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1

Common Student Misconceptions in Electrochemistry: Galvanic, Electrolytic, and Concentration Cells.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates student (N=16) misconceptions concerning electrochemistry related to galvanic, electrolytic, and concentration cells. Findings indicate that most students demonstrating misconceptions were still able to calculate cell potentials correctly. Discusses common misconceptions and possible sources of these. Contains 33 references.…

Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

1997-01-01

2

Students' Common Misconceptions on Basic Mathematics Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated high school studentsmisconceptions on basic mathematics skills, and how these misconceptions influenced their higher-level skills over the course of an Algebra unit. This research was conducted in an urban classroom in Illinois, within four Algebra II classes and one Geometry class. Students took five mastery quizzes to assess their basic mathematics skills over the course of

BrittanyGonio; Nillas

2012-01-01

3

Common Student Misconceptions in Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study represents a preliminary investigation designed to identify common misconceptions in students' understanding of physiological and biochemical topics within the academic domain of sport and exercise sciences. A specifically designed misconception inventory (consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions) was administered to a cohort…

Morton, James P.; Doran, Dominic A.; MacLaren, Don P. M.

2008-01-01

4

Common student misconceptions in exercise physiology and biochemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The present study represents a preliminary investigationdesigned to identify common misconceptions in students' understanding of physiological and biochemical topics within the academic domain of sport and exercise sciences. A specifically designed misconception inventory (consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions) was administered to a cohort of level 1, 2, and 3 undergraduate students enrolled in physiology and biochemistry-related modules of the BSc Sport Science degree at the authors' institute. Of the 10 misconceptions proposed by the authors, 9 misconceptions were confirmed. Of these nine misconceptions, only one misconception appeared to have been alleviated by the current teaching strategy employed during the progression from level 1 to 3 study. The remaining eight misconceptions prevailed throughout the course of the degree program, suggesting that students enter and leave university with the same misconceptions in certain areas of exercise physiology and biochemistry. The possible origins of these misconceptions are discussed, as are potential teaching strategies to prevent and/or remediate them for future years.

James P. Morton (Liverpool John Moores University Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences); Dominic A Doran (John Moores University Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences); Don P.M. MacLaren (John Moores University Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences)

2008-01-28

5

Common Misconceptions about Heat and Insulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes some common misconceptions that elementary students may have about energy, heat, and insulation. It also includes suggestions for formative assessment and teaching for conceptual change.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

6

Common Misconceptions about Day and Night, Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes common misconceptions held by elementary students about the cause of day and night and seasons. The article provides ideas for formative assessment, teaching strategies, and the National Science Education Standards.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

7

Student Misconceptions in Introductory Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Defining a "misconception" as an error of translation (transformation, correspondence, interpolation, interpretation) between two different kinds of information which causes students to have incorrect expectations, a Taxonomy of Errors has been developed to examine student misconceptions in an introductory biology course for science majors. Two…

Fisher, Kathleen M.; Lipson, Joseph I.

8

Science Sampler: Correcting student misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Before learning any formal science, children try to make sense of natural phenomena on their own. However, several studies have shown that it can be difficult to convince a student to give up a long-held misconception in favor of an accurate scientific explanation. Misconceptions can be confronted through hands-on and minds-on activities. The strategies outlined in this article will foster a climate of inquiry within the classroom.

Abdi, S. W.

2006-01-01

9

Diagnosing Portuguese Students' Misconceptions about the Mineral Concept  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educational researchers and teachers are well aware that misconceptions--erroneous ideas that differ from the scientifically accepted ones--are very common amongst students. Daily experiences, creative and perceptive thinking and science textbooks give rise to students' misconceptions which lead them to draw erroneous conclusions that become…

Monteiro, Antonio; Nobrega, Clevio; Abrantes, Isabel; Gomes, Celeste

2012-01-01

10

Misconceptions - What Students Think They Know  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

StudentsÃÂ understanding of many physiological phenomena is often seriously flawed. That is, students have faulty mental models of many of the things we ask them to learn. Such conceptual difficulties are often referred to as misconceptions. The problem with misconceptions is that they are often quite persistent, and they seriously interfere with the studentsÃÂ ability to learn physiology.

PhD Joel A. Michael (Rush Medical College Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology)

2002-03-01

11

Misconceptions about Sound among Engineering Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Our first objective was to detect misconceptions about the microscopic nature of sound among senior university students enrolled in different engineering programmes (from chemistry to telecommunications). We sought to determine how these misconceptions are expressed (qualitative aspect) and, only very secondarily, to gain a general idea of the…

Pejuan, Arcadi; Bohigas, Xavier; Jaen, Xavier; Periago, Cristina

2012-01-01

12

Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The authors of this website have identified 8 common misconceptions that lead to errors in mathematics (and promise to add more as time permits). Topics include: Rounding Numbers, Multiplication can Increase or Decrease a Number, Multiplying Decimals, Decimals and their Equivalent Fractions, Dividing Whole Numbers by Fractions, Adding with Negative Numbers, Calculations with Negative Numbers, and Calculations with Hundreds and Thousands. Each misconception is described in a pdf document which explains how the misconception arises, the rationale for the correct concept, and exercises aimed at reinforcing the correction.

Ilan Samson & David Burghes

2005-07-01

13

Misconceptions About Sound Among Engineering Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our first objective was to detect misconceptions about the microscopic nature of sound among senior university students enrolled in different engineering programmes (from chemistry to telecommunications). We sought to determine how these misconceptions are expressed (qualitative aspect) and, only very secondarily, to gain a general idea of the extent to which they are held (quantitative aspect). Our second objective was to explore other misconceptions about wave aspects of sound. We have also considered the degree of consistency in the model of sound used by each student. Forty students answered a questionnaire including open-ended questions. Based on their free, spontaneous answers, the main results were as follows: a large majority of students answered most of the questions regarding the microscopic model of sound according to the scientifically accepted model; however, only a small number answered consistently. The main model misconception found was the notion that sound is propagated through the travelling of air particles, even in solids. Misconceptions and mental-model inconsistencies tended to depend on the engineering programme in which the student was enrolled. However, students in general were inconsistent also in applying their model of sound to individual sound properties. The main conclusion is that our students have not truly internalised the scientifically accepted model that they have allegedly learnt. This implies a need to design learning activities that take these findings into account in order to be truly efficient.

Pejuan, Arcadi; Bohigas, Xavier; Jaén, Xavier; Periago, Cristina

2011-12-01

14

Misconceptions About Sound Among Engineering Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our first objective was to detect misconceptions about the microscopic nature of sound among senior university students enrolled in different engineering programmes (from chemistry to telecommunications). We sought to determine how these misconceptions are expressed (qualitative aspect) and, only very secondarily, to gain a general idea of the extent to which they are held (quantitative aspect). Our second objective was to explore other misconceptions about wave aspects of sound. We have also considered the degree of consistency in the model of sound used by each student. Forty students answered a questionnaire including open-ended questions. Based on their free, spontaneous answers, the main results were as follows: a large majority of students answered most of the questions regarding the microscopic model of sound according to the scientifically accepted model; however, only a small number answered consistently. The main model misconception found was the notion that sound is propagated through the travelling of air particles, even in solids. Misconceptions and mental-model inconsistencies tended to depend on the engineering programme in which the student was enrolled. However, students in general were inconsistent also in applying their model of sound to individual sound properties. The main conclusion is that our students have not truly internalised the scientifically accepted model that they have allegedly learnt. This implies a need to design learning activities that take these findings into account in order to be truly efficient.

Pejuan, Arcadi; Bohigas, Xavier; Jaén, Xavier; Periago, Cristina

2012-12-01

15

Common Earth Science Misconceptions in Science Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey of the Earth science content of science textbooks found a wide range of misconceptions. These are discussed in this article with reference to the published literature on Earth science misconceptions. Most misconceptions occurred in the "sedimentary rocks and processes" and "Earth's structure and plate tectonics" categories; the most…

King, Chris

2012-01-01

16

Targeting Students' Physical Science Misconceptions Using the Conceptual Change Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handbook is dedicated to giving teachers clear information on how to correct physical science misconceptions in the classroom. It aims to help teachers help students develop appropriate understanding based on hands-on, inquiry-based experiences that challenge preconceptions. The book is organized into units ranging from matter to heat and waves. Each unit includes a list of common misconceptions and activities that help students develop an accurate understanding of each concept. Background information and lessons are provided. The National Science Education Standards for content and instructional strategies in the physical sciences are also addressed.

Stepans, Joseph

2007-11-01

17

Misconception in Calculus-I: Engineering studentsmisconceptions in the process of finding domain of functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate studentsmisconceptions in the process of finding domain of a composite function. The participants were 1500 engineering students in a state university in Istanbul, Turkey. The Calculus course is required course for all engineering students. Data analysis revealed that, students, misconceptions fall into five categories. First category was domain and ranges are

Erdo?an M. Özkan; Hasan Ünal

2009-01-01

18

Two Common Misconceptions about the Theory of Special Relativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two common misconceptions about the theory of Special Relativity that are\\u000aactively taught in textbooks are discussed. It is shown, first, that the\\u000aLorentz transformations are actually transformations of the coordinates of a\\u000aphoton, not the coordinates of a particle as taught by some authors. Secondly,\\u000aa misconception concerning the relativistic Lagrangian is discussed. It is\\u000ashown that the currently

Ezzat G. Bakhoum

2004-01-01

19

Knowledge, Misconceptions, and Future Intentions Towards Breastfeeding Among Female University Students in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted on female university students (N = 1106) to explore their knowledge and misconceptions on breastfeeding. Most participants recognized the benefits of breastfeeding, but only a few were aware of the recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life. Misconceptions were common; 66%, 60%, and 55% of participants thought

Bader Ebrahim; Hadeel Al-Enezi; Mohammed Al-Turki; Ali Al-Turki; Fatma Al-Rabah; Majeda S. Hammoud; Abdullah Al-Taiar

2011-01-01

20

Misconceptions of students and teachers in chemical equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A written test was developed and administered to diagnose misconceptions in different areas of chemical equilibrium among 162 undergraduate chemistry students and 69 school?teachers of chemistry. Analysis of the responses reveal widespread misconceptions among both students and teachers in areas related to the prediction of equilibrium conditions, rate and equilibrium, applying equilibrium principles to daily life, and to acid?base and

Anil C. Banerjee

1991-01-01

21

Cognitive Processes and Students' Misconceptions in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several categories of misconceptions which appear to be emerging across studies are discussed. They include: mis-perceptions; stunted conceptions; mis-translations; confused conceptions; lost conceptions; and true misconceptions. True misconceptions are metaphors and analogies which represent truly complete systems of explanation but are…

Smith, Deborah C.

22

Identifying Student Misconceptions in Introductory Materials Engineering Classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous student misconceptions in an introductory materials engineering class have been identified in order to create a Materials Concept Inventory (MCI) to test for the level of conceptual knowledge of the subject matter before and after the course. The misconceptions have been utilized as question responses, or \\

Stephen Krause; J. Chris Decker; Justin Niska; Terry Alford; Richard Griffin

23

Students' Misconceptions about Heat Transfer Mechanisms and Elementary Kinetic Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Heat and thermodynamics is a conceptually rich area of undergraduate physics. In the Indian context in particular there has been little work done in this area from the point of view of misconceptions. This prompted us to undertake a study in this area. We present a study of students' misconceptions about heat transfer mechanisms, i.e. conduction,…

Pathare, S. R.; Pradhan, H. C.

2010-01-01

24

Unraveling Students' Misconceptions about the Earth's Shape and Gravity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a study designed to test the effectiveness of a constructivist-historical teaching strategy in changing students' misconceptions about the earth's shape and gravity at the upper elementary and middle school levels. Contains 27 references. (DDR)|

Sneider, Cary I.; Ohadi, Mark M.

1998-01-01

25

Student acquisition of biological evolution-related misconceptions: The role of public high school introductory biology teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to eliminate student misconceptions concerning biological evolution, it is important to identify their sources. The purposes of this study were to: (a) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma public high school Biology I teachers; (b) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma public high school students prior to and following instruction in Biology I course curriculum; and (c) identify which, if any, biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma public high school Biology I teachers were being transmitted to their students by way of instruction in biological evolution curriculum. Seventy-six teachers and 993 of their students participated in this study. To identify participants' misconceptions, calculate conception index scores, and collect demographic data, the Biological Evolution Literacy Survey (BEL Survey) was developed. The BEL Survey presents 23 biological misconception statements grouped into five categories. Analysis revealed teacher participants possessed a 72.9% mean rate of understanding of evolution concepts coupled with a 23.0% mean misconception rate whereas student participants possessed a pre-instruction 43.9% mean rate of understanding combined with a 39.1% mean misconception rate. Students exited the Biology I classroom more confident in their evolution knowledge but holding greater numbers of misconceptions than they possessed prior to entering the course. Significant relationships were revealed between students' acquisition of misconceptions and teachers' bachelor's degree field, terminal degree, and hours dedicated to instruction. One student misconception was revealed to be significantly more common following instruction as opposed to prior to instruction.

Yates, Tony Brett

26

Secondary & College Biology Students' Misconceptions About Diffusion & Osmosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tests on diffusion and osmosis given to (n=116) secondary biology students, (n=123) nonbiology majors, and (n=117) biology majors found that, even after instruction, students continue to have misconceptions about these ideas. Appendix includes diffusion and osmosis test. (MKR)|

Odom, Arthur Louis

1995-01-01

27

Faring with Facets: Building and Using Databases of Student Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A number of educational researchers have developed pedagogical approaches that involve the teacher in discovering and helping to correct misconceptions that students bring to their study of their subject matter. During the last decade, several computer systems have been developed to support teaching and learning using this kind of approach. A…

Madhyastha, Tara; Tanimoto, Steven

2009-01-01

28

Student misconceptions in signals and systems and their origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on our ongoing investigation on student misconceptions and their origins within the signals and systems module taught in the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Signals and Systems, as taught in Aeronautics and Astronautics at MIT, consist of two parts. The first part, offered in the Fall semester, covers introductory linear circuits; the

Reem Nasr; Steven R. Hall; Peter Garik

2003-01-01

29

How Confident Are Students in Their Misconceptions about Hypothesis Tests?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Both researchers and teachers of statistics have made considerable efforts during the last decades to re-conceptualize statistics courses in accordance with the general reform movement in mathematics education. However, students still hold misconceptions about statistical inference even after following a reformed course. The study presented in…

Sotos, Ana Elisa Castro; Vanhoof, Stijn; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Onghena, Patrick

2009-01-01

30

Common Misconceptions in the Diagnosis and Management of Anemia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia is the most common systemic complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); so common that it is almost invariably not investigated and rarely treated. Several misconceptions are the reason for these clinical errors, and our goal will be to review them. The most common misconceptions are: anemia is uncommon in IBD; iron deficiency is also uncommon; just by treating the

Javier P. Gisbert; Fernando Gomollón

2008-01-01

31

Common Origins of Diverse Misconceptions: Cognitive Principles and the Development of Biology Thinking  

PubMed Central

Many ideas in the biological sciences seem especially difficult to understand, learn, and teach successfully. Our goal in this feature is to explore how these difficulties may stem not from the complexity or opacity of the concepts themselves, but from the fact that they may clash with informal, intuitive, and deeply held ways of understanding the world that have been studied for decades by psychologists. We give a brief overview of the field of developmental cognitive psychology. Then, in each of the following sections, we present a number of common challenges faced by students in the biological sciences. These may be in the form of misconceptions, biases, or simply concepts that are difficult to learn and teach, and they occur at all levels of biological analysis (molecular, cellular, organismal, population, and ecosystem). We then introduce the notion of a cognitive construal and discuss specific examples of how these cognitive principles may explain what makes some misconceptions so alluring and some biological concepts so challenging for undergraduates. We will argue that seemingly unrelated misconceptions may have common origins in a single underlying cognitive construal. These ideas emerge from our own ongoing cross-disciplinary conversation, and we think that expanding this conversation to include other biological scientists and educators, as well as other cognitive scientists, could have significant utility in improving biology teaching and learning.

Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

2012-01-01

32

An Investigation of Approaches and Strategies for Resolving Students' Misconceptions about Probability in Introductory College Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has documented that students frequently hold misconceptions about probability that are not necessarily resolved by traditional instruction. The purpose of this study was threefold: survey college professors of introductory applied statistics about their awareness of students' misconceptions, design and validate a test instrument to identify some prevalent misconceptions of probability, and investigate approaches and strategies used by college professors

Leonid Khazanov

33

Misconceptions highlighted among medical students in the annual International Intermedical School Physiology Quiz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

THE ANNUAL Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe, as previously described in this journal (4). We report here some illuminating insights gleaned from this international physiology quiz event. This report also highlights some common misconceptions among students of physiology, as has been previously described in definite studies by others (5, 8, 10, 13, 14).

Hwee-Ming Cheng (Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya Physiology); Damayanthi Durairajanayagam (MARA University of Technology)

2012-09-01

34

A method to help students overcome astronomy misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students come into astronomy courses or courses with astronomy content believing a significant number of incorrect ideas about the cosmos. Without our addressing these beliefs, it is extremely difficult for students to permanently replace them with accurate information. In this paper I report on the impact of forcing students to address on paper their prior beliefs by asking misconception-based questions in class. I give the correct answers during the next class. I find that students go through a series of feelings about this process. These often end in their own discovery of the importance of thinking about what they believe and their enthusiastic anticipation of the correct answer.

Comins, Neil F.

2000-12-01

35

Diagnosing Students' Misconceptions in Causal Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tutorial dialogues can be analyzed as an interaction in which a tutor 'debugs' a student's knowledge representation by diagnosing and correcting conceptual misunderstandings. In this paper some tentative steps toward a theory which describes tutorial inte...

A. L. Stevens A. Collins S. Goldin

1978-01-01

36

College Students' Misconceptions about Evolutionary Trees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evolution is at the center of the biological sciences and is therefore a required topic for virtually every college biology student. Over the past year, the authors have been building a new simulation software package called EvoBeaker to teach college-level evolutionary biology through simulated experiments. They have built both micro and…

Meir, Eli; Perry, Judy; Herron, Jon C.; Kingsolver, Joel

2007-01-01

37

Student Misconceptions and the Conservation of Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An interesting, quick, and inexpensive lab that we do with our students is to tape one end of a string just less than halfway around the back side of a uniform solid cylinder m[subscript 1] and attach the other end of the string to a mass m[subscript 2] that is below a pulley (Fig. 1). Data can be collected using either an Ultra Pulley (Fig. 2)…

Froehle, Peter; Miller, Charles H.

2012-01-01

38

Reliability in Content Analysis: Some Common Misconceptions and Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a recent article in this journal, Lombard, Snyder-Duch, and Bracken (2002) surveyed 200 content analyses for their reporting of reliability tests, compared the virtues and drawbacks of five popular reliability measures, and proposed guidelines and standards for their use. Their discussion revealed that numerous misconceptions circulate in the…

Krippendorff, Klaus

2004-01-01

39

Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)|

Hocking, M. B.

1980-01-01

40

Some Student Misconceptions in Chemistry: A Literature Review of Chemical Bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students' misconceptions before or after formal instruction have become a major concern among researchers in science education because they influence how students learn new scientific knowledge, play an essential role in subsequent learning and become a hindrance in acquiring the correct body of knowledge. In this paper some students' misconceptions on chemical bonding reported in the literature were investigated and

Haluk Özmen

2004-01-01

41

Analyzing Misconceptions using the Signals and Systems Concept Inventory and Student Interviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

The signals and systems concept inventory (SSCI) is a 25-question multiple-choice exam designed to assess students' understanding of fundamental concepts in signals and systems. Nine students were interviewed about their conceptual understanding using several SSCI questions to probe misconceptions about frequency selective filters and frequency representations of signals. Students revealed several misconceptions about the roles of the magnitude and phase

Kathleen E. Wage; John R. Buck; M. A. Hjalmarson

2006-01-01

42

Common misconceptions about vitamin D--implications for clinicians.  

PubMed

Misconceptions about vitamin D continue to grow despite publications in the past few years that have attempted to clarify risk. We present our perspective, and offer several conclusions. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation can reduce fracture risk by ?10%. On the other hand, little evidence exists to support a threshold measure for vitamin D status (serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D) above which fractures are reduced. The association of serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with other chronic diseases is confounded by multiple factors and conflicting outcomes that cannot be used to support a causal association. High doses of vitamin D supplements might not be completely harmless and should be avoided until additional data becomes available. Similarly, scant rationale exists for aggressive vitamin D supplementation for pregnant or lactating women. Dispelling misconceptions about vitamin D will ultimately benefit health-care providers and patients alike. PMID:23609334

Rosen, Clifford J; Taylor, Christine L

2013-04-23

43

Identifying Students' Misconceptions about Nuclear Chemistry: A Study of Turkish High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study represents the first attempt to elucidate and detail the types of misconceptions high school students hold relating to basic concepts and topics of nuclear chemistry. A diagnostic multiple-choice test was administered to 157 tenth-grade students (15-16 years old) and the data were analyzed. The results show that high school students

Nakiboglu, Canan; Tekin, Berna Bulbul

2006-01-01

44

The Geoscience Concept Test: A New Assessment Tool Based on Student Misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed and began pilot testing of an earth science assessment tool called the geoscience concept test (GCT). The GCT uses student misconceptions as distractors in a 30 item multiple-choice instrument. Student misconceptions were first assessed through the analysis of nearly 300 questionnaires administered in introductory geology courses at three institutions. Results from the questionnaires guided the development of an

J. Libarkin; S. W. Anderson; W. J. Boone; M. Beilfuss; J. Dahl

2002-01-01

45

Thai High-School Students' Misconceptions about and Models of Light Refraction through a Planar Surface  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article investigates the optics misconceptions of 220 year 11 Thai high-school students. These misconceptions became apparent when the students attempted to explain how an object submerged in a water tank is "seen" by an observer looking into the tank from above and at an angle. The two diagnostic questions used in the study probe the…

Kaewkhong, Kreetha; Mazzolini, Alex; Emarat, Narumon; Arayathanitkul, Kwan

2010-01-01

46

An Analysis of Students' Misconceptions Concerning Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aims of this study were to diagnose students' misconceptions concerning photosynthesis and respiration in plants, and to investigate reasons behind these misconceptions. The subjects were 45 ninth grade high school students and 11 high school teachers. Data were collected by interview technique. All of the interviews were audiotaped and…

Capa, Yesim; Yildirim, Ali; Ozden, M. Yasar

47

Thai High-School Students' Misconceptions about and Models of Light Refraction through a Planar Surface  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the optics misconceptions of 220 year 11 Thai high-school students. These misconceptions became apparent when the students attempted to explain how an object submerged in a water tank is "seen" by an observer looking into the tank from above and at an angle. The two diagnostic questions used in the study probe the…

Kaewkhong, Kreetha; Mazzolini, Alex; Emarat, Narumon; Arayathanitkul, Kwan

2010-01-01

48

"Holes" in Student Understanding: Addressing Prevalent Misconceptions regarding Atmospheric Environmental Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is a misconception among undergraduate students that global warming is caused by holes in the ozone layer. In this study, we evaluated the presence of this and other misconceptions surrounding atmospheric chemistry that are responsible for the entanglement of the greenhouse effect and the ozone hole in students' conceptual frameworks. We…

Kerr, Sara C.; Walz, Kenneth A.

2007-01-01

49

Effects of conceptual assignments and conceptual change discussions on students' misconceptions and achievement regarding force and motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Investigates the effects of conceptual assignments and conceptual change discussions on high school students' achievement and misconceptions about force and motion. Analyzes pretest and posttest data from the Force Misconception and Force Achievement Tests (FMFAT). Discusses the effects on the conceptual change discussion on reducing misconceptions students held as well as improving students' achievement in force and motion.

Eryilmaz, Ali

2005-10-21

50

Zeroing in on Number and Operations, Grades 1-2: Key Ideas and Common Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Zeroing in on Number and Operations" series, which aligns with the Common Core State Standards and the NCTM Standards on Focal Points, features easy-to-use tools for teaching key concepts in number and operations and for addressing common misconceptions. Sharing the insights they've gained through decades of mathematics teaching and research,…

Dacey, Linda; Collins, Anne

2010-01-01

51

Zeroing in on Number and Operations, Grades 5-6: Key Ideas and Common Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"The Zeroing in on Number and Operations" series, which aligns with the Common Core State Standards and the NCTM Sandards and Focal Points, features easy-to-use tools for teaching key concepts in number and operations and for addressing common misconceptions. Sharing the insights they've gained through decades of mathematics teaching and…

Collins, Anne; Dacey, Linda

2010-01-01

52

Enhancing Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Students' Thinking from Assessing and Analyzing Misconceptions in Homework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study focuses on teacher learning of student thinking through grading homework, assessing and analyzing misconceptions. The data were collected from 10 teachers at fifth-eighth grade levels in the USA. The results show that assessing and analyzing misconceptions from grading homework is an important approach to acquiring knowledge of…

An, Shuhua; Wu, Zhonghe

2012-01-01

53

Observations on Student Misconceptions--A Case Study of the Build-Heap Algorithm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data structures and algorithms are core issues in computer programming. However, learning them is challenging for most students and many of them have various types of misconceptions on how algorithms work. In this study, we discuss the problem of identifying misconceptions on the principles of how algorithms work. Our context is algorithm…

Seppala, Otto; Malmi, Lauri; Korhonen, Ari

2006-01-01

54

Enhancing Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Students' Thinking from Assessing and Analyzing Misconceptions in Homework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on teacher learning of student thinking through grading homework, assessing and analyzing misconceptions. The data were collected from 10 teachers at fifth-eighth grade levels in the USA. The results show that assessing and analyzing misconceptions from grading homework is an important approach to acquiring knowledge of…

An, Shuhua; Wu, Zhonghe

2012-01-01

55

“Are Humans Evolving?” A Classroom Discussion to Change Student Misconceptions Regarding Natural Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural selection is an important mechanism in the unifying biological theory of evolution, but many undergraduate students\\u000a struggle to learn this concept. Students enter introductory biology courses with predictable misconceptions about natural\\u000a selection, and traditional teaching methods, such as lecturing, are unlikely to dispel these misconceptions. Instead, students\\u000a are more likely to learn natural selection when they are engaged in

Tessa M. Andrews; Steven T. Kalinowski; Mary J. Leonard

56

Using a Force Plate to Correct Student Misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each year during the unit on collisions I ask my physics students this conceptual question: If you want to close a door but you have too much inertia at the moment to get up and do it yourself, should you throw a ball that rebounds well, like a basketball, or a ball that rebounds poorly, like a ball of modeling dough, at the door?1 I also impose the condition that the two balls must have the same momenta when they strike the door. I give my students some time to discuss the problem in small groups and then make a prediction. I find that most students predict incorrectly that the dough ball will be more effective at closing the door because it is solid throughout and denser than the hollow, air-filled basketball. The students do not focus on the better-rebounding basketball and the greater change in velocity that it experiences than the modeling dough ball when they strike a solid object like a door. To correct this misconception I use a Vernier2 force plate to measure the impulse of a size 3 basketball and a ball of modeling dough of equal mass (0.3213 +/- 0.0002 kg) dropped from the same height of 0.200 +/- 0.002 m, to ensure equal velocities, onto the force plate. While I realize that a collision between a ball and a force plate is not exactly the same as a collision between a ball and a door, a more complex system, I believe it offers some very useful insights into the problem. I also include in this paper an extension on validating the impulse-momentum theorem.

Wyrembeck, Edward P.

2005-09-01

57

Addressing Undergraduate Student Misconceptions about Natural Selection with an Interactive Simulated Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although evolutionary theory is considered to be a unifying foundation for biological education, misconceptions about basic\\u000a evolutionary processes such as natural selection inhibit student understanding. Even after instruction, students harbor misconceptions\\u000a about natural selection, suggesting that traditional teaching methods are insufficient for correcting these confusions. This\\u000a has spurred an effort to develop new teaching methods and tools that effectively confront

Joel K. Abraham; Eli Meir; Judy Perry; Jon C. Herron; Susan Maruca; Derek Stal

2009-01-01

58

Student Acquisition of Biological Evolution-Related Misconceptions: The Role of Public High School Introductory Biology Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to eliminate student misconceptions concerning biological evolution, it is important to identify their sources. The purposes of this study were to: (a) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma public high school Biology I teachers; (b) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma…

Yates, Tony Brett

2011-01-01

59

Duodenal injury. Analysis of common misconceptions in diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Seventy-five consecutive patients who sustained injuries to the duodenum were admitted to our hospital over a nine-year period. Nineteen blunt injuries and 56 penetrating injuries were encountered. Blunt injuries were usually the result of motor vehicle accidents and steering wheel impact was frequently implicated. Penetrating injuries most commonly followed gunshot wounds, particularly those where the bullet tract travelled transversely across the peritoneal cavity. Seventy-nine per cent of the patients had two or more associated intra-abdominal organ injuries with other intestinal injuries, biliary tract injuries, and pancreatic injuries predominating. Forty-seven per cent of the patients were admitted in shock. Following blunt injury, diagnostic delay was encountered in two patients. Adjuncts to diagnosis such as abdominal roentgenograms, serum amylase levels, and contrast gastroduodenography, were not helpful. Peritoneal lavage, however, was valuable in patients with equivocal physical findings. Intraoperative diagnosis was also challenging. Complete mobilization of the structures surrounding the duodenum to provide exposure of the entire duodenum was necessary. Six injuries that initially appeared trivial would have been missed had this procedure not been followed. Suture closure was the most common reparative technique used. Tube decompression of the duodenum was a valuable addition. No suture line dehiscences were encountered in ten patients so treated. Overall mortality in patients surviving more than 24 hours was 12%. PMID:7387230

Flint, L M; McCoy, M; Richardson, J D; Polk, H C

1980-06-01

60

Duodenal Injury: Analysis of Common Misconceptions in Diagnosis and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Seventy-five consecutive patients who sustained injuries to the duodenum were admitted to our hospital over a nine-year period. Nineteen blunt injuries and 56 penetrating injuries were encountered. Blunt injuries were usually the result of motor vehicle accidents and steering wheel impact was frequently implicated. Penetrating injuries most commonly followed gunshot wounds, particularly those where the bullet tract travelled transversely across the peritoneal cavity. Seventy-nine per cent of the patients had two or more associated intra-abdominal organ injuries with other intestinal injuries, biliary tract injuries, and pancreatic injuries predominating. Forty-seven per cent of the patients were admitted in shock. Following blunt injury, diagnostic delay was encountered in two patients. Adjuncts to diagnosis such as abdominal roentgenograms, serum amylase levels, and contrast gastroduodenography, were not helpful. Peritoneal lavage, however, was valuable in patients with equivocal physical findings. Intraoperative diagnosis was also challenging. Complete mobilization of the structures surrounding the duodenum to provide exposure of the entire duodenum was necessary. Six injuries that initially appeared trivial would have been missed had this procedure not been followed. Suture closure was the most common reparative technique used. Tube decompression of the duodenum was a valuable addition. No suture line dehiscences were encountered in ten patients so treated. Overall mortality in patients surviving more than 24 hours was 12%.

Flint, Lewis M.; McCoy, Martha; Richardson, J. David; Polk, Hiram C.

1980-01-01

61

Development and Application of an Instrument to Identify Students Misconceptions: Diffusion and Osmosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A large number of undergraduate students have naive understandings about the processes of Diffusion and Osmosis. Some students overcome these misconceptions, but others do not. The study involved nineteen undergraduate movement science students at a Midwest University. Participants' were asked to complete a short answer (fill-in the blank) test,…

Misischia, Cynthia M.

2010-01-01

62

Student Misconceptions in Writing Balanced Equations for Dissolving Ionic Compounds in Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of this study was to identify student misconceptions and difficulties in writing symbolic-level balanced equations for dissolving ionic compounds in water. A sample of 105 college students were asked to provide balanced equations for dissolving four ionic compounds in water. Another 37 college students participated in semi-structured…

Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

2012-01-01

63

Developing Simulation-Based Computer Assisted Learning to Correct Students' Statistical Misconceptions Based on Cognitive Conflict Theory, Using "Correlation" as an Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Understanding and applying statistical concepts is essential in modern life. However, common statistical misconceptions limit the ability of students to understand statistical concepts. Although simulation-based computer assisted learning (CAL) is promising for use in students learning statistics, substantial improvement is still needed. For…

Liu, Tzu-Chien

2010-01-01

64

Diagnosing Secondary Students' Misconceptions of Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plants Using a Two-Tier Multiple Choice Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a multiple-choice instrument that reliably and validly diagnoses secondary students' understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plants. Highlights the consistency of students' misconceptions across secondary levels and indicates a high percentage of students have misconceptions regarding plant physiology. (CW)|

Haslam, Filocha; Treagust, David F.

1987-01-01

65

Visual Abilities and Misconceptions About Plate Tectonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagrams, drawings, and pictures are prototypical representations of concepts. Students' drawings of their concepts of convergent plate boundaries provided an efficient means of discovering some widely held misconceptions. Over 600 general education students' drawings of continent -continent convergent boundaries reveal two common misconceptions. Approximately one-third drew a continent-continent convergent boundary with concave slabs of continental crust as one might imagine

Duncan F. Sibley

66

High School 9th Grade Students' Understanding Level and Misconceptions about Temperature and Factors Affecting It  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study is to explore students' understanding levels and misconceptions about temperature and factors affecting it. The concept of the study was chosen from Geography National Curriculum. In this study, a questionnaire was developed after a pilot study with an aim to ascertain the students' understanding levels of temperature…

Akbas, Yavuz

2012-01-01

67

Student Misconceptions in Signals and Systems and their Origins — Part II  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on our investigation of student misconceptions and their origins within the Signals and Systems module taught in the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This study is a sequel to an earlier paper in which we discussed our findings on student conceptions and reasoning regarding the behavior of linear, time-invariant electrical circuits. In

Reem Nasr; S. R. Hall; Peter Garik

2005-01-01

68

University and Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about the Concept of "Aromaticity" in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aromaticity concept is given incorrect or incomplete to the student in secondary education and knowledge based on this basic concept has been caused to another misconception in future. How are the achievement levels relating to the comprehension of various characteristics of aromatic compounds for the first and third grade students attending…

Topal, Giray; Oral, Behcet; Ozden. Mustafa

2007-01-01

69

Improving Algebra Preparation: Implications from Research on Student Misconceptions and Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Through historical and contemporary research, educators have identified widespread misconceptions and difficulties faced by students in learning algebra. Many of these universal issues stem from content addressed long before students take their first algebra course. Yet elementary and middle school teachers may not understand how the subtleties…

Welder, Rachael M.

2012-01-01

70

Geo-myths and Misconceptions: Students' Alternate Views of How Our World Works  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obviously students do not enter our classrooms as blank slates, prepared to accept our elegant constructions of how the world works. They already have well established, often surprisingly complex, ideas of their world that, even if erroneous, do serve to satisfactorily explain many phenomena. These ideas are remarkably hardy and, when challenged, tend to adapt or mutate more readily than to go extinct. Some of these misconceptions have a remarkable ancestry, stretching back to our society's early scientific cosmologies and may be very deeply embedded, and broadly disseminated, in our society. Others are clearly the product of more recent knowledge, but knowledge that has been misinterpreted or misapplied in unexpected ways. As long as instructors are aware of these misconceptions, they can be challenged, and with some success eliminated or replaced. Once students experience the fact that their interpretations do not adequately explain the geologic phenomena before them, they may be more willing to entertain a new concept. If they then are provided new, more useful ideas and given multiple experiences applying those ideas, then they are more likely to actually give up their misconceptions and use the new ideas in the future. The greatest problems occur when instructors are simply unaware of a misconception's existence. Often the gulf between instructors' and students' knowledge of the subject matter is so great that the instructors' familiarity becomes a liability. They cannot conceive of some ideas that appear intuitive from their students' perspective, so these misconceptions are never challenged and survive instruction intact. More importantly, students use their misconceptions to interpret other ideas presented in a course. The result is usually a strange amalgam of old and new ideas. The students make new ideas "fit" with their original misconceptions and often reject ideas they see as being contrary to their initial beliefs. In a worse case scenario, course instruction may actually appear to support their misconceptions, actively embedding them even more solidly within the students' world view. As examples, up to a fifth of incoming students at our University assume that magma comes from the Earth's liquid outer core. In some classes, up to 40% of the students believe that the presence of seawater is necessary for the formation of basalt. If we are not aware of the existence of these startlingly widespread notions, we will remain incapable of correcting them. This work was partially supported by the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE), U.S. Department of Education.

Finley, F.; Kirkby, K. C.; Morin, P. J.

2004-12-01

71

Misconceptions and Conceptual Changes Concerning Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics among Portuguese Students Aged 16-17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates student misconceptions in the areas of continent, ocean, permanence of ocean basins, continental drift, Earth's magnetic field, and plates and plate motions. A teaching-learning model was designed based on a constructivist approach. Results show that students held a substantial number of misconceptions. (Author/DKM)|

Marques, Luis; Thompson, David

1997-01-01

72

Batty Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an activity that enables teachers to access students' existing knowledge of bats, have students confront their misconceptions and learn more about the real lives of bats, and ask students to apply their knowledge while reinforcing the difference between science and myth. (JRH)|

Alters, Brian J.

1996-01-01

73

Batty Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity that enables teachers to access students' existing knowledge of bats, have students confront their misconceptions and learn more about the real lives of bats, and ask students to apply their knowledge while reinforcing the difference between science and myth. (JRH)

Alters, Brian J.

1996-01-01

74

The Effects of Computer-Assisted Material on Students' Cognitive Levels, Misconceptions and Attitudes Towards Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Computer-Assisted Instruction Material (CAIM) related to "photosynthesis" topic on student cognitive development, misconceptions and attitudes. The study conducted in 2002-2003 academic year and was carried out in two different classes taught by the same teacher, in which there were…

Cepni, Salih; Tas, Erol; Kose, Sacit

2006-01-01

75

Development and Use of Diagnostic Tests to Evaluate Students' Misconceptions in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes 10 steps for developing a diagnostic test of students' misconceptions and the use of two tests in chemistry (covalent bonding and structure) and in biology (photosynthesis and respiration in plants). Discusses the results and some implications for teaching science. (YP)|

Treagust, David F.

1988-01-01

76

Growing Pebbles and Conceptual Prisms - Understanding the Source of Student Misconceptions about Rock Formation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzes narrative essays--stories of rock formation--written by pre-service elementary school teachers. Reports startling misconceptions among preservice teachers on pebbles that grow, human involvement in rock formation, and sedimentary rocks forming as puddles as dry up, even though these students had completed a college level course on Earth…

Kusnick, Judi

2002-01-01

77

An Investigation of Fifth and Eighth Grade Korean Students' Misconceptions of Photosynthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many researchers believe that prior knowledge is the single most important variable influencing learning. Learning in the classroom is determined or affected positively or negatively, to some degree, by the knowledge people bring to the classroom. This study was designed to: (1) assess fifth- and eighth-grade Korean students' misconceptions of…

Cho, Jung-il

78

An Investigation of Fifth and Eighth Grade Korean Students' Misconceptions of Photosynthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many researchers believe that prior knowledge is the single most important variable influencing learning. Learning in the classroom is determined or affected positively or negatively, to some degree, by the knowledge people bring to the classroom. This study was designed to: (1) assess fifth- and eighth-grade Korean students' misconceptions of…

Cho, Jung-il

79

The Investigation of 6th Grade Student Misconceptions Originated from Didactic about the "Digestive System" Subject  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the misconceptions emerged as a result of instruction were examined from the viewpoint of the Didactic Transposition Theory. To this end, two randomly selected sample groups (n = 33 and n = 31) from the students of two nearby schools in downtown Balikesir were included in the study. It was observed that different knowledge…

Ozgur, Sami; Pelitoglu, Fatma Cildir

2008-01-01

80

Student Misconceptions: A Qualitative Study of Conceptual Barriers in Plate Tectonics and in the Solar System among Upper Elementary Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constructivist theory points to the importance of recognizing student conceptions and the need to address them if students are going to move from their first conceptions to scientifically accepted understandings. Research into students’ conceptions has therefore been conducted in the disciplines of physics, biology and chemistry, but so far has been limited in the earth sciences. In addition to this gap in the literature, there is a growing interest in making such research more accessible and useful to practitioners. Helpful to both of these needs are recent efforts to describe a particular class of students’ geoscience misconceptions termed “conceptual barriers”. Conceptual barriers are foundational or fundamental misconceptions in the sense that they bare relationships with many other concepts in a domain and stand to seriously impede students’ conceptual understanding. Rather than investigating discrete misconceptions, studies of conceptual barriers investigate the ramifications of such fundamental misconceptions for students’ understanding and reasoning throughout a topic. Where examples of students’ ill- or misconceived patterns of reasoning can be generated, they stand to aid practitioners in not only diagnosing students misconceptions but also in responding to them. We have conducted interviews with over twenty upper elementary and middle school students in order to investigate and describe conceptual barriers to student understanding in the earth sciences - specifically plate tectonics and gravity in the solar system. Student interviews were analyzed using a constant comparative method. Through this work we have been able to identify several possible conceptual barriers in students’ understandings and to describe the ways these barriers impact students’ understanding of related phenomena.

Brodsky, L. M.; Corrigan, S.

2010-12-01

81

Biology Undergraduates' Misconceptions about Genetic Drift  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores biology undergraduates' misconceptions about genetic drift. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to describe students' definitions, identify common misconceptions, and examine differences before and after instruction on genetic drift. We identify and describe five overarching categories that include 16 distinct…

Andrews, T. M.; Price, R. M.; Mead, L. S.; McElhinny, T. L.; Thanukos, A.; Perez, K. E.; Herreid, C. F.; Terry, D. R.; Lemons, P. P.

2012-01-01

82

Common Myths, Misconceptions and Assumptions About Mtbe: Where Are We Now?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical review of twelve (12) myths and misconceptions about MTBE reveals they were conceived to rationalize early field observations and/or incomplete data sets. Closer scrutiny, in light of recent laboratory investigations, field data, case studies and world literature, indicates the myths are unsubstantiated misconceptions and as- sumptions about the behavior of ether oxygenates in the environment. Commonly held myths focus on four general areas of fuel and fuel oxygenates management: stor- age/dispensing, hydrology, remediation and health effects. Storage/dispensing mis- conceptions address materials stability to ethers in fuel and the environmental foren- sics of fuel systems failure. Groundwater and hydrology myths deal with plume dy- namics and the impact of fuel on drinking water resources. Remediation myths focus on the performance of traditional hydrocarbon remediation technologies, recent de- velopments in biodegradation and natural attenuation, drivers of remedial design and remediation costs. Health effects myths address both acute and chronic exposure risk evaluations by national and international health agencies. MTBE is manageable by the same processes and precautions used for gasoline and other fuel hydrocarbons.

Woodward, R. E.

83

Factors mediating the effect of gender on ninth-grade Turkish students' misconceptions concerning electric circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to identify and analyze possible factors that mediate the effect of gender on ninth-grade Turkish students' misconceptions concerning electric circuits. A Simple Electric Circuit Concept Test (SECCT), including items with both practical and theoretical contexts, and an Interest-Experience Questionnaire about Electricity (IEQ) were administered to 1,678 ninth-grade students (764 male, 914 female) after the completion of a unit on electricity to assess students' misconceptions and interests-experiences about electricity. Results of the concept test indicated that general performances of the students were relatively low and that many students had misconceptions in interpreting electric circuits. When the data were analyzed using MANOVA and follow-up ANOVAs, a gender difference for males was observed on the dependent variable of total scores on the 10 practical items; however, there was no significant gender difference on the dependent variable of total scores on the six theoretical items. Moreover, when the same data were analyzed using MANCOVA and follow-up ANCOVAs, controlling students' age and interest-experience related to electricity, the observed gender difference was mediated on the total scores on the practical items.

Sencar, Selen; Eryilmaz, Ali

2004-08-01

84

Essay Contest Reveals Misconceptions of High School Students in Genetics Content  

PubMed Central

National educational organizations have called upon scientists to become involved in K–12 education reform. From sporadic interaction with students to more sustained partnerships with teachers, the engagement of scientists takes many forms. In this case, scientists from the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), the Genetics Society of America (GSA), and the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) have partnered to organize an essay contest for high school students as part of the activities surrounding National DNA Day. We describe a systematic analysis of 500 of 2443 total essays submitted in response to this contest over 2 years. Our analysis reveals the nature of student misconceptions in genetics, the possible sources of these misconceptions, and potential ways to galvanize genetics education.

Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Van Horne, Katie; Zhang, Hubert; Boughman, Joann

2008-01-01

85

Identifying Students' Misconceptions in Writing Balanced Equations for Dissolving Ionic Compounds in Water and Using Multiple-Choice Questions at the Symbolic and Particulate Levels to Confront These Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students who harbor misconceptions often find chemistry difficult to understand. To improve teaching about the dissolving process, first semester introductory chemistry students were asked to complete a free-response questionnaire on writing balanced equations for dissolving ionic compounds in water. To corroborate errors and misconceptions

Naah, Basil M.

2012-01-01

86

College Students' Misconceptions of Environmental Issues Related to Global Warming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are currently exposed to world environmental problems--including global warming and the greenhouse effect--in science classes at various points during their K-12 and college experience. However, the amount and depth of explosure to these issues can be quite variable. Students are also exposed to sources of misinformation leading to…

Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

87

Invisible Misconceptions: Student Understanding of Ultraviolet and Infrared Radiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The importance of nonvisible wavelengths for the study of astronomy suggests that student understanding of nonvisible light is an important consideration in astronomy classrooms. Questionnaires, interviews, and panel discussions were used to investigate 6-12 student and teacher conceptions of ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR). Alternative…

Libarkin, Julie C.; Asghar, Anila; Crockett, C.; Sadler, Philip

2011-01-01

88

College Students' Misconceptions of Environmental Issues Related to Global Warming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students are currently exposed to world environmental problems--including global warming and the greenhouse effect--in science classes at various points during their K-12 and college experience. However, the amount and depth of explosure to these issues can be quite variable. Students are also exposed to sources of misinformation leading to…

Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

89

Invisible Misconceptions: Student Understanding of Ultraviolet and Infrared Radiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of nonvisible wavelengths for the study of astronomy suggests that student understanding of nonvisible light is an important consideration in astronomy classrooms. Questionnaires, interviews, and panel discussions were used to investigate 6-12 student and teacher conceptions of ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR). Alternative…

Libarkin, Julie C.; Asghar, Anila; Crockett, C.; Sadler, Philip

2011-01-01

90

Moon Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the course of history, scientists have constructed models and equations that provide insight into the motions of the heavens. However, research indicates many people hold alternative conceptions that, to them, explain the same observable phenomenon. Science educators have found that students learning about lunar phases may hold misconceptions

Hermann, Ronald; Lewis, Bradford F.

2003-01-01

91

Diagnosing and Dealing with Student Misconceptions: Floating and Sinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When students enter the classroom, they often hold prior knowledge or conceptions about the natural world. These conceptions will influence how they come to understand what they are taught in school. Some of their existing knowledge provides good foundation for formal schooling, but other prior conceptions, however, are incompatible with currently…

Yin, Yue; Tomita, Miki K.; Shavelson, Richard J.

2008-01-01

92

Diagnosing and Dealing with Student Misconceptions: Floating and Sinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When students enter the classroom, they often hold prior knowledge or conceptions about the natural world. These conceptions will influence how they come to understand what they are taught in school. Some of their existing knowledge provides good foundation for formal schooling, but other prior conceptions, however, are incompatible with…

Yin, Yue; Tomita, Miki K.; Shavelson, Richard J.

2008-01-01

93

Misconceptions in astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study performed by the Astronomical Observatory of Brera (Italy) and the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Valencia (Spain), we analyse some common misconceptions in astronomy. In particular we explored the evolution of these misconceptions (if any) depending on age and socio-educational factors, from a cognitive structures point of view. Cognitive structures interact with learnt contents and produce resistant conceptual schemes that are almost completely unknown and ignored by teachers and educators. We carried out an extensive survey (more than 2000 tests in the two countries) and we studied the spontaneous schemes and concepts used by youngsters when facing some basic astronomical ideas, in order to focus efforts on helping to change the above schemes by inducing a "clash of ideas" for the students. In that way, students could acquire a dynamic mental model consistent with the scientific model.

Gallego-Calvente, A. T.; Sandrelli, S.; Ortiz-Gil, A.

2008-06-01

94

Development and application of an instrument to identify students misconceptions: Diffusion and osmosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of undergraduate students have naive understandings about the processes of Diffusion and Osmosis. Some students overcome these misconceptions, but others do not. The study involved nineteen undergraduate movement science students at a Midwest University. Participants' were asked to complete a short answer (fill-in the blank) test, and if possible participate in a follow-up interview. The researcher constructed short answer test that consisted of a three-tier structure that required students to generate answers, diminishing the influence found in two-tiered instruments such as 'recognition' of correct answers and test taking skills More importantly, each level built upon knowledge demonstrated in the previous tier; this allowed the researcher to determine where the breakdown occurred. Part one of the test consisted of 9 questions that prompted students to provide short answer definitions. Part two of the exam consisted of 7 questions that contained two parts. The first question required a true or false answer and the second required a brief explanation. The final part of the test consisted of 12 questions related to three scenarios. After each question students were also asked to record how confident they were with their answers on a three point scale. This helped to determine whether students had 'confidence' in their answers, or if they were just guessing. A total of three students agreed to participate in audio-recorded interviews. Descriptive and correlational data was used in the analysis of this study. This data included: (1) test; (2) interview; (3); Point biserial correlation coefficients; (4) Cronbach's alpha correlation coefficients; (5) Kendall's Tau-b correlation coefficients; (5) and error pattern analysis Evidence from this study demonstrates that students do have misconceptions, about the processes of diffusion and osmosis.

Misischia, Cynthia M.

95

Addressing Student Misconceptions Concerning Electron Flow in Aqueous Solutions with Instruction Including Computer Animations and Conceptual Change Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effects of both computer animations of microscopic chemical processes occurring in a galvanic cell and conceptual-change instruction based on chemical demonstrations on students' conceptions of current flow in electrolyte solutions. Finds that conceptual change instruction was effective at dispelling student misconceptions but…

Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

2000-01-01

96

Addressing Student Misconceptions Concerning Electron Flow in Aqueous Solutions with Instruction Including Computer Animations and Conceptual Change Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the effects of both computer animations of microscopic chemical processes occurring in a galvanic cell and conceptual-change instruction based on chemical demonstrations on students' conceptions of current flow in electrolyte solutions. Finds that conceptual change instruction was effective at dispelling student misconceptions but…

Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

2000-01-01

97

IDENTIFYING SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTSMISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT STATISTICAL CORRELATION, AND THEIR POSSIBLE CAUSES: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY USING CONCEPT MAPPING WITH INTERVIEWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlation is an essential concept in statistics; however, students may hold misconceptions about correlation, even after\\u000a receiving instruction. This study aimed to elucidate (1) the misconceptions held by senior high school students about correlation,\\u000a using the tool of concept mapping along with interviewing, (2) the possible causes of these misconceptions, and (3) the effectiveness,\\u000a advantages, and limitations of the adopted

Tzu-Chien Liu; Yi-Chun Lin; Chin-Chung Tsai

2009-01-01

98

Fundamental Research in Engineering Education. Identifying and Repairing Student Misconceptions in Thermal and Transport Science: Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper summarizes progress on two related lines of chemical engineering education research: 1) identifying persistent student misconceptions in thermal and transport science (fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and thermodynamics); and, 2) developing a method to help students repair these misconceptions. Progress on developing the Thermal and…

Miller, Ronald L.; Streveler, Ruth A.; Yang, Dazhi; Roman, Aidsa I. Santiago

2011-01-01

99

Comparing the Impacts of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students' Achievements, Misconceptions, and Attitudes towards Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment design of instructional software programs related to the "cell division" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the cell division achievement test (CAT), the cell division concept test (CCT) and…

Kara, Yilmaz; Yesilyurt, Selami

2008-01-01

100

Formative Assessment Pre-Test to Identify College Students' Prior Knowledge, Misconceptions and Learning Difficulties in Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A formative assessment pretest was administered to undergraduate students at the beginning of a science course in order to find out their prior knowledge, misconceptions and learning difficulties on the topic of the human respiratory system and energy issues. Those findings could provide their instructors with the valuable information required in…

Lazarowitz, Reuven; Lieb, Carl

2006-01-01

101

Assessing the Effects of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students' Achievements, Misconceptions and Attitudes towards Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment software programs related to "genetic concepts" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the genetic concepts achievement test (GAT), the genetic concept test (GCT) and biology attitude scale (BAS) was…

Kara, Yilmaz; Yesilyurt, Selami

2007-01-01

102

Formative Assessment Pre-Test to Identify College Students' Prior Knowledge, Misconceptions and Learning Difficulties in Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A formative assessment pretest was administered to undergraduate students at the beginning of a science course in order to find out their prior knowledge, misconceptions and learning difficulties on the topic of the human respiratory system and energy issues. Those findings could provide their instructors with the valuable information required in…

Lazarowitz, Reuven; Lieb, Carl

2006-01-01

103

The Development of a Questionnaire To Survey College Students' Misconceptions about the Spread and Prevention of AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study developed and implemented a questionnaire to examine misconceptions related to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among 57 college students enrolled in Psychology 101 courses at Essex Community College in Maryland. The questionnaire covered etiology and epidemiology of AIDS and the personal attitudes and experiences of the…

Rochlin, Joyce T.

104

Misconceptions of Astronomical Distances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous empirical studies using multiple-choice procedures have suggested that there are misconceptions about the scale of astronomical distances. The present study provides a quantitative estimate of the nature of this misconception among US university students by asking them, in an open-ended response format, to make estimates of the distances…

Miller, Brian W.; Brewer, William F.

2010-01-01

105

Misconceptions of Astronomical Distances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous empirical studies using multiple-choice procedures have suggested that there are misconceptions about the scale of astronomical distances. The present study provides a quantitative estimate of the nature of this misconception among US university students by asking them, in an open-ended response format, to make estimates of the distances…

Miller, Brian W.; Brewer, William F.

2010-01-01

106

Identifying students' misconceptions in writing balanced equations for dissolving ionic compounds in water and using multiple-choice questions at the symbolic and particulate levels to confront these misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students who harbor misconceptions often find chemistry difficult to understand. To improve teaching about the dissolving process, first semester introductory chemistry students were asked to complete a free-response questionnaire on writing balanced equations for dissolving ionic compounds in water. To corroborate errors and misconceptions identified from students' generated balanced equations, another sample of students participated in semi-structured interviews where they were asked to explain their thought processes involved in writing the balanced equations for the dissolving ionic compounds dissolving in water. Misconceptions of the dissolving process were identified and described in detail. The most popular misconception was that water chemically reacts with an ionic compound through double displacement to form a metal oxide and an acid. The second popular misconception was that an ionic compound dissolves as neutral atoms or molecules. The third popular misconception was that students confused subscripts and coefficients. Another sample of introductory chemistry students were assessed on the dissolving process using the three popular misconceptions as three of the four choices in multiple-choice questions at the symbolic- and particulate-level. The symbolic-level questions involved symbolic balanced equations and the particulate-level questions involved dynamic animations or static pictures of the same four choices. Students' responses to these questions were discussed in terms of four variables---Answer (the correct answer and three misconceptions), Representation (symbolic or particulate questions), Visualization (static or animated pictures), and Representation Order (symbolic questions before or after the particulate questions). The same test instrument was used on the same student sample to assess how two types of subscripts affected students understanding of dissolving ionic compounds in water. Two of the ionic compounds had monatomic subscripts (MgCl2, Ag2SO4) and two did not (NaBr, KNO 3). Two had polyatomic subscripts (KNO3, K2SO 4) and two did not (NaBr, MgC12). Students' responses to these questions were also discussed in terms of four variables---Answer (the four choices), Representation (symbolic or particulate questions), Monatomic subscripts, and Polyatomic subscripts. The subscript misconception was more popular for symbolic questions compared to particulate questions, and the correct answer was less popular for particulate and symbolic questions when the question contained a monatomic subscript.

Naah, Basil M.

107

Biology Undergraduates' Misconceptions about Genetic Drift  

PubMed Central

This study explores biology undergraduates’ misconceptions about genetic drift. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to describe students’ definitions, identify common misconceptions, and examine differences before and after instruction on genetic drift. We identify and describe five overarching categories that include 16 distinct misconceptions about genetic drift. The accuracy of students’ conceptions ranges considerably, from responses indicating only superficial, if any, knowledge of any aspect of evolution to responses indicating knowledge of genetic drift but confusion about the nuances of genetic drift. After instruction, a significantly greater number of responses indicate some knowledge of genetic drift (p = 0.005), but 74.6% of responses still contain at least one misconception. We conclude by presenting a framework that organizes how students’ conceptions of genetic drift change with instruction. We also articulate three hypotheses regarding undergraduates’ conceptions of evolution in general and genetic drift in particular. We propose that: 1) students begin with undeveloped conceptions of evolution that do not recognize different mechanisms of change; 2) students develop more complex, but still inaccurate, conceptual frameworks that reflect experience with vocabulary but still lack deep understanding; and 3) some new misconceptions about genetic drift emerge as students comprehend more about evolution.

Andrews, T. M.; Price, R. M.; Mead, L. S.; McElhinny, T. L.; Thanukos, A.; Perez, K. E.; Herreid, C. F.; Terry, D. R.; Lemons, P. P.

2012-01-01

108

N-Squad Episode 1. Students learn misconceptions about alcohol, medical examination, the role of the digestive system in processing alcohol, and liver histology.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In N-Squad Episode 1 students work with forensic scientists to solve an alcohol related crime. Along the way, they will learn about alcohol's interaction with the digestive system, misconceptions about alcohol, medical examination, and liver histology.

Learning, Center F.

2008-01-01

109

Misconceptions Are "So Yesterday!"  

PubMed Central

At the close of the Society for the Advancement of Biology Education Research conference in July 2012, one of the organizers made the comment: “Misconceptions are so yesterday.” Within the community of learning sciences, misconceptions are yesterday's news, because the term has been aligned with eradication and/or replacement of conceptions, and our knowledge about how people learn has progressed past this idea. This essay provides an overview of the discussion within the learning sciences community surrounding the term “misconceptions” and how the education community's thinking has evolved with respect to students’ conceptions. Using examples of students’ incorrect ideas about evolution and ecology, we show that students’ naïve ideas can provide the resources from which to build scientific understanding. We conclude by advocating that biology education researchers use one or more appropriate alternatives in place of the term misconception whenever possible.

Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

2013-01-01

110

Comparing the Impacts of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students’ Achievements, Misconceptions, and Attitudes towards Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment design of instructional software programs\\u000a related to the “cell division” topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design\\u000a including the cell division achievement test (CAT), the cell division concept test (CCT) and biology attitude scale (BAS)\\u000a was applied at the beginning and at

Yilmaz Kara; Selami Yesilyurt

2008-01-01

111

Overcoming students' misconceptions concerning thermal physics with the aid of hints and peer interaction during a lecture course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As has been shown by previous research, students may possess various misconceptions in the area of thermal physics. In order to help them overcome misconceptions observed prior to instruction, we implemented a one-hour lecture-based intervention in their introductory thermal physics course. The intervention was held after the conventional lectures and homework sessions, and it consisted of three phases: individual working, hinting, and peer discussion. To probe students’ conceptual understanding before, during, and after the intervention, use was made of a diagnostic test related to the multiphased process of an ideal gas [D. E. Meltzer, Am. J. Phys. 72, 1432 (2004)AJPIAS0002-950510.1119/1.1789161]. The students’ conceptions were monitored by analyzing the explanations they provided and by recording the peer discussions of five voluntary pairs. The intervention helped students to realize the flaws in their explanations and increased the proportion of their scientific explanations, the increase being statistically significant in five tasks out of seven. When the same themes were addressed in a post-test, it was shown that the level of accurate explanations remained almost constant after the intervention, and hence it could be deduced that the impact had not been short-lived. In comparison with earlier studies conducted with the same material, our intervention produced a better learning outcome, the difference being 15–20 percentage points. In addition, the number of misconceptions on the part of the students was smaller in our study, although with individual exceptions. Hence, we conclude that the intervention was successful and that similar interventions could also be designed and implemented in other areas of physics.

Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

2013-12-01

112

The Xs and Whys of Algebra: Key Ideas and Common Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many ways, algebra can be as challenging for teachers as it is for students. With so much emphasis placed on procedural knowledge and the manipulations of variables and symbols, it can be easy to lose sight of the key ideas that underlie algebraic thinking and the relevance algebra has to the real world. In the The Xs and Whys of Algebra: Key…

Collins, Anne; Dacey, Linda

2011-01-01

113

Mathematics, Thermodynamics, and Modeling to Address Ten Common Misconceptions about Protein Structure, Folding, and Stability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To fully understand the roles proteins play in cellular processes, students need to grasp complex ideas about protein structure, folding, and stability. Our current understanding of these topics is based on mathematical models and experimental data. However, protein structure, folding, and stability are often introduced as descriptive,…

Robic, Srebrenka

2010-01-01

114

Overcoming Misconceptions in Neurophysiology Learning: An Approach Using Color-Coded Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Anyone who has taught neurophysiology would be aware of recurring concepts that students find difficult to understand. However, a greater problem is the development of misconceptions that may be difficult to change. For example, one common misconception is that action potentials pass directly across chemical synapses. Difficulties may be…

Guy, Richard

2012-01-01

115

Pre-Service Teachers' Preconceptions, Misconceptions, and Concerns about Virtual Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the last decade, online distance education has become a common mode of study in most states in the USA, where it is known as virtual schooling (VS), but many people have misconceptions about it. Pre-service teachers' personal histories as students and their preconceptions, misconceptions, and concerns influence pre-service teacher training…

Compton, Lily; Davis, Niki; Correia, Ana-Paula

2010-01-01

116

Understanding the Common Elements of Evidence-Based Practice: Misconceptions and Clinical Examples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors proposed a distillation and matching model (DMM) that describes how evidence-based treatment operations can be conceptualized at a lower order level of analysis than simply by their manuals. Also referred to as the "common elements" approach, this model demonstrates the feasibility of coding and identifying the…

Chorpita, Bruce F.; Becker, Kimberly D.; Daleiden, Eric L.

2007-01-01

117

Understanding the Common Elements of Evidence-Based Practice: Misconceptions and Clinical Examples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the authors proposed a distillation and matching model (DMM) that describes how evidence-based treatment operations can be conceptualized at a lower order level of analysis than simply by their manuals. Also referred to as the "common elements" approach, this model demonstrates the feasibility of coding and identifying the…

Chorpita, Bruce F.; Becker, Kimberly D.; Daleiden, Eric L.

2007-01-01

118

Misconceptions Die Hard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a study of students' conceptualizations and misconceptions of how objects sink and float. Results showed little difference in the levels of understanding of the "sink and float" concepts by groups ranging from primary age to college. As age increased, terminology used by students varied, and misuse of terms increased. (TW)

Stepans, Joseph I.; And Others

1986-01-01

119

The Effects and Side-Effects of Statistics Education: Psychology Students' (Mis-)Conceptions of Probability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In three studies we looked at two typical misconceptions of probability: the representativeness heuristic, and the equiprobability bias. The literature on statistics education predicts that some typical errors and biases (e.g., the equiprobability bias) increase with education, whereas others decrease. This is in contrast with reasoning…

Morsanyi, Kinga; Primi, Caterina; Chiesi, Francesca; Handley, Simon

2009-01-01

120

Genius is not immune to persistent misconceptions: conceptual difficulties impeding Isaac Newton and contemporary physics students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has shown that serious misconceptions frequently survive high school and university instruction in mechanics. It is interesting to inquire whether Newton himself encountered conceptual difficulties before he wrote the Principia: (a) Did he have serious difficulties? (b) If so, were they difficult to overcome? We shall present evidence from Newton's writings of affirmative answers to both questions.Newton's development

Melvin S. Steinberg; David E. Brown; John Clement

1990-01-01

121

Glucose as the sole metabolic fuel- a study on the possible influence of teachers knowledge on the establishment of a misconception among Brazilian high school students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the present work, I investigated the origin of the misconception that glucose is the sole metabolic fuel previously described among Brazilian high school students. The results of a multiple-choice test composed of 24 questions about a broad range of biology subjects were analyzed. The test was part of a contest and was answered by a sample composed of undergraduate students as well as biologists and practicing biology teachers. The majority of the responders had difficulties in recognizing the existence of gluconeogenesis and the possibility of ATP production using other fuels other than carbohydrates. Biology teachers and biologists seemed to either lack the knowledge or present the misconception regarding energy-yielding metabolism found among students. I argue that in both cases, biology teachers are likely to teach metabolism-related subjects in a manner that may contribute to the appearance of the misconception among high school students.

Mauricio Roberto Motta Pinto da Luz (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Fundação Oswaldo Cruz)

2008-06-25

122

Changes with Age in Students' Conceptions of Decimal Notation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines Australian students' conceptions about ordering decimals. It builds upon previous work which established three common misconceptions. A longitudinal study of 50 secondary students over twelve months showed little change in their misconceptions. A second study traced the incidence of each misconception from Years 4 to 10 in a sample of 379 students. It was found that the

Kevin Moloney; Kaye Stacey

1997-01-01

123

Research and Teaching: Persisting Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A content-based test instrument administered to a large class of general biology students as pre- and post-tests revealed that knowledge was gained after the semester. A misconception index calculated from these data served to identify specific misconcept

Nazario, Gladys M.; Rodriguez, Julio; Burrowes, Patricia A.

2002-02-01

124

Antievolutionary Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is essentially a rebuttal to Norman Macbeth's arguments against Darwinism. The author argues that one must identify the real weaknesses of evolutionary theory and not use the misconceptions put forth by Macbeth to make valid judgments. (MA)

Rosenfeld, Robert P.

1977-01-01

125

Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol  

MedlinePLUS

... tend to increase as you age, and postmenopausal women may find that even a heart-healthy diet and regular physical activity aren't enough to ... levels even if you eat a heart-healthy diet, stay active, watch your weight and ... more about women and cholesterol. You don't need to have ...

126

Catching misconceptions and misinformation about ocean/climate science among college students: a long record of pre and post exams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pre/post exams were used in a college freshmen oceanography course to identify student misconceptions and to investigate student learning gains. This course has a diverse population of students where most are not science majors. The pre-test, given on the first day of class, contains 100 questions over entire course content. The post test is given on the last day of class. Our results are based on pre/post test scores from 6 sections (2009-2011, n = ~150). There is no significant difference between average scores of males and females in the pre-test, and most students regardless of class level (freshmen to senior) have about the same knowledge level of the ocean/climate system coming into the course. On the pre-test, many students answered incorrectly questions on the cause for lunar phases, the Coriolis effect, mechanism of air/water mass movement, and the energy driving the hydrologic cycle; but showed significant improvement on the post-test. In contrast, 100% of students answered correctly that weather and climate are different coming into the course, and 100% left the course unconfused about this. There is consistent improvement in the class average scores between the pre and post exams by 20-30% in all sections regardless of the semester or course content covered. Potentially, the post test may be reflecting retention rather than transient learning from cramming for the final exam.

Mekik, F.

2011-12-01

127

Lunar Phases: Addressing Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise was designed to address student misconceptions about why the Moon exhibits phases. Using a sketchbook, digital camera, or flex cam, a student sits at the center of a darkened room illuminated by a single light source in a stationary position. Stools are set up surrounding the student in the center and other students take those positions, always keeping their faces toward the center. The center student sketches or take pictures of the faces at each of the positions. Substituting a sphere (such as a ball) for the students' faces provides an even more vivid illustration of the shadowing of the sphere and connects directly to the rationale for lunar phases.

Childs, Philip

128

Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel: A Study on the Possible Influence of Teachers' Knowledge on the Establishment of a Misconception among Brazilian High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the present work, I investigated the origin of the misconception that glucose is the sole metabolic fuel previously described among Brazilian high school students. The results of a multiple-choice test composed of 24 questions about a broad range of biology subjects were analyzed. The test was part of a contest and was answered by a sample…

da Luz, Mauricio Roberto Motta Pinto

2008-01-01

129

Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel: A Study on the Possible Influence of Teachers' Knowledge on the Establishment of a Misconception among Brazilian High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present work, I investigated the origin of the misconception that glucose is the sole metabolic fuel previously described among Brazilian high school students. The results of a multiple-choice test composed of 24 questions about a broad range of biology subjects were analyzed. The test was part of a contest and was answered by a sample…

da Luz, Mauricio Roberto Motta Pinto

2008-01-01

130

Misconceptions in Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This list is a work in progress. We are using it to build a library of (mis)information and categorize the location of the proper science. Click on the linked misconceptions to see the scientific explanations of these common mistakes courtesy of a number of informative online scientific resources. The effort to find and link more and more good science to this list is ongoing, and eventually all these misconceptions will be linked to lead to the proper science. The different topics include: stars, the solar system, galaxies, physics, black holes, cosmology and the history and philosophy of astronomy.

Comins, Neil

2009-05-27

131

Astronomical Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Do you think that the Moon does not rotate? Do you think that the phases of the Moon are created by the Earth's shadow? Do you think that the seasons are a result of the Earth's distance from the Sun? If you answered "yes" to any of these, then you are one of many who possess misconceptions about astronomy.|

Barrier, Regina M.

2010-01-01

132

"Static Electricity" Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common misconceptions about the topic of electrostatics are fully explored in this resource for teachers and learners. The author debunks more than a dozen myths, such as "static electricity is electricity at rest", as he offers comprehensive explanations of the phenomenon.

Beaty, William

2006-10-31

133

Introducing the ‘Science Myths Revealed’ Misconception Video Series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A misconception is a preconceived and inaccurate view of how the world works. There are many common science misconceptions held by students and the public alike about various topics in astronomy - including but not limited to galaxies, black holes, light and color, and the solar system. It is critical to identify and address misconceptions because they can stand in the way of new learning and impeded one’s ability to apply science principals meaningfully to everyday life. In response, the News and Education teams at the Space Telescope Science Institute worked in collaboration with a consultant to develop the “Science Myths Revealed” misconception video series. The purpose of this video series is to present common astronomy misconceptions in a brief and visually engaging manner while also presenting and reinforcing the truth of the universe and celestial phenomena within it. Viewers can the watch the videos to get more information about specific astronomy misconceptions as well as the facts to dispel them. Visual cues and demonstrations provide viewers with a more concrete representation of what are often abstract and misunderstood concepts - making the videos ideal as both engagement and instructional tools. Three videos in the series have been produced and are currently being field-tested within the education community.

Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Villard, R.; Estacion, M.; Hassan, J.; Ryer, H.

2012-05-01

134

Curriculum Materials and Misconceptions Concerning Multiplication and Division.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the extent to which presentations about multiplication and division involving decimals within three series of mathematics textbooks for grades three through eight help students to counter common learner misconceptions about multiplication and division. Results indicate that theory on conceptual change with its concomitant research have…

Graeber, Anna O.; Baker, Kay M.

1991-01-01

135

A case study on the use of a formative assessment probe to determine the presence of science misconceptions in elementary school students: Implications for teaching and curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there may be disagreement on exactly what scientific literacy means, there is arguably little disagreement that students in the United States are desperately lacking in it. If the goal of science education is to produce scientifically literate individuals, then weaknesses in their knowledge must be identified and corrected. These weaknesses arise from misconceptions that exist in the students' conceptual and contextual understanding, as well as other forces. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patterns exist in students' misconceptions, specifically in physical science, and if so, whether the misconceptions change as students move from grade to grade. The use of a two-tiered science assessment probe facilitated this determination. This study reported on students in grades one through five who were instructed in the topic of phases of matter during science lessons developed for use in each of the above-mentioned grades. This constructivist curricular program was developed to provide science content, foster critical thinking skills, and bridge the gap between students' prior knowledge and new application. A total of 539 students participated in the study. An assessment probe, consisting of a scenario with one multiple-choice question and six responses, and a rationale section, was administered. Interviews were also conducted of students in each grade level. Results from the study indicated that students in each grade level shared similar ideas about the phases of matter. Chi-square analysis of the results also revealed that there was a significant difference in the frequency of each multiple-choice response across grade levels as well. Despite detailed instruction on the topic in grades three and four, fewer fifth grade students answered correctly than did those in second grade, who had not yet received the detailed instruction. Recommendations were made by the researcher for the use of formative assessments to determine the presence of misconceptions. Use of a two-tiered assessment, such as the probe used in this study, will allow the teacher to gain insight into the student's level of understanding in many different concepts in science. Once the misconception is identified, it can then be corrected with additional instruction. Implications of the study included the need for professional development, the alignment of curriculum, and the need to focus attention on science literacy as the goal of science education.

Lambi, Elizabeth A.

136

Undergraduate Chemistry Students' Perceptions of and Misconceptions about Buffers and Buffer Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Both upper- and lower-level chemistry students struggle with understanding the concept of buffers and with solving corresponding buffer problems. While it might be reasonable to expect general chemistry students to struggle with this abstract concept, it is surprising that upper-level students in analytical chemistry and biochemistry continue to…

Orgill, MaryKay; Sutherland, Aynsley

2008-01-01

137

HOW CAN WE BEST REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING? SCHOOL STUDENTS' IDEAS AND MISCONCEPTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This questionnaire?based study explored school students' ideas, both scientific and idiosyncratic, about the extent to which various actions might contribute towards reducing global warming. Many students appreciated that a decrease in industrial and vehicle emissions could play a major role in this reduction, and producing energy from renewable sources was another popular idea. Fewer students appreciated the role that actions

BRONWEN DANIEL; MARTIN STANISSTREET; EDWARD BOYES

2004-01-01

138

Remediating High School Students' Misconceptions Concerning Diffusion and Osmosis through Concept Mapping and Conceptual Change Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the effectiveness of combining conceptual change text and concept mapping strategies on students' understanding of diffusion and osmosis. Results indicate that while the average percentage of students in the experimental group holding a scientifically correct view rose, the percentage of correct responses in the control group…

Tekkaya, Ceren

2003-01-01

139

The Negative Sign and Exponential Expressions: Unveiling Students' Persistent Errors and Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not certain errors made when simplifying exponential expressions persist as students progress through their mathematical studies. College students enrolled in college algebra, pre-calculus, and first- and second-semester calculus mathematics courses were asked to simplify exponential…

Cangelosi, Richard; Madrid, Silvia; Cooper, Sandra; Olson, Jo; Hartter, Beverly

2013-01-01

140

An Analysis of Undergraduate General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions of the Submicroscopic Level of Precipitation Reactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined how 21 college-level general chemistry students, who had received instruction that emphasized the symbolic level of ionic equations, explained their submicroscopic-level understanding of precipitation reactions. Students' explanations expressed through drawings and semistructured interviews revealed the nature of the…

Kelly, Resa M.; Barrera, Juliet H.; Mohamed, Saheed C.

2010-01-01

141

Misconceptions Highlighted among Medical Students in the Annual International Intermedical School Physiology Quiz  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The annual Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe. The 8th IMSPQ, in 2010, hosted by the Department of Physiology, University of Malaya, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, had 200 students representing 41…

Cheng, Hwee-Ming; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

2012-01-01

142

Persisting Misconceptions: Using Pre- and Post-Tests to Identify Biological Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a research project conducted at the University of Puerto Rico among students taking biology to develop and test a constructivist learning environment and identify students' misconceptions in biology. Lists the questions on which students showed misconceptions during the pre- and post-tests. (Contains 27 references.) (YDS)

Nazario, Gladys M.; Burrowes, Patricia A.; Rodriguez, Julio

2002-01-01

143

The Effect of Refuting Misconceptions in the Introductory Psychology Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students often come into the introductory psychology course with many misconceptions and leave with most of them intact. Borrowing from other disciplines, we set out to determine whether refutational lecture and text are effective in dispelling student misconceptions. These approaches first activate a misconception and then immediately counter it…

Kowalski, Patricia; Taylor, Annette Kujawski

2009-01-01

144

Exothermic Bond Breaking: A Persistent Misconception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The misconceptions regarding the nature of ATP hydrolysis and bond breaking are discussed. The students' knowledge in this area is quantitatively measured by a survey of over 600 biochemistry and physiology students.

Galley, William C.

2004-01-01

145

Exothermic Bond Breaking: A Persistent Misconception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The misconceptions regarding the nature of ATP hydrolysis and bond breaking are discussed. The students' knowledge in this area is quantitatively measured by a survey of over 600 biochemistry and physiology students.|

Galley, William C.

2004-01-01

146

Acceptance and Alignment, Misconception and Inexperience: Preservice Teachers, Representations of Students, and Media Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author of this article examines student representations within the Dangerous Minds television series and further explores how preservice teachers perceive these representations. Applying a multiperspectival analysis, the author first looks at the political culture: the history behind the making of the Dangerous Minds television series. She then analyzes five specific episodes of the television series that embody the themes

Debra Freedman

2003-01-01

147

Students' Levels of Explanations, Models, and Misconceptions in Basic Quantum Chemistry: A Phenomenographic Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We investigated students' knowledge constructions of basic quantum chemistry concepts, namely atomic orbitals, the Schrodinger equation, molecular orbitals, hybridization, and chemical bonding. Ausubel's theory of meaningful learning provided the theoretical framework and phenomenography the method of analysis. The semi-structured interview with…

Stefani, Christina; Tsaparlis, Georgios

2009-01-01

148

Overcoming Student Misconceptions about Photosynthesis: A Model- and Inquiry-Based Approach Using Aquatic Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Even though photosynthesis is an obligatory part of the science curriculum, research has shown that students often have a poor understanding of it. The authors advocate that classroom coverage of the topic of photosynthesis should include not only its biochemical properties but also the role of photosynthesis or photosynthetic organisms in matter…

Ray, Andrew M.; Beardsley, Paul M.

2008-01-01

149

Geo-myths and Misconceptions: Students' Alternate Views of How Our World Works  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obviously students do not enter our classrooms as blank slates, prepared to accept our elegant constructions of how the world works. They already have well established, often surprisingly complex, ideas of their world that, even if erroneous, do serve to satisfactorily explain many phenomena. These ideas are remarkably hardy and, when challenged, tend to adapt or mutate more readily than

F. Finley; K. C. Kirkby; P. J. Morin

2004-01-01

150

Student Misconceptions: A Qualitative Study of Conceptual Barriers in Plate Tectonics and in the Solar System among Upper Elementary Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructivist theory points to the importance of recognizing student conceptions and the need to address them if students are going to move from their first conceptions to scientifically accepted understandings. Research into students' conceptions has therefore been conducted in the disciplines of physics, biology and chemistry, but so far has been limited in the earth sciences. In addition to this

L. M. Brodsky; S. Corrigan

2010-01-01

151

Even honors students have conceptual difficulties with physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honors students in an introductory physics course are shown to exhibit some of the same kinds of misconceptions as do students in the usual standard introductory courses. Examples are given of exercises and written exam questions that probe for conceptual understanding, and student responses to these questions are used to identify conceptual difficulties common to many students. Because these misconceptions

P. C. Peters

1982-01-01

152

A Testing System for Diagnosing Misconceptions in DC Electric Circuits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outlines a test-based diagnosis system for misconceptions in DC electric circuits and its three parts: problem library, problem selector and diagnoser. Discusses misconception discrimination and diagnosis theories, and reports the system supports satisfactory diagnosis. Includes an analysis of nine student misconceptions about electrical circuits…

Chang, Kuo-En; Liu, Sei-Hua; Chen, Sei-Wang

1998-01-01

153

Addressing Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The law of conservation of mass can be counterintuitive for most students because they often think the mass of a substance is related to its physical state. As a result, students may hold a number of alternative conceptions related to this concept, including, for example, the believe that gas has no mass, that solids have greater mass than…

Dial, Katrina; Riddley, Diana; Williams, Kiesha; Sampson, Victor

2009-01-01

154

Addressing Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The law of conservation of mass can be counterintuitive for most students because they often think the mass of a substance is related to its physical state. As a result, students may hold a number of alternative conceptions related to this concept, including, for example, the believe that gas has no mass, that solids have greater mass than fluids,…

Dial, Katrina; Riddley, Diana; Williams, Kiesha; Sampson, Victor

2009-01-01

155

Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel: The Possible Influence of Formal Teaching on the Establishment of a Misconception about Energy-Yielding Metabolism among Students from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Energy-yielding metabolism is an important biochemistry subject that is related to many daily experiences and health issues of students. An adequate knowledge of the general features of EYM is therefore important, both from an academic and social point of view. In a previous study, we have shown that high-school students present the misconception

Luz, Mauricio R. M. P.; de Oliveira, Gabriel Aguiar; de Sousa, Cristiane Ribeiro; Da Poian, Andrea T.

2008-01-01

156

Idea Bank: Melting a Misconception  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following lab was originally designed to teach the importance of manipulating a single variable in an experiment. However, the lab also dispels a common misconception, teaches the value of following lab instructions, and provides a good working definition of the term variable.

Merolla, Jill

2004-03-01

157

Using analogy to overcome misconceptions about conservation of matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to change misconceptions of students is to build on ideas which match their students' existing intuitive knowledge. This can be done by analogy. The use of an analogical relation between the known and the unknown can help students learn new information and discard or modify misconceptions. Previous studies have confirmed this result in such areas as mathematics.

Ruth Stavy

1991-01-01

158

Bullying a Common Problem for Middle-School Students  

NSF Publications Database

... Bullying a Common Problem for Middle-School Students Behavior affects health and academic ... Harassment at school negatively impacts students? emotional and physical health and can lower their ...

159

Common Sense Concepts of Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common sense (CS) misconceptions are not arbitrary or trivial. Indeed, every one of the misconceptions about motion common among students today was seriously advocated by leading intellectuals in pre-Newtonian times. If the evaluation of CS was so difficult for the intellectual giants from Aristotle to Galileo, we should not be surprised it is a problem for ordinary students today. Accordingly, common sense beliefs should be treated with genuine respect by instructors and regarded as serious alternative hypotheses to be evaluated by scientific procedures. A taxonomy of common sense concepts which conflict with Newton s laws is presented. Elementary teachers who are aware of these CS beliefs can teach deliberately to avoid contributing to student development of misconceptions.

Halloun, Ibrahim A.; Hestenes, David

1985-01-01

160

Common Sense: Using Common Finals to Measure Postsecondary Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|College completion rates in the U.S. are stubbornly low despite the large and rising returns to a college degree. Efforts to increase student success in college have largely ignored a potentially key factor: the instruction that students receive in the sequence of courses that add up to a college education. Improving the quality of instruction…

Chingos, Matthew M.

2013-01-01

161

Ten misconceptions about antioxidants.  

PubMed

Oxidative damage is a common cellular event involved in numerous diseases and drug toxicities. Antioxidants prevent or delay oxidative damage, and therefore there has been extensive research into the discovery of natural and newly designed antioxidants. Initial excitement regarding the potential health benefits of antioxidants has diminished. Currently, it is even claimed that antioxidants increase mortality. The antioxidant pendulum appears to swing from healthy to toxic and from general panacea to insignificant ingredient. Owing to the polarity of views towards antioxidants, nutritional recommendation ranges from advice to increase antioxidant status in plasma to the notion that it is a useless measurement. Such views, lacking sufficient scientific support, lead to misconceptions, which in our opinion hinder the rational use of food supplements and impedes the design and development of new antioxidant drugs. As a result, good opportunities might easily be missed. PMID:23806765

Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M

2013-06-24

162

First Year Turkish Science Undergraduates' Understandings and Misconceptions of Light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study aims to identify first year Turkish Science undergraduates’ understandings and misconceptions of the concept of light and its propagation. For this purpose, an instrument composed of four open-ended questions was developed by the researchers. The diagnostic test was piloted with twenty students and modifications were made prior to the final administration of the test. The content validity of the test questions was assessed by two physics researchers and one lecturer. These questions were administered to a hundred first year undergraduates (aged 16-18) enrolled in the Science Teacher Training Department in Ataturk University in Turkey. In addition, the semi-structured interviews of 30-40 min were conducted with the four students whose responses involved common misunderstanding. All interview records were transcribed and analysed. The findings showed that undergraduates’ understanding of light is poor and also they have important and prevalent misconceptions. Identified misconceptions, some of which have been reported in the literature, are discussed qualitatively. The misunderstandings identified were compared with those in the literature. The results have some implications for teaching light, suggesting that a substantial revision of teaching strategies is needed.

Yalcin, Mehmet; Altun, Sema; Turgut, Umit; Aggül, Fatma

2009-08-01

163

A Cognitive Analysis of Developmental Mathematics Students' Errors and Misconceptions in Real Number Computations and Evaluating Algebraic Expressions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty percent of college-bound students graduate from high school underprepared for mathematics at the post-secondary level. As a result, thirty-five percent of college students take developmental mathematics courses. What is even more shocking is the high failure rate (ranging from 35 to 42 percent) of students enrolled in developmental…

Titus, Freddie

2010-01-01

164

Effect of Misconception on Transfer in Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We examine the effect of misconceptions about friction on students' ability to solve problems and transfer from one context to another. We analyze written responses to paired isomorphic problems given to introductory physics students and discussions with a subset of students. Misconceptions associated with friction in problems were sometimes so robust that pairing them with isomorphic problems not involving friction did not help students fully discern their underlying similarities.

Singh, Chandralekha

2009-06-24

165

Classroom Terraria: Enhancing Student Understanding of Plant-Related Gas Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite our best teaching efforts, many students hold misconceptions related to the roles plants play in gas-related processes (Amir and Tamir 1994; Hershey 1992; 2004). In an effort to remedy this problem, the author presents a series of activities that address common plant-related gas-process misconceptions held by middle school students. The…

Thompson, Stephen

2010-01-01

166

Overcoming Misconceptions in Quantum Mechanics with the Time Evolution Operator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recently, there have been many efforts to use the research techniques developed in the field of physics education research to improve the teaching and learning of quantum mechanics. In particular, part of this research is focusing on misconceptions held by students. For instance, a set of misconceptions is associated with the concept of…

Quijas, P. C. Garcia; Aguilar, L. M. Arevalo

2007-01-01

167

Photosynthesis and "Inverse Respiration" in Plants: An Inevitable Misconception?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reflects on the origin of the misconception of inverse respiration in green plants. Proposes a series of conceptual schemes that could form the basis for teaching the subject of green plants in a way that prevents or substantially reduces the appearance of this misconception in primary- and secondary-school students. Contains 33 references.…

Canal, Pedro

1999-01-01

168

Media Influences on the Formation of Misconceptions about Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a series of studies over the past several years, the authors have examined the extent of psychological misconceptions, their strength, sources, and various factors that may contribute to reducing these, including individual differences. Generally, introductory psychology students come into the course with many popular misconceptions. These…

Taylor, Annette Kujawski; Kowalski, Patricia

169

A Comparison of the Misconceptions about the Time-Efficiency of Algorithms by Various Profiles of Computer-Programming Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on how students in vocational high schools and universities interpret the algorithms in structural computer programming that concerns time-efficiency. The targeted research group consisted of 242 students from two vocational high schools and two departments of the Faculty of Education in Istanbul. This study used qualitative and…

Ozdener, Nesrin

2008-01-01

170

A Probabilistic Model for Students' Errors and Misconceptions on the Structure of Matter in Relation to Three Cognitive Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the effect of 3 cognitive variables such as logical thinking, field dependence/field independence, and convergent/divergent thinking on some specific students' answers related to the particulate nature of matter was investigated by means of probabilistic models. Besides recording and tabulating the students' responses, a…

Tsitsipis, Georgios; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Papageorgiou, George

2012-01-01

171

A Comparison of the Misconceptions about the Time-Efficiency of Algorithms by Various Profiles of Computer-Programming Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study focuses on how students in vocational high schools and universities interpret the algorithms in structural computer programming that concerns time-efficiency. The targeted research group consisted of 242 students from two vocational high schools and two departments of the Faculty of Education in Istanbul. This study used qualitative…

Ozdener, Nesrin

2008-01-01

172

Student Difficulties with Energy in Quantum Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains the results of a study on student difficulties in understanding energy in quantum mechanics. The most common misconceptions are listed. This content was presented to the 1997 meeting of the AAPT.

Redish, Edward F.; Bao, Lei; Jolly, Pratibha

2005-07-26

173

More than misconceptions: Multiple perspectives on student knowledge and reasoning, and an appropriate role for education research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article analyzes an excerpt of a discussion from a high school physics class from several different perspectives on students' knowledge and reasoning, illustrating a range in what an instructor might perceive in students' work and take as tasks for instruction. It suggests a view of current education research as providing perspectives to expand, refine, and support instructors' perceptions and judgment, rather than as providing definitive principles or proven methods.

Hammer, David

2005-10-27

174

Using PCR to Target Misconceptions about Gene Expression.  

PubMed

We present a PCR-based laboratory exercise that can be used with first- or second-year biology students to help overcome common misconceptions about gene expression. Biology students typically do not have a clear understanding of the difference between genes (DNA) and gene expression (mRNA/protein) and often believe that genes exist in an organism or cell only when they are expressed. This laboratory exercise allows students to carry out a PCR-based experiment designed to challenge their misunderstanding of the difference between genes and gene expression. Students first transform E. coli with an inducible GFP gene containing plasmid and observe induced and un-induced colonies. The following exercise creates cognitive dissonance when actual PCR results contradict their initial (incorrect) predictions of the presence of the GFP gene in transformed cells. Field testing of this laboratory exercise resulted in learning gains on both knowledge and application questions on concepts related to genes and gene expression. PMID:23858358

Wright, Leslie K; Newman, Dina L

2013-05-06

175

Does Prior Knowledge Matter? Do Lamarckian Misconceptions Exist? A Critique of Geraedts and Boersma (2006)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The existence, preponderance, and stability of misconceptions related to evolution continue as foci of research in science education. In their 2006 study, Geraedts and Boersma question the existence of stable Lamarckian misconceptions in students, challenging the utility of Conceptual Change theory in addressing any such misconceptions. To…

Enderle, Patrick J.; Smith, Mike U.; Southerland, Sherry

2009-01-01

176

Teachers' Misconceptions about the Effects of Addition of More Reactants or Products on Chemical Equilibrium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The importance of research on misconceptions about chemical equilibrium is well recognized by educators, but in the past, researchers' interest has centered on student misconceptions and has neglected teacher misconceptions. Focusing on the effects of adding more reactants or products on chemical equilibrium, this article discusses the various…

Cheung, Derek; Ma, Hong-jia; Yang, Jie

2009-01-01

177

Teaching Students to Dig Deeper: The Common Core in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This important new book identifies the skills and qualities students need, based on the Common Core State Standards, to be "really" ready for college and careers. Go beyond content knowledge...the deep thinking and learning skills detailed in this book will equip students for success! Prepare your students for their futures by helping them…

Johnson, Ben

2013-01-01

178

Technology Rich Biology Labs: Effects of Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes a study conducted on the lab sections of the general biology course for non-science majors at the University of New England, and reports findings of student misconceptions about photosynthesis and the mass/carbon uptake during plant growth. The current study placed high technology analytic tools in the hands of introductory…

Kuech, Robert; Zogg, Gregory; Zeeman, Stephan; Johnson, Mark

179

Impact of an integrated science and reading intervention (INSCIREAD) on bilingual students' misconceptions, reading comprehension, and transferability of strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes a research study that resulted in an instructional model directed at helping fourth grade diverse students improve their science knowledge, their reading comprehension, their awareness of the relationship between science and reading, and their ability to transfer strategies. The focus of the instructional model emerged from the intersection of constructs in science and reading literacy; the model

Patricia Martinez

2008-01-01

180

Flares, Fears, and Forecasts: Public Misconceptions About the Sunspot Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the disaster scenarios perpetrated by 2012 apocalypse aficionados is the destruction of humankind due to solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). These scenarios reflect common misconceptions regarding the solar cycle. This paper (based on an annual meeting poster) sheds light on those misconceptions and how the AAVSO Solar Section can address them.

Larsen, K.

2012-06-01

181

Myths, Misconceptions and Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses problem of vertical stratification (belief that career path must be pursued in one type of library) in academic research librarianship. Highlights include job opportunities; misconceptions concerning inappropriate specialization and nature of academic research library management; consequences of institutional, individual, and…

Koenig, Michael E. D.; Safford, Herbert D.

1984-01-01

182

Common Core State Standards, Writing, and Students with LD: Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the Common Core State Standards as they apply to writing and students with learning disabilities (LD). We first consider why the implementation of these standards is advantageous to writing instruction for students with LD as well as the challenges in implementing them. Next, we make the following four recommendations in…

Graham, Steve; Harris, Karen R.

2013-01-01

183

Relationship of beliefs, epistemology, and alternate conceptions to college student understanding of evolution and common descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were combined to explore the relationships between an understanding of evolution and 4 epistemology factors: (a) control of learning, (b) speed of learning , (c) stability of knowledge, and (d) belief in evolution/creationism. A 17-item instrument was developed that reliably measured a belief in creationism and subtle differences between this belief and an acceptance of evolution. The subjects were 45 students enrolled in a biology course at a 2-year community college. Evolution was taught in a traditional format, and common descent was taught in an inquiry-based laboratory session consisting of: (a) a comparison of hemoglobin DNA sequences of the human, chimpanzee, and gorilla; and (b) a comparison of 8 primate skull casts, including the modern human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and five prehistoric fossils. Prior to instruction the students completed an epistemology questionnaire and a knowledge test about evolution. Five weeks after instruction, the students completed a posttest. A t-test revealed no differences between the pretest and the posttest. However, the group of students that scored higher on the posttest than on the pretest was found to have a stronger belief in the uncertainty of knowledge. Pearson r was computed to check for relationships between the 4 epistemological factors and the understanding of evolution. There was a significant relationship between a belief in creationism and a lessor understanding of evolution as measured on both the pretest and the posttest (ps < .05). The relationship between gender and test scores was also examined with men demonstrating statistically significantly higher scores on the common descent component than women did. Narrative data included interviews and branching/grouping activities. Four alternate conceptions about common descent were identified. Even after instruction, 16 out of 39 students thought humans evolved from the chimpanzee. Additionally, students grouped the 8 primate skulls into just 2 categories: human and animals. Other misconceptions included a nonevolutionary use of the term, related, and the use of naive organizers leading to incorrect conclusions about the relatedness of certain organisms, such as a connection between fish and whales. These organizers included: (a) similarity of traits, (b) environment, (c) relative size, (d) function, and (e) complexity.

Miller, Joyce Catherine

184

Chemistry misconceptions associated with understanding calcium and phosphate homeostasis.  

PubMed

Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration when calcium ions were added to a saturated calcium phosphate solution. Fifty-two percent of the students correctly predicted that the phosphate concentration would decrease in accord with the common ion effect. Forty-two percent of the students predicted that the phosphate concentration would not change. Written explanations showed that most students failed to evoke the idea of competing chemical equilibria. A second question assessed the predicted change in calcium concentration after solid calcium phosphate was added to a saturated solution. Only 11% of the students correctly predicted no change in calcium concentration; 86% of the students predicted an increase, and many based their prediction on a mistaken application of Le Chatelier's principle to heterogeneous equilibria. These results indicate that many students possess misconceptions about chemical equilibrium that may hamper understanding of the processes of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Instructors can help students gain greater understanding of these physiochemical phenomena by adopting strategies that enable students achieve more accurate conceptions of chemical equilibria. PMID:19948683

Cliff, William H

2009-12-01

185

Chemistry misconceptions associated with understanding calcium and phosphate homeostasis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration when calcium ions were added to a saturated calcium phosphate solution. Fifty-two percent of the students correctly predicted that the phosphate concentration would decrease in accord with the common ion effect. Forty-two percent of the students predicted that the phosphate concentration would not change. Written explanations showed that most students failed to evoke the idea of competing chemical equilibria. A second question assessed the predicted change in calcium concentration after solid calcium phosphate was added to a saturated solution. Only 11% of the students correctly predicted no change in calcium concentration; 86% of the students predicted an increase, and many based their prediction on a mistaken application of Le Chatelier's principle to heterogeneous equilibria. These results indicate that many students possess misconceptions about chemical equilibrium that may hamper understanding of the processes of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Instructors can help students gain greater understanding of these physiochemical phenomena by adopting strategies that enable students achieve more accurate conceptions of chemical equilibria.

William H. Cliff (Niagara University Biology)

2009-12-01

186

Student Teacher Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the results of a survey designed to ascertain details of student teachers' knowledge and misconceptions about the greenhouse effect, acid rain, and ozone layer depletion. Results indicate familiarity with the issues but little understanding of the concepts involved and many commonly held misconceptions. (JRH)|

Dove, Jane

1996-01-01

187

Case Study Analysis and the Remediation of Misconceptions about Respiratory Physiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most students enter the physiology classroom with one or more fundamental misconceptions about respiratory physiology. This study examined the prevalence of four respiratory misconceptions and determined the role of case analysis in the remediation of one of them. A case study was used to help students learn about oxygen transport in the blood…

Cliff, William H.

2006-01-01

188

Common Core Science Standards: Implications for Students with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Common Core Science Standards represent a new effort to increase science learning for all students. These standards include a focus on English and language arts aspects of science learning, and three dimensions of science standards, including practices of science, crosscutting concepts of science, and disciplinary core ideas in the various…

Scruggs, Thomas E.; Brigham, Frederick J.; Mastropieri, Margo A.

2013-01-01

189

Common Standards Ignite Debate over Student "Prereading" Exercises  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sparked by the Common Core State Standards, teachers and literacy experts are arguing about the role of a time-honored pillar of English/language arts instruction: classroom activities designed to help students understand what they are about to read. The attacks on--and defenses of--"prereading" are unfolding largely in cyberspace, through online…

Gewertz, Catherine

2012-01-01

190

Harnessing Technology to Improve Formative Assessment of Student Conceptions in STEM: Forging a National Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concept inventories, consisting of multiple-choice questions designed around common student misconceptions, are designed to reveal student thinking. However, students often have complex, heterogeneous ideas about scientific concepts. Constructed-response assessments, in which students must create their own answer, may better reveal students'…

Haudek, Kevin C.; Kaplan, Jennifer J.; Knight, Jennifer; Long, Tammy; Merrill, John; Munn, Alan; Nehm, Ross; Smith, Michelle; Urban-Lurain, Mark

2011-01-01

191

Misconceptions and Facts about Pericardial Effusion and Tamponade.  

PubMed

Several common misconceptions can make the clinical diagnosis of subacute pericardial tamponade challenging. Widely known physical findings of pericardial tamponade lack sensitivity and specificity. Interpretation of echocardiographic signs requires good understanding of pathophysiology. Over-reliance on echocardiography may result in over-utilization of pericardial drainage procedures. Awareness of these misconceptions with an integrative approach to both clinical and imaging data will help clinicians to assess the hemodynamic impact of pericardial effusion and the need for drainage. PMID:23891285

Argulian, Edgar; Messerli, Franz

2013-07-24

192

Commonsense conceptions of emergent processes: Why some misconceptions are robust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article offers a plausible domain-general explanation for why some concepts of processes are resistant to instructional remediation although other, apparently similar concepts are more easily understood. The explanation assumes that processes may differ in ontological ways: that some processes (such as the apparent flow in diffusion of dye in water) are emergent and other processes (such as the flow of blood in human circulation) are direct. Although precise definition of the two kinds of processes are probably impossible, attributes of direct and emergent processes are described that distinguish them in a domain-general way. Circulation and diffusion, which are used as examples of direct and emergent processes, are associated with different kinds of misconceptions. The claim is that students' misconceptions for direct kinds of processes, such as blood circulation, are of the same ontological kind as the correct conception, suggesting that misconceptions of direct processes may be nonrobust. However, students' misconceptions of emergent processes are robust because they misinterpret emergent processes as a kind of commonsense direct processes. To correct such a misconception requires a re-representation or a conceptual shift across ontological kinds. Therefore, misconceptions of emergent processes are robust because such a shift requires that students know about the emergent kind and can overcome their (perhaps even innate) predisposition to conceive of all processes as a direct kind. Such a domain-general explanation suggests that teaching students the causal structure underlying emergent processes may enable them to recognize and understand a variety of emergent processes for which they have robust misconceptions, such as concepts of electricity, heat and temperature, and evolution.

Chi, Michelene T.

2013-02-13

193

Turkish Undergraduates' Misconceptions of Evaporation, Evaporation Rate, and Vapour Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on students' misconceptions related to evaporation, evaporation rate, and vapour pressure. Open-ended diagnostic questions were used with 107 undergraduates in the Primary Science Teacher Training Department in a state university in Turkey. In addition, 14 students from that sample were interviewed to clarify their written responses and to further probe their understandings of the questions asked in

Nurtaç Canpolat

2006-01-01

194

Remediating Misconceptions Concerning Chemical Bonding through Conceptual Change Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of conceptual change texts oriented instruction on 9th grade students' understanding of chemical bonding concepts. In this study, the main aim of the preparation of conceptual change texts was to activate students' prior knowledge and misconceptions and to help them to understand the chemical…

Pabuccu, Aybuke; Geban, Omer

2006-01-01

195

Turkish Undergraduates' Misconceptions of Evaporation, Evaporation Rate, and Vapour Pressure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on students' misconceptions related to evaporation, evaporation rate, and vapour pressure. Open-ended diagnostic questions were used with 107 undergraduates in the Primary Science Teacher Training Department in a state university in Turkey. In addition, 14 students from that sample were interviewed to clarify their written…

Canpolat, Nurtac

2006-01-01

196

Geometric Understanding and Misconceptions among Gifted Fourth-Eighth Graders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Van Hiele theory asserts that there exist five hierarchical levels of geometric thinking that a successful learner passes through. The purpose of the study described in this paper was to investigate the geometric understanding and misconceptions in students in the fourth through eighth grades who have been identified as gifted. The students

Mason, Marguerite M.

197

Spore: Spawning Evolutionary Misconceptions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of computer simulations as educational tools may afford the means to develop understanding of evolution as a natural, emergent, and decentralized process. However, special consideration of developmental constraints on learning may be necessary when using these technologies. Specifically, the essentialist (biological forms possess an immutable essence), teleological (assignment of purpose to living things and/or parts of living things that may not be purposeful), and intentionality (assumption that events are caused by an intelligent agent) biases may be reinforced through the use of computer simulations, rather than addressed with instruction. We examine the video game Spore for its depiction of evolutionary content and its potential to reinforce these cognitive biases. In particular, we discuss three pedagogical strategies to mitigate weaknesses of Spore and other computer simulations: directly targeting misconceptions through refutational approaches, targeting specific principles of scientific inquiry, and directly addressing issues related to models as cognitive tools.

Bean, Thomas E.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Schrader, P. G.

2010-10-01

198

Even honors physics students have conceptual difficulties with physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Honors students in an introductory physics course are shown to exhibit some of the same kinds of misconceptions as do students in the usual standard introductory courses. Examples are given of exercises and written exam questions that probe for conceptual understanding, and student responses to these questions are used to identify conceptual difficulties common to many students. Because these misconceptions were found in a very select group of students, the implication may be drawn that conceptual difficulties of the same kind are present in students in all levels of introductory physics.

Peters, P. C.

2005-10-27

199

Misconceptions in Physical Science at the Middle School Grades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presentation will focus on the physical science content and pedagogy workshops addressing student's misconceptions at the middle school level. These workshops were conducted at Springfield College during summer 2010 for in-service teachers from Springfield MA Public Schools. A partnership among Springfield MA Public Schools, Springfield College, and the City of Springfield Science Museum was developed to implement an innovative program to prepare highly-qualified educators. Concepts of force, motion, energy, and energy transformation were explored in a physics laboratory setting and student's misconceptions were addressed.

Lojewska, Zenobia; Barkman, Robert; Polito, Peter; Smist, Julianne; Konicek-Moran, Richard

2011-11-01

200

Misconceptions of Turkish Pre-Service Teachers about Force and Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to diagnose the misconceptions held by pre-service physics teachers about force and motion. The secondary aim of the study was to detect whether misconceptions vary according to gender, educational level, and culture. The study was conducted with 79 student-teachers attending to one of the largest faculties of…

Bayraktar, Sule

2009-01-01

201

Misconceptions of Turkish Pre-Service Teachers about Force and Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to diagnose the misconceptions held by pre-service physics teachers about force and motion. The secondary aim of the study was to detect whether misconceptions vary according to gender, educational level, and culture. The study was conducted with 79 student-teachers attending to one of the largest faculties of…

Bayraktar, Sule

2009-01-01

202

The effects of training upon the belief in certain popular misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire on popular misconceptions submitted to students at the beginning and the end of a semester in psychology revealed no significant sex differences. Correlations of misconception scores with intelligence and class grades were low (-.20 to -.23). The reduction in credulity was especially noticeable for some statements for which correct scientific information had been provided during the course in

R. S. Harter

1937-01-01

203

Misconceptions and Alternative Conceptions in Science Textbooks: The Role of Teachers as Filters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes a senior secondary biology textbook in Nigeria, STAN Biology, for its misconceptions and alternative conceptions. Discusses how the classroom teacher might filter the conceptual problems before they are presented to students as knowledge. Provides examples of the identified misconceptions and alternative conceptions along with their more…

Abimbola, Isaac Olakanmi; Baba, Salihu

1996-01-01

204

A Few Common Misconceptions about Distance Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At present, with new technologies emerging daily and the growing need for more flexibility in scheduling, there seems to be an overall drive towards the need for distance learning. According to PBS Campus, 67% of colleges and universities agree that online education is a critical, longterm strategy for their institution. As a result, 49% of…

Hillstock, Laurie G.

2005-01-01

205

Misconceptions or Missing Conceptions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research on conceptual change assumes that students enter a science classroom with prior(mis-)conceptions. When being exposed to instruction, students are supposed to develop or change their conceptions to (more) scientific concepts. As a consequence, instruction typically concentrates on appropriate examples demonstrating that students'…

von Aufschnaiter, Claudia; Rogge, Christian

2010-01-01

206

First Year Turkish Science Undergraduates' Understandings and Misconceptions of Light  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aims to identify first year Turkish Science undergraduates' understandings and misconceptions of the concept of light and its propagation. For this purpose, an instrument composed of four open-ended questions was developed by the researchers. The diagnostic test was piloted with twenty students and modifications were made prior…

Yalcin, Mehmet; Altun, Sema; Turgut, Umit; Aggul, Fatma

2009-01-01

207

Using Analogies to Prevent Misconceptions about Chemical Equilibrium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to find the effectiveness of using analogies to prevent misconceptions about chemical equilibrium. Nineteen analogies, which were based on dynamic aspects of chemical equilibrium and application of Le Chatelier's principle, were developed. The participations of this study consisted of 11th grade students (n: 151)…

Sahin Pekmez, Esin

2010-01-01

208

Using Analogy to Overcome Misconceptions about Conservation of Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study (n=192) examined the use of analogical instruction to overcome misconceptions about conservation of matter. Students who understood the concept conservation of matter when iodine was evaporated were able to transfer their understanding to the evaporation of acetone. This indicates that teaching by analogy can be an effective tool in…

Stavy, Ruth

1991-01-01

209

Using Analogies to Prevent Misconceptions about Chemical Equilibrium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main purpose of this study was to find the effectiveness of using analogies to prevent misconceptions about chemical equilibrium. Nineteen analogies, which were based on dynamic aspects of chemical equilibrium and application of Le Chatelier's principle, were developed. The participations of this study consisted of 11th grade students (n:…

Sahin Pekmez, Esin

2010-01-01

210

Some Misconceptions and Misunderstandings Perpetuated by Teachers and Textbooks of Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lists 15 commonly encountered misconceptions/misunderstandings in biology, together with specific suggestions to help teachers and textbook authors clarify each misconception. Included are problems related to understanding differences between acellular and multicellular, respiration and photosynthesis, egestion and excretion, and homeostasis and…

Barrass, Robert

1984-01-01

211

Misconceptions about School Leadership--Or, Who Is Buried in King Tut's Tomb?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author draws on personal experience and leadership literature to develop this story about learning from misconceptions. Specifically, comparisons are drawn between the author's historical misconceptions and common beliefs about the nature and administration of schools. The article uses the dispelled historical fallacies as a vehicle for…

Zimmerman, Judith A.

2009-01-01

212

Errors and Misconceptions in College Level Theorem Proving. Technical Report. No. 2003-3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we describe a number of types of errors and underlying misconceptions that arise in mathematical reasoning. Other types of mathematical reasoning errors, not associated with specific misconceptions, are also discussed. We hope the characterization and cataloging of common reasoning errors will be useful in studying the teaching of…

Selden, Annie; Selden, John

2003-01-01

213

Myths and Misconceptions about Traumatic Brain Injury: Endorsements by School Psychologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of school psychologists regarding myths and misconceptions pertaining to traumatic brain injury (TBI). A sample of 304 school psychologists in the state of North Carolina was surveyed on 11 common myths and misconceptions about TBI. Results indicated that this group performed significantly better…

Hooper, Stephen R.

2006-01-01

214

Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, I discuss a ``misconception'' in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational contexts. This leads students, in my experience, to frequently and erroneously attribute magnetic poles based on geometric associations rather than actual observed behavior. This polarity discrepancy can provide teachers the opportunity to engage students in authentic inquiry about objects in their daily experiences. I've found that investigation of the magnetic polarities of common magnets provides a productive context for students in which to develop valuable and authentic scientific inquiry practices.

Olson, Mark

2013-11-01

215

Adolescence: myths and misconceptions.  

PubMed

Adolescence is the period of physical and psychological growth between childhood and adulthood. The author is a practicing obstetrician and gynecologist in New Delhi. Over the course of her medical career, she has identified many myths and misconceptions about adolescents and adolescence. With regard to male adolescents, masturbation-related myths may be the most frequently harbored. Male adolescents have a hormone-driven need to have sexual intercourse, frequently. Masturbation is a healthy, no-cost way to relieve sexual tension. There is neither need to pay a prostitute nor fear of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. A young man can masturbate virtually whenever he wants. Despite the guilt and misinformation implanted by adults that masturbation causes weakness, boys masturbate rather frequently. Also contrary to popular myth, the nocturnal emissions which may result in growing boys as a result of sexual excitement during a dream are completely normal and no reason for concern. Further, boys should not worry about penis size, for, when erect, they all work just fine. People grow at different rates. Menstruation starts when 17% of a woman's body weight is fat. The onset of menstruation may therefore start earlier in well-fed girls compared to in girls who are more lean. The frequency and duration of menses are not constant. Menstrual irregularity therefore does not necessarily mean that a young woman is pregnant or that professional medical treatment is required. Breasts, like penises, serve their intended function irrespective of size. The hymen is a membrane at the opening of the vagina. It may have a hole in the center or the side for the escape of menstrual blood. There are myths that an intact hymen is indicative of virginity, the hymen should be intact until marriage, and the first sexual experience should be painful for a woman. The hymen is elastic and even some prostitutes have been found to have intact hymens. The hymen also may tear due to a fall, cycling, or horse riding. Furthermore, myths exist that kissing can cause pregnancy or AIDS, homosexuality is abnormal and incompatible with heterosexual relationships later in life, and different positions of coitus may adversely affect physical health. Adolescents sorely need sources of sound scientific factual information to dispel their myths. PMID:12346860

Dhall, A

216

Student Misinterpretations and Misconceptions Based on Their Explanations of Two Computer Animations of Varying Complexity Depicting the Same Oxidation-Reduction Reaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A group of 55 students were shown unnarrated versions of two different particulate-level computer animations of varying complexity depicting the oxidation-reduction reaction of aqueous silver nitrate and solid copper metal. These students were asked to explain their understanding of the chemical reaction based on their interpretations of these…

Rosenthal, Deborah P.; Sanger, Michael J.

2012-01-01

217

Avoid Misconceptions When Teaching about Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The resource is useful for teacher's professional development by alerting educators to many plant misconceptions in teaching literature. In the thought provoking, peer reviewed resource fifty misconceptions are identified. Some misconceptions are easier to identify because they are oversimplifications, overgeneralizations, or misidentifications. Others are more difficult to identify because they are obsolete concepts and terms or flawed research.

David Hershey (;)

2004-08-01

218

Using Anchors to Revise Probability Misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalent in everyday non-technical use, probability is highly prone to misconceptions which have been the object of much research. One way to deal with these misconceptions is through anchoring situations, as advocated by Clement (1987) and Fast (1997). This paper uses a similar framework, with two versions of a questionnaire and interviews conducted with college science majors. Misconception-prone situations were

Queena N. Lee-Chua

2003-01-01

219

From Misconceptions to Conceptual Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We all have misconceptions about the world in which we live--how it works, how we interact with it, how it changes, and the reasons behind those changes. These misunderstandings are personal notions we create to make meaning of our surroundings. Often, these misunderstandings go unchallenged for a lifetime. This article addresses how these…

Gooding, Julia; Metz, Bill

2011-01-01

220

Junior High School Students' Ideas about the Shape and Size of the Atom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The concept of the atom is one of the building blocks of science education. Although the concept is a foundation for students' subsequent learning experiences, it is difficult for students to comprehend because of common misconceptions and its abstractness. The purpose of this study is to examine junior high school students' (ages 12-13) ideas…

Cokelez, Aytekin

2012-01-01

221

The Gauss and Ampere Laws: Different Laws but Similar Difficulties for Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aims to analyse university students' reasoning regarding two laws of electromagnetism: Gauss's law and Ampere's law. It has been supposed that the problems seen in understanding and applying both laws do not spring from students' misconceptions. Students habitually use reasoning known in the literature as 'common sense' methodology…

Guisasola, Jenaro; Almudi, Jose M.; Salinas, Julia; Zuza, Kristina; Ceberio, Mikel

2008-01-01

222

Air Pollution: The Knowledge and Attitudes of Secondary School Students in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the knowledge and understanding of Hong Kong secondary school students about the composition of unpolluted and polluted air, and the nature and effects of air pollutants. A number of misconceptions are highlighted, including the common belief amongst younger students that oxygen was more common in unpolluted air than nitrogen.…

Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin; Yeung, Stephen Pui-ming

2004-01-01

223

Myths and Misconceptions of Acceleration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Accelerating students through school at a faster than normal rate is routinely met with skepticism and doubt pertaining to its effectiveness. In the research community, however, the topic is nearly dead. Research has continually supported this practice as effective when carefully implemented. This article attempts to debunk common myths (such as…

Anderson, Daniel

2008-01-01

224

Addressing climate and energy misconceptions - teaching tools offered by the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite a prevalence of peer-reviewed scientific research and high-level reports by intergovernmental agencies (e.g., IPCC) that document changes in our climate and consequences for human societies, the public discourse regards these topics as controversial and sensitive. The chasm between scientific-based understanding of climate systems and public understanding can most easily be addressed via high quality, science-based education on these topics. Well-trained and confident educators are required to provide this education. However, climate science and energy awareness are complex topics that are rapidly evolving and have a great potential for controversy. Furthermore, the interdisciplinary nature of climate science further increases the difficulty for teachers to stay abreast of the science and the policy. Research has shown that students and educators alike hold misconceptions about the climate system in general and the causes and effects of climate change in particular. The NSF-funded CLEAN Pathway (http://cleanet.org) as part of the National Science Digital Library (http://www.nsdl.org) strives to address these needs and help educators address misconceptions by providing high quality learning resources and professional development opportunities to support educators of grade levels 6 through 16. The materials focus on teaching climate science and energy use. The scope and framework of the CLEAN Pathway is defined by the Essential Principles of Climate Science (CCSP, 2009) and the Energy Literacy Principles recently developed by the Department of Energy. Following this literacy-based approach, CLEAN helps with developing mental models to address misconceptions around climate science and energy awareness through a number of different avenues. These are: 1) Professional development opportunities for educators - interactive webinars for secondary teachers and virtual workshops for college faculty, 2) A collection of scientifically and pedagogically reviewed, high-quality learning resources on climate and energy topics, 3) Detailed information on effective approaches for teaching climate and energy science for a range of grade levels, and 4) A community support forum (http://iceeonline.org, coordinated by a partner project - Inspiring Climate Education Excellence, ICEE), where educators can exchange information and share advice regarding climate and energy education. In this presentation we focus on our experience coordinating professional development opportunities as well as the "Teaching about Climate and Energy" web pages that are offered through the CLEAN Pathway to show-case how misconceptions can be addressed by educators when teaching or learning about climate and energy topics. Providing educators with a robust foundation of topical knowledge, guiding them through common misconceptions and providing them with a collection of well-vetted learning resources is the approach offered by CLEAN to address student misconceptions of climate and energy topics.

Gold, A. U.; Ledley, T. S.; Kirk, K. B.; Grogan, M.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Manduca, C. A.; Fox, S.; Niepold, F.; Howell, C.; Lynds, S. E.

2011-12-01

225

Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault: A Common Problem among College Students.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article summarizes research on the role of alcohol in college students sexual assault experiences. Sexual assault is extremely common among college students. At least half of these sexual assaults involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, the v...

A. Abbey

2002-01-01

226

Common Stressors among International College Students: Research and Counseling Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|International college students studying in North America endure substantial psychological stress in their daily lives. The nature and function of stressors in the context of international college students' subjective appraisal are discussed and analyzed using the Lazarus and Folkman's concept of stress. Recommendations for future research are…

Chen, Charles P.

1999-01-01

227

Changing Misconceptions in Newton's Laws of Motion Through Playing Computer Games and Peer Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to acquire information about students' misconceptions on Newton's laws of motion. Three major hypotheses were examined: (1) students' performance on the posttest after playing the games set in the context of a Newtonian microworld will be significantly better than their performance on the pretest; (2) performance of the students playing the games in a peer cooperative

Hyejoo Back

1996-01-01

228

Misconceptions of Turkish Pre-Service Teachers about Force and Motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to diagnose the misconceptions held by pre-service physics teachers about force and motion.\\u000a The secondary aim of the study was to detect whether misconceptions vary according to gender, educational level, and culture.\\u000a The study was conducted with 79 student-teachers attending to one of the largest faculties of education in Turkey. Force Concept\\u000a Inventory (FCI)

Sule Bayraktar

2009-01-01

229

Meeting the Common Core State Standards for Students with Autism: The Challenge for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How can we ensure that students with autism spectrum disorders are provided access to the curriculum that is provided to all students? This article discusses the specific challenges presented by students with autism spectrum disorders that can impact their access to the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts. Specific evidence-based…

Constable, Susan; Grossi, Barrie; Moniz, Alexis; Ryan, Lynne

2013-01-01

230

Discontinuation, leaving reasons and course evaluation comments of students on the common foundation programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable financial incentive, at all levels, to reduce student nurse wastage and maintain recruitment to a workforce of professional nurses. This strategy is being pursued in a period following major educational change, when the attrition levels and leaving reasons of students need to be reassessed. Previous reports have identified a high voluntary loss of students on the common

Jean White; Robert W. Williams; Barbara F. Green

1999-01-01

231

Primary-Grade Students' Knowledge and Thinking about Food Production and the Origins of Common Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual interviews were conducted with 96 K-3 students, stratified according to grade level, achievement level, and gender. The students were asked to explain land-to-hand progressions involved in bringing several common foods to our tables, identify products derived from common farm animals, explain why a pound of cereal costs more than a pound of apples and a restaurant meal costs more

Jere Brophy; Janet Alleman; Carolyn OMahony

2003-01-01

232

Running Head: Alleged Misconceptions about Fuzzy Logic Title: On Some Alleged Misconceptions about Fuzzy Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entemann 2002) defends fuzzy logic by pointing to what he calls 'misconceptions' concerning fuzzy logic. However, some of these 'misconceptions' are in fact truths, and it is Entemann who has the misconceptions. The present article points to mistakes made by Entemann in three different areas. It closes with a discussion of what sort of general considerations it would take to

Francis Jeffry Pelletier

233

Common Fractions. [Student Worksheets for Vocational Agricultural Courses].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This learning module provides students with practice in applying mathematical operations to vocational agriculture. The module consists of unit objectives, definitions, information, problems to solve, worksheets suitable for various levels of vocational agriculture instruction, and answer keys for the problems and worksheets. This module, which…

Jewell, Larry R.

234

Commonly Known, Commonly Not Known, Totally Unknown: A Framework for Students becoming Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing undergraduate students with research experience has been asserted as a way of reinventing university education. This assertion lacks both substantial empirical evidence and a coherent theoretical framework. In this paper, the authors consider both research and theory relating to undergraduate research and present the Research Skill…

Willison, John; O'Regan, Kerry

2007-01-01

235

Five popular misconceptions about osmosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Osmosis is the flow of solvent across a semipermeable membrane from a region of lower to higher solute concentration. It is of central importance in plant and animal physiology and finds many uses in industry. A survey of published papers, web resources, and current textbooks reveals that numerous misconceptions about osmosis continue to be cited and taught. To clarify these issues, we re-derive the thermodynamics of osmosis using the canonical formalism of statistical mechanics and go on to discuss the main points that continue to lead to misunderstandings.

Kramer, Eric M.; Myers, David R.

2012-08-01

236

Common respiratory and gastrointestinal illness in paediatric student nurses and medical technology students.  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to establish the risk of acquiring common respiratory and gastrointestinal illness for paediatric nurses. Using self-administered questionnaires, student nurses at two children's hospitals and students at one school of medical technology reported biweekly the number of minor illnesses, symptoms, and indicators of severity of infection over a 3-year period (1975-8). Although a systematic bias was evident with some symptoms, others appeared to be quite reliable. The following four syndromes were defined to estimate the risk: upper respiratory syndrome (URS), lower respiratory syndrome (LRS), respiratory and gastrointestinal syndrome (RGS), and gastrointestinal syndrome (GS). Surveillance days were allocated to groups with high- or low-intensity contact with children. The incidence of all illnesses was 2.9 per person-year in the low-intensity contact group and 4.4 per person-year in the high-intensity contact group. The reported incidence of LRS and RGS in the high-intensity contact group was 1.55 times higher than in the low-intensity group (P less than 0.001). LRS and RGS incidence was similar in nurses at both schools. During low contact periods it corresponded to that of the medical technologists.

Gerth, H. J.; GrA 1/4 ner, C.; MA 1/4 ller, R.; Dietz, K.

1987-01-01

237

Using Lecture Tutorials to Increase Student Learning in Introductory Geoscience Courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students often leave introductory geoscience courses with their misconceptions still intact, and we developed Lecture Tutorials (LTs) to help alleviate this problem. LTs are 10-15 minute interactive worksheets that students complete in small groups in class, after a short introductory lecture. Topics for the LTs (e.g., climate change, the rock cycle, etc.) were chosen because they are commonly taught in

K. M. Kortz; J. J. Smay; D. P. Murray

2007-01-01

238

Mining Student Learning Data to Develop High Level Pedagogic Strategy in a Medical ITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of mining student learning data from SlideTutor - a cognitive tutor in a medical diagnostic domain. The analysis was aimed at finding both individual learning patterns as well as common misconceptions that students possessed. We have discovered that indeed there are distinct learner stereotypes: hint-driven learners, failure- driven learners, and a mixed group of learners that

Michael V. Yudelson; Olga Medvedeva; Elizabeth Legowski; Melissa Castine; Drazen Jukic; Rebecca S. Crowley

239

Overcoming Misconceptions in Mechanics: A Comparison of Two Example-based Teaching Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Analogies and examples from student's experiences are frequently cited as important to teaching conceptual material. This study was conducted in order to explore the effectiveness of an analogical teaching technique, which uses a connected sequence of "bridging" analogies, compared with a more standard teaching-by-example technique. The target concept involved the common misconception that static objects are unable to exert forces. Of the 21 high school students with no prior physics instruction who were individually interviewed, 14 initially maintained that a table does not exert a force upward on a book resting on it. The latter were divided into two matched groups. Students in each group were asked to think aloud as they worked through one of the two written explanations. After instruction, the experimental group performed significantly better on target and transfer problems, as well as indicating significantly higher subjective estimates of how "understandable and believable" the explanation was. These findings suggest that: (1) teachers need to be aware that certain examples they themselves find compelling may not be at all illuminating for the student; (2) even when the example is compelling to the student, it may not be seen as analogous to the target problem in the lesson; and (3) teachers need to keep in mind the goal of helping students develop visualizable, qualitative models of physical phenomena.

Brown, David E.; Clement, John J.

2006-05-23

240

Myths and Misconceptions in Fall Protection  

SciTech Connect

Since 1973, when OSHA CFRs 1910 and 1926 began to influence the workplace, confusion about the interpretation of the standards has been a problem and fall protection issues are among them. This confusion is verified by the issuance of 351 (as of 11/25/05) Standard Interpretations issued by OSHA in response to formally submitted questions asking for clarification. Over the years, many workers and too many ES&H Professionals have become 'self-interpreters', reaching conclusions that do not conform to either the Standards or the published Interpretations. One conclusion that has been reached by the author is that many ES&H Professionals are either not aware of, or do not pay attention to the Standard Interpretations issued by OSHA, or the State OSHA interpretation mechanism, whoever has jurisdiction. If you fall in this category, you are doing your organization or clients a disservice and are not providing them with the best information available. Several myths and/or misconceptions have been promulgated to the point that they become accepted fact, until an incident occurs and OSHA becomes involved. For example, one very pervasive myth is that you are in compliance as long as you maintain a distance of 6 feet from the edge. No such carte blanche rule exists. In this presentation, this myth and several other common myths/misconceptions will be discussed. This presentation is focused only on Federal OSHA CFR1910 Subpart D--Walking-Working Surfaces, CFR1926 Subpart M--Fall Protection and the Fall Protection Standard Interpretation Letters. This presentation does not cover steel erection, aerial lifts and other fall protection issues. Your regulations will probably be different than those presented if you are operating under a State plan.

Epp, R J

2006-02-23

241

Facts, Misconceptions, and Myths about Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Misconceptions about cancer may increase the level of fear in the general public and render coping more difficult in cancer patients. The aim of this survey was to study the level of knowledge and misconceptions. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire comprising 27 questions related to cancer etiology, treatment, and prognosis was mailed to 100 patients with gynecological cancers and to

Maria E. Carlsson; Peter M. Strang

1997-01-01

242

Textbook Errors & Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Metabolism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The idea that errors and misconceptions in biology textbooks are often slow to be discovered and corrected is discussed. Selected errors, misconceptions, and topics of confusion about cell metabolism are described. Fermentation, respiration, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, uniformity of catabolism, and metabolic pathways as models are…

Storey, Richard D.

1991-01-01

243

Textbook Errors & Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Metabolism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea that errors and misconceptions in biology textbooks are often slow to be discovered and corrected is discussed. Selected errors, misconceptions, and topics of confusion about cell metabolism are described. Fermentation, respiration, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, uniformity of catabolism, and metabolic pathways as models are…

Storey, Richard D.

1991-01-01

244

Meet the Students: Finding Common Ground between Student and Institutional Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are gaps between the traits, expectations, and desired outcomes from their college experience for students, especially our tra- ditional-aged students from Generation NeXt, and what higher education institutions hope for the academic behaviors and outcomes of these same students to be. These differences in perspective and goals affect student and institutional success and outcomes. Sug- gestions for closing the

Mark Taylor

245

Conceptual versus Algorithmic Learning in High School Chemistry: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts--Part 2. Students' Common Errors, Misconceptions and Difficulties in Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Part 2 of the findings are presented of a quantitative study (n = 125) on basic quantum chemical concepts taught at twelfth grade (age 17-18 years) in Greece. A paper-and-pencil test of fourteen questions was used that were of two kinds: five questions that tested recall of knowledge or application of algorithmic procedures (type-A questions);…

Papaphotis, Georgios; Tsaparlis, Georgios

2008-01-01

246

Elementary school students’ understanding of the common cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines children’s understanding of the causality, treatment, and prevention of the common cold. Using a standardized, developmentally-based, semi-structured interview (ASK), 800 children (43 per cent black, 38 per cent white, 18 per cent Hispanic; 48 per cent female) in kindergarten through sixth grade attending six public elementary\\/middle schools in New Haven, Connecticut, USA were asked open-ended questions about

Rupal V. Badani; David J. Schonfeld

2002-01-01

247

Library Jargon: Student Recognition of Terms and Concepts Commonly Used by Librarians in the Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the results of a study that used a pair of fifteen-item multiple-choice surveys to measure first- and second-year university student recognition of a select group of commonly used library terms. A total of 297 students responded. The results from the surveys indicate that commonly used terms such as plagiarism, reference services, re- search, copyright, and synonyms have

Norman B. Hutcherson

248

Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault: A Common Problem among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This article summarizes research on the role of alcohol in college students' sexual assault experiences. Sexual assault is extremely common among college students. At least half of these sexual assaults involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, the vic- tim or both. Method: Two research literatures were reviewed: the sexual assault literature and the literature that examines alcohol's effects on

ANTONIA ABBEY

2002-01-01

249

Participation and Common Knowledge in a Case Study of Student Blogging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The interaction between participation and the emergence of common knowledge is the subject matter of this paper. A case study of a single class provides the focal point of analysis. During the semester the students participated in a blogging activity. As a result of their participation, the students create and distribute knowledge. The online…

Alterman, Richard; Larusson, Johann Ari

2013-01-01

250

The Common Core State Standards and Reading: Interpretations and Implications for Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The K-5 reading standards within the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards provide guidance to teachers about grade level expectations for students. Though the authors of the standards acknowledge that some students may experience difficulty reaching the rigorous expectations, they explain that the standards outline a pathway to…

Haager, Diane; Vaughn, Sharon

2013-01-01

251

College students' misunderstandings about copyright laws for digital library resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper has two primary purposes: to explore common copyright-related problems that arise when librarians promote the use of digital library resources; and to investigate college students' misconceptions of copyright laws that arise when the students use these resources. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Four librarians in charge of the management of digital library resources were interviewed regarding student-users' problematic copyright-infringement

Huan-Chueh Wu; Chien Chou; Hao-Ren Ke; Mei-Hung Wang

2010-01-01

252

Sensory illusions: Common mistakes in physics regarding sound, light and radio waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical illusions are well known as effects that we see that are not representative of reality. Sensory illusions are similar but can involve other senses than sight, such as hearing or touch. One mistake commonly noted among instructors is that students often mis-identify radio signals as sound waves and not as part of the electromagnetic spectrum. A survey of physics students from multiple high schools highlights the frequency of this common misconception, as well as other nuances on this misunderstanding. Many students appear to conclude that, since they experience radio broadcasts as sound, then sound waves are the actual transmission of radio signals and not, as is actually true, a representation of those waves as produced by the translator box, the radio. Steps to help students identify and correct sensory illusion misconceptions are discussed.

Briles, T. M.; Tabor-Morris, A. E.

2013-03-01

253

Physical Activity and the Common Cold in Undergraduate University Students: Implications for Health Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The common cold, known as upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), is the world's most prevalent illness. The purpose of this study was to determine if physical activity is linked to the incidence and/or duration of the common cold. Method: Undergraduate university students (n=200) were asked to complete two questionnaires. The…

Vossen, Deborah P.; McArel, Heather; Vossen, Jeffery F.; Thompson, Angela M.

2004-01-01

254

3rd Grade Common Core State Standards Flip Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 60-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the grade 3 level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades K-2 and 4-5.

2012-06-01

255

Textbook Errors & Misconceptions in Biology: Photosynthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Glaring and basic textbook errors and misconceptions about photosynthesis are discussed. The Calvin Cycle, photosynthetic products, alternative cycles, and plants as producers are considered. Included are observations of both college and secondary textbooks. (CW)

Storey, Richard D.

1989-01-01

256

HIV/AIDS misconceptions among Latinos: findings from a population-based survey of California adults.  

PubMed

Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS among Latino adults (N = 454) in California were examined using data from a population-based telephone survey conducted in 2000. Common misconceptions concerning modes of HIV transmission included transmission via mosquito or animal bite (64.1%), public facilities (48.3%), or kissing someone on the cheek (24.8%). A composite misconceptions score was constructed. Correlations between the composite measure and other HIV/AIDS-related beliefs were examined. Latinos with a higher level of misconceptions were more likely to report higher self-perceived risk of HIV infection, and discomfort with infected individuals in a school and in a food setting. Results from multiple linear regression analysis indicated that individuals 45 years and older, those who were interviewed in Spanish, and those with lower education or income levels had a higher degree of misconceptions. The results suggest the need for targeted education efforts to reduce HIV/AIDS misconceptions among Latino adults in California. PMID:16861586

Ritieni, Assunta; Moskowitz, Joel; Tholandi, Maya

2006-07-21

257

Misconceptions concerning the behavior, fate and transport of the fuel oxygenates TBA and MTBE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The release of gasoline from underground storage tanks and the subsequent appearance of dissolved constituents in drinking water has focused attention on the use of MTBE in reformulated fuels. Natural biodegradation of MTBE in soil, photo-oxidation in the atmosphere or chemical oxidation during remediation of gasoline releases can produce the intermediate tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). TBA is also a fuel oxygenate and can be found as a co-product in MTBE synthesized from methanol and TBA. Because the physical properties of ethers and alcohols differ somewhat from the predominant hydrocarbon compounds in gasoline, misconceptions have developed about the behavior of fuel oxygenates in storage and in the subsurface. Critical review of several misconceptions about MTBE and TBA in gasoline reveals the concepts were conceived to rationalize early field observations and/or incomplete data sets. Closer scrutiny, in light of recent laboratory investigations, field data, case studies and world literature, clarifies these misconceptions and assumptions about the behavior of ether oxygenates and their degradation products in the environment. Commonly held misconceptions focus on four general areas of fuel and fuel oxygenate management: storage/dispensing, hydrology, remediation, and health effects. Storage/dispensing misconceptions address materials stability to ethers and alcohols in fuel and the environmental forensics of fuel systems failure. Groundwater and hydrology misconceptions deal with plume dynamics and the impact of fuel on drinking water resources. Remediation misconceptions focus on the performance of traditional hydrocarbon remediation technologies, recent developments in biodegradation and natural attenuation, drivers of remedial design and remediation costs. Health effects misconceptions address both acute and chronic exposure risk evaluations by national and international health agencies. Generally MTBE and TBA are manageable by the same processes and precautions used for gasoline and other fuel hydrocarbons. Indeed specific physical properties of ethers and alcohols expedite their treatment by traditional remediation methods of pump and treat, soil vapor extraction and bioventing.

Woodward, R.; Sloan, R.

2003-04-01

258

Misconceptions about Evolution and the Mechanisms of Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource will help teachers deal with common misconceptions about evolution, those that are simple misunderstandings and others that may stem from purposeful attempts to interfere with the teaching of evolution. First, five common misunderstandings about evolution and how it works are examined. They include the origin of life, ladder of progress, randomness of evolution, trying to adapt, and satisfying needs. The next section indicates that evolution explains the history of life and has no other implications. This site also debunks the alleged incompatibility of religion and evolution.

259

Tutorials for large classes of Common Foundation Program biomedical science students: successes and challenges.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to investigate the problems encountered conducting biomedical science tutorials for nursing students in large classes with a typical student: staff ratio of 45:1. The study is based on level 1 Common Foundation Program students from the School of Nursing and Midwifery, Queen's University Belfast at the conclusion of two phases of biomedical sciences education which include a course of 12 interactive tutorials. Survey and interview methodologies were employed to investigate difficulties encountered by students in these large tutorial classes, to ascertain what characterises a good tutor and to explore student attitudes to interactive learning. The barriers to effective teaching and learning in tutorials are discussed and subsequently, a set of guidelines is proposed to enhance learning in them. These include being aware of the ability of the student group, having a compassionate questioning style, tailoring the teaching environment to fit the aims of the class and experimenting with different tutorial formats. PMID:19836863

al-Modhefer, Abdul-Kadhum J A; Roe, Sean M

2010-05-01

260

Misconceptions and the Qualitative Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reports concepts which 12th-grade physics students hold about motion before and after a lecture is given. Compares quantitative and qualitative research methodology and describes some responses to test items. Shows six questions, student responses, and typical incorrect explanations used by students.

Ridgeway, Dori

2006-06-23

261

A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part IV. Common Difficulties Students Experience with Cosmology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is our fourth paper in our five paper series describing our national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. While previous papers in this series focused on the processes by which we collected and quantitatively analyzed our data, this paper presents the most common pre-instruction…

Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

2012-01-01

262

Genesis & the Human Ribcage: An Opportunity to Correct a Misconception & Introduce an Evolution Lesson into the Anatomy Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many anatomy students begin the course with a misconception that human males and females do not have the same number of ribs. At the root of that misconception is Genesis 2:21-22, in which God removes a rib from Adam to make Eve. Removal of a body part is a surgical procedure, and one does not pass on the results of surgery to one's offspring.…

Senter, Phil

2013-01-01

263

An Online Elective Course for Undergraduate Students on Common Prescription Medications  

PubMed Central

Objectives To design, implement, and evaluate an online elective course on common prescription medications for undergraduate (pre- and non-health professional) students. Design An 8-module online course on common prescription medications was designed following the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) instructional design model and offered to students for 8 consecutive semesters. Assessment Following each offering, performance data were analyzed and a course review conducted, including evaluation of entrance survey data and course evaluations. Direct analysis of data over 2 offerings and grade distribution comparisons over all 8 offerings, demonstrated consistent knowledge gains. Feedback from course evaluations and a continual increase in enrollment over the 8 semesters indicated student satisfaction with the course. Conclusion Systematic design and quality assurance/improvement strategies resulted in the successful establishment of an online pharmacotherapy course for undergraduate, nonpharmacy students.

Janke, Kristin K.; Bumgardner, Melissa A.

2009-01-01

264

Miners' Misconceptions of Flow Distribution Within Circuits as a Factor Influencing Underground Mining Accidents.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Misconceptions can be thought of as naive approaches to problem solving that are perceptually appealing but incorrect and inconsistent with scientific evidence (Piaget, 1929). One type of misconception involves flow distributions within circuits. This concept is important because miners' conceptual errors about flow distribution changes within complex circuits may be in part responsible for fatal mine disasters. Based on the theory that misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits were responsible for underground mine disasters involving mine ventilation circuits, a series of studies was undertaken with mining engineering students, professional mining engineers, as well as mine foremen, mine supervisors, mine rescue members, mine maintenance personnel, mining researchers and working miners to identify these conceptual errors and errors in mine ventilation procedures. Results indicate that misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits exist in over 70 percent of the subjects sampled. It is assumed that these misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits result in errors of judgment when miners are faced with inferring and changing ventilation arrangements when two or more mine sections are connected. Furthermore, it is assumed that these misconceptions are pervasive in the mining industry and may be responsible for at least two mine ventilation disasters. The findings of this study are consistent with Piaget's (1929) model of figurative and operative knowledge. This model states that misconceptions are in part due to a lack of knowledge of dynamic transformations and how to apply content information. Recommendations for future research include the development of an interactive expert system for training miners with ventilation arrangements. Such a system would meet the educational recommendations made by Piaget (1973b) by involving a hands-on approach that allows discovery, interaction, the opportunity to make mistakes and to review the cognitive concepts on which the subject relied during his manipulation of the ventilation system.

Passaro, Perry David

265

A Method to Find Calculating Errors Based on Misconceptions at an On-line Exercise System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although our on-line exercise system of symbolic calculation support ed average students well to improve their manual calculating skills, it hardly helped the slow learners, whose errors often came from their misconceptions. The feedback information returned by the system was less valuable to them, because it only included the position of the error in the calculating steps but not the

Hitoshi Nishizawa; Satoshi Matsui; Takayoshi Yoshioka

266

Subject Matter Knowledge: Mathematical Errors and Misconceptions of Beginning Pre-Service Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

an understanding of what makes the learning of spec ific topics easy or difficult: the conceptions and preconceptions that students of different ages and backgrounds bring with them … If those preconceptions are misconceptions, which they often are, teachers need knowledge of the strategies most likely to be fruitful in reorganizing the unde rstanding of learners. (Shulman, 1986, pp. 9-10)

Julie Ryan; Barry McCrae

267

An Inventory on Rotational Kinematics of a Particle: Unravelling Misconceptions and Pitfalls in Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Student difficulties regarding the angular velocity ([image omitted]) and angular acceleration ([image omitted]) of a particle have remained relatively unexplored in contrast to their linear counterparts. We present an inventory comprising multiple choice questions aimed at probing misconceptions and eliciting ill-suited reasoning patterns. The…

Mashood, K. K.; Singh, Vijay A.

2012-01-01

268

Organic Chemistry Educators' Perspectives on Fundamental Concepts and Misconceptions: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An exploratory study was conducted with 23 organic chemistry educators to discover what general chemistry concepts they typically review, the concepts they believe are fundamental to introductory organic chemistry, the topics students find most difficult in the subject, and the misconceptions they observe in undergraduate organic chemistry…

Duis, Jennifer M.

2011-01-01

269

Teaching Simple Experimental Design to Undergraduates: Do Your Students Understand the Basics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides instructors with guidelines for teaching simple experimental design for the comparison of two treatment groups. Two designs with specific examples are discussed along with common misconceptions that undergraduate students typically bring to the experiment design process. Features of experiment design that maximize power and…

Hiebert, Sara M.

2007-01-01

270

The Understanding of the Properties of Light by Students in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using a paper-and-pencil test consisting of multiple-choice situational questions which also require reasoning for the choices made, common misconceptions in light were identified. It was found that most of the students understand the basic properties of light at a knowledge level but had difficulty applying these concepts in novel situations.

Saxena, Ashutosh B.

2006-12-07

271

Shampoo, Soy Sauce, and the Prince's Pendant: Density for Middle-Level Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a series of activities that are designed to clear up common student misconceptions regarding the difficult concepts of mass and density at the middle-level. Concept development, problem solving, design, measurement, and quantitative activities are interwoven throughout these lessons. Each set of lessons is designed to conform to one full cycle of the 5E learning model.

Chandrasekhar, Meera; Litherland, Rebecca

2006-10-01

272

The common good: the inclusion of non?Catholic students in Catholic schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers that liberal and communitarian concepts of the common good are exemplified in the Catholic school’s policy of the inclusion of non?Catholic students. In particular, the liberal concepts of personal autonomy, individual rights and freedoms, and the principles of fairness, justice, equality and respect for diversity – as democratic ideals – are evidenced in inclusion. Moreover, the communitarian

J. Kent Donlevy

2008-01-01

273

Campus-Wide Support for the Chemically Dependent: Common Provision for Faculty, Staff and Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Brown Program in Chemical Dependency, program which has addressed in common the problems with substance abuse that afflict the university's students, faculty, and staff. Notes unique needs of each group while working to develop network of mutual support among all three groups. (NB)

Donovan, Bruce E.

1989-01-01

274

Applying Symmetries of Common Objects to Help Students Understand Stereoselectivity for Apparently Symmetric Substrates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We have found it an effective way of teaching symmetry in the context of stereoselectivity, to use common everyday objects with the same point groups as the substrates involved. This has helped students to distinguish between those symmetry elements which allow for stereospecificity and those which preclude it. Two symmetry elements, the simple…

Jittam, Piyachat; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

2008-01-01

275

Misconceptions as necessary stepping stones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I've been reading an online book called Ready, Set, Science! Putting Research to Work in K-8 Science Classrooms (www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11882) and have found the discussion very enlightening. I think that any beginning science teacher might want to look at this book for guidance in designing lessons and managing student discussions to help students become more thoughtful, productive, and independent learners. While the book gives examples of K-8 classrooms, the examples of classroom discourse could serve as a road map for teachers at any level who want to make their classrooms more student centered and a place where all learners are actively engaged.

Blanton, Patricia

2010-04-01

276

Design Guide for Earth System Science Education: Common Student Learning Objectives and Special Pedagogical Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the NASA-supported undergraduate Earth System Science Education (ESSE) program, fifty-seven institutions have developed and implemented a wide range of Earth system science (ESS) courses, pedagogies, and evaluation tools. The Teaching, Learning, and Evaluation section of USRA's online ESSE Design Guide showcases these ESS learning environments. This Design Guide section also provides resources for faculty who wish to develop ESS courses. It addresses important course design issues including prior student knowledge and interests, student learning objectives, learning resources, pedagogical approaches, and assessments tied to student learning objectives. The ESSE Design Guide provides links to over 130 ESS course syllabi at introductory, senior, and graduate levels. ESS courses over the past 15 years exhibit common student learning objectives and unique pedagogical approaches. From analysis of ESS course syllabi, seven common student learning objectives emerged: 1) demonstrate systems thinking, 2) develop an ESS knowledge base, 3) apply ESS to the human dimension, 4) expand and apply analytical skills, 5) improve critical thinking skills, 6) build professional/career skills, and 7) acquire an enjoyment and appreciation for science. To meet these objectives, ESSE often requires different ways of teaching than in traditional scientific disciplines. This presentation will highlight some especially successful pedagogical approaches for creating positive and engaging ESS learning environments.

Baker, D.

2006-12-01

277

Beyond hosts and guests: translating the concept of cultural misconception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the concept of cultural misconceptions through the lens of actor-network theory (ANT). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The article discusses how cultural misconceptions may be encompassed at the tourist destination. Rather than seeing cultural misconceptions as clashes between incommensurable cultures or as conflicts between opposing strategies, a third approach is introduced in which

Carina Ren

2010-01-01

278

Misconceptions in Rational Numbers, Probability, Algebra, and Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the author examined the relationship of probability misconceptions to algebra, geometry, and rational number misconceptions and investigated the potential of probability instruction as an intervention to address misconceptions in all 4 content areas. Through a review of literature, 5 fundamental concepts were identified that, if…

Rakes, Christopher R.

2010-01-01

279

Teaching Heat--An Analysis of Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews some of the literature concerned with teaching heat, briefly assessing treatments of the subject given in a number of textbooks and considering misconceptions which can develop from the way heat is currently taught in many schools. Suggests an approach for developing an understanding of heat and associated thermodynamic concepts. (JN)|

Summers, M. K.

1983-01-01

280

Single-Subject Research Designs: Some Misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, several articles have advocated the use of single-subject experimental designs in rehabilitation research. However, a survey of three leading journals in the field of rehabilitation psychology revealed that only a very small percentage of published research in the last five years employed single-subject research designs. It was hypothesized that some basic misconceptions about this research strategy prevent

1991-01-01

281

Recycling misconceptions of perceived self-efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This commentary addresses misconceptions concerning perceived self-efficacy contained in the article by Eastman and Marzillier. People who regard themselves as highly efficacious act, think, and feel differently from those who perceive themselves as inefficacious. Self-percepts of efficacy thus contribute significantly to performance accomplishments rather than residing in the host organism simply as inert predictors of behaviors to come. A substantial

Albert Bandura

1984-01-01

282

Clarification of Selected Misconceptions in Physical Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses some misconceptions relating to location and to the earth's hydrosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. Provides correction and explanation of various phenomena. Includes ocean names and sizes, sea level, coriolis effect, greenhouse effect, lightning, magma, and mass wasting. Suggests that myths can be dispelled by exposure combined with…

Nelson, Burton D.; And Others

1992-01-01

283

Some Misconceptions about the Baroque Violin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much has been written about the baroque violin, yet many misconceptions remain most notably that up to around 1750 their necks were universally shorter and not angled back as they are today, that the string angle over the bridge was considerably flatter, and that strings were narrower gauge and under lower tension...

Stewart Pollens

2012-01-01

284

Mathematical Strengths, Difficulties and Misconceptions of Teachers: Analysis of Their Performance in an Achievement Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying teachers' strengths and weaknesses is of crucial importance for the design of in-service training activities aimed at improving the teaching\\/learning process. In this connection, this paper pre- sents an examination of teachers' performance in an achievement test. It presents an analysis of the teachers' common strengths, difficulties and misconceptions as reflected in how they went about identi- fying, analyzing

Teresita BAMBICO

2002-01-01

285

Addressing the Multiplication Makes Bigger and Division Makes Smaller Misconceptions via Prediction and Clickers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a lesson that uses prediction items, clickers and visuals via PowerPoint slides to help prospective middle-school teachers address two common misconceptions: multiplication makes bigger and division makes smaller (MMB-DMS). Classroom research was conducted to explore the viability of such a lesson. Results show that the…

Lim, Kien H.

2011-01-01

286

Uncertainty and Misconceptions About Child Sexual Abuse: Implications for the Criminal Justice System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent amendments to the uniform evidence legislation in Australia mean that it will be possible for prosecutors to call expert opinion evidence to bolster the credibility of child complainants in child sexual assault (CSA) trials. Yet little is known about the extent of the common beliefs and misconceptions in the Australian population about child sexual abuse and the degree of

Anne Cossins; Jane Goodman-Delahunty; Kate OBrien

2009-01-01

287

Setting the Record Straight: Applied Linguistics and the Dispelling of Misconception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of scholarly publications in applied linguistics focuses on the use of such publications as "dialogue" between applied linguists to promote social responsibility in the application of their work. A review of 40 citations representing 63 papers is presented and results are discussed. Common strategies found for dispelling misconceptions

Davidson, Fred

288

The Unknown Moon: Eliminating Misconceptions and Strengthening Lunar Science Literacy in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our Moon is an ideal tool for teaching about space science and Earth's place in our solar system. The Moon remains the most studied object in our solar system and the only other body, besides Earth, from which humans have collected field samples. Despite our long history of studying the Moon, there are still many questions that remain unanswered. Most students believe that we know everything there is to know about the Moon, but in actuality it still remains very much "unknown." For example, recent radar observations of the lunar poles suggest the presence of water ice, but the quantity remains unknown. Additionally, remote-sensing analysis of the Moon's regolith suggests the presence of chemicals that can be used as resources when manned-missions return to the Moon, but how we would access those resources remains unknown. These studies and many more need to be shared with students in a way that regenerates excitement for future exploration of our Moon and our solar system. Common lunar misconceptions and ideas for establishing Lunar Science Literacy Concepts (LSLC) will be discussed in this paper.

Novak, M. A. M.

2012-08-01

289

An inventory on rotational kinematics of a particle: unravelling misconceptions and pitfalls in reasoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Student difficulties regarding the angular velocity (\\vec{\\omega }) and angular acceleration (\\vec{\\alpha }) of a particle have remained relatively unexplored in contrast to their linear counterparts. We present an inventory comprising multiple choice questions aimed at probing misconceptions and eliciting ill-suited reasoning patterns. The development of the inventory was based on interactions with students, teachers and experts. We report misconceptions, some of which are parallel to those found earlier in linear kinematics. Fixations with inappropriate prototypes were uncovered. Many students and even teachers mistakenly assume that all rotational motion is necessarily circular. A persistent notion that the direction of \\vec{\\omega } and \\vec{\\alpha } should be ‘along’ the motion exists. Instances of indiscriminate usage of equations were identified.

Mashood, K. K.; Singh, Vijay A.

2012-09-01

290

Student Difficulties in Physics Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Student Difficulties in Physics Information Center. The site provides a list of documented student misconceptions and difficulties, along with questions that can be used in a classroom to discover if students have these misconceptions and/or difficulties. The web site links to research on each specific misconception. The material is divided into sections on position, velocity, acceleration, forces, graphs, and problem solving.

Brown, Tom

2007-05-22

291

Fuzzy Logic: Misconceptions and Clarifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some commonly accepted statements concerning the basic fuzzy logicproposed by Lotfi Zadeh in 1965, have led to suggestions that fuzzy logicis not a logic in the same sense as classical bivalent logic. Thoseconsidered herein are: fuzzy logic generates results that contradictclassical logic, fuzzy logic collapses to classical logic, there can be no prooftheory for fuzzy logic, fuzzy logic is inconsistent,

Carl W. Entemann

2002-01-01

292

Spork & Beans: Addressing Evolutionary Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|They are found at picnics and family outings, apparently attracted by the food provided at these events. Large populations in fast food establishments further support their association with food. Yet little is known about the biology of "Utensilus plastica" (common name: plastic eating utensil). The authors have conducted an in-depth study of…

Burton, Stephen R.; Dobson, Christopher

2009-01-01

293

Using Lecture Tutorials to Increase Student Learning in Introductory Geoscience Courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students often leave introductory geoscience courses with their misconceptions still intact, and we developed Lecture Tutorials (LTs) to help alleviate this problem. LTs are 10-15 minute interactive worksheets that students complete in small groups in class, after a short introductory lecture. Topics for the LTs (e.g., climate change, the rock cycle, etc.) were chosen because they are commonly taught in introductory classes and include recognized misconceptions. The LTs typically follow a sequence beginning with factual-based questions that progressively become more difficult and culminating in application-type questions designed to provoke both discussion and critical thinking. Often, one of the latter questions is presented in the form of a debate between two students, where one student expresses the scientifically held view and the other espouses a view based on a common misconception. Students in the class must determine with which student in the LT they agree and explain why. These hypothetical debates allow students to confront their own misconceptions and replace them with the accepted scientific views. Lecture Tutorials increase student learning more than lectures alone. After a short lecture, students correctly answered 58% of multiple-choice questions (including embedded Geoscience Concept Inventory questions), and that value increased by 18% after they completed the LT. To determine if the increase resulted from extra time spent on the topic rather than the unique approach of LTs, we also tested how an extended lecture, in lieu of LTs, affected student scores. After an extended lecture, student scores increased by only 5% on multiple-choice questions. Therefore, we conclude that LTs are more effective than lecture alone in increasing student knowledge. LTs have been written to be relatively easy to implement in classrooms without a large time commitment or dramatic course redesign. Thirteen LTs have currently been tested, and more are being developed. They are available for instructor use by visiting the webpage: http://faculty.ccri.edu/kkortz/lt.shtml.

Kortz, K. M.; Smay, J. J.; Murray, D. P.

2007-12-01

294

A Study of Common Beliefs and Misconceptions in Physical Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Science Belief Test is an online instrument comprised of 47 statements that require true or false responses and request written explanations to accompany these responses. It targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy and was initially designed to assess preservice elementary teachers' beliefs about general…

Stein, Mary; Larrabee, Timothy G.; Barman, Charles R.

2008-01-01

295

How Deep Can be a Dyke? II: Common Misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice of a conceptual model of a dyke either as a continuous conduit joining the region of magma storage and the surface during an eruptive event or, alternatively, as isolated batches of ascending magma, depends on a number of hypothesis that might not be explicitly stated. For instance, it is often assumed 1) that the internal pressure of a

E. Cañón-Tapia

2007-01-01

296

Understanding Natural Selection: Essential Concepts and Common Misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural selection is one of the central mechanisms of evolutionary change and is the process responsible for the evolution\\u000a of adaptive features. Without a working knowledge of natural selection, it is impossible to understand how or why living things\\u000a have come to exhibit their diversity and complexity. An understanding of natural selection also is becoming increasingly relevant\\u000a in practical contexts,

T. Ryan Gregory

2009-01-01

297

Re-Examining the Similarities between Teacher and Student Conceptions about Physical Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is a large body of research that has explored students' misconceptions about science phenomena. Less research, however, has been devoted to identifying teachers' misconceptions, but the results of the few existing studies demonstrate that teachers and students possess similar misconceptions. This study explored the physical science…

Burgoon, Jacob N.; Heddle, Mandy L.; Duran, Emilio

2010-01-01

298

Misconceptions and realities about teaching online  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is intended to guide online course developers and teachers. A brief review of the literature on the misconceptions\\u000a of beginning online teachers reveals that most accept the notion that putting one’s lecture notes online produces effective\\u000a learning, or that technology will make education more convenient and cost-effective for all concerned. Effective online learning\\u000a requires a high level of

Joan E. Sieber; East Bay

2005-01-01

299

Investigating Common Descent: Formulating Explanations and Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students formulate explanations and models that simulate structural and biochemical data as they investigate the misconception that humans evolved from apes. Students should recognize that present-day species evolved from earlier species and the relatedness of organisms is the result of common ancestry. They will also discover that similarities among existing organisms provide evidence for evolution, anatomical similarities of living things reflect common ancestry, and all life forms use the same basic DNA building blocks. Basic concepts also include the fact that scientists pose, test, and revise multiple hypotheses to explain what they observe, our understanding of life through time is based upon multiple lines of evidence, the similarity of DNA nucleotide sequences can be used to infer the degree of kinship between species, and anatomical evidence is also used to infer lines of descent. This site includes a list of materials and all information required for this activity.

300

More Misconceptions to Avoid When Teaching about Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The resource is useful for teacher's professional development by alerting educators to many plant misconceptions in teaching literature. In the thought provoking, peer reviewed resource fifty additional misconceptions are identified. In this complementary article to "Avoid Misconceptions When Teaching about Plants" the author addresses undergeneralizations, overgeneralizations, obsolete concepts and terms, misidentifications, and flawed research. A glossary at the end of the article compares words used in botany with their popular usage.

David R. Hershey (;)

2005-10-01

301

Misconceptions in Science and Mathematics. Proceedings of the International Seminar. (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA, June 20-22, 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings include abstracts and/or complete papers on topics and research focusing on student misconceptions (ideas at variance with accepted views) in science and mathematics. Abstracts and papers are arranged according to nine general areas emphasized: (1) theoretical and philosophical perspectives; (2) instructional issues; (3) research…

Helm, Hugh; Novak, Joseph D.

302

In China, Students in Crowded Dormitories with a Low Ventilation Rate Have More Common Colds: Evidence for Airborne Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo test whether the incidence of common colds among college students in China is associated with ventilation rates and crowdedness in dormitories.MethodsIn Phase I of the study, a cross-sectional study, 3712 students living in 1569 dorm rooms in 13 buildings responded to a questionnaire about incidence and duration of common colds in the previous 12 months. In Phase II, air

Yuexia Sun; Zhigang Wang; Yufeng Zhang; Jan Sundell

2011-01-01

303

Campus Library 2.0: The Information Commons Is a Scalable, One-Stop Shopping Experience for Students and Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 2003, Mt. Holyoke, an elite, largely undergraduate liberal arts college with a student population of roughly 2000, unveiled its take on the information commons. Located in an area known as Miles-Smith 4, the commons functions as a conduit between the main library and Dwight Hall, which houses the library offices, state-of-the-art media…

Albanese, Andrew Richard

2004-01-01

304

Beyond informed consent: the therapeutic misconception and trust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The therapeutic misconception has been seen as presenting an ethical problem because failure to distinguish the aims of research participation from those receiving ordinary treatment may seriously undermine the informed consent of research subjects. Hence, most theoretical and empirical work on the problems of the therapeutic misconception has been directed to evaluate whether, and to what degree, this confusion invalidates

I de Melo-Martin; A Ho

2008-01-01

305

Resolution of Misconceptions of Latency and Adolescent Sicklers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Misconceptions regarding sickle cell disease are qualitatively different among latency age patients as compared to adolescents. The evolution and resolution of these misconceptions determine the effectiveness of self-help programs for sickle cell patients. The Mount Sinai Hospital Sickle Cell Counseling Service is a coordinated center for sickle…

Christy-Levine, Diane

306

The ear and its malformations: strange beliefs and misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the strange beliefs and misconceptions related to the ear and its malformations, and how these have changed from ancient times until today.Methods. Ancient documents, journal articles, and history books were studied to research ancient and current beliefs and misconceptions with regard to the ear and its malformations.Results. The ear has been the centre of various beliefs and

Irene E Gamatsi; Thomas P Nikolopoulos; Dimitra E Lioumi

2003-01-01

307

Misconceptions about Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…

Syed, Khalida Tanvir

2008-01-01

308

DIETARY MISCONCEPTIONS AMONG DIABETIC PATIENTS IN MAKKA CITY, SAUDI ARABIA  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of some dietary misconceptions among primary health care center-registered diabetic patients in Makka City, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A sample of 1039 primary health care center- registered diabetic patients was interviewed using a structured questionnaire on diabetic diet -related misconceptions. A scoring system was used to document the frequency of misconceptions. The relationship of the misconceptions to socio-demographic and diabetes-related variables was assessed using chi-squared tests. Results: Most patients (68.7%) had a high diet misconception score. More than half of the sample had the misconception that carbohydrates were to be completely eliminated from the diet, and only dried bread and bitter foods were to be consumed. Data included the belief in the consumption of honey and dates; the omission of snacks; belief in the carcinogenicity of the sugar substitutes; and obesity as a sign of good health. The score was significantly higher among males (p<0.01), patients older than 35 years (p<0.02), and among patients whose level of education was low (p<0.01). Conclusion: It is important to note that the rate of diet-related misconceptions among diabetics in Makka city is high. The study pointed to the target fraction of diabetic patients among whom these misconceptions prevailed. There is a need for constant motivation and appropriate education at frequent intervals to encourage better knowledge of the disease so that there is compliance to treatment.

Al-Saeedi, Mohammed; Elzubier, Ahmed G.; Al-Dawood, Kasim M.; Bahnasi, Ahmed A.

2002-01-01

309

Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The…

Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

2013-01-01

310

Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The…

Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

2013-01-01

311

Evaluating Scientific Misconceptions and Scientific Literacy in a General Science Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data used in this study were collected as part of the course assignments for General Education Science (GSci) 101: “Physics, Chemistry, and the Human Experience” at James Madison University. The course covers the basic principles of physics, chemistry, and astronomy. The primary goals of this study were to analyze student responses to general scientific questions, to identify scientific misconceptions, and to evaluate scientific literacy by comparing responses collected from different groups of students and from questions given during the course versus at the end of the course. While this project is focused on general scientific concepts, the misconceptions and patterns identified are particularly relevant for improving pedagogy in the geosciences as this field relies on multidisciplinary knowledge of fundamental physics, chemistry, and astronomy. We discuss differences in the results between the disciplines of physics, chemistry, and astronomy and their implications for general geology education and literacy, emphasizing the following questions: (a) What do students typically get wrong? (b) Did the overall scientific literacy of the students increase throughout the semester? Are the concepts discussed in answers provided at the end of class more accurate than those provided during class? (c) How do the before- and after- class responses change with respect to language and terminology? Did the students use more scientific terminology? Did the students use scientific terminology correctly?

Courtier, A. M.; Scott, T. J.

2009-12-01

312

An Intervention Using Concept Sketching for Addressing Dislocation-Related Misconceptions In Introductory Materials Classes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In materials science and engineering (MSE) a major goal of the discipline is to effectively teach learners from other engineering disciplines about engineering a material's macroscale properties based on the knowledge and understanding of its atomic-scale structure. This goal is a significant intellectual challenge because learners must develop a conceptual framework to understand and solve materials-related problems in their own discipline. There are significant difficulties in addressing materials-related problems in a discipline because robust misconceptions are used by students attempting to understand and correlate the concrete "macroworld" of everyday objects, properties, and phenomena to the abstract "atomic and micro-scale world" of atoms, molecules and microstructure, which are types of features of a material that actually control its properties. These misconceptions, which are scientifically-inaccurate interpretations about materials, can neither explain nor predict materials' phenomena or properties. In this study, different teaching methods were used to address the question, "What is the effect of pedagogy on student conceptual understanding of deformation and thermal processing and associated property changes of metals in an introductory materials class?" For classes in 2002, 2003, and 2007, content delivered by lectures, pair-based discussions, and team-based concept sketching, respectively, were compared in teaching the effect of deformation or annealing on a metal's properties by invoking the atomic-level structural feature of dislocations to understand macroscopic-level property changes in strength, ductility, and fracture toughness. The effect of the pedagogy was assessed from responses to dislocation-related questions on the Materials Concept Inventory (MCI). Results showed that a team-based concept sketching pedagogy was most effective in achieving conceptual change of faulty mental models about deformation-related misconceptions. This indicates that concept sketching may be an effective pedagogy both for revealing misconceptions and achieving conceptual change about other physical phenomena in materials engineering, as well as diverse physical phenomena in other engineering disciplines.

Krause, Stephen; Tasooji, Amaneh

2009-11-03

313

Describing and analyzing learning in action: An empirical study of the importance of misconceptions in learning science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although misconceptions in science have been established in interview studies,theirroleduringthelearningprocessispoorlyexamined.Inthispaper,weuseresults from a classroom study to analyze to what extent nonscientific ideas in electrochemistry that students report in interviews enter into their learning in a more authentic setting. We audio-recorded talk between eight pairs of Swedish upper secondary students during a practical on electrochemical cells. Learning was operationalized on a discursive

Karim M. Hamza; Per-Olof Wickman

2008-01-01

314

Knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Fever is an extremely common sign in paediatric patients and the most common cause for a child to be taken to the doctor. The literature indicates that physicians and parents have too many misconceptions and conflicting results about fever management. In this study we aim to identify knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in April-May 2010 involving primary care physicians (n=80). The physicians were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used. Results In our study only 10% of the physicians knew that a body temperature of above 37.2°C according to an auxiliary measurement is defined as fever. Only 26.2% of the physicians took into consideration signs and symptoms other than fever to prescribe antipyretics. 85% of the physicians prescribed antipyretics to control fever or prevent complications of fever especially febrile seizures. Most of the physicians (76.3%) in this study reported that the height of fever may be used as an indicator for severe bacterial infection. A great majority of physicians (91.3%) stated that they advised parents to alternate the use of ibuprofen and paracetamol. Conclusions There were misconceptions about the management and complications of fever. There is a perceived need to improve the recognition, assessment, and management of fever with regards to underlying illnesses in children.

2012-01-01

315

Students' Perspectives about Success in Basic Skills English: Dreams of a Common Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using a liberatory discourse theoretical framework, this action research study investigated the experiences of students enrolled in basic skills English classes through a series of in-depth focus groups. The data were then analyzed in collaboration with students to draw conclusions. Student voices informed the data at every step of the inquiry…

Burroughs, Lauren Halsted

2012-01-01

316

University students' conceptions of basic astronomy concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A questionnaire of 19 questions given to 76 students entering an `Introduction to astronomy' course at university showed that the students held a series of misconceptions on several central topics in basic astronomy.

Trumper, Ricardo

2005-11-28

317

Still at Risk: What Students Don't Know, Even Now--A Report from Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report from Common Core finds that many of America's high school students do not possess the basic knowledge they need to succeed in the world. The report shows that, twenty-five years after the publication of the landmark study, "A Nation at Risk," America's children continue to demonstrate a stunning ignorance about basic facts of America's…

Hess, Frederick M.

2009-01-01

318

Perspectives: Assessing and Addressing Student Science Ideas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our students are not blank slates. They come to school with a wide range of experiences that have shaped their science understandings--reading books, watching TV, and playing video games. From many years of research about student science ideas, it is evident that student science misconceptions are prevalent, strongly held, and highly resistant to change. Here the authors describe some research-based strategies that science teachers can use to assess and address students' misconceptions.

Smith, S. R.; Abell, Sandra K.

2008-03-01

319

100 Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics is the art and science of gathering, analyzing, and making conclusions from data. However, many people do not fully understand how to interpret statistical results and conclusions. Placing students in a collaborative environment involving project-based learning may enable them to overcome misconceptions of probability and enhance the…

Riskowski, Jody L.; Olbricht, Gayla; Wilson, Jennifer

2010-01-01

320

Students in Higher Education Governance in Europe: Contrasts, Commonalities and Controversies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a synthesizing overview of the roles of students in higher education governance in Europe. We first review the existing literature on student involvement in higher education governance in order to locate the contribution of this special issue of "Tertiary Education and Management." Second, we summarize the key findings of the…

Pabian, Petr; Minksova, Lenka

2011-01-01

321

Understanding Subgroups in Common State Assessments: Special Education Students and ELLs. NCEO Brief. Number 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although most assessment developers have a sense of the nature of the general student population, they often lack an understanding of the characteristics of special education students and English Language Learners (ELLs) who will participate in the assessment. The Race-to-the-Top Assessment Consortia have the rare opportunity to know who these…

National Center on Educational Outcomes, University of Minnesota, 2011

2011-01-01

322

Preparing ESL Students for "Real" College Writing: A Glimpse of Common Writing Tasks ESL Students Encounter at One Community College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relevance of English as a Second Language (ESL) courses to the "real world" of college writing is an ongoing issue for those who teach ESL. Ideally, ESL composition classes should help students make connections between what they learn about writing and the ways they might need to write later on in their academic careers. Unfortunately, as…

Carroll, Julia; Dunkelblau, Helene

2011-01-01

323

Hints of a Fundamental Misconception in Cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the frequency and range of student ideas regarding the Big Bang, nearly 1,000 students from middle school, secondary school, and college were surveyed and asked if they had heard of the Big Bang and, if so, to describe it. In analyzing their responses, we uncovered an unexpected result that more than half of the students who stated that

Edward E. Prather; Timothy F. Slater; Erika G. Offerdahl

2002-01-01

324

Primary-Grade Students' Knowledge and Thinking About Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

K-3 students were interviewed to elicit their knowledge and thinking (including misconceptions) about families, a major topic in primary social studies. Along with valid knowledge, the students displayed significant knowledge gaps and misconceptions about marriage, kinship relations, and family life in the past, in other cultures, and in urban vs.…

Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet

2005-01-01

325

Characteristics of learning computer-controlled mechanisms by teachers and students in a common laboratory environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing popularity of robotics education motivates developing its didactics and studying it in teacher training programs.\\u000a This paper presents a study conducted in the Department of Education in Technology and Science, Technion, in which university\\u000a students and school pupils cope with robotics challenges of designing, building and operating computer-controlled mechanisms.\\u000a The university students were involved in developing robot prototypes and

Evgeny Korchnoy; Igor M. Verner

2010-01-01

326

Student's Explanations of Chemical Phenomena: macro and micro differences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated patterns of students' science thinking across four different science phenomena, focusing on changes with age and science education. British secondary school students in three age groups were offered sentences appearing on a computer screen that gave different explanations for four common changes in materials: ice melting, sugar dissolving in water, a candle burning and an iron nail rusting. The students were asked whether the sentences 'made sense' to them. The sentences, composed of fixed terms, were designed to embody good science explanations, common misconceptions, and basic descriptive and causal categories relating to the physical world. They were generated from a systemic network of explanation types. The results enabled new distinctions to be made between students' ideas at the substance, molecular and atomic level according to their length of time in science education. Implications regarding the age at which students are introduced to atomic theory are considered.

Brosnan, Tim; Reynolds, Yvonne

2001-01-01

327

Clinical misconceptions dispelled by epidemiological research.  

PubMed

The epidemiological approach to investigation of cardiovascular disease was innovated in 1948 by Ancel Keys' Seven Countries Study and T.R. Dawber's Framingham Heart Study. Conducted in representative samples of the general population, these investigations provided an undistorted perception of the clinical spectrum of cardiovascular disease, its incidence and prognosis, the lifestyles and personal attributes that predispose to cardiovascular disease, and clues to pathogenesis. The many insights gained corrected numerous widely held misconceptions derived from clinical studies. It was learned, for example, that the adverse consequences of hypertension do not derive chiefly from the diastolic pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy was not an incidental compensatory phenomenon, and small amounts of proteinuria were more than orthostatic trivia. Exercise was considered dangerous for cardiovascular disease candidates; smoking, cholesterol, and a fatty diet were regarded as questionable promoters of atherosclerosis. The entities of sudden death and unrecognized myocardial infarction were not widely appreciated as prominent features of coronary disease, and the disabling and lethal nature of cardiac failure and atrial fibrillation was underestimated. It took epidemiological research to coin the term "risk factor" and dispel the notion that cardiovascular disease must have a single origin. Epidemiological investigation provided health professionals with multifactorial risk profiles to more efficiently target candidates for cardiovascular disease for preventive measures. Clinicians now look to epidemiological research to provide definitive information about possible predisposing factors for cardiovascular disease and preventive measures that are justified. As a result, clinicians are less inclined to regard usual or average values as acceptable and are more inclined to regard optimal values as "normal." Cardiovascular events are coming to be regarded as a medical failure rather than the first indication of treatment. PMID:7586324

Kannel, W B

1995-12-01

328

Prospective Teachers' Misconceptions about the Atomic Structure in the Context of Electrification by Friction and an Activity in Order to Remedy Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science educators have generally agreed that understanding the atom concept is the basis of science education. However, the numerous research studies have shown that many students at all educational levels have difficulties understanding this concept. This study was developed under three headings. The first was to identify misconceptions that…

Sarikaya, Mustafa

2007-01-01

329

The cross product of two vectors is notjust another vector ?? a major misconception being perpetuated in calculus and vector analysis textbooks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast majority of calculus textbooks perpetuate the misconception that the cross product of two vectors is simply another vector. This is despite the fact that scientists have known for over a century that such a representation creates major inadequacies in our description of various branches of physics. Unless it is our intent to force students to unlearn false ideas

Seymour B. Elk

1997-01-01

330

Prospective teachers' misconceptions about the atomic structure in the context of electrification by friction and an activity in order to remedy them  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science educators have generally agreed that understanding the atom concept is the basis of science education. However, the numerous research studies have shown that many students at all educational levels have difficulties understanding this concept. This study was developed under three headings. The first was to identify misconceptions that prospective teachers (PTs) had about atomic structure in the context of

Mustafa Sarikaya

2007-01-01

331

Misconceptions about incline speed for nonlinear slopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 3 experiments,college students provided qualitative predictions about a marble's speed along nonlinear inclines. When predicting the outcome of a race between identical marbles along differently shaped ramps,most students predicted incorrectly that the shorter path was necessarily quicker (the shorter- quicker belief). When comparing instantaneous speed at 2 points,most students predicted incorrectly that incline speed depended on the slope at

Doug Rohrer

2002-01-01

332

DISPELLING MYTHS AND MISCONCEPTIONS TO IMPLEMENT A SAFETY CULTURE  

SciTech Connect

Industrial accidents are typically reported in terms of technological malfunctions, ignoring the human element in accident causation. However, over two-thirds of all accidents are attributable to human and organizational factors (e.g., planning, written procedures, job factors, training, communication, and teamwork), thereby affecting risk perception, behavior and attitudes. This paper reviews the development of WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Program that addresses human and organizational factors from a top-down, bottom-up approach. This approach is derived from the Department of Energy's Integrated Safety Management System. As a result, dispelling common myths and misconceptions about safety, while empowering employees to ''STOP work'' if necessary, have contributed to reducing an unusually high number of vehicle, ergonomic and slip/trip/fall incidents successfully. Furthermore, the safety culture that has developed within WESKEM, LLC's workforce consists of three common characteristics: (1) all employees hold safety as a value; (2) each individual feels responsible for the safety of their co-workers as well as themselves; and (3) each individual is willing and able to ''go beyond the call of duty'' on behalf of the safety of others. WESKEM, LLC as a company, upholds the safety culture and continues to enhance its existing ES&H program by incorporating employee feedback and lessons learned collected from other high-stress industries, thereby protecting its most vital resource - the employees. The success of this program is evident by reduced accident and injury rates, as well as the number of safe work hours accrued while performing hands-on field activities. WESKEM, LLC (Paducah + Oak Ridge) achieved over 800,000 safe work hours through August 2002. WESKEM-Paducah has achieved over 665,000 safe work hours without a recordable injury or lost workday case since it started operations on February 28, 2000.

Potts, T. Todd; Smith, Ken; Hylko, James M.

2003-02-27

333

Common future and personal responsibilities: A comparison between Italian and Burundian students.  

PubMed

The political, social, and cultural history of a nation modulates the representations of rights and duties. The aim of this research is to compare students from two countries (Italy and Burundi) in terms of how they define their rights and duties. In the two countries, there are differences both in the legal protection of fundamental rights and in regard to material conditions, which in turn ensure the effectiveness of rights. Focus groups structured around nine questions were conducted in Burundi and in Italy. The discussions with Italian and Burundian students showed some clear differences. Although both groups speak of rights as something to be safeguarded and something that everyone is born with, Italian students do not recognize the complementarity of rights and duties and consider the latter simply as a limit and an obstacle to individual enhancement. On the contrary, Burundian adolescents seem more aware of their personal responsibilities and their role in protecting human rights. PMID:22853565

Berti, Chiara; Passini, Stefano

2012-08-01

334

Listening Skills: Report 3. Assessing Student Progress on the Common Curriculum Goals. English Language Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides suggestions on how a language arts listening skills assessment program could be structured to ensure that school districts meet the Common Curriculum Goals of the public elementary and secondary schools in Oregon. This report includes: (1) a list of common curriculum goals that relate to listening; (2) general implications…

Spandel, Vicki

335

Speaking Skills: Report 2. Assessing Student Progress on the Common Curriculum Goals. English Language Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides suggestions on how a language arts speaking skills assessment program could be structured to ensure that school districts meet the Common Curriculum Goals of the public elementary and secondary schools in Oregon. This report includes: (1) a list of common curriculum goals that relate to speaking; (2) general implications for…

Spandel, Vicki

336

Study Skills: Report 5. Assessing Student Progress on the Common Curriculum Goals. English Language Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides suggestions on how a language arts study skills assessment program could be structured to ensure that school districts meet the Common Curriculum Goals of the public elementary and secondary schools in Oregon. This report includes: (1) a list of Common Curriculum Goals that relate to study skills; (2) general implications for…

Mazzio, Frank

337

Subjective Theories of Indonesian Agronomy and Biology Teacher Students on Environmental Commons Dilemmas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fostering the cognitive skills to analyse environmental "commons dilemmas" is an urgent task of environmental education globally. Commons dilemmas are characterised by structural incentives to overexploit a natural resource; their solution is particularly pressing in threatened biodiversity "hotspot" areas. Solutions to these dilemmas require…

Koch, Sebastian; Barkmann, Jan; Sundawati, Leti; Bogeholz, Susanne

2013-01-01

338

Subjective Theories of Indonesian Agronomy and Biology Teacher Students on Environmental Commons Dilemmas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fostering the cognitive skills to analyse environmental "commons dilemmas" is an urgent task of environmental education globally. Commons dilemmas are characterised by structural incentives to overexploit a natural resource; their solution is particularly pressing in threatened biodiversity "hotspot" areas. Solutions to these dilemmas require…

Koch, Sebastian; Barkmann, Jan; Sundawati, Leti; Bogeholz, Susanne

2013-01-01

339

Mastering the Concepts of Geologic Time: Novice Students' Understanding of the Principles of Relative Age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Misconceptions can adversely affect students’ mastery of the fundamental geoscience concepts necessary for development of the knowledge base required to become a professional geoscientist. In the fall of 2009, in-class learning assessments were introduced into a large (400 student) undergraduate introductory geoscience course to help students develop expert-like problem solving skills for geologic problems. They were also designed to reveal studentsmisconceptions on geoscience concepts in order to help direct the course of instruction. These assessments were based on simple, real-world scenarios that geoscientists encounter in their research. One of these assessments focused on the application of concepts of geologic time. It asked students to give the relative ages of granite, schist and shale based on a sketch of two outcrops, and to describe the reasoning behind their answer. In order to test all of the principles of relative age, the assignment had two possible solutions. A post-course analysis of student responses on these assessments was carried out using a modified constant comparative analysis method to identify common misconceptions. This analysis revealed that 61% of students failed to identify both possible solutions. Furthermore, 55% of students applied the principle of superposition to intrusive igneous and metamorphic rocks, and 18% treated the once connected outcrops as having separate geologic histories. 56% of students could not support their proposed geologic history with appropriate reasoning. These results suggest that the principles of relative geologic time that students had the greatest difficulty with were when to apply the principle of superposition and how to apply the principle of original continuity. Students also had difficulty using the principles of relative age to provide appropriate scientific reasoning for their choices.

Speta, M.; Reid, L.

2010-12-01

340

Characteristics of Learning Computer-Controlled Mechanisms by Teachers and Students in a Common Laboratory Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Growing popularity of robotics education motivates developing its didactics and studying it in teacher training programs. This paper presents a study conducted in the Department of Education in Technology and Science, Technion, in which university students and school pupils cope with robotics challenges of designing, building and operating…

Korchnoy, Evgeny; Verner, Igor M.

2010-01-01

341

Experienced and prospective teachers' selections of compliance?gaining messages for “commonstudent misbehaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has examined either prospective or experienced teachers’ reported use of Behavior Alteration Techniques (BATs). In extension, this study differentiates between both preteachers’ and experienced teachers’ cognitive schemes for classroom management. Respondents selected those strategies they would use to gain student compliance in misbehavior scenarios reflecting misbehavior type (active\\/passive) and intensity (frequent\\/occasional). Employing pro and antisocial BAT factors as criterion

Patricia Kearney; Timothy G. Plax; Gail Sorensen; Val R. Smith

1988-01-01

342

Medical clerkships do not reduce common prescription errors among medical students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prescribing correctly represents one of the most essential skills of a doctor when it comes to patient safety. Unfortunately,\\u000a prescribing errors still account for a large proportion of avoidable drug-related problems (DRP). Despite this shortcoming,\\u000a many medical schools do not provide specific prescribing training and assume that students acquire sufficient prescribing\\u000a skills during regular medical clerkships. We therefore investigated whether

N. Celebi; K. Kirchhoff; M. Lammerding-Köppel; R. Riessen; Peter Weyrich

2010-01-01

343

Problems Associated with Three Commonly Used Drugs: A Survey of College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A representative 1% sample of undergraduate and graduate students at a large midwestern university were surveyed regarding their use of and problems with three drugs — alcohol, aspirin and marijuana. Alcohol and aspirin use during the past year were both reported by 92.8% of the sample; marijuana use during the past year was reported by 65.5%. Nearly three-fourths of the

David F. Duncan; Chorsie E. Martin

1987-01-01

344

The Foreign Language Requirement: Advising the Anxious Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With renewed emphasis on core curricula, many students are for the first time confronting a foreign language requirement. Some misconceptions about foreign language study, sources of student anxiety, and practical suggestions to advisors are discussed. (MLW)|

Lippmann, Jane N.; Lagowski, Jeanne M.

1985-01-01

345

Teaching Business Ethics: The Effectiveness of Common Pedagogical Practices in Developing Students' Moral Judgment Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the effectiveness of pedagogical practices used to teach business ethics. The business community has greatly increased its demands for better ethics education in business programs. Educators have generally agreed that the ethical principles of business people have declined. It is important, then, to examine how common

Bosco, Susan M.; Melchar, David E.; Beauvais, Laura L.; Desplaces, David E.

2010-01-01

346

Writing Skills: Report 1. Assessing Student Progress in the Common Curriculum Goals. English Language Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides suggestions on how a language arts writing skills assessment program could be structured to ensure that school districts in Oregon carry out the intent of state standards. The report includes: (1) a list of common curriculum goals that relate to writing; (2) general implications for assessment; (3) criteria for…

Spandel, Vicki

347

Play It Again, Sam! Adapting Common Games into Multimedia Models Used for Student Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides guidelines on how to adapt common games such as checkers, tic tac toe, obstacle courses, and memory joggers into interactive games in multimedia courseware. Emphasizes creating generic games that can be recycled and used for multiple topics to save development time and keep costs low. Discusses topic themes, game structure, and…

Metcalf, Karen K.; Barlow, Amy; Hudson, Lisa; Jones, Elizabeth; Lyons, Dennis; Piersall, James; Munfus, Laureen

1998-01-01

348

Reasoning about Evolutionary History: Post-Secondary Students' Knowledge of Most Recent Common Ancestry and Homoplasy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evolution curricula are replete with information about Darwin's theory of evolution as well as microevolutionary mechanisms underlying this process of change. However, other fundamental facets of evolutionary theory, particularly those related to macroevolution are often missing. One crucial idea typically overlooked is that of most recent common

Morabito, Nancy P.; Catley, Kefyn M.; Novick, Laura R.

2010-01-01

349

Teaching Business Ethics: The Effectiveness of Common Pedagogical Practices in Developing Students' Moral Judgment Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effectiveness of pedagogical practices used to teach business ethics. The business community has greatly increased its demands for better ethics education in business programs. Educators have generally agreed that the ethical principles of business people have declined. It is important, then, to examine how common

Bosco, Susan M.; Melchar, David E.; Beauvais, Laura L.; Desplaces, David E.

2010-01-01

350

The Common Core and the Future of Student Assessment in Ohio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ohio adopted the Common Core standards in English language arts (ELA) and math last year, but now stands at a crossroad in making sure statewide assessments are aligned to those standards. Ohio is a participating member in two federally funded assessment consortia--the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) and the Partnership for the…

Porter-Magee, Kathleen

2011-01-01

351

The Most Common Habits from more than 200 English Papers written by Graduate Chinese Engineering Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some of the most common Chinese-English habits observed from over two hundred English technical papers by Chinese writers. The habits are explained and in most cases, example text from an actual paper is given along with preferred text. An attempt is made to explain how to correct and prevent such mistakes. In some cases a possible explanation

Felicia Brittman

352

Drawing on Students' Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Effective instruction requires continual assessment of student understanding to identify and redirect misconceptions. This is particularly important when dealing with topics that seem straightforward to the teacher but may go beyond the personal experience of many students, such as the life cycle of flowering plants. Life cycles are a core topic…

Schussler, Elisabeth; Winslow, Jeff

2007-01-01

353

Misconceptions about incline speed for nonlinear slopes.  

PubMed

In 3 experiments, college students provided qualitative predictions about a marble's speed along nonlinear inclines. When predicting the outcome of a race between identical marbles along differently shaped ramps, most students predicted incorrectly that the shorter path was necessarily quicker (the shorter-quicker belief). When comparing instantaneous speed at 2 points, most students predicted incorrectly that incline speed depended on the slope at that point (the slope-speed belief). A final experiment provides evidence that the slope-speed belief reflects a deeper fallacy regarding the resistance encountered while traversing inclines and lifting objects. This fallacy also predicts the prevalent belief that heavier objects fall faster than lighter objects during incline descent or free fall. PMID:12190261

Rohrer, Doug

2002-08-01

354

Training Evaluation in the Military: Misconceptions, Opportunities, and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to a number of misconceptions about training evaluation in the military, these evaluations are rarely done. In this article, we review recent findings that identify ob- stacles to training evaluation in the military and offer some alternatives for dealing with these problems. Further, we discuss the use of theoretically driven evaluation outcomes to provide evaluators with information that can

Eduardo Salas; Laura M. Milham; Clint A. Bowers

2003-01-01

355

Textbook Errors and Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Energetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses misconceptions and outdated models appearing in biology textbooks for concepts involving bioenergetics and chemical reactions; adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as the energy currency of cells; the myth of high energy phosphate bonds; structural properties of ATP; ATP production from respiration and fermentation; ATP as an energy storage…

Storey, Richard D.

1992-01-01

356

Primary Science Assessment Item Setters' Misconceptions Concerning Biological Science Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Assessment is an integral and vital part of teaching and learning, providing feedback on progress through the assessment period to both learners and teachers. However, if test items are flawed because of misconceptions held by the question setter, then such test items are invalid as assessment tools. Moreover, such flawed items are also likely to…

Boo, Hong Kwen

2007-01-01

357

Textbook Errors and Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Energetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses misconceptions and outdated models appearing in biology textbooks for concepts involving bioenergetics and chemical reactions; adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as the energy currency of cells; the myth of high energy phosphate bonds; structural properties of ATP; ATP production from respiration and fermentation; ATP as an energy storage…

Storey, Richard D.

1992-01-01

358

Negotiations in Electronic Commerce: Methodological Misconceptions and a Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We contrast the software agent and decision support based approaches to negotiation in the con- text of electronic commerce, and explore their respective limitations. The software agent litera- ture on negotiations shows several misconceptions about the nature of negotiations, interdepend- encies between goals and issues, the significance of different types of processes and representa- tion schemes, etc. Particularly important among

Gregory E. Kersten; Sunil J. Noronha

1999-01-01

359

A Compilation and Review of over 500 Geoscience Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper organizes and analyses over 500 geoscience misconceptions relating to earthquakes, earth structure, geologic resources, glaciers, historical geology, karst (limestone terrains), plate tectonics, rivers, rocks and minerals, soils, volcanoes, and weathering and erosion. Journal and reliable web resources were reviewed to discover (1) the…

Francek, Mark

2013-01-01

360

A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test…

Arslan, Harika Ozge; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

2012-01-01

361

The prevalence of certain popular misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made of the prevalence of belief in current superstitions in a group of high school students from two high schools in New York City. The study is based on the results from 100 individuals of each sex for whom intelligence records were available. The median age for both boys and girls is about 17 years. A true-false

H. E. Garrett; T. R. Fisher

1926-01-01

362

Matter Scatter and Energy Anarchy. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is Simply Common Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Shows that the second law of thermodynamics is in the common experience of many people and if taught first, before the law of conservation, can result in fewer misconceptions among pupils. Stresses the use of common experiences in teaching. (CW)|

Ross, Keith A.

1988-01-01

363

Effectiveness of Refutational Teaching for High- and Low-Achieving Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assessed the effectiveness of refutational readings and lecture on decreasing psychological misconceptions for students of high versus low levels of achievement. During the course of a semester we addressed introductory psychology students' misconceptions with refutational readings, refutational lecture, or not at all. From pre- and post-test…

Kowalski, Patricia; Taylor, Annette Kujawski

2011-01-01

364

Using Simple Manipulatives to Improve Student Comprehension of a Complex Biological Process: Protein Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biological systems and living processes involve a complex interplay of biochemicals and macromolecular structures that can be challenging for undergraduate students to comprehend and, thus, misconceptions abound. Protein synthesis, or translation, is an example of a biological process for which students often hold many misconceptions. This article…

Guzman, Karen; Bartlett, John

2012-01-01

365

Using Simple Manipulatives to Improve Student Comprehension of a Complex Biological Process: Protein Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Biological systems and living processes involve a complex interplay of biochemicals and macromolecular structures that can be challenging for undergraduate students to comprehend and, thus, misconceptions abound. Protein synthesis, or translation, is an example of a biological process for which students often hold many misconceptions. This…

Guzman, Karen; Bartlett, John

2012-01-01

366

College Students' Beliefs in the Ten-Percent Myth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A widespread misconception that has not been studied in previous research on misconceptions is the claim that most people use only about 10% of their potential brain power. We hypothesized that psychology majors would be less likely to believe in this ten-percent myth than would control students with no training in psychology. The hypothesis was not supported, but psychology majors

Kenneth L. Higbee; Samuel L. Clay

1998-01-01

367

Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment and Staff Counts From the Common Core of Data: School Year 2007-08. First Look. NCES 2010-309  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This First Look presents national and state level data on student enrollment by grade and by race/ethnicity within grade, the numbers of teachers and other education staff, and several student/staff ratios for the 2007-08 school year. It uses data from the State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education of the Common Core of Data…

Noel, Amber M.; Sable, Jennifer

2009-01-01

368

Dietary carcinogens, environmental pollution, and cancer: Some misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various misconceptions about dietary carcinogens, pesticide residues, and cancer causation are discussed. The pesticides in\\u000a our diet are 99.99% natural, since plants make an enormous variety of toxins against fungi, insects, and animal predators.\\u000a Although only 50 of these natural pesticides have been tested in animal cancer tests, about half of them are carcinogens.\\u000a About half of all chemicals tested

Bruce N. Ames; Lois Swirsky Gold

1990-01-01

369

School Students' Ideas about Air Pollution: Hindrance or Help for Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses a free-form questionnaire to explore 10- and 11-year-old students' ideas about the nature of air pollution and its biological and physical effects. Suggests that students hold misconceptions in this area. (DDR)|

Thornber, Jillian; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

1999-01-01

370

An Adaptive Student Centered Curriculum for an Intelligent Training System  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intelligent tutoring system customizes its presentation of knowledge to the individual needs of each student based on a model of the student. Student models are more complex than other user models because the student is likely to have misconceptions. We have addressed several difficult issues in reasoning about a student's knowledge and skills within a real-time simulation-based training system.

Chris Eliot; Beverly Park Woolf

1995-01-01

371

Frames of reference and students' conceptual understanding of seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis focused on students' misconceptions in the topic of seasons. Its three investigations explored the central question of: How do frames of reference influence students' conceptual understanding of seasons? The results from these investigations found that some single frames of reference can limit students' understanding of seasons or confuse students, while additional frames of reference can enhance students' understanding.

Nalini Michelle Chandra

2006-01-01

372

Students' Probabilistic Thinking in Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evaluates the thinking of third grade students in relation to an instructional program in probability which was informed by a research-based framework that included a description of students' probabilistic thinking. Reveals that overcoming misconceptions in sample space, applying both part-part and part-whole reasoning, and using invented…

Jones, Graham A.; Langrall, Cynthia W.; Thornton, Carol A.; Mogill, A. Timothy

1999-01-01

373

Harnessing Technology to Improve Formative Assessment of Student Conceptions in STEM: Forging a National Network  

PubMed Central

Concept inventories, consisting of multiple-choice questions designed around common student misconceptions, are designed to reveal student thinking. However, students often have complex, heterogeneous ideas about scientific concepts. Constructed-response assessments, in which students must create their own answer, may better reveal students’ thinking, but are time- and resource-intensive to evaluate. This report describes the initial meeting of a National Science Foundation–funded cross-institutional collaboration of interdisciplinary science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education researchers interested in exploring the use of automated text analysis to evaluate constructed-response assessments. Participants at the meeting shared existing work on lexical analysis and concept inventories, participated in technology demonstrations and workshops, and discussed research goals. We are seeking interested collaborators to join our research community.

Haudek, Kevin C.; Kaplan, Jennifer J.; Knight, Jennifer; Long, Tammy; Merrill, John; Munn, Alan; Nehm, Ross; Smith, Michelle; Urban-Lurain, Mark

2011-01-01

374

Common Themes, Challenges, Issues, and Aspirations of International Students Pursuing Doctoral Degrees in Education at a Midwestern University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|International students' studying abroad is a complicated phenomenon that has touched both the countries that send the students and those that receive them. The issues of international students have affected academic circles as well as public and private sectors. Participation of all stakeholders in higher education is crucial to the progress of…

Mtika, Joe Mithi

2009-01-01

375

Patterns of thinking about phylogenetic trees: A study of student learning and the potential of tree thinking to improve comprehension of biological concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolution education is a critical yet challenging component of teaching and learning biology. There is frequently an emphasis on natural selection when teaching about evolution and conducting educational research. A full understanding of evolution, however, integrates evolutionary processes, such as natural selection, with the resulting evolutionary patterns, such as species divergence. Phylogenetic trees are models of evolutionary patterns. The perspective gained from understanding biology through phylogenetic analyses is referred to as tree thinking. Due to the increasing prevalence of tree thinking in biology, understanding how to read phylogenetic trees is an important skill for students to learn. Interpreting graphics is not an intuitive process, as graphical representations are semiotic objects. This is certainly true concerning phylogenetic tree interpretation. Previous research and anecdotal evidence report that students struggle to correctly interpret trees. The objective of this research was to describe and investigate the rationale underpinning the prior knowledge of introductory biology students' tree thinking Understanding prior knowledge is valuable as prior knowledge influences future learning. In Chapter 1, qualitative methods such as semi-structured interviews were used to explore patterns of student rationale in regard to tree thinking. Seven common tree thinking misconceptions are described: (1) Equating the degree of trait similarity with the extent of relatedness, (2) Environmental change is a necessary prerequisite to evolution, (3) Essentialism of species, (4) Evolution is inherently progressive, (5) Evolution is a linear process, (6) Not all species are related, and (7) Trees portray evolution through the hybridization of species. These misconceptions are based in students' incomplete or incorrect understanding of evolution. These misconceptions are often reinforced by the misapplication of cultural conventions to make sense of trees. Chapter 2 explores the construction, validity, and reliability of a tree thinking concept inventory. Concept inventories are research based instruments that diagnose faulty reasoning among students. Such inventories are tools for improving teaching and learning of concepts. Test scores indicate that tree thinking misconceptions are held by novice and intermediate biology students. Finally, Chapter 3 presents a tree thinking rubric. The rubric aids teachers in selecting and improving introductory tree thinking learning exercises that address students' tree thinking misconceptions.

Naegle, Erin

376

Invited commentary: ecologic studies--biases, misconceptions, and counterexamples.  

PubMed

Many authors have pointed out that relative-risk estimates derived from ecologic data are vulnerable to biases not found in estimates derived from individual-level data. Nevertheless, biases in ecologic studies still are often dealt with in the same manner as biases in other observational studies, and so are not given adequate treatment. This commentary reviews and illustrates some of the more recent findings about bias in ecologic estimates. Special attention is given to problems of ecologic confounder control when individual risks follow a nonlinear model, and to misconceptions about ecologic bias that have appeared in the literature. PMID:8178788

Greenland, S; Robins, J

1994-04-15

377

Alleged health effects of electromagnetic fields: the misconceptions continue.  

PubMed

Exposures to electric or magnetic fields (including microwaves), in residential or occupational settings, have been reported to be associated with health problems, particularly cancer and reproductive mishaps. Misconceptions about these alleged effects continue to be published in the medical and scientific literature, as well as in popular press reports. This paper is the third in a series of papers challenging invalid statements relating to these alleged effects. Reports dealing with epidemiologic studies (including exposure assessment, consistency, and public policy implications), the use of biomarkers, and risk assessment are analyzed. PMID:7472919

Jauchem, J R

1995-01-01

378

The effect of computer simulations and the learning cycle on students' conceptual understanding of Newton's three laws of motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine how three different methods of instruction would affect a student's conceptual understanding of Sir Isaac Newton's three laws of motion. The three methods were the expository, learning cycle, and computer simulations. Three sections of students enrolled in a suburban mid-western high school's introductory physics course were the subjects of this study. The students' conceptual understanding of Newton's three laws of motion were assessed prior to and after instructional treatment with concept mapping. All concept maps were scored by the teacher and a colleague well-practiced in the use of concept maps. The inter-rater reliability coefficients ranged from 0.23 to 0.61. After instruction, a 2-tier multiple-choice instrument was used to determine if any gains had been achieved in students' conceptual understanding as well as to identify any remaining misconceptions. All gain scores in concept mapping assessment categories were analyzed using one-way ANOVAs. ANOVAs were also run on all 12 individual items on the 2-tier test as well as overall student total scores, No significant differences were found between any of the groups. The split-half reliability of the two-tier instrument was 0.59. Difficulty indices ranged from 0.12 to 0.56, and discrimination indices ranged from 0.11 to 0.61. Each item was analyzed to determine student understanding of, and identifying misconceptions about the nature of forces as they pertain to Newton's laws of motion. Analysis of concept mapping results and 2-tier items, clearly indicated that most of the students in all groups still adhere to the common misconception that motion implies that a force must be present in order to maintain an object's state of motion or conversely that no motion implies that there are no forces acting on the object.

Rutherford, Paul Mason, Jr.

379

Student Difficulties with Wave Concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation contains the results of a research study on misconceptions students have concerning wave mechanics and motion. The results indicate that many students have incorrect mental models of waves and use these erroneous models to interpret problems related to wave mechanics. The study also tested instructional methods to help students overcome their difficulties, which represent an obstacle to learning quantum mechanics. Student thinking on classical wave motion and the related mathematics is also examined.

Wittmann, Michael C.

2005-08-07

380

Development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test measuring college biology students' understanding of diffusion and osmosis after a course of instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test measuring college biology students' understanding of diffusion and osmosis after a course of instruction. The development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development. Misconception data were collected from interviews and multiple-choice questions with free response

Arthur Louis Odom; Lloyd H. Barrow

1995-01-01

381

A Longitudinal Study of Students 'Understanding of Decimal Notation: An Overview and Refined Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the major results of a large-scale longitudinal study of students' misconceptions of decimal notation, drawing them together and presenting refined results. Best estimates of the prevalence of various misconceptions about decimal numbers from both cross-sectional and longitudinal perspectives are provided, as well as some estimates of persistence. Strengths, limitations and suggestions for improvements to

Vicki Steinle; Kaye Stacey

382

The Bottom Line: An Exercise to Help Students Understand How Social Inequality Is Actively Constructed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the important misconceptions in the American view of poverty is that people are poor because they do not work. This article presents an exercise, the "bottom line," which helps dispel students' misconceptions about the working poor. Through extensive primary-data collection and assembling a budget for low-skilled workers, the exercise: (1)…

Abelev, Melissa; Vincent, M. Bess; Haney, Timothy J.

2008-01-01

383

The Bottom Line: An Exercise to Help Students Understand How Social Inequality Is Actively Constructed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the important misconceptions in the American view of poverty is that people are poor because they do not work. This article presents an exercise, the "bottom line," which helps dispel students' misconceptions about the working poor. Through extensive primary-data collection and assembling a budget for low-skilled workers, the exercise: (1)…

Abelev, Melissa; Vincent, M. Bess; Haney, Timothy J.

2008-01-01

384

Integrated Assessment Model--A Project-Based Approach: Report 8. Assessing Student Progress on the Common Curriculum Goals. English Language Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides suggestions on how to implement an integrated assessment model to assess comprehensive student projects to ensure that school districts meet the Common Curriculum Goals of the public elementary and secondary schools in Oregon. As a supplement to existing standardized testing programs, the integrated model may be especially…

Olsen, Marilyn

385

Common Issues and Collaborative Solutions: A Comparison of Student Alcohol Use Behaviors at the Community College and 4-Year Institutional Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The literature exploring commonalities between four-year and community college student alcohol use is relatively scarce. A possible reason for this discrepancy is the heavy focus on alcohol issues at university colleges. Coll (1999) presented one of the first brief assessments comparing community and four-year colleges on alcohol use and related…

Blowers, Jerimy

2009-01-01

386

Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment and Staff Counts from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2007-2008. First Look.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents findings on the numbers of public school students and staff in the United States and other jurisdictions1 in school year 200708, using data from the State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education of the Common Core of...

A. M. Noel C. S. Chen J. Sable

2009-01-01

387

Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment and Staff Counts from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2008-09. First Look. NCES 2010-347  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents findings on the numbers of public school students and staff in the United States and other jurisdictions in school year 2008-09, using data from the State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that are reported by state…

Sable, Jennifer; Plotts, Chris

2010-01-01

388

Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment and Staff from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2006-07. First Look. NCES 2009-305  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents findings on the numbers of public school students and staff in the United States and other jurisdictions in school year 2006-07, using data from the State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that are reported by State…

Sable, Jennifer; Noel, Amber; Hoffman, Lee

2008-01-01

389

Can Using Human Examples Diminish the Number of Misconceptions Held Concerning Mendelian Genetics Concepts?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores high school biology and the teaching of genetics. The question is asked, Can the use of relevant, meaningful human genetics concepts diminish the number of misconceptions formed between new and existing concepts? Can the application of the Ausubelian learning theory also decrease the acquisition of misconceptions? (SAH)

Moore, John M.

2000-01-01

390

Using the EM algorithm to train neural networks: misconceptions and a new algorithm for multiclass classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been of considerable interest in recent years as the basis for various algorithms in application areas of neural networks such as pattern recognition. However, there exists some misconceptions concerning its application to neural networks. In this paper, we clarify these misconceptions and consider how the EM algorithm can be adopted to train multilayer perceptron (MLP)

Shu-Kay Ng; Geoffrey John McLachlan

2004-01-01

391

Detailed Analysis of Misconceptions as a Basis for Developing Remedial Instruction: The Case of Photosynthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A great number of misconceptions in diverse subject areas as well as across age levels have been documented and described. Photosynthesis is one of the more intensively studied areas in biology. The purpose of this research was to carefully select and define misconceptions about photosynthesis needing remedial efforts. To achieve this, a…

Amir, Ruth; Tamir, Pinchas

392

Playing with Science: An Investigation of Young Children's Science Conceptions and Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this research was to investigate the conceptions and misconceptions of young children (ages 3-8) related to science concepts, skills, and phenomena. These conceptions and misconceptions were investigated within the framework of the Pennsylvania Early Learning Standards for Pre-Kindergarten and the Pennsylvania Standards for…

Smolleck, Lori; Hershberger, Vanessa

2011-01-01

393

Open Access to Field Research: Engaging the General Public and Dispelling Misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general public holds many misconceptions about the geosciences. Often, people confuse geologists with archaeologists, or believe geoscience careers are limited to petroleum and\\/or mineral exploration. People in resource-rich areas may have had only negative experiences with geoscientists, where resource extraction has come at the expense of quality of life and property. These misconceptions and negative perceptions are serious threats

A. E. Egger

2005-01-01

394

Sources of Stereotypes and Misconceptions of Aging: A Comparative Study of Cohort Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional stereotypes and attitudes about the elderly are of interest to both researchers and health care providers. Misconceptions about the elderly and the sources of these misconceptions were examined in undergraduates (N=150) and in elderly subjects (N=50). Subjects completed the Miller-Dodder revision of Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz One…

Kluge, Nancy A.; And Others

395

A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers’ Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test procedure as described by Treagust constitutes the framework for this study. To differentiate a

Harika Ozge Arslan; Ceyhan Cigdemoglu; Christine Moseley

2012-01-01

396

Students' with visual impairments conceptions of causes of seasonal change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand and describe the misconceptions that may exist among students with visual impairments and instructional techniques that may help them learn scientific concepts of seasonal change. Teachers' perceptions of student learning were also examined. Data were obtained from students 1 week prior to and 2 weeks after instruction. Students in a comparison

Tiffany A. Wild

2008-01-01

397

Students' Knowledge of "Things That Go Bump in the Night."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questionnaires designed to tap misconceptions of the content of psychology courses can serve as pedagogical devices useful for introducing students to topics and for evaluating student learning. The topic of sleep and dreams is of particular interest to students. To develop a useful introductory tool and to evaluate students' knowledge of sleep,…

Palladino, Joseph J.; Carducci, Bernardo J.

398

Uncovering Student Thinking in Mathematics: 25 Formative Assessment Probes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students learn at varying rates, and if a misconception in mathematics develops early, it may be carried from year to year and obstruct a student's progress. To identify fallacies in students' preconceived ideas, "Uncovering Student Thinking in Mathematics" offers educators a powerful diagnostic technique in the form of field-tested assessment…

Rose, Cheryl M.; Minton, Leslie; Arline, Carolyn B.

2006-01-01

399

Students' Knowledge of "Things That Go Bump in the Night."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Questionnaires designed to tap misconceptions of the content of psychology courses can serve as pedagogical devices useful for introducing students to topics and for evaluating student learning. The topic of sleep and dreams is of particular interest to students. To develop a useful introductory tool and to evaluate students' knowledge of sleep,…

Palladino, Joseph J.; Carducci, Bernardo J.

400

Students Better Be on Their Best Behavior: How to Prepare for the Most Common Job Interviewing Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly every student will go through the selection interview process to obtain a job in his or her future vocation. Regardless of the major of the student or the profession which they will pursue, the selection interview remains a constant. There has been some attention paid to the validity of the selection interview, and personality constructs…

Browning, Blair W.; Cunningham, John R.

2012-01-01

401

First year chemical engineering students' conceptions of energy in solution processes: Phenomenographic categories for common knowledge construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we examine first-year chemical engineering students' conceptions of the energy changes taking place in dissolution. Students were individually interviewed with three tasks in which three different salts were dissolved in water, and 17 transcripts were analyzed using a phenomenographic methodology. Four descriptive categories of energy in dissolution were discerned: (a) you give energy (n = 1); (b)

Jazlin V. Ebenezer; Duncan M. Fraser

2001-01-01

402

A New System for Conceptualizing College Students' Problems: Types of Crises and the Inventory of Common Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a new system for conceptualizing college students' problems. They see it as a more comprehensive and practical system than those based solely on DSM-III psychiatric diagnoses. The first component of this system consists of three broad types of crises, including situational and developmental crises, as well as crises reflecting psycho-pathology. The other component focuses on students' presenting

Jeffrey A. Hoffman; Bahr Weiss

1986-01-01

403

Using Classroom Assessment to Improve Student Learning: Math Problems Aligned with NCTM and Common Core State Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Linking assessment to everyday classroom instruction requires a shift in both thinking and practice. For many, the term "assessment" simply means "grade". "Using Classroom Assessment to Improve Student Learning" shows how teachers can move away from using tests, letter or numerical grades, or passing or failing as evidence of student learning to…

Collins, Anne

2011-01-01

404

Assessing 16YearOld Students’ Understanding of Aqueous Solution at Submicroscopic Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submicrorepresentations (SMR) could be an important element, not only for explaining the experimental observations to students,\\u000a but also in the process of evaluating students’ knowledge and identifying their chemical misconceptions. This study investigated\\u000a the level of students’ understanding of the solution concentration and the process of dissolving ionic and molecular crystals\\u000a at particulate level, and identifies possible misconceptions about this

Iztok Devetak; Janez Vogrinc; Saša Aleksij Glažar

2009-01-01

405

Students' Conceptions as Dynamically Emergent Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is wide consensus that learning in science must be considered a process of conceptual change rather than simply information accrual. There are three perspectives on students' conceptions and conceptual change in science that have significant presence in the science education literature: students' ideas as misconceptions, as coherent systems of conceptual elements, and as fragmented knowledge elements. If misconceptions, systems of elements, or fragments are viewed implicitly as "regular things", these perspectives are in opposition. However, from a complex dynamic systems perspective, in which students' conceptions are viewed as dynamically emergent structures, the oppositions are lessened, and the integrated view has significant implications for theory and practice.

Brown, David E.

2013-10-01

406

History of pancreaticoduodenectomy: early misconceptions, initial milestones and the pioneers  

PubMed Central

Pancreaticoduodenectomy is one of the most challenging surgical procedures which requires the highest level of surgical expertise. This procedure has constantly evolved over the years through the meticulous efforts of a number of surgeons before reaching its current state. This review navigates through some of the early limitations and misconceptions and highlights the initial milestones which laid the foundation of this procedure. The current review also provides a few excerpts from the lives and illuminates on some of the seminal contributions of the three great surgeons: William Stewart Halsted, Walther Carl Eduard Kausch and Allen Oldfather Whipple. These surgeons pioneered the nascent stages of this procedure and paved the way for the modern day pancreaticoduodenectomy.

Are, Chandrakanth; Dhir, Mashaal; Ravipati, Lavanya

2011-01-01

407

Children's Misconceptions in Primary Science: a survey of teachers' views  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young children hold naive theories about the world around them, but how do these mediate science learning in primary school? This paper considers the process of conceptual change and describes empirical studies into children's naive theories of physics concepts. The Representational Redescription model is invoked to explain how naive theories are a feature of conceptual change. Data are presented from a survey of 122 teachers of primary science in England. The teachers rated almost one-third of the topics sampled from the primary curriculum as being of above average difficulty for the children, particularly abstract concepts like electricity and forces. In addition, the teachers identified 130 misconceptions (such as 'Stones grow' or 'Taller people are older than shorter people') which children bring to the science class. These data provide a starting point for considering how children's naive theories may mediate their ability to learn and implications for science teaching are discussed.

Pine, Karen; Messer, David; St. John, Kate

2001-01-01

408

Shape Up!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies common misconceptions about polygons. Discusses current practices used to teach geometry to search for the source of misconceptions, and describes ways to help students avoid these misconceptions. (ASK)

Oberdorf, Christine D.; Taylor-Cox, Jennifer

1999-01-01

409

Common Misconceptions about the Dynamical Theory of Crystal Lattices: Cauchy Relations, Lattice Potentials and Infinite Crystals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The requirement of rotational invariance for lattice potential energies is investigated. Starting from this condition, it is shown that the Cauchy relations for the elastic constants are fulfilled if the lattice potential is built from pair interactions or when the first-neighbour approximation is adopted. This is seldom recognized in widely used…

Elcoro, Luis; Etxebarria, Jesus

2011-01-01

410

Opining on the 501(C)(3) Tax-Free Bond Transaction: Avoiding Common Borrower's Counsel Misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two areas where borrowers’ counsel can easily misstep when representing a charitable organization in a tax-exempt bond deal. The first is failing to recognize that “private business use” under § 145 can (and does) result in situations that would not constitute an “unrelated trade or business” of the borrower. The second occurs when borrowers’ counsel conflate the test

Gina M. Torielli

2004-01-01

411

Complicating common ideas about medical tourism: gender, class, and globality in Yemenis' international medical travel.  

PubMed

Three cases of international medical travelers from Yemen, a capital?poor country in the southwest corner of the Arabian Peninsula, help to counter misconceptions within discussions of medical tourism. These misconceptions include the suggestion of leisure in medical tourism, the role of gender and class, and the ease with which we dismiss the health concerns of wealthy individuals. Instead, this article proposes, we should uncover commonalities and differences within international medical travel while avoiding slipping into generalities and stereotypical portrayals. PMID:21114078

Kangas, Beth

2011-01-01

412

Mass Media and Visual Literacy Skills: Report 6. Assessing Student Progress on the Common Curriculum Goals. English Language Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides suggestions on how a language arts mass media and visual 1iteracy skills assessment program might be structured to ensure that school districts meet the Common Curriculum Goals of the public elementary and secondary schools in Oregon. This report includes: (1) a list of Common Curriculum Goals that relate to mass media and…

DeHaven, Edna

413

Reading/Literature Skills: Report 4. Assessing Student Progress on the Common Curriculum Goals. English Language Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides suggestions on how a language arts reading skills assessment program could be structured to ensure that school districts meet the Common Curriculum Goals of the public elementary and secondary schools in Oregon. This report includes: (1) a list of common curriculum goals that relate to reading/literature; (2) general…

Spandel, Vicki

414

Students' Preconceptions in Introductory Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses data from tests and videotaped interviews indicating conceptual primitives as a source of student difficulty in physics. These include key concepts (mass, acceleration) and fundamental principles/models (Newton's and conservation laws, atomic model). Demonstrates that misconceptions can be studied using problems of minimum complexity to…

Clement, John

1982-01-01

415

Students' perceptions of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the potential significance of global warming to society, education about this issue is important. However, little is known of the preconceptions and misconceptions of young adults in this area. In this study the ideas of a group of first year undergraduate students about the “Greenhouse Effect” have been studied by questionnaire. The results show that although some

Edward Boyes; Martin Stanisstreet

1992-01-01

416

The Earth's Mantle Is Solid: Teachers' Misconceptions About the Earth and Plate Tectonics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the misconceptions revealed by the teachers' answers and outlines more accurate answers and explanations based on established evidence and uses these to provide a more complete understanding of plate tectonic process and the structure of Earth. (Author/YDS)

King, Chris

2000-01-01

417

Science Sampler: Enhancing Student Understanding of Physical and Chemical Changes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students within the Findlay, Ohio, City School District, as well as students across the country, struggle with understanding physical and chemical changes. Therefore, in this article, the authors suggest some standards-based activities to clarify misconceptions and provide formative assessments to measure your students' progress as they determine…

McIntosh, Julie; White, Sandra; Suter, Robert

2009-01-01

418

Secondary Students' Interpretations of Photosynthesis and Plant Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies misconceptions held by grade 9 students (14-15-years old) in Turkey about photosynthesis and plant nutrition. Uses a questionnaire to test students' conceptions and reports conflicting and often incorrect ideas about photosynthesis, respiration, and energy flow in plants. Suggests that there are difficulties in changing students' prior…

Ozay, Esra; Oztas, Haydar

2003-01-01

419

Springing into Inquiry: Using Student Ideas to Investigate Seasons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although inquiry is more engaging and results in more meaningful learning (Minner, Levy, and Century 2010) than traditional science classroom instruction, actually involving students in the process is difficult. Furthermore, many students have misconceptions about Earth's seasons, which are supported by students' prior knowledge of heat sources.…

Wilcox, Jesse; Kruse, Jerrid

2012-01-01

420

Springing into Inquiry: Using Student Ideas to Investigate Seasons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although inquiry is more engaging and results in more meaningful learning (Minner, Levy, and Century 2010) than traditional science classroom instruction, actually involving students in the process is difficult. Furthermore, many students have misconceptions about Earth's seasons, which are supported by students' prior knowledge of heat sources.…

Wilcox, Jesse; Kruse, Jerrid

2012-01-01

421

Prevalence of misconceptions, dogmas, and popular views about giftedness and intelligence: a case from Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of misconceptions, dogmas and popular views about giftedness and intelligence among Turkish lay people. A survey questionnaire consisting of 12 forced-choice items about global misconceptions, dogmatic beliefs and popular views related to giftedness and intelligence was used to collect data. Participants included 812 people (41.6% male; 58.4% female). Descriptive analyses

Ugur Sak

2011-01-01

422

Use of GFP for in vivo imaging: concepts and misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although GFP and fluorescent proteins are used extensively for in vivo imaging, there are many misconceptions about GFP imaging especially compared to luciferase. GFP is not toxic, indeed, transgenic animals with GFP expressed in every cell (1) live as long as non-transgenic animals. Cancer cells with GFP are as aggressive and malignant as the cells without GFP (2-4). Cell lines can be made very bright with fluorescent proteins with no toxicity. The in vivo signal from fluorescent proteins is at least 1,000 times greater than luciferase (5). GFP is so bright that a single molecule of GFP can be seen in a bacterium (6). GFP can be observed through the skin on deep organs (7). Skin autofluorescence presents no problem for in vivo GFP imaging with proper filters (8). Fur can be rapidly clipped removing this autofluorescence (9). GFP is readily quantified by the image area which correlates to tumor volume (10). There are now numerous clones of GFP, RFP, YFP and proteins that change color (11) that can be used in vivo.

Hoffman, Robert M.

2008-02-01

423

Treating Body Dysmorphic Disorder with Medication: Evidence, Misconceptions, and a Suggested Approach  

PubMed Central

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common and often disabling disorder with high morbidity and mortality. Both psychotropic medication and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) are considered first-line treatments for BDD, and medication treatment is often essential for more severely ill and suicidal patients. In this practical overview of the pharmacotherapy of BDD, we briefly describe BDD’s clinical features, associated morbidity, and how to recognize and diagnose BDD. We describe the importance of forming a therapeutic alliance with the patient, the need for psychoeducation, and other essential groundwork for successful treatment of BDD. We review available pharmacotherapy research, with a focus on serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, or SRIs), which are currently considered the medication of choice for BDD. Many patients have substantial improvement in core BDD symptoms, psychosocial functioning, quality of life, suicidality, and other aspects of BDD when treated with appropriate pharmacotherapy that targets BDD symptoms. We also discuss practical issues such as dosing, length of treatment, and potential side effects associated with the use of SRIs. In addition, we discuss pharmacotherapy approaches that can be tried if SRI treatment alone is not adequately helpful. Finally, some misconceptions about pharmacotherapy, gaps in knowledge about BDD’s treatment, and the need for additional research are discussed.

Phillips, Katharine A.; Hollander, Eric

2009-01-01

424

The Effects of Scripted Peer Tutoring and Programming Common Stimuli on Social Interactions of a Student with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the effects of scripted peer-tutoring reading activities, with and without programmed common play-related stimuli, on social interactions between a kindergartner with autism spectrum disorder and his typically developing peer-tutoring partners during free play. A withdrawal design with multiple baselines across peers showed no…

Petursdottir, Anna-Lind; McComas, Jennifer; McMaster, Kristen; Horner, Kathy

2007-01-01

425

Partitioning Methods for Detecting Misconceptions of Content and Test Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies evaluated partitioning methods, in order to study how items are perceived by students and to determine how students organize content. Achievement test items in five content areas of educational measurement were used as stimuli to be sorted by groups of students who varied in sophistication. (Author/CTM)

Ambrosino, Robert J.; And Others

1979-01-01

426

Popular Misconceptions Regarding the Diabetes Management: Where Should We Focus Our Attention?  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a universal health problem with a global prevalence of 1.3%. India is known as the “Diabetes capital of the world” as it harbours the largest number of diabetes patients. There is lack of awareness about the existing interventions for preventing diabetes and for the management of the complications. One of the barriers in the way of seeking health care advice is the misconception about the disease, which revolves around all the aspects of diabetes, which include its prevention, control and treatment. Objectives: To determine the various misconceptions about the management of Diabetes mellitus in the study area.To find out the association of various misconceptions with the socio-demographic factors. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Urban Health Centre (UHC) Ariankuppam, Pondicherry. A total of 406 adult patients were interviewed. A pretested, semi-structured interview schedule was developed in the local language, and it was utilized to collect the data. The collected interview schedules were scrutinized for the accuracy of the information which was provided and for any lacunae. The compilation and analysis were carried out with the help of the Epi- Info software. The T test and the Chi-square test were used according to the distribution of the data, to see the associations of the different factors. Results: The commonest misconceptions were “Diabetes can be cured by herbal treatment” (46.6%) and “Bitter foods reduce the elevated blood sugar levels” (46.6%). The misconception, “The treatment should be stopped if the diabetes is controlled for few months” significantly decreased with advancing age. There were no significant differences between females and males when the various misconceptions were compared. The commonest misconception among females was “Bitter foods reduce the elevated blood sugar levels” (49.4%) and among males, it was “Diabetes can be cured by herbal treatment” (47.9%). When the misconceptions were compared, it was found that there were significant differences between the subjects who belonged to different religions. Conclusion: The misconceptions regarding the diabetes management in the general population, irrespective of the education and particularly among the Muslim community, were widespread. A majority of these misconceptions were diet and drug related.

Patil, Rajkumar; Nasrin A, Nisha; Datta, Shib Sekhar; Boratne, Abhijit V; Lokeshmaran

2013-01-01

427

Drawing rocks at primary school: a tool for emerging misconceptions and promoting conceptual change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drawing rocks at primary school: a tool for emerging misconceptions and promoting conceptual change Luca Benciolini Dipartimento di Fisica, Chimica e Ambiente, Università di Udine (Italy) and Giuseppe Muscio Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale (Udine, Italy) In order to investigate spontaneous ideas of children about rock samples, the Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale in collaboration with the Università di Udine submitted six classrooms of fifth and fourth grade-students to a specific test. One hundred thirty-three students without a specific background in Earth Sciences were asked to give a) a written description of a rock sample; b) a drawing of the sample; c) a written short story about the sample. The selected thirty-five samples in the opinion of the researchers contain 255 geologically relevant self-evident characters such as fossils, clastic textures, planar discontinuities and so on. Childs spontaneously described 209 geological characters. Forty-seven fifth-grade students (group A) have been previously followed specific training in multisensory description of objects and observed the 90% of the geologically relevant characters. Group B (forty-three fifth-grade) and group C (forty-three fourth-grade) on the contrary, without any previous instructions discovered the 77%. In order to follow childs building their knowledge through experience we found that the main problem was the lack of consistency between written and drawing description. Heterogeneities as evident as a magmatic contact have been correctly represented by the drawing but it has not been worth of any attention in the written description. On the contrary, written description may sometimes contain careful description of the clastic sedimentary process but these criteria are applied for example to a travertine, without any relations with observed characters. Descriptions and drawing of rock outcrops performed by university students demonstrate the persistence of this attitude. Thus, groups B and C were then asked to describe their drawings. We found encouraging progress stimulated by thinking on their own work. We suggest that drawing activities and laboratory book notes could represent useful strategies in order to stimulate specific skill in observing reality, and to understand complex and heterogeneous natural objects. Conceptual change is promoted by comparing children experiences with their previous ideas.

Benciolini, L.; Muscio, G.

2012-04-01

428

Problem-based learning: Using students' questions to drive knowledge construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study employed problem-based learning for project work in a year 9 biology class. The purpose of the study was to investigate (a) students' inspirations for their self-generated problems and questions, (b) the kinds of questions that students asked individually and collaboratively, and (c) how students' questions guided them in knowledge construction. Data sources included observation and field notes, students' written documents, audiotapes and videotapes of students working in groups, and student interviews. Sources of inspiration for students' problems and questions included cultural beliefs and folklore; wonderment about information propagated by advertisements and the media; curiosity arising from personal encounters, family members' concerns, or observations of others; and issues arising from previous lessons in the school curriculum. Questions asked individually pertained to validation of common beliefs and misconceptions, basic information, explanations, and imagined scenarios. The findings regarding questions asked collaboratively are presented as two assertions. Assertion 1 maintained that students' course of learning were driven by their questions. Assertion 2 was that the ability to ask the right'' questions and the extent to which these could be answered, were important in sustaining students' interest in the project. Implications of the findings for instructional practice are discussed.

Chin, Christine; Chia, Li-Gek

2004-09-01

429

Freshman Biology Majors' Misconceptions about Diffusion and Osmosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The data for this study were obtained from a sample of 117 biology majors enrolled in an introductory biology course. The Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test, composed of 12 two-tier items, was administered to the students. Among the major findings are: (1) there was no significant difference in scores of male and female students; (2) math…

Odom, A. Louis; Barrow, Lloyd H.

430

Using Analogies to Overcome Misconceptions: A Technology Course Example.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Both a control group and experimental group (23 students each) received a lecture on direct current circuits; the experimental group also participated in a lab using a device explaining an analogy for electric current. The experimental group's posttest scores were much higher, indicating that the analogical device helped overcome student

Gokhale, Anu A.

1996-01-01

431

Using Analogies to Overcome Misconceptions: A Technology Course Example.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both a control group and experimental group (23 students each) received a lecture on direct current circuits; the experimental group also participated in a lab using a device explaining an analogy for electric current. The experimental group's posttest scores were much higher, indicating that the analogical device helped overcome student

Gokhale, Anu A.

1996-01-01

432

Students' Conceptions of Scale Regarding Groundwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study involved surveying three groups of students regarding their ideas about the structure, scale, and percieved importance of groundwater. The survey results show that many participants selected sizes of groundwater structures that mirrored surface analogs; however, some students applied scales on the order of houses and skyscrapers to typical pore and crack structures. The authors' research indicates that students bring to the classroom many misconceptions that are well-positioned to interfere with their understanding of hydrogeologic principles.

Dickerson, Daniel; Callahan, Timothy; Van Sickle, Meta; Hay, Genny

433

The role of genetics in students' understandings of biological evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important element of an education is an understanding of biology. Science education researchers have shown that both high school and college biology students finish their biology instruction with a poor understanding of evolution, an important unifying concept of the discipline. The goal of this study is to examine the role of genetics in students understanding of evolution. Eight introductory college biology students' understandings of evolutionary biology and their use of genetics concepts as they addressed problems in evolution were examined. Data collected included students' classwork and individual student interviews. Data analysis began with an examination of each students understanding of evolution concepts. The framework for this analysis was based on Mayr's (1982) description of Darwin's five theories: evolution as such, common descent, natural selection, gradualism, and multiplication of species. The descriptions of students' understandings of evolution are followed by an account of how students used genetics concepts to support their explanations of evolutionary processes. The data from this study illustrate how students used transmission genetics, molecular biology and population genetics to support their understandings of evolution. The students in this study constructed syntheses of genetics and evolution concepts that they employed to solve problems. These syntheses fell into three categories: productive, semi-productive and obstructive. Students who achieved a productive synthesis of genetics and evolution concepts also held appropriate understandings of common descent, natural selection, gradualism, and speciation. Students who constructed either a semi-productive or obstructive synthesis of genetics and evolution did not benefit in the same way. Productive synthesis students benefited from their syntheses of genetics and evolution concepts in three ways. They were able to construct complete problem solutions for evolutionary problems, to dismiss common misconceptions associated with natural selection, and to construct an appropriate understanding of evolutionary processes, particularly natural selection and speciation. The findings of this study suggest one way teachers can help their students to develop an understanding of evolution is to teach genetics first. Knowledge of genetics provided students in this study a tool to explain the origin of variations in populations, evidence for common descent, and strengthened their understandings of the mechanisms of evolution.

Rowe, Mary Frances

2001-10-01

434

Exploring Student Understanding of Energy through the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We present a study of student understanding of energy in quantum mechanical tunneling and barrier penetration. This paper will focus on student responses to two questions that were part of a test given in class to two modern physics classes and in individual interviews with 17 students. The test, which we refer to as the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey (QMCS), is being developed to measure student understanding of basic concepts in quantum mechanics. In this paper we explore and clarify the previously reported misconception that reflection from a barrier is due to particles having a range of energies rather than wave properties. We also confirm previous studies reporting the student misconception that energy is lost in tunneling, and report a misconception not previously reported, that potential energy diagrams shown in tunneling problems do not represent the potential energy of the particle itself. The present work is part of a much larger study of student understanding of quantum mechanics.

Mckagan, Sam B.; Wieman, Carl E.

2009-07-13

435

Scoring Student-Generated Concept Maps in Introductory College Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study presents a quantitative method for scoring concept maps generated by students learning introductory college chemistry. Concept maps measure the amount of chemical information the student possesses, reasoning ability in chemistry, and specific misconceptions about introductory and physical chemistry concepts. They provide a…

Schreiber, Deborah A.; Abegg, Gerald L.

436

WIDENING THE PIPELINE OF K-12 STUDENTS WITH FLASH  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many negative stereotypes about computer science. These preconceived ideas may discourage students, especially women and minorities, from pursuing a computer science education. Our goal is to create a program that dispels these misconceptions, both in inner city middle and high schools and in an outreach program that attracts at-risk students to Lehigh University to learn about information technology.

Nick Moukhine; Glenn Blank

437

High school students' understanding of projectile motion concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of conceptual change-based instruction and traditionally designed physics instruction on students' understanding of projectile motion concepts. Misconceptions related to projectile motion concepts were determined by related literature on this subject. Accordingly, the Projectile Motion Concepts Test was developed. The data were obtained through 43 students in an experimental group taught

Refik Dilber; Ibrahim Karaman; Bahattin Duzgun

2009-01-01

438

Defining the Field of Psychology for the Student  

Microsoft Academic Search

I have for some time been concerned about the serious misconceptions which college students often harbor with respect to the psychological science and profession. Occasionally even those students in upper division psychology courses reveal a startling lack of understanding about the professional activities in which psychologists engage or the training which is necessary for the professional psychologist. One's first impression

Eugene S. Mills

1953-01-01

439

Using Concept Cartoons in Formative Assessment: Scaffolding Students' Argumentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate how concept cartoons, together with other diagnostic and scaffolding tools, could be used in formative assessment, to stimulate talk and argumentation among students in small groups, as part of peer-assessment and self-assessment; and to provide diagnostic feedback about students' misconceptions to the…

Chin, Christine; Teou, Lay-Yen

2009-01-01

440

The Conceptual Understanding of Sound by Students with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduction: The purpose of the study presented here was to understand and describe the misconceptions of students with visual impairments about sound and instructional techniques that may help them to develop a scientific understanding. Methods: Semistructured interview-centered pre-and posttests were used to identify the students' conceptual…

Wild, Tiffany A.; Hilson, Margilee P.; Hobson, Sally M.

2013-01-01

441

Using Concept Cartoons in Formative Assessment: Scaffolding students' argumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate how concept cartoons, together with other diagnostic and scaffolding tools, could be used in formative assessment, to stimulate talk and argumentation among students in small groups, as part of peer?assessment and self?assessment; and to provide diagnostic feedback about studentsmisconceptions to the teacher for teaching towards conceptual change. Two classes of Primary

Christine Chin

2009-01-01

442

Are You Teaching Your Students about Stem Cells?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This activity targets students' misconceptions about embryonic and adult stem cells while also addressing an important grades 9-12 science content standard. The authors designed the activity to provide students an opportunity to explore differences between embryonic and adult stem cells prior to formal explanation. The overarching goal of this…

Concannon, James; Brown, Patrick L.; Brandt, Trisha

2009-01-01

443

Generating Cognitive Dissonance in Student Interviews through Multiple Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores what students understand about enzyme-substrate interactions, using multiple representations of the phenomenon. In this paper we describe our use of the 3 Phase-Single Interview Technique with multiple representations to generate cognitive dissonance within students in order to uncover misconceptions of enzyme-substrate…

Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

2012-01-01

444

How Do Organic Chemistry Students Understand and Apply Hydrogen Bonding?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines how students completing a two-semester organic sequence understand, explain, and apply hydrogen bonding to determine the physical attributes of molecules. Suggests that some students completing what is typically their second year of college-level chemistry still possess misconceptions about hydrogen bonds. (Contains 21 references.) (ASK)|

Henderleiter, J.; Smart, R.; Anderson, J.; Elian, O.

2001-01-01

445

Misconceptions about High-Fructose Corn Syrup: Is It Uniquely Responsible for Obesity, Reactive Dicarbonyl Compounds, and Advanced Glycation Endproducts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Misconceptions about high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) abound in the scientific literature, the advice of health professionals to their patients, media reporting, product advertising, and the irrational behavior of consumers. Foremost among these is the misconception that HFCS has a unique and substantive responsibility for the current obesity crisis. Inaccurate information from ostensibly reliable sources and selective presentation of research data

John S. White

2009-01-01

446

Student understanding of quantum mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We investigate the difficulties of advanced undergraduate students toward the end of a full year upper-level quantum mechanics course with concepts related to quantum measurements and time development. Our analysis is based upon a test administered to 89 students from six universities and interviews with 9 students. Strikingly, most students shared the same difficulties despite variations in background, teaching styles, and textbooks. Concepts related to stationary states, eigenstates, and time dependence of expectation values were found to be particularly difficult. An analysis of written tests and interviews suggests that widespread misconceptions originate from an inability to discriminate between related concepts and a tendency to overgeneralize.

Singh, Chandralekha

2005-11-23

447

Best Practices for Identifying Gifted Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Parents often go to principals to ask for help in supporting their gifted children. They may request acceleration for their child in mathematics, a specialized curriculum or course, extracurricular activities, a pullout program, or even a different teacher. Since misconceptions about identifying gifted students are prevalent, it's important that…

Johnsen, Susan K.

2009-01-01

448

A cross-college age study of science and nonscience students' conceptions of basic astronomy concepts in preservice training for high-school teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A questionnaire of 19 questions given to a total of 433 students in college preservice training for future high-school teachers showed that science and nonscience majors held a series of misconceptions on several central topics in basic astronomy.

Trumper, R.

449

A Cross-Age Study of Student Understanding of the Concept of Diffusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines seventh grade life science students, tenth grade biology students, and college zoology students for understanding of the concept of diffusion. Describes the differences among the grade levels in sound or partial understanding, misconceptions, and no understanding. Discusses the effect of developmental level on understanding. (KR)

Westbrook, Susan L.; Marek, Edmund A.

1991-01-01

450

Reducing the Over-Referral of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students (CLD) for Language Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This position paper presents a conceptual framework for preventing the inappropriate referral of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students for language disability related services. The article examines the causes and impact of over-referral of CLD students for language disabilities from sociopolitical, socio-cultural, sociolinguistic, and socioeconomic perspectives. It argues that general education teachers' misconceptions about CLD students comprise an enormous challenge.

Clara Lee Brown

451

Mapping Students' Thinking Patterns in Learning Organic Chemistry by the Use of Knowledge Space Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students' thinking patterns in learning organic chemistry were tracked through the one-year course taught to a total of approximately 1300 students, mostly biology majors, for a period of 2 years. As expected, the students' knowledge base increases, but the cognitive organization of the knowledge is surprisingly weak and misconceptions persist even after two years of college chemistry. Both a simple

Mare Taagepera; S. Noori

2000-01-01

452

Assessing 16-Year-Old Students' Understanding of Aqueous Solution at Submicroscopic Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Submicrorepresentations (SMR) could be an important element, not only for explaining the experimental observations to students, but also in the process of evaluating students' knowledge and identifying their chemical misconceptions. This study investigated the level of students' understanding of the solution concentration and the process of…

Devetak, Iztok; Vogrinc, Janez; Glazar, Sasa Aleksij

2009-01-01

453

Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Students' Understanding of Concepts in Electrochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study was conducted to investigate the degree of effectiveness of cooperative learning instruction over a traditional approach on 11th grade students' understanding of electrochemistry. The study involved forty-one 11th grade students from two science classes with the same teacher. To determine students' misconceptions concerning…

Acar, Burcin; Tarhan, Leman

2007-01-01

454

Building and Activating Students' Background Knowledge: It's What They Already Know That Counts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students enter the middle grades with varying amounts of background knowledge. Teachers must assess student background knowledge for gaps or misconceptions and then provide instruction to build on that base. This article discusses effective strategies for assessing and developing students' background knowledge so they can become independent…

Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy; Lapp, Diane

2012-01-01

455

A Cross-Age Study of Student Understanding of the Concept of Diffusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines seventh grade life science students, tenth grade biology students, and college zoology students for understanding of the concept of diffusion. Describes the differences among the grade levels in sound or partial understanding, misconceptions, and no understanding. Discusses the effect of developmental level on understanding. (KR)|

Westbrook, Susan L.; Marek, Edmund A.

1991-01-01

456

The Ideas of Greek High School Students about the "Ozone Layer."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a study of Greek high school students' (n=116) perceptions of the ozone layer. Finds that students have a good understanding of the position and purpose of the ozone layer in terms of protection from ultraviolet rays, but students also hold misconceptions linking the ozone layer to the greenhouse effect and other forms of local…

Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin; Papantoniou, Vasso Spiliotopoulou

1999-01-01

457

Primary Student-Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect: A mixed method study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greenhouse effect is a reasonably complex scientific phenomenon which can be used as a model to examine students' conceptual understanding in science. Primary student-teachers' understanding of global environmental problems, such as climate change and ozone depletion, indicates that they have many misconceptions. The present mixed method study examines Finnish primary student-teachers' understanding of the greenhouse effect based on the

Ilkka Johannes Ratinen

2011-01-01

458

Investigating Primary and Secondary Students' Learning of Physics Concepts in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this 4?year research study was to develop paper?and?pencil tests that could be administered to a wide range of students in order to establish a database about students’ physics conceptions from elementary school to high school levels in Taiwan. The studentsmisconceptions of mechanics, electricity and magnetism, heat, sound and wave, and optics were diagnosed. In the beginning

2007-01-01

459

Are College Students Prepared for a Technology-Rich Learning Environment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of today's college students have grown up in a world immersed in technology - computers, electronic media, cell phones and more. Due to this, educators often expect students to have the technology skills needed to perform in an academic environment. Unfortunately, this is often a misconception. This article reviews the technology readiness of students at a rural community

Victoria Ratliff

2009-01-01

460

Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educational consumerism continues to be the major focus of litigation involving students. Disputes over admissions practices, grades, academic terminations, and financial aid comprised the largest proportion of cases reported this year. The section on academic affairs is the largest single section. As the job market gets tighter and the cost of…

Gehring, Donald D.; Young, D. Parker

461

Why Is It So Difficult? Misconceptions about Eastern European Education in Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines misconceptions in both Western and Eastern countries about educational systems in postcommunist Eastern Europe. Discusses issues of slow pace of educational reform, change through formal power structures, centralization versus decentralization, role of tradition, macro- and micro-level problems, Western assistance, and the relationship…

Sandi, Ana Maria

1992-01-01

462

Mental Models and other Misconceptions in Children's Understanding of the Earth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive ''mental models'' of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous.…

Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

2009-01-01

463

Are ‘misconceptions’ or alternative frameworks of force and motion spontaneous or formed prior to instruction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has often been assumed that misconceptions of force and motion are part of an alternative framework and that conceptual change takes place when that framework is challenged and replaced with the Newtonian framework. There have also been variations of this theme, such as this structure is not coherent and conceptual change does not involve the replacement of concepts, conceptions

T. Graham; J. Berry; S. Rowlands

2012-01-01

464

Issues in Sexuality for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: Myths, Misconceptions, and Mistreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The myths and misconceptions surrounding the topic of sexuality and people with developmental disabilities were examined to better understand the detrimental effects they were having on the sexual health of individuals with developmental disabilities. Persons with developmental disabilities are often infantilised and viewed as asexual. This…

Irvine, Angela

2005-01-01

465

Explaining fruit and vegetable consumption: the theory of planned behaviour and misconception of personal intake levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of individuals' misconceptions in assessing fruit and vegetable consumption on the ability of the theory of planned behaviour to explain variance in the consumption of these foods was studied. Dutch women (mean age 41, n=159) completed a questionnaire assessing the theory's constructs with regard to the daily consumption of at least two pieces of fruit and 200gram of

R. P Bogers; J Brug; P van Assema; P. C Dagnelie

2004-01-01

466

Secularism and the Iranian Militant Left: Political Misconception or Cultural Issues?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay draws on an original study of the history, theories, and organizational life of Iran's most influential leftist organization in the 1970s, the People's Fedayee Guerrillas, to examine the symptomatic misconception of secularism as well as the secularization of everyday life and politics by a specific generation of Iran's Left. The essay argues that because of its ideological adherence

Peyman Vahabzadeh

2011-01-01

467

Secularism and the Iranian Militant Left: Political Misconception or Cultural Issues?  

Microsoft Academic Search

:This essay draws on an original study of the history, theories, and organizational life of Iran's most influential leftist organization in the 1970s, the People's Fedayee Guerrillas, to examine the symptomatic misconception of secularism as well as the secularization of everyday life and politics by a specific generation of Iran's Left. The essay argues that because of its ideological adherence

Peyman Vahabzadeh

2011-01-01

468

Associations and Misconceptions about Drugs among Children and Teachers in Grades Five and Six  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Product advertising appears to have created a number of misconceptions about over-the-counter and other drugs in the minds of fifth and sixth graders. Young people lack an appropriate framework to which to relate the information they receive about drugs. A few beginning concepts for drug education are outlined. (Author)|

Swanson, Jon Colby; Phillips, Carole Ann

1972-01-01

469

Seafarers, Great Circles, and a Tad of Rhumb: Understanding the Mercator Misconception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Being flat, Mercator maps inherently misrepresent some aspects of Earth's geography. That's because there is absolutely no way to simultaneously conserve all of the elements of three-dimensional space in a two-dimensional model. To dispel misconceptions, check out the Activity Worksheet and the website resources included in this article. Along…

DiSpezio, Michael A.

2010-01-01

470

An Analysis of Misconceptions in Science Textbooks: Earth Science in England and Wales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Surveys of the earth science content of all secondary (high school) science textbooks and related publications used in England and Wales have revealed high levels of error/misconception. The 29 science textbooks or textbook series surveyed (51 texts in all) showed poor coverage of National Curriculum earth science and contained a mean level of…

King, Chris John Henry

2010-01-01

471

Chemistry Misconceptions Associated with Understanding Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration…

Cliff, William H.

2009-01-01

472

Task Templates Based on Misconception Research. CSE Report 646.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Researchers spend much time and effort developing measures, including measures of students? conceptual knowledge. In an effort to make such assessments easier to design, the Principled Assessment Designs for Inquiry (PADI) project has developed a framework for designing tasks and to illustrate that its use has ?reverse engineered? several …

Cromley, Jennifer G.; Mislevy, Robert J.

2004-01-01

473

Deriving Common Model Characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students confront several different models - from the DNA helix Watson and Crick constructed in their laboratory to a map of McDonalds density in the US - and work in small groups to derive their commonalities.

Momsen, Jennifer; Long, Tammy M.; Speth, Elena B.

474

Finding Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers can use this interactive tool to help students build a conceptual understanding of common denominators by relating visual models to numbers. Students learn the value of multiplying a fraction by a fraction with a value of 1. This page includes a video demonstration of the tool and sample lessons from the Conceptua curriculum. Free registration is required to use the tool. A paid subscription is necessary to access full curriculum and allow full student use.

2011-01-01

475

Subtraction with Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers can use this interactive tool to help students build a conceptual understanding of subtracting fractions with common denominators by linking visual models to procedures. The page includes a video demonstration of the tool. Free registration is required to use the tool. A paid subscription is necessary to access curriculum materials and allow full student use.

2011-01-01

476

The Persuasion Model of conceptual change and its application to misconceptions in evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work has attempted to account for the factors involved in conceptual change (e.g. Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982; Pintrich, Marx & Boyle, 1993). While progress has been made, cognitive restructuring remains to be positioned within a unifying theory of change. Here, a new model of conceptual change is put forward. The Persuasion Model of conceptual change builds on previous frameworks (Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982; Pintrich, Marx & Boyle, 1993; Vosniadou, 1994) including the psychology of persuasion (Heuristic-Systematic Model, Chaiken, 1980; Elaboration Likelihood Model, Petty & Cacioppo, 1986; Social Judgement Theory, Sherif & Hovland, 1953) and cognitive and motivational theories of learning (Johnson-Laird, 1983; Mayer & Moreno, 1988; Wittrock, 1974b). High quality, elaborative processing of a persuasive message leads to change. Mental models are positioned as the mechanism by which meaning is created, manipulated, inspected and evaluated. These processes result in a continuum of cognitive restructuring. A study of conceptual change in Evolutionary Biology examined the viability of the Persuasion Model. It was predicted that knowledge, beliefs, interest and cognitive style would predict elaborative processing. Processing was hypothesized to influence information comprehensibility, plausibility, fruitfulness and compatibility with prior knowledge. Judgments were hypothesized to influence learning outcomes. Evolutionary knowledge and beliefs were assessed at pre- and posttest in 375 college students using multiple choice, likert-scale and extended response items. Need for Cognition, Need for Cognitive Closure, Epistemological Beliefs, Religiosity, Dogmatism, Moral Values and Argument Evaluation Ability were measured using paper-and-pencil questionnaires. Participants read a text and indicated elaborative processing and information evaluation. Ninety percent of participants held at least one misconception at pre-test. Significant gains on outcome measures were found. More sophisticated responses were found for items pertaining to non-human than human topics. Elaborative processing was predicted by individual differences in knowledge, beliefs, interest and Need for Cognition. Elaborative processing influenced favorability ratings of the information, and these contributed to learning outcomes. The results show support for hypotheses derived from the Persuasion Model, as conceptual change could not be predicted without reference to multiple factors that have not previously been measured in concert.

Garner, Joanna Kate

477

Effects of Conceptual Change Texts and Laboratory Experiments on Fourth Grade Students' Understanding of Matter and Change Concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether conceptual change texts and laboratory experiments are effective in overcoming misconceptions and whether the concepts were acquired permanently when these methods were utilized. In this study, we addressed some topics from the "Matter and Change" unit in science and technology class of elementary 4th grade. Students from three classes of an elementary school participated in the study ( N = 104). Students' misconceptions were determined by administering the "Matter Concept Test" before, immediately after and 13 weeks after the instructional period. The results of the study showed that both conceptual change texts and experiment method were more successful than traditional instruction in overcoming the misconceptions and acquiring permanent knowledge. However, there was not a significant difference between these two alternative approaches in terms of reducing the misconceptions.

Durmu?, Jale; Bayraktar, ?ule

2010-10-01

478

Describing Changes in Undergraduate Students' Preconceptions of Research Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research has shown that students bring naïve scientific conceptions to learning situations which are often incongruous with accepted scientific explanations. These preconceptions are frequently determined to be misconceptions; consequentially instructors spend time to remedy these beliefs and bring students' understanding of scientific concepts to acceptable levels. It is reasonable to assume that students also maintain preconceptions about the processes of authentic scientific research and its associated activities. This study describes the most commonly held preconceptions of authentic research activities among students with little or no previous research experience. Seventeen undergraduate science majors who participated in a ten week research program discussed, at various times during the program, their preconceptions of research and how these ideas changed as a result of direct participation in authentic research activities. The preconceptions included the belief that authentic research is a solitary activity which most closely resembles the type of activity associated with laboratory courses in the undergraduate curriculum. Participants' views showed slight maturation over the research program; they came to understand that authentic research is a detail-oriented activity which is rarely successfully completed alone. These findings and their implications for the teaching and research communities are discussed in the article.

Cartrette, David P.; Melroe-Lehrman, Bethany M.

2012-12-01

479

Reducing Misconceptions and False Beliefs in Police and Criminal Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although certainly not alone, the field of police and criminal psychology seems to be an area that is highly susceptible to myths and misinformation. Whether it is the notion that police have higher suicide and divorce rates or that crime rates greatly increase during a full moon, there are many commonly held beliefs that are not supported by scientific evidence.

Michael G. Aamodt

2008-01-01

480

The Impact of Developmental Education: Myths and Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides an examination of criticism directed towards developmental education. Ten common myths regarding the impact and effectiveness of developmental education are addressed and refuted. Some of the myths reviewed include the history of developmental education; theory-based developmental education programs; faculty training;…

Littleton, Roosevelt, Jr.

481

An analysis of students' difficulties in learning science as revealed through their understanding of gas exchange in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the knowledge that students bring to an introductory college-level biology course is integrated into a conceptual framework and the extent to which misconceptions held by the students prior to entering these courses is part of their knowledge. The researcher also investigated a possible relationship between students' conceptual

Carla Beeber

1998-01-01

482

What Do Middle and High School Students Know about the Particulate Nature of Matter after Instruction? Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores middle and high school students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter after they were taught the concept. A total of 87 students (41 high school and 46 middle school) participated in the study. Findings suggest that students held misconceptions about the law of conservation of matter, chemical composition of…

Aydeniz, Mehmet; Kotowski, Erin Leigh

2012-01-01

483

Students' Beliefs About the Role of Atoms in Radioactive Decay and Half-life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigates students' misconceptions about radioactivity, radioactive decay, and half-life. Individual demonstration interviews and open-response and multiple-choice conceptual tests administered to students from a wide range of science backgrounds show that they are often unable to differentiate between the ideas of irradiation and contamination, and that many of their reasoning difficulties stem from their inaccurate mental models regarding the atom. The author's research indicates that these misconceptions are well-positioned to interfere with students' understanding of how half-life is used to determine geologic time.

Prather, Edward

484

Immunization controversy: understanding and addressing public misconceptions and concerns.  

PubMed

School nurses often meet with parents who are reluctant to immunize their children. This reluctance is based on widely publicized stories about vaccine safety. Illnesses that are preventable by vaccines have become almost nonexistent, and consequently, vaccine safety concerns have increased in prominence. Often a negative report about the risk of a particular vaccine is released by the media and on the Internet before scientific evidence has been obtained. To adequately respond to parental concerns, school nurses should be aware of the historical impact of vaccine safety issues and the vaccine-related fears that are prevalent at the present time. Nurses also need to be provided with scientifically accurate information so that risk-benefit concerns regarding vaccine safety can be effectively communicated to parents. In this way, school nurses can play an important role in ensuring that the student population and the community are protected from vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:11885104

Blackford, J K

2001-02-01

485

Using Models to Address Misconceptions in Size and Scale Related to the Earth, Moon, Solar System, and Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many children and adults have misconceptions about space-related size and distance: Earth-Moon size and distance, distance between the planets, distances to the nearest stars (other than the Sun), the size of the Milky Way Galaxy, and the size of the Universe. An illustration or visualization may reinforce someone's understanding of, for example, the phases of the Moon. However, what other misconceptions, especially related to scale, are being reinforced?

Lebofsky, L. A.; Cañizo, T. L.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Salthouse, K.

2013-04-01

486

A qualitative study of high school students' pre- and post instructional conceptions in chemical bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated high school students' understanding of chemical bonding prior to and after formal chemistry instruction. Two sets of clinical interviews were conducted prior to and after formal instructions on the topic of chemical bonding using a teacher-as-researcher protocol. Twenty-two students enrolled in a New York Regents Chemistry course were interviewed. Six students participated in the pilot study and the other sixteen were involved in the full study. Oral and pictorial data from the interviews were collected and analyzed in two parts; first, the students' conceptual understanding of chemical bonding including common themes, ideas and misconceptions were identified; second, profiles of each student were made to determine conceptual changes due to formal instruction. The findings showed that students were not familiar with the basic components and structure of atoms, especially the electrostatic properties of the sub-atomic particles. Inter-particle distance, rather than the electrostatic forces between particles, was believed to be the determining cause of the state of matter of a substance. The role of repulsive and attractive electrostatic forces in chemical bonding was not recognized. Students were unable to accurately describe the underlying scientific concepts for all types of chemical bonding and revealed a number of misconceptions, which were resistant to change by instruction. Specific areas of difficulty included the accurate descriptions of ionic bonding, covalent bonding and hydrogen bonding. Further, almost all the students could not use electrostatic forces to explain three states of water and phase changes and most students were unable to describe the energy that was released or absorbed due to bond formation or breaking. Student difficulties stemmed from a lack of understanding of some of the underlying, fundamental chemistry, such as the basic atomic structure, the particulate nature of mater and the role of electrostatic forces in chemical bonding. Some factors were identified as contributing to these difficulties, and included the overstuffed content of high school chemistry, not enough time to complete the curriculum, cook-book laboratories, shortage of qualified chemistry teachers and traditional teacher-centered methods of instruction. The study suggests an introduction of Coulomb's law in chemistry course and a greater emphasis on repulsive and attractive electrostatic forces in the instruction of chemical bonding. It further suggests the use of more appropriate teaching strategies, the re-organization of the sequence of teaching topics in the introductory chemistry curriculum. Finally the study recommends that diagrams and descriptions of chemical bonding found in chemistry textbooks be re-examined for their appropriateness and accuracy.

Wang, Renhong

487

Describing Changes in Undergraduate Students’ Preconceptions of Research Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that students bring naïve scientific conceptions to learning situations which are often incongruous with\\u000a accepted scientific explanations. These preconceptions are frequently determined to be misconceptions; consequentially instructors\\u000a spend time to remedy these beliefs and bring students' understanding of scientific concepts to acceptable levels. It is reasonable\\u000a to assume that students also maintain preconceptions about the processes of

David P. Cartrette; Bethany M. Melroe-Lehrman

488

Assessing the Life Science Knowledge of Students and Teachers Represented by the K-8 National Science Standards  

PubMed Central

We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on the National Research Council (NRC) K–8 life sciences content standards. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we constructed 476 unique multiple-choice items that measure the degree to which test takers hold either a misconception or an accepted scientific view. Tested nationally with 30,594 students, following their study of life science, and their 353 teachers, these items reveal a range of interesting results, particularly student difficulties in mastering the NRC standards. Teachers also answered test items and demonstrated a high level of subject matter knowledge reflecting the standards of the grade level at which they teach, but exhibiting few misconceptions of their own. In addition, teachers predicted the difficulty of each item for their students and which of the wrong answers would be the most popular. Teachers were found to generally overestimate their own students’ performance and to have a high level of awareness of the particular misconceptions that their students hold on the K–4 standards, but a low level of awareness of misconceptions related to the 5–8 standards.

Sadler, Philip M.; Coyle, Harold; Smith, Nancy Cook; Miller, Jaimie; Mintzes, Joel; Tanner, Kimberly; Murray, John

2013-01-01

489

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

490

Students' and teachers' misapplication of le chatelier's principle: Implications for the teaching of chemical equilibrium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this article was to study the reasons, strategies, and procedures that both students and teachers use to solve some chemical equilibrium questions and problems. Inappropriate conceptions on teaching and a lack of knowledge regarding the limited usefulness of Le Chatelier's principle, with its vague and ambiguous formulation and textbook presentation, may be some of the sources of misconceptions about the prediction of the effect of changing conditions on chemical equilibrium. To diagnose misconceptions and their possible sources, a written test was developed and administered to 170 1st-year university chemistry students. A chemical equilibrium problem, relating to the students' test, was solved by 40 chemistry teachers. First, we ascertained that teacher's conceptions might influence the problem-solving strategies of the learner. Based on this first aspect, our discussion also concerns students' and teachers' misconceptions related to the Le Chatelier's principle. Misconceptions emerged through: (a) misapplication and misunderstanding of Le Chatelier's principle; (b) use of rote-learning recall and algorithmic procedures; (c) incorrect control of the variables involved; (d) limited use of the chemical equilibrium law; (e) a lack of mastery of chemical equilibrium principles and difficulty in transferring such principles to new situations. To avoid chemical equilibrium misconceptions, a specific pattern of conceptual and methodological change may be considered.Received: 16 November 1993; Revised: 21 September 1994;

Quílez-Pardo, Juan; Solaz-Portolés, Joan Josep

491

Student Achievement Effects of Technology-Supported Remediation of Understanding of Fractions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students have difficulty learning fractions, and problems in understanding fractions persist into adulthood, with moderate to severe consequences for everyday and occupational decision-making. Remediation of student misconceptions is hampered by deficiencies in teachers' knowledge of the discipline and pedagogical content knowledge. We theorized…

Ross, John A.; Bruce, Catherine D.

2009-01-01

492

Students' Understanding of Light Concepts Primary School: A Cross-Age Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we investigated 4th, 6th, and 8th grade students' misconceptions about light, sight, vision, source of light and examined students' conceptual development of these concepts at different grade levels. Data collection was done using five two-tiered test questions with one open-ended question, an interview about concepts and a drawing…

Sahin, Cigdem; Ipek, Hava; Ayas, Alipasa

2008-01-01

493

Students' Understanding of Light Concepts Primary School: A Cross-Age Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article we investigated 4th, 6th, and 8th grade students' misconceptions about light, sight, vision, source of light and examined students' conceptual development of these concepts at different grade levels. Data collection was done using five two-tiered test questions with one open-ended question, an interview about concepts and a…

Sahin, Cigdem; Ipek, Hava; Ayas, Alipasa

2008-01-01

494

Student Achievement Effects of Technology-Supported Remediation of Understanding of Fractions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students have difficulty learning fractions, and problems in understanding fractions persist into adulthood, with moderate to severe consequences for everyday and occupational decision-making. Remediation of student misconceptions is hampered by deficiencies in teachers' knowledge of the discipline and pedagogical content knowledge. We theorized…

Ross, John A.; Bruce, Catherine D.

2009-01-01

495

Evolution of Students' Ideas about Natural Selection through a Constructivist Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educating students about the process of evolution through natural selection is vitally important because not only is it the unifying theory of biological science, it is also widely regarded as difficult for students to fully comprehend. Anderson and colleagues (2002) describe alternative ideas and misconceptions about natural selection as highly…

Baumgartner, Erin; Duncan, Kanesa

2009-01-01

496

The Relationship between College Zoology Students' Beliefs about Evolutionary Theory and Religion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers administered surveys to college zoology students prior to, and immediately following a study of evolutionary theory, to assess their understanding and acceptance of evidence supporting the theory. Results showed students had many misconceptions about the theory. Their beliefs interfered with their ability to objectively view scientific…

Sinclair, Anne; And Others

1997-01-01

497

Awareness of Hypertension among Black College Students: An Exploratory Study with Counseling Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explored awareness of hypertension among a sample of Black, urban college students (N=419). Ascertained factors related to awareness of hypertension. Results indicated that the predominant misconception held was that hypertension only affects the elderly. Suggests group counseling methods to increase Black college students' awareness of…

Livingston, Ivor L.

1982-01-01

498

Progression in High School Students' (Aged 16-18) Conceptualizations about Chemical Reactions in Solution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the development over time of students' understandings of the concept of chemical reaction in the context of two familiar reactions in solution. Based on interviews (n=48), results show that students made some progress in their understanding of the concept of chemical reaction but some fundamental misconceptions remained. (Author/MM)|

Boo, Hong-Kwen; Watson, J. R.

2001-01-01

499

Student Teacher Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion and Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview and discussion of a study of student teachers’ knowledge and understanding of the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion and acid rain. It describes the results of a small scale survey designed to ascertain details of student knowledge and misconceptions about these environmental issues. The study reveals familiarity with the term ‘greenhouse effect’, but little understanding

Jane Dove

1996-01-01

500

A Phenomenological Study of Korean Students' Acculturation in Middle Schools in the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this phenomenological interview study was to describe how visiting Korean students experience social adjustment and acculturation when attending US middle schools. As a result of phenomenological analysis, the essences of Korean students' social adjustment included: (1) descriptions of power struggles; (2) misconceptions of…

Lee, Inkyung; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

2007-01-01