Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.
Investigates student (N=16) misconceptions concerning electrochemistry related to galvanic, electrolytic, and concentration cells. Findings indicate that most students demonstrating misconceptions were still able to calculate cell potentials correctly. Discusses common misconceptions and possible sources of these. Contains 33 references.…
Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah K.; Al-Shuaili, Ali H.; Taylor, Neil
The current study, undertaken in the Sultanate of Oman, explored twelfth grade students' common misconceptions in seven chemistry conceptual areas. The sample included 786 twelfth grade students in Oman while the instrument was a two-tier test called Chemistry Misconceptions Diagnostic Test (CMDT), consisting of 25 items with 12 items…
Morton, James P; Doran, Dominic A; Maclaren, Don P M
The present study represents a preliminary investigation designed to identify common misconceptions in students' understanding of physiological and biochemical topics within the academic domain of sport and exercise sciences. A specifically designed misconception inventory (consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions) was administered to a cohort of level 1, 2, and 3 undergraduate students enrolled in physiology and biochemistry-related modules of the BSc Sport Science degree at the authors' institute. Of the 10 misconceptions proposed by the authors, 9 misconceptions were confirmed. Of these nine misconceptions, only one misconception appeared to have been alleviated by the current teaching strategy employed during the progression from level 1 to 3 study. The remaining eight misconceptions prevailed throughout the course of the degree program, suggesting that students enter and leave university with the same misconceptions in certain areas of exercise physiology and biochemistry. The possible origins of these misconceptions are discussed, as are potential teaching strategies to prevent and/or remediate them for future years. PMID:18539853
James P. Morton (Liverpool John Moores University Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences)
The present study represents a preliminary investigationdesigned to identify common misconceptions in students' understanding of physiological and biochemical topics within the academic domain of sport and exercise sciences. A specifically designed misconception inventory (consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions) was administered to a cohort of level 1, 2, and 3 undergraduate students enrolled in physiology and biochemistry-related modules of the BSc Sport Science degree at the authors' institute. Of the 10 misconceptions proposed by the authors, 9 misconceptions were confirmed. Of these nine misconceptions, only one misconception appeared to have been alleviated by the current teaching strategy employed during the progression from level 1 to 3 study. The remaining eight misconceptions prevailed throughout the course of the degree program, suggesting that students enter and leave university with the same misconceptions in certain areas of exercise physiology and biochemistry. The possible origins of these misconceptions are discussed, as are potential teaching strategies to prevent and/or remediate them for future years.
This module introduces forecasters to ten of the most commonly encountered or significant misconceptions about NWP models. This list of ten misconceptions includes issues surrounding data assimilation, model resolution, physical parameterizations, and post-processing of model forecast output.
This article describes some common misconceptions that elementary students may have about energy, heat, and insulation. It also includes suggestions for formative assessment and teaching for conceptual change.
This article describes some common misconceptions that elementary students may have about biomes and ecosystems. It also includes suggestions for formative assessment and teaching for conceptual change.
This article describes some common misconceptions that elementary students may have about icebergs and glaciers (including density and buoyancy). It also includes suggestions for formative assessment and teaching for conceptual change.
van der Hoek, André
Common Misconceptions about Software Architecture by Philippe Kruchten Rational Fellow Rational Software Canada References to architecture are everywhere: in every article, in every ad. And we take definition of software architecture. Are we all understanding the same thing? We gladly accept that software
Two challenges science teachers face are identifying misconceptions students have about how the world operates and getting past those misconceptions. Students' prior conceptions often conflict with the content educators are trying to teach. The gateway to revealing and changing such misconceptions, Fouché says, is predictive questioning. As they…
Fisher, Kathleen M.; Lipson, Joseph I.
Defining a "misconception" as an error of translation (transformation, correspondence, interpolation, interpretation) between two different kinds of information which causes students to have incorrect expectations, a Taxonomy of Errors has been developed to examine student misconceptions in an introductory biology course for science majors. Two…
Peterson, Raymond F.; Treagust, David F.
Describes a multiple choice, pencil and paper, diagnostic instrument used to measure student understanding of covalent bonding and structure concepts. Reports evidence of seven commonly held misconceptions. (MVL)
Halperin, John J; Baker, Phillip; Wormser, Gary P
Lyme disease, infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, is a focally endemic tick-transmitted zoonosis. During the 3 decades since the responsible spirochete was identified, a series of misconceptions and misunderstandings have become widely prevalent, leading to frequent misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Persistent misconceptions concern the reliability of available diagnostic tools, the signs and symptoms of nervous system involvement, the appropriate choice and duration of antimicrobial therapy, the curability of the infection, and the cause of symptoms that may persist in some patients after treatment. Concern about disparate perspectives led the Institute of Medicine to review the subject. In this article we review the principal misconceptions, discussing their origins and the best currently available scientific evidence related to each one. PMID:23321431
Stavrou, Stavros Georgios
Ninety-seven education students majoring or minoring in mathematics had their math homework examined in a Number Theory or Abstract Algebra course. Each student's homework was observed for the purpose of identifying common errors and misconceptions when writing mathematical proofs. The results showed that students collectively made four…
Monteiro, Antonio; Nobrega, Clevio; Abrantes, Isabel; Gomes, Celeste
Educational researchers and teachers are well aware that misconceptions--erroneous ideas that differ from the scientifically accepted ones--are very common amongst students. Daily experiences, creative and perceptive thinking and science textbooks give rise to students' misconceptions which lead them to draw erroneous conclusions that become…
Pejuan, Arcadi; Bohigas, Xavier; Jaen, Xavier; Periago, Cristina
Our first objective was to detect misconceptions about the microscopic nature of sound among senior university students enrolled in different engineering programmes (from chemistry to telecommunications). We sought to determine how these misconceptions are expressed (qualitative aspect) and, only very secondarily, to gain a general idea of the…
A survey of the Earth science content of science textbooks found a wide range of misconceptions. These are discussed in this article with reference to the published literature on Earth science misconceptions. Most misconceptions occurred in the "sedimentary rocks and processes" and "Earth's structure and plate tectonics" categories; the most…
Linking neuroscientific research on decision making to the educational context of novice students assigned to a multiple-choice scientific task involving common misconceptions about electrical circuits
Potvin, Patrice; Turmel, Élaine; Masson, Steve
Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty and certainty associated with answers to multiple-choice questions involving common misconceptions about electric circuits. Twenty-two scientifically novice participants (humanities and arts college students) were asked, in an fMRI study, whether or not they thought the light bulbs in images presenting electric circuits were lighted up correctly, and if they were certain or uncertain of their answers. When participants reported that they were unsure of their responses, analyses revealed significant activations in brain areas typically involved in uncertainty (anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula cortex, and superior/dorsomedial frontal cortex) and in the left middle/superior temporal lobe. Certainty was associated with large bilateral activations in the occipital and parietal regions usually involved in visuospatial processing. Correct-and-certain answers were associated with activations that suggest a stronger mobilization of visual attention resources when compared to incorrect-and-certain answers. These findings provide insights into brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty that are activated when common misconceptions, identified as such by science education research literature, interfere in decision making in a school-like task. We also discuss the implications of these results from an educational perspective. PMID:24478680
Johnson, Marcus Lee; Bungum, Timothy
Background: Common cold misconceptions may contribute to ill-informed decisions and recommendations made by K-12 educators who often encounter infected students. Understanding the structure of educators' misconceptions can be used to improve health instruction in teacher professional preparation programs. Purpose: The purposes of this project were…
This article describes common misconceptions held by elementary students about the history of the polar regions, fossils, and geologic time. The article provides ideas for formative assessment, teaching strategies, and the National Science Education Standards.
Review Article Sixteen common misconceptions about the evolution of cooperation in humans Stuart A.firstname.lastname@example.org (S.A. West). Evolution and Human Behavior 32 (2011) 231262 1090-5138/$ see front matter © 2011 of social evolution theory and the evolutionary work on cooperation, emphasising common misconceptions
Kachapova, Farida; Kachapov, Ilias
This article describes some misconceptions about random variables and related counter-examples, and makes suggestions about teaching initial topics on random variables in general form instead of doing it separately for discrete and continuous cases. The focus is on post-calculus probability courses. (Contains 2 figures.)
Piburn, Michael D.; And Others
This study was part of a continuing exploration of the naive misconceptions of students in the physical sciences conducted within the context of current literature in alternative frameworks. The sample was selected from among those students registered for a liberal education physical science class at a small private college. The method used was a…
The study investigated the common misconceptions of lower secondary school students regarding the concepts of photosynthesis and plant respiration. These are abstract concepts which are difficult to comprehend for adults let alone for lower secondary school students. Research of the students misconceptions are conducted worldwide. The researches…
Michael, J A; Richardson, D; Rovick, A; Modell, H; Bruce, D; Horwitz, B; Hudson, M; Silverthorn, D; Whitescarver, S; Williams, S
Approximately 700 undergraduates studying physiology at community colleges, a liberal arts college, and universities were surveyed to determine the prevalence of our misconceptions about respiratory phenomena. A misconception about the changes in breathing frequency and tidal volume (physiological variables whose changes can be directly sensed) that result in increased minute ventilation was found to be present in this population with comparable prevalence (approximately 60%) to that seen in a previous study. Three other misconceptions involving phenomena that cannot be experienced directly and therefore were most likely learned in some educational setting were found to be of varying prevalence. Nearly 90% of the students exhibited a misconception about the relationship between arterial oxygen partial pressure and hemoglobin saturation. Sixty-six percent of the students believed that increasing alveolar oxygen partial pressure leads to a decrease in alveolar carbon dioxide partial pressure. Nearly 33% of the population misunderstood the relationship between metabolism and ventilation. The possible origins of these respiratory misconceptions are discussed and suggestions for how to prevent and/or remediate them are proposed. PMID:10644238
Misconceptions about sinking and floating phenomena are some of the most challenging to overcome (Yin 2005), possibly because explaining sinking and floating requires students to understand challenging topics such as density, force, and motion. Two scientific principles are typically used in U.S. science curricula to explain sinking and floating:…
Bader Ebrahim; Hadeel Al-Enezi; Mohammed Al-Turki; Ali Al-Turki; Fatma Al-Rabah; Majeda S. Hammoud; Abdullah Al-Taiar
A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted on female university students (N = 1106) to explore their knowledge and misconceptions on breastfeeding. Most participants recognized the benefits of breastfeeding, but only a few were aware of the recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life. Misconceptions were common; 66%, 60%, and 55% of participants thought
Yang, E.-M.; Greenbowe, T. J.; Andre, T.
The misconceptions of students regarding electricity and electrochemistry in the context of operation of a common flashlight are discussed. An Interactive Software Program (ISP) is used for better conceptual understanding of the operation of commercial batteries in a circuit.
Sree Harsha, N. R.; Sreedevi, A.; Prakash, Anupama
Despite a number of theories in circuit analysis, little is known about the behaviour of ideal equal voltage sources in parallel, connected across a resistive load. We neither have any theory that can predict the voltage source that provides the load current, nor is there any method to test it experimentally. In a series of experiments performed on 100 students, it was found that this circuit is often misunderstood on symmetry grounds. This paper addresses this issue by showing how different circuit analysis methods fail to provide an answer.
Much research has been published that describes the misconceptions students have about gases; however, not much research has been published that suggests how to change these misconceptions. The action research presented in this article examined how using laboratories to contradict students' preconceived ideas would affect their learning. High…
Merek, Edmund A.; And Others
Although the concept of diffusion is thought to be simple and easily understood by most students, research studies revealed that many misconceptions regarding diffusion exist among secondary education students as well as college freshmen. Describes a study designed to seek out the causes for these misconceptions and to find ways to eliminate them.…
Smith, Deborah C.
Several categories of misconceptions which appear to be emerging across studies are discussed. They include: mis-perceptions; stunted conceptions; mis-translations; confused conceptions; lost conceptions; and true misconceptions. True misconceptions are metaphors and analogies which represent truly complete systems of explanation but are…
Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.
? Comparing Different Control Strategies and Common Misconceptions Jijun Zhou, PE Guanghua Wei, PE W. Dan Turner, PhD, PE David E. Claridge, PhD, PE Texas A&M University College Station, Texas ABSTRACT Air-side economizer is broadly... the dry-bulb temperature based economizer operation. The ?best? activation temperatures that maximize the energy savings can be calculated based on weather data and are different from location to location. Activation temperatures for a few...
Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.
? Comparing Different Control Strategies and Common Misconceptions Jijun Zhou, PE Guanghua Wei, PE W. Dan Turner, PhD, PE David E. Claridge, PhD, PE Texas A&M University College Station, Texas ABSTRACT Air-side economizer is broadly... or disables the dry-bulb temperature based economizer operation. The ?best? activation temperatures that maximize the energy savings can be calculated based on weather data and are different from location to location. The activation temperatures for a few...
Pathare, S. R.; Pradhan, H. C.
Heat and thermodynamics is a conceptually rich area of undergraduate physics. In the Indian context in particular there has been little work done in this area from the point of view of misconceptions. This prompted us to undertake a study in this area. We present a study of students' misconceptions about heat transfer mechanisms, i.e. conduction,…
Ganiel, Uri; Idar, Joshua
Discusses the nature of misconceptions in science and the role of teachers and students in correcting these misconceptions. Also describes a simulation program that centers on some basic topics in Newtonian mechanics, outlining its structure and examining some of the premises that served as guidelines in its design. (JN)
Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.
Examines students' misconceptions and proposed mechanisms related to current flow in electrolyte solutions and the salt bridge. Confirms reported misconceptions and identifies several new ones. Discusses probable sources of misconceptions and some methods for preventing them. Contains 27 references. (JRH)
Sneider, Cary I.; Ohadi, Mark M.
Presents a study designed to test the effectiveness of a constructivist-historical teaching strategy in changing students' misconceptions about the earth's shape and gravity at the upper elementary and middle school levels. Contains 27 references. (DDR)
COMPUTER SCIENCE: MISCONCEPTIONS, CAREER PATHS AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES School of Computing Undergraduate Student) #12;Computer Science Misconceptions Intro to Computer Science - Florida International University 2 Some preconceived ideas & stereotypes about Computer Science (CS) are quite common
Hux, Karen; Bush, Erin; Evans, Kelli; Simanek, Gina
The researchers performed a survey study to determine the effectiveness of collegiate programmes in dispelling common misconceptions about traumatic brain injury (TBI) while preparing undergraduate and graduate students for special education (SpEd) careers. Respondents included 136 undergraduate and 147 graduate SpEd students in their final…
Yates, Tony Brett
In order to eliminate student misconceptions concerning biological evolution, it is important to identify their sources. The purposes of this study were to: (a) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma public high school Biology I teachers; (b) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma public high school students prior to and following instruction in Biology I course curriculum; and (c) identify which, if any, biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma public high school Biology I teachers were being transmitted to their students by way of instruction in biological evolution curriculum. Seventy-six teachers and 993 of their students participated in this study. To identify participants' misconceptions, calculate conception index scores, and collect demographic data, the Biological Evolution Literacy Survey (BEL Survey) was developed. The BEL Survey presents 23 biological misconception statements grouped into five categories. Analysis revealed teacher participants possessed a 72.9% mean rate of understanding of evolution concepts coupled with a 23.0% mean misconception rate whereas student participants possessed a pre-instruction 43.9% mean rate of understanding combined with a 39.1% mean misconception rate. Students exited the Biology I classroom more confident in their evolution knowledge but holding greater numbers of misconceptions than they possessed prior to entering the course. Significant relationships were revealed between students' acquisition of misconceptions and teachers' bachelor's degree field, terminal degree, and hours dedicated to instruction. One student misconception was revealed to be significantly more common following instruction as opposed to prior to instruction.
Herman, G. L.; Loui, M. C.; Zilles, C.
To improve instruction in computer engineering and computer science, instructors must better understand how their students learn. Unfortunately, little is known about how students learn the fundamental concepts in computing. To investigate student conceptions and misconceptions about digital logic concepts, the authors conducted a qualitative…
Seah, Lay Hoon
This article demonstrates one particular difficulty of interpreting students' use of language in science classrooms: determining whether a student's writing indicates a misconception or a misrepresentation. Students' written assignments from a case study are used to illustrate instances where multiple interpretations are possible.…
Udupa, Jayaram K.
As seen in the medical imaging literature and in the poster presentations at the annual conference of the Radiological Society of North America during the past 10 years, several mis conceptions are held relating to 3D rendering of medical images. The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate and clarify these with medical examples. Most of the misconceptions have to do with a mix up of the issues related to the common visualization techniques, viz., surface rendering (SR) and volume rendering (VR), and methods of image segmentation. In our survey, we came across the following most commonly held conceptions which we believe (and shall demonstrate) are not correct: (1) SR equated to thresholding. (2) VR considered not requiring segmentation. (3) VR considered to achieve higher resolution than SR. (4) SR/VR considered to require specialized hardware to achieve adequate speed. We shall briefly define and establish some fundamental terms to obviate any potential for terminology-related misconceptions. Subsequently, we shall sort out these issues and illustrate with examples as to why the above conceptions are incorrect. There are many SR methods that use segmentations that are far superior to thresholding. All VR techniques (except the straightforward MIP) require some form of fuzzy object specification, that is, fuzzy segmentation. The details seen in renditions depend fundamentally on, in addition to the rendering method, segmentation techniques also. There are fast-software-based rendering methods that give a performance on PCs similar to or exceeding that of expensive hardware systems. Most of the difficulties encountered in visualization (and also in image processing and analysis) stem from the difficulties in segmentation. It is important to identify these and separate them from the issues related purely to 3D rendering.
Odom, Arthur Louis
Tests on diffusion and osmosis given to (n=116) secondary biology students, (n=123) nonbiology majors, and (n=117) biology majors found that, even after instruction, students continue to have misconceptions about these ideas. Appendix includes diffusion and osmosis test. (MKR)
of the ozone layer was identified as the most important environmental issue facing Australia and the #12 and American students show that their understanding of the importance of the ozone layer and the potentialMisconceptions in Australian Students' Understanding of Ozone Depletion Eugene C. Cordero
Danielson, Kathryn I; Tanner, Kimberly D
Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What conceptions and misconceptions of ocean acidification do these students hold? How does their awareness and knowledge compare across disciplines? Undergraduate biology, chemistry/biochemistry, and environmental studies students, and science faculty for comparison, were assessed on their awareness and understanding. Results revealed low awareness and understanding of ocean acidification among students compared with faculty. Compared with biology or chemistry/biochemistry students, more environmental studies students demonstrated awareness of ocean acidification and identified the key role of carbon dioxide. Novel misconceptions were also identified. These findings raise the question of whether undergraduate science students are prepared to navigate socioenvironmental issues such as ocean acidification. PMID:26163563
Eaton, Janet F.; And Others
This study examines the relationship between student misconceptions and learning by focusing on six fifth-grade students as they attempt to make sense of classroom instruction on light and seeing. Pretests, posttests, and classroom observation narratives served as student data. Pretests indicate that students held the misconception that sight is…
Trotskovsky, E.; Sabag, N.
Background: Learning processes are usually characterized by students' misunderstandings and misconceptions. Engineering educators intend to help their students overcome their misconceptions and achieve correct understanding of the concept. This paper describes a misconception in digital systems held by many students who believe that combinational…
Madhyastha, Tara; Tanimoto, Steven
A number of educational researchers have developed pedagogical approaches that involve the teacher in discovering and helping to correct misconceptions that students bring to their study of their subject matter. During the last decade, several computer systems have been developed to support teaching and learning using this kind of approach. A…
Sotos, Ana Elisa Castro; Vanhoof, Stijn; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Onghena, Patrick
Both researchers and teachers of statistics have made considerable efforts during the last decades to re-conceptualize statistics courses in accordance with the general reform movement in mathematics education. However, students still hold misconceptions about statistical inference even after following a reformed course. The study presented in…
Kuhle, Barry X.; Barber, Jessica M.; Bristol, Adam S.
Students bring many misconceptions about psychology to the introductory psychology course. We investigated whether scores on a 10-item Knowledge of Psychology Test (adapted from Vaughan, 1977) taken on the first class day were related to final class grades in 11 introductory psychology classes taught by the same instructor at three colleges. A…
To fully understand the roles proteins play in cellular processes, students need to grasp complex ideas about protein structure, folding, and stability. Our current understanding of these topics is based on mathematical models and experimental data. However, protein structure, folding, and stability are often introduced as descriptive, qualitative phenomena in undergraduate classes. In the process of learning about these topics, students often form incorrect ideas. For example, by learning about protein folding in the context of protein synthesis, students may come to an incorrect conclusion that once synthesized on the ribosome, a protein spends its entire cellular life time in its fully folded native confirmation. This is clearly not true; proteins are dynamic structures that undergo both local fluctuations and global unfolding events. To prevent and address such misconceptions, basic concepts of protein science can be introduced in the context of simple mathematical models and hands-on explorations of publicly available data sets. Ten common misconceptions about proteins are presented, along with suggestions for using equations, models, sequence, structure, and thermodynamic data to help students gain a deeper understanding of basic concepts relating to protein structure, folding, and stability. PMID:20810950
Abrahams, Ian; Homer, Matt; Sharpe, Rachael; Zhou, Mengyuan
Background: Despite the large body of literature regarding student misconceptions, there has been relatively little cross-cultural research to directly compare the prevalence of common scientific misconceptions amongst students from different cultural backgrounds. Whilst previous research does suggest the international nature of many…
Masson, Steve; Potvin, Patrice; Riopel, Martin; Foisy, Lorie-Marlène Brault
Science education studies have revealed that students often have misconceptions about how nature works, but what happens to misconceptions after a conceptual change remains poorly understood. Are misconceptions rejected and replaced by scientific conceptions, or are they still present in students' minds, coexisting with newly acquired…
Lauris Grundmanis, Hill-Murray School, Maplewood, MN 55109
This activity is to dispel the misconception that there is one single structured scientific method used by all scientists, and tackle some ethical issues raised in life. This is accomplished using the popular movie "Awakenings" and student observations and reflections.
Hwee-Ming Cheng (Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya Physiology)
THE ANNUAL Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe, as previously described in this journal (4). We report here some illuminating insights gleaned from this international physiology quiz event. This report also highlights some common misconceptions among students of physiology, as has been previously described in definite studies by others (5, 8, 10, 13, 14).
Griffiths, Alan K.; Preston, Kirk R.
Identifies misconceptions related to the fundamental characteristics of atoms and molecules held by twelfth-grade students. Data were obtained by administration of semistructured interviews to a stratified, random sample of 30 students. Fifty-two misconceptions were observed and reported. Some of the misconceptions identified parallel the…
Hammer, Mary Elizabeth
The problem addressed by this study was that of the possible presence of similar mathematical misconceptions between both 6th grade and undergraduate students. Also, if these misconceptions do exist, the question thus arises whether...
Ada, Tuba; Kurtulus, Aytac
This study analyses the students' performances in two-dimensional transformation geometry and explores the mistakes made by the students taking the analytic geometry course given by researchers. An examination was given to students of Education Faculties who have taken the analytic geometry course at Eskisehir Osmangazi University in Turkey. The…
Badenhorst, Elmi; Mamede, Sílvia; Hartman, Nadia; Schmidt, Henk G.
Research has indicated that misconceptions hamper the process of knowledge construction. Misconceptions are defined as persistent ideas not supported by current scientific views. Few studies have explored how misconceptions develop when first year health students conceptually move between anatomy and physiology to construct coherent knowledge…
Rowntree, Rebecca V.
The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM] requires students in grades nine through 12 to be able to explain inequalities using mathematical relational symbols and be able to understand the meaning of inequalities and their solutions (NCTM, 2000). Studies have shown that not only middle and high school students have difficulties with…
This review paper addresses typical mistakes and omissions that involve theoretical research and modeling of optical propagation through atmospheric turbulence. We discuss the disregard of some general properties of narrow-angle propagation in refractive random media, the careless use of simplified models of turbulence, and omissions in the calculations of the second moment of the propagating wave. We also review some misconceptions regarding short-exposure imaging, propagation of polarized waves, and calculations of the scintillation index of the beam waves. PMID:22561929
Badenhorst, Elmi; Mamede, Sílvia; Hartman, Nadia; Schmidt, Henk G
Research has indicated that misconceptions hamper the process of knowledge construction. Misconceptions are defined as persistent ideas not supported by current scientific views. Few studies have explored how misconceptions develop when first year health students conceptually move between anatomy and physiology to construct coherent knowledge about the human body. This explorative study analysed lecturers' perceptions of first-year health science students' misconceptions in anatomy and physiology to gain a deeper understanding of how and why misconceptions could potentially arise, by attempting to link sources of misconceptions with four schools of thought, namely theories on concept formation, complexity, constructivism and conceptual change. This was a qualitative study where ten lecturers involved in teaching anatomy and physiology in the health science curricula at the University of Cape Town were interviewed to explore perceptions of students' misconceptions. Analytical induction was used to uncover categories within the interview data by using a coding system. A deeper analysis was done to identify emerging themes that begins to explore a theoretical understanding of why and how misconceptions arise. Nine sources of misconceptions were identified, including misconceptions related to language, perception, three dimensional thinking, causal reasoning, curricula design, learning styles and moving between macro and micro levels. The sources of misconceptions were then grouped together to assist educators with finding educational interventions to overcome potential misconceptions. This explorative study is an attempt in theory building to understand what is at the core of biomedical misconceptions. Misconceptions identified in this study hold implications for educators as not all students have the required building blocks and cognitive skills to successfully navigate their way through biomedical courses. Theoretical insight into the sources of misconceptions can assist educators in addressing potential hampering factors in the construction of coherent scientific knowledge. PMID:25099944
Meir, Eli; Perry, Judy; Herron, Jon C.; Kingsolver, Joel
Evolution is at the center of the biological sciences and is therefore a required topic for virtually every college biology student. Over the past year, the authors have been building a new simulation software package called EvoBeaker to teach college-level evolutionary biology through simulated experiments. They have built both micro and…
Calculators used widely by students, teachers, scientists, engineers and many others provide an interesting case study of a compelling technology that has helped change the way many professionals work. They not only help in enhancing problem solving skills of most individuals, but also help visualise solutions to problems in a better way. Research…
Collins, Anne; Dacey, Linda
"The Zeroing in on Number and Operations" series, which aligns with the Common Core State Standards and the NCTM Standards and Focal Points, features easy-to-use tools for teaching key concepts in number and operations and for addressing common misconceptions. Sharing the insights they've gained in decades of mathematics teaching and research,…
Dacey, Linda; Collins, Anne
"The Zeroing in on Number and Operations" series, which aligns with the Common Core State Standards and the NCTM Standards on Focal Points, features easy-to-use tools for teaching key concepts in number and operations and for addressing common misconceptions. Sharing the insights they've gained through decades of mathematics teaching and research,…
Dacey, Linda; Collins, Anne
"The Zeroing in on Number and Operations" series, which aligns with the Common Core State Standards and the NCTM Standards and Focal Points, features easy-to-use tools for teaching key concepts in number and operations and for addressing common misconceptions. Sharing the insights they've gained in decades of mathematics teaching and research,…
Collins, Anne; Dacey, Linda
"The Zeroing in on Number and Operations" series, which aligns with the Common Core State Standards and the NCTM Sandards and Focal Points, features easy-to-use tools for teaching key concepts in number and operations and for addressing common misconceptions. Sharing the insights they've gained through decades of mathematics teaching and research,…
Dacey, Linda; Collins, Anne
"The Zeroing in on Number and Operations" series, which aligns with the Common Core State Standards and the NCTM Standards on Focal Points, features easy-to-use tools for teaching key concepts in number and operations and for addressing common misconceptions. Sharing the insights they've gained through decades of mathematics teaching and research,…
Froehle, Peter; Miller, Charles H.
An interesting, quick, and inexpensive lab that we do with our students is to tape one end of a string just less than halfway around the back side of a uniform solid cylinder m1 and attach the other end of the string to a mass m2 that is below a pulley (Fig. 1). Data can be collected using either an Ultra Pulley (Fig. 2) or a motion detector with a protective cage designed to stop the falling mass (Fig. 3). We found that each measuring device worked equally well. When experimenting, let m2 hang freely and release the cylinder. The mass m2 is allowed to fall a defined distance h. Note that many motion detectors do not measure accurately within 15 cm of the detector.
Temiz, B. K.; Yavuz, A.
Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in frictionless outer space were investigated. The research was formed according to an epistemic game theoretical framework. The term ‘epistemic’ refers to students’ participation in problem-solving activities as a means of constructing new knowledge. The term ‘game’ refers to a coherent activity that consists of moves and rules. A set of questions in which students are asked to solve two similar Newton's second law problems, one of which is on the Earth and the other in outer space, was administered to 116 undergraduate students. The findings indicate that there is a significant difference between students’ epistemic game preferences and race-type (outer space or frictional surface) question. So students who used Newton's second law on the ground did not apply this law and used primitive reasoning when it came to space. Among these students, voluntary interviews were conducted with 18 students. Analysis of interview transcripts showed that: (1) the term ‘space’ causes spontaneity among students that prevents the use of the law; (2) students hesitate to apply Newton's second law in space due to the lack of a condition—the friction; (3) students feel that Newton's second law is not valid in space for a variety of reasons, but mostly for the fact that the body in space is not in contact with a surface.
Capa, Yesim; Yildirim, Ali; Ozden, M. Yasar
The aims of this study were to diagnose students' misconceptions concerning photosynthesis and respiration in plants, and to investigate reasons behind these misconceptions. The subjects were 45 ninth grade high school students and 11 high school teachers. Data were collected by interview technique. All of the interviews were audiotaped and…
Kaewkhong, Kreetha; Mazzolini, Alex; Emarat, Narumon; Arayathanitkul, Kwan
This article investigates the optics misconceptions of 220 year 11 Thai high-school students. These misconceptions became apparent when the students attempted to explain how an object submerged in a water tank is "seen" by an observer looking into the tank from above and at an angle. The two diagnostic questions used in the study probe the…
Klymkowsky, Michael W.; Taylor, Linda B.; Spindler, Shana R.; Garvin-Doxas, R. Kathy
The misconceptions that students bring with them, or that arise during instruction, are a critical barrier to learning. Implicit-confidence tests, a simple modification of the multiple-choice test, can be used as a strategy for recognizing student misconceptions. An important issue, however, is whether such tests are gender-neutral. We analyzed…
Pérez Cañado, María Luisa
The present article seeks to overcome some of the most common misconceptions which are currently proliferating in the application of the "European Credit Transfer System" (ECTS) at tertiary level. It presents and unpacks seven false myths affecting all the main curricular and organizational levels of the implementation of the new credit…
This article discusses in its first part three common misconceptions related to the operation of distance education providers in the digital age: The tendency to relate to e-learning as the new generation of distance education; the confusion between ends and means of distance education; and the absence of the teachers' crucial role in the…
Nakiboglu, Canan; Tekin, Berna Bulbul
This study represents the first attempt to elucidate and detail the types of misconceptions high school students hold relating to basic concepts and topics of nuclear chemistry. A diagnostic multiple-choice test was administered to 157 tenth-grade students (15-16 years old) and the data were analyzed. The results show that high school students…
K. M. Kortz; J. M. Smay; A. V. Mattera; S. K. Clark
In order to address student difficulties with and common misconceptions about plate tectonics, we created five Lecture Tutorials suitable for introductory geoscience courses. Lecture Tutorials are 10-15 minute worksheets that students complete in class in small groups to make learning more student-centered. Students build their knowledge with questions that progressively become more difficult, requiring them think about their misconceptions. Our
Baig, Mukhtiar; Habib, Hamed; H. Haji, Abdullah; T. Alsharief, Faisal; M. Noor, Abdulelah; G. Makki, Riyadh
Objective: To determine the knowledge, misconceptions and motivations towards blood donation among university students in KSA. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out at the King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh campus, Jeddah, KSA. A total of 326 adult males were interviewed and each individual completed a questionnaire in Arabic language on various aspects of blood donation. Data was analyzed using SPSS-16. Results: Out of 326 individuals, 264 (80.98%) were non donors and 62 (19.02%) were donors, 13% donated once, 5% donated twice and 1% donating regularly. Regarding the knowledge part of the questionnaire many of the respondents did not have the basic knowledge and the two common sources of information for blood donation were friends (53%), and TV (24%). The major motivations for donors were to help family or friend (30%), saving others lives (28%), religious reasons (20%) and altruism (12%). Among the respondents the most prevalent misconception was contracting infection like HIV or Hepatitis B&C (26%). Conclusion: The knowledge of blood donation is not up to the mark and many misconceptions exist among young Saudi University students. PMID:24550940
Mark Markes; Emily Reiser
Studies have indicated that student misconceptions negatively impact the effectiveness of physics education. Research has also shown that activity based instruction (ABI) has greater effectiveness than lecture based instruction (LBI) in many applications. This paper examines the effect of ABI on the persistent misconceptions of physics students. A persistent misconception is defined for an LBI student as identical wrong answers
An, Shuhua; Wu, Zhonghe
This study focuses on teacher learning of student thinking through grading homework, assessing and analyzing misconceptions. The data were collected from 10 teachers at fifth-eighth grade levels in the USA. The results show that assessing and analyzing misconceptions from grading homework is an important approach to acquiring knowledge of…
Seppala, Otto; Malmi, Lauri; Korhonen, Ari
Data structures and algorithms are core issues in computer programming. However, learning them is challenging for most students and many of them have various types of misconceptions on how algorithms work. In this study, we discuss the problem of identifying misconceptions on the principles of how algorithms work. Our context is algorithm…
Studies have indicated that student misconceptions negatively impact the effectiveness of physics education. Research has also indicated that activity based instruction (ABI) has greater effectiveness than lecture based instruction (LBI) in many applications. It is natural to define a persistent misconception as the same wrong answer, for a given question, on pre and post evaluation tests. However, in practice, it
Hughes, Sean; Lyddy, Fiona; Kaplan, Robin; Nichols, Austin Lee; Miller, Haylie; Saad, Carmel Gabriel; Dukes, Kristin; Lynch, Amy-Jo
Although past research has documented the prevalence of misconceptions in introductory psychology classes, few studies have assessed how readily upper-level undergraduate and graduate students endorse erroneous beliefs about the discipline. In Study 1, we administered a 30-item misconception test to an international sample of 670 undergraduate,…
Furnham, Adrian; Hughes, David J.
This study examined the prevalence of psychological myths and misconceptions among psychology students and within the general population. In total, 829 participants completed a 249-item questionnaire designed to measure a broad range of psychological myths. Results revealed that psychological myths and misconceptions are numerous and widely held.…
Carbo, Antonio Domenech; Adelantado, Jose Vicente Gimeno; Reig, Francisco Bosch
Misconceptions of chemistry and chemical engineering university students concerning instrumental analysis have been established from coordinated tests, tutorial interviews and laboratory lessons. Misconceptions can be divided into: (1) formal, involving specific concepts and formulations within the general frame of chemistry; (2)…
Tessa M. Andrews; Steven T. Kalinowski; Mary J. Leonard
Natural selection is an important mechanism in the unifying biological theory of evolution, but many undergraduate students\\u000a struggle to learn this concept. Students enter introductory biology courses with predictable misconceptions about natural\\u000a selection, and traditional teaching methods, such as lecturing, are unlikely to dispel these misconceptions. Instead, students\\u000a are more likely to learn natural selection when they are engaged in
Yates, Tony Brett
In order to eliminate student misconceptions concerning biological evolution, it is important to identify their sources. The purposes of this study were to: (a) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma public high school Biology I teachers; (b) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma…
Understanding and applying statistical concepts is essential in modern life. However, common statistical misconceptions limit the ability of students to understand statistical concepts. Although simulation-based computer assisted learning (CAL) is promising for use in students learning statistics, substantial improvement is still needed. For…
Al-Rubayea, Abdullah A. M.
This study was conducted to explore Saudi high students' misconceptions in selected physics concepts. It also detected the effects of gender, grade level and location of school on Saudi high school students' misconceptions. In addition, a further analysis of students' misconceptions in each question was investigated and a correlation between students' responses, confidence in answers and sensibleness was conducted. There was an investigation of sources of students' answers in this study. Finally, this study included an analysis of students' selection of reasons only in the instrument. The instrument used to detect the students' misconceptions was a modified form of the Misconception Identification in Science Questionnaire (MISQ). This instrument was developed by Franklin (1992) to detected students' misconceptions in selected physics concepts. This test is a two-tier multiple choice test that examines four areas of physics: Force and motion, heat and temperature, light and color and electricity and magnetism. This study included a sample of 1080 Saudi high school students who were randomly selected from six Saudi educational districts. This study also included both genders, the three grade levels of Saudi high schools, six different educational districts, and a city and a town in each educational district. The sample was equally divided between genders, grade levels, and educational districts. The result of this study revealed that Saudi Arabian high school students hold numerous misconceptions about selected physics concepts. It also showed that tenth grade students were significantly different than the other grades. The result also showed that different misconceptions are held by the students for each concept in the MISQ. A positive correlation between students' responses, confidence in answers and sensibleness in many questions was shown. In addition, it showed that guessing was the most dominant source of misconceptions. The result revealed that gender and grade level had an affect on students' choice of decision on the MISQ items. A positive change in the means of gender and grade levels in the multiple choice test and gender differences in selection of reason may be associated with specific concepts. No significant difference in frequencies of the reasons chosen by the student to justify their answers were found in most of the items (10 items).
Philips, William C.
Presented is a list of over 50 commonly held misconceptions based on a literature review found in students and adults. The list covers earth science topics such as space, the lithosphere, the biosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the cryosphere. (KR)
Students' misconceptions before or after formal instruction have become a major concern among researchers in science education because they influence how students learn new scientific knowledge, play an essential role in subsequent learning and become a hindrance in acquiring the correct body of knowledge. In this paper some students'…
Misischia, Cynthia M.
A large number of undergraduate students have naive understandings about the processes of Diffusion and Osmosis. Some students overcome these misconceptions, but others do not. The study involved nineteen undergraduate movement science students at a Midwest University. Participants' were asked to complete a short answer (fill-in the blank) test,…
Haslam, Filocha; Treagust, David F.
Describes a multiple-choice instrument that reliably and validly diagnoses secondary students' understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plants. Highlights the consistency of students' misconceptions across secondary levels and indicates a high percentage of students have misconceptions regarding plant physiology. (CW)
Chee, Chia Teck
This study was designed to identify students' misconceptions concerning frictional force, and Newton's laws of motion. It was also designed to determine the effectiveness of using instructions based on students' misconceptions to improve the teaching of physics. A pencil-and-paper test was administered to three groups of 16-year-old students:…
Andrews, T. M.; Price, R. M.; Mead, L. S.; McElhinny, T. L.; Thanukos, A.; Perez, K. E.; Herreid, C. F.; Terry, D. R.; Lemons, P. P.
This study explores biology undergraduates' misconceptions about genetic drift. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to describe students' definitions, identify common misconceptions, and examine differences before and after instruction on genetic drift. We identify and describe five overarching categories that include 16 distinct…
Libarkin, J.; Anderson, S. W.; Boone, W. J.; Beilfuss, M.; Dahl, J.
We developed and began pilot testing of an earth science assessment tool called the geoscience concept test (GCT). The GCT uses student misconceptions as distractors in a 30 item multiple-choice instrument. Student misconceptions were first assessed through the analysis of nearly 300 questionnaires administered in introductory geology courses at three institutions. Results from the questionnaires guided the development of an interview protocol that was used by four interviewers at four different institutions. Over 100 in-depth student interviews lasting from 0.5 to 1 hour probed topics related to the Earth's interior, geologic time, and the formation of Earth surface features such as mountains and volcanoes to better define misconceptions. Thematic content analysis of the interviews identified a number of widely held misconceptions, which were then incorporated into the GCT as multiple-choice distractors (wrong answers). For content validity, the initial GCT was reviewed by seven experts (3 geoscientists and 4 science educators) and revised before pilot testing. Approximately 100 introductory and non-science major college students from four institutions were assessed with the GCT pilot in the spring of 2002. Rasch model analysis of this data showed that students found the pilot test difficult, and the level of difficulty was consistent between the four institutions. Analysis of individual items showed that students had fewer misconceptions regarding the locations of earthquakes, and many misconceptions regarding the locations of volcanoes on the Earth's surface, suggesting a disconnect in their understanding of the role of plate tectonics in these phenomena. Analysis of the misfit statistic for each item showed that none of the questions misfit, although we dropped one question and modified the wording of another for clarity in the next round of piloting. A second round of piloting scheduled for the fall of 2002 includes nearly 3000 students from 34 institutions in 19 states.
Larkin, Teresa L.
in physics while the learning is actually taking place. This early discovery allows students to confrontUsing Writing to Confront Student Misconceptions in Physics Teresa L. Hein Assistant Professor of Physics Education American University Department of Physics 4400 Massachusetts Ave. NW Washington, DC
Welder, Rachael M.
Through historical and contemporary research, educators have identified widespread misconceptions and difficulties faced by students in learning algebra. Many of these universal issues stem from content addressed long before students take their first algebra course. Yet elementary and middle school teachers may not understand how the subtleties of…
The purpose of this study is to explore students' understanding levels and misconceptions about temperature and factors affecting it. The concept of the study was chosen from Geography National Curriculum. In this study, a questionnaire was developed after a pilot study with an aim to ascertain the students' understanding levels of temperature and…
In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the persistence of misconceptions in the topic of the human blood circulatory system among students in different grade levels. For this reason, after discussions with biology educators, two tests consisting of open-ended questions were developed by the researcher and administered to students in four…
Yücel, Elif Özata; Özkan, Mulis
In this study, we determined cognitive structures and misconceptions about basic ecological concepts by using "word association" tests on secondary school students, age between 12-14 years. Eighty-nine students participated in this study. Before WAT was generated, basic ecological concepts that take place in the secondary science…
Topal, Giray; Oral, Behcet; Ozden. Mustafa
Aromaticity concept is given incorrect or incomplete to the student in secondary education and knowledge based on this basic concept has been caused to another misconception in future. How are the achievement levels relating to the comprehension of various characteristics of aromatic compounds for the first and third grade students attending…
Gisbert, Javier P; Chaparro, María; Gomollón, Fernando
Misconceptions are common in the care of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this paper, we state the most commonly found misconceptions in clinical practice and deal with the use of 5-aminosalicylates and thiopurines, to review the related scientific evidence, and make appropriate recommendations. Prevention of errors needs knowledge to avoid making such errors through ignorance. However, the amount of knowledge is increasing so quickly that one new danger is an overabundance of information. IBD is a model of a very complex disease and our goal with this review is to summarize the key evidence for the most common daily clinical problems. With regard to the use of 5-aminosalicylates, the best practice may to be consider abandoning the use of these drugs in patients with small bowel Crohn’ s disease. The combined approach with oral plus topical 5-aminosalicylates should be the first-line therapy in patients with active ulcerative colitis; once-daily treatment should be offered as a first choice regimen due to its better compliance and higher efficacy. With regard to thiopurines, they seem to be as effective in ulcerative colitis as in Crohn’ s disease. Underdosing of thiopurines is a form of undertreatment. Thiopurines should probably be continued indefinitely because their withdrawal is associated with a high risk of relapse. Mercaptopurine is a safe alternative in patients with digestive intolerance or hepatotoxicity due to azathioprine. Finally, thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) screening cannot substitute for regular monitoring because the majority of cases of myelotoxicity are not TPMT-related. PMID:21941413
Butler, J.; Mooney Simmie, G.; O'Grady, A.
Students' and teachers' misconceptions are an international concern among researchers in science education; they influence how students learn and teachers' teach knowledge and are a hindrance in the acquisition of accurate knowledge. This paper reports on a literature synthesis of existing research about ecological misconceptions. One means of…
Marques, Luis; Thompson, David
This study investigates student misconceptions in the areas of continent, ocean, permanence of ocean basins, continental drift, Earth's magnetic field, and plates and plate motions. A teaching-learning model was designed based on a constructivist approach. Results show that students held a substantial number of misconceptions. (Author/DKM)
Previous research has revealed that students may hold several misconceptions regarding fundamental topics of chemistry. With the idea that teachers play a critical role in diagnosis and remediation of students' misconceptions, a "course" for preservice chemistry teachers was designed. The purpose of this study was to describe the views and…
Studies have indicated that student misconceptions negatively impact the effectiveness of physics education. Research has also indicated that activity based instruction (ABI) has greater effectiveness than lecture based instruction (LBI) in many applications. It is natural to define a persistent misconception as the same wrong answer, for a given question, on pre and post evaluation tests. However, in practice, it is not possible to directly examine the impact of ABI on persistent misconceptions defined in this way because students cannot be returned to their pre-instruction state and re-instructed using ABI. In this paper an indirect method of determining the effect of ABI on persistent misconceptions is presented using the FMCE as an evaluation instrument. The unique feature of this analysis is the use of the occasional right to wrong responses as indicators of the change in probability for wrong to different wrong responses. Given this change in probability it is possible to determine the change in probability of wrong to same wrong responses: i.e. persistent misconceptions. The details of this analysis will be presented in the paper.
Ozgur, Sami; Pelitoglu, Fatma Cildir
In this study, the misconceptions emerged as a result of instruction were examined from the viewpoint of the Didactic Transposition Theory. To this end, two randomly selected sample groups (n = 33 and n = 31) from the students of two nearby schools in downtown Balikesir were included in the study. It was observed that different knowledge…
Pre-service science teachers' conceptual understanding of astronomical concepts and their misconceptions in these concepts is crucial to study since they will teach these subjects in middle schools after becoming teachers. This study aimed to explore both seventh-grade students' and the science teachers' understanding of astronomical concepts and…
Many researchers believe that prior knowledge is the single most important variable influencing learning. Learning in the classroom is determined or affected positively or negatively, to some degree, by the knowledge people bring to the classroom. This study was designed to: (1) assess fifth- and eighth-grade Korean students' misconceptions of…
Muzangwa, Jonatan; Chifamba, Peter
This paper is going to analyse errors and misconceptions in an undergraduate course in Calculus. The study will be based on a group of 10 BEd. Mathematics students at Great Zimbabwe University. Data is gathered through use of two exercises on Calculus 1&2.The analysis of the results from the tests showed that a majority of the errors were due…
Özalp, Dilek; Kahveci, Ajda
Student conceptions related with matter and the particulate nature of matter (PNM), are vital for advanced understanding in chemistry, and have been a research area of significant attention. Lacking in the literature are studies addressing chemical misconceptions from an ontological point of view. The purpose of the current study was to develop a…
Luxford, Cynthia J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery
Teachers use multiple representations to communicate the concepts of bonding, including Lewis structures, formulas, space-filling models, and 3D manipulatives. As students learn to interpret these multiple representations, they may develop misconceptions that can create problems in further learning of chemistry. Interviews were conducted with 28…
Treagust, David F.
Describes 10 steps for developing a diagnostic test of students' misconceptions and the use of two tests in chemistry (covalent bonding and structure) and in biology (photosynthesis and respiration in plants). Discusses the results and some implications for teaching science. (YP)
Adair, Aaron Michael
In order for Physics Education Research (PER) to achieve its goals of significant learning gains with efficient methods, it is necessary to figure out what are the sorts of preexisting issues that students have prior to instruction and then to create teaching methods that are best able to overcome those problems. This makes it necessary to figure out what is the nature of student physics misconceptions---prior beliefs that are both at variance to Newtonian mechanics and also prevent a student from properly cognizing Newtonian concepts. To understand the prior beliefs of students, it is necessary to uncover their origins, which may allow instructors to take into account the sources for ideas of physics that are contrary to Newtonian mechanics understanding. That form of instruction must also induce the sorts of metacognitive processes that allow students to transition from their previous conceptions to Newtonian ones, let alone towards those of modern physics. In this paper, the notions of basic dynamics that are common among first-year college students are studied and compared with previous literature. In particular, an analysis of historical documents from antiquity up to the early modern period shows that these conceptions were rather widespread and consistent over thousands of years and in numerous cultural contexts. This is one of the only analyses in PER that considers the original languages of some of these texts, along with appropriate historical scholarship. Based on the consistent appearance of these misconceptions, a test and interview module was devised to help elucidate the feelings students have that may relate to fictitious forces. The test looked at one-dimensional motion and forces. The first part of the interview asked each student about their answers to the test questions, while the second part asked how students felt when undergoing three cases of constant acceleration in a car. We determined that students confabulated relative motion with the experience of force; students claim to feel a force in the direction of relative motion even when the actual force is in the opposite direction. The interview process also showed how students had both their intuitive sense of physics as well as Newtonian concepts from instruction, and how each model was activated could be influenced by questions from the interviewer. In order to investigate how changes to instructional method and pedagogy may affect students' ability to overcome their non-Newtonian intuitions, an experimental lecturing series was devised that used individual voting machines ("clickers") to increase class participation and dialog in a fashion that was more student-centered. The experimental section also had video recordings of the lectures as well as concept-based video homework solutions. The initial availability of the videos hindered early use, and overall students rarely used these additions. The clicker system also had technical issues due to the volume of students and an interface that was not streamlined. Nonetheless, the results showed the experimental section to have significantly greater learning gains (d > 0.5, p ˜ 0.01), and we determined that this was most likely due to the clicker system.
Kamcharean, Chanwit; Wattanakasiwich, Pornrat
The objective of this study was to diagnose misconceptions of Thai and Lao students in thermodynamics by using a two-tier multiple-choice test. Two-tier multiple choice questions consist of the first tier, a content-based question and the second tier, a reasoning-based question. Data of student understanding was collected by using 10 two-tier multiple-choice questions. Thai participants were the first-year students (N = 57) taking a fundamental physics course at Chiang Mai University in 2012. Lao participants were high school students in Grade 11 (N = 57) and Grade 12 (N = 83) at Muengnern high school in Xayaboury province, Lao PDR. As results, most students answered content-tier questions correctly but chose incorrect answers for reason-tier questions. When further investigating their incorrect reasons, we found similar misconceptions as reported in previous studies such as incorrectly relating pressure with temperature when presenting with multiple variables.
The conceptual change literature indicates the presence of robust, strongly-held misconceptions in thermal science (e.g., heat transfer, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics) even after many years of formal and informal learning. For example, data collected using the Thermal and Transport concept inventory suggests that a significant number of seniors in chemical and mechanical engineering confuse the rate of energy transfer vs. the amount transferred, do not understand how temperature and energy are related, and believe that the thermal efficiency of a heat engine can be increased to 100% if all heat losses and mechanical efficiencies are eliminated. While concept inventories are one method for identifying student misconceptions, we are now exploring the development and use of a new pedagogical technique called model-eliciting activities (MEAs). MEAs were first developed to elicit problem-solving strategies from students in mathematics classes, but have now been expanded to other disciplines including ethics and engineering science2,3. Through a collaborative, large-scale National Science Foundation project, MEAs are now being developed to elicit student misconceptions about important but poorly understood concepts in thermal science. For example, misconceptions about the second law of thermodynamics and its effect on energy quality are being explored in an MEA where students estimate the overall thermal efficiency of electric vs. hybrid vs. gasoline cars. Student teams must use a systems approach and include all relevant energy conversion steps in their problem solving process. In this paper, we will describe MEAs and how they are being used for misconception identification. Potential MEA topics and a sample MEA are provided and discussed in detail.
Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.
As has been shown by previous research, students may possess various misconceptions in the area of thermal physics. In order to help them overcome misconceptions observed prior to instruction, we implemented a one-hour lecture-based intervention in their introductory thermal physics course. The intervention was held after the conventional lectures…
Emily M. Reiser; Mark E. Markes
Studies indicate that pre-existing misconceptions negatively impact the effectiveness of traditional physics education. Research has also shown that activity based instruction improves posttest scores on conceptual evaluations. However, the specific effect of activity based instruction on students who have pre-existing misconceptions that lecture instruction fails to remove is an important but unanswered question due to the impossibility of instructing a
Brown, C. R.
Discussed are problems revealed in student responses to a practical task which formed part of an advanced level examination. The frequencies with which some misconceptions about cell reproduction and genetics occurred are presented. The nature of these misconceptions is analyzed and their implications discussed. (CW)
Investigates the effects of conceptual assignments and conceptual change discussions on high school students' achievement and misconceptions about force and motion. Analyzes pretest and posttest data from the Force Misconception and Force Achievement Tests (FMFAT). Discusses the effects on the conceptual change discussion on reducing…
LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.
Misconceptions that students bring with them to the introductory science classroom plague every area of science and are especially prevalent in astronomy. One way to identify and possibly dispel some of these misconceptions is through the use of a misconceptions survey. The following is a report on the development, implementation, and some early…
INTRODUCTION: THE IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH The equal sign is indispensable in mathematical understanding, from basic arithmetic to more advanced mathematics; students need to have a solid foundation of this concept in order to be successful (McNeil & Alibali..., and carry these misconceptions with them throughout different grade levels (McNeil & Alibali, 2005; Alibali, Knuth, Hattikudur, McNeil, & Stepehens, 2007). Furthermore, students end up developing an operational sense of the equal sign because...
Sencar, Selen; Eryilmaz, Ali
This study was designed to identify and analyze possible factors that mediate the effect of gender on ninth-grade Turkish students' misconceptions concerning electric circuits. A Simple Electric Circuit Concept Test (SECCT), including items with both practical and theoretical contexts, and an Interest-Experience Questionnaire about Electricity (IEQ) were administered to 1,678 ninth-grade students (764 male, 914 female) after the completion of a unit on electricity to assess students' misconceptions and interests-experiences about electricity. Results of the concept test indicated that general performances of the students were relatively low and that many students had misconceptions in interpreting electric circuits. When the data were analyzed using MANOVA and follow-up ANOVAs, a gender difference for males was observed on the dependent variable of total scores on the 10 practical items; however, there was no significant gender difference on the dependent variable of total scores on the six theoretical items. Moreover, when the same data were analyzed using MANCOVA and follow-up ANCOVAs, controlling students' age and interest-experience related to electricity, the observed gender difference was mediated on the total scores on the practical items.
Hermann, Ronald; Lewis, Bradford F.
Over the course of history, scientists have constructed models and equations that provide insight into the motions of the heavens. However, research indicates many people hold alternative conceptions that, to them, explain the same observable phenomenon. Science educators have found that students learning about lunar phases may hold misconceptions…
Mills Shaw, Kenna R; Van Horne, Katie; Zhang, Hubert; Boughman, Joann
National educational organizations have called upon scientists to become involved in K-12 education reform. From sporadic interaction with students to more sustained partnerships with teachers, the engagement of scientists takes many forms. In this case, scientists from the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), the Genetics Society of America (GSA), and the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) have partnered to organize an essay contest for high school students as part of the activities surrounding National DNA Day. We describe a systematic analysis of 500 of 2443 total essays submitted in response to this contest over 2 years. Our analysis reveals the nature of student misconceptions in genetics, the possible sources of these misconceptions, and potential ways to galvanize genetics education. PMID:18245328
Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Van Horne, Katie; Zhang, Hubert; Boughman, Joann
National educational organizations have called upon scientists to become involved in K–12 education reform. From sporadic interaction with students to more sustained partnerships with teachers, the engagement of scientists takes many forms. In this case, scientists from the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), the Genetics Society of America (GSA), and the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) have partnered to organize an essay contest for high school students as part of the activities surrounding National DNA Day. We describe a systematic analysis of 500 of 2443 total essays submitted in response to this contest over 2 years. Our analysis reveals the nature of student misconceptions in genetics, the possible sources of these misconceptions, and potential ways to galvanize genetics education. PMID:18245328
Rogers, Richard; Fiduccia, Chelsea E; Robinson, Emily V; Steadham, Jennifer A; Drogin, Eric Y
In Miranda v. Arizona (1966), the Supreme Court of the United States required that custodial suspects be apprised of their Constitutional rights against self-incrimination. The Court could not have anticipated the rampant popularization of Miranda warnings in subsequent movies and television dramas. Influenced by public media, many arrestees assume that they already "know" their rights, with no awareness of their misconceptions. The current investigation examines whether repeated exposures to Miranda warnings performs any "curative" function (i.e., dispelling common Miranda misconceptions held by pretrial defendants). The accumulative effects of five different Miranda warnings were tested over a several-hour period on 260 detainees. For the nearly half (113 or 43.5%) with three or more misconceptions, improvement (i.e., ?2 fewer misconceptions) occurred for only 35 defendants. Predictably, this improved group also tended to display a better understanding of Miranda-relevant vocabulary words and a better recall of the administered Miranda warnings than their unimproved counterparts. On average, the improved group also performed better on general measures of intelligence, and listening and reading comprehension, while still evidencing substantial cognitive deficits. The curative function of Miranda advisements is considered in light of these findings. PMID:23670943
Browning, Mark; Lehman, James D.
Authors respond to criticisms by Smith in the same issue and defend their use of the term "gene" and "misconception." Authors indicate that they did not believe that the use of computers significantly skewed their data concerning student errors. (PR)
Keselman, Alla; Hundal, Savreen; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia; Bibi, Raquel; Edelman, Jay A.
This study investigates the relationship among (1) college major, (2) knowledge used in reasoning about common health beliefs, and (3) judgment about the accuracy of those beliefs. Seventy-four college students, advanced biology and non-science majors, indicated their agreement or disagreement with commonly believed, but often inaccurate,…
Danielson, Kathryn I.; Tanner, Kimberly D.
Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What…
Enrique M. Pareja
Electricity is an abstract phenomenon that students interact with every day. Interestingly enough, many eighth-grade students do not fully understand the requirements for a complete circuit. In an effort to "short-circuit" misunderstandings, the circuits unit described here was developed in a 5E instructional model (Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate) of inquiry to help students build on their prior ideas with new experiences and understanding. The primary goal for this lesson is to address the misconception that no matter where the battery and bulb are connected, a complete circuit is made (Stepans 1996).
Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva
Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…
Libarkin, Julie C.; Asghar, Anila; Crockett, C.; Sadler, Philip
The importance of nonvisible wavelengths for the study of astronomy suggests that student understanding of nonvisible light is an important consideration in astronomy classrooms. Questionnaires, interviews, and panel discussions were used to investigate 6-12 student and teacher conceptions of ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR). Alternative…
Markes, Mark; Reiser, Emily
Studies have indicated that student misconceptions negatively impact the effectiveness of physics education. Research has also shown that activity based instruction (ABI) has greater effectiveness than lecture based instruction (LBI) in many applications. This paper examines the effect of ABI on the persistent misconceptions of physics students. A persistent misconception is defined for an LBI student as identical wrong answers on pre and posttests, using the Force and Motion Concept Evaluation. To evaluate the effect of ABI on persistent misconceptions, pretest and posttest responses were divided into wrong to same wrong (ww), wrong to different wrong (ww'), and wrong to right (wr). The effect of ABI was modeled as a transfer of probability among these three response groups. Results indicate that ABI obtains about equal gains from the ww' and ww groups with the transfer from ww to ww' small in comparison. This indicates that ABI is about equally effective with students who have persistent misconceptions and students who do not have persistent misconceptions.
Papazian, Clement E.
The author presents a "working model" approach to use with parents in explaining the nature of their reading/learning disabled child's problem, with particular emphasis on medication intervention. Ten misconceptions regarding attentional deficit disorder (ADD) are addressed: (1) a neurological examination and a brain wave test are essential in…
Yin, Yue; Tomita, Miki K.; Shavelson, Richard J.
When students enter the classroom, they often hold prior knowledge or conceptions about the natural world. These conceptions will influence how they come to understand what they are taught in school. Some of their existing knowledge provides good foundation for formal schooling, but other prior conceptions, however, are incompatible with currently…
Emily M. Reiser; Mark E. Markes
Studies indicate that pre-existing misconceptions negatively impact the\\u000aeffectiveness of traditional physics education. Research has also shown that\\u000aactivity based instruction improves posttest scores on conceptual evaluations.\\u000aHowever, the specific effect of activity based instruction on students who have\\u000apre-existing misconceptions that lecture instruction fails to remove is an\\u000aimportant but unanswered question due to the impossibility of instructing a
Students at all ages hold a wide variety of scientifically faulty knowledge structures called “misconceptions”. As far as misconceptions in chemistry are concerned, college science students are no exception. Systematic administration to freshman biology majors of specially-designed mid-term and term higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS)-oriented examinations within the courses “General and Inorganic Chemistry” and “Introduction to Modern Organic Chemistry” proved these examinations to be very effective in revealing and distinguishing between students' misconceptions, misunderstandings, and “no conceptions”. Several of these have never been mentioned before in the relevant research literature. Accordingly, reflective teaching strategies to overcome this “misconceptions problem” and affect meaningfully subsequent learning have been explored and implemented within our longitudinal effort to develop students' HOCS. The study results combined with accumulated experience indicate that properly designed HOCS-oriented examinations may be very effective for revealing, but not per se for overcoming, students' misconceptions. However, within HOCS-oriented chemistry teaching, the assessment of students by such examinations is very useful particularly for providing data for remediation purposes via appropriate modification of the teaching strategies. Eventually, this leads to gains in students' HOCS which is in line with the overall goal of the current reform in science education.
Misischia, Cynthia M.
A large number of undergraduate students have naive understandings about the processes of Diffusion and Osmosis. Some students overcome these misconceptions, but others do not. The study involved nineteen undergraduate movement science students at a Midwest University. Participants' were asked to complete a short answer (fill-in the blank) test, and if possible participate in a follow-up interview. The researcher constructed short answer test that consisted of a three-tier structure that required students to generate answers, diminishing the influence found in two-tiered instruments such as 'recognition' of correct answers and test taking skills More importantly, each level built upon knowledge demonstrated in the previous tier; this allowed the researcher to determine where the breakdown occurred. Part one of the test consisted of 9 questions that prompted students to provide short answer definitions. Part two of the exam consisted of 7 questions that contained two parts. The first question required a true or false answer and the second required a brief explanation. The final part of the test consisted of 12 questions related to three scenarios. After each question students were also asked to record how confident they were with their answers on a three point scale. This helped to determine whether students had 'confidence' in their answers, or if they were just guessing. A total of three students agreed to participate in audio-recorded interviews. Descriptive and correlational data was used in the analysis of this study. This data included: (1) test; (2) interview; (3); Point biserial correlation coefficients; (4) Cronbach's alpha correlation coefficients; (5) Kendall's Tau-b correlation coefficients; (5) and error pattern analysis Evidence from this study demonstrates that students do have misconceptions, about the processes of diffusion and osmosis.
Browning, Mark E.; Lehman, James D.
A genetics problem practice program and tutor on microcomputer was used by 135 undergraduate education majors enrolled in an introductory biology course at Purdue University. The program presented four genetics problems, two monohybrid and two dihybrid, and required the users to predict the number and type of each class of offspring. Student responses were recorded on diskette and analyzed for evidence of misconceptions and difficulties in the genetics problem-solving process. Three main areas of difficulty were identified: difficulties with computational skills, difficulties in the determination of gametes, and inappropriate application of previous learning to new problem situations.
Akbas, Yavuz; Gencturk, Ebru
The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of teaching based on conceptual change overcome misconceptions of 9th grade high school students about the subject of air pressure. The sampling of the study was formed with two classes of 9th grade students from a general high school in the city-center of Trabzon. A quasi-experimental…
Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.
Investigates the effects of both computer animations of microscopic chemical processes occurring in a galvanic cell and conceptual-change instruction based on chemical demonstrations on students' conceptions of current flow in electrolyte solutions. Finds that conceptual change instruction was effective at dispelling student misconceptions but…
Luís Marques; David Thompson
The study investigates the misconceptions of Portuguese students aged 16?17 in an area of science education, earth science education, which is insufficiently researched. Students’ ideas of the following concepts were probed: continent, ocean, permanence of ocean basins, continental drift, the Earth's magnetic field, and plates and plate motions. Interviews were carried out and a questionnaire was administered to a total
Bowen, Shannon A.
Addresses public speaking students' preconceptions as they begin their study and the misconceptions to which they ascribe. Finds that students often enter the basic course unaware of a management focus, shocked by the level of strategic decision making required of practitioners, and surprised by the amount of research knowledge and activity…
Montecinos, Alicia M
A partially unusual behaviour was found among 14 sophomore students of civil engineering who took a pre test for a free fall laboratory session, in the context of a general mechanics course. An analysis contemplating mathematics models and physics models consistency was made. In all cases, the students presented evidence favoring a correct free fall acceleration model, whilst their position component versus time, and velocity component versus time graphs revealed complex misconceptions both on the physical phenomenon and it's implicit mathematics consistency. The last suggests an inability to make satisfactory connections through definitions between graphed variables. In other words, evidence strongly suggests that students are perfectly able to memorize the free fall acceleration model, whilst not understanding it's significance at any level. This small study originated the develope and validation of a tutorial on free fall graphs for position, velocity and acceleration models, as part of a following cross u...
Miller, Brian W.; Brewer, William F.
Previous empirical studies using multiple-choice procedures have suggested that there are misconceptions about the scale of astronomical distances. The present study provides a quantitative estimate of the nature of this misconception among US university students by asking them, in an open-ended response format, to make estimates of the distances…
Miller, Ronald L.; Streveler, Ruth A.; Yang, Dazhi; Roman, Aidsa I. Santiago
This paper summarizes progress on two related lines of chemical engineering education research: 1) identifying persistent student misconceptions in thermal and transport science (fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and thermodynamics); and, 2) developing a method to help students repair these misconceptions. Progress on developing the Thermal and…
Liu, Tzu-Chien; Lin, Yi-Chun; Tsai, Chin-Chung
Correlation is an essential concept in statistics; however, students may hold misconceptions about correlation, even after receiving instruction. This study aimed to elucidate (1) the misconceptions held by senior high school students about correlation, using the tool of concept mapping along with interviewing, (2) the possible causes of these…
Ross, Katharyn E. K.; Shuell, Thomas J.
Some pre-instructional misconceptions held by children can persist through scientific instruction and resist changes. Identifying these misconceptions would be beneficial for science instruction. In this preliminary study, scores on a 60-item true-false test of knowledge and misconceptions about earthquakes were compared with previous interview…
Cooper, Linda L.; Shore, Felice S.
This paper identifies and discusses misconceptions that students have in making judgments of center and variability when data are presented graphically. An assessment addressing interpreting center and variability in histograms and stem-and-leaf plots was administered to, and follow-up interviews were conducted with, undergraduates enrolled in…
Smith, K. Christopher; Villarreal, Savannah
This article reports on the types of views and misconceptions uncovered after assessing 155 freshman general chemistry students on the concept of particle position during the reversible physical change of melting, using the Melting Cycle Instrument, which illustrates particulate-level representations of a melting-freezing cycle. Animations…
Kara, Yilmaz; Yesilyurt, Selami
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment design of instructional software programs related to the "cell division" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the cell division achievement test (CAT), the cell division concept test (CCT) and…
Kara, Yilmaz; Yesilyurt, Selami
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment software programs related to "genetic concepts" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the genetic concepts achievement test (GAT), the genetic concept test (GCT) and biology attitude scale (BAS) was…
Lazarowitz, Reuven; Lieb, Carl
A formative assessment pretest was administered to undergraduate students at the beginning of a science course in order to find out their prior knowledge, misconceptions and learning difficulties on the topic of the human respiratory system and energy issues. Those findings could provide their instructors with the valuable information required in…
Kustos, Paul Nicholas
Student difficulty in the study of probability arises in intuitively-based misconceptions derived from heuristics. One such heuristic, the one of note for this research study, is that of representativeness, in which an individual informally assesses the probability of an event based on the degree to which the event is similar to the sample from…
Simpson, William D.; Marek, Edmund A.
Do students from small high schools show fewer understandings and more misconceptions of biology concepts than students attending large high schools? Fifty students attending large high schools (enrollments exceeding 900 students) and fifty students attending small high schools (enrollments less than 150 students) were randomly selected and than evaluated on their understandings and misunderstandings of four biology concepts: diffusion, homeostasis, food production in plants, and classification of animals and plants. Students attending small high schools showed less instances of understanding and more instances of misunderstanding the concepts of diffusion and homeostasis. These differences could be related to a higher percentage of students in large schools capable of formal operations; sound understanding of diffusion and homeostasis required students to use formal operations. No difference was observed between the large and small school samples for the concepts of food production in plants and classification of plants and animals. Students in the small school sample lived in agricultural communities and their daily experiences allowed them to develop some understanding of food production in plants and prevented instances of misunderstandings from being developed. Classification of animals and plants required concrete operations to understand; therefore, students in small schools were capable of developing sound understanding as well as students from large schools.
Reiser, E M; Reiser, Emily M.; Markes, Mark E.
Studies indicate that pre-existing misconceptions negatively impact the effectiveness of traditional physics education. Research has also shown that activity based instruction improves posttest scores on conceptual evaluations. However, the specific effect of activity based instruction on students who have pre-existing misconceptions that lecture instruction fails to remove is an important but unanswered question due to the impossibility of instructing a given student by two different methods. In this paper pre and posttest Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation results are characterized in terms of wrong to same wrong, wrong to different wrong, wrong to right, etc., and a method of inferring the effect of activity based instruction on a lecture student using the right to wrong responses is presented. Results indicate that a wrong to same wrong response by a lecture student would be more likely to be converted to a wrong to right by activity based instruction than would be a wrong to different wrong response....
Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts
At the close of the Society for the Advancement of Biology Education Research conference in July 2012, one of the organizers made the comment: “Misconceptions are so yesterday.” Within the community of learning sciences, misconceptions are yesterday's news, because the term has been aligned with eradication and/or replacement of conceptions, and our knowledge about how people learn has progressed past this idea. This essay provides an overview of the discussion within the learning sciences community surrounding the term “misconceptions” and how the education community's thinking has evolved with respect to students’ conceptions. Using examples of students’ incorrect ideas about evolution and ecology, we show that students’ naïve ideas can provide the resources from which to build scientific understanding. We conclude by advocating that biology education researchers use one or more appropriate alternatives in place of the term misconception whenever possible. PMID:24006383
Kara, Y?lmaz; Ye?ilyurt, Selami
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment design of instructional software programs related to the "cell division" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the cell division achievement test (CAT), the cell division concept test (CCT) and biology attitude scale (BAS) was applied at the beginning and at the end of the research. After the treatment, general achievement in CAT increased in favor of experimental groups. Instructional software programs also had the positive effect to the awareness of students' understandings to the general functions of mitosis and meiosis. However, the current study revealed that there were still some misconceptions in the experimental groups even after the treatment. It was also noticed that only using edutainment software program significantly changed students' attitudes towards biology.
Compton, Lily; Davis, Niki; Correia, Ana-Paula
Over the last decade, online distance education has become a common mode of study in most states in the USA, where it is known as virtual schooling (VS), but many people have misconceptions about it. Pre-service teachers' personal histories as students and their preconceptions, misconceptions, and concerns influence pre-service teacher training…
Anyone who has taught neurophysiology would be aware of recurring concepts that students find difficult to understand. However, a greater problem is the development of misconceptions that may be difficult to change. For example, one common misconception is that action potentials pass directly across chemical synapses. Difficulties may be…
To fully understand the roles proteins play in cellular processes, students need to grasp complex ideas about protein structure, folding, and stability. Our current understanding of these topics is based on mathematical models and experimental data. However, protein structure, folding, and stability are often introduced as descriptive, qualitative…
Collins, Anne; Dacey, Linda
In many ways, algebra can be as challenging for teachers as it is for students. With so much emphasis placed on procedural knowledge and the manipulations of variables and symbols, it can be easy to lose sight of the key ideas that underlie algebraic thinking and the relevance algebra has to the real world. In the The Xs and Whys of Algebra: Key…
Educational video games provide an opportunity for students to interact with and explore complex representations of academic content and allow for the examination of problem-solving strategies and mistakes that can be difficult to capture in more traditional environments. However, data from such games are notoriously difficult to analyze. This…
In the 1970s a new form of outdoor trip programming appeared. Known as "common adventure," its best known trait is the absence of a designated leader. In 1970, Gary Grimm, the University of Oregon's first outdoor program coordinator, laid out the key principles: self-directed learning, formation of groups of people with similar interests to…
Chorpita, Bruce F.; Becker, Kimberly D.; Daleiden, Eric L.
In this article, the authors proposed a distillation and matching model (DMM) that describes how evidence-based treatment operations can be conceptualized at a lower order level of analysis than simply by their manuals. Also referred to as the "common elements" approach, this model demonstrates the feasibility of coding and identifying the…
Nelson, Katherine G.
The semiconductor field of Photovoltaics (PV) has experienced tremendous growth, requiring curricula to consider ways to promote student success. One major barrier to success students may face when learning PV is the development of misconceptions. The purpose of this work was to determine the presence and prevalence of misconceptions students may have for three PV semiconductor phenomena; Diffusion, Drift and Excitation. These phenomena are emergent, a class of phenomena that have certain characteristics. In emergent phenomena, the individual entities in the phenomena interact and aggregate to form a self-organizing pattern that can be observed at a higher level. Learners develop a different type of misconception for these phenomena, an emergent misconception. Participants (N=41) completed a written protocol. The pilot study utilized half of these protocols (n = 20) to determine the presence of both general and emergent misconceptions for the three phenomena. Once the presence of both general and emergent misconceptions was confirmed, all protocols (N=41) were analyzed to determine the presence and prevalence of general and emergent misconceptions, and to note any relationships among these misconceptions (full study). Through written protocol analysis of participants' responses, numerous codes emerged from the data for both general and emergent misconceptions. General and emergent misconceptions were found in 80% and 55% of participants' responses, respectively. General misconceptions indicated limited understandings of chemical bonding, electricity and magnetism, energy, and the nature of science. Participants also described the phenomena using teleological, predictable, and causal traits, indicating participants had misconceptions regarding the emergent aspects of the phenomena. For both general and emergent misconceptions, relationships were observed between similar misconceptions within and across the three phenomena, and differences in misconceptions were observed across the phenomena. Overall, the presence and prevalence of both general and emergent misconceptions indicates that learners have limited understandings of the physical and emergent mechanisms for the phenomena. Even though additional work is required, the identification of specific misconceptions can be utilized to enhance semiconductor and PV course content. Specifically, changes can be made to curriculum in order to limit the formation of misconceptions as well as promote conceptual change.
Describes misconceptions related to electronegativity, bonding, geometry, and microscopic representations that undergraduate students hold. Investigates the stability of misconceptions as a function of educational level, indicating that some students' misconceptions relating to bonding are resistant to change despite increased chemistry education.…
Many topics in introductory astronomy at the college or high-school level rely implicitly on using astronomical photographs and visual data in class. However, students bring many preconceptions to their understanding of these materials that ultimately lead to misconceptions, and research about students' interpretation of astronomical images has been scarcely conducted. In this study we probed college students' understanding of astronomical photographs and visual data about galaxies and spectra, and developed a set of concept questions based on their common misconceptions. The study was conducted mainly in three successive surveys: 1) open-ended questions looking for students' ideas and common misconceptions, 2) combined multiple-choice and open-ended questions seeking to explore student reasoning and to improve concept questions for clickers, and 3) a finalized version of the concept questions used to investigate the strength of each misconception among the students in introductory astronomy courses. This stu...
, we characterized common misconceptions and novice problem-solving processes of stu- dents who had misunderstandings and failures in the problem solving processes used by the students. This work is part that scaffolds the abilities to design, debug, and optimize. By interviewing students about their understanding
Rosenfeld, Robert P.
This article is essentially a rebuttal to Norman Macbeth's arguments against Darwinism. The author argues that one must identify the real weaknesses of evolutionary theory and not use the misconceptions put forth by Macbeth to make valid judgments. (MA)
Koklu, Oguz; Topcu, Abdullah
Pre-existing misconceptions are serious impediments to learning in mathematics. Means for detecting and correcting them have received much attention in the literature of educational research. Dynamic geometry software has been tried at different grade levels. This quasi-experimental study investigates the effect of Cabri-assisted instruction on…
Steinberg, Melvin S.; And Others
Recent research has shown that serious misconceptions frequently survive high school and university instruction in mechanics. It is interesting to inquire whether Newton himself encountered conceptual difficulties before he wrote the "Principia." This paper compares Newton's pre-"Principia" beliefs, based upon his writings, with those of…
This list is a work in progress. We are using it to build a library of (mis)information and categorize the location of the proper science. Click on the linked misconceptions to see the scientific explanations of these common mistakes courtesy of a number of informative online scientific resources. The effort to find and link more and more good science to this list is ongoing, and eventually all these misconceptions will be linked to lead to the proper science. The different topics include: stars, the solar system, galaxies, physics, black holes, cosmology and the history and philosophy of astronomy.
Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Villard, R.; Estacion, M.; Hassan, J.; Ryer, H.
A misconception is a preconceived and inaccurate view of how the world works. There are many common science misconceptions held by students and the public alike about various topics in astronomy - including but not limited to galaxies, black holes, light and color, and the solar system. It is critical to identify and address misconceptions because they can stand in the way of new learning and impeded one’s ability to apply science principals meaningfully to everyday life. In response, the News and Education teams at the Space Telescope Science Institute worked in collaboration with a consultant to develop the “Science Myths Revealed” misconception video series. The purpose of this video series is to present common astronomy misconceptions in a brief and visually engaging manner while also presenting and reinforcing the truth of the universe and celestial phenomena within it. Viewers can the watch the videos to get more information about specific astronomy misconceptions as well as the facts to dispel them. Visual cues and demonstrations provide viewers with a more concrete representation of what are often abstract and misunderstood concepts - making the videos ideal as both engagement and instructional tools. Three videos in the series have been produced and are currently being field-tested within the education community.
Pascua, Liberty; Chang, Chew-Hung
The evaluation of classroom-based educational interventions is fraught with tensions, the most critical of which is choosing between focusing the inquiry on measuring the effects of treatment or in proximately utilizing the data to improve practice. This paper attempted to achieve both goals through the use of intervention-oriented evaluation of a professional development program intended to diagnose and correct students' misconceptions of climate change. Data was gathered, monitored and analyzed in three stages of a time-series design: the baseline, treatment and follow-up stages. The evaluation itself was the 'intervention' such that the data was allowed to 'contaminate' the treatment. This was achieved through giving the teacher unimpeded access to the collected information and to introduce midcourse corrections as she saw fit to her instruction. Results showed a significant development in students' conceptual understanding only after the teacher's decision to use direct and explicit refutation of misconceptions. Due to the accessibility of feedback, it was possible to locate specifically at which point in the process that the intervention was most effective. The efficacy of the intervention was then measured through comparing the scores across the three research stages. The inclusion of a comparison group to the design is recommended for future studies. PMID:25935362
Gardner, Rick M.; Hund, Renee M.
Study findings indicate that there is correspondence between faculty members' misconceptions related to psychology and students' mistaken beliefs about psychology. Subjects were 303 psychologists teaching in colleges and universities who completed a true-false questionnaire. (AM)
This exercise was designed to address student misconceptions about why the Moon exhibits phases. Using a sketchbook, digital camera, or flex cam, a student sits at the center of a darkened room illuminated by a single light source in a stationary position. Stools are set up surrounding the student in the center and other students take those positions, always keeping their faces toward the center. The center student sketches or take pictures of the faces at each of the positions. Substituting a sphere (such as a ball) for the students' faces provides an even more vivid illustration of the shadowing of the sphere and connects directly to the rationale for lunar phases.
Barrier, Regina M.
Do you think that the Moon does not rotate? Do you think that the phases of the Moon are created by the Earth's shadow? Do you think that the seasons are a result of the Earth's distance from the Sun? If you answered "yes" to any of these, then you are one of many who possess misconceptions about astronomy.
Barclay, William L.
Graphing is a common and powerful symbol system for representing concrete data. Yet research has shown that students often have graphical misconceptions about how graphs are related to the concrete event. Currently, the Technical Education Research Center (TERC) is developing microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) science units that use probes to…
Arnaudin, Mary W.; Mintzes, Joel J.
Reports findings of a study on children's perceptions and alternate conceptions about the human circulatory system. Summarizes the responses of fifth and eighth grade students on questions dealing with the heart and blood. Offers examples of hands-on activities and confrontation strategies that address common misconceptions on circulation. (ML)
During student-centered learning activities, students actively engage in their own learning based on individual prior understandings. It can be difficult for a teacher to know if students fully understand the concepts being presented, especially if they do not comment or ask questions because they are shy or afraid of getting something wrong. Teachers may not know students' true ideas until they express themselves on a written summative exam, and then it is often too late to correct them before rushing off to the next topic. Therefore, the author uses pretests, daily learning logs, and posttests to assess student learning and change misconceptions. She shares her strategy in this month's Idea Bank.
This thesis describes a research study that resulted in an instructional model directed at helping fourth grade diverse students improve their science knowledge, their reading comprehension, their awareness of the relationship between science and reading, and their ability to transfer strategies. The focus of the instructional model emerged from the intersection of constructs in science and reading literacy; the model identifies cognitive strategies that can be used in science and reading, and inquiry-based instruction related to the science content read by participants. The intervention is termed INSCIREAD (Instruction in Science and Reading). The GoInquire web-based system (2006) was used to develop students' content knowledge in slow landform change. Seventy-eight students participated in the study. The treatment group comprised 49 students without disabilities and 8 students with disabilities. The control group comprised 21 students without disabilities. The design of the study is a combination of a mixed-methods quasi-experimental design (Study 1), and a single subject design with groups as the unit of analysis (Study 2). The results from the quantitative measures demonstrated that the text recall data analysis from Study 1 yielded near significant statistical levels when comparing the performance of students without disabilities in the treatment group to that of the control group. Visual analyses of the results from the text recall data from Study 2 showed at least minimal change in all groups. The results of the data analysis of the level of the generated questions show there was a statistically significant increase in the scores students without disabilities obtained in the questions they generated from the pre to the posttest. The analyses conducted to detect incongruities, to summarize and rate importance, and to determine the number of propositions on a science and reading concept map data showed a statistically significant difference between students without disabilities in the treatment and the control groups on post-intervention scores. The analysis of the data from the number of misconceptions of students without disabilities showed that the frequency of 4 of the 11 misconceptions changed significantly from pre to post elicitation stages. The analyses of the qualitative measures of the think alouds and interviews generally supported the above findings.
Pre/post exams were used in a college freshmen oceanography course to identify student misconceptions and to investigate student learning gains. This course has a diverse population of students where most are not science majors. The pre-test, given on the first day of class, contains 100 questions over entire course content. The post test is given on the last day of class. Our results are based on pre/post test scores from 6 sections (2009-2011, n = ~150). There is no significant difference between average scores of males and females in the pre-test, and most students regardless of class level (freshmen to senior) have about the same knowledge level of the ocean/climate system coming into the course. On the pre-test, many students answered incorrectly questions on the cause for lunar phases, the Coriolis effect, mechanism of air/water mass movement, and the energy driving the hydrologic cycle; but showed significant improvement on the post-test. In contrast, 100% of students answered correctly that weather and climate are different coming into the course, and 100% left the course unconfused about this. There is consistent improvement in the class average scores between the pre and post exams by 20-30% in all sections regardless of the semester or course content covered. Potentially, the post test may be reflecting retention rather than transient learning from cramming for the final exam.
da Luz, Mauricio Roberto Motta Pinto
In the present work, I investigated the origin of the misconception that glucose is the sole metabolic fuel previously described among Brazilian high school students. The results of a multiple-choice test composed of 24 questions about a broad range of biology subjects were analyzed. The test was part of a contest and was answered by a sample…
Lee, Hyunju; Schneider, Stephen E.
Many topics in introductory astronomy at the college or high-school level rely implicitly on using astronomical photographs and visual data in class. However, students bring many preconceptions to their understanding of these materials that ultimately lead to misconceptions, and research about students' interpretation of astronomical images has been scarcely conducted. In this study we probed college students' understanding of astronomical photographs and visual data about galaxies and spectra, and developed a set of concept questions based on their common misconceptions. The study was conducted mainly in three successive surveys: (i) open-ended questions looking for students' ideas and common misconceptions, (ii) combined multiple-choice and open-ended questions seeking to explore student reasoning and to improve concept questions for clickers, and (iii) a finalized version of the concept questions used to investigate the strength of each misconception among the students in introductory astronomy courses. This study reports on the procedures and the development of the concept questions with the investigated common misconceptions about galaxies and spectra. We also provide the set of developed questions for teachers and instructors seeking to implement in their classes for the purpose of formative assessment with the use of classroom response systems. These questions would help them recognize the gap between their teaching and students' understanding, and ultimately improve teaching of the concepts.
Prescott, Anne; Mitchelmore, Michael
Student misconceptions of projectile motion are well documented, but their effect on the teaching and learning of the mathematics of motion under gravity has not been investigated. An experimental unit was designed that was intended to confront and eliminate misconceptions in senior secondary school students. The approach was found to be…
Ruzhitskaya, Lanika; Speck, A.
We present results of a pilot study on college students’ misconceptions in astronomy. The study was conducted on the campus of a Midwestern university among 43 non-science major students enrolled in an introductory astronomy laboratory course. The laboratory course was based on a constructivist learning environment where students learned astronomy by doing astronomy. During the course, students worked with educational simulations created by Project CLEA team and RedShift College Education Astronomy Workbook by Bill Walker as well as were involved in think-pair-share discussions based on Lecture-Tutorials (Prather et al 2008). Several laboratories were prompted by an instructor's brief presentations. On the first and last days of the course students were surveyed on what their beliefs were about causes of the seasons, the moon's apparent size in the sky and its phases, planetary orbits, structure of the solar system, the sun, distant stars, and the nature of light. The majority of the surveys’ questions were based on Neil Comins’ 50 most commonly cited misconceptions. The outcome of the study showed that while students constructed correct understanding of a number of phenomena, they also created a set of new misconceptions. For example, if on the first day of the course, nine out of 43 students knew what caused the seasons on Earth; on the last day of the course, 20 students gained the similar understanding. However, by the end of the course more students believed that smaller planets must rotate faster based on the conservation of angular momentum and Kepler's laws. Our findings suggest that misconceptions pointed out by Neil Comins over a decade ago are still relevant today; and that learning based exclusively on simulations and collaborative group discussions does not necessarily produce the best results, but may set a ground for creating new misconceptions.
Rumack, Barry H
Examination of the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen can decrease misconceptions involved in clinical evaluation. Enzyme patterns and acetaminophen levels must be related to time and known metabolic phenomena. A careful look at ethanol and nutrition, especially fasting demonstrates that therapeutic doses of acetaminophen do not place patients at a greater risk in either of these instances. An overdose of acetaminophen in a chronic alcohol abuser may result in more severe hepatotoxicity than in the nonalcoholic. CYP2E1 and glutathione must be evaluated simultaneously rather than in isolation. Glucuronidation capacity in humans is not a factor except in massively overdosed patients. PMID:15239079
Newsom, H. E.; Sorge, C.; Hagerty, J. J.
Assessment of our educational outreach program shows that students and their parents are excited about space science, but stereotypes about science and scientists drastically effect student attitudes about science and pursuing a technical career.
The fundamental goal of this study is to explore why so many students have difficulty learning mathematics. To achieve this goal, this study focuses on why so many students keep making the same errors over a long period ...
Galley, William C.
The misconceptions regarding the nature of ATP hydrolysis and bond breaking are discussed. The students' knowledge in this area is quantitatively measured by a survey of over 600 biochemistry and physiology students.
Kalinowski, Steven T.; Andrews, Tessa C.
A recent essay in CBE—Life Sciences Education criticized biology education researchers’ use of the term misconceptions and recommended that, in order to be up-to-date with education research, biology education researchers should use alternative terms for students’ incorrect ideas in science. We counter that criticism by reviewing the continued use and the meaning of misconceptions in education research today, and describe two key debates that account for the controversy surrounding the term. We then identify and describe two areas of research that have real implications for tomorrow's biology education research and biology instruction: 1) hypotheses about the structure of student knowledge (coherent vs. fragmented) that gives rise to misconceptions; and 2) the “warming trend” that considers the effects of students’ motivation, beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning (their epistemic beliefs), and learning strategies (their cognitive and metacognitive skills) on their ability to change their misconceptions in science. We conclude with a description of proposed future work in biology education research related to misconceptions. PMID:26086651
Hockicko, Peter; Trpišová, Beáta; Ondruš, Ján
The present paper informs about an analysis of students' conceptions about car braking distances and also presents one of the novel methods of learning: an interactive computer program Tracker that we used to analyse the process of braking of a car. The analysis of the students' conceptions about car braking distances consisted in…
Lee, Y. J.; Diong, C. H.
This paper explains the results of a survey of students' ideas about food as a scientific concept. The survey found that high school students in Singapore (n=66) displayed an anthropocentric view of food that was not generally applied across living organisms in heterotrophs (animals) or autotrophs (plants) as a whole. It is also noted that…
Cangelosi, Richard; Madrid, Silvia; Cooper, Sandra; Olson, Jo; Hartter, Beverly
The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not certain errors made when simplifying exponential expressions persist as students progress through their mathematical studies. College students enrolled in college algebra, pre-calculus, and first- and second-semester calculus mathematics courses were asked to simplify exponential…
Montecinos, Alicia M.
A partially unusual behaviour was found among 14 sophomore students of civil engineering who took a pre test for a free fall laboratory session, in the context of a general mechanics course. An analysis contemplating mathematics models and physics models consistency was made. In all cases, the students presented evidence favoring a correct free…
Hockicko, Peter; Trpišová, Beáta; Ondruš, Ján
The present paper informs about an analysis of students' conceptions about car braking distances and also presents one of the novel methods of learning: an interactive computer program Tracker that we used to analyse the process of braking of a car. The analysis of the students' conceptions about car braking distances consisted in obtaining their estimates of these quantities before and after watching a video recording of a car braking from various initial speeds to a complete stop and subsequent application of mathematical statistics to the obtained sets of students' answers. The results revealed that the difference between the value of the car braking distance estimated before watching the video and the real value of this distance was not caused by a random error but by a systematic error which was due to the incorrect students' conceptions about the car braking process. Watching the video significantly improved the students' estimates of the car braking distance, and we show that in this case, the difference between the estimated value and the real value of the car braking distance was due only to a random error, i.e. the students' conceptions about the car braking process were corrected. Some of the students subsequently performed video analysis of the braking processes of cars of various brands and under various conditions by means of Tracker that gave them exact knowledge of the physical quantities, which characterize a motor vehicle braking. Interviewing some of these students brought very positive reactions to this novel method of learning.
Investigates the effectiveness of combining conceptual change text and concept mapping strategies on students' understanding of diffusion and osmosis. Results indicate that while the average percentage of students in the experimental group holding a scientifically correct view rose, the percentage of correct responses in the control group…
Kelly, Resa M.; Barrera, Juliet H.; Mohamed, Saheed C.
This study examined how 21 college-level general chemistry students, who had received instruction that emphasized the symbolic level of ionic equations, explained their submicroscopic-level understanding of precipitation reactions. Students' explanations expressed through drawings and semistructured interviews revealed the nature of the…
Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet; Geban, Omer
This study involves the development of a three-tier diagnostic test to measure high school students' understanding of states of matter concepts. The States of Matter Diagnostic Test (SMDT) is a 19-item three-tier diagnostic test consisting of three-tier items for assessing students' understanding of states of matter concepts. The SMDT…
Polo, Blanca J.
Much research has been done in regards to student programming errors, online education and studio-based learning (SBL) in computer science education. This study furthers this area by bringing together this knowledge and applying it to proactively help students overcome impasses caused by common student programming errors. This project proposes a…
Chang, Kuo-En; Liu, Sei-Hua; Chen, Sei-Wang
Outlines a test-based diagnosis system for misconceptions in DC electric circuits and its three parts: problem library, problem selector and diagnoser. Discusses misconception discrimination and diagnosis theories, and reports the system supports satisfactory diagnosis. Includes an analysis of nine student misconceptions about electrical circuits…
Browning, Mark E.; Lehman, James D.
Describes a computer program presenting four genetics problems to monitor the problem solving process of college students. Identifies three main areas of difficulty: computational skills; determination of gametes; and application of previous learning to new situations. (Author/YP)
Price, Jayne; Dornan, Jean; Quail, Lorraine
Children's palliative care has evolved in recent years and is now recognised as a distinct area of health and social care practice. Whilst children's hospices are viewed as central to quality care for these children and families, lack of knowledge regarding the exact nature of care they provide exists. Education can go part way to changing attitudes and knowledge about the key contribution of hospices, thus improving future care. Alternative and innovative strategies to stimulate meaningful learning are pivotal to children's nurse education and this paper examines one such innovation adopted with 2nd year children's nursing students. Aiming to help students explore the ethos of children's hospice an educational visit was arranged, followed by an on line discussion. Although some practical challenges were encountered, the visit heightened student awareness moving them from the readily held perception that children's hospices were exclusively for dying children and was viewed by students as more effective than a traditional classroom session. PMID:23111411
Dr. Gabriel A. Oliveira (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Departamento de BioquÃmica MÃ©dica)
Energy-yielding metabolism is a subject that is particularly important, because energy production is a fundamental requirement for cells even though they execute many other processes simultaneously. An integrated view of metabolism is essential for understanding how the whole organism functions, including activities of studentsÂ? daily life, such as eating, dieting, and physical exercise. In fact, the media constantly exert pressure on young people, stimulating students to undergo countless diet and exercise programs. Additionally, diabetes mellitus and obesity, which are diseases with close ties to metabolism, have been increasing among adolescents.
Stefani, Christina; Tsaparlis, Georgios
We investigated students' knowledge constructions of basic quantum chemistry concepts, namely atomic orbitals, the Schrodinger equation, molecular orbitals, hybridization, and chemical bonding. Ausubel's theory of meaningful learning provided the theoretical framework and phenomenography the method of analysis. The semi-structured interview with…
Ray, Andrew M.; Beardsley, Paul M.
Even though photosynthesis is an obligatory part of the science curriculum, research has shown that students often have a poor understanding of it. The authors advocate that classroom coverage of the topic of photosynthesis should include not only its biochemical properties but also the role of photosynthesis or photosynthetic organisms in matter…
Hare, Molly K.; Graber, Kim C.
Grounded within constructivist theory, the purpose of this investigation was to investigate knowledge acquisition and developing conceptions of high school-aged students during a unit of instruction in badminton. Six different qualitative methods were utilized: (a) observations, (b) formal interviews, (c) informal interviews, (d) think aloud…
Holmes, Vicki-Lynn; Miedema, Chelsea; Nieuwkoop, Lindsay; Haugen, Nicholas
In an age when reform is based on standards and instruction is based on research, this article gives practical advice for how mathematics teachers can analyze errors in student problems to create interventions that aid not only the individual's development, but the entire class's as well. By learning how to correct mathematics…
Leonard, Mary J.; Kalinowski, Steven T.; Andrews, Tessa C.
A recent essay in "CBE-Life Sciences Education" criticized biology education researchers' use of the term "misconceptions" and recommended that, in order to be up-to-date with education research, biology education researchers should use alternative terms for students' incorrect ideas in science. We counter that…
The following lab was originally designed to teach the importance of manipulating a single variable in an experiment. However, the lab also dispels a common misconception, teaches the value of following lab instructions, and provides a good working definition of the term variable.
Typically, the mathematical properties concerning the golden ratio are stated correctly, but much of what is presented with respect to the golden ratio in art, architecture, literature, and aesthetics is false or seriously misleading. Discussed here are some of the most commonly repeated misconceptions promulgated, particularly within mathematics…
Dial, Katrina; Riddley, Diana; Williams, Kiesha; Sampson, Victor
The law of conservation of mass can be counterintuitive for most students because they often think the mass of a substance is related to its physical state. As a result, students may hold a number of alternative conceptions related to this concept, including, for example, the believe that gas has no mass, that solids have greater mass than fluids,…
The effect of student-centered and teacher-centered instruction with and without conceptual advocacy on biology students' misconceptions, achievement, attitudes toward science, and cognitive retention
Gallop, Roger Graham
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of student-centered and teacher-centered instructional strategies with and without conceptual advocacy (CA) on ninth-grade biology students' misconceptions (MIS), biology achievement (ACH), attitudes toward science (ATT), and cognitive retention of scientific method and measurement, spontaneous generation, and characteristics of living things. Students were purposively selected using intact classes and assigned to one of four treatment groups (i.e., student-centered instruction without CA, student-centered instruction with CA, teacher-centered instruction with CA, and teacher-centered instruction without CA). A modified quasi-experimental design was used in which students were not matched in the conventional sense but instead, groups were shown to be equivalent on the dependent measure via a pretest. A 5-day treatment implementation period addressed science conceptions under investigation. The treatment period was based on the number of class periods teachers at the target school actually spend teaching the biological concepts under investigation using traditional instruction. At the end of the treatment period, students were posttested using the Concepts in Biology instrument and Science Questionnaire. Eight weeks after the posttest, these instruments were administered again as a delayed posttest to determine cognitive retention of the correct biological conceptions and attitudes toward science. MANCOVA and follow-up univariate ANCOVA results indicated that student-centered instruction without CA (i.e., Group 1) did not have a significant effect on students' MIS, ACH, and ATT (F = .029, p = .8658; F = .002, p =.9688, F = .292, p = .5897, respectively). On the other hand, student-centered instruction with CA (i.e., Group 2) had a significant effect on students' MIS and ACH (F =10.33, p = .0016 and F = 10.17, p = .0017, respectively), but did not on ATT (F = .433, p = .5117). Teacher-centered instruction with CA (i.e., Group 3) had a significant effect on students' MIS in favor of Group 4 (i.e., control group) (F = 4.11, p = .0444), and did not have a significant effect on ACH and ATT (F = 1.83, p = .1777 and F = 1.89, p = .1709, respectively). Student gender and teacher gender did not have a significant effect on students' MIS, ACH, and ATT. In the cognitive retention model, there was no significant difference among the research factors relative to the 3 dependent measures.
Weeks, Brian E.
College students often come to the study of evolutionary biology with many misconceptions of how the processes of natural selection and speciation occur. How to relinquish these misconceptions with learners is a question that many educators face in introductory biology courses. Constructivism as a theoretical framework has become an accepted and…
Hitt, Austin Manning; Townsend, J. Scott
Elementary, middle-level, and high school science teachers commonly find their students have misconceptions about heat and temperature. Unfortunately, student misconceptions are difficult to modify or change and can prevent students from learning the accurate scientific explanation. In order to improve our students' understanding of heat and…
Schuenemann, K. C.
Just in Time Teaching (JiTT) is employed in an introductory Global Climate Change college course with the intention of addressing common misconceptions and climate myths. Students enter the course with a variety of prior knowledge and opinions on global warming, and JiTT can be used as a constructivist pedagogical approach to make use of this prior knowledge. Students are asked to watch a short video or do a reading, sometimes screen capture videos created by the professor as review of material from the previous class, a video available on the web from NASA or NOAA, for example, or a reading from an online article or their textbook. After the video or reading, students answer a question carefully designed to pry at a common misconception, or simply are asked for the 'muddiest point' that remains on the concept. This assignment is done the night before class using a web program. The program aggregates the answers in an organized way so the professor can use the answers to design the day's lesson to address common misconceptions or concerns students displayed in their answers, as well as quickly assign participation credit to students who completed the assignment. On the other hand, if students display that they have already mastered the material, the professor can confidently move on to the next concept. The JiTT pedagogical method personalizes each lecture period to the students in that particular class for maximum efficiency while catching and fixing misconceptions in a timely manner. This technique requires students to spend time with the material outside of class, acts as review of important concepts, and increases engagement in class due to the personalization of the course. Evaluation results from use of this technique will be presented. Examples of successful JiTT videos, questions, student answers, and techniques for addressing misconceptions during lecture will also be presented with the intention that instructors can easily apply this technique to their next course.
Reichert, Collin; Cervato, Cinzia; Niederhauser, Dale; Larsen, Michael D.
In this paper we describe student use of a series of connected online problem-solving activities to remediate atmospheric carbon budget misconceptions held by undergraduate university students. In particular, activities were designed to address a common misconception about conservation of mass when students assume a simplistic, direct relationship…
This article discusses the author's experiences as a planner for the National Consortium for Specialized Secondary Schools of Mathematics, Science & Technology (NCSSSMST) Fall 2007 Event titled "Tomorrow Never Dies." The author discusses how the NCSSSMST student conference helps students find common ground.
A Reply to ''Reinterpretation of Students' Ideas When Reasoning about Particle Model Illustrations. A Response to ''Using Animations in Identifying General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions and Evaluating Their Knowledge Transfer Relating to Particle Position in Physical Changes'' by Smith and Villarreal (2015)''
Smith, K. Christopher; Villarreal, Savannah
In this reply to Elon Langbeheim's response to an article recently published in this journal, authors Smith and Villarreal identify several types of general chemistry students' misconceptions concerning the concept of particle position during physical change. They focus their response on one of the misconceptions identified as such: Given a solid…
Oke, David Adewale; Bandele, Emmanuel Olarenwaju
A prospective questionnaire study of the misconceptions of hypertension by hypertensive patients was carried out in 1365 male and female hypertensive patients aged between 21-80 years. About 40% of the study population could not define hypertension, but even those who did appeared to be in denial of the disease. About 24% were unaware of the causes of hypertension; the most common cause mentioned was psychosocial stress. Between 0.6% and 14% of subjects were unaware of the effect of risk factors, like obesity, cigarette smoking, exercise, excessive alcohol and salt consumption, or hypertension. Interestingly, some feel that regular sexual intercourse worsens hypertension. Eight percent of subjects had no fear of the effect of poor compliance to antihypertensive medication, while 10% were anxious about the heavy financial burden imposed by hypertension management, Sixty-five percent of subjects feel that they will require no more medication once they achieve control of their blood pressure. Twenty-one percent of respondents are of the opinion that they will achieve a permanent cure only from alternative medical practitioners and will consider using alternative medicine in future. The study confirms the importance of medical education for patients irrespective of their level of education, as many of these patients still entertain that gross misconceptions may have negative impact on outcome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:15481752
Templeton, C. M.; McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.
Misconceptions about climate change abound in every corner of society. The result manifests itself ranging from apprehension to total disregard for climate change conditions. According to several sources, however, a large percentage of the U. S. population do, indeed indicate some concern over global warming and climate change in general. These climate change misconceptions are numerous and include, to name a few; confusion between weather and climate, how greenhouse gases are affecting the earth, the effects of ozone depletion, earth's natural cycles, volcanic activity, nuclear waste and a host of other anthropogenic influences. This paper is a review of the current research literature relating to climate change misconceptions. These errant views will be addressed, cataloged, enumerated, and ranked to get a grasp on where the general population, politicians, scientists, and educators as well as students stand on informed climate change information. The categories where misconceptions arise have been identified in this literature review study and include the following: Natural cycles of the earth, ecological which include deforestation, urban development and any human intervention on the environment, educational - including teacher strategies, student understanding and textbook updates, emotional, ozone layer and its interactions, polar ice, political regulations, mandates and laws, pollution from human sources as well as from nature, religious beliefs and dogma and social beliefs. We suggest appropriate solutions for addressing these misconceptions, especially in the classroom setting, and broadly include available funding sources for work in climate change education. Some solutions include need for compilation of appropriate education resources and materials for public use, need for the development of educational materials that appropriately address the variety of publics, and need for programs that are conducting climate change education research and EPO work to communicate and share resources in a common community. Many organizations are addressing these critical needs and we will compile these efforts in our analysis as well.
In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…
Simpson, William D.; Marek, Edmund A.
Discusses the relationship of school size to understanding of scientific concepts. Results indicated that students in small high schools had fewer instances of understanding and more instances of misunderstanding of the concepts of diffusion and homeostasis. No difference was observed for concepts related to food production in plants and…
Lee, Okhwa; Lehrer, Richard
Seven graduate students in a seminar on classroom computing received instruction in LOGO programming. Programming protocols were collected periodically and examined for errors and misconceptions; in-depth interviews were conducted in order to understand specific misconceptions better. As novice students transit from instruction to experience in…
During the last few years teaching physics, I have noticed that my students are becoming more and more interested in the topic of radiation. Mobile phones, modern game consoles, and WiFi—all of these devices involving some kind of radiation are part of our students' everyday lives. Students are also frequently confronted in the media with debates relating to different types of radiation: What are the effects of nuclear contamination going to be after the Fukushima accident? Can radiation from mobile phones really cause cancer? Should the use of tanning booths be forbidden for teenagers? Although students seem to be very motivated to learn about the topic of radiation, I have encountered several misconceptions about this topic that my students bring into the physics classroom. Some of these misconceptions might be caused by biased media reports, while others can be attributed to a different usage of the word radiation in everyday language (when compared to the scientific usage of this term). In this paper, I would like to present the most common misconceptions about radiation that I have encountered in my physics courses and I would like to give some ideas how to confront these ideas in teaching. A detailed description of these misconceptions discovered through empirical research can be found in one of my research articles.1
McCuin, J. L.; Hayhoe, K.; Hayhoe, D.
Public understanding of climate change is fraught with misconceptions. In some cases, these may arise due to the complexity of the topic: the difference between personal experience of short-term weather events, for example, as compared to long-term analysis of a climate trend. In others, myths may be deliberately introduced: that climate has ceased to change, or that changes have been proven to be due to natural causes. Whatever their origin, these misconceptions hold powerful implications for education on climate change and related science topics. Conceptual change theory demonstrates how pre-existing misconceptions persist under regular instruction and interfere with student acquisition of correct concepts. Here, we assess the extent to which incorporating corrective instruction on misconceptions related to the greenhouse effect and on the role of human activities in climate change affects student acquisition and retention of key scientific concepts. We investigate the efficacy of this approach using two reading passages: one that simply discusses the science, and another that provides both science and misconceptions-related information. Study subjects were drawn from a first year Atmospheric Sciences course at a large public university, yielding 197 students who successfully completed the pretest, instructional treatment, immediate posttest, delayed posttest, and a background survey. While both treatments produced significant gains in the posttest and delayed posttest overall, only the treatment that directly targeted misconceptions produced long-term gains on misconception-related questions. Our results support the conceptual change model's basic claim that misconceptions may persist through concept-based instruction, but may be uprooted by even a relatively brief reading passage that addresses them directly. However, our results also contain a striking anomaly: for questions involving the phrase "global warming," misconceptions-based instruction did not produce greater long-term gain. Here, we analyze the influence of student demographics on performance overall as well as by question type, to begin to elucidate the extent to which pre-existing biases may influence the retention of misconceptions even in the face of corrective instruction.
: detecting and correcting students' misconceptions. By designing engaging lifelike avatars and introducing environment testbed for the domain of fundamentals of computer architecture. In CPU CITY, students direct their lifelike avatar to navigate a 3D world consisting of a virtual computer, to transport data and address
Mitchell, Julie; Soini, Nathalie
How do you effectively train and assess student staff in a learning commons environment? How do you foster a student-led approach while maintaining accurate and high-level service? How do you create an environment where student staff are engaged and motivated to succeed? Peer-to-peer service models are fundamental to many learning commons…
Quijas, P. C. Garcia; Aguilar, L. M. Arevalo
Recently, there have been many efforts to use the research techniques developed in the field of physics education research to improve the teaching and learning of quantum mechanics. In particular, part of this research is focusing on misconceptions held by students. For instance, a set of misconceptions is associated with the concept of stationary…
Despite our best teaching efforts, many students hold misconceptions related to the roles plants play in gas-related processes (Amir and Tamir 1994; Hershey 1992; 2004). In an effort to remedy this problem, the author presents a series of activities that address common plant-related gas-process misconceptions held by middle school students. The…
Cheung, Derek; Ma, Hong-jia; Yang, Jie
The importance of research on misconceptions about chemical equilibrium is well recognized by educators, but in the past, researchers' interest has centered on student misconceptions and has neglected teacher misconceptions. Focusing on the effects of adding more reactants or products on chemical equilibrium, this article discusses the various…
Wind, Stefanie A.; Gale, Jessica D.
Multiple-choice (MC) items that are constructed such that distractors target known misconceptions for a particular domain provide useful diagnostic information about student misconceptions (Herrmann-Abell & DeBoer, 2011, 2014; Sadler, 1998). Item response theory models can be used to examine misconceptions distractor-driven multiple-choice…
Becker, Lee A.
Explores how a set of possible student misconceptions about solving a complex problem can be used in computer-based intelligent tutoring systems and in computer-based exercise and test generation. Topics discussed include expert systems, misconception covers, discrimination trees, methods of acquiring the set of misconceptions, and protocol…
Enderle, Patrick J.; Smith, Mike U.; Southerland, Sherry
The existence, preponderance, and stability of misconceptions related to evolution continue as foci of research in science education. In their 2006 study, Geraedts and Boersma question the existence of stable Lamarckian misconceptions in students, challenging the utility of Conceptual Change theory in addressing any such misconceptions. To support…
Software commonly used by students Below is a list of software commonly used by Swinburne Robot Showcase SketchBook 3DS Max Alias Automotive MAC / PC Entertainment Creation Suite: Maya MAC / PC computers. Yes. Refer 'Software Offers for students > MATLAB for students' document for instructions. MAC
J. H. Wandersee; R. M. Clary; S. W. Anderson; J. Libarkin
We used a 30 item multiple-choice instrument called the geoscience concept test (GCT) to study learning in introductory college-level science courses. The GCT uses common misconceptions as wrong answers, and allows us to pre- and post-test individual courses to gauge the effectiveness of instruction. The GCT was given at the beginning of the semester to 2215 college students in 42
Richard Guy (RMIT University)
An online self-directed e-learning module was developed, using best-practice approaches (1), to engage students and help them overcome some common neurophysiology misconceptions. The essential features of the module were: the use of well-designed (9) and simple (low cognitive load) (12, 13) animations intended to promote good learning outcomes (5) and the use of multiple-choice questions linked with the animations to provide immediate feedback.
Kuech, Robert; Zogg, Gregory; Zeeman, Stephan; Johnson, Mark
This paper describes a study conducted on the lab sections of the general biology course for non-science majors at the University of New England, and reports findings of student misconceptions about photosynthesis and the mass/carbon uptake during plant growth. The current study placed high technology analytic tools in the hands of introductory…
Zydney, Janet Mannheimer
This study investigated the effectiveness of multiple scaffolding tools in helping students understand a complex problem. In order to support students with this task, a multimedia learning environment was developed based on the cognitive flexibility theory (CFT) and scaffolding through computer-based tools. Seventy-nine 10th-grade students in an…
Wendt, Jillian L.; Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda
This quantitative, quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design examined the effects of online collaborative learning on middle school students' science literacy. For a 9-week period, students in the control group participated in collaborative face-to-face activities whereas students in the experimental group participated in…
Fifty percent of college-bound students graduate from high school underprepared for mathematics at the post-secondary level. As a result, thirty-five percent of college students take developmental mathematics courses. What is even more shocking is the high failure rate (ranging from 35 to 42 percent) of students enrolled in developmental…
Willingham, Daniel; Daniel, David
Although students vary in their abilities and interests, "hyper-individualizing" the curriculum in an attempt to accommodate these differences is not the best way to help each student excel, write Willingham and Daniel. Drawing on educational research, the authors give examples of several cognitive must haves (things that the cognitive system…
Gray, R.E.; Bruhn, R.W.; Knott, D.L.
Subsidence due to coal mining is poorly understood by non-specialists. This has led to numerous misconceptions and myths based on limited observations and lack of knowledge. The three most common are: (1) Mine maps are inaccurate, (2) Deep mines are not a problem, and (3) If no subsidence has occurred for many years after mining, there is no risk of future subsidence. Maps are important during mining and most are carefully prepared. Future use to evaluate conditions at mine level often includes drilling to confirm what the map shows. The idea of a safe depth from subsidence is often based on the false premise that mining results in sufficient breakup of the overlying rock strata that bulking compensates for the coal extracted. The safe depth idea first appeared in the literature about 1880 and remained prevalent well into this century. Sadly, it is still encountered. The modem understanding of fragmentation of the immediate mine roof with the overlying beds sagging down on the broken roof rock was first described in 1900. With full extraction mining, either longwall or retreat room and pillar, surface subsidence occurs regardless of the depth of the mine. Subsidence over longwall mines at depths of 2000 feet can be 90 percent of the mined seam thickness. Numerous studies of undermined sites conclude that mining occurred many years ago and since no subsidence has occurred, there is no risk of future movement. This is true if sufficient coal pillars have been left to support the overlying strate. However, every year subsidence occurs over mines that have been closed for 100 years or more. In a study of subsidera incidents over the Pittsburgh Coal, the senior authors found that 50 percent of the incidents occurred above mines that had been closed for at least 50 years and 10 percent over mines, closed for at least 80 years.
Tsitsipis, Georgios; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Papageorgiou, George
In this study, the effect of 3 cognitive variables such as logical thinking, field dependence/field independence, and convergent/divergent thinking on some specific students' answers related to the particulate nature of matter was investigated by means of probabilistic models. Besides recording and tabulating the students' responses, a combination…
This study focuses on how students in vocational high schools and universities interpret the algorithms in structural computer programming that concerns time-efficiency. The targeted research group consisted of 242 students from two vocational high schools and two departments of the Faculty of Education in Istanbul. This study used qualitative and…
Rothman, Kenneth J
Scientific knowledge changes rapidly, but the concepts and methods of the conduct of research change more slowly. To stimulate discussion of outmoded thinking regarding the conduct of research, I list six misconceptions about research that persist long after their flaws have become apparent. The misconceptions are: 1) There is a hierarchy of study designs; randomized trials provide the greatest validity, followed by cohort studies, with case-control studies being least reliable. 2) An essential element for valid generalization is that the study subjects constitute a representative sample of a target population. 3) If a term that denotes the product of two factors in a regression model is not statistically significant, then there is no biologic interaction between those factors. 4) When categorizing a continuous variable, a reasonable scheme for choosing category cut-points is to use percentile-defined boundaries, such as quartiles or quintiles of the distribution. 5) One should always report P values or confidence intervals that have been adjusted for multiple comparisons. 6) Significance testing is useful and important for the interpretation of data. These misconceptions have been perpetuated in journals, classrooms and textbooks. They persist because they represent intellectual shortcuts that avoid more thoughtful approaches to research problems. I hope that calling attention to these misconceptions will spark the debates needed to shelve these outmoded ideas for good. PMID:24452418
Describes the results of a survey designed to ascertain details of student teachers' knowledge and misconceptions about the greenhouse effect, acid rain, and ozone layer depletion. Results indicate familiarity with the issues but little understanding of the concepts involved and many commonly held misconceptions. (JRH)
Heddy, Benjamin C.; Sinatra, Gale M.
Teaching and learning about complex scientific content, such as biological evolution, is challenging in part because students have a difficult time seeing the relevance of evolution in their everyday lives. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of the Teaching for Transformative Experiences in Science (TTES) model (Pugh, 2002)…
Miller, Joyce Catherine
Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were combined to explore the relationships between an understanding of evolution and 4 epistemology factors: (a) control of learning, (b) speed of learning , (c) stability of knowledge, and (d) belief in evolution/creationism. A 17-item instrument was developed that reliably measured a belief in creationism and subtle differences between this belief and an acceptance of evolution. The subjects were 45 students enrolled in a biology course at a 2-year community college. Evolution was taught in a traditional format, and common descent was taught in an inquiry-based laboratory session consisting of: (a) a comparison of hemoglobin DNA sequences of the human, chimpanzee, and gorilla; and (b) a comparison of 8 primate skull casts, including the modern human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and five prehistoric fossils. Prior to instruction the students completed an epistemology questionnaire and a knowledge test about evolution. Five weeks after instruction, the students completed a posttest. A t-test revealed no differences between the pretest and the posttest. However, the group of students that scored higher on the posttest than on the pretest was found to have a stronger belief in the uncertainty of knowledge. Pearson r was computed to check for relationships between the 4 epistemological factors and the understanding of evolution. There was a significant relationship between a belief in creationism and a lessor understanding of evolution as measured on both the pretest and the posttest (ps < .05). The relationship between gender and test scores was also examined with men demonstrating statistically significantly higher scores on the common descent component than women did. Narrative data included interviews and branching/grouping activities. Four alternate conceptions about common descent were identified. Even after instruction, 16 out of 39 students thought humans evolved from the chimpanzee. Additionally, students grouped the 8 primate skulls into just 2 categories: human and animals. Other misconceptions included a nonevolutionary use of the term, related, and the use of naive organizers leading to incorrect conclusions about the relatedness of certain organisms, such as a connection between fish and whales. These organizers included: (a) similarity of traits, (b) environment, (c) relative size, (d) function, and (e) complexity.
Cliff, William H
Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration when calcium ions were added to a saturated calcium phosphate solution. Fifty-two percent of the students correctly predicted that the phosphate concentration would decrease in accord with the common ion effect. Forty-two percent of the students predicted that the phosphate concentration would not change. Written explanations showed that most students failed to evoke the idea of competing chemical equilibria. A second question assessed the predicted change in calcium concentration after solid calcium phosphate was added to a saturated solution. Only 11% of the students correctly predicted no change in calcium concentration; 86% of the students predicted an increase, and many based their prediction on a mistaken application of Le Chatelier's principle to heterogeneous equilibria. These results indicate that many students possess misconceptions about chemical equilibrium that may hamper understanding of the processes of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Instructors can help students gain greater understanding of these physiochemical phenomena by adopting strategies that enable students achieve more accurate conceptions of chemical equilibria. PMID:19948683
DeMarco, Joseph P; Markman, Maurie
Recently, several researchers and philosophers argued that clinical research trials are not therapy. Their position is based on foundational research ethics documents, such as the Belmont Report, on conceptual analysis, and on the general way clinical trials are conducted. After examining and rejecting these arguments, we claim that good research is consistent with good therapy; that often trials are good therapy; and that a blanket attack on clinical trials as non-therapeutic creates a research misconception. This misconception is potentially harmful because it could weaken trial recruitment, could adversely affect funding for trials, and could overturn needed moral safeguards on therapeutic trials. Our more careful and accurate analysis of the nature of clinical trials can avoid such problems. PMID:17115498
The following article includes general information on the Common Core State Standards, how the standards apply to the music and academic education of students with disabilities, and web resources that will helpful to music educators teaching students with and without disabilities.
Young, Alice; Wilkins, Elizabeth
The purpose of this study was to investigate summative student teacher evaluation instruments to determine the most common dispositions evaluated by teacher preparatory programs. Thirty-two (32) final student teaching instruments were purposely selected from across the United States and examined. Thirteen disposition categories emerged from the…
Knowledge of our world's oceans, climate, and their complex dynamics is becomingly increasingly valuable to not only scientists but also laypersons who seek a deeper understanding of our oceans, the climate, and climate change. Scientists, instructors, and others involved in education and public outreach may be able to enhance their educational activities and efforts by utilizing and integrating their knowledge of identified novice-like conceptions and misconceptions that deal with oceanography and climate processes. From Spring 2008 to Spring 2011, college-level students at two different universities enrolled in four different courses were part of a study to elicit student thinking and ideas about specific processes that are central to our understanding of the oceans, the climate, and climate change. The student population drawn from the University of Colorado at Boulder were drawn from two different courses - an oceanography course (2 semesters; ~150 students per semester) and an global change course (1 semester; 75 students/semester); the student population drawn from Georgia Southern University were drawn from an environmental geology course (2 semesters; ~300 students/semester). Students were asked to answer open-ended questions dealing with specific oceanography and climate processes. Their responses were then analyzed for common themes. Key findings of this study will be shared during this presentation.
D. F. Sibley; L. C. Patino
Students of geology encounter many prototypical\\/exemplar concepts* that include representative, but not necessarily defining, features and characteristics. This study of students' prototypical representations of plate tectonic boundaries indicates that their representations are rich sources of information about their misconceptions about plate tectonics. After lectures in plate tectonics and mountain building, 353 students in a general education geology class were asked
Cliff, William H.
Most students enter the physiology classroom with one or more fundamental misconceptions about respiratory physiology. This study examined the prevalence of four respiratory misconceptions and determined the role of case analysis in the remediation of one of them. A case study was used to help students learn about oxygen transport in the blood and…
Byrd, Kia; Gelaye, Bizu; Tadessea, Mahlet G.; Williams, Michelle A.; Lemma, Seblewengel; Berhanec, Yemane
Objective To estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs) and examine the association of sleep disorders with presence of CMDs. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to ascertain demographic information and behavioral characteristics among 2,645 undergraduate students in Ethiopia. Standard questionnaires were used to assess CMDs, evening chronotype, sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. Results A total of 716 students (26.6%) were characterized as having CMDs. Female students had higher prevalence of CMDs (30.6%) compared to male students (25.4%). After adjusting for potential confounders, daytime sleepiness (OR=2.02; 95% CI 1.64-2.49) and poor sleep quality (OR=2.36; 95% CI 1.91-2.93) were associated with increased odds of CMDs. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of CMDs comorbid with sleep disorders among college students. PMID:25309939
Sandler, Susan; Hammond, Zaretta
One of the rumors making the rounds of K-12 educators goes something like this: The Common Core State Standards do not allow "prereading"--the pedagogical practice meant to help students better understand a text they are about to read--or for that matter any classroom activities that contextualize a text through outside sources. The interesting…
As many states have adopted the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), teachers can look to these standards as a framework for supporting students with gifts and talents. Differentiation of curriculum and instruction to address the CCSS will be necessary to meet the unique learning needs of learners with high ability and those with gifts and talents.…
Scruggs, Thomas E.; Brigham, Frederick J.; Mastropieri, Margo A.
The Common Core Science Standards represent a new effort to increase science learning for all students. These standards include a focus on English and language arts aspects of science learning, and three dimensions of science standards, including practices of science, crosscutting concepts of science, and disciplinary core ideas in the various…
Plucker, Jonathan A.
While the merit and politics of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) have been much debated and discussed, one topic has been virtually ignored: What do the standards portend for America's high-ability students? This brief addresses that question and provides guidance for CCSS-implementing districts and schools as they seek to help these…
Proposed Changes to USS Myths, Misconceptions and Misunderstandings Many of the comments or misinterpretation of the facts. Here we address some of the more common myths, misconceptions and misunderstandings
Huddle, Penelope Ann; White, Margaret Dawn; Rogers, Fiona
Describes a concrete teaching model designed to eliminate students' misconceptions about current flow in electrochemistry. The model uses a semi-permeable membrane rather than a salt bridge to complete the circuit and demonstrate the maintenance of cell neutrality. Concludes that use of the model led to improvement in students' understanding at…
Acar Sesen, Burcin; Ince, Elif
The purpose of this study is to examine students' usage styles of the Internet for seeking information and to investigate whether information obtained from the Internet is a source of misconceptions. For this reason, a two-stage study was conducted. At the first stage, a questionnaire was developed to get information about students' Internet usage…
This study focused on students' misconceptions related to evaporation, evaporation rate, and vapour pressure. Open-ended diagnostic questions were used with 107 undergraduates in the Primary Science Teacher Training Department in a state university in Turkey. In addition, 14 students from that sample were interviewed to clarify their written…
Geddis, Arthur N.
This use of the term "student's misconceptions" reflects a knowledge transmission view of teaching rather than a constructivist view. Among science educators there has been an undue emphasis on changing student views into views accepted by the scientific community. This overemphasis mirrors the preoccupation with transmitting the "right answer"…
Pabuccu, Aybuke; Geban, Omer
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of conceptual change texts oriented instruction on 9th grade students' understanding of chemical bonding concepts. In this study, the main aim of the preparation of conceptual change texts was to activate students' prior knowledge and misconceptions and to help them to understand the chemical…
Gil Llinas, J.; Suero Lopez, M. I.; Perez Rodriguez, A. L.; Solano Macias, F.
Presents a study on misconceptions in optics with the objective of checking their persistence over time in spite of the continued academic instruction of students. Involves (n=4000) students of all levels of the Spanish educational system as well as with those at a Spanish university with degrees in medicine, chemical sciences, technical…
Argulian, Edgar; Conen, David; Messerli, Franz H
Atrial fibrillation is an increasingly common arrhythmia associated with substantial but largely preventable risk of ischemic stroke. There has been an exponential increase in research related to atrial fibrillation in recent years, resulting in some major advances in the therapeutic management. Novel oral anticoagulant agents have become available and require thorough assessment of risk-to-benefit ratio. While the knowledge is rapidly accumulating, the basic principles of atrial fibrillation management remain proper recognition, risk stratification, and appropriate prevention of thromboembolic complications. This review highlights some common misconceptions about atrial fibrillation. PMID:25827359
Mountain, J. R.; Hibbeler, L. C.
stream_source_info ESL-HH-06-07-11.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 30894 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name ESL-HH-06-07-11.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 A “COMMON PRACTICE” APPROACH.... To expose pre-college students to a broad spectrum of “common” engineering practices, the University of Texas at Tyler, aided by funding from the National Science Foundation, developed hardware and activities using the process control industry as a...
Ekici, Fatma; Ekici, Erhan; Aydin, Fatih
In this study, the effectiveness of concept cartoons in diagnosing and overcoming students' misconceptions related to photosynthesis subject was examined. Firstly, the literature has been thoroughly examined and misconceptions about photosynthesis subject have been listed and then grouped. Concept cartoons related to these groups have been…
The purpose of this study was to diagnose the misconceptions held by pre-service physics teachers about force and motion. The secondary aim of the study was to detect whether misconceptions vary according to gender, educational level, and culture. The study was conducted with 79 student-teachers attending to one of the largest faculties of…
Abimbola, Isaac Olakanmi; Baba, Salihu
Analyzes a senior secondary biology textbook in Nigeria, STAN Biology, for its misconceptions and alternative conceptions. Discusses how the classroom teacher might filter the conceptual problems before they are presented to students as knowledge. Provides examples of the identified misconceptions and alternative conceptions along with their more…
Lists 15 commonly encountered misconceptions/misunderstandings in biology, together with specific suggestions to help teachers and textbook authors clarify each misconception. Included are problems related to understanding differences between acellular and multicellular, respiration and photosynthesis, egestion and excretion, and homeostasis and…
Zimmerman, Judith A.
The author draws on personal experience and leadership literature to develop this story about learning from misconceptions. Specifically, comparisons are drawn between the author's historical misconceptions and common beliefs about the nature and administration of schools. The article uses the dispelled historical fallacies as a vehicle for…
Ritieni, Assunta; Moskowitz, Joel; Tholandi, Maya
Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS among Latino adults (N=454) in California were examined using data from a population-based telephone survey conducted in 2000. Common misconceptions concerning modes of HIV transmission included transmission via mosquito or animal bite (64.1%), public facilities (48.3%), or kissing someone on the cheek (24.8%). A…
Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.
Much of the last three decades of discipline-based education research in the geosciences has focused on the important work of identifying the range and domain of misconceptions students bring into undergraduate science survey courses. Pinpointing students' prior knowledge is a cornerstone for developing constructivist approaches and learning environments for effective teaching. At the same time, the development of a robust a priori formula for professors to use in mitigating students' misconceptions remains elusive. An analysis of the literature and our own research has persuaded researchers at the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research to put forth a model that will allow professors to operate on students' various learning difficulties in a more productive manner. Previously, much of the field's work binned erroneous student thinking into a single construct, and from that basis, curriculum developers and instructors addressed student misconceptions with a single instructional strategy. In contrast, we propose a model based on the notion that 'misconceptions' are a mixture of at least four learning barriers: incorrect factual information, inappropriately applied mental algorithms (phenomenological primitives), insufficient cognitive structures (e.g. spatial reasoning), and affective/emotional difficulties (e.g. students' spiritual commitments). In this sense, each of these different types of learning barriers would be more effectively addressed with an instructional strategy purposefully targeting these different attributes. Initial applications of this model to learning problems in geosciences have been fruitful, suggesting that an effort towards categorizing persistent learning difficulties in the geosciences beyond the single generalized category of 'misconceptions' might allow our community to more effectively design learning experiences for our students and the general public
Tout, Dan; Pancini, Geri; McCormack, Rob
This paper presents findings from a 2010 evaluation of Victoria University's Student Rover program, an on-campus work-based learning program in which mobile student mentors are employed and deployed within the university's Learning Commons to provide "just-in-time" and "just-in-place" learning support to other…
Argulian, Edgar; Messerli, Franz H
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction has become a fashionable diagnosis. An increasing number of elderly patients with dyspnea carry this diagnosis. Evaluation and management of these patients typically labeled as having "diastolic" heart failure are challenging, and misconceptions are common. No drug class has been shown to consistently provide outcome benefit. Therapeutic strategies based on the predominant pathophysiologic mechanism and stage of the disease currently remain the best option in tackling the perplexing syndrome of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. PMID:24937156
Chen, A. P.; Kirkby, K. C.; Morin, P. J.
One of the most important, but often underappreciated, challenges in geoscience education is posed by student misconceptions. Instructors of large geoscience undergraduate class seldom have the time to identify student misconceptions and are often forced to assume a certain base level of student knowledge upon which the course material is built. Empirical results from the past two decades of misconception research in mathematics and physics, however, reveal just how risky this assumption can be. Students' prior knowledge and misconceptions can greatly hinder their acquisition of new expertise and often result in short term rather than long term retention of course concepts. Successful transformation of student misconceptions has been achieved by coupling constructive learning with specific challenges to common misconceptions, but this approach necessitates knowing what those misconceptions are. At present, much more research is needed to identify the misconceptions and prior knowledge students bring to geoscience classes. As an example, the idea that water flows downhill is one of the simplest concepts we have in earth science. A logical, familiar and easily demonstrated concept, it seems a safe assumption that students already know, or will readily accept, that water flows downhill. Yet a recent study of students' map interpretation revealed a remarkable suite of often deeply-held misconception regarding surface water flow. Although the study's original goal was to measure the relative effectiveness of anaglyph and traditional topographic contour maps in conveying the geometry of the land surface, post-study interviews of participating students discovered many misconceptions about surface water flow and factors such as elevation, earth rotation, distance to a large water body, and compass directions. Of fifty-three students interviewed, only six students confidently expressed the idea that water flow is primarily controlled by changes in elevation. Many erroneous responses arose, such as equating `south' with `into the earth', asserting a hemispherical dependence of water flow on earth, equating water flow on familiar spherical objects with water flow on the Earth's surface, an inability to explain east-west river flow, and errors in predicting changes in river flow direction due to hypothetical changes in the Earth's rotation. In addition, our interview results suggest a large percentage of students have problems with small to large scale transfer and that students' confusion regarding water flow exists on multiple conceptual layers. Some of these ideas were so deeply held that students, even when confronted, were willing to believe that water would flow uphill to match their understanding of how it should behave. While it is still unclear how these basic misconceptions impair students' ability to grasp other concepts in an introductory geology course, our interview results serve to demonstrate that assuming students and instructors share common base level knowledge is surprisingly risky.
von Aufschnaiter, Claudia; Rogge, Christian
Research on conceptual change assumes that students enter a science classroom with prior(mis-)conceptions. When being exposed to instruction, students are supposed to develop or change their conceptions to (more) scientific concepts. As a consequence, instruction typically concentrates on appropriate examples demonstrating that students'…
Sahin Pekmez, Esin
The main purpose of this study was to find the effectiveness of using analogies to prevent misconceptions about chemical equilibrium. Nineteen analogies, which were based on dynamic aspects of chemical equilibrium and application of Le Chatelier's principle, were developed. The participations of this study consisted of 11th grade students (n: 151)…
PhD Nancy J. Pelaez (California State University Fullerton Department of Biological Science, MH282)
This study sought to to investigate the prevalence and persistence of blood circulation misconceptions among prospective elementary teachers and 2) to evaluate the effectiveness of learning activities for discovering what students know and can explain about blood circulation and lung function
Yalcin, Mehmet; Altun, Sema; Turgut, Umit; Aggul, Fatma
The present study aims to identify first year Turkish Science undergraduates' understandings and misconceptions of the concept of light and its propagation. For this purpose, an instrument composed of four open-ended questions was developed by the researchers. The diagnostic test was piloted with twenty students and modifications were made prior…
This study (n=192) examined the use of analogical instruction to overcome misconceptions about conservation of matter. Students who understood the concept conservation of matter when iodine was evaporated were able to transfer their understanding to the evaporation of acetone. This indicates that teaching by analogy can be an effective tool in…
Adolescence is the period of physical and psychological growth between childhood and adulthood. The author is a practicing obstetrician and gynecologist in New Delhi. Over the course of her medical career, she has identified many myths and misconceptions about adolescents and adolescence. With regard to male adolescents, masturbation-related myths may be the most frequently harbored. Male adolescents have a hormone-driven need to have sexual intercourse, frequently. Masturbation is a healthy, no-cost way to relieve sexual tension. There is neither need to pay a prostitute nor fear of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. A young man can masturbate virtually whenever he wants. Despite the guilt and misinformation implanted by adults that masturbation causes weakness, boys masturbate rather frequently. Also contrary to popular myth, the nocturnal emissions which may result in growing boys as a result of sexual excitement during a dream are completely normal and no reason for concern. Further, boys should not worry about penis size, for, when erect, they all work just fine. People grow at different rates. Menstruation starts when 17% of a woman's body weight is fat. The onset of menstruation may therefore start earlier in well-fed girls compared to in girls who are more lean. The frequency and duration of menses are not constant. Menstrual irregularity therefore does not necessarily mean that a young woman is pregnant or that professional medical treatment is required. Breasts, like penises, serve their intended function irrespective of size. The hymen is a membrane at the opening of the vagina. It may have a hole in the center or the side for the escape of menstrual blood. There are myths that an intact hymen is indicative of virginity, the hymen should be intact until marriage, and the first sexual experience should be painful for a woman. The hymen is elastic and even some prostitutes have been found to have intact hymens. The hymen also may tear due to a fall, cycling, or horse riding. Furthermore, myths exist that kissing can cause pregnancy or AIDS, homosexuality is abnormal and incompatible with heterosexual relationships later in life, and different positions of coitus may adversely affect physical health. Adolescents sorely need sources of sound scientific factual information to dispel their myths. PMID:12346860
Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.
For over 40 years, the science education community has given its attention to cataloging the substantial body of "misconceptions" in individual's thinking about science, and to addressing the consequences of those misconceptions in the science classroom. Despite the tremendous amount of effort given to researching and disseminating information related to misconceptions, and the development of a theory of conceptual change to mitigate misconceptions, progress continues to be less than satisfying. An analysis of the literature and our own research has persuaded the CAPER Center for Astronomy and Physics Education Research to put forth model that will allow us to operate on students' learning difficulties in a more fruitful manner. Previously, much of the field's work binned erroneous student thinking into a single construct, and from that basis, curriculum developers and instructors addressed student misconceptions with a single instructional strategy. In contrast this model suggests that "misconceptions" are a mixture of at least four learning barriers: incorrect factual information, inappropriately applied mental algorithms (phenomenological primitives), insufficient cognitive structures (e.g. spatial reasoning), and affective/emotional difficulties. Each of these types of barriers should be addressed with an appropriately designed instructional strategy. Initial applications of this model to learning problems in the Earth & Space Sciences have been fruitful, suggesting that an effort towards categorizing persistent learning difficulties in the geosciences beyond the level of "misconceptions" may allow our community to craft tailored and more effective learning experiences for our students and the general public.
Yoder, John D.
This study examined the use of discovery learning in science and how it affects students' academic performance as well as their self-efficacy in science. It also used a diagnostic tool to identify students' misconceptions about processes in the water cycle and where the misconceptions originated. While the study showed that the treatment group had a statistically significant greater academic gain from the pre-test to the post- test than did the no-treatment comparison group, from a teachers view point the gain would not be enough to benefit a student's performance on high stakes tests. Because the study was able to identify eight common misconceptions, it suggests that the misconceptions that students possess are difficult to uproot even using teaching methods that have been proven successful.
Abrams, Paul G.; Hoffman, Peter M.
Reexamines the common law precedent on student expulsions and suspensions and seeks to formulate a comprehensive doctrinal basis for common law judicial intervention that will realistically protect the rights of public and private university students alike. (Author)
This study describes how the lesson plans of preservice teachers differed from the inductive learning cycle planning model, and relates these differences to persistent naive conceptions about effective science pedagogy held by preservice teachers. Strategies based on the science misconceptions literature that methods instructors can use to…
Over the past few decades, numerous studies have demonstrated that pre-service and in-service teachers fall victim to the same misconceptions as the students they are or will be teaching. At the same time, research has shown that addressing the misconceptions head-on and leading students to a deep, personal understanding of why their previous conceptions were erroneous aids in replacement of misconceptions with an accurate understanding of the natural world. This paper demonstrates how this was accomplished in a required university-level Earth/space/physical science course for pre-service elementary school teachers, with an emphasis on examples from the Sun-Earth-Moon system.
Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly
Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed "misconceptions," among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists…
David Hershey (; )
The resource is useful for teacher's professional development by alerting educators to many plant misconceptions in teaching literature. In the thought provoking, peer reviewed resource fifty misconceptions are identified. Some misconceptions are easier to identify because they are oversimplifications, overgeneralizations, or misidentifications. Others are more difficult to identify because they are obsolete concepts and terms or flawed research.
This 42-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the Kindergarten level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades 1-5.
Gooding, Julia; Metz, Bill
We all have misconceptions about the world in which we live--how it works, how we interact with it, how it changes, and the reasons behind those changes. These misunderstandings are personal notions we create to make meaning of our surroundings. Often, these misunderstandings go unchallenged for a lifetime. This article addresses how these…
Gold, A. U.; Ledley, T. S.; Kirk, K. B.; Grogan, M.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Manduca, C. A.; Fox, S.; Niepold, F.; Howell, C.; Lynds, S. E.
Despite a prevalence of peer-reviewed scientific research and high-level reports by intergovernmental agencies (e.g., IPCC) that document changes in our climate and consequences for human societies, the public discourse regards these topics as controversial and sensitive. The chasm between scientific-based understanding of climate systems and public understanding can most easily be addressed via high quality, science-based education on these topics. Well-trained and confident educators are required to provide this education. However, climate science and energy awareness are complex topics that are rapidly evolving and have a great potential for controversy. Furthermore, the interdisciplinary nature of climate science further increases the difficulty for teachers to stay abreast of the science and the policy. Research has shown that students and educators alike hold misconceptions about the climate system in general and the causes and effects of climate change in particular. The NSF-funded CLEAN Pathway (http://cleanet.org) as part of the National Science Digital Library (http://www.nsdl.org) strives to address these needs and help educators address misconceptions by providing high quality learning resources and professional development opportunities to support educators of grade levels 6 through 16. The materials focus on teaching climate science and energy use. The scope and framework of the CLEAN Pathway is defined by the Essential Principles of Climate Science (CCSP, 2009) and the Energy Literacy Principles recently developed by the Department of Energy. Following this literacy-based approach, CLEAN helps with developing mental models to address misconceptions around climate science and energy awareness through a number of different avenues. These are: 1) Professional development opportunities for educators - interactive webinars for secondary teachers and virtual workshops for college faculty, 2) A collection of scientifically and pedagogically reviewed, high-quality learning resources on climate and energy topics, 3) Detailed information on effective approaches for teaching climate and energy science for a range of grade levels, and 4) A community support forum (http://iceeonline.org, coordinated by a partner project - Inspiring Climate Education Excellence, ICEE), where educators can exchange information and share advice regarding climate and energy education. In this presentation we focus on our experience coordinating professional development opportunities as well as the "Teaching about Climate and Energy" web pages that are offered through the CLEAN Pathway to show-case how misconceptions can be addressed by educators when teaching or learning about climate and energy topics. Providing educators with a robust foundation of topical knowledge, guiding them through common misconceptions and providing them with a collection of well-vetted learning resources is the approach offered by CLEAN to address student misconceptions of climate and energy topics.
Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin; Yeung, Stephen Pui-ming
This paper examines the knowledge and understanding of Hong Kong secondary school students about the composition of unpolluted and polluted air, and the nature and effects of air pollutants. A number of misconceptions are highlighted, including the common belief amongst younger students that oxygen was more common in unpolluted air than nitrogen.…
Accelerating students through school at a faster than normal rate is routinely met with skepticism and doubt pertaining to its effectiveness. In the research community, however, the topic is nearly dead. Research has continually supported this practice as effective when carefully implemented. This article attempts to debunk common myths (such as…
Sharpless, Brian A
Exploding head syndrome is characterized by the perception of loud noises during sleep-wake or wake-sleep transitions. Although episodes by themselves are relatively harmless, it is a frightening phenomenon that may result in clinical consequences. At present there are little systematic data on exploding head syndrome, and prevalence rates are unknown. It has been hypothesized to be rare and to occur primarily in older (i.e. 50+ years) individuals, females, and those suffering from isolated sleep paralysis. In order to test these hypotheses, 211 undergraduate students were assessed for both exploding head syndrome and isolated sleep paralysis using semi-structured diagnostic interviews: 18.00% of the sample experienced lifetime exploding head syndrome, this reduced to 16.60% for recurrent cases. Though not more common in females, it was found in 36.89% of those diagnosed with isolated sleep paralysis. Exploding head syndrome episodes were accompanied by clinically significant levels of fear, and a minority (2.80%) experienced it to such a degree that it was associated with clinically significant distress and/or impairment. Contrary to some earlier theorizing, exploding head syndrome was found to be a relatively common experience in younger individuals. Given the potential clinical impacts, it is recommended that it be assessed more regularly in research and clinical settings. PMID:25773787
Sibley, D. F.; Patino, L. C.
Students of geology encounter many prototypical/exemplar concepts* that include representative, but not necessarily defining, features and characteristics. This study of students' prototypical representations of plate tectonic boundaries indicates that their representations are rich sources of information about their misconceptions about plate tectonics. After lectures in plate tectonics and mountain building, 353 students in a general education geology class were asked to draw a continent-continent convergent boundary. For this study, a correct answer is defined as having the major features in correct proportions as depicted in the plate boundary diagrams on the USGS web. Fifty-two percent of the drawings were either incorrect or incomplete such that they could not be interpreted. Only 48% were readily interpretable, and of these 22% drew the boundary correctly, showing a thickening of crust where two continents collide. Thirty-three percent drew the boundary showing concave slabs of continental crust as one might imagine two pieces of firm rubber pushed together on a rigid surface and 45% depicted mountains as one might imagine inverted ice cream cones on a rigid plank. Twenty-one senior class geology majors and graduate students were given the same assignment. Forty-eight percent rendered a correct drawing, whereas 38% drew the same ice cream cone on a plank type picture that 45% of the general education students drew. In a second class of 12 geology majors, only 1 student drew a cross section of a continent-ocean boundary similar to standard representation. Four of 12 drew mountains on the top of continental crust over a subduction zone but did not draw a compensating mass within the crust or lithosphere. Prototypical drawings provide more information about students' concepts than do most multiple-choice questions. For example, sixty-two percent of theses students who drew mountains similar to foam rubber pads pushed together on a desk or ice cream cones on a plank correctly answered a multiple-choice question that would appear to indicate a better understanding than the drawings reveal. Furthermore, 12 interviewed students made statements that could be interpreted to indicate that they understood the concept of mountain building at plate tectonic boundaries better than their drawings suggest. Incoherence of multiple-choice responses, verbal statements and drawings may be common in novice learners. If cognitive scientists are correct in their model of multiple types of mental representations for the same term, then the fact that novices may hold inconsistent representations is not surprising. The fact that students at various academic levels draw very similar prototypes that are incorrect is evidence that students have distinct and persistent prototype misconceptions. * Cognitive scientists define a prototypical/exemplar concept as a mental representation of the best examples or central tendencies of a term.
Guisasola, Jenaro; Almudi, Jose M.; Salinas, Julia; Zuza, Kristina; Ceberio, Mikel
This study aims to analyse university students' reasoning regarding two laws of electromagnetism: Gauss's law and Ampere's law. It has been supposed that the problems seen in understanding and applying both laws do not spring from students' misconceptions. Students habitually use reasoning known in the literature as 'common sense' methodology that…
Nowadays, the importance given to astronomy teaching in science and physics education has been gradually increasing. At the same time, teachers play an important role in remediating the misconceptions about astronomy concepts held by students. The present study aims to determine the misconceptions of pre-service physics teachers (n = 117),…
Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet
Very little information exists about children's prior knowledge and thinking (including misconceptions) about transportation, a topic commonly taught in elementary social studies. To develop such information, individual interviews were conducted with 96 K-3 students, stratified according to grade level, achievement level, and gender. The students…
Tomarken, Andrew J; Waller, Niels G
Because structural equation modeling (SEM) has become a very popular data-analytic technique, it is important for clinical scientists to have a balanced perception of its strengths and limitations. We review several strengths of SEM, with a particular focus on recent innovations (e.g., latent growth modeling, multilevel SEM models, and approaches for dealing with missing data and with violations of normality assumptions) that underscore how SEM has become a broad data-analytic framework with flexible and unique capabilities. We also consider several limitations of SEM and some misconceptions that it tends to elicit. Major themes emphasized are the problem of omitted variables, the importance of lower-order model components, potential limitations of models judged to be well fitting, the inaccuracy of some commonly used rules of thumb, and the importance of study design. Throughout, we offer recommendations for the conduct of SEM analyses and the reporting of results. PMID:17716081
Rosenthal, Deborah P.; Sanger, Michael J.
A group of 55 students were shown unnarrated versions of two different particulate-level computer animations of varying complexity depicting the oxidation-reduction reaction of aqueous silver nitrate and solid copper metal. These students were asked to explain their understanding of the chemical reaction based on their interpretations of these…
MORTAZ HEJRI, SARA; MIRZAZADEH, AZIM; JALILI, MOHAMMAD
Introduction Pervasive beliefs regarding curricular reform and integration have flourished among medical students, faculty members and medical school administrators. These concepts have extensively impacted the reform process, sometimes by resisting the reforms and sometimes by diverting the curriculum from its planned objectives. In the current paper, we have tried to address the challenges of integration in MD program by looking at the existing literature and the experience of the international universities. Methods We collected the questions frequently asked during the curricular reform process. We, then, evaluated them, and selected 5 main ideas. In order to find their answers, we searched the literature using these keywords: integration, reform, and undergraduate medical curriculum. Results The findings are discussed in five sections: 1) Reform is not equivalent to integration, 2) Integration can be implemented in both high school and graduate programs, 3) Organ-system based integration is not the only method available for integration, 4) Integration of two phases (basic sciences and physiopathology) can be considered but it is not mandatory, 5) Integration does not fade basic sciences in favor of clinical courses. Conclusion It seems that medical education literature and prior experience of the leading universities do not support most of the usual concepts about integration. Therefore, it is important to consider informed decision making based on best evidence rather than personal opinions during the curricular reform process.
There is evidence that students who enroll in and complete their developmental education sequence do as well as students who enter college-ready. No doubt a strong developmental education curriculum and effective teaching are critical to success. But states also need a policy infrastructure that systematically identifies students who need…
Phani, A. Srikantha
NSERC Undergraduate Student Research Awards (USRA) 2015/16 Checklist for Common Errors for a detailed description of what the student will be working on). #12;NSERC Undergraduate Student Research' button) Correct term (ie. Summer (May Aug), Fall (Sep Dec), Winter (Jan - Apr)) Includes student
Kramer, Eric M.; Myers, David R.
Osmosis is the flow of solvent across a semipermeable membrane from a region of lower to higher solute concentration. It is of central importance in plant and animal physiology and finds many uses in industry. A survey of published papers, web resources, and current textbooks reveals that numerous misconceptions about osmosis continue to be cited and taught. To clarify these issues, we re-derive the thermodynamics of osmosis using the canonical formalism of statistical mechanics and go on to discuss the main points that continue to lead to misunderstandings.
Epp, R J
Since 1973, when OSHA CFRs 1910 and 1926 began to influence the workplace, confusion about the interpretation of the standards has been a problem and fall protection issues are among them. This confusion is verified by the issuance of 351 (as of 11/25/05) Standard Interpretations issued by OSHA in response to formally submitted questions asking for clarification. Over the years, many workers and too many ES&H Professionals have become 'self-interpreters', reaching conclusions that do not conform to either the Standards or the published Interpretations. One conclusion that has been reached by the author is that many ES&H Professionals are either not aware of, or do not pay attention to the Standard Interpretations issued by OSHA, or the State OSHA interpretation mechanism, whoever has jurisdiction. If you fall in this category, you are doing your organization or clients a disservice and are not providing them with the best information available. Several myths and/or misconceptions have been promulgated to the point that they become accepted fact, until an incident occurs and OSHA becomes involved. For example, one very pervasive myth is that you are in compliance as long as you maintain a distance of 6 feet from the edge. No such carte blanche rule exists. In this presentation, this myth and several other common myths/misconceptions will be discussed. This presentation is focused only on Federal OSHA CFR1910 Subpart D--Walking-Working Surfaces, CFR1926 Subpart M--Fall Protection and the Fall Protection Standard Interpretation Letters. This presentation does not cover steel erection, aerial lifts and other fall protection issues. Your regulations will probably be different than those presented if you are operating under a State plan.
Two classroom studies, one conducted in the spring of 1985 and the second in the spring of 1986, showed that many high school students do not differentiate between heat and temperature; instead, they have a single concept that contains some of the features of heat and some of the features of temperature. Because the distinction between these two…
Stahl, Steven A.; And Others
To examine the effects of students reading multiple documents on their perceptions of a historical event, in this case the "discovery" of America by Christopher Columbus, 85 high school freshmen read 3 of 4 different texts (or sets of texts) dealing with Columbus. One text was an encyclopedia article, one a set of articles from "Newsweek" and…
Chen, Charles P.
International college students studying in North America endure substantial psychological stress in their daily lives. The nature and function of stressors in the context of international college students' subjective appraisal are discussed and analyzed using the Lazarus and Folkman's concept of stress. Recommendations for future research are…
Junco, Reynol; Cole-Avent, Gail A.
Today's college students, the Net generation, have woven technology into their everyday repertoire of communication and connection tools. They use the Internet, e-mail, instant messaging, blogs, and social networking Web sites like Facebook and MySpace at higher rates than individuals from any other generation. Student affairs professionals,…
Storey, Richard D.
The idea that errors and misconceptions in biology textbooks are often slow to be discovered and corrected is discussed. Selected errors, misconceptions, and topics of confusion about cell metabolism are described. Fermentation, respiration, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, uniformity of catabolism, and metabolic pathways as models are…
Lynds, S. E.; Gold, A. U.; McNeal, K.; Libarkin, J. C.; Buhr Sullivan, S. M.; Ledley, T. S.; Haddad, N.; Ellins, K. K.
The EarthLabs Climate project, an NSF-Discovery Research K12 program, has developed a suite of three online classroom-ready modules: Climate and the Cryosphere; Climate and the Carbon Cycle; and Climate and the Biosphere. The EarthLabs Climate project included week-long professional development workshops during June of 2012 and 2013 in Texas and Mississippi. Evaluation of the 2012 and 2013 workshops included participant self-reported learning levels in many areas of climate science. Teachers' answers indicated they had increased their understanding of the topics addressed in the workshops. However, the project team was interested in refining the evaluation process to determine exactly those areas of climate science in which participants increased content knowledge and ameliorated misconceptions. Therefore, to enhance the investigation into what teachers got out of the workshop, a pre-test/post-test design was implemented for 2013. In particular, the evaluation team was interested in discovering the degree to which participants held misconceptions and whether those beliefs were modified by attendance at the workshops. For the 2013 workshops, a registration survey was implemented that included the Climate Concept Inventory (a climate content knowledge quiz developed by the education research team for the project). The multiple-choice questions are also part of the pre/post student quiz used in classrooms in which the EarthLabs Climate curriculum was implemented. Many of the questions in this instrument assess common misconceptions by using them as distractors in the multiple choice options. The registration survey also asked respondents to indicate their confidence in their answer to each question, because, in addition to knowledge limitations, lack of confidence also can be a barrier to effective teaching. Data from the registration survey informed workshop managers of the topic content knowledge of participants, allowing fine-tuning of the professional development to address attendee's knowledge levels. In addition, the pre-test/post-test design allowed evaluators to investigate changes in participant understanding in a way more robust than self-reported learning. In this presentation, we will address the findings from these analyses and discuss implications for addressing misconceptions in teacher professional development.
Much investment has been put into facilities for early cancer diagnosis. It is difficult to know how successful this investment has been. New facilities for rapid investigation in the UK have not reduced mortality, and may cause delays in diagnosis of patients with low-risk, or atypical, symptoms. In part, the failure of new facilities to translate into mortality benefits can be explained by five misconceptions. These are described, along with suggested research and organisational remedies. The first misconception is that cancer is diagnosed in hospitals. Consequently, secondary care data have been used to drive primary care decisions. Second, GPs are thought to be poor at cancer diagnosis, yet the type of education on offer to improve this may not be what is needed. Third, symptomatic cancer diagnosis has been downgraded in importance with the introduction of screening, yet screening identifies only a small minority of cancers. Fourth, pressure is put on GPs to make referrals for those with an individual high risk of cancer — disenfranchising those with ‘low-risk but not no-risk’ symptoms. Finally, considerable nihilism exists about the value of early diagnosis, despite considerable observational evidence that earlier diagnosis of symptomatic cancer is beneficial. PMID:19520027
Powell, Sarah R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Doug
The Common Core State Standards provide teachers with a framework of necessary mathematics skills across grades K-12, which vary considerably from previous mathematics standards. In this article, we discuss concerns about the implications of the Common Core for students with mathematics difficulties (MD), given that students with MD, by…
Phani, A. Srikantha
NSERC Undergraduate Student Research Awards (USRA) 2014/15 Checklist for Common Errors Undergraduate Student Research Awards (USRA) 2014/15 Checklist for Common Errors NOTE: If there are any errors submitted online (supervisor clicked `submit to LO' button) Correct term (ie. Summer (May Aug), Fall (Sep
Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet; O'Mahony, Carolyn
Individual interviews were conducted with 96 K-3 students, stratified according to grade level, achievement level, and gender. The students were asked to explain land-to-hand progressions involved in bringing several common foods to our tables, identify products derived from common farm animals, explain why a pound of cereal costs more than a…
L. L. Dupigny-Giroux
The Climate Literacy Initiative of the Association of American Geographers (AAG) was largely born out of the growing realization of the misconceptions held by university students about the atmosphere, weather, climate and increasingly, climate variability and change. One way to quantify students' perceptions and scientific understanding about a topic like global warming, was via the reflection rubric common to service-learning
Zucker, Andrew; Kay, Rachel; Staudt, Carolyn
Graphs are commonly used in science, mathematics, and social sciences to convey important concepts; yet students at all ages demonstrate difficulties interpreting graphs. This paper reports on an experimental study of free, Web-based software called SmartGraphs that is specifically designed to help students overcome their misconceptions regarding…
This 46-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the grade 1 level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades K and 2-5.
This 68-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the grade 5 level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades K-4.
This 75-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the grade 4 level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades K-3 and 5.
This 60-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the grade 3 level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades K-2 and 4-5.
Constable, Susan; Grossi, Barrie; Moniz, Alexis; Ryan, Lynne
How can we ensure that students with autism spectrum disorders are provided access to the curriculum that is provided to all students? This article discusses the specific challenges presented by students with autism spectrum disorders that can impact their access to the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts. Specific evidence-based…
Irvine, Cynthia E.
in advanced student research projects. Background information on CC coursework and information security and the suitability and benefits of applying the CC in this context are discussed. 1 Introduction Information security, the commercial sector has tended to ignore the principles  and fundamentals of information security in product
Trackey, Rachel Phelps
The purpose of my study was to expand the existing body of research regarding spousal support needs of nontraditional students. Richard Lazarus's (1999) cognitive contextual stress and coping theory provided the framework for this qualitative, phenomenological, multi-case study. Qualitative themes were (a) "spousal support," (b)…
This position paper argues that students' understanding and acceptance of evolution may be supported, rather than hindered, by classroom discussion of creationism. Parallels are drawn between creationism and other scientific misconceptions, both of the scientific community in the past and of students in the present. Science teachers frequently…
Lee, Hyunju; Schneider, Stephen E.
Many topics in introductory astronomy at the college or high-school level rely implicitly on using astronomical photographs and visual data in class. However, students bring many preconceptions to their understanding of these materials that ultimately lead to misconceptions, and research about students' interpretation of astronomical images has…
Lee, Hyunju; Schneider, Stephen E.
Many topics in introductory astronomy at the college or high-school level rely implicitly on using astronomical photographs and visual data in class. However, students bring many preconceptions to their understanding of these materials that ultimately lead to misconceptions, and the research about students' interpretation of astronomical images…
Briles, T. M.; Tabor-Morris, A. E.
Optical illusions are well known as effects that we see that are not representative of reality. Sensory illusions are similar but can involve other senses than sight, such as hearing or touch. One mistake commonly noted among instructors is that students often mis-identify radio signals as sound waves and not as part of the electromagnetic spectrum. A survey of physics students from multiple high schools highlights the frequency of this common misconception, as well as other nuances on this misunderstanding. Many students appear to conclude that, since they experience radio broadcasts as sound, then sound waves are the actual transmission of radio signals and not, as is actually true, a representation of those waves as produced by the translator box, the radio. Steps to help students identify and correct sensory illusion misconceptions are discussed. Optical illusions are well known as effects that we see that are not representative of reality. Sensory illusions are similar but can involve other senses than sight, such as hearing or touch. One mistake commonly noted among instructors is that students often mis-identify radio signals as sound waves and not as part of the electromagnetic spectrum. A survey of physics students from multiple high schools highlights the frequency of this common misconception, as well as other nuances on this misunderstanding. Many students appear to conclude that, since they experience radio broadcasts as sound, then sound waves are the actual transmission of radio signals and not, as is actually true, a representation of those waves as produced by the translator box, the radio. Steps to help students identify and correct sensory illusion misconceptions are discussed. School of Education
Papaphotis, Georgios; Tsaparlis, Georgios
Part 2 of the findings are presented of a quantitative study (n = 125) on basic quantum chemical concepts taught at twelfth grade (age 17-18 years) in Greece. A paper-and-pencil test of fourteen questions was used that were of two kinds: five questions that tested recall of knowledge or application of algorithmic procedures (type-A questions);…
Woodward, R.; Sloan, R.
The release of gasoline from underground storage tanks and the subsequent appearance of dissolved constituents in drinking water has focused attention on the use of MTBE in reformulated fuels. Natural biodegradation of MTBE in soil, photo-oxidation in the atmosphere or chemical oxidation during remediation of gasoline releases can produce the intermediate tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). TBA is also a fuel oxygenate and can be found as a co-product in MTBE synthesized from methanol and TBA. Because the physical properties of ethers and alcohols differ somewhat from the predominant hydrocarbon compounds in gasoline, misconceptions have developed about the behavior of fuel oxygenates in storage and in the subsurface. Critical review of several misconceptions about MTBE and TBA in gasoline reveals the concepts were conceived to rationalize early field observations and/or incomplete data sets. Closer scrutiny, in light of recent laboratory investigations, field data, case studies and world literature, clarifies these misconceptions and assumptions about the behavior of ether oxygenates and their degradation products in the environment. Commonly held misconceptions focus on four general areas of fuel and fuel oxygenate management: storage/dispensing, hydrology, remediation, and health effects. Storage/dispensing misconceptions address materials stability to ethers and alcohols in fuel and the environmental forensics of fuel systems failure. Groundwater and hydrology misconceptions deal with plume dynamics and the impact of fuel on drinking water resources. Remediation misconceptions focus on the performance of traditional hydrocarbon remediation technologies, recent developments in biodegradation and natural attenuation, drivers of remedial design and remediation costs. Health effects misconceptions address both acute and chronic exposure risk evaluations by national and international health agencies. Generally MTBE and TBA are manageable by the same processes and precautions used for gasoline and other fuel hydrocarbons. Indeed specific physical properties of ethers and alcohols expedite their treatment by traditional remediation methods of pump and treat, soil vapor extraction and bioventing.
A considerable body of research exists on students' understanding of decimal fractions and the prevalence and persistence of common misconceptions related to this understanding. Results from major studies such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in the United States and the Concepts in Secondary Mathematics and Science (CSMS)…
Storey, Richard D.
Glaring and basic textbook errors and misconceptions about photosynthesis are discussed. The Calvin Cycle, photosynthetic products, alternative cycles, and plants as producers are considered. Included are observations of both college and secondary textbooks. (CW)
Draelos, Zoe Diana
Xerosis is a highly prevalent condition that can be caused by environmental factors, age, or various diseases. Although the causes, symptoms, and severity of dry skin vary widely, moisturizers form the mainstay of treatment in simple cases and can be used as adjunctive therapy in more serious clinical cases. The market now contains a plethora of moisturizing formulations from which consumers can choose, but dermatologists need to distinguish among marketing claims, anecdotal evidence, and proven clinical effects when recommending moisturizers to their patients. Many lesser-quality moisturizers were never designed to mitigate dry skin or more serious skin conditions in a therapeutically relevant manner and are unlikely to provide clinically adequate moisturizing therapy. This article aims to clarify some common prevailing myths and misconceptions about moisturizers in the dermatology community. Recent advances in research have revealed that natural moisturizing factor (NMF), ceramides, and aquaporins (AQPs) are key factors in skin hydration. The impact of these advances on the ingredients that are being used in moisturizers is discussed, along with the importance of dermatologists choosing clinically proven products released by laboratories with demonstrated track records in research. PMID:23837155
Favale, Fabrizio; Bondani, Maria
During our activities of physics dissemination with High School students especially concerning optics, we are used to distribute a questionnaire about colors and image formation by mirrors and lenses. The answers to some questions clearly show misconceptions and naïve ideas about colors, ray tracing, image formation in reflection and refraction. These misconceptions are widespread and do not depend on the gender, the level, and the age of the students: they seem to depend on some wrong ideas and explanatory models that are not changed by the curricular studies at school. In fact, the same errors are present in groups of students before and after taking optics courses at High School. On the other hand we have also found some misleading explanations of the phenomena both in textbooks and websites. Most of the time, errors occur in the explanatory drawings accompanying the text, which are based on some hybrid description of the optical processes: sometimes the description of the path of the ray light is confused with the image reconstruction by the lenses. We think that to partially avoid some errors it is important to use a teaching path centered on the actual path of the rays and not on what eyes see (the vision). Here we present the results of data collected from more than 200 students and some considerations about figures and explanations found in textbooks.
Bukoski, Beth Em
"First-generation college student" is a category ubiquitous in higher education literature due to the social mobility this group has the potential of deriving from educational attainment. However, the first category is comprised of a diverse group of students who do not share any other common research construct, such as race/ethnicity,…
Stewart, T. J.; Roberts, E.; Eleazer, P.; Boland, R.; Wieland, D.
Results are reported from 2 common measures of medical student attitudes toward older adults: Maxwell-Sullivan Attitude Survey (MSAS); and UCLA Geriatrics Attitude Survey (GAS), with students entering the University of South Carolina School of Medicine (USCSM) in the period 2000--2005. A reliability analysis incorporating item means, Cronbach's…
Gubi, Aaron A.; Bocanegra, Joel O.
A leading challenge for educators in the twenty-first century is to effectively promote academic outcomes among diverse student learners. Indeed, students from diverse and/or minority ethno-cultural, linguistic, and socioeconomic backgrounds are much more likely to experience academic difficulties and dropout. The Common Core initiative has been…
Alterman, Richard; Larusson, Johann Ari
The interaction between participation and the emergence of common knowledge is the subject matter of this paper. A case study of a single class provides the focal point of analysis. During the semester the students participated in a blogging activity. As a result of their participation, the students create and distribute knowledge. The online…
Concepcion, Tessa; Barbosa, Clarita; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Pepper, Micah; Andrade, Asterio; Gelaye, Bizu; Yanez, David; Williams, Michelle A.
Objectives: To evaluate whether daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, and morningness and eveningness preferences are associated with common mental disorders (CMDs) among college students. Methods: A total of 963 college students completed self-administered questionnaires that collected information about sociodemographic characteristics, sleep…
Haager, Diane; Vaughn, Sharon
The K-5 reading standards within the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards provide guidance to teachers about grade level expectations for students. Though the authors of the standards acknowledge that some students may experience difficulty reaching the rigorous expectations, they explain that the standards outline a pathway to…
Williamson, Gary L.; Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, Jackson A.
The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) establish a challenging text-complexity standard for all high school graduates to read at college and workplace text-complexity levels. We argue that implementation of the CCSS standard requires concurrent examination of historical student reading-growth trends. An example of a historical student average…
Rachel Bickley; Sheila Corrall
Purpose – Technology has transformed teaching and learning environments in tertiary education, introducing new collaborative library spaces and developing the roles and skills of library staff. Academic libraries need continually to re-examine their services to ensure they meet student needs. The current survey aimed to discover how students perceived staff in the Information Commons (IC) and whether their perceptions of
Huan-Chueh Wu; Chien Chou; Hao-Ren Ke; Mei-Hung Wang
Purpose – This paper has two primary purposes: to explore common copyright-related problems that arise when librarians promote the use of digital library resources; and to investigate college students' misconceptions of copyright laws that arise when the students use these resources. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Four librarians in charge of the management of digital library resources were interviewed regarding student-users' problematic copyright-infringement
Vossen, Deborah P.; McArel, Heather; Vossen, Jeffery F.; Thompson, Angela M.
Objective: The common cold, known as upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), is the world's most prevalent illness. The purpose of this study was to determine if physical activity is linked to the incidence and/or duration of the common cold. Method: Undergraduate university students (n=200) were asked to complete two questionnaires. The…
Psencik, Kay; Baldwin, Rhonda
In 2010, district leaders of Douglas County Public Schools, Douglasville, Georgia, launched an ambitious initiative to ensure that teachers set goals that focus on increasing their effectiveness and show student growth. To achieve this goal, the district leadership team focused on common district assessments to establish common learning…
Many anatomy students begin the course with a misconception that human males and females do not have the same number of ribs. At the root of that misconception is Genesis 2:21-22, in which God removes a rib from Adam to make Eve. Removal of a body part is a surgical procedure, and one does not pass on the results of surgery to one's offspring. The…
Passaro, Perry David
Misconceptions can be thought of as naive approaches to problem solving that are perceptually appealing but incorrect and inconsistent with scientific evidence (Piaget, 1929). One type of misconception involves flow distributions within circuits. This concept is important because miners' conceptual errors about flow distribution changes within complex circuits may be in part responsible for fatal mine disasters. Based on the theory that misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits were responsible for underground mine disasters involving mine ventilation circuits, a series of studies was undertaken with mining engineering students, professional mining engineers, as well as mine foremen, mine supervisors, mine rescue members, mine maintenance personnel, mining researchers and working miners to identify these conceptual errors and errors in mine ventilation procedures. Results indicate that misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits exist in over 70 percent of the subjects sampled. It is assumed that these misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits result in errors of judgment when miners are faced with inferring and changing ventilation arrangements when two or more mine sections are connected. Furthermore, it is assumed that these misconceptions are pervasive in the mining industry and may be responsible for at least two mine ventilation disasters. The findings of this study are consistent with Piaget's (1929) model of figurative and operative knowledge. This model states that misconceptions are in part due to a lack of knowledge of dynamic transformations and how to apply content information. Recommendations for future research include the development of an interactive expert system for training miners with ventilation arrangements. Such a system would meet the educational recommendations made by Piaget (1973b) by involving a hands-on approach that allows discovery, interaction, the opportunity to make mistakes and to review the cognitive concepts on which the subject relied during his manipulation of the ventilation system.
Reports concepts which 12th-grade physics students hold about motion before and after a lecture is given. Compares quantitative and qualitative research methodology and describes some responses to test items. Shows six questions, student responses, and typical incorrect explanations used by students. (YP)
Duis, Jennifer M.
An exploratory study was conducted with 23 organic chemistry educators to discover what general chemistry concepts they typically review, the concepts they believe are fundamental to introductory organic chemistry, the topics students find most difficult in the subject, and the misconceptions they observe in undergraduate organic chemistry…
Olakanmi, E. O.; Doyoyo, M.
This paper explores the effectiveness of using "structured examples in concert with prompting reflective questions" to address misconceptions held by mechanical engineering students about thermodynamic principles by employing pre-test and post-test design, a structured questionnaire, lecture room observation, and participants'…
Murray, Tom; And Others
This paper evaluates the strengths and limitations of a computer tutor designed to help students understand physics concepts. The tutor uses a teaching strategy called "bridging analogies" that previous research has demonstrated to be successful in one-to-one tutoring. The strategy is designed to remedy misconceptions by appealing to existing…
Mashood, K. K.; Singh, Vijay A.
Student difficulties regarding the angular velocity ([image omitted]) and angular acceleration ([image omitted]) of a particle have remained relatively unexplored in contrast to their linear counterparts. We present an inventory comprising multiple choice questions aimed at probing misconceptions and eliciting ill-suited reasoning patterns. The…
Menekse, Muhsin; Clark, Douglas B.; Ozdemir, Gokhan; D'angelo, Cynthia; Scheligh, Sharon
What are Turkish pre, elementary, middle, and high school students' force ideas? And, how do Turkish students' non-normative force ideas differ or be similar to the well-known force misconceptions reported in the literature? Students have false and persistent beliefs about the physical world and they struggle with challenging misconceptions based…
al-Modhefer, Abdul-Kadhum J A; Roe, Sean M
The aim of this paper is to investigate the problems encountered conducting biomedical science tutorials for nursing students in large classes with a typical student: staff ratio of 45:1. The study is based on level 1 Common Foundation Program students from the School of Nursing and Midwifery, Queen's University Belfast at the conclusion of two phases of biomedical sciences education which include a course of 12 interactive tutorials. Survey and interview methodologies were employed to investigate difficulties encountered by students in these large tutorial classes, to ascertain what characterises a good tutor and to explore student attitudes to interactive learning. The barriers to effective teaching and learning in tutorials are discussed and subsequently, a set of guidelines is proposed to enhance learning in them. These include being aware of the ability of the student group, having a compassionate questioning style, tailoring the teaching environment to fit the aims of the class and experimenting with different tutorial formats. PMID:19836863
An analysis of scholarly publications in applied linguistics focuses on the use of such publications as "dialogue" between applied linguists to promote social responsibility in the application of their work. A review of 40 citations representing 63 papers is presented and results are discussed. Common strategies found for dispelling misconceptions…
McCarty, L.S.; Power, M.
The interaction of science and policy in ecotoxicology has given rise to several major myths and misconceptions. Three important ones are discussed here in terms of their influence on regulatory and scientific uncertainty. (1) Chronic toxicity data are ``better`` than acute data. It is commonly asserted that chronic data better reflect ``realistic`` responses than mortality and are more amenable to use in regulatory driven extrapolations. Problematic aspects, however, remain. Chronic data are time dependent, more difficult to interpret ecologically and are as difficult to extrapolate. Combined these imply less certainty about the implications of chronic toxicity-based regulations than might otherwise be believed. (2) Toxicity data obtained in controlled laboratory testing can be successfully extrapolated to field situations with appropriate models. A basic incompatibility between attempts to control variability in experimental situations (e.g. reducing abiotic and biotic influences) and the requirement to understand the causes of variability observed in the field exists. Large uncertainties in model predictions result from this incompatibility and call into question the premise of applying lab data to field situations. (3) A ``most sensitive`` species can be readily determined and effectively used. Sensitivity can only be defined with any accuracy in the context of a specific stressor and community. The possible combinations and permutations of stressors and communities is so large that the notion that a single measurement can accurately reflect complex spatial and temporal dynamics is clearly absurd. Incomplete ecological knowledge and inappropriate adjustment for body size and metabolic modifying factors raise obvious questions about the certainty with which sentinel species based regulations can adequately achieved stated objectives.
Hiebert, Sara M.
This article provides instructors with guidelines for teaching simple experimental design for the comparison of two treatment groups. Two designs with specific examples are discussed along with common misconceptions that undergraduate students typically bring to the experiment design process. Features of experiment design that maximize power and…
The use of audience response system (commonly known as clickers) supports communication and interactivity in class by allowing the instructor to ask thought-provoking questions and encouraging students to articulate and reflect their thinking, reveal misconceptions, probe the knowledge and follow their progress in the course. Recent studies on the…
This module on student organizations is one of a set of seven on vocational students and is part of a larger series of thirty-four modules constituting a core curriculum intended for use in the professional preparation of vocational educators in the areas of agricultural, business, home economics, and industrial education. Following the module…
I've been reading an online book called Ready, Set, Science! Putting Research to Work in K-8 Science Classrooms (www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11882) and have found the discussion very enlightening. I think that any beginning science teacher might want to look at this book for guidance in designing lessons and managing student discussions to help students become more thoughtful, productive, and independent learners. While the book gives examples of K-8 classrooms, the examples of classroom discourse could serve as a road map for teachers at any level who want to make their classrooms more student centered and a place where all learners are actively engaged.
, there was a time when it was not obvious that the psychology of perception had anything better to offer. Perception is viewed as not merely dealing with informa- tion about the environment, but at the same time241 Perception and Landscape: Conceptions and Misconceptions1 Stephen Kaplan 2/ 1/ Submitted
Nelson, Burton D.; And Others
Discusses some misconceptions relating to location and to the earth's hydrosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. Provides correction and explanation of various phenomena. Includes ocean names and sizes, sea level, coriolis effect, greenhouse effect, lightning, magma, and mass wasting. Suggests that myths can be dispelled by exposure combined with…
Song, Kwang-Han; Porath, Marion
The purpose of this study was to identify common and domain-specific cognitive characteristics of gifted students based on an integrated model of human abilities. This study is based on the premise that abilities identified by tests can appear as observable characteristics in test or school situations. Abilities proposed by major models of…
Jittam, Piyachat; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo
We have found it an effective way of teaching symmetry in the context of stereoselectivity, to use common everyday objects with the same point groups as the substrates involved. This has helped students to distinguish between those symmetry elements which allow for stereospecificity and those which preclude it. Two symmetry elements, the simple…
Donlevy, J. Kent
This paper offers that liberal and communitarian concepts of the common good are exemplified in the Catholic school's policy of the inclusion of non-Catholic students. In particular, the liberal concepts of personal autonomy, individual rights and freedoms, and the principles of fairness, justice, equality and respect for diversity--as democratic…
Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.
There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using multivariate matching methods on national data drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project ("n" = 7505), we test the following five commonly held beliefs regarding what…
Novak, M. A. M.
Our Moon is an ideal tool for teaching about space science and Earth's place in our solar system. The Moon remains the most studied object in our solar system and the only other body, besides Earth, from which humans have collected field samples. Despite our long history of studying the Moon, there are still many questions that remain unanswered. Most students believe that we know everything there is to know about the Moon, but in actuality it still remains very much "unknown." For example, recent radar observations of the lunar poles suggest the presence of water ice, but the quantity remains unknown. Additionally, remote-sensing analysis of the Moon's regolith suggests the presence of chemicals that can be used as resources when manned-missions return to the Moon, but how we would access those resources remains unknown. These studies and many more need to be shared with students in a way that regenerates excitement for future exploration of our Moon and our solar system. Common lunar misconceptions and ideas for establishing Lunar Science Literacy Concepts (LSLC) will be discussed in this paper.
This activity has students formulate explanations and models that simulate structural and biochemical data as they investigate the misconception that humans evolved from apes. Students should recognize that present-day species evolved from earlier species and the relatedness of organisms is the result of common ancestry. They will also discover that similarities among existing organisms provide evidence for evolution, anatomical similarities of living things reflect common ancestry, and all life forms use the same basic DNA building blocks. Basic concepts also include the fact that scientists pose, test, and revise multiple hypotheses to explain what they observe, our understanding of life through time is based upon multiple lines of evidence, the similarity of DNA nucleotide sequences can be used to infer the degree of kinship between species, and anatomical evidence is also used to infer lines of descent. This site includes a list of materials and all information required for this activity.
Talanquer, Vicente A.
of fear, frustration, or a sense of helplessness. Therefore, I have learned to minimize my frustration student understanding. Research on how people learn is too valuable to be lost or ignored be- cause and that these ideas strongly influence what and how we learn in the science classroom. Finally, I under- stood why my
Huey, Maryann E.; Baker, Deidra L.
Many teachers of required secondary school mathematics classes are introducing statistics and probability topics traditionally relegated to college or AP Statistics courses. As a result, they need guidance in preparing lesson plans and orchestrating effective classroom discussions. In this article, the authors will describe the students' learning…
Motulsky, Harvey J
Ideally, any experienced investigator with the right tools should be able to reproduce a finding published in a peer-reviewed biomedical science journal. In fact, the reproducibility of a large percentage of published findings has been questioned. Undoubtedly, there are many reasons for this, but one reason may be that investigators fool themselves due to a poor understanding of statistical concepts. In particular, investigators often make these mistakes: (1) P-Hacking. This is when you reanalyze a data set in many different ways, or perhaps reanalyze with additional replicates, until you get the result you want. (2) Overemphasis on P values rather than on the actual size of the observed effect. (3) Overuse of statistical hypothesis testing, and being seduced by the word “significant”. (4) Overreliance on standard errors, which are often misunderstood. PMID:25692012
Stein, Mary; Larrabee, Timothy G.; Barman, Charles R.
The Science Belief Test is an online instrument comprised of 47 statements that require true or false responses and request written explanations to accompany these responses. It targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy and was initially designed to assess preservice elementary teachers' beliefs about general…
not require any other guid- ing principle than the survival of the fittest. How good is half a wing? One of organisms--it is difficult to imagine what good would a partial organ like a wing or an eye be. Actually strong selection in favor of those random variants of bacteria and viruses that happen to be resistant
Carl W. Entemann
Some commonly accepted statements concerning the basic fuzzy logicproposed by Lotfi Zadeh in 1965, have led to suggestions that fuzzy logicis not a logic in the same sense as classical bivalent logic. Thoseconsidered herein are: fuzzy logic generates results that contradictclassical logic, fuzzy logic collapses to classical logic, there can be no prooftheory for fuzzy logic, fuzzy logic is inconsistent,
Burton, Stephen R.; Dobson, Christopher
They are found at picnics and family outings, apparently attracted by the food provided at these events. Large populations in fast food establishments further support their association with food. Yet little is known about the biology of "Utensilus plastica" (common name: plastic eating utensil). The authors have conducted an in-depth study of this…
Coleman, Aaron B; Lam, Diane P; Soowal, Lara N
Gaining an understanding of how science works is central to an undergraduate education in biology and biochemistry. The reasoning required to design or interpret experiments that ask specific questions does not come naturally, and is an essential part of the science process skills that must be learned for an understanding of how scientists conduct research. Gaps in these reasoning skills make it difficult for students to become proficient in reading primary scientific literature. In this study, we assessed the ability of students in an upper-division biochemistry laboratory class to use the concepts of correlation, necessity, and sufficiency in interpreting experiments presented in a format and context that is similar to what they would encounter when reading a journal article. The students were assessed before and after completion of a laboratory module where necessary vs. sufficient reasoning was used to design and interpret experiments. The assessment identified two types of errors that were commonly committed by students when interpreting experimental data. When presented with an experiment that only establishes a correlation between a potential intermediate and a known effect, students frequently interpreted the intermediate as being sufficient (causative) for the effect. Also, when presented with an experiment that tests only necessity for an intermediate, they frequently made unsupported conclusions about sufficiency, and vice versa. Completion of the laboratory module and instruction in necessary vs. sufficient reasoning showed some promise for addressing these common errors. © 2015 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 43(5):305-315, 2015. PMID:26146931
As part of the NASA-supported undergraduate Earth System Science Education (ESSE) program, fifty-seven institutions have developed and implemented a wide range of Earth system science (ESS) courses, pedagogies, and evaluation tools. The Teaching, Learning, and Evaluation section of USRA's online ESSE Design Guide showcases these ESS learning environments. This Design Guide section also provides resources for faculty who wish to develop ESS courses. It addresses important course design issues including prior student knowledge and interests, student learning objectives, learning resources, pedagogical approaches, and assessments tied to student learning objectives. The ESSE Design Guide provides links to over 130 ESS course syllabi at introductory, senior, and graduate levels. ESS courses over the past 15 years exhibit common student learning objectives and unique pedagogical approaches. From analysis of ESS course syllabi, seven common student learning objectives emerged: 1) demonstrate systems thinking, 2) develop an ESS knowledge base, 3) apply ESS to the human dimension, 4) expand and apply analytical skills, 5) improve critical thinking skills, 6) build professional/career skills, and 7) acquire an enjoyment and appreciation for science. To meet these objectives, ESSE often requires different ways of teaching than in traditional scientific disciplines. This presentation will highlight some especially successful pedagogical approaches for creating positive and engaging ESS learning environments.
Antibiotics Myths Still Common Among Parents Those with Medicaid insurance tend to know less about the drugs, ... have misconceptions about when their children should receive antibiotics and what the medications do, a new study ...
Gondwe, Mzamose; Longnecker, Nancy
There is no consensus in the science education research community on the meanings and representations of western science and indigenous knowledge or the relationships between them. How students interpret these relationships and their perceptions of any connections has rarely been studied. This study reports student perceptions of the meaning and relationship between scientific and cultural knowledge. Personal meaning maps adapted for small groups were conducted in seven culturally diverse schools, school years 7-9 (with students aged 12-15 years) ( n = 190), with six schools in Western Australia and one school in Malawi, Africa. Of the six Australian school groups, two comprised Australian Aboriginal students in an after-school homework programme and the other four schools had a multicultural mix of students. Students in this study identified connections between scientific and cultural knowledge and constructed connections from particular thematic areas—mainly factual content knowledge as opposed to ideas related to values, attitudes, beliefs and identity. Australian Aboriginal students made fewer connections between the two knowledge domains than Malawian students whose previous science teacher had made explicit connections in her science class. Examples from Aboriginal culture were the most dominant illustrations of cultural knowledge in Australian schools, even in school groups with students from other cultures. In light of our findings, we discuss the construction of common ground between scientific knowledge and cultural knowledge and the role of teachers as cultural brokers and travel agents. We conclude with recommendations on creating learning environments that embrace different cultural knowledges and that promote explicit and enquiring discussions of values, attitudes, beliefs and identity associated with both knowledge domains.
Objectives This paper describes the use of service scripts to teach pharmacy students how to manage specific practice situations by learning and following scripted behaviors. Design Based upon role theory, service scripts require specific behaviors for a broad range of practice problems and communicate consistent messages about the responsibilities of all people involved. Service scripts are developed by (1) identifying scenarios for the script, (2) eliciting the script's structure and content, and (3) documenting the reasoning behind the steps in the script. Assessment Students in a nontraditional doctor of pharmacy program developed scripts for their practice settings. They concluded that scripts were useful for quickly learning new, routine tasks, but expressed concern that scripts could be misused by pharmacists and managers. The process of script development itself was useful in gaining feedback about common practice problems. Conclusion By mastering managerial, clinical, and communication scripts, students can develop capabilities to provide professional services. PMID:17136145
It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(?); (?)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented. PMID:25053101
Burgoon, Jacob N.; Heddle, Mandy L.; Duran, Emilio
There is a large body of research that has explored students' misconceptions about science phenomena. Less research, however, has been devoted to identifying teachers' misconceptions, but the results of the few existing studies demonstrate that teachers and students possess similar misconceptions. This study explored the physical science…
Gafoor, K. Abdul; Ragisha, K. K.
Students hold many misconceptions in school science. Research reveals that teachers themselves, at times, are one source of misconceptions among students. A good number of such misconceptions, carried on to the next generation via school, are held by teachers; from their own school days and kept uncorrected even after their teacher education…
Hamza, Karim M.; Wickman, Per-Olof
Although misconceptions in science have been established in interview studies, their role during the learning process is poorly examined. In this paper, we use results from a classroom study to analyze to what extent nonscientific ideas in electrochemistry that students report in interviews enter into their learning in a more authentic setting. We…
Helm, Hugh; Novak, Joseph D.
These proceedings include abstracts and/or complete papers on topics and research focusing on student misconceptions (ideas at variance with accepted views) in science and mathematics. Abstracts and papers are arranged according to nine general areas emphasized: (1) theoretical and philosophical perspectives; (2) instructional issues; (3) research…
Jang, Nak Han
The major purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument designed to collect and investigate on Korean high school students' understanding about concepts regarding chemical bonding. The Chemical Bonding Diagnostic Test (CBDT) was developed by the procedure by previously relevant researches (Treagust, 1985; Peterson, 1986; Tan, 1994). The final instrument consisted of 15 two-tier items. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach alpha) for the whole test was 0.74. Also, the range of values for the discrimination index was from 0.38 to 0.90 and the overall average difficulty index was 0.38. The test was administered to 716 science declared students in Korean high school. The 37 common misconceptions on chemical bonding were identified through analysis of the items from the CBDT. The grade 11 students had slightly more misconceptions than the grade 12 students for ionic bonding, covalent bonding, and hydrogen bonding while the grade 12 students had more misconceptions about octet rule and hydrogen bonding than the grade 11 students. From the analysis of ANCOVA, there was no significant difference in grades, and between grade levels and gender on the mean score of CBDT. However, there was a significant difference in gender and a significant interaction between grade levels and chemistry preference. In conclusion, Korean high school students had the most common misconception about the electron configuration on ionic bonding and the water density on hydrogen bonding. Korean students' understanding about the chemical bonding was dependent on the interaction between grade levels and the chemistry preference. Consequently, grade 12 chemistry-preferred students had the highest mean scores among student groups concerned by this study.
Pelaez, Nancy J.; Boyd, Denise D.; Rojas, Jacqueline B.; Hoover, Mildred A.
Research shows that misconceptions about human blood circulation and gas exchange persist across grade levels. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to investigate the prevalence and persistence of blood circulation misconceptions among prospective elementary teachers; and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of learning activities for…
This article describes beginner habits and misconceptions related to design practices. Once teachers are aware of these habits and misconceptions, they can more easily recognize them and work to remedy them through instruction. Presented herein are eight practice habits. Each item begins with the practice, describes a related design habit or…
Misconceptions regarding sickle cell disease are qualitatively different among latency age patients as compared to adolescents. The evolution and resolution of these misconceptions determine the effectiveness of self-help programs for sickle cell patients. The Mount Sinai Hospital Sickle Cell Counseling Service is a coordinated center for sickle…
Hershey, David R.
As follow-up to a previous article "Avoid Misconceptions When Teaching about Plants," the author identifies fifty additional misconceptions. Undergeneralizations are added to the list of oversimplifications, obsolete concepts, terms, misidentifications, and flawed research. A glossary at the end of the article compares words used in botany with…
Dai, Meme F.; Capie, William
The objective of this study was to assess the misconceptions held by preservice teachers about essential concepts of the moon related to information taught in elementary schools in Taiwan and to develop multiple-choice test items to identify the misconceptions about the moon. Additionally, this study considered relationships of gender, religion,…
Yadav, Manoj K.
This paper aims to clarify the misconception about the violation of the principle of floatation. Improper understanding of the definition of ‘displaced fluid’ by a floating body leads to the misconception. With the help of simple experiments, this article shows that there is no violation of the principle of floatation.
Yadav, Manoj K.
This paper aims to clarify the misconception about the violation of the principle of floatation. Improper understanding of the definition of "displaced fluid" by a floating body leads to the misconception. With the help of simple experiments, this article shows that there is no violation of the principle of floatation.
Syed, Khalida Tanvir
This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…
Dellar, Rachael C; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Mansoor, Leila E; Grobler, Anneke; Humphries, Hilton; Werner, Lise; Ntombela, Fanelesibonge; Luthuli, Londiwe; Abdool Karim, Salim S
Overestimating personal protection afforded by participation in a preventive trial, e.g. harboring a "preventive misconception" (PM), raises theoretical ethical concerns about the adequacy of the informed consent process, behavioral disinhibition, and adherence to prevention interventions. Data from the CAPRISA 004 1 % tenofovir gel trial were utilized to empirically evaluate these concerns. We found it necessary to re-think the current definition of PM during evaluation to distinguish between true misconception and reasonable inferences of protection based on increased access to evidence-based prevention interventions and/or clinical care. There was a significant association between PM and decreased condom use (p < 0.0001) and between PM and likelihood to present with an STI symptom (p = 0.023). There was, however, limited evidence in support of PM representing a lack of meaningful informed consent, or to suggest that it impacts adherence. Moreover, considering current insufficiencies in female-initiated HIV prevention interventions, PM is perhaps of limited concern in microbicide trials. PMID:24715227
Herman, Geoffrey L.; Zilles, Craig; Loui, Michael C.
We used both student interviews and diagnostic testing to reveal students' misconceptions about number representations in computing systems. This article reveals that students who have passed an undergraduate level computer organization course still possess surprising misconceptions about positional notations, two's complement representation, and…
Yuexia Sun; Zhigang Wang; Yufeng Zhang; Jan Sundell
ObjectiveTo test whether the incidence of common colds among college students in China is associated with ventilation rates and crowdedness in dormitories.MethodsIn Phase I of the study, a cross-sectional study, 3712 students living in 1569 dorm rooms in 13 buildings responded to a questionnaire about incidence and duration of common colds in the previous 12 months. In Phase II, air
In materials science and engineering (MSE) a major goal of the discipline is to effectively teach learners from other engineering disciplines about engineering a material's macroscale properties based on the knowledge and understanding of its atomic-scale structure. This goal is a significant intellectual challenge because learners must develop a conceptual framework to understand and solve materials-related problems in their own discipline. There are significant difficulties in addressing materials-related problems in a discipline because robust misconceptions are used by students attempting to understand and correlate the concrete "macroworld" of everyday objects, properties, and phenomena to the abstract "atomic and micro-scale world" of atoms, molecules and microstructure, which are types of features of a material that actually control its properties. These misconceptions, which are scientifically-inaccurate interpretations about materials, can neither explain nor predict materials' phenomena or properties. In this study, different teaching methods were used to address the question, "What is the effect of pedagogy on student conceptual understanding of deformation and thermal processing and associated property changes of metals in an introductory materials class?" For classes in 2002, 2003, and 2007, content delivered by lectures, pair-based discussions, and team-based concept sketching, respectively, were compared in teaching the effect of deformation or annealing on a metal's properties by invoking the atomic-level structural feature of dislocations to understand macroscopic-level property changes in strength, ductility, and fracture toughness. The effect of the pedagogy was assessed from responses to dislocation-related questions on the Materials Concept Inventory (MCI). Results showed that a team-based concept sketching pedagogy was most effective in achieving conceptual change of faulty mental models about deformation-related misconceptions. This indicates that concept sketching may be an effective pedagogy both for revealing misconceptions and achieving conceptual change about other physical phenomena in materials engineering, as well as diverse physical phenomena in other engineering disciplines.
of a project/report. #12;2 The carbon sequestration potential of three common turfgrasses: Lolium perenne1 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report The carbon sequestration potential of three common turfgrasses: Lolium perenne; Fescue rubra; and Poa pratensis Yihan Wu
Nelson, Craig E
The strength of the evidence supporting evolution has increased markedly since the discovery of DNA but, paradoxically, public resistance to accepting evolution seems to have become stronger. A key dilemma is that science faculty have often continued to teach evolution ineffectively, even as the evidence that traditional ways of teaching are inferior has become stronger and stronger. Three pedagogical strategies that together can make a large difference in students' understanding and acceptance of evolution are extensive use of interactive engagement, a focus on critical thinking in science (especially on comparisons and explicit criteria) and using both of these in helping the students actively compare their initial conceptions (and publicly popular misconceptions) with more fully scientific conceptions. The conclusion that students' misconceptions must be dealt with systematically can be difficult for faculty who are teaching evolution since much of the students' resistance is framed in religious terms and one might be reluctant to address religious ideas in class. Applications to teaching evolution are illustrated with examples that address criteria and critical thinking, standard geology versus flood geology, evolutionary developmental biology versus organs of extreme perfection, and the importance of using humans as a central example. It is also helpful to bridge the false dichotomy, seen by many students, between atheistic evolution versus religious creationism. These applications are developed in detail and are intended to be sufficient to allow others to use these approaches in their teaching. Students and other faculty were quite supportive of these approaches as implemented in my classes. PMID:21669785
Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.
There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using multivariate matching methods on national data drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project (n=7505), we test the following five commonly held beliefs regarding what factors might impact females’ physical science career interest: (i) having a single-sex physics class, (ii) having a female physics teacher, (iii) having female scientist guest speakers in physics class, (iv) discussing the work of female scientists in physics class, and (v) discussing the underrepresentation of women in physics class. The effect of these experiences on physical science career interest is compared for female students who are matched on several factors, including prior science interests, prior mathematics interests, grades in science, grades in mathematics, and years of enrollment in high school physics. No significant effects are found for single-sex classes, female teachers, female scientist guest speakers, and discussing the work of female scientists. However, discussions about women’s underrepresentation have a significant positive effect.
Ulman, Catherine A.; Binder, Stephen Bruce; Borges, Nicole J.
This study assessed whether a current medical school curriculum is adequately preparing medical students to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions. A 15-item anonymous multiple choice quiz covering fifteen diseases was developed to test students’ ability to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions. The quiz also contained five items that assessed students’ confidence in their ability to diagnose common dermatologic conditions, their perception of whether they were receiving adequate training in dermatology, and their preferences for additional training in dermatology. The survey was performed in 2014, and was completed by 85 students (79.4%). Many students (87.6%) felt that they received inadequate training in dermatology during medical school. On average, students scored 46.6% on the 15-item quiz. Proficiency at the medical school where the study was performed is considered an overall score of greater than or equal to 70.0%. Students received an average score of 49.9% on the diagnostic items and an average score of 43.2% on the treatment items. The findings of this study suggest that United States medical schools should consider testing their students and assessing whether they are being adequately trained in dermatology. Then schools can decide if they need to re-evaluate the timing and delivery of their current dermatology curriculum, or whether additional curriculum hours or clinical rotations should be assigned for dermatologic training. PMID:25989840
Treffert, Darold A
It was 126 years ago that Down first described savant syndrome as a specific condition and 70 years ago that Kanner first described Early Infantile Autism. While as many as one in ten autistic persons have savant abilities, such special skills occur in other CNS conditions as well such that approximately 50 % of cases of savant syndrome have autism as the underlying developmental disability and 50 % are associated with other disabilities. This paper sorts out realities from myths and misconceptions about both savant syndrome and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that have developed through the years. The reality is that low IQ is not necessarily an accompaniment of savant syndrome; in some cases IQ can be superior. Also, savants can be creative, rather than just duplicative, and the skills increase over time on a continuum from duplication, to improvisation to creation, rather than diminishing or suddenly disappearing. Genius and prodigy exist separate from savant syndrome and not all such highly gifted persons have Asperger's Disorder. This paper also emphasizes the critical importance of separating 'autistic-like' symptoms from ASD especially in children when the savant ability presents as hyperlexia (children who read early) or as Einstein syndrome (children who speak late), or have impaired vision (Blindisms) because prognosis and outcome are very different when that careful distinction is made. In those cases the term 'outgrowing autism' might be mistakenly applied when in fact the child did not have ASD in the first place. PMID:23918440
Ross, Keith A.
Shows that the second law of thermodynamics is in the common experience of many people and if taught first, before the law of conservation, can result in fewer misconceptions among pupils. Stresses the use of common experiences in teaching. (CW)
This article reports findings from a cross-national comparative study that examined the commonalities and differences in professional ideology among social work graduates in 10 countries by studying their attitudes toward poverty and the goals of social work. The major finding is the substantial similarity in the students' professional ideology…
Minnick, Marissa C. A.
In this response, Minnick asserts that unequal representation of students' voices, an idea presented in Sensoy and DiAngelo's "Challenging the Common Guidelines in Social Justice Education," presents multiple negative classroom implications. Foremost, Minnick argues that Sensoy and DiAngelo's lack of clarity regarding when a teacher…
Drew, Sally Valentino
The Common Core State Standards Initiative is the latest effort to reform education through standards. This article examines how the Standards promise to prepare students for the changing world of the 21st century, yet do not consider the changing nature of literacy--especially the centrality of the Internet as a 21st century text, and online…
Gallagher, Kathleen L.; Odozi, Anthony
The quality of instruction in the classroom is the most powerful leverage point for school improvement because it is the only thing over which educators have a significant degree of control. As student assessments change to reflect the higher expectations of Common Core State Standards (CCSS), it is important that the assessment and development of…
Liu, Chen-Chung; Lin, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yi; Chao, Po-Yao
Creative Commons (CC) mechanism has been suggested as a potential means to foster a reliable environment for online knowledge sharing activity. This study investigates the role of the CC mechanism in supporting knowledge sharing among a group of university students studying programming from the perspectives of social cognitive and social capital…
Potts, T. Todd; Smith, Ken; Hylko, James M.
Industrial accidents are typically reported in terms of technological malfunctions, ignoring the human element in accident causation. However, over two-thirds of all accidents are attributable to human and organizational factors (e.g., planning, written procedures, job factors, training, communication, and teamwork), thereby affecting risk perception, behavior and attitudes. This paper reviews the development of WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Program that addresses human and organizational factors from a top-down, bottom-up approach. This approach is derived from the Department of Energy's Integrated Safety Management System. As a result, dispelling common myths and misconceptions about safety, while empowering employees to ''STOP work'' if necessary, have contributed to reducing an unusually high number of vehicle, ergonomic and slip/trip/fall incidents successfully. Furthermore, the safety culture that has developed within WESKEM, LLC's workforce consists of three common characteristics: (1) all employees hold safety as a value; (2) each individual feels responsible for the safety of their co-workers as well as themselves; and (3) each individual is willing and able to ''go beyond the call of duty'' on behalf of the safety of others. WESKEM, LLC as a company, upholds the safety culture and continues to enhance its existing ES&H program by incorporating employee feedback and lessons learned collected from other high-stress industries, thereby protecting its most vital resource - the employees. The success of this program is evident by reduced accident and injury rates, as well as the number of safe work hours accrued while performing hands-on field activities. WESKEM, LLC (Paducah + Oak Ridge) achieved over 800,000 safe work hours through August 2002. WESKEM-Paducah has achieved over 665,000 safe work hours without a recordable injury or lost workday case since it started operations on February 28, 2000.
Gruenbaum, Elizabeth A.
Many college students struggle with the literacy skills needed to be successful in higher education (Bettinger & Long, 2009; Snyder, Tan, & Hoffman, 2004). The difficulties emerge within students' capabilities in reading and writing. Students must be taught the skills needed to be successful to complete the tasks assigned in college classes and in…
Burroughs, Lauren Halsted
Using a liberatory discourse theoretical framework, this action research study investigated the experiences of students enrolled in basic skills English classes through a series of in-depth focus groups. The data were then analyzed in collaboration with students to draw conclusions. Student voices informed the data at every step of the inquiry…
Kannel, W B
The epidemiological approach to investigation of cardiovascular disease was innovated in 1948 by Ancel Keys' Seven Countries Study and T.R. Dawber's Framingham Heart Study. Conducted in representative samples of the general population, these investigations provided an undistorted perception of the clinical spectrum of cardiovascular disease, its incidence and prognosis, the lifestyles and personal attributes that predispose to cardiovascular disease, and clues to pathogenesis. The many insights gained corrected numerous widely held misconceptions derived from clinical studies. It was learned, for example, that the adverse consequences of hypertension do not derive chiefly from the diastolic pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy was not an incidental compensatory phenomenon, and small amounts of proteinuria were more than orthostatic trivia. Exercise was considered dangerous for cardiovascular disease candidates; smoking, cholesterol, and a fatty diet were regarded as questionable promoters of atherosclerosis. The entities of sudden death and unrecognized myocardial infarction were not widely appreciated as prominent features of coronary disease, and the disabling and lethal nature of cardiac failure and atrial fibrillation was underestimated. It took epidemiological research to coin the term "risk factor" and dispel the notion that cardiovascular disease must have a single origin. Epidemiological investigation provided health professionals with multifactorial risk profiles to more efficiently target candidates for cardiovascular disease for preventive measures. Clinicians now look to epidemiological research to provide definitive information about possible predisposing factors for cardiovascular disease and preventive measures that are justified. As a result, clinicians are less inclined to regard usual or average values as acceptable and are more inclined to regard optimal values as "normal." Cardiovascular events are coming to be regarded as a medical failure rather than the first indication of treatment. PMID:7586324
Edward E. Prather; Timothy F. Slater; Erika G. Offerdahl
To explore the frequency and range of student ideas regarding the Big Bang, nearly 1,000 students from middle school, secondary school, and college were surveyed and asked if they had heard of the Big Bang and, if so, to describe it. In analyzing their responses, we uncovered an unexpected result that more than half of the students who stated that
This module on assessing the needs of disadvantaged students is one of a set of seven on vocational students and is part of a larger series of thirty-four modules constituting a core curriculum intended for use in the professional preparation of vocational educators in the areas of agricultural, business, home economics, and industrial education.…
Zeitoun, Hassan H.
The purpose of this study was mainly to: (1) assess the competencies of pre-service biology teachers in identifying and correcting student misconceptions about photosynthesis; (2) search for relationships which might exist between each competency and a set of four independent variables, namely, background knowledge about photosynthesis,…
Science educators have generally agreed that understanding the atom concept is the basis of science education. However, the numerous research studies have shown that many students at all educational levels have difficulties understanding this concept. This study was developed under three headings. The first was to identify misconceptions that…
Arslan, Harika Ozge; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine
This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test…
Goh, Ngoh-Khang; And Others
Presents the results of a study that identifies misconceptions in chemistry by means of a two-tier diagnostic instrument. Data indicate that similar misconceptions are held by both Singaporean and Australian populations. Focuses on covalent bonding and structure. (DDR)
Finley Jr., Russell L.
Suite 317, Detroit, MI 48201 Ph: 313-577-1039, Fax: 313-993-1342 email@example.com Leave the academic year. · The tuition assessment adjustment may cause a credit balance of federal aid on his/her student tuition account. · With the student's written authorization, OSFA will use the credit balance
Dugan, John P.; Yurman, Lauren
This study explores the appropriateness of collapsing lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students into a single category in quantitative research designs as well as the nature of their engagement with the collegiate environment. Data were collected as part of a national study and represent a total of 980 LGB self-identified college students…
Christopher, Doris H.; Taylor, Marilyn J.
The primary objective of this paper is to report on two teacher educators' development and assessment of a framework and workshop to introduce student teachers to social justice and peace education ideals within the domains of teachers' work during student teachers' first full-time experience of teaching in diverse schools in a major city in the…
Gondwe, Mzamose; Longnecker, Nancy
There is no consensus in the science education research community on the meanings and representations of western science and indigenous knowledge or the relationships between them. How students interpret these relationships and their perceptions of any connections has rarely been studied. This study reports student perceptions of the meaning and…
Brosnan, Tim; Reynolds, Yvonne
This study investigated patterns of students' science thinking across four different science phenomena, focusing on changes with age and science education. British secondary school students in three age groups were offered sentences appearing on a computer screen that gave different explanations for four common changes in materials: ice melting, sugar dissolving in water, a candle burning and an iron nail rusting. The students were asked whether the sentences 'made sense' to them. The sentences, composed of fixed terms, were designed to embody good science explanations, common misconceptions, and basic descriptive and causal categories relating to the physical world. They were generated from a systemic network of explanation types. The results enabled new distinctions to be made between students' ideas at the substance, molecular and atomic level according to their length of time in science education. Implications regarding the age at which students are introduced to atomic theory are considered.
S. Ren? Smith
Our students are not blank slates. They come to school with a wide range of experiences that have shaped their science understandings--reading books, watching TV, and playing video games. From many years of research about student science ideas, it is evident that student science misconceptions are prevalent, strongly held, and highly resistant to change. Here the authors describe some research-based strategies that science teachers can use to assess and address students' misconceptions.
Koch, Sebastian; Barkmann, Jan; Sundawati, Leti; Bogeholz, Susanne
Fostering the cognitive skills to analyse environmental "commons dilemmas" is an urgent task of environmental education globally. Commons dilemmas are characterised by structural incentives to overexploit a natural resource; their solution is particularly pressing in threatened biodiversity "hotspot" areas. Solutions to these dilemmas require…
Weiner, Sharon A.; Weiner, John M.
A master's comprehensive University is planning a learning commons to support undergraduate learning. The planning process included a literature review, site visits to commons, consultations with experts in the field, discussions with campus specialists, and surveys of patrons. The literature reports two primary forms of data gathering for…
Just as technology has changed the way teachers teach and students learn, so too has technology transformed the way our industry manages school construction programs. Gone are the days when a school construction project had to be planned around the limitations of the contractor rather than the needs of students. Also different are the ways schools…
Martinez-Borreguero, Guadalupe; Perez-Rodriguez, Angel Luis; Suero-Lopez, Maria Isabel; Pardo-Fernandez, Pedro Jose
We study the misconceptions about colour that most people hold, determining the general phenomenological laws that govern them. Concept mapping was used to combat the misconceptions which were found in the application of a test specifically designed to determine these misconceptions, while avoiding the possible misleading inductions that could…
Polito, E.; Monteverdi, J. P.; Garcia, O.; Tanner, K. D.
Meteorological content is presented in K-12 educational standards and in university general education courses, yet little research has been done to explore how students conceptualize weather phenomena. This investigation probes the understanding of students at three cognitive levels-6th grade earth science students, university non-meteorology majors, and meteorology major students-of three meteorological phenomena-wind, fog, and tornadoes. All students were enrolled in schools in San Francisco, CA. The meteorological content chosen for this project-wind, fog, and tornadoes-was deliberate. Wind is a fundamental process on our planet, and has the potential to cause great damage. Students have direct experience with wind on a daily basis. Fog is a dominant feature of San Francisco climatology, and a familiar phenomenon to students living in our region. Tornadoes are associated with devastating winds and represent a destructive weather phenomenon that students only experience indirectly through movies representations and other media outlets. The phases consisted of (a) a fifteen-question survey, (b) written essay assessments, and (c) videotaped interviews. Phase I, a weather survey, was given to the entire population (65 middle school students, 50 university non-meteorology majors, and 10 university meteorology majors) and consisted of 10-15 challenge statements. Challenge statements assert a common misconception or truism and ask the students to rank their level of agreement on a 4-point Likert scale (strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree). Phase II presented the students a subset of statements and questions, and they were given 5 minutes to explain why they chose their response. To quantify the resulting qualitative data, the written essay assessments were scored using a developed conceptual rubric by multiple observers, using inter-observer reliability to measure agreement in scoring. The results from this phase helped to structure the interview protocol utilized in Phase III. A subset of the population was interviewed, allowing us to probe deeper into students' conceptions about weather. This three-phase approach allowed us to identify and explore misconceptions concerning wind, fog, and tornadoes. Preliminary results from phase I and II probing student conceptions of wind show that over 54% of 6th grade students do not see any connection between the sun and wind, offering instead that the moon, clouds, and the ocean are key contributors to wind development. 13% of students observe that because there is wind at night, and conclude from this that the sun could not play a role in creating wind. By identifying students' misconceptions about wind, fog, and tornadoes, scientists and educators can create more effective learning experiences that address student misconceptions, promote conceptual change, and move students toward a more scientific viewpoint.
Allen, Michael; Coole, Hilary
This paper describes a randomised educational experiment (n = 47) that examined two different teaching methods and compared their effectiveness at correcting one science misconception using a sample of trainee primary school teachers. The treatment was designed to promote engagement with the scientific concept by eliciting emotional responses from…
Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.
The article presents the results of a study that examined Palestinian physicians' misconceptions about abused wives and abusive husbands and the extent to which Palestinian physicians approve of wife abuse. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 396 physicians. The results revealed that between 10% and 49% of the Palestinian physicians…
Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, New Delhi (India).
The paper discusses three major obstacles to a change in women's status in developing nations: (1) Misconceptions about development. Women are the largest group who suffer as a result of the concept of development as quantitative, material, technological, and elitist, because that conceptualization does not lead to social change. Development based…
Boo, Hong Kwen
Assessment is an integral and vital part of teaching and learning, providing feedback on progress through the assessment period to both learners and teachers. However, if test items are flawed because of misconceptions held by the question setter, then such test items are invalid as assessment tools. Moreover, such flawed items are also likely to…
Matthews, Dona J.; Foster, Joanne F.
One of the popular misconceptions about giftedness is that the gifted label is a benefit. It is probably a fixed blessing at best and can bring unexpected problems to children, their families, and their teachers. Children who are labeled gifted often have uncertain feelings about the designation and the whole "gifted" experience, if not…
The purpose of this study was to identify prospective primary school teachers' misconceptions about the states of matter. The sample of the study was 227 fourth-year prospective primary school teachers in a Department of Primary Education in Turkey. Researcher asked from every participant to write a response to an open ended question about…
This paper organizes and analyses over 500 geoscience misconceptions relating to earthquakes, earth structure, geologic resources, glaciers, historical geology, karst (limestone terrains), plate tectonics, rivers, rocks and minerals, soils, volcanoes, and weathering and erosion. Journal and reliable web resources were reviewed to discover (1) the…
Storey, Richard D.
Discusses misconceptions and outdated models appearing in biology textbooks for concepts involving bioenergetics and chemical reactions; adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as the energy currency of cells; the myth of high energy phosphate bonds; structural properties of ATP; ATP production from respiration and fermentation; ATP as an energy storage…
Riskowski, Jody L.; Olbricht, Gayla; Wilson, Jennifer
Statistics is the art and science of gathering, analyzing, and making conclusions from data. However, many people do not fully understand how to interpret statistical results and conclusions. Placing students in a collaborative environment involving project-based learning may enable them to overcome misconceptions of probability and enhance the…
Jim Richardson (University of Alabama; )
Concept inventories are receiving increased interest fromSTEM faculty. What are concept inventories, why the interest, and what do I need to know about concept inventories? This chapter answers these questions in the following order. In the first section, you will read a brief history of STEM concept inventory development, which should answer the question, "Why the interest in concept inventories?" In the next two sections, you will read first a short discussionon the theory of assessment as it applies to concept inventories and then a description of how to construct a concept inventory. Together, these two sections should answer the question, "What is a concept inventory?" And finally, you will read how others have used concept inventories and relatedtools to improve their teaching effectiveness. This is a chapter in the section on Assessment and Education Research in the Course, Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) April 2004 conference proceedings published under the title Invention and Impact: Building Excellence in Undergraduate Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Education.
A key challenge facing educators and climate communicators is the wide array of misconceptions about climate science, often fostered by misinformation. A number of myths interfere with a sound understanding of the science, with key myths moderating public support for mitigation policies. An effective way to reduce the influence of misinformation is through agnotology-based learning. Agnotology is the study of ignorance while agnotology-based learning teaches students through the direct addressing of myths and misconceptions. This approach of "refutational teaching" is being applied in a MOOC (Massive Online Open Course) currently being developed by Skeptical Science and The University of Queensland, in collaboration with universities in Canada, USA and the UK. The MOOC will examine the science of climate change denial. Why is the issue so controversial given there is an overwhelming consensus on human-caused global warming? How do climate myths distort the science? What can scientists and laypeople do in response to misinformation? The MOOC will be released on the EdX platform in early 2015. I will summarise the research underpinning agnotology-based learning and present the approach taken in the MOOC to be released in early 2015
Finney, Mary Jo
One hundred fifty-three fifth grade students found to have misconceptions about seasonal change were randomly assigned to either a video-print or print-video group. In Study One, each group read or viewed content about seasonal change and a free recall, multiple choice and application task were administered during the following week. Two weeks later, Study Two replicated the procedures with the groups receiving content in the alternate media. Hypotheses predicting video would be more effective than print in correcting misconceptions were rejected since there was either no significance on the measures or performance was higher after reading. Exposure to both media favored the video-print order. Low and high ability readers performed better after print treatment with no significant difference between media among average ability readers. More concepts than content vocabulary were present in written responses by both video and print groups. Post-hoc analysis revealed no gender differences, no significant difference in length of free recall between Study One and Study Two and significant differences between reading abilities on all measures.
Cervantes, Robert A.
By 1985, California will have become the first Third World State in the continental United States; there is a critical need for changes in the pervasive ethnocentric pedagogy to make schools more responsive to the multicultural reality of student populations. (CMG)
This article presents a qualitative study demonstrating how teachers who are non-native speakers (NNS) of the target language and who have learned the target language in a similar environment as their students can use their past learning experiences as pedagogical tools in their classes. An analysis of transcripts from classrooms with NNS and…
Korchnoy, Evgeny; Verner, Igor M.
Growing popularity of robotics education motivates developing its didactics and studying it in teacher training programs. This paper presents a study conducted in the Department of Education in Technology and Science, Technion, in which university students and school pupils cope with robotics challenges of designing, building and operating…
Khan, Rana; Khalsa, Datta Kaur; Klose, Kathryn; Cooksey, Yan Zhang
Since 2001, the University of Maryland University College (UMUC) Graduate School has been conducting outcomes assessment of student learning. The current 3-3-3 Model of assessment has been used at the program and school levels providing results that assist refinement of programs and courses. Though effective, this model employs multiple rubrics to…
National Center on Educational Outcomes, 2012
Inclusive large-scale assessments have become the norm in states across the U.S. Participation rates of students with disabilities in these assessments have increased dramatically since the mid-1990s. As consortia of states move toward the development and implementation of assessment systems that include both non-summative assessments and…
Heitmann, Patricia; Hecht, Martin; Schwanewedel, Julia; Schipolowski, Stefan
The ability to build arguments is a crucial skill and a central educational goal in all school subjects including science as it enables students to formulate reasoned opinions and thus to cope with the increasing complexity of knowledge. In the present cross-sectional study, we examined the domain-specificity of argumentative writing in science by…
Lally, Michelle; Goldsworthy, Richard; Sarr, Moussa; Kahn, Jessica; Brown, Larry; Peralta, Ligia; Zimet, Greg
Purpose Placebo and randomization are important concepts that must be understood before youth can safely participate in HIV vaccine studies or other biomedical trials for HIV prevention. These concepts are central to the phenomenon of preventive misconception which may be associated with an increase in risk behavior among study participants related to mistaken beliefs. Persuasive messaging, traditionally used in the field of marketing, could enhance educational efforts associated with randomized clinical trials. Methods Two educational brochures were designed to increase knowledge about HIV vaccine clinical trials via 1 and 2-sided persuasive messaging. Through the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network, 120 youth were enrolled, administered a mock HIV vaccine trial consent, and then randomized to receive either no supplemental information or one of the two brochures. Results The 2-sided brochure group in which common clinical trial misconceptions were acknowledgedand then refuted had significantly higher scores on knowledge of randomization and interpretation of side effects than the consent-only control group, and willingness to participate in an HIV vaccine trial was not decreased with the use of this brochure. Conclusion Two sided persuasive messaging improves understanding of the concepts of randomization and placebo among youth who would consider participating in an HIV vaccine trial. Further evaluation of this approach should be considered for at-risk youth participating in an actual trial of a biomedical intervention for HIV prevention. PMID:24613097
Bosco, Susan M.; Melchar, David E.; Beauvais, Laura L.; Desplaces, David E.
This study investigates the effectiveness of pedagogical practices used to teach business ethics. The business community has greatly increased its demands for better ethics education in business programs. Educators have generally agreed that the ethical principles of business people have declined. It is important, then, to examine how common…
Novak, Glenn D.
Internships, a valuable part of mass communication education, require hard work, cooperation, communication, realistic and clear expectations, instruction, and patience from students, faculty supervisor, and employer. The faculty internship director is the middleman in this undertaking, which requires considerable work and time. Problems in…
Gal-Ezer, Judith; Zur, Ela
The implementation of a new computer science (CS) curriculum in high schools which includes all the basic elements of traditional CS programs, motivated a research to determine how students conceive the very fundamental notion of efficiency. Since this was the first time that algorithm efficiency was integrated into a high school curriculum, our…
Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Salthouse, K.; Canizo, T. L.
Many children and adults have misconceptions about space-related concepts such as size and distance: Earth-Moon size and distance, distances between the planets, distances to the stars (including the Sun), etc. Unfortunately, when images are used to illustrate common phenomena, such as Moon phases and seasons, they may do a good job of explaining the phenomenon, but may reinforce other misconceptions. For topics such as phases and seasons, scale (size and distance) can easily lead to confusion and reinforce misconceptions. For example, when showing Moon phases, the Moon is usually represented as large relative to the Earth and the true relative distance cannot be easily shown. Similarly, when showing the tilt of the Earth’s axis as the reason for the seasons, the Earth is usually almost as large as the Sun and the distance between them is usually only a few times Earth’s diameter.What lessons have we learned? It is critical with any model to engage the participants: if at all possible, everyone should participate. A critical part of any modeling needs to be a discussion, involving the participants, of the limitations of the model: what is modeled accurately and what is not? This helps to identify and rectify misconceptions and helps to avoid creating new ones. The activities highlighted on our poster represent programs and collaborations that date back more than two decades: The University of Arizona, Tucson Unified School District, Science Center of Inquiry, Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona, and the Planetary Science Institute. Examples of activities that we will present on our poster include: •Earth/Moon size and distance •Macramé model of the Solar System •Human orrery and tabletop orrery •3-D nature of the constellations •Comparing our Solar System to other planetary systems •Origin of the Universe: scale of time and distance
PhD Dee U. Silverthorn (University of Texas at Austin Section of Neurobiology)
Resting membrane potential is one of the most difficult physiological concepts that students must master. Although the upper-division undergraduates in my physiology course have completed a semester of neurophysiology in which they worked problems using the Nernst and Goldman equations, they often fail to retain conceptual understanding of the underlying phenomena. I developed the following question to show them (and myself) what they donÂ?t understand.
Maryland at College Park, University of
collaborative classroom activities. These show multiple local stabilities of students' thinking as well' THINKING: EXAMPLES FROM KINEMATICS Brian W. Frank, Doctor of Philosophy, 2009 Directed By: Research of student misconceptions cast students' intuitive thinking as largely static, unitary in structure
Sahagian, D. L.; Anastasio, D. J.; Bodzin, A.; Cirucci, L.; Bressler, D.; Dempsey, C.; Peffer, T.
Middle School students and their teachers are among the many populations in the U.S. with misconceptions regarding the science or even reality of climate change. Teaching climate change science in schools is of paramount importance since all school-age children will eventually assume responsibility for the management and policy-making decisions of our planet. The recently published Framework for K-12 Science Education (National Research Council, 2012) emphasizes the importance of students understanding global climate change and its impacts on society. A preliminary assessment of over a thousand urban middles school students found the following from pretests prior to a climate literacy curriculum: - Do not understand that climate occurs on a time scale of decades (most think it is weeks or months) -Do not know the main atmospheric contributors to global warming -Do not understand the role of greenhouse gases as major contributors to increasing Earth's surface temperature -Do not understand the role of water vapor to trap heat and add to the greenhouse effect -Cannot identify some of the human activities that increase the amount of CO2 -Cannot identify sources of carbon emissions produced by US citizens -Cannot describe human activities that are causing the long-term increase of carbon -dioxide levels over the last 100 years -Cannot describe carbon reduction strategies that are feasible for lowering the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere To address the lack of a well-designed middle school science climate change curriculum that can be used to help teachers promote the teaching and learning of important climate change concepts, we developed a 20-day Environmental Literacy and Inquiry (ELI): Climate Change curriculum in partnership with a local school district. Comprehension increased significantly from pre- to post-test after enactment of the ELI curriculum in the classrooms. This work is part of an ongoing systemic curriculum reform initiative to promote (1) environmental literacy and inquiry and (2) foster the development of geospatial thinking and reasoning using geospatial technologies as an essential component of the middle school science curriculum. The curriculum is designed to align instructional materials and assessments with learning goals. The following frameworks were used to provide guidelines for the climate change science content in addition to the science inquiry upon which schools must focus: Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences (U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2009) and the AAAS Project 2061 Communicating and Learning About Global Climate Change (AAAS, 2007). The curriculum is a coherent sequence of learning activities that include climate change investigations with Google Earth, Web-based interactivities that include an online carbon emissions calculator and a Web-based geologic time-line, and inquiry-based ("hands-on") laboratories. The climate change science topics include the atmosphere, Earth system energy balance, weather, greenhouse gases, paleoclimatology, and "humans and climate". It is hoped that with a solid foundation of climate science in the classroom, middle school learners will be in a position to evaluate new scientific discoveries, emerging data sets, and reasonably assess information and misinformation by which they are surrounded on a daily basis.
Smith, Amanda C
In a typical class, an instructor does not have enough time to poll all students for answers to questions, although it would be the best method for discovering students' misconceptions. The aggregator module of a system ...
Selim, Mohei El-Din A.; El-Shereef, Etemad A. A.
Background and Purpose: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a great threat to the youth. The aim is to assess the knowledge of secondary technical schools students on AIDS, identify related misconceptions, and measure the effect of a short health education program on their level of knowledge. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was done on 575 secondary technical schools students in Assiut City, recruited through a two-stage stratified cluster sampling. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was used to collect data. A health education program was implemented, and its effect assessed through pre-post testing. Results: The age range of the students was 16 to 20 years, with more girls (57.0%). Only 30.8% had satisfactory knowledge about AIDS in the pretest. Statistically significant improvements in knowledge were revealed after program implementation (P<0.001). Students who were Muslim, of urban residence, and had mobile phones had significantly higher scores (P=0.037, 0.004, 0.038 respectively). The most common misconceptions were the definition of AIDS according to transmission, and phobias related to transmission, which decreased after the intervention. Multivariate analysis showed that the statistically significant independent predictors of the change in knowledge score after the intervention were age, religion and the health education program. Conclusion: Secondary technical schools students in Assiut city have a major deficiency in knowledge and many misconceptions regarding AIDS. The educational intervention had a positive impact on their knowledge, but a less marked effect on misconceptions. Knowledge was affected by age and religious belief. It is recommended that more health educational efforts tailored to needs and with approaches suitable to community cultures and values be introduced. PMID:22022664
Diaz, Michael A.
To uncover student ideas regarding evolution, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 eighth grade students at a Los Angeles urban public charter school. This study was designed to learn about student understandings regarding speciation, the mechanisms and purposes of trait development, and differences in how students explain human versus non-human examples. Hybridization and adaption to the environment emerged as major themes for non-human speciation. Other than a basic recognition that trait development is related to genetics and some understanding of mutation, students' understanding of genetic diversity and natural selection was limited, and they thought traits mainly developed because species must purposely adapt to their environment. When explaining evolutionary processes in humans, students did not discuss hybridization or predator-prey interactions, and they thought that humans could consciously affect their trait development. Overall, these students appear to represent transitional reasoning, incorporating common misconceptions with ideas from initial instruction.
Feeg, Veronica D; Prager, Laura S; Moylan, Lois B; Smith, Kathleen Maurer; Cullinan, Meritta
Research has demonstrated that stigmatizing mentally ill individuals is prevalent and often results in lack of adherence to or avoidance of treatment. The present study sought to examine attitudes of college students regarding mental illness as part of a campus-wide "common readings" program. The book selected was a non-fiction account of a young girl with mental illness and the program was developed to initiate dialogue about young people with mental problems. Faculty from multiple disciplines collaborated on the project. A sample of 309 students completed a web-based survey after reading a vignette about an adolescent girl with mental illness. The vignette description was based on a character in the book selected in the program. The instruments measured attribution of stigma, social distance, and familiarity with people who have mental illness. Results demonstrated that younger students and those who are less familiar with mental illness were more likely to stigmatize and maintain social distance from those who are mentally ill. Awareness of the study findings can assist health professionals and mental health workers to identify interventions that can decrease stigma. Psychiatric mental health nurses are well positioned to lead the education effort aimed at reducing stigmatizing attitudes among the public. PMID:25162192
Rose, Deborah; Gelaye, Bizu; Sanchez, Sixto; Castañeda, Benjamín; Sanchez, Elena; Yanez, N David; Williams, Michelle A
The study was designed to investigate the association between sleep disturbances and common mental disorders (CMDs) among Peruvian college students. A total of 2538 undergraduate students completed a self-administered questionnaire to gather information about sleep characteristics, sociodemographic, and lifestyle data. Evening chronotype, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness were assessed using the Horne and Ostberg morningness-eveningness questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale, respectivelty. Presence of CMDs was evaluated using the General Health Questionnaire. Logistic regression procedures were used to examine the associations of sleep disturbances with CMDs while accounting for possible confounding factors. Overall, 32.9% of the participants had prevalent CMDs (39.3% among females and 24.4% among males). In multivariable-adjusted logistic models, those with evening chronotype (odds ratios (OR) = 1.43; 95% CI 1.00-2.05), poor sleep quality (OR = 4.50; 95% CI 3.69-5.49), and excessive daytime sleepiness (OR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.41-2.01) were at a relative increased odds of CMDs compared with those without sleep disturbances. In conclusion, we found strong associations between sleep disturbances and CMDs among Peruvian college students. Early education and preventative interventions designed to improve sleep habits may effectively alter the possibility of developing CMDs among young adults. PMID:25162477
Brown, David E.
This paper analyzes the misconceptions high school students have about force and suggests that the misunderstanding of Newton's third law is the key to these misconceptions. Clinical interview and diagnostic test data (N=104) indicates that many students have a naive view of force as an acquired or innate property of single objects rather than…
This paper describes a sequence of lessons from two Calculus I classes for teaching the epsilon-delta definition of a limit. In these lessons, the author elicited students' misconceptions and perceptions of this definition through a reading/writing lesson and then used these student ideas to design a lesson aimed at addressing these misconceptions…
Guzman, Karen; Bartlett, John
Biological systems and living processes involve a complex interplay of biochemicals and macromolecular structures that can be challenging for undergraduate students to comprehend and, thus, misconceptions abound. Protein synthesis, or translation, is an example of a biological process for which students often hold many misconceptions. This article…
How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…
Bussey, Thomas J.
Biochemistry education relies heavily on students' ability to visualize abstract cellular and molecular processes, mechanisms, and components. As such, biochemistry educators often turn to external representations to provide tangible, working models from which students' internal representations (mental models) can be constructed, evaluated, and revised. However, prior research has shown that, while potentially beneficial, external representations can also lead to alternative student conceptions. Considering the breadth of biochemical phenomena, protein translation has been identified as an essential biochemical process and can subsequently be considered a fundamental concept for biochemistry students to learn. External representations of translation range from static diagrams to dynamic animations, from simplistic, stylized illustrations to more complex, realistic presentations. In order to explore the potential for student learning about protein translation from some common external representations of translation, I used variation theory. Variation theory offers a theoretical framework from which to explore what is intended for students to learn, what is possible for students to learn, and what students actually learn about an object of learning, e.g., protein translation. The goals of this project were threefold. First, I wanted to identify instructors' intentions for student learning about protein translation. From a phenomenographic analysis of instructor interviews, I was able to determine the critical features instructors felt their students should be learning. Second, I wanted to determine which features of protein translation were possible for students to learn from some common external representations of the process. From a variation analysis of the three representations shown to students, I was able to describe the possible combinations of features enacted by the sequential viewing of pairs of representations. Third, I wanted to identify what students actually learned about protein translation by viewing these external representations. From a phenomenographic analysis of student interviews, I was able to describe changes between students prior lived object of learning and their post lived object of learning. Based on the findings from this project, I can conclude that variation can be used to cue students to notice particular features of an external representation. Additionally, students' prior knowledge and, potentially, the intended objects of learning from previous instructors can also affect what students can learn from a representation. Finally, further study is needed to identify the extent to which mode and level of abstraction of an external representation affect student learning outcomes.
Three cases of international medical travelers from Yemen, a capital?poor country in the southwest corner of the Arabian Peninsula, help to counter misconceptions within discussions of medical tourism. These misconceptions include the suggestion of leisure in medical tourism, the role of gender and class, and the ease with which we dismiss the health concerns of wealthy individuals. Instead, this article proposes, we should uncover commonalities and differences within international medical travel while avoiding slipping into generalities and stereotypical portrayals. PMID:21114078
Amir, Ruth; Tamir, Pinchas
A great number of misconceptions in diverse subject areas as well as across age levels have been documented and described. Photosynthesis is one of the more intensively studied areas in biology. The purpose of this research was to carefully select and define misconceptions about photosynthesis needing remedial efforts. To achieve this, a specially…
Smolleck, Lori; Hershberger, Vanessa
The purpose of this research was to investigate the conceptions and misconceptions of young children (ages 3-8) related to science concepts, skills, and phenomena. These conceptions and misconceptions were investigated within the framework of the Pennsylvania Early Learning Standards for Pre-Kindergarten and the Pennsylvania Standards for…
As a user interacts with a database or expert system, s/he may reveal a misconception about the objects interface to a database or expert system. Input to ROMPER is a specification that a misconception has been a user model available to aid in this task. The user model constitutes what the system believes the user
Chris John Henry King
Surveys of the earth science content of all secondary (high school) science textbooks and related publications used in England and Wales have revealed high levels of error\\/misconception. The 29 science textbooks or textbook series surveyed (51 texts in all) showed poor coverage of National Curriculum earth science and contained a mean level of one earth science error\\/misconception per page. Science
Widjaja, Wanty; Stacey, Kaye; Steinle, Vicki
Extensive studies have documented various difficulties with, and misconceptions about, decimal numeration across different levels of education. This paper reports on pre-service teachers' misconceptions about the density of decimals. Written test data from 140 Indonesian pre-service teachers, observation of group and classroom discussions provided…
Wieslander, Cecilia K.; Alas, Alexandriah; Dunivan, Gena C.; Sevilla, Claudia; Cichowski, Sara; Maliski, Sally; Eilber, Karyn; Rogers, Rebecca G.; Anger, Jennifer T.
Introduction and hypothesis To better understand women’s experience with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) symptoms and to describe factors that prevent disease understanding among Spanish- and English speaking women. Methods Women with POP were recruited from female urology and urogynecology clinics in Los Angeles, California and Albuquerque, New Mexico. Eight focus groups were conducted, four in Spanish and four in English. Topics addressed patients’ emotional responses when noticing their prolapse, how they sought support, what verbal and written information was given, and their overall feelings of the process. Additionally, patients were asked about their experience with their treating physician. All interview transcripts were analyzed using Grounded Theory qualitative methods. Results Qualitative analysis yielded two preliminary themes: First, women had misconceptions about what POP was as well as its causes and treatments. Secondly, there was a great deal of miscommunication between patient and physician which led to decreased understanding about the diagnosis and treatment options. This included the fact that women were often overwhelmed with information which they did not understand. The concept emerged that there is a strong need for better methods to achieve disease and treatment understanding for women with POP. Conclusions Our data emphasize that women with POP have considerable misconceptions about their disease. In addition, there is miscommunication during the patient-physician interaction that leads to further confusion among Spanish and English speaking women. Spending more time explaining the diagnosis of POP, rather than focusing solely on treatment options, may reduce miscommunication and increase patient understanding. PMID:25516231
Thornber, Jillian; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward
Uses a free-form questionnaire to explore 10- and 11-year-old students' ideas about the nature of air pollution and its biological and physical effects. Suggests that students hold misconceptions in this area. (DDR)
Franz, Eric W; Bentley, J Nicole; Yee, Patricia P S; Chang, Kate W C; Kendall-Thomas, Jennifer; Park, Paul; Yang, Lynda J S
OBJECT Patient outcome measures are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of health care quality and physician performance. Of the many novel measures currently being explored, patient satisfaction and other subjective measures of patient experience are among the most heavily weighted. However, these subjective measures are strongly influenced by a number of factors, including patient demographics, level of understanding of the disorder and its treatment, and patient expectations. In the present study, patients referred to a neurosurgery clinic for degenerative spinal disorders were surveyed to determine their understanding of lumbar spondylosis diagnosis and treatment. METHODS A multiple-choice, 6-question survey was distributed to all patients referred to a general neurosurgical spine clinic at a tertiary care center over a period of 11 months as a quality improvement initiative to assist the provider with individualized patient counseling. The survey consisted of questions designed to assess patient understanding of the role of radiological imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of low-back and leg pain, and patient perception of the indications for surgical compared with conservative management. Demographic data were also collected. RESULTS A total of 121 surveys were included in the analysis. More than 50% of the patients indicated that they would undergo spine surgery based on abnormalities found on MRI, even without symptoms; more than 40% of patients indicated the same for plain radiographs. Similarly, a large proportion of patients (33%) believed that back surgery was more effective than physical therapy in the treatment of back pain without leg pain. Nearly one-fifth of the survey group (17%) also believed that back injections were riskier than back surgery. There were no significant differences in survey responses among patients with a previous history of spine surgery compared with those without previous spine surgery. CONCLUSIONS These results show that a surprisingly high percentage of patients have misconceptions regarding the diagnosis and treatment of lumbar spondylosis, and that these misconceptions persist in patients with a history of spine surgery. Specifically, patients overemphasize the value of radiological studies and have mixed perceptions of the relative risk and effectiveness of surgical intervention compared with more conservative management. These misconceptions have the potential to alter patient expectations and decrease satisfaction, which could negatively impact patient outcomes and subjective valuations of physician performance. While these results are preliminary, they highlight a need for improved communication and patient education during surgical consultation for lumbar spondylosis. PMID:25723120
Sable, Jennifer; Plotts, Chris
This report presents findings on the numbers of public school students and staff in the United States and other jurisdictions in school year 2008-09, using data from the State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that are reported by state…
WHAT DO KOALAS AND FUNGI HAVE IN COMMON IN PRETORIA? Prepared by: Happy Maleme (MSc student whose resource for studying and understanding the fungi that are present on these species in South Africa. Eucalyptus trees are under constant attack by a number of fungal pathogens. Among the fungi present
Jeong, Hea Won Grace
This study explored teachers' prominent perceptions, misconceptions and significant differences among these misconceptions regarding giftedness in early childhood students, ages 3 to 8 through a survey. Teachers were asked 25 questions about the topics of giftedness and gifted young children. A total of 119 teachers completed the survey. First,…
Wells, M. A.; Shipman, H. L.
Light propagation is one of the most fundamental physics concepts utilized in astronomy education. A number of studies over the past twenty years have identified students' misconceptions with explaining light propagation from a variety of light sources and optical systems. Several studies reveal students' confusions when asked to explain the role of the observer and vision in the process of seeing luminous and non-luminous objects. One variable that has not been directly incorporated into research is exposure to complete darkness, both prior to and during instruction. The common perception that "light is not a prerequisite for sight" may be considered a faulty ontological assumption due to a lack of prior experience with darkness. This paper will report results from a study conducted on darkness and vision using 155 students from University of Delaware's Black Holes and Cosmic Evolution course. Analysis and conclusions will be presented in the context of light propagation and conceptual change literature.
Nelson, Bethany; Froehner, Megan; Gault, Barbara
This paper discusses the challenges college students with children face, as well as the steps colleges, universities, and the surrounding communities must take to help students succeed in their work as both students and parents. The role of parenthood in postsecondary settings needs greater focus from the higher education reform community. Unless…
Vincent, Carol; Braun, Annette
This paper reports on research from a small-scale project investigating the vocational training of students in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in England. We draw on data from interviews with 42 students and five tutors in order to explore the students' understandings of professionalism in early years. In the paper, we discuss first, the…
Ebenezer, Jazlin V.; Fraser, Duncan M.
Examines first-year chemical engineering students' conceptions of the energy changes taking place in dissolution. Students were individually interviewed and transcripts (n=17) were analyzed using a phenomenographic methodology. The phenomenographic category explanations given by students were used as the basis for developing an approach to…
Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Brooks, Patricia J; Someki, Fumio; Obeid, Rita; Shane-Simpson, Christina; Kapp, Steven K; Daou, Nidal; Smith, David Shane
College students with autism may be negatively impacted by lack of understanding about autism on college campuses. Thus, we developed an online training to improve knowledge and decrease stigma associated with autism among college students. Participants (N = 365) completed a pre-test, online training, and post-test. Women reported lower stigma towards autism than men. Participation in the training was associated with decreased stigma and increased knowledge about autism. Although participants exhibited relatively high baseline knowledge of autism, misconceptions were common, particularly in open-ended responses. Participants commonly confused autism with other disorders, such as learning disabilities. This study suggests that online training may be a cost-effective way to increase college students' understanding and acceptance of their peers with autism. PMID:25796194
Churchill, Larry R; King, Nancy M P; Henderson, Gail E
In a recent article in The Journal of Clinical Ethics, David Wendler argues that worries about the therapeutic misconception (TM) are not only misconceived, but detract from the larger agenda of a proper informed consent for subjects involved in clinical research.1 By contrast, we argue that Wendler mischaracterizes those who support TM research, and that his arguments are fragmentary, often illogical, and neglect a critical difference between clinical care and clinical research. A clear explanation about the chief aim of research is, in fact, what gives the other elements in a consent process their meaning. We argue that informed consent must be both trial-specific and context-sensitive, and that concern about the TM is needed now more than ever. PMID:24597426
Allen, Michael; Coole, Hilary
This paper describes a randomised educational experiment ( n = 47) that examined two different teaching methods and compared their effectiveness at correcting one science misconception using a sample of trainee primary school teachers. The treatment was designed to promote engagement with the scientific concept by eliciting emotional responses from learners that were triggered by their own confirmation biases. The treatment group showed superior learning gains to control at post-test immediately after the lesson, although benefits had dissipated after 6 weeks. Findings are discussed with reference to the conceptual change paradigm and to the importance of feeling emotion during a learning experience, having implications for the teaching of pedagogies to adults that have been previously shown to be successful with children.
Goldberg, Daniel S
Twenty-five years after the term "therapeutic misconception' (TM) first entered the literature, most commentators agree that it remains widespread. However, the majority of scholarly attention has focused on the reasons why a patient cum human subject might confuse the goals of research with the goals of therapy. Although this paper addresses the social and cultural factors that seem to animate the TM among subjects, it also fills a niche in the literature by examining why investigators too might operate under a similar confusion. In framing these issues, the paper expressly adopts a Wittgensteinian approach to evaluating the TM, suggesting that interlocutors do not need any analytic definition of the TM to use the term meaningfully in thinking about the moral implications of the TM in practice. PMID:21606116
Tomatis, L; Melnick, R L; Haseman, J; Barrett, J C; Huff, J
In a series of papers, Ames and colleagues allege that the scientific and public health communities have perpetuated a series of 'misconceptions' that resulted in inaccurate identification of chemicals that pose potential human cancer risks, and misguided cancer prevention strategies and regulatory policies. They conclude that exposures to industrial and synthetic chemicals represent negligible cancer risks and that animal studies have little or no scientific value for assessing human risks. Their conclusions are based on flawed and untested assumptions. For instance, they claim that synthetic residues on food can be ignored because 99.99% of pesticides humans eat are natural, chemicals in plants are pesticides, and their potential to cause cancer equals that of synthetic pesticides. Similarly, Ames does not offer any convincing scientific evidence to justify discrediting bioassays for identifying human carcinogens. Ironically, their arguments center on a ranking procedure that relies on the same experimental data and extrapolation methods they criticize as being unreliable for evaluating cancer risks. We address their inconsistencies and flaws, and present scientific facts and our perspectives surrounding Ames' nine alleged misconceptions. Our conclusions agree with the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the National Toxicology Program, and other respected scientific organizations: in the absence of human data, animal studies are the most definitive for assessing human cancer risks. Animal data should not be ignored, and precautions should be taken to lessen human exposures. Dismissing animal carcinogenicity findings would lead to human cancer cases as the only means of demonstrating carcinogenicity of environmental agents. This is unacceptable public health policy. PMID:11149907
Mokkink, H G A
Standard deviation and standard error have a clear mutual relationship, but at the same time they differ strongly in the type of information they supply. This can lead to confusion and misunderstandings. Standard deviation describes the variability in a sample of measures of a variable, for instance the variability in ages of the members of a group. It represents the degree to which the values are scattered around their mean: the higher the standard deviation the wider the spread. The value of the standard deviation is not influenced by the number of observations in the sample. The standard error is always used for extrapolation: to estimate the intervals between which the true value of a statistic will occur, based on a sample of observations and with a certain degree of certainty. When interpreting a standard error, it is important to know which statistic (mean, percentage, relative risk, odds ratio) is to be estimated. The value of the standard error is strongly influenced by the number of observations in the sample: the bigger the sample, the smaller the standard error and the more accurate the estimation. To avoid confusion it is recommended to report no longer the standard error of the mean but instead the confidence intervals of the mean to estimate the true value of the mean. PMID:11865654
Elcoro, Luis; Etxebarria, Jesus
The requirement of rotational invariance for lattice potential energies is investigated. Starting from this condition, it is shown that the Cauchy relations for the elastic constants are fulfilled if the lattice potential is built from pair interactions or when the first-neighbour approximation is adopted. This is seldom recognized in widely used…