to aid teaching and…

Hartley, James

2007-01-01