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1

Common misconceptions of college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies on misconceptions are briefly reviewed. A combined list of 87 misconceptions covering superstitions, relation of physique and traits, biological, economic and social, and psychological data was presented to groups of college students in psychology courses. Changes in misconceptions are specific in the various categories. Correlation between beginning score and end score for misconceptions after a course in psychology

W. L. Valentine

1936-01-01

2

Common Student Misconceptions in Electrochemistry: Galvanic, Electrolytic, and Concentration Cells.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates student (N=16) misconceptions concerning electrochemistry related to galvanic, electrolytic, and concentration cells. Findings indicate that most students demonstrating misconceptions were still able to calculate cell potentials correctly. Discusses common misconceptions and possible sources of these. Contains 33 references.…

Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

1997-01-01

3

Omani Twelfth Grade Students' Most Common Misconceptions in Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study, undertaken in the Sultanate of Oman, explored twelfth grade students' common misconceptions in seven chemistry conceptual areas. The sample included 786 twelfth grade students in Oman while the instrument was a two-tier test called Chemistry Misconceptions Diagnostic Test (CMDT), consisting of 25 items with 12 items…

Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah K.; Al-Shuaili, Ali H.; Taylor, Neil

2012-01-01

4

Common Student Misconceptions in Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study represents a preliminary investigation designed to identify common misconceptions in students' understanding of physiological and biochemical topics within the academic domain of sport and exercise sciences. A specifically designed misconception inventory (consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions) was administered to a cohort…

Morton, James P.; Doran, Dominic A.; MacLaren, Don P. M.

2008-01-01

5

An exploration of common student misconceptions in science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study formed the basis of an assignment for a teacher-training course. The objectives of the study were to define three scientific concepts and identify for each some of the misconceptions that students commonly have. Six students, representing three distinct age groups were interviewed, using a predetermined set of questions and activities for each concept. Student responses were recorded and

Fiona Thompson

6

Ten Common NWP Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module introduces forecasters to ten of the most commonly encountered or significant misconceptions about NWP models. This list of ten misconceptions includes issues surrounding data assimilation, model resolution, physical parameterizations, and post-processing of model forecast output.

Comet

2002-05-02

7

Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol  

MedlinePLUS

Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:May 29,2014 Cholesterol can be both good and bad, so it's important to learn the facts about ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

8

Common Misconceptions about Biomes and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes some common misconceptions that elementary students may have about biomes and ecosystems. It also includes suggestions for formative assessment and teaching for conceptual change.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

9

Some Common Misconceptions about Tests and Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses three common misconceptions about achievement testing: (1) the idea that men generally outscore women; (2) the notion that the primary role of norms is to compare one student to another; and (3) the misconception that it is not possible to measure the achievement of kindergarten and primary grade students with group tests. (SLD)

Hoover, H. D.

2003-01-01

10

Common Misconceptions about Software Architecture  

E-print Network

Common Misconceptions about Software Architecture by Philippe Kruchten Rational Fellow Rational of these accepted ideas and show why, in my opinion, they may be misconceptions. "Architecture is design." Yes of abstraction but still be concrete enough to draw definite http://www.therationaledge.com/content/apr_01/m_misconceptions

van der Hoek, André

11

Common Misconceptions about Icebergs and Glaciers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes some common misconceptions that elementary students may have about icebergs and glaciers (including density and buoyancy). It also includes suggestions for formative assessment and teaching for conceptual change.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

12

Common Misconceptions about Students from South?East Asia Studying in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

International students from South?East Asia who study in Australia are often portrayed negatively compared to local students in terms of learning and study practices. This article discusses some of the misconceptions held by university teachers and administrators about South?East Asian students studying in Australia and examines them in the light of recent research. In particular, it challenges the views that

Denise Chalmers; Simone Volet

1997-01-01

13

Vocabulary: Five Common Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When young readers encounter texts that contain too many unfamiliar words, their comprehension suffers. Reading becomes slow, laborious, and frustrating, impeding their learning. That's why vocabulary knowledge is a key element in reading comprehension. To comprehend fully and learn well, all students need regular vocabulary exploration.…

Padak, Nancy; Bromley, Karen; Rasinski, Tim; Newton, Evangeline

2012-01-01

14

Some common misconceptions about Lucid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to clear up several misconceptions about the language Lucid. In the process we claim that Lucid is in fact a real programming language, and indicate various ways in which implementations might be feasible.

Ed Ashcroft; Bill Wadge

1980-01-01

15

Common misconceptions about cooling towers  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the design and performance of the water cooling tower. In many cases the numbers presented in a cooling tower inquiry for thermal performance design represent a more stringent condition than that found in the operation of the unit. A common misconception is to take the service factor or safety factor in the cold water temperature or the wet bulb temperature. Service factors are used in the preparation of specifications for most industrial equipment. Standards specify a minimum service factor of 2.0 for cooling tower right angle spiral bevel gears. Closing the approach (cold water temperature minus wet bulb temperature) does not vary linearly with increasing difficulty of duty for the cooling tower, and consequently does not represent a straight-line increase in size or cost. A decrease in the specified approach is equivalent to a decrease in the driving force available for the transfer of mass and heat from the water to the air stream. A decrease in approach from 20 to 19/sup 0/F would result in an increase in cost of about 5%, while a decrease from 5 to 4/sup 0/F would require about 20% more cooling tower.

Willa, J.L.; Campbell, J.C.

1983-12-01

16

Science Sampler: Correcting student misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Before learning any formal science, children try to make sense of natural phenomena on their own. However, several studies have shown that it can be difficult to convince a student to give up a long-held misconception in favor of an accurate scientific explanation. Misconceptions can be confronted through hands-on and minds-on activities. The strategies outlined in this article will foster a climate of inquiry within the classroom.

Abdi, S. W.

2006-01-01

17

Common Errors and Misconceptions in Mathematical Proving by Education Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ninety-seven education students majoring or minoring in mathematics had their math homework examined in a Number Theory or Abstract Algebra course. Each student's homework was observed for the purpose of identifying common errors and misconceptions when writing mathematical proofs. The results showed that students collectively made four…

Stavrou, Stavros Georgios

2014-01-01

18

General students' misconceptions related to Electricity and Magnetism  

E-print Network

Electromagnetism, being much less intuitive than mechanics, where a lot of sources of misconceptions have been documented, has in addition to the common sources of misconceptions borrowed from mechanics other sources related to the abstract new concepts of electric and magnetic fields. This paper is the first general overview of the most important documented misconceptions related to E&M. New sources of misconceptions are also suggested. The shape of Lorentz law, tempting analogies between magnetic and electric fields, the connection between the Maxwell's equations and the derived laws (Ampere's law, the Biot-Savart law, Faraday's law and the Coulomb's law for the electric forces) and mathematics related misconceptions are among the suggested areas of misconceptions. A possible explanation of some student E&M related misconceptions using p-prims is given in the end of the paper.

Raduta, C

2005-01-01

19

Students' Misconceptions in Psychology: How You Ask Matters...Sometimes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions about psychology are prevalent among introductory students. Just how prevalent and what can be done to change these misconceptions depends on valid methods of assessment. The most common method of assessment, the true/false questionnaire, is problematic. The present study compared true/false with forced choice formats to determine…

Taylor, Annette Kujawski; Kowalski, Patricia

2012-01-01

20

Common Misconceptions Concerning Heuristic Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the following statements about heuristic search, which are commonly held to be true: More accurate heuristics result in fewer states being ex- panded by A* and IDA*. A* expands fewer states than any other equally informed algorithm that finds optimal solutions. Any admissible heuristic can be turned into a consistent heuristic by a simple technique called .

Robert C. Holte

21

Misconceptions - What Students Think They Know  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

StudentsÃÂ understanding of many physiological phenomena is often seriously flawed. That is, students have faulty mental models of many of the things we ask them to learn. Such conceptual difficulties are often referred to as misconceptions. The problem with misconceptions is that they are often quite persistent, and they seriously interfere with the studentsÃÂ ability to learn physiology.

PhD Joel A. Michael (Rush Medical College Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology)

2002-03-01

22

Pre-Service Teachers' and Students' (Mis)Conceptions About the Equal Sign  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis was to investigate pre-service teachers and student misconceptions of the equal sign, and then offer suggestions to pre-service teachers, teachers, university programs, and schools to prevent common misconceptions from...

Vela, Katherine

2012-02-14

23

Diagnosing and Dealing with Student Misconceptions: Floating and Sinking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Misconceptions broadly exist in a variety of subject areas, such as physics, biology, geography, and other sciences. Among them, bringing students to an understanding of why things sink and float has proved to be one of the most challenging topics for student conceptual change. To address this issue, the authors designed ten multiple-choice items to help teachers diagnose common misconceptions related to sinking and floating, which are described in this article.

Tomita, Miki K.; Shavelson, Richard J.; Yin, Yue

2008-04-01

24

Misconceptions about Sound among Engineering Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our first objective was to detect misconceptions about the microscopic nature of sound among senior university students enrolled in different engineering programmes (from chemistry to telecommunications). We sought to determine how these misconceptions are expressed (qualitative aspect) and, only very secondarily, to gain a general idea of the…

Pejuan, Arcadi; Bohigas, Xavier; Jaen, Xavier; Periago, Cristina

2012-01-01

25

Review Article Sixteen common misconceptions about the evolution of cooperation  

E-print Network

Review Article Sixteen common misconceptions about the evolution of cooperation in humans Stuart A of social evolution theory and the evolutionary work on cooperation, emphasising common misconceptions disciplines, emphasising common mis- conceptions. In the first part of our study (Sections 2­5), we provide

Gardner, Andy

26

Identifying and Reconstructing Common Cold Misconceptions among Developing K-12 Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Common cold misconceptions may contribute to ill-informed decisions and recommendations made by K-12 educators who often encounter infected students. Understanding the structure of educators' misconceptions can be used to improve health instruction in teacher professional preparation programs. Purpose: The purposes of this project were…

Johnson, Marcus Lee; Bungum, Timothy

2013-01-01

27

Common Misconceptions About Fossils and the History of the Polar Regions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes common misconceptions held by elementary students about the history of the polar regions, fossils, and geologic time. The article provides ideas for formative assessment, teaching strategies, and the National Science Education Standards.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

28

Misconceptions about Gravity Held by College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was part of a continuing exploration of the naive misconceptions of students in the physical sciences conducted within the context of current literature in alternative frameworks. The sample was selected from among those students registered for a liberal education physical science class at a small private college. The method used was a…

Piburn, Michael D.; And Others

29

Misconceptions - Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, edited by Neil Comins (U. Maine), lists common misconceptions students have about astronomical concepts. Some of the itemized misconceptions have links to the proper scientific explanations at various websites. This is a work in progress: many misconceptions are simply listed and do not yet have links.

Comins, Neil

2005-04-25

30

Student Misconception of Scale in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In one recent class, 77% of my students at the beginning of the semester could not answer question #1 below correctly. One reason for this is the student's misconception of the distances between the planets and the sun. In one textbook, 14 figures did not have the correct distance scale. In all cases each figure focuses on an astronomical concept that is not related to distance; nevertheless when my students examine these figures, their misconception that the planets are very close to each other and to the sun is reinforced. Furthermore, many of my students will go on to become teachers and will continue to convey the misconception of scale to their students. There are several things that can be done to solve the problem of student misconception of distances. One solution is to draw the Sun's light as arrows instead of drawing the Sun's disc. In this way, the distance is not shown in the drawing. In cases where one must draw the incorrect scale, the student should be warned of this. Finally, at least one laboratory exercise in the introductory astronomy class should emphasize the concept of correct scale. 1. The reason why summer is hotter here in Georgia than winter is because: a. The sun is farther away in the summer b. The sun is closer to us in the summer c. Sunlight hits us more directly in the summer d. The moon is closer in the summer e. The sun has a higher surface temperature in the summer

Schmude, Richard W.

2006-09-01

31

Targeting Students' Physical Science Misconceptions Using the Conceptual Change Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handbook is dedicated to giving teachers clear information on how to correct physical science misconceptions in the classroom. It aims to help teachers help students develop appropriate understanding based on hands-on, inquiry-based experiences that challenge preconceptions. The book is organized into units ranging from matter to heat and waves. Each unit includes a list of common misconceptions and activities that help students develop an accurate understanding of each concept. Background information and lessons are provided. The National Science Education Standards for content and instructional strategies in the physical sciences are also addressed.

Stepans, Joseph

2007-11-01

32

Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Photosynthesis and Plant Respiration: Preliminary Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated the common misconceptions of lower secondary school students regarding the concepts of photosynthesis and plant respiration. These are abstract concepts which are difficult to comprehend for adults let alone for lower secondary school students. Research of the students misconceptions are conducted worldwide. The researches…

Svandova, Katerina

2014-01-01

33

Applying Scientific Principles to Resolve Student Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions about sinking and floating phenomena are some of the most challenging to overcome (Yin 2005), possibly because explaining sinking and floating requires students to understand challenging topics such as density, force, and motion. Two scientific principles are typically used in U.S. science curricula to explain sinking and floating:…

Yin, Yue

2012-01-01

34

A Survey of Common Misconceptions About Epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire with 33 statements about epilepsy was administered to 202 individuals using a mall survey. Subjects showed good knowledge about the personal characteristics and everyday activities of persons with epilepsy and treatment of epilepsy, but substantial ignorance was noted regarding causes of epilepsy, events that trigger seizures, and first aid for seizures. Higher rates of misconception endorsement were associated

Wm. Drew Gouvier; Linda M. Brown; Perry H. Prestholdt; Jill S. Hayes; George Apostolas

1995-01-01

35

Airside Economizer- Comparing Different Control Strategies and Common Misconceptions  

E-print Network

-enabled economizer and points out some important misconceptions that could significantly impact the energy savings of the economizer operation. Specifically, it challenges the simplistic control strategy for the enthalpy-based economizer control that is commonly used...

Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.

36

Airside Economizer – Comparing Different Control Strategies and Common Misconceptions  

E-print Network

-enabled economizer and points out some important misconceptions that could significantly impact the energy savings of economizer operation. Specifically, it challenges the simplistic control strategy for the enthalpy based economizer control that is commonly used...

Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.

37

International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education 47(3), 307-318 Students' interest in their misconceptions in first year  

E-print Network

there is a common misconception amongst less mathematically experienced students, that the same process can in their misconceptions in first year electrical circuits and mathematics courses Susan Bull, Tim J. Jackson and Michael J to which students are interested in finding out about their misconceptions in the context of independent

Bull, Susan

38

Breaking Down Barriers: Addressing student misconceptions in the K-12 classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A typical astronomy question an educator may ask their students is "What is a black hole?" Many times, students' responses sound more like an episode of Star Trek than an understanding about the universe and how it works: responses such as "Black holes are worm holes in space" or "A black hole is a huge vacuum in space, sucking everything in". These are all common astronomy misconceptions about black holes. A misconception is defined as a preconceived notion of how the world, or in the case of astronomy - the universe, works. Misconceptions may originate for a variety of reasons, from miscommunication, to oversimplification, to misrepresentation via the media or pop culture. Students who latch on to an astronomy misconception may have difficulty learning new information that is built upon the existing misconception. Additionally, educators who are not able to identify and address misconceptions can create learning barriers that may resonate throughout a students' life. This poster will introduce some of the extensive research that has gone into determining typical student misconceptions about astronomy, ways to identify them, and how students develop them. The poster will also explain why teachers need to be aware of ideas and concepts students may harbor as well as how misconceptions can be remedied.

Eisenhamer, B.; McCallister, J. D.; Knisely, L.

2004-05-01

39

The Effective Use of an Interactive Software Program to Reduce Students' Misconceptions about Batteries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The misconceptions of students regarding electricity and electrochemistry in the context of operation of a common flashlight are discussed. An Interactive Software Program (ISP) is used for better conceptual understanding of the operation of commercial batteries in a circuit.

Yang, E.-M.; Greenbowe, T. J.; Andre, T.

2004-01-01

40

Two Common Misconceptions about the Theory of Special Relativity  

E-print Network

Two common misconceptions about the theory of Special Relativity that are actively taught in textbooks are discussed. It is shown, first, that the Lorentz transformations are actually transformations of the coordinates of a photon, not the coordinates of a particle as taught by some authors. Secondly, a misconception concerning the relativistic Lagrangian is discussed. It is shown that the currently accepted formulation of the Lagrangian is missing an important constant of integration. By incorporating the missing constant of integration, the new Lagrangian directly supports the conclusions reached previously by the author concerning the mass-energy equivalence principle.

Ezzat G. Bakhoum

2004-11-07

41

Two Common Misconceptions about the Theory of Special Relativity  

E-print Network

Two common misconceptions about the theory of Special Relativity that are actively taught in textbooks are discussed. It is shown, first, that the Lorentz transformations are actually transformations of the coordinates of a photon, not the coordinates of a particle as taught by some authors. Secondly, a misconception concerning the relativistic Lagrangian is discussed. It is shown that the currently accepted formulation of the Lagrangian is missing an important constant of integration. By incorporating the missing constant of integration, the new Lagrangian directly supports the conclusions reached previously by the author concerning the mass-energy equivalence principle.

Bakhoum, E G

2004-01-01

42

A common misconception about LIGO detectors of gravitational waves  

E-print Network

A common misconception about laser interferometric detectors of gravitational waves purports that, because the wavelength of laser light and the length of an interferometer's arm are both stretched by a gravitational wave, no effect should be visible, invoking an analogy with cosmological redshift in an expanding universe. The issue is clarified with the help of a direct calculation.

Faraoni, V

2007-01-01

43

Some common misconceptions about the modeling of repairable components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although stochastic point process theory has been successfully applied in many fields of knowledge, in power systems reliability it has not received so much attention what is reflected in the low number of reported applications. This may be due to some common misconceptions about the modeling of repairable components which falsely show this method is the same than other popular

C. J. Zapata; A. Torres; D. S. Kirschen; M. A. Rios

2009-01-01

44

A common misconception about LIGO detectors of gravitational waves  

E-print Network

A common misconception about laser interferometric detectors of gravitational waves purports that, because the wavelength of laser light and the length of an interferometer's arm are both stretched by a gravitational wave, no effect should be visible, invoking an analogy with cosmological redshift in an expanding universe. The issue is clarified with the help of a direct calculation.

Valerio Faraoni

2007-02-14

45

A Computer-Based Instrument That Identifies Common Science Misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the rationale for and development of a computer-based instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. The instrument, known as the Science Beliefs Test, is a 47 -item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. The use of an online data collection system aided in developing this instrument and in ascertaining its

Timothy G. Larrabee; Mary Stein; Charles Barman

2006-01-01

46

Cognitive Processes and Students' Misconceptions in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several categories of misconceptions which appear to be emerging across studies are discussed. They include: mis-perceptions; stunted conceptions; mis-translations; confused conceptions; lost conceptions; and true misconceptions. True misconceptions are metaphors and analogies which represent truly complete systems of explanation but are…

Smith, Deborah C.

47

Misconceptions of Selected Ecological Concepts Held by Some Nigerian Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identified some of the misconceptions held by secondary science students (N=232) related to selected ecological concepts and generalizations. Lists the alternative conceptions expressed by these students on food chains and energy flows and pyramids. Offers perspectives on dealing with the sources of the misconceptions. (ML)

Adeniyi, E. Ola

1985-01-01

48

A common misconception about LIGO detectors of gravitational waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common misconception about laser interferometric detectors of gravitational waves purports that, because the wavelength\\u000a of laser light and the length of an interferometer’s arm are both stretched by a gravitational wave, no effect should be visible,\\u000a invoking an analogy with cosmological redshift in an expanding universe. The issue is clarified with the help of a direct\\u000a calculation.

Valerio Faraoni

2007-01-01

49

On Misconceptions about Behavior Analysis among University Students and Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students frequently show misconceptions regarding scientific psychology in general and basic concepts in behavior analysis in particular. We wanted to replicate the study by Lamal (1995) and to expand the study by including some additional statements. In the current study, the focus was on misconceptions about behavior analysis held by…

Arntzen, Erik; Lokke, Jon; Lokke, Gunn; Eilertsen, Dag-Erik

2010-01-01

50

Science Sampler: Why we have seasons and other common misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The video, A Private Universe , engages students in the ideas regarding alternative conceptions. This video is effective in capturing preservice teachers' attention and altering their own beliefs regarding alternative conceptions, especially as they relate to "the reason for the seasons." The video makes clear how prevalent alternative conceptions are, how resistant to change such notions can be, and the tenacity with which learners hold these conceptions. This article describes how the author, an assistant professor, utilized this film to address preservice teachers' misconceptions as well as those of their future students.

Lindgren, Joan

2003-01-01

51

Student misconceptions of an electric circuit: What do they mean?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discusses a common misconception in the area of electric circuits at the level of introductory college physics. The data, collected from clinical interviews, shed light on the cognitive sources of misconception. Also discusses some implications for laboratory approaches used in science courses.

Fredette, Norman H.; Clement, John J.

2006-05-08

52

Electromagnetic scattering by a morphologically complex object: Fundamental concepts and common misconceptions  

E-print Network

and common misconceptions Michael I. Mishchenko a,�, Victor P. Tishkovets b , Larry D. Travis a , Brian misconceptions widespread in the discipline of electromagnetic scattering by solitary particles and discrete

53

Misconceptions about "Misconceptions": Preservice Secondary Science Teachers' Views on the Value and Role of Student Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There remains a lack of agreement in the field of science education as to whether student "misconceptions" ought to be considered obstacles or resources, and this has implications for the ways in which prospective teachers think about the value of their students' ideas. This empirical study examines how 14 preservice secondary science teachers in…

Larkin, Douglas

2012-01-01

54

Growing Pebbles and Conceptual Prisms: Understanding the Source of Student Misconceptions About Rock Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigates misconceptions held by students about how rocks form. It involved analyzing narrative essays on rock formation written by pre-service elementary school teachers, most of whom had completed a college-level course in earth science. These misconceptions arise from deeply held but largely unexamined beliefs (conceptual prisms) that result from the interaction of the student's world view and personal experiences. The study addressed three basic research questions: how do students describe the process of rock formation in narrative essays?, are there common patterns in students' naive conceptions about geology?, and can these patterns be explained by a few underlying beliefs that shape student ideas?

Kusnick, Judi

55

Unraveling Students' Misconceptions about the Earth's Shape and Gravity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study designed to test the effectiveness of a constructivist-historical teaching strategy in changing students' misconceptions about the earth's shape and gravity at the upper elementary and middle school levels. Contains 27 references. (DDR)

Sneider, Cary I.; Ohadi, Mark M.

1998-01-01

56

Identifying student misconceptions in biomedical course assessments in dental education.  

PubMed

Dental student performance on examinations has traditionally been estimated by calculating the percentage of correct responses rather than by identifying student misconceptions. Although misconceptions can impede student learning and are refractory to change, they are seldom measured in biomedical courses in dental schools. Our purpose was to determine if scaling student confidence and the clinical impact of incorrect answers could be used on multiple-choice questions (MCQs) to identify potential student misconceptions. To provide a measure of student misconception, faculty members indicated the correct answer on twenty clinically relevant MCQs and noted whether the three distracters represented potentially benign, inappropriate, or harmful application of student knowledge to patient treatment. A group of 105 third-year dental students selected what they believed was the most appropriate answer and their level of sureness (1 to 4 representing very unsure, unsure, sure, and very sure) about their answer. Misconceptions were defined as sure or very sure incorrect responses that could result in inappropriate or harmful clinical treatment. In the results, 5.2 percent of the answers represented student misconceptions, and 74 percent of the misconceptions were from four case-based interpretation questions. The mean student sureness was 3.6 on a 4.0 scale. The students' sureness was higher with correct than with incorrect answers (p<0.001), yet there was no difference in sureness levels among their incorrect (benign, inappropriate, or harmful) responses (p>0.05). This study found that scaling student confidence and clinical impact of incorrect answers provided helpful insights into student thinking in multiple-choice assessment. PMID:22942414

Curtis, Donald A; Lind, Samuel L; Dellinges, Mark; Schroeder, Kurt

2012-09-01

57

Misconceptions about Traumatic Brain Injury among Students Preparing to Be Special Education Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The researchers performed a survey study to determine the effectiveness of collegiate programmes in dispelling common misconceptions about traumatic brain injury (TBI) while preparing undergraduate and graduate students for special education (SpEd) careers. Respondents included 136 undergraduate and 147 graduate SpEd students in their final…

Hux, Karen; Bush, Erin; Evans, Kelli; Simanek, Gina

2013-01-01

58

Students' Misconceptions about Medium-Scale Integrated Circuits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To improve instruction in computer engineering and computer science, instructors must better understand how their students learn. Unfortunately, little is known about how students learn the fundamental concepts in computing. To investigate student conceptions and misconceptions about digital logic concepts, the authors conducted a qualitative…

Herman, G. L.; Loui, M. C.; Zilles, C.

2011-01-01

59

Common property in strata titled developments in Singapore : Common misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the face of Singapore's land scarcity problem, there is an increasing prevalence of strata-titled developments providing private housing in Singapore. This paper considers the awareness in certain quarters of certain fundamental aspects of this unique form of property ownership. The particular aspect which this paper considers is the understanding and interpretation of the term “common property” among two important

Alice Christudason

2004-01-01

60

Common Misconceptions in the Diagnosis and Management of Anemia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia is the most common systemic complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); so common that it is almost invariably not investigated and rarely treated. Several misconceptions are the reason for these clinical errors, and our goal will be to review them. The most common misconceptions are: anemia is uncommon in IBD; iron deficiency is also uncommon; just by treating the

Javier P. Gisbert; Fernando Gomollón

2008-01-01

61

Misconceptions About Evolution in Brazilian Freshmen Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regarding such an important issue as our origin, as well as the origin of all biological diversity, it is surprising to realize\\u000a that evolution still faces drawbacks in keeping its deserved notability as a unifying theory in biology. This does not happen\\u000a because evolutionism lacks validity as a scientific theory, but rather because of several misconceptions regarding evolutionary\\u000a biology that

Rubens Pazza; Pierre R. Penteado; Karine F. Kavalco

2010-01-01

62

The Science Teacher4646464646 MISCONCEPTIONS  

E-print Network

and sense of being overwhelmed by recognizing pat- terns in students' misconceptions. Common sense reasoning, common sense reasoning is also I FELT AS IF I HAD OPENED PANDORA'S BOX OF MISCONCEPTIONS AND DIDN'T KNOWThe Science Teacher4646464646 MINIMIZING MISCONCEPTIONS Tools for identifying patterns of reasoning

Talanquer, Vicente A.

63

Common Origins of Diverse Misconceptions: Cognitive Principles and the Development of Biology Thinking  

PubMed Central

Many ideas in the biological sciences seem especially difficult to understand, learn, and teach successfully. Our goal in this feature is to explore how these difficulties may stem not from the complexity or opacity of the concepts themselves, but from the fact that they may clash with informal, intuitive, and deeply held ways of understanding the world that have been studied for decades by psychologists. We give a brief overview of the field of developmental cognitive psychology. Then, in each of the following sections, we present a number of common challenges faced by students in the biological sciences. These may be in the form of misconceptions, biases, or simply concepts that are difficult to learn and teach, and they occur at all levels of biological analysis (molecular, cellular, organismal, population, and ecosystem). We then introduce the notion of a cognitive construal and discuss specific examples of how these cognitive principles may explain what makes some misconceptions so alluring and some biological concepts so challenging for undergraduates. We will argue that seemingly unrelated misconceptions may have common origins in a single underlying cognitive construal. These ideas emerge from our own ongoing cross-disciplinary conversation, and we think that expanding this conversation to include other biological scientists and educators, as well as other cognitive scientists, could have significant utility in improving biology teaching and learning. PMID:22949417

Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

2012-01-01

64

Faring with Facets: Building and Using Databases of Student Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of educational researchers have developed pedagogical approaches that involve the teacher in discovering and helping to correct misconceptions that students bring to their study of their subject matter. During the last decade, several computer systems have been developed to support teaching and learning using this kind of approach. A…

Madhyastha, Tara; Tanimoto, Steven

2009-01-01

65

How Confident Are Students in Their Misconceptions about Hypothesis Tests?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both researchers and teachers of statistics have made considerable efforts during the last decades to re-conceptualize statistics courses in accordance with the general reform movement in mathematics education. However, students still hold misconceptions about statistical inference even after following a reformed course. The study presented in…

Sotos, Ana Elisa Castro; Vanhoof, Stijn; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Onghena, Patrick

2009-01-01

66

Predicting Students' Performance in Introductory Psychology from their Psychology Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students bring many misconceptions about psychology to the introductory psychology course. We investigated whether scores on a 10-item Knowledge of Psychology Test (adapted from Vaughan, 1977) taken on the first class day were related to final class grades in 11 introductory psychology classes taught by the same instructor at three colleges. A…

Kuhle, Barry X.; Barber, Jessica M.; Bristol, Adam S.

2009-01-01

67

Misconceptions highlighted among medical students in the annual International Intermedical School Physiology Quiz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

THE ANNUAL Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe, as previously described in this journal (4). We report here some illuminating insights gleaned from this international physiology quiz event. This report also highlights some common misconceptions among students of physiology, as has been previously described in definite studies by others (5, 8, 10, 13, 14).

Hwee-Ming Cheng (Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya Physiology); Damayanthi Durairajanayagam (MARA University of Technology)

2012-09-01

68

Student Misconceptions About Astronomy and the Best Order of Teaching Astronomical Concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My (Andrej Favia) Ph.D. thesis involves quantifying the "difficulty" of unlearning common astronomy misconceptions. I do this by applying factor analysis and Item Response Theory (IRT) to a retrospective inventory of when, or if, college students dispelled the misconceptions under consideration. Our inventory covers 235 misconceptions identified over the span of 10 years of teaching the college astronomy lecture course at the Universe of Maine by NFC. The analysis yields logical groupings of topics (e.g., teach one planet at a time rather than use comparative planetology) and the "order of difficulty" of the associated topics. We have results for about one fourth of the inventory, and our results show that there are concepts of different difficulties, which suggest that they should be presented in different orders. We also find that the order of teaching concepts is sometimes different for high school and college level courses.

Favia, Andrej; Comins, N. F.; Thorpe, G.

2013-01-01

69

Scientific Methods: Using the movie "Awakenings" to dispel common misconceptions about the scientific method.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is to dispel the misconception that there is one single structured scientific method used by all scientists, and tackle some ethical issues raised in life. This is accomplished using the popular movie "Awakenings" and student observations and reflections.

Lauris Grundmanis, Hill-Murray School, Maplewood, MN 55109

70

Common Misconceptions in Addressing Domestic Violence in Child Custody Disputes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic violence has been recognized as an important factor to consider in determining the best interests of children in custody and visitation dis- putes. However, there remain many misconceptions about the extent and impact of domestic violence in child custody proceedings. Several miscon- ceptions are identified and juxtaposed with the reality of emerging knowl- edge in this field, and implications

PETER G. JAFFE; CLAIRE V. CROOKS; SAMANTHA E. POISSON

2003-01-01

71

Reliability in Content Analysis: Some Common Misconceptions and Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a recent article in this journal, Lombard, Snyder-Duch, and Bracken (2002) surveyed 200 content analyses for their reporting of reliability tests, compared the virtues and drawbacks of five popular reliability measures, and proposed guidelines and standards for their use. Their discussion revealed that numerous misconceptions circulate in the…

Krippendorff, Klaus

2004-01-01

72

A guided enquiry approach to introduce basic concepts concerning magnetic hysteresis to minimize student misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic concepts concerning magnetic hysteresis are of vital importance in understanding magnetic materials. However, these concepts are often misinterpreted by many students and even textbooks. We summarize the most common misconceptions and present a new approach to help clarify these misconceptions and enhance students’ understanding of the hysteresis loop. In this approach, students are required to perform an experiment and plot the measured magnetization values and thereby calculated demagnetizing field, internal field, and magnetic induction as functions of the applied field point by point on the same graph. The concepts of the various coercivity, remanence, saturation magnetization, and saturation induction will not be introduced until this stage. By plotting this graph, students are able to interlink all the preceding concepts and intuitively visualize the underlying physical relations between them.

Wei, Yajun; Zhai, Zhaohui; Gunnarsson, Klas; Svedlindh, Peter

2014-11-01

73

Students' Understandings and Misconceptions of Algebraic Inequalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM] requires students in grades nine through 12 to be able to explain inequalities using mathematical relational symbols and be able to understand the meaning of inequalities and their solutions (NCTM, 2000). Studies have shown that not only middle and high school students have difficulties with…

Rowntree, Rebecca V.

2009-01-01

74

Mining Learner Profile Utilizing Association Rule for Common Learning Misconception Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract With the rapid growth ,of computer ,and ,Internet technologies, e-learning has become a major trend in the computer ,assisted teaching ,and ,learning ,fields. Most,past ,researches ,for ,web-based ,learning commonly,neglect to consider ,whether ,learners can understand,the ,learning ,courseware ,or generate misconception.,To discover ,common ,learning misconception of learners, this study employs the association rule to mine learner profile for diagnosing learners’

Chih-ming Chen; Ying-ling Hsieh

2005-01-01

75

College Students' Misconceptions about Evolutionary Trees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evolution is at the center of the biological sciences and is therefore a required topic for virtually every college biology student. Over the past year, the authors have been building a new simulation software package called EvoBeaker to teach college-level evolutionary biology through simulated experiments. They have built both micro and…

Meir, Eli; Perry, Judy; Herron, Jon C.; Kingsolver, Joel

2007-01-01

76

Student Misconceptions and the Conservation of Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interesting, quick, and inexpensive lab that we do with our students is to tape one end of a string just less than halfway around the back side of a uniform solid cylinder m1 and attach the other end of the string to a mass m2 that is below a pulley (Fig. 1). Data can be collected using either an Ultra Pulley (Fig. 2) or a motion detector with a protective cage designed to stop the falling mass (Fig. 3). We found that each measuring device worked equally well. When experimenting, let m2 hang freely and release the cylinder. The mass m2 is allowed to fall a defined distance h. Note that many motion detectors do not measure accurately within 15 cm of the detector.

Froehle, Peter; Miller, Charles H.

2012-09-01

77

Thai high-school students' misconceptions about and models of light refraction through a planar surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the optics misconceptions of 220 year 11 Thai high-school students. These misconceptions became apparent when the students attempted to explain how an object submerged in a water tank is 'seen' by an observer looking into the tank from above and at an angle. The two diagnostic questions used in the study probe the students' ability to use

Kreetha Kaewkhong; Alex Mazzolini; Narumon Emarat; Kwan Arayathanitkul

2010-01-01

78

Elementary Teachers’ Understanding of Students’ Science Misconceptions: Implications for Practice and Teacher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine what elementary teachers know about student science misconceptions and how teachers address\\u000a student misconceptions in instruction. The sample included 30 teachers from California with at least 1-year of experience\\u000a teaching grades 3, 4, and 5. A semistructured interview was used. The interview transcripts were transcribed and coded under\\u000a the following categories: definition of misconceptions, sources

Susan Gomez-Zwiep

2008-01-01

79

Analysis of Students' Misconceptions of Research Methods in Relations to Thinking Style  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores college studentsmisconceptions about scientific research methods and their predisposition for rational-analytic thinking or experiential-intuitive thinking. The measures used in assessing misconceptions and thinking style were a seven-item version of Students’ Conceptions of Research Methods Inventory (SCoRI), specifically the misconceptions of research methods subscale (Meyer et al.(2005), and Epstein’s Rational-Experiential Inventory (REI) Scale (1996), respectively. The REI

Tonya Tavares

2008-01-01

80

Zeroing in on Number and Operations, Grades 1-2: Key Ideas and Common Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Zeroing in on Number and Operations" series, which aligns with the Common Core State Standards and the NCTM Standards on Focal Points, features easy-to-use tools for teaching key concepts in number and operations and for addressing common misconceptions. Sharing the insights they've gained through decades of mathematics teaching and research,…

Dacey, Linda; Collins, Anne

2010-01-01

81

Zeroing in on Number and Operations, Pre-K-K: Key Ideas and Common Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Zeroing in on Number and Operations" series, which aligns with the Common Core State Standards and the NCTM Standards on Focal Points, features easy-to-use tools for teaching key concepts in number and operations and for addressing common misconceptions. Sharing the insights they've gained through decades of mathematics teaching and research,…

Dacey, Linda; Collins, Anne

2011-01-01

82

Identifying Students' Misconceptions about Nuclear Chemistry: A Study of Turkish High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study represents the first attempt to elucidate and detail the types of misconceptions high school students hold relating to basic concepts and topics of nuclear chemistry. A diagnostic multiple-choice test was administered to 157 tenth-grade students (15-16 years old) and the data were analyzed. The results show that high school students

Nakiboglu, Canan; Tekin, Berna Bulbul

2006-01-01

83

An Analysis of Students' Misconceptions Concerning Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study were to diagnose students' misconceptions concerning photosynthesis and respiration in plants, and to investigate reasons behind these misconceptions. The subjects were 45 ninth grade high school students and 11 high school teachers. Data were collected by interview technique. All of the interviews were audiotaped and…

Capa, Yesim; Yildirim, Ali; Ozden, M. Yasar

84

Ability and Critical Thinking as Predictors of Change in Students' Psychological Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the conceptual change literature, this study assessed factors influencing change in students' misconceptions about psychology. We expected students' ability and their critical thinking to predict whether they would change their misconceptions following completion of an introductory psychology course. GPA, scores on a test of critical…

Kowalski, Patricia; Taylor, Annette Kujawski

2004-01-01

85

Thai High-School Students' Misconceptions about and Models of Light Refraction through a Planar Surface  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the optics misconceptions of 220 year 11 Thai high-school students. These misconceptions became apparent when the students attempted to explain how an object submerged in a water tank is "seen" by an observer looking into the tank from above and at an angle. The two diagnostic questions used in the study probe the…

Kaewkhong, Kreetha; Mazzolini, Alex; Emarat, Narumon; Arayathanitkul, Kwan

2010-01-01

86

"Holes" in Student Understanding: Addressing Prevalent Misconceptions regarding Atmospheric Environmental Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a misconception among undergraduate students that global warming is caused by holes in the ozone layer. In this study, we evaluated the presence of this and other misconceptions surrounding atmospheric chemistry that are responsible for the entanglement of the greenhouse effect and the ozone hole in students' conceptual frameworks. We…

Kerr, Sara C.; Walz, Kenneth A.

2007-01-01

87

COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS THAT ARISE IN THE FIRST-YEAR MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY CURRICULUM CONCERNING HEART FAILURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

here are a number of misconceptions that first-year medical students have concerning the pathophysiology of heart failure. These stem from 1) a poor definition of heart failure, 2) a lack of care in distinguishing between similar but distinct concepts, and 3) the inability to recognize the relationship between the various stages of heart failure and the clinical manifestation of the

Thomas H. Hintze; Gong Zhao

88

Knowledge, Misconceptions and Motivations Towards Blood Donation Among University Students in KSA  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the knowledge, misconceptions and motivations towards blood donation among university students in KSA. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out at the King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh campus, Jeddah, KSA. A total of 326 adult males were interviewed and each individual completed a questionnaire in Arabic language on various aspects of blood donation. Data was analyzed using SPSS-16. Results: Out of 326 individuals, 264 (80.98%) were non donors and 62 (19.02%) were donors, 13% donated once, 5% donated twice and 1% donating regularly. Regarding the knowledge part of the questionnaire many of the respondents did not have the basic knowledge and the two common sources of information for blood donation were friends (53%), and TV (24%). The major motivations for donors were to help family or friend (30%), saving others lives (28%), religious reasons (20%) and altruism (12%). Among the respondents the most prevalent misconception was contracting infection like HIV or Hepatitis B&C (26%). Conclusion: The knowledge of blood donation is not up to the mark and many misconceptions exist among young Saudi University students. PMID:24550940

Baig, Mukhtiar; Habib, Hamed; H. Haji, Abdullah; T. Alsharief, Faisal; M. Noor, Abdulelah; G. Makki, Riyadh

2013-01-01

89

Distance Education in the Digital Age: Common Misconceptions and Challenging Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses in its first part three common misconceptions related to the operation of distance education providers in the digital age: The tendency to relate to e-learning as the new generation of distance education; the confusion between ends and means of distance education; and the absence of the teachers' crucial role in the…

Guri-Rosenblit, Sarah

2009-01-01

90

Role and meaning of subjective probability: Some comments on common misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criticisms of so called ‘subjective probability’ come on the one hand from those who maintain that probability in physics has only a frequentistic interpretation, and, on the other, from those who tend to ‘objectivise’ Bayesian theory, arguing, e.g., that subjective probabilities are indeed based ‘only on private introspection’. Some of the common misconceptions on subjective probability will be commented upon

G. D’Agostini; Aldo Moro

2001-01-01

91

Common errors and misconceptions in the interpretation of hydrocarbon site assessment data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common errors and misconceptions in the interpretation of hydrocarbon site assessment data can result in the incorrect use of data and inefficiently spent remediation money. Thousands of hydrocarbon impacted sites are assessed each year in the United States. Scores of samples are collected and analyzed from each site by a variety of field and laboratory methods. The data are evaluated

M. Flack; D. L. Marcus

1994-01-01

92

Effects of conceptual assignments and conceptual change discussions on students' misconceptions and achievement regarding force and motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Investigates the effects of conceptual assignments and conceptual change discussions on high school students' achievement and misconceptions about force and motion. Analyzes pretest and posttest data from the Force Misconception and Force Achievement Tests (FMFAT). Discusses the effects on the conceptual change discussion on reducing misconceptions students held as well as improving students' achievement in force and motion.

Eryilmaz, Ali

2005-10-21

93

Cognitive analysis of students' errors and misconceptions in variables, equations, and functions  

E-print Network

, it is expected that a more general principle of understanding and the corresponding learning difficulties can be illustrated by the case studies. Although students’ errors varied to a great extent, certain types of errors related to studentsmisconceptions...

Li, Xiaobao

2009-05-15

94

Observations on Student Misconceptions--A Case Study of the Build-Heap Algorithm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data structures and algorithms are core issues in computer programming. However, learning them is challenging for most students and many of them have various types of misconceptions on how algorithms work. In this study, we discuss the problem of identifying misconceptions on the principles of how algorithms work. Our context is algorithm…

Seppala, Otto; Malmi, Lauri; Korhonen, Ari

2006-01-01

95

Misconceptions of High School Students Related to the Conceptions of Absolutism and Constitutionalism in History Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study is to analyze the 10th grade high school students' misconceptions related to the sense of ruling in the Ottoman State during the absolutist and constitutional periods and to investigate the causes of these misconceptions. The data were collected through eight open-ended questions related to the concepts of absolutism and…

Bal, Mehmet Suat

2011-01-01

96

Six common misconceptions about the standard of care in dentistry.  

PubMed

As a legal concept, standard of care refers to the set of practices that are accepted as appropriate based on the body of common case law decisions. This is contrasted with a concept of ethical standard of care, which is defined as the conscientious application of up-to-date knowledge, competent skill, and reasoned judgment in the best interest of the patient, honoring the autonomy of the patient. The article probes six areas where the understanding of standard of care is ambiguous. PMID:25080673

Jenson, Larry E

2014-01-01

97

“Are Humans Evolving?” A Classroom Discussion to Change Student Misconceptions Regarding Natural Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural selection is an important mechanism in the unifying biological theory of evolution, but many undergraduate students\\u000a struggle to learn this concept. Students enter introductory biology courses with predictable misconceptions about natural\\u000a selection, and traditional teaching methods, such as lecturing, are unlikely to dispel these misconceptions. Instead, students\\u000a are more likely to learn natural selection when they are engaged in

Tessa M. Andrews; Steven T. Kalinowski; Mary J. Leonard

98

Expanding Confusion: common misconceptions of cosmological horizons and the superluminal expansion of the Universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use standard general relativity to illustrate and clarify several common\\u000amisconceptions about the expansion of the Universe. To show the abundance of\\u000athese misconceptions we cite numerous misleading, or easily misinterpreted,\\u000astatements in the literature. In the context of the new standard Lambda-CDM\\u000acosmology we point out confusions regarding the particle horizon, the event\\u000ahorizon, the ``observable universe'' and

Tamara M. Davis

2003-01-01

99

Addressing Undergraduate Student Misconceptions about Natural Selection with an Interactive Simulated Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although evolutionary theory is considered to be a unifying foundation for biological education, misconceptions about basic\\u000a evolutionary processes such as natural selection inhibit student understanding. Even after instruction, students harbor misconceptions\\u000a about natural selection, suggesting that traditional teaching methods are insufficient for correcting these confusions. This\\u000a has spurred an effort to develop new teaching methods and tools that effectively confront

Joel K. Abraham; Eli Meir; Judy Perry; Jon C. Herron; Susan Maruca; Derek Stal

2009-01-01

100

Common errors and misconceptions in the interpretation of hydrocarbon site assessment data  

SciTech Connect

Common errors and misconceptions in the interpretation of hydrocarbon site assessment data can result in the incorrect use of data and inefficiently spent remediation money. Thousands of hydrocarbon impacted sites are assessed each year in the United States. Scores of samples are collected and analyzed from each site by a variety of field and laboratory methods. The data are evaluated and decisions are made regarding the nature and extent of impact and the appropriate approach for the remediation of these site. In many cases an inappropriate decision is made because either the wrong data is collected or the data is incorrectly interpreted. Through the understanding of the limitations of the laboratory methods and misconceptions regarding data interpretation, the site remediation can be improved for the mutual benefit of the party paying the bill and the environment. Hydrocarbon analytical procedures that are commonly misused, subject to misconceptions or misinterpretations include U.S. EPA Methods 418.1, 8010, 8020, 8015M (purgeable and extractable), and 8260. For example, method 418.1 can detect carbon-bearing compounds such as humic and fulvic acids resulting in spurious reports of concentrations of hydrocarbons.

Flack, M.; Marcus, D.L. (EMCON Associates, Burbank, CA (United States))

1994-04-01

101

Expanding Confusion: common misconceptions of cosmological horizons and the superluminal expansion of the Universe  

E-print Network

We use standard general relativity to illustrate and clarify several common misconceptions about the expansion of the universe. To show the abundance of these misconceptions we cite numerous misleading, or easily misinterpreted, statements in the literature. In the context of the new standard Lambda-CDM cosmology we point out confusions regarding the particle horizon, the event horizon, the ``observable universe'' and the Hubble sphere (distance at which recession velocity = c). We show that we can observe galaxies that have, and always have had, recession velocities greater than the speed of light. We explain why this does not violate special relativity and we link these concepts to observational tests. Attempts to restrict recession velocities to less than the speed of light require a special relativistic interpretation of cosmological redshifts. We analyze durations and apparent magnitudes of supernovae and observationally rule out the special relativistic Doppler interpretation of cosmological redshifts a...

Davis, T M; Davis, Tamara M.; Lineweaver, Charles H.

2003-01-01

102

Expanding Confusion: common misconceptions of cosmological horizons and the superluminal expansion of the Universe  

E-print Network

We use standard general relativity to illustrate and clarify several common misconceptions about the expansion of the Universe. To show the abundance of these misconceptions we cite numerous misleading, or easily misinterpreted, statements in the literature. In the context of the new standard Lambda-CDM cosmology we point out confusions regarding the particle horizon, the event horizon, the ``observable universe'' and the Hubble sphere (distance at which recession velocity = c). We show that we can observe galaxies that have, and always have had, recession velocities greater than the speed of light. We explain why this does not violate special relativity and we link these concepts to observational tests. Attempts to restrict recession velocities to less than the speed of light require a special relativistic interpretation of cosmological redshifts. We analyze apparent magnitudes of supernovae and observationally rule out the special relativistic Doppler interpretation of cosmological redshifts at a confidence level of 23 sigma.

Tamara M. Davis; Charles H. Lineweaver

2003-10-28

103

It Ain't Necessarily So: Some Common Misconceptions About the North Central Association Commission on Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the history of the North Central Association's Commission on Schools, highlighting seven common misconceptions and citing the historical record to correct them. Discusses the commission's origins, accreditation achievements, accreditation methodologies, relationship to government agencies, dues, and staff size. (MAB)

Shaw, Robert C.

1996-01-01

104

A Analysis of Saudi Arabian High School Students' Misconceptions about Physics Concepts.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted to explore Saudi high students' misconceptions in selected physics concepts. It also detected the effects of gender, grade level and location of school on Saudi high school students' misconceptions. In addition, a further analysis of students' misconceptions in each question was investigated and a correlation between students' responses, confidence in answers and sensibleness was conducted. There was an investigation of sources of students' answers in this study. Finally, this study included an analysis of students' selection of reasons only in the instrument. The instrument used to detect the students' misconceptions was a modified form of the Misconception Identification in Science Questionnaire (MISQ). This instrument was developed by Franklin (1992) to detected students' misconceptions in selected physics concepts. This test is a two-tier multiple choice test that examines four areas of physics: Force and motion, heat and temperature, light and color and electricity and magnetism. This study included a sample of 1080 Saudi high school students who were randomly selected from six Saudi educational districts. This study also included both genders, the three grade levels of Saudi high schools, six different educational districts, and a city and a town in each educational district. The sample was equally divided between genders, grade levels, and educational districts. The result of this study revealed that Saudi Arabian high school students hold numerous misconceptions about selected physics concepts. It also showed that tenth grade students were significantly different than the other grades. The result also showed that different misconceptions are held by the students for each concept in the MISQ. A positive correlation between students' responses, confidence in answers and sensibleness in many questions was shown. In addition, it showed that guessing was the most dominant source of misconceptions. The result revealed that gender and grade level had an affect on students' choice of decision on the MISQ items. A positive change in the means of gender and grade levels in the multiple choice test and gender differences in selection of reason may be associated with specific concepts. No significant difference in frequencies of the reasons chosen by the student to justify their answers were found in most of the items (10 items).

Al-Rubayea, Abdullah A. M.

105

Towards Intelligent Tutoring with Erroneous Examples: A Taxonomy of Decimal Misconceptions  

E-print Network

.altman@vanderbilt.edu Abstract. In the mathematics domain of decimals, students have common and persistent misconceptions misconceptions are, on one hand, to provide an overview of the common problems that students have while working of common misconceptions. Isotani, S., McLaren, B.M.,& Altman, M. (2010). Towards intelligent tutoring

McLaren, Bruce Martin

106

Helping the Learner to Learn: The Role of Uncovering Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for determining a common language for discussing misconceptions amongst the educators, classroom teachers and educational researchers which will assist in uncovering the misconceptions is discussed. It is seen that the misconceptions of the students could be considered as a diagnostic information that assists in finding out different ways…

Modell, Harold; Michael, Joel; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

2005-01-01

107

Role and meaning of subjective probability some comments on common misconceptions  

E-print Network

Criticisms of so called `subjective probability' come on the one hand from those who maintain that probability in physics has only a frequentistic interpretation, and, on the other, from those who tend to `objectivise' Bayesian theory, arguing, e.g., that subjective probabilities are indeed based `only on private introspection'. Some of the common misconceptions on subjective probability will be commented upon in support of the thesis that coherence is the most crucial, universal and `objective' way to assess our confidence on events of any kind.

D'Agostini, Giulio

2000-01-01

108

The Geoscience Concept Test: A New Assessment Tool Based on Student Misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed and began pilot testing of an earth science assessment tool called the geoscience concept test (GCT). The GCT uses student misconceptions as distractors in a 30 item multiple-choice instrument. Student misconceptions were first assessed through the analysis of nearly 300 questionnaires administered in introductory geology courses at three institutions. Results from the questionnaires guided the development of an interview protocol that was used by four interviewers at four different institutions. Over 100 in-depth student interviews lasting from 0.5 to 1 hour probed topics related to the Earth's interior, geologic time, and the formation of Earth surface features such as mountains and volcanoes to better define misconceptions. Thematic content analysis of the interviews identified a number of widely held misconceptions, which were then incorporated into the GCT as multiple-choice distractors (wrong answers). For content validity, the initial GCT was reviewed by seven experts (3 geoscientists and 4 science educators) and revised before pilot testing. Approximately 100 introductory and non-science major college students from four institutions were assessed with the GCT pilot in the spring of 2002. Rasch model analysis of this data showed that students found the pilot test difficult, and the level of difficulty was consistent between the four institutions. Analysis of individual items showed that students had fewer misconceptions regarding the locations of earthquakes, and many misconceptions regarding the locations of volcanoes on the Earth's surface, suggesting a disconnect in their understanding of the role of plate tectonics in these phenomena. Analysis of the misfit statistic for each item showed that none of the questions misfit, although we dropped one question and modified the wording of another for clarity in the next round of piloting. A second round of piloting scheduled for the fall of 2002 includes nearly 3000 students from 34 institutions in 19 states.

Libarkin, J.; Anderson, S. W.; Boone, W. J.; Beilfuss, M.; Dahl, J.

2002-12-01

109

Development of Juvenile Aggression and Violence: Some Common Misconceptions and Controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses 5 misconceptions and controversies concerning the development of aggression and violence: (a) the misconception that high stability coefficients of aggression over time imply that discontinuity of aggression from childhood to early adulthood is negligible; (b) the misconception that all serious forms of violence have an origin in aggression during early childhood; (c) the controversy about whether a

Rolf Loeber; Magda Stouthamer-Loeber

1998-01-01

110

Improving Algebra Preparation: Implications from Research on Student Misconceptions and Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through historical and contemporary research, educators have identified widespread misconceptions and difficulties faced by students in learning algebra. Many of these universal issues stem from content addressed long before students take their first algebra course. Yet elementary and middle school teachers may not understand how the subtleties of…

Welder, Rachael M.

2012-01-01

111

Learning Difficulties Experienced by Students and their Misconceptions of the Inverse Function Concept  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to determine students' learning difficulties and misconceptions related to the "inverse function". The study group was composed of 137 first-grade students enrolled in the elementary mathematics teaching program of an Eastern Anatolia University in Turkey during the fall term of the academic year 2010-2011.…

Okur, Muzaffer

2013-01-01

112

Geo-myths and Misconceptions: Students' Alternate Views of How Our World Works  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obviously students do not enter our classrooms as blank slates, prepared to accept our elegant constructions of how the world works. They already have well established, often surprisingly complex, ideas of their world that, even if erroneous, do serve to satisfactorily explain many phenomena. These ideas are remarkably hardy and, when challenged, tend to adapt or mutate more readily than to go extinct. Some of these misconceptions have a remarkable ancestry, stretching back to our society's early scientific cosmologies and may be very deeply embedded, and broadly disseminated, in our society. Others are clearly the product of more recent knowledge, but knowledge that has been misinterpreted or misapplied in unexpected ways. As long as instructors are aware of these misconceptions, they can be challenged, and with some success eliminated or replaced. Once students experience the fact that their interpretations do not adequately explain the geologic phenomena before them, they may be more willing to entertain a new concept. If they then are provided new, more useful ideas and given multiple experiences applying those ideas, then they are more likely to actually give up their misconceptions and use the new ideas in the future. The greatest problems occur when instructors are simply unaware of a misconception's existence. Often the gulf between instructors' and students' knowledge of the subject matter is so great that the instructors' familiarity becomes a liability. They cannot conceive of some ideas that appear intuitive from their students' perspective, so these misconceptions are never challenged and survive instruction intact. More importantly, students use their misconceptions to interpret other ideas presented in a course. The result is usually a strange amalgam of old and new ideas. The students make new ideas "fit" with their original misconceptions and often reject ideas they see as being contrary to their initial beliefs. In a worse case scenario, course instruction may actually appear to support their misconceptions, actively embedding them even more solidly within the students' world view. As examples, up to a fifth of incoming students at our University assume that magma comes from the Earth's liquid outer core. In some classes, up to 40% of the students believe that the presence of seawater is necessary for the formation of basalt. If we are not aware of the existence of these startlingly widespread notions, we will remain incapable of correcting them. This work was partially supported by the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE), U.S. Department of Education.

Finley, F.; Kirkby, K. C.; Morin, P. J.

2004-12-01

113

Misconceptions and Conceptual Changes Concerning Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics among Portuguese Students Aged 16-17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates student misconceptions in the areas of continent, ocean, permanence of ocean basins, continental drift, Earth's magnetic field, and plates and plate motions. A teaching-learning model was designed based on a constructivist approach. Results show that students held a substantial number of misconceptions. (Author/DKM)

Marques, Luis; Thompson, David

1997-01-01

114

A clarification on a common misconception about interferometric detectors of gravitational waves  

E-print Network

The aims of this letter are two. First, to show the angular gauge-invariance on the response of interferometers to gravitational waves (GWs). In this process, after resuming for completeness results on the Transverse-Traceless (TT) gauge, where, in general, the theoretical computations on GWs are performed, we analyse the gauge of the local observer, which represents the gauge of a laboratory environment on Earth. The gauge-invariance between the two gauges is shown in its full angular and frequency dependences. In previous works in the literature this gauge-invariance was shown only in the low frequencies approximation or in the simplest geometry of the interferometer with respect to the propagating GW (i.e. both of the arms of the interferometer are perpendicular to the propagating GW). Second, as far as the computation of the response functions in the gauge of the local observer is concerned, a common misconception about interferometers is also clarified. Such a misconception purports that, as the wavelength of laser light and the length of an interferometer's arm are both stretched by a GW, no effect should be visible, invoking an analogy with cosmological redshift in an expanding universe.

Christian Corda

2011-03-24

115

A clarification on a common misconception about interferometric detectors of gravitational waves  

E-print Network

The aims of this letter are two. First, to show the angular gauge-invariance on the response of interferometers to gravitational waves (GWs). In this process, after resuming for completeness results on the Transverse-Traceless (TT) gauge, where, in general, the theoretical computations on GWs are performed, we analyse the gauge of the local observer, which represents the gauge of a laboratory environment on Earth. The gauge-invariance between the two gauges is shown in its full angular and frequency dependences. In previous works in the literature this gauge-invariance was shown only in the low frequencies approximation or in the simplest geometry of the interferometer with respect to the propagating GW (i.e. both of the arms of the interferometer are perpendicular to the propagating GW). Second, as far as the computation of the response functions in the gauge of the local observer is concerned, a common misconception about interferometers is also clarified. Such a misconception purports that, as the waveleng...

Corda, Christian

2011-01-01

116

Biology Undergraduates' Misconceptions about Genetic Drift  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores biology undergraduates' misconceptions about genetic drift. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to describe students' definitions, identify common misconceptions, and examine differences before and after instruction on genetic drift. We identify and describe five overarching categories that include 16 distinct…

Andrews, T. M.; Price, R. M.; Mead, L. S.; McElhinny, T. L.; Thanukos, A.; Perez, K. E.; Herreid, C. F.; Terry, D. R.; Lemons, P. P.

2012-01-01

117

Overcoming Misconceptions about Computer Science With Multimedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preconceived ideas about computer science may discourage students, especially females, from pursuing study in the field. Many of these common, but negative stereotypes are misconceptions. We address these misconceptions in multimedia courseware developed for a CS0 or CS1 course covering a breadth of topics in computer science. Experimental results show that the multimedia overcomes negative stereotypes, including a couple that

Glenn D. Blank; Sally Hiestand; Fang Wei

2004-01-01

118

The Effects of Computer-Assisted Material on Students' Cognitive Levels, Misconceptions and Attitudes Towards Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Computer-Assisted Instruction Material (CAIM) related to "photosynthesis" topic on student cognitive development, misconceptions and attitudes. The study conducted in 2002-2003 academic year and was carried out in two different classes taught by the same teacher, in which there were…

Cepni, Salih; Tas, Erol; Kose, Sacit

2006-01-01

119

An Investigation of Fifth and Eighth Grade Korean Students' Misconceptions of Photosynthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many researchers believe that prior knowledge is the single most important variable influencing learning. Learning in the classroom is determined or affected positively or negatively, to some degree, by the knowledge people bring to the classroom. This study was designed to: (1) assess fifth- and eighth-grade Korean students' misconceptions of…

Cho, Jung-il

120

Identifying Robust Student Misconceptions in Thermal Science using Model-Eliciting Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The conceptual change literature indicates the presence of robust, strongly-held misconceptions in thermal science (e.g., heat transfer, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics) even after many years of formal and informal learning. For example, data collected using the Thermal and Transport concept inventory suggests that a significant number of seniors in chemical and mechanical engineering confuse the rate of energy transfer vs. the amount transferred, do not understand how temperature and energy are related, and believe that the thermal efficiency of a heat engine can be increased to 100% if all heat losses and mechanical efficiencies are eliminated. While concept inventories are one method for identifying student misconceptions, we are now exploring the development and use of a new pedagogical technique called model-eliciting activities (MEAs). MEAs were first developed to elicit problem-solving strategies from students in mathematics classes, but have now been expanded to other disciplines including ethics and engineering science2,3. Through a collaborative, large-scale National Science Foundation project, MEAs are now being developed to elicit student misconceptions about important but poorly understood concepts in thermal science. For example, misconceptions about the second law of thermodynamics and its effect on energy quality are being explored in an MEA where students estimate the overall thermal efficiency of electric vs. hybrid vs. gasoline cars. Student teams must use a systems approach and include all relevant energy conversion steps in their problem solving process. In this paper, we will describe MEAs and how they are being used for misconception identification. Potential MEA topics and a sample MEA are provided and discussed in detail.

2009-09-11

121

Effects of Conceptual Assignments and Conceptual Change Discussions on Students' Misconceptions and Achievement Regarding Force and Motion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effects of conceptual assignments and conceptual change discussions on high school students' achievement and misconceptions about force and motion. Analyzes pretest and posttest data from the Force Misconception and Force Achievement Tests (FMFAT). Discusses the effects on the conceptual change discussion on reducing…

Eryilmaz, Ali

2002-01-01

122

Research and Teaching: Two-Dimensional, Implicit Confidence Tests as a Tool for Recognizing Student Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The misconceptions that students bring with them, or that arise during instruction, are a critical barrier to learning. Implicit-confidence tests, a simple modification of the multiple-choice test, can be used as a strategy for recognizing student misconceptions. An important issue, however, is whether such tests are gender-neutral. We analyzed the results of exams administered to students (both majors and nonmajors) in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology (MCDB) 1111: Biofundamentals at the University of Colorado at Boulder. At a statistically significant level ( 95%), there was no difference between women and men regardless of whether their answers were confidently correct or incorrect, suggesting that such two-dimensional tests are a gender-neutral tool.

Taylor, Linda B.; Klymkowsky, Michael W.; Garvin-Doxas, R. K.; Spindler, Shana R.

2006-11-01

123

An Astronomical Misconceptions Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions that students bring with them to the introductory science classroom plague every area of science and are especially prevalent in astronomy. One way to identify and possibly dispel some of these misconceptions is through the use of a misconceptions survey. The following is a report on the development, implementation, and some early…

LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.

2011-01-01

124

Advanced Undergraduate and Early Graduate Physics Students' Misconception about Solar Wind Flow: Evidence of Students' Difficulties in Distinguishing Paradigms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anecdotal evidence has suggested that advanced undergraduate students confuse the spiral structure of the interplanetary magnetic field with the flow of the solar wind. Though it is a small study, this paper documents this misconception and begins to investigate the underlying issues behind it. We present evidence that the traditional presentation…

Gross, Nicholas A.; Lopez, Ramon E.

2009-01-01

125

Invisible Misconceptions: Student Understanding of Ultraviolet and Infrared Radiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of nonvisible wavelengths for the study of astronomy suggests that student understanding of nonvisible light is an important consideration in astronomy classrooms. Questionnaires, interviews, and panel discussions were used to investigate 6-12 student and teacher conceptions of ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR). Alternative…

Libarkin, Julie C.; Asghar, Anila; Crockett, C.; Sadler, Philip

2011-01-01

126

College Students' Misconceptions of Environmental Issues Related to Global Warming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are currently exposed to world environmental problems--including global warming and the greenhouse effect--in science classes at various points during their K-12 and college experience. However, the amount and depth of explosure to these issues can be quite variable. Students are also exposed to sources of misinformation leading to…

Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

127

Investigating the effects of repeated Miranda warnings: do they perform a curative function on common Miranda misconceptions?  

PubMed

In Miranda v. Arizona (1966), the Supreme Court of the United States required that custodial suspects be apprised of their Constitutional rights against self-incrimination. The Court could not have anticipated the rampant popularization of Miranda warnings in subsequent movies and television dramas. Influenced by public media, many arrestees assume that they already "know" their rights, with no awareness of their misconceptions. The current investigation examines whether repeated exposures to Miranda warnings performs any "curative" function (i.e., dispelling common Miranda misconceptions held by pretrial defendants). The accumulative effects of five different Miranda warnings were tested over a several-hour period on 260 detainees. For the nearly half (113 or 43.5%) with three or more misconceptions, improvement (i.e., ?2 fewer misconceptions) occurred for only 35 defendants. Predictably, this improved group also tended to display a better understanding of Miranda-relevant vocabulary words and a better recall of the administered Miranda warnings than their unimproved counterparts. On average, the improved group also performed better on general measures of intelligence, and listening and reading comprehension, while still evidencing substantial cognitive deficits. The curative function of Miranda advisements is considered in light of these findings. PMID:23670943

Rogers, Richard; Fiduccia, Chelsea E; Robinson, Emily V; Steadham, Jennifer A; Drogin, Eric Y

2013-01-01

128

RETRACTED ARTICLE: What Are They Thinking? The Development and Use of an Instrument That Identifies Common Science Misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the rationale for, and development of, an online instrument that helps identify commonly held science\\u000a misconceptions. Science Beliefs is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science,\\u000a and astronomy. It utilizes a true or false, along with a written-explanation, format. The true or false responses provide\\u000a a cursory view of the extent to

Mary Stein; Charles R. Barman; Timothy Larrabee

2007-01-01

129

Atheist Students on Campus: From Misconceptions to Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People who follow trends in higher education are aware of a renewed emphasis on religious plurality and spirituality on college campuses. But all the articles, conferences, and campus activities surrounding religion and spirituality rarely, if at all, acknowledge one group: students who are atheists. If colleges are to be truly inclusive, they…

Goodman, Kathleen M.; Mueller, John A.

2009-01-01

130

Diagnosing and Dealing with Student Misconceptions: Floating and Sinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When students enter the classroom, they often hold prior knowledge or conceptions about the natural world. These conceptions will influence how they come to understand what they are taught in school. Some of their existing knowledge provides good foundation for formal schooling, but other prior conceptions, however, are incompatible with currently…

Yin, Yue; Tomita, Miki K.; Shavelson, Richard J.

2008-01-01

131

The Elements of Item Response Theory and its Framework in Analyzing Introductory Astronomy College Student Misconceptions. I. Galaxies  

E-print Network

This is the first in a series of papers that analyze college student beliefs in realms where common astronomy misconceptions are prevalent. Data was collected through administration of an inventory distributed at the end of an introductory college astronomy course. In this paper, we present the basic mathematics of item response theory (IRT), and then we use it to explore concepts related to galaxies. We show how IRT determines the difficulty of each galaxy topic under consideration. We find that the concept of galaxy spatial distribution presents the greatest challenge to students of all the galaxy topics. We also find and present the most logical sequence to teach galaxy topics as a function of the audience's age.

Favia, Andrej; Thorpe, Geoffrey L

2013-01-01

132

Clarifying Misconceptions in College Astronomy Classes using Concept Maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a challenge for the instructor of an undergraduate astronomy course to address student misconceptions. How do we know what the students are learning and how they are putting it together? Standard testing procedures, both multiple choice and open ended, are of limited effectiveness in telling us where the students are missing the point. We find that concept maps are effective at showing what the student thinks and understands. To help students better understand the universe concept maps were used to negotiate misconceptions and faulty linkages among and between concepts under study with undergraduates enrolled in astronomy. During a semester course in astronomy, students were taught and then they constructed their concept maps on the computer using a software program, Inspiration 5.0, and then sent them electronically for review and feedback. The astronomy professor reviewed these maps and posted feedback concerning any misconceptions, faulty linkages, or further explanations that need elaboration. These maps were then sent back to each student for revision. End of the semester findings indicated that these maps served to better clarify student misconceptions. Students can be asked to make a concept map as part of an exam. This proves to a very effective way to assess student misconceptions, and gives the instructor information that can be used to improve student understanding by showing common student misconceptions. These misconceptions can be addressed specifically in a later class period. Improved communication between the student and teacher result in more understanding of topics, rather than just memorization.

Burks, G. S.; Alvarez, M.

2000-12-01

133

Electromagnetic scattering by a morphologically complex object: Fundamental concepts and common misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following Keller (Proc Symp Appl Math 1962;13:227–46), we classify all theoretical treatments of electromagnetic scattering by a morphologically complex object into first-principle (or “honest” in Keller's terminology) and phenomenological (or “dishonest”) categories. This helps us identify, analyze, and dispel several profound misconceptions widespread in the discipline of electromagnetic scattering by solitary particles and discrete random media. Our goal is not

Michael I. Mishchenko; Victor P. Tishkovets; Larry D. Travis; Brian Cairns; Janna M. Dlugach; Li Liu; Vera K. Rosenbush; Nikolai N. Kiselev

2011-01-01

134

The Effect of Conceptual Change Approach to Eliminate 9th Grade High School Students' Misconceptions about Air Pressure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of teaching based on conceptual change overcome misconceptions of 9th grade high school students about the subject of air pressure. The sampling of the study was formed with two classes of 9th grade students from a general high school in the city-center of Trabzon. A quasi-experimental…

Akbas, Yavuz; Gencturk, Ebru

2011-01-01

135

Free fall misconceptions: results of a graph based pre test of sophomore civil engineering students  

E-print Network

A partially unusual behaviour was found among 14 sophomore students of civil engineering who took a pre test for a free fall laboratory session, in the context of a general mechanics course. An analysis contemplating mathematics models and physics models consistency was made. In all cases, the students presented evidence favoring a correct free fall acceleration model, whilst their position component versus time, and velocity component versus time graphs revealed complex misconceptions both on the physical phenomenon and it's implicit mathematics consistency. The last suggests an inability to make satisfactory connections through definitions between graphed variables. In other words, evidence strongly suggests that students are perfectly able to memorize the free fall acceleration model, whilst not understanding it's significance at any level. This small study originated the develope and validation of a tutorial on free fall graphs for position, velocity and acceleration models, as part of a following cross u...

Montecinos, Alicia M

2014-01-01

136

The Earthquake Information Test: Validating an Instrument for Determining Student Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some pre-instructional misconceptions held by children can persist through scientific instruction and resist changes. Identifying these misconceptions would be beneficial for science instruction. In this preliminary study, scores on a 60-item true-false test of knowledge and misconceptions about earthquakes were compared with previous interview…

Ross, Katharyn E. K.; Shuell, Thomas J.

137

Fundamental Research in Engineering Education. Identifying and Repairing Student Misconceptions in Thermal and Transport Science: Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes progress on two related lines of chemical engineering education research: 1) identifying persistent student misconceptions in thermal and transport science (fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and thermodynamics); and, 2) developing a method to help students repair these misconceptions. Progress on developing the Thermal and…

Miller, Ronald L.; Streveler, Ruth A.; Yang, Dazhi; Roman, Aidsa I. Santiago

2011-01-01

138

Misconceptions of Astronomical Distances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous empirical studies using multiple-choice procedures have suggested that there are misconceptions about the scale of astronomical distances. The present study provides a quantitative estimate of the nature of this misconception among US university students by asking them, in an open-ended response format, to make estimates of the distances…

Miller, Brian W.; Brewer, William F.

2010-01-01

139

Electromagnetic Scattering by a Morphologically Complex Object: Fundamental Concepts and Common Misconceptions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following Keller(Proc Symp Appl Math 1962;13:227:46), we classify all theoretical treatments of electromagnetic scattering by a morphologically complex object into first- principle (or "honest" in Keller s terminology) and phenomenological (or "dishonest") categories. This helps us identify, analyze, and dispel several profound misconceptions widespread in the discipline of electromagnetic scattering by solitary particles and discrete random media. Our goal is not to call for a complete renunciation of phenomenological approaches but rather to encourage a critical and careful evaluation of their actual origin, virtues, and limitations. In other words, we do not intend to deter creative thinking in terms of phenomenological short-cuts, but we do want to raise awareness when we stray (often for practical reasons) from the fundamentals. The main results and conclusions are illustrated by numerically-exact data based on direct numerical solutions of the macroscopic Maxwell equations.

Mischenko, Michael I.; Travis, Larry D.; Cairns, Brian; Tishkovets, Victor P.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Rosenbush, Vera K.; Kiselev, Nikolai N.

2011-01-01

140

Assessing the Effects of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students' Achievements, Misconceptions and Attitudes towards Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment software programs related to "genetic concepts" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the genetic concepts achievement test (GAT), the genetic concept test (GCT) and biology attitude scale (BAS) was…

Kara, Yilmaz; Yesilyurt, Selami

2007-01-01

141

Comparing the Impacts of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students' Achievements, Misconceptions, and Attitudes towards Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment design of instructional software programs related to the "cell division" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the cell division achievement test (CAT), the cell division concept test (CCT) and…

Kara, Yilmaz; Yesilyurt, Selami

2008-01-01

142

Understandings and misconceptions of biology concepts held by students attending small high schools and students attending large high schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Do students from small high schools show fewer understandings and more misconceptions of biology concepts than students attending large high schools? Fifty students attending large high schools (enrollments exceeding 900 students) and fifty students attending small high schools (enrollments less than 150 students) were randomly selected and than evaluated on their understandings and misunderstandings of four biology concepts: diffusion, homeostasis, food production in plants, and classification of animals and plants. Students attending small high schools showed less instances of understanding and more instances of misunderstanding the concepts of diffusion and homeostasis. These differences could be related to a higher percentage of students in large schools capable of formal operations; sound understanding of diffusion and homeostasis required students to use formal operations. No difference was observed between the large and small school samples for the concepts of food production in plants and classification of plants and animals. Students in the small school sample lived in agricultural communities and their daily experiences allowed them to develop some understanding of food production in plants and prevented instances of misunderstandings from being developed. Classification of animals and plants required concrete operations to understand; therefore, students in small schools were capable of developing sound understanding as well as students from large schools.

Simpson, William D.; Marek, Edmund A.

143

Detecting and Correcting Misconceptions with Lifelike Avatars  

E-print Network

Detecting and Correcting Misconceptions with Lifelike Avatars in 3D Learning Environments Joël P: detecting and correcting students' misconceptions. By designing engaging lifelike avatars and introducing advice to address their misconceptions. We describe a three-phase avatar-based misconception correction

Zettlemoyer, Luke

144

Misconceptions Are "So Yesterday!"  

PubMed Central

At the close of the Society for the Advancement of Biology Education Research conference in July 2012, one of the organizers made the comment: “Misconceptions are so yesterday.” Within the community of learning sciences, misconceptions are yesterday's news, because the term has been aligned with eradication and/or replacement of conceptions, and our knowledge about how people learn has progressed past this idea. This essay provides an overview of the discussion within the learning sciences community surrounding the term “misconceptions” and how the education community's thinking has evolved with respect to students’ conceptions. Using examples of students’ incorrect ideas about evolution and ecology, we show that students’ naïve ideas can provide the resources from which to build scientific understanding. We conclude by advocating that biology education researchers use one or more appropriate alternatives in place of the term misconception whenever possible. PMID:24006383

Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

2013-01-01

145

N-Squad Episode 1. Students learn misconceptions about alcohol, medical examination, the role of the digestive system in processing alcohol, and liver histology.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In N-Squad Episode 1 students work with forensic scientists to solve an alcohol related crime. Along the way, they will learn about alcohol's interaction with the digestive system, misconceptions about alcohol, medical examination, and liver histology.

Learning, Center F.

2011-09-28

146

The Xs and Whys of Algebra: Key Ideas and Common Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many ways, algebra can be as challenging for teachers as it is for students. With so much emphasis placed on procedural knowledge and the manipulations of variables and symbols, it can be easy to lose sight of the key ideas that underlie algebraic thinking and the relevance algebra has to the real world. In the The Xs and Whys of Algebra: Key…

Collins, Anne; Dacey, Linda

2011-01-01

147

Comments and Criticism: Comment on "Identification of Student Misconceptions in Genetics Problem Solving via Computer Program."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criticizes an article by Browning and Lehman (1988) for (1) using "gene" instead of allele, (2) misusing the word "misconception," and (3) the possible influences of the computer environment on the results of the study. (PR)

Smith, Mike U.

1991-01-01

148

The effect of student-centered and teacher-centered instruction with and without conceptual advocacy on biology students' misconceptions, achievement, attitudes toward science, and cognitive retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of student-centered and teacher-centered instructional strategies with and without conceptual advocacy (CA) on ninth-grade biology students' misconceptions (MIS), biology achievement (ACH), attitudes toward science (ATT), and cognitive retention of scientific method and measurement, spontaneous generation, and characteristics of living things. Students were purposively selected using intact classes and assigned to

Roger Graham Gallop

2002-01-01

149

Misconceptions about the Learning Approaches, Motivation, and Study Practices of Asian Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Review of evidence from over 90 action research projects finds the common assertion that Asian students prefer passive learning and resist teaching innovations is not correct. Argues that the motivation displayed by Asian students is not an extrinsic form of motivation, which depresses intrinsic motivation, and that the high levels of achievement…

Kember, David

2000-01-01

150

Pre-Service Teachers' Preconceptions, Misconceptions, and Concerns about Virtual Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last decade, online distance education has become a common mode of study in most states in the USA, where it is known as virtual schooling (VS), but many people have misconceptions about it. Pre-service teachers' personal histories as students and their preconceptions, misconceptions, and concerns influence pre-service teacher training…

Compton, Lily; Davis, Niki; Correia, Ana-Paula

2010-01-01

151

Misconceptions of Emergent Semiconductor Phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The semiconductor field of Photovoltaics (PV) has experienced tremendous growth, requiring curricula to consider ways to promote student success. One major barrier to success students may face when learning PV is the development of misconceptions. The purpose of this work was to determine the presence and prevalence of misconceptions students may have for three PV semiconductor phenomena; Diffusion, Drift and Excitation. These phenomena are emergent, a class of phenomena that have certain characteristics. In emergent phenomena, the individual entities in the phenomena interact and aggregate to form a self-organizing pattern that can be observed at a higher level. Learners develop a different type of misconception for these phenomena, an emergent misconception. Participants (N=41) completed a written protocol. The pilot study utilized half of these protocols (n = 20) to determine the presence of both general and emergent misconceptions for the three phenomena. Once the presence of both general and emergent misconceptions was confirmed, all protocols (N=41) were analyzed to determine the presence and prevalence of general and emergent misconceptions, and to note any relationships among these misconceptions (full study). Through written protocol analysis of participants' responses, numerous codes emerged from the data for both general and emergent misconceptions. General and emergent misconceptions were found in 80% and 55% of participants' responses, respectively. General misconceptions indicated limited understandings of chemical bonding, electricity and magnetism, energy, and the nature of science. Participants also described the phenomena using teleological, predictable, and causal traits, indicating participants had misconceptions regarding the emergent aspects of the phenomena. For both general and emergent misconceptions, relationships were observed between similar misconceptions within and across the three phenomena, and differences in misconceptions were observed across the phenomena. Overall, the presence and prevalence of both general and emergent misconceptions indicates that learners have limited understandings of the physical and emergent mechanisms for the phenomena. Even though additional work is required, the identification of specific misconceptions can be utilized to enhance semiconductor and PV course content. Specifically, changes can be made to curriculum in order to limit the formation of misconceptions as well as promote conceptual change.

Nelson, Katherine G.

152

Reducing Plate Tectonic Misconceptions with Lecture Tutorials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to address student difficulties with and common misconceptions about plate tectonics, we created five Lecture Tutorials suitable for introductory geoscience courses. Lecture Tutorials are 10-15 minute worksheets that students complete in class in small groups to make learning more student-centered. Students build their knowledge with questions that progressively become more difficult, requiring them think about their misconceptions. Our research indicates that the Lecture Tutorials successfully decrease student misconceptions. For example, few introductory students identify the mantle wedge as the location of melting at subduction zones. Instead, students frequently think melting occurs at the trench, in magma chambers within volcanoes, or where images commonly show the subducting slab disappearing. One of the Lecture Tutorials helps the students determine why melting occurs and therefore identify the correct locations of melting at convergent boundaries, divergent boundaries, and hotspots. This Lecture Tutorial includes a hypothetical “debate” with statements expressing the misconceptions and one expressing the correct scientific idea of where melting occurs. Students are asked to explain why they agree with one of the statements, so they must directly think about any misconceptions they may have. Additional difficulties addressed by the Lecture Tutorials include identification of the direction of plate movement at ocean ridges and the locations and formation of basic plate tectonic features, such as trenches, volcanoes, ocean ridges, and plate boundaries. After instruction, students completed questionnaires that probed their understanding of plate tectonics, and students who completed the Lecture Tutorials performed significantly better on relevant questions. For example, when asked to circle the locations on a diagram where melting occurred, students who completed the Lecture Tutorials correctly circled the mantle wedge more often than other students (33% vs. 8%). The percentage of students who drew incorrect arrows indicating converging plates at ocean ridges was smaller for students who completed the Lecture Tutorials (9%) than for those who did not (21%). Because the Lecture Tutorials frequently asked students to identify, explain, and draw basic features relevant to plate tectonics, we hypothesized that students who completed the Lecture Tutorials would correctly identify more of these features, and this is what we observed. Students who completed the Lecture Tutorials identified 6.3 features on average, compared to 2.8 for those students who did not complete the Lecture Tutorials. The Lecture Tutorial students correctly labeled 82% of the identified features, compared to 71% for other students. The plate tectonic Lecture Tutorials along with others on additional introductory geoscience topics are available as a workbook called Lecture Tutorials for Introductory Geoscience published by W. H. Freeman.

Kortz, K. M.; Smay, J. M.; Mattera, A. V.; Clark, S. K.

2009-12-01

153

Overcoming students' misconceptions concerning thermal physics with the aid of hints and peer interaction during a lecture course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As has been shown by previous research, students may possess various misconceptions in the area of thermal physics. In order to help them overcome misconceptions observed prior to instruction, we implemented a one-hour lecture-based intervention in their introductory thermal physics course. The intervention was held after the conventional lectures and homework sessions, and it consisted of three phases: individual working, hinting, and peer discussion. To probe students’ conceptual understanding before, during, and after the intervention, use was made of a diagnostic test related to the multiphased process of an ideal gas [D. E. Meltzer, Am. J. Phys. 72, 1432 (2004)AJPIAS0002-950510.1119/1.1789161]. The students’ conceptions were monitored by analyzing the explanations they provided and by recording the peer discussions of five voluntary pairs. The intervention helped students to realize the flaws in their explanations and increased the proportion of their scientific explanations, the increase being statistically significant in five tasks out of seven. When the same themes were addressed in a post-test, it was shown that the level of accurate explanations remained almost constant after the intervention, and hence it could be deduced that the impact had not been short-lived. In comparison with earlier studies conducted with the same material, our intervention produced a better learning outcome, the difference being 15-20 percentage points. In addition, the number of misconceptions on the part of the students was smaller in our study, although with individual exceptions. Hence, we conclude that the intervention was successful and that similar interventions could also be designed and implemented in other areas of physics.

Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

2013-12-01

154

Proof by Incomplete Enumeration and Other Logical Misconceptions  

E-print Network

, we characterized common misconceptions and novice problem-solving processes of stu- dents who hadProof by Incomplete Enumeration and Other Logical Misconceptions Geoffrey L. Herman University, formal logic, misconceptions, concept inventory 1. INTRODUCTION Practicing computer scientists

Bashir, Rashid

155

Student Learning Commons Questions & Answers for Faculty  

E-print Network

and services are open to all SFU students: undergraduate, graduate, international, mature, EAL/ESL, and othersStudent Learning Commons Questions & Answers for Faculty What is the SFU Student Learning Commons? The Student Learning Commons (SLC), is an academic learning centre which provides peer-based assistance

156

Genius is not immune to persistent misconceptions: conceptual difficulties impeding Isaac Newton and contemporary physics students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has shown that serious misconceptions frequently survive high school and university instruction in mechanics. It is interesting to inquire whether Newton himself encountered conceptual difficulties before he wrote the Principia: (a) Did he have serious difficulties? (b) If so, were they difficult to overcome? We shall present evidence from Newton's writings of affirmative answers to both questions.Newton's development

Melvin S. Steinberg; David E. Brown; John Clement

1990-01-01

157

Genius Is Not Immune to Persistent Misconceptions: Conceptual Difficulties Impeding Isaac Newton and Contemporary Physics Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has shown that serious misconceptions frequently survive high school and university instruction in mechanics. It is interesting to inquire whether Newton himself encountered conceptual difficulties before he wrote the "Principia." This paper compares Newton's pre-"Principia" beliefs, based upon his writings, with those of…

Steinberg, Melvin S.; And Others

158

Glucose as the sole metabolic fuel- a study on the possible influence of teachers knowledge on the establishment of a misconception among Brazilian high school students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the present work, I investigated the origin of the misconception that glucose is the sole metabolic fuel previously described among Brazilian high school students. The results of a multiple-choice test composed of 24 questions about a broad range of biology subjects were analyzed. The test was part of a contest and was answered by a sample composed of undergraduate students as well as biologists and practicing biology teachers. The majority of the responders had difficulties in recognizing the existence of gluconeogenesis and the possibility of ATP production using other fuels other than carbohydrates. Biology teachers and biologists seemed to either lack the knowledge or present the misconception regarding energy-yielding metabolism found among students. I argue that in both cases, biology teachers are likely to teach metabolism-related subjects in a manner that may contribute to the appearance of the misconception among high school students.

Mauricio Roberto Motta Pinto da Luz (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Fundação Oswaldo Cruz)

2008-06-25

159

Misconceptions about the learning approaches, motivation and study practices of Asian students  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a common perception that Asian students relyupon rote learning and prefer passive forms oflearning, though, this appears to be incompatible withevidence of their high levels of achievement. Thisapparent dichotomy is explained by showing thatmemorisation can occur in conjunction with theintention to understand. It could also result fromstudents learning material by heart because theyperceive that is what the course

David Kember

2000-01-01

160

COMPUTER SCIENCE: MISCONCEPTIONS, CAREER PATHS  

E-print Network

Undergraduate Student) #12;Computer Science Misconceptions Intro to Computer Science - Florida International much can I make out of college? Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics #12;Computer ScienceCOMPUTER SCIENCE: MISCONCEPTIONS, CAREER PATHS AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES School of Computing

Hristidis, Vagelis

161

Unweaving misconceptions: Guided learning, simulations, and misconceptions in learning principles of natural selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

College students often come to the study of evolutionary biology with many misconceptions of how the processes of natural selection and speciation occur. How to relinquish these misconceptions with learners is a question that many educators face in introductory biology courses. Constructivism as a theoretical framework has become an accepted and promoted model within the epistemology of science instruction. However, constructivism is not without its skeptics who see some problems of its application in lacking necessary guidance for novice learners. This study within a quantitative, quasi-experimental format tested whether guided online instruction in a video format of common misconceptions in evolutionary biology produced higher performance on a survey of knowledge of natural selection versus more constructivist style learning in the form of student exploration of computer simulations of the evolutionary process. Performances on surveys were also explored for a combination of constructivist and guided techniques to determine if a consolidation of approaches produced higher test scores. Out of the 94 participants 95% displayed at least one misconception of natural selection in the pre-test while the study treatments produced no statistically significant improvements in post-test scores except within the video (guided learning treatment). These overall results demonstrated the stubbornness of misconceptions involving natural selection for adult learners and the difficulty of helping them overcome them. It also bolsters the idea that some misconceptions of natural selection and evolution may be hardwired in a neurological sense and that new, more long-term teaching techniques may be warranted. Such long-term strategies may not be best implemented with constructivist techniques alone, and it is likely that some level of guidance may be necessary for novice adult learners. A more substantial, nuanced approach for undergraduates is needed that consolidates successful teaching strategies to adult students that is based on current research.

Weeks, Brian E.

162

Astronomical Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do you think that the Moon does not rotate? Do you think that the phases of the Moon are created by the Earth's shadow? Do you think that the seasons are a result of the Earth's distance from the Sun? If you answered "yes" to any of these, then you are one of many who possess misconceptions about astronomy.

Barrier, Regina M.

2010-01-01

163

Catching misconceptions and misinformation about ocean/climate science among college students: a long record of pre and post exams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pre/post exams were used in a college freshmen oceanography course to identify student misconceptions and to investigate student learning gains. This course has a diverse population of students where most are not science majors. The pre-test, given on the first day of class, contains 100 questions over entire course content. The post test is given on the last day of class. Our results are based on pre/post test scores from 6 sections (2009-2011, n = ~150). There is no significant difference between average scores of males and females in the pre-test, and most students regardless of class level (freshmen to senior) have about the same knowledge level of the ocean/climate system coming into the course. On the pre-test, many students answered incorrectly questions on the cause for lunar phases, the Coriolis effect, mechanism of air/water mass movement, and the energy driving the hydrologic cycle; but showed significant improvement on the post-test. In contrast, 100% of students answered correctly that weather and climate are different coming into the course, and 100% left the course unconfused about this. There is consistent improvement in the class average scores between the pre and post exams by 20-30% in all sections regardless of the semester or course content covered. Potentially, the post test may be reflecting retention rather than transient learning from cramming for the final exam.

Mekik, F.

2011-12-01

164

Idea Bank: Changing Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During student-centered learning activities, students actively engage in their own learning based on individual prior understandings. It can be difficult for a teacher to know if students fully understand the concepts being presented, especially if they do not comment or ask questions because they are shy or afraid of getting something wrong. Teachers may not know students' true ideas until they express themselves on a written summative exam, and then it is often too late to correct them before rushing off to the next topic. Therefore, the author uses pretests, daily learning logs, and posttests to assess student learning and change misconceptions. She shares her strategy in this month's Idea Bank.

Holzmiller, Tara

2008-12-01

165

Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel: A Study on the Possible Influence of Teachers' Knowledge on the Establishment of a Misconception among Brazilian High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present work, I investigated the origin of the misconception that glucose is the sole metabolic fuel previously described among Brazilian high school students. The results of a multiple-choice test composed of 24 questions about a broad range of biology subjects were analyzed. The test was part of a contest and was answered by a sample…

da Luz, Mauricio Roberto Motta Pinto

2008-01-01

166

Graphing Misconceptions and Possible Remedies Using Microcomputer-Based Labs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphing is a common and powerful symbol system for representing concrete data. Yet research has shown that students often have graphical misconceptions about how graphs are related to the concrete event. Currently, the Technical Education Research Center (TERC) is developing microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) science units that use probes to…

Barclay, William L.

167

Chapter 7: Understanding Student Thinking through Interviews I. OVERVIEW  

E-print Network

their conceptual understanding are due to just a few common misconceptions. Interviews can also tell us why certain in studies of students' common sense beliefs and misconceptions. Problem solving interviews are used to see misconceptions occur, the difficulties they signify, and help researchers learn how to address them. The use

Maryland at College Park, University of

168

Mining the Student Assessment Data: Lessons Drawn from a Small Scale Case Study  

E-print Network

at demonstrating to the students (and teachers) what they have learnt or what (common) misconceptions they might (or "patch" the possible misconceptions). Hence, elaborated feedback (EF) has been designed for each

De Bra, Paul

169

Undergraduate Chemistry Students' Perceptions of and Misconceptions about Buffers and Buffer Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both upper- and lower-level chemistry students struggle with understanding the concept of buffers and with solving corresponding buffer problems. While it might be reasonable to expect general chemistry students to struggle with this abstract concept, it is surprising that upper-level students in analytical chemistry and biochemistry continue to…

Orgill, MaryKay; Sutherland, Aynsley

2008-01-01

170

Misconceptions in Astronomy: Before and After a Constructivist Learning Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of a pilot study on college studentsmisconceptions in astronomy. The study was conducted on the campus of a Midwestern university among 43 non-science major students enrolled in an introductory astronomy laboratory course. The laboratory course was based on a constructivist learning environment where students learned astronomy by doing astronomy. During the course, students worked with educational simulations created by Project CLEA team and RedShift College Education Astronomy Workbook by Bill Walker as well as were involved in think-pair-share discussions based on Lecture-Tutorials (Prather et al 2008). Several laboratories were prompted by an instructor's brief presentations. On the first and last days of the course students were surveyed on what their beliefs were about causes of the seasons, the moon's apparent size in the sky and its phases, planetary orbits, structure of the solar system, the sun, distant stars, and the nature of light. The majority of the surveys’ questions were based on Neil Comins’ 50 most commonly cited misconceptions. The outcome of the study showed that while students constructed correct understanding of a number of phenomena, they also created a set of new misconceptions. For example, if on the first day of the course, nine out of 43 students knew what caused the seasons on Earth; on the last day of the course, 20 students gained the similar understanding. However, by the end of the course more students believed that smaller planets must rotate faster based on the conservation of angular momentum and Kepler's laws. Our findings suggest that misconceptions pointed out by Neil Comins over a decade ago are still relevant today; and that learning based exclusively on simulations and collaborative group discussions does not necessarily produce the best results, but may set a ground for creating new misconceptions.

Ruzhitskaya, Lanika; Speck, A.

2009-01-01

171

The Effect of Refuting Misconceptions in the Introductory Psychology Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students often come into the introductory psychology course with many misconceptions and leave with most of them intact. Borrowing from other disciplines, we set out to determine whether refutational lecture and text are effective in dispelling student misconceptions. These approaches first activate a misconception and then immediately counter it…

Kowalski, Patricia; Taylor, Annette Kujawski

2009-01-01

172

Correcting Students' Misconceptions about Automobile Braking Distances and Video Analysis Using Interactive Program Tracker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper informs about an analysis of students' conceptions about car braking distances and also presents one of the novel methods of learning: an interactive computer program Tracker that we used to analyse the process of braking of a car. The analysis of the students' conceptions about car braking distances consisted in obtaining their estimates of these quantities before and after watching a video recording of a car braking from various initial speeds to a complete stop and subsequent application of mathematical statistics to the obtained sets of students' answers. The results revealed that the difference between the value of the car braking distance estimated before watching the video and the real value of this distance was not caused by a random error but by a systematic error which was due to the incorrect students' conceptions about the car braking process. Watching the video significantly improved the students' estimates of the car braking distance, and we show that in this case, the difference between the estimated value and the real value of the car braking distance was due only to a random error, i.e. the students' conceptions about the car braking process were corrected. Some of the students subsequently performed video analysis of the braking processes of cars of various brands and under various conditions by means of Tracker that gave them exact knowledge of the physical quantities, which characterize a motor vehicle braking. Interviewing some of these students brought very positive reactions to this novel method of learning.

Hockicko, Peter; Trpišová, Beáta; Ondruš, Ján

2014-08-01

173

Misconceptions on the Biological Concept of Food: Results of a Survey of High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explains the results of a survey of students' ideas about food as a scientific concept. The survey found that high school students in Singapore (n=66) displayed an anthropocentric view of food that was not generally applied across living organisms in heterotrophs (animals) or autotrophs (plants) as a whole. It is also noted that…

Lee, Y. J.; Diong, C. H.

174

Rate of Change: AP Calculus Students' Understandings and Misconceptions after Completing Different Curricular Paths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined Advanced Placement Calculus students' mathematical understanding of rate of change, after studying four years of college preparatory (integrated or single-subject) mathematics. Students completed the Precalculus Concept Assessment (PCA) and two open-ended tasks with questions about rates of change. After adjusting for prior…

Teuscher, Dawn; Reys, Robert E.

2012-01-01

175

An Analysis of Undergraduate General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions of the Submicroscopic Level of Precipitation Reactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how 21 college-level general chemistry students, who had received instruction that emphasized the symbolic level of ionic equations, explained their submicroscopic-level understanding of precipitation reactions. Students' explanations expressed through drawings and semistructured interviews revealed the nature of the…

Kelly, Resa M.; Barrera, Juliet H.; Mohamed, Saheed C.

2010-01-01

176

Gender differences in science misconceptions in eighth grade astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between gender and science misconceptions at the eighth grade level. This study attempted to ascertain if there are significant differences between genders in the number and types of science misconceptions eighth grade science students have. The specific misconceptions used in this investigation concern gravity, seasons, and phases of the moon. It remains a serious problem in science education that girls are being inadequately trained to question and reflect on their science understandings. It has been suggested that girls may have more problems with misconceptions than do boys. In keeping with the constructivist ideas as to what constitutes an effective way to teach science (Burke, 1995; Lorsbach & Tobin, 2000) this study explored the ability of students to understand theoretical and conceptual principles of science. The data for this study was obtained using the methodology of a multiple choice survey which contains common misconceptions and the correct answers as choices. This survey was administered to eighth grade students in a large suburban school district by their science teachers. Interviews of a randomly selected sample group of 20 (10 boys and 10 girls) were conducted by the researcher. The results of the study used a t-test to compare boys and girls to see if there was a significant difference in types and/or number of science misconceptions. A matrix of possible answers to the survey was used to analyze the results of the interviews. There was a statistically significant difference between the means for the two groups, indicating a gender difference in knowledge of astronomy concepts. The results of the interviews also showed a difference in astronomy knowledge and background information. In addition the interviews showed that girls were very unsure of their answers while boys defended their answers even when they were incorrect.

Gray, Pamela A.

177

StudentsÃÂ Misconception About Energy-Yielding Metabolism: Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Energy-yielding metabolism is a subject that is particularly important, because energy production is a fundamental requirement for cells even though they execute many other processes simultaneously. An integrated view of metabolism is essential for understanding how the whole organism functions, including activities of studentsÃÂ daily life, such as eating, dieting, and physical exercise. In fact, the media constantly exert pressure on young people, stimulating students to undergo countless diet and exercise programs. Additionally, diabetes mellitus and obesity, which are diseases with close ties to metabolism, have been increasing among adolescents.

Dr. Gabriel A. Oliveira (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Departamento de Bioquímica Médica); Dr. Cristiane R. Sousa (Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Departamento de Ultra-estrutura e Biologia Celular); Dr. Andrea T. Da Poian (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Departamento de Bioquímica Médica,); Dr. Maurício R. M. P. Luz (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Setor Curricular de Biologia)

2003-09-01

178

Overcoming Student Misconceptions about Photosynthesis: A Model- and Inquiry-Based Approach Using Aquatic Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though photosynthesis is an obligatory part of the science curriculum, research has shown that students often have a poor understanding of it. The authors advocate that classroom coverage of the topic of photosynthesis should include not only its biochemical properties but also the role of photosynthesis or photosynthetic organisms in matter…

Ray, Andrew M.; Beardsley, Paul M.

2008-01-01

179

Students' Levels of Explanations, Models, and Misconceptions in Basic Quantum Chemistry: A Phenomenographic Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated students' knowledge constructions of basic quantum chemistry concepts, namely atomic orbitals, the Schrodinger equation, molecular orbitals, hybridization, and chemical bonding. Ausubel's theory of meaningful learning provided the theoretical framework and phenomenography the method of analysis. The semi-structured interview with…

Stefani, Christina; Tsaparlis, Georgios

2009-01-01

180

Phylo-Genie: Engaging Students in Collaborative `Tree-Thinking' through Tabletop Techniques  

E-print Network

of Australian snake specimen. Recent investigations highlight common misconceptions held by students (e.g. [10 and the misconceptions common to college- level students that have been reported i, misinterpretations of phylogenetics are common among college-level students. In this paper we present Phylo

181

Students' Misconceptions About the Correspondences Between a Map and the Terrain Represented by the Map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skillful use of maps is a prerequisite for success in many fields of geoscience. Geoscience instructors find that many high school and undergraduate students are not skilled at using maps and other spatial representations to obtain or convey information. In an attempt to understand why so many students come to their study of geoscience with such poor map skills, we are studying map comprehension and map curricula in elementary schools. An analysis of published K-5 map skills curriculum materials shows that students are rarely explicitly instructed on the crucial skill of translating from map to reality and vice versa. Instead they are asked questions that can be answered entirely within the frame of reference of the map without thinking about the terrain represented by the map. We have developed a field-based test of map skills that requires students to transfer information from a map into the real world and from the real world onto a map. In the world-to-map task, students place stickers on a map to show where colored flags are located in the real world, just as a field geologist places colored pencil marks on a map to show where specific rock units are located. In the map-to-world test, students use a map to go to locations specified by stickers on a map and place markers on the ground at each location. This is the same skill required by an environmental scientist who follows a map to go to specific sampling locations. Approximately a fifth of 4th graders produce deeply-flawed answers on these tasks, showing a lack of understanding of the basic correspondences between features on the map and the represented terrain. Flaws include placing round stickers arbitrarily on round map symbols, and placing a sticker on a built object that should have been on a natural feature or vice versa. Another category of mistake is to reverse west/east and/or north/south; this mistake tends to be associated with poor performance on a standard psychometric test of mental rotations ability.

Kastens, K. A.; Griffith, J.; Liben, L.; Pistolesi, L.

2003-12-01

182

Chapter 12 Making Meaning in Algebra Examining Students' Understandings and Misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

as abstract and unconnected,to the real world. Over the past twenty years, there has been a movement in the United States to make,algebra more concrete. Specialized manipulatives have been invented in order to provide “hands-on” materials for students to use. Algebra tiles, positive and negative counters, and balance apparatuses, to name a few, are commercially available materials for “concrete learning”

DAVID FOSTER

183

Briefing Paper Misconceptions of the Financial Crisis  

E-print Network

Briefing Paper Misconceptions of the Financial Crisis One of the main purposes of the Fin.g. `greedy bankers,' is one-sided. We focus on some of the most common features that appear in popular misconceptions. Below are some examples. The process of securitisation, whereby banks packaged loans to form

Birmingham, University of

184

Children's misconceptions about weather: A review of the literature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper from Project ALERT reports a synthesis of the existing research about children's misconceptions relating to weather, climate and the atmosphere. The scientifically accepted interpretations are presented in tandem with the children's naÃve ideas. When possible, the source of the misconception is also presented. In many cases, students' misconceptions are not addressed in the curriculum, allowing them to exist unchallenged.

Henriques, Laura; California State University, Long B.

185

"Walk with Light": Guiding Students through the Conventions of Literary Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experienced secondary teacher shares some common misconceptions about literary analysis. The activities, which help the students to practice theory and read drama, poetry and fiction, are described.

Burdan, Judith

2004-01-01

186

The effect of student-centered and teacher-centered instruction with and without conceptual advocacy on biology students' misconceptions, achievement, attitudes toward science, and cognitive retention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of student-centered and teacher-centered instructional strategies with and without conceptual advocacy (CA) on ninth-grade biology students' misconceptions (MIS), biology achievement (ACH), attitudes toward science (ATT), and cognitive retention of scientific method and measurement, spontaneous generation, and characteristics of living things. Students were purposively selected using intact classes and assigned to one of four treatment groups (i.e., student-centered instruction without CA, student-centered instruction with CA, teacher-centered instruction with CA, and teacher-centered instruction without CA). A modified quasi-experimental design was used in which students were not matched in the conventional sense but instead, groups were shown to be equivalent on the dependent measure via a pretest. A 5-day treatment implementation period addressed science conceptions under investigation. The treatment period was based on the number of class periods teachers at the target school actually spend teaching the biological concepts under investigation using traditional instruction. At the end of the treatment period, students were posttested using the Concepts in Biology instrument and Science Questionnaire. Eight weeks after the posttest, these instruments were administered again as a delayed posttest to determine cognitive retention of the correct biological conceptions and attitudes toward science. MANCOVA and follow-up univariate ANCOVA results indicated that student-centered instruction without CA (i.e., Group 1) did not have a significant effect on students' MIS, ACH, and ATT (F = .029, p = .8658; F = .002, p =.9688, F = .292, p = .5897, respectively). On the other hand, student-centered instruction with CA (i.e., Group 2) had a significant effect on students' MIS and ACH (F =10.33, p = .0016 and F = 10.17, p = .0017, respectively), but did not on ATT (F = .433, p = .5117). Teacher-centered instruction with CA (i.e., Group 3) had a significant effect on students' MIS in favor of Group 4 (i.e., control group) (F = 4.11, p = .0444), and did not have a significant effect on ACH and ATT (F = 1.83, p = .1777 and F = 1.89, p = .1709, respectively). Student gender and teacher gender did not have a significant effect on students' MIS, ACH, and ATT. In the cognitive retention model, there was no significant difference among the research factors relative to the 3 dependent measures.

Gallop, Roger Graham

187

Arguments for the sake of endophenotypes: examining common misconceptions about the use of endophenotypes in psychiatric genetics.  

PubMed

Endophenotypes are measurable biomarkers that are correlated with an illness, at least in part, because of shared underlying genetic influences. Endophenotypes may improve our power to detect genes influencing risk of illness by being genetically simpler, closer to the level of gene action, and with larger genetic effect sizes or by providing added statistical power through their ability to quantitatively rank people within diagnostic categories. Furthermore, they also provide insight into the mechanisms underlying illness and will be valuable in developing biologically-based nosologies, through efforts such as RDoC, that seek to explain both the heterogeneity within current diagnostic categories and the overlapping clinical features between them. While neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and cognitive measures are currently most used in psychiatric genetic studies, researchers currently are attempting to identify candidate endophenotypes that are less genetically complex and potentially closer to the level of gene action, such as transcriptomic and proteomic phenotypes. Sifting through tens of thousands of such measures requires automated, high-throughput ways of assessing, and ranking potential endophenotypes, such as the Endophenotype Ranking Value. However, despite the potential utility of endophenotypes for gene characterization and discovery, there is considerable resistance to endophenotypic approaches in psychiatry. In this review, we address and clarify some of the common issues associated with the usage of endophenotypes in the psychiatric genetics community. PMID:24464604

Glahn, David C; Knowles, Emma E M; McKay, D Reese; Sprooten, Emma; Raventós, Henriette; Blangero, John; Gottesman, Irving I; Almasy, Laura

2014-03-01

188

Idea Bank: Melting a Misconception  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following lab was originally designed to teach the importance of manipulating a single variable in an experiment. However, the lab also dispels a common misconception, teaches the value of following lab instructions, and provides a good working definition of the term variable.

Merolla, Jill

2004-03-01

189

Misconceptions and light: A curriculum approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the method used by the author to teach a class of Year 8 students about light and its properties so that the students’ own ideas were considered and their misconceptions addressed. To achieve this a series of teaching modules were designed using a model of conceptual change suggested by Posner and his colleagues at Cornell University. Students’ prior misconceptions about light were identified using a pretest developed by the author. After teaching a posttest was used to determine if the teaching method resulted in a lower level of misconceptions. Interviews from seven students selected at random and the observations gathered by a participant observor were used to verify results. It was found that the teaching method resulted in a lower level of misconceptions in the sample and this was confirmed by the results of the interviews and participant observation. This paper concentrates on the design and content of one of the teaching modules.

Fetherstonhaugh, A. R.

1990-01-01

190

Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel: The Possible Influence of Formal Teaching on the Establishment of a Misconception about Energy-Yielding Metabolism among Students from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy-yielding metabolism is an important biochemistry subject that is related to many daily experiences and health issues of students. An adequate knowledge of the general features of EYM is therefore important, both from an academic and social point of view. In a previous study, we have shown that high-school students present the misconception

Luz, Mauricio R. M. P.; de Oliveira, Gabriel Aguiar; de Sousa, Cristiane Ribeiro; Da Poian, Andrea T.

2008-01-01

191

Common misconceptions of critical thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the ® rst of two, we analyse three widely-held conceptions of critical thinking: as one or more skills, as mental processes, and as sets of procedures. Each viewis, wecontend, wrong-headed, misleadingor, atbest, unhelpful. Somewhowrite about critical thinking seemtomuddle all three views in an unenlightening me lange. Apartfromtheerrorsorinadequaciesof the conceptionsthemselves, theypromote or abet misconceived practices for teaching critical

SHARON BAILIN; ROLAND CASE; JERROLD R. COOMBS; LEROI B. DANIELS

1999-01-01

192

Some common misconceptions about neuroticism  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of typical conceptions of neuroticism was conducted by having subjects take the role of a psychoneurotic patient in responding to a personality inventory. Significant discrepancies between what diagnosed patients did, in fact, report on this inventory and the stereotypes given by the stimulators were discovered. The argument was advanced that errors of the magnitude observed suggested a considerable

Harrison G. Gough

1954-01-01

193

Common Misconceptions about Generation X  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to popular stereotype, the generation of people born in the late 1960s and 1970s are hard workers (not slackers) who strongly desire to make their mark in their jobs. A product of their times, the so-called Xers are accustomed to rapidly changing situations. Far from having a short attention span, Xers are able to absorb large, often jumbled volumes

Bruce Tulgan

1996-01-01

194

Using Just in Time Teaching in a Global Climate Change Course to Address Misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just in Time Teaching (JiTT) is employed in an introductory Global Climate Change college course with the intention of addressing common misconceptions and climate myths. Students enter the course with a variety of prior knowledge and opinions on global warming, and JiTT can be used as a constructivist pedagogical approach to make use of this prior knowledge. Students are asked to watch a short video or do a reading, sometimes screen capture videos created by the professor as review of material from the previous class, a video available on the web from NASA or NOAA, for example, or a reading from an online article or their textbook. After the video or reading, students answer a question carefully designed to pry at a common misconception, or simply are asked for the 'muddiest point' that remains on the concept. This assignment is done the night before class using a web program. The program aggregates the answers in an organized way so the professor can use the answers to design the day's lesson to address common misconceptions or concerns students displayed in their answers, as well as quickly assign participation credit to students who completed the assignment. On the other hand, if students display that they have already mastered the material, the professor can confidently move on to the next concept. The JiTT pedagogical method personalizes each lecture period to the students in that particular class for maximum efficiency while catching and fixing misconceptions in a timely manner. This technique requires students to spend time with the material outside of class, acts as review of important concepts, and increases engagement in class due to the personalization of the course. Evaluation results from use of this technique will be presented. Examples of successful JiTT videos, questions, student answers, and techniques for addressing misconceptions during lecture will also be presented with the intention that instructors can easily apply this technique to their next course.

Schuenemann, K. C.

2013-12-01

195

Using examples and analogies to remediate misconceptions in physics: Factors influencing conceptual change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study questions the effectiveness the traditional teaching-by-example technique with students who hold misconceptions. Results indicate that when students hold a misconception, presenting a principle with supporting examples may by ineffective.

Brown, David E.

2006-05-23

196

STUDENT LEARNING COMMONS Annual Report 2007/08  

E-print Network

are motivated to seek SLC consultations or attend workshops independently, all students benefit from learningSTUDENT LEARNING COMMONS Annual Report 2007/08 Elaine Fairey, Director, Student Learning Commons ______________________________________________________________________________________ Introduction The Student Learning Commons (SLC) is an academic learning centre with the mandate to assist

197

Misconceptions Surrounding Climate Change: A Review of the Literature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Misconceptions about climate change abound in every corner of society. The result manifests itself ranging from apprehension to total disregard for climate change conditions. According to several sources, however, a large percentage of the U. S. population do, indeed indicate some concern over global warming and climate change in general. These climate change misconceptions are numerous and include, to name a few; confusion between weather and climate, how greenhouse gases are affecting the earth, the effects of ozone depletion, earth's natural cycles, volcanic activity, nuclear waste and a host of other anthropogenic influences. This paper is a review of the current research literature relating to climate change misconceptions. These errant views will be addressed, cataloged, enumerated, and ranked to get a grasp on where the general population, politicians, scientists, and educators as well as students stand on informed climate change information. The categories where misconceptions arise have been identified in this literature review study and include the following: Natural cycles of the earth, ecological which include deforestation, urban development and any human intervention on the environment, educational - including teacher strategies, student understanding and textbook updates, emotional, ozone layer and its interactions, polar ice, political regulations, mandates and laws, pollution from human sources as well as from nature, religious beliefs and dogma and social beliefs. We suggest appropriate solutions for addressing these misconceptions, especially in the classroom setting, and broadly include available funding sources for work in climate change education. Some solutions include need for compilation of appropriate education resources and materials for public use, need for the development of educational materials that appropriately address the variety of publics, and need for programs that are conducting climate change education research and EPO work to communicate and share resources in a common community. Many organizations are addressing these critical needs and we will compile these efforts in our analysis as well.

Templeton, C. M.; McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.

2011-12-01

198

Misconceptions about astronomical magnitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present system of astronomical magnitudes was created as an inverse scale by Claudius Ptolemy in about 140 A.D. and was defined to be logarithmic in 1856 by Norman Pogson, who believed that human eyes respond logarithmically to the intensity of light. Although scientists have known for some time that the response is instead a power law, astronomers continue to use the Pogson magnitude scale. The peculiarities of this system make it easy for students to develop numerous misconceptions about how and why to use magnitudes. We present a useful exercise in the use of magnitudes to derive a cosmologically interesting quantity (the mass-to-light ratio for spiral galaxies), with potential pitfalls pointed out and explained.

Schulman, Eric; Cox, Caroline V.

1997-10-01

199

Common Sense: Using Common Finals to Measure Postsecondary Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College completion rates in the U.S. are stubbornly low despite the large and rising returns to a college degree. Efforts to increase student success in college have largely ignored a potentially key factor: the instruction that students receive in the sequence of courses that add up to a college education. Improving the quality of instruction may…

Chingos, Matthew M.

2013-01-01

200

Three Misconceptions About Radiation — And What We Teachers Can Do to Confront Them  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last few years teaching physics, I have noticed that my students are becoming more and more interested in the topic of radiation. Mobile phones, modern game consoles, and WiFi—all of these devices involving some kind of radiation are part of our students' everyday lives. Students are also frequently confronted in the media with debates relating to different types of radiation: What are the effects of nuclear contamination going to be after the Fukushima accident? Can radiation from mobile phones really cause cancer? Should the use of tanning booths be forbidden for teenagers? Although students seem to be very motivated to learn about the topic of radiation, I have encountered several misconceptions about this topic that my students bring into the physics classroom. Some of these misconceptions might be caused by biased media reports, while others can be attributed to a different usage of the word radiation in everyday language (when compared to the scientific usage of this term). In this paper, I would like to present the most common misconceptions about radiation that I have encountered in my physics courses and I would like to give some ideas how to confront these ideas in teaching. A detailed description of these misconceptions discovered through empirical research can be found in one of my research articles.1

Neumann, Susanne

2014-09-01

201

0018-9162/99/$10.00 1999 IEEE June 1999 29 Misconceptions  

E-print Network

of Skovde, Sweden #12;30 Computer Using these definitions, we can better explain some common misconceptions about real-time databases. SOME MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT REAL-TIME DATABASES We present nine commonD 0018-9162/99/$10.00 © 1999 IEEE June 1999 29 Misconceptions About Real-Time Databases atabases

Stankovic, John A.

202

Building a Common Platform on Students' Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article sets out to examine how school science activities can encourage students' participation while supporting a specific science content. One ordinary class with 12-year-old students was chosen and their regular classroom work was studied without intervention and with a minimum of interference. Lessons were video filmed, transcribed and…

Lundin, Mattias

2007-01-01

203

Overcoming Misconceptions in Quantum Mechanics with the Time Evolution Operator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, there have been many efforts to use the research techniques developed in the field of physics education research to improve the teaching and learning of quantum mechanics. In particular, part of this research is focusing on misconceptions held by students. For instance, a set of misconceptions is associated with the concept of stationary…

Quijas, P. C. Garcia; Aguilar, L. M. Arevalo

2007-01-01

204

The Effect of Online Collaboration on Middle School Student Science Misconceptions as an Aspect of Science Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative, quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design examined the effects of online collaborative learning on middle school students' science literacy. For a 9-week period, students in the control group participated in collaborative face-to-face activities whereas students in the experimental group participated in…

Wendt, Jillian L.; Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda

2014-01-01

205

A Cognitive Analysis of Developmental Mathematics Students' Errors and Misconceptions in Real Number Computations and Evaluating Algebraic Expressions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty percent of college-bound students graduate from high school underprepared for mathematics at the post-secondary level. As a result, thirty-five percent of college students take developmental mathematics courses. What is even more shocking is the high failure rate (ranging from 35 to 42 percent) of students enrolled in developmental…

Titus, Freddie

2010-01-01

206

On the importance of being earnest about business: overcoming liberal arts students' misconceptions about leadership in corporate change processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unfortunately, most students leave the university with little knowledge about decision-making in the public sector. Unless they study towards a management degree, most students experience little to no business education in their curricula. As a consequence, student perceptions of the business world are largely shaped by the fads and stereotypes propagated in ubiquitous business journals available in every airport bookstore

Ariane Berthoin Antal; Meinolf Dierkes

2002-01-01

207

Classroom Terraria: Enhancing Student Understanding of Plant-Related Gas Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite our best teaching efforts, many students hold misconceptions related to the roles plants play in gas-related processes (Amir and Tamir 1994; Hershey 1992; 2004). In an effort to remedy this problem, the author presents a series of activities that address common plant-related gas-process misconceptions held by middle school students. The…

Thompson, Stephen

2010-01-01

208

Misconceptions of an IPDB R. Amor and I. Faraj  

E-print Network

Misconceptions of an IPDB R. Amor and I. Faraj BRE, Bucknalls Lane, Garston, Watford WD2 7JR, UK, or is not, possible to create. This paper aims to describe misconceptions which are growing up around IPDB and common understanding for those who work in the area. With the concept of an IPDB promoted

Amor, Robert

209

Teachers' Misconceptions about the Effects of Addition of More Reactants or Products on Chemical Equilibrium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of research on misconceptions about chemical equilibrium is well recognized by educators, but in the past, researchers' interest has centered on student misconceptions and has neglected teacher misconceptions. Focusing on the effects of adding more reactants or products on chemical equilibrium, this article discusses the various…

Cheung, Derek; Ma, Hong-jia; Yang, Jie

2009-01-01

210

Using PCR to Target Misconceptions about Gene Expression †  

PubMed Central

We present a PCR-based laboratory exercise that can be used with first- or second-year biology students to help overcome common misconceptions about gene expression. Biology students typically do not have a clear understanding of the difference between genes (DNA) and gene expression (mRNA/protein) and often believe that genes exist in an organism or cell only when they are expressed. This laboratory exercise allows students to carry out a PCR-based experiment designed to challenge their misunderstanding of the difference between genes and gene expression. Students first transform E. coli with an inducible GFP gene containing plasmid and observe induced and un-induced colonies. The following exercise creates cognitive dissonance when actual PCR results contradict their initial (incorrect) predictions of the presence of the GFP gene in transformed cells. Field testing of this laboratory exercise resulted in learning gains on both knowledge and application questions on concepts related to genes and gene expression. PMID:23858358

Wright, Leslie K.; Newman, Dina L.

2013-01-01

211

The Differentiation of Heat and Temperature: An Evaluation of the Effect of Microcomputer Models on Students' Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the characterization of a student's framework of heat and temperature, and the development of a microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) intervention program for grade 9 and grade ll students. The report presents the results of classroom study, including interview questions and answers and pretest/posttest, from experimental and…

Wiser, Marianne; Kipman, Daphna

212

Teaching Students to Dig Deeper: The Common Core in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This important new book identifies the skills and qualities students need, based on the Common Core State Standards, to be "really" ready for college and careers. Go beyond content knowledge...the deep thinking and learning skills detailed in this book will equip students for success! Prepare your students for their futures by helping them become:…

Johnson, Ben

2013-01-01

213

Technology Rich Biology Labs: Effects of Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a study conducted on the lab sections of the general biology course for non-science majors at the University of New England, and reports findings of student misconceptions about photosynthesis and the mass/carbon uptake during plant growth. The current study placed high technology analytic tools in the hands of introductory…

Kuech, Robert; Zogg, Gregory; Zeeman, Stephan; Johnson, Mark

214

More than misconceptions: Multiple perspectives on student knowledge and reasoning, and an appropriate role for education research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article analyzes an excerpt of a discussion from a high school physics class from several different perspectives on students' knowledge and reasoning, illustrating a range in what an instructor might perceive in students' work and take as tasks for instruction. It suggests a view of current education research as providing perspectives to expand, refine, and support instructors' perceptions and judgment, rather than as providing definitive principles or proven methods.

Hammer, David

2005-10-27

215

Subsidence misconceptions and myths  

SciTech Connect

Subsidence due to coal mining is poorly understood by non-specialists. This has led to numerous misconceptions and myths based on limited observations and lack of knowledge. The three most common are: (1) Mine maps are inaccurate, (2) Deep mines are not a problem, and (3) If no subsidence has occurred for many years after mining, there is no risk of future subsidence. Maps are important during mining and most are carefully prepared. Future use to evaluate conditions at mine level often includes drilling to confirm what the map shows. The idea of a safe depth from subsidence is often based on the false premise that mining results in sufficient breakup of the overlying rock strata that bulking compensates for the coal extracted. The safe depth idea first appeared in the literature about 1880 and remained prevalent well into this century. Sadly, it is still encountered. The modem understanding of fragmentation of the immediate mine roof with the overlying beds sagging down on the broken roof rock was first described in 1900. With full extraction mining, either longwall or retreat room and pillar, surface subsidence occurs regardless of the depth of the mine. Subsidence over longwall mines at depths of 2000 feet can be 90 percent of the mined seam thickness. Numerous studies of undermined sites conclude that mining occurred many years ago and since no subsidence has occurred, there is no risk of future movement. This is true if sufficient coal pillars have been left to support the overlying strate. However, every year subsidence occurs over mines that have been closed for 100 years or more. In a study of subsidera incidents over the Pittsburgh Coal, the senior authors found that 50 percent of the incidents occurred above mines that had been closed for at least 50 years and 10 percent over mines, closed for at least 80 years.

Gray, R.E.; Bruhn, R.W.; Knott, D.L. [GAI Consultants, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

1996-12-01

216

Overcoming misconceptions in neurophysiology learning: an approach using color-coded animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online self-directed e-learning module was developed, using best-practice approaches (1), to engage students and help them overcome some common neurophysiology misconceptions. The essential features of the module were: the use of well-designed (9) and simple (low cognitive load) (12, 13) animations intended to promote good learning outcomes (5) and the use of multiple-choice questions linked with the animations to provide immediate feedback.

Richard Guy (RMIT University)

2012-09-01

217

Relationship of beliefs, epistemology, and alternate conceptions to college student understanding of evolution and common descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were combined to explore the relationships between an understanding of evolution and 4 epistemology factors: (a) control of learning, (b) speed of learning , (c) stability of knowledge, and (d) belief in evolution/creationism. A 17-item instrument was developed that reliably measured a belief in creationism and subtle differences between this belief and an acceptance of evolution. The subjects were 45 students enrolled in a biology course at a 2-year community college. Evolution was taught in a traditional format, and common descent was taught in an inquiry-based laboratory session consisting of: (a) a comparison of hemoglobin DNA sequences of the human, chimpanzee, and gorilla; and (b) a comparison of 8 primate skull casts, including the modern human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and five prehistoric fossils. Prior to instruction the students completed an epistemology questionnaire and a knowledge test about evolution. Five weeks after instruction, the students completed a posttest. A t-test revealed no differences between the pretest and the posttest. However, the group of students that scored higher on the posttest than on the pretest was found to have a stronger belief in the uncertainty of knowledge. Pearson r was computed to check for relationships between the 4 epistemological factors and the understanding of evolution. There was a significant relationship between a belief in creationism and a lessor understanding of evolution as measured on both the pretest and the posttest (ps < .05). The relationship between gender and test scores was also examined with men demonstrating statistically significantly higher scores on the common descent component than women did. Narrative data included interviews and branching/grouping activities. Four alternate conceptions about common descent were identified. Even after instruction, 16 out of 39 students thought humans evolved from the chimpanzee. Additionally, students grouped the 8 primate skulls into just 2 categories: human and animals. Other misconceptions included a nonevolutionary use of the term, related, and the use of naive organizers leading to incorrect conclusions about the relatedness of certain organisms, such as a connection between fish and whales. These organizers included: (a) similarity of traits, (b) environment, (c) relative size, (d) function, and (e) complexity.

Miller, Joyce Catherine

218

Horizontal Transitions: A Commonly Overlooked Opportunity for Student Empowerment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although typical transitions are from one vertical level of schooling to another, it is becoming increasingly common for transitions to also include moving between regular and alternative placements. Many high schools rely on alternate placements as a means of dealing with disruptive students. There is also a subcategory of placements for students

Young, Anne

2007-01-01

219

Applying Common Core Standards to Students with Disabilities in Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following article includes general information on the Common Core State Standards, how the standards apply to the music and academic education of students with disabilities, and web resources that will helpful to music educators teaching students with and without disabilities.

Darrow, Alice-Ann

2014-01-01

220

Common Core State Standards, Writing, and Students with LD: Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the Common Core State Standards as they apply to writing and students with learning disabilities (LD). We first consider why the implementation of these standards is advantageous to writing instruction for students with LD as well as the challenges in implementing them. Next, we make the following four recommendations in…

Graham, Steve; Harris, Karen R.

2013-01-01

221

Opportunities for Students with Disabilities: From the Common Core Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) represent an unparalleled opportunity for students with disabilities. But this opportunity will be realized only if states, districts, and schools approach the implementation of these standards with forethought and careful planning, particularly for students with disabilities. The CCSS were developed for all…

Thurlow, Martha L.; Quenemoen, Rachel F.

2012-01-01

222

Addressing Common Student Errors with Classroom Voting in Multivariable Calculus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One technique for identifying and addressing common student errors is the method of classroom voting, in which the instructor presents a multiple-choice question to the class, and after a few minutes for consideration and small group discussion, each student votes on the correct answer, often using a hand-held electronic clicker. If a large number…

Cline, Kelly; Parker, Mark; Zullo, Holly; Stewart, Ann

2012-01-01

223

Chemistry misconceptions associated with understanding calcium and phosphate homeostasis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration when calcium ions were added to a saturated calcium phosphate solution. Fifty-two percent of the students correctly predicted that the phosphate concentration would decrease in accord with the common ion effect. Forty-two percent of the students predicted that the phosphate concentration would not change. Written explanations showed that most students failed to evoke the idea of competing chemical equilibria. A second question assessed the predicted change in calcium concentration after solid calcium phosphate was added to a saturated solution. Only 11% of the students correctly predicted no change in calcium concentration; 86% of the students predicted an increase, and many based their prediction on a mistaken application of Le Chatelier's principle to heterogeneous equilibria. These results indicate that many students possess misconceptions about chemical equilibrium that may hamper understanding of the processes of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Instructors can help students gain greater understanding of these physiochemical phenomena by adopting strategies that enable students achieve more accurate conceptions of chemical equilibria.

William H. Cliff (Niagara University Biology)

2009-12-01

224

Vaccine myths and misconceptions.  

PubMed

Communicable diseases are on the rise worldwide. Some of the increase in prevalence of these nearly eradicated diseases is due to a decrease in vaccination rates. This decrease is primarily due to parental concerns over vaccine safety and the increasing rates of autism spectrum disorders. Medical providers must address the growing antivaccine movement and misconceptions about immunizations. Physician assistants are in a unique position to offer evidence-based medical advice and encourage immunizations in order to prevent disease outbreaks. PMID:25003847

Clift, Kathy; Rizzolo, Denise

2014-08-01

225

Novice-like Conceptions & Misconceptions of Oceanography & Climate Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of our world's oceans, climate, and their complex dynamics is becomingly increasingly valuable to not only scientists but also laypersons who seek a deeper understanding of our oceans, the climate, and climate change. Scientists, instructors, and others involved in education and public outreach may be able to enhance their educational activities and efforts by utilizing and integrating their knowledge of identified novice-like conceptions and misconceptions that deal with oceanography and climate processes. From Spring 2008 to Spring 2011, college-level students at two different universities enrolled in four different courses were part of a study to elicit student thinking and ideas about specific processes that are central to our understanding of the oceans, the climate, and climate change. The student population drawn from the University of Colorado at Boulder were drawn from two different courses - an oceanography course (2 semesters; ~150 students per semester) and an global change course (1 semester; 75 students/semester); the student population drawn from Georgia Southern University were drawn from an environmental geology course (2 semesters; ~300 students/semester). Students were asked to answer open-ended questions dealing with specific oceanography and climate processes. Their responses were then analyzed for common themes. Key findings of this study will be shared during this presentation.

Arthurs, L.

2011-12-01

226

Sleep Disturbances and Common Mental Disorders in College Students  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs) and examine the association of sleep disorders with presence of CMDs. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to ascertain demographic information and behavioral characteristics among 2,645 undergraduate students in Ethiopia. Standard questionnaires were used to assess CMDs, evening chronotype, sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. Results A total of 716 students (26.6%) were characterized as having CMDs. Female students had higher prevalence of CMDs (30.6%) compared to male students (25.4%). After adjusting for potential confounders, daytime sleepiness (OR=2.02; 95% CI 1.64-2.49) and poor sleep quality (OR=2.36; 95% CI 1.91-2.93) were associated with increased odds of CMDs. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of CMDs comorbid with sleep disorders among college students. PMID:25309939

Byrd, Kia; Gelaye, Bizu; Tadessea, Mahlet G.; Williams, Michelle A.; Lemma, Seblewengel; Berhanec, Yemane

2014-01-01

227

The Retention of Geologic Misconceptions: Alternative Ideas That Persist After Instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used a 30 item multiple-choice instrument called the geoscience concept test (GCT) to study learning in introductory college-level science courses. The GCT uses common misconceptions as wrong answers, and allows us to pre- and post-test individual courses to gauge the effectiveness of instruction. The GCT was given at the beginning of the semester to 2215 college students in 42 classes at 32 different institutions in 19 different states (21 public and 6 private four-year institutions, 4 community colleges, and one tribal college). The pilot was also given to 1907 students as a semester-end post-test in 30 different classes. We were able to match pre- and post-test results for 967 students through an analysis of volunteered personal and demographic data. Although statistical analysis shows that learning occurred in all classes, closer inspection of the data show that the student population retained a number of misconceptions. Students retained several incorrect ideas relating to geologic time despite instruction. For example, 71% of post-tested students believe that the study of fossils, rock layers, or carbon is the most accurate means for calculating the age of the Earth. Nearly 25% of students believed that dinosaurs only existed on Earth for 500,000 years, and 40% believe dinosaurs came into existence about halfway through the geologic time scale. Many alternative ideas about plate tectonics and the formation of rocks also existed after instruction. Nearly half of the post-tested students (47%) believed that tectonic plates do not extend all way to the surface of the Earth, and 65% did not believe that animals could form oceanic rocks. Identification of strongly held misconceptions in a post-tested student population provides instructors with information that could impact the way they present material to their introductory classes.

Wandersee, J. H.; Clary, R. M.; Anderson, S. W.; Libarkin, J.

2003-12-01

228

ON YOUR WAY TO AN Student Learning Commons  

E-print Network

ON YOUR WAY TO AN "A" Student Learning Commons learningcommons.sfu.ca Health & Counselling Centre friends Less personal RELATIONSHIP WITH FACULTY Instructors typically more approachable and accessible dates and deadlines on your schedule For assignments, record the due date, a completion date (aim

229

Common Core Science Standards: Implications for Students with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core Science Standards represent a new effort to increase science learning for all students. These standards include a focus on English and language arts aspects of science learning, and three dimensions of science standards, including practices of science, crosscutting concepts of science, and disciplinary core ideas in the various…

Scruggs, Thomas E.; Brigham, Frederick J.; Mastropieri, Margo A.

2013-01-01

230

Common Standards Ignite Debate over Student "Prereading" Exercises  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sparked by the Common Core State Standards, teachers and literacy experts are arguing about the role of a time-honored pillar of English/language arts instruction: classroom activities designed to help students understand what they are about to read. The attacks on--and defenses of--"prereading" are unfolding largely in cyberspace, through online…

Gewertz, Catherine

2012-01-01

231

Misconceptions and facts about pericardial effusion and tamponade.  

PubMed

Several common misconceptions can make the clinical diagnosis of subacute pericardial tamponade challenging. Widely known physical findings of pericardial tamponade lack sensitivity and specificity. Interpretation of echocardiographic signs requires good understanding of pathophysiology. Over-reliance on echocardiography may result in over-utilization of pericardial drainage procedures. Awareness of these misconceptions with an integrative approach to both clinical and imaging data will help clinicians to assess the hemodynamic impact of pericardial effusion and the need for drainage. PMID:23891285

Argulian, Edgar; Messerli, Franz

2013-10-01

232

Commonsense conceptions of emergent processes: Why some misconceptions are robust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article offers a plausible domain-general explanation for why some concepts of processes are resistant to instructional remediation although other, apparently similar concepts are more easily understood. The explanation assumes that processes may differ in ontological ways: that some processes (such as the apparent flow in diffusion of dye in water) are emergent and other processes (such as the flow of blood in human circulation) are direct. Although precise definition of the two kinds of processes are probably impossible, attributes of direct and emergent processes are described that distinguish them in a domain-general way. Circulation and diffusion, which are used as examples of direct and emergent processes, are associated with different kinds of misconceptions. The claim is that students' misconceptions for direct kinds of processes, such as blood circulation, are of the same ontological kind as the correct conception, suggesting that misconceptions of direct processes may be nonrobust. However, students' misconceptions of emergent processes are robust because they misinterpret emergent processes as a kind of commonsense direct processes. To correct such a misconception requires a re-representation or a conceptual shift across ontological kinds. Therefore, misconceptions of emergent processes are robust because such a shift requires that students know about the emergent kind and can overcome their (perhaps even innate) predisposition to conceive of all processes as a direct kind. Such a domain-general explanation suggests that teaching students the causal structure underlying emergent processes may enable them to recognize and understand a variety of emergent processes for which they have robust misconceptions, such as concepts of electricity, heat and temperature, and evolution.

Chi, Michelene T.

2013-02-13

233

Spore: Spawning Evolutionary Misconceptions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of computer simulations as educational tools may afford the means to develop understanding of evolution as a natural, emergent, and decentralized process. However, special consideration of developmental constraints on learning may be necessary when using these technologies. Specifically, the essentialist (biological forms possess an immutable essence), teleological (assignment of purpose to living things and/or parts of living things that may not be purposeful), and intentionality (assumption that events are caused by an intelligent agent) biases may be reinforced through the use of computer simulations, rather than addressed with instruction. We examine the video game Spore for its depiction of evolutionary content and its potential to reinforce these cognitive biases. In particular, we discuss three pedagogical strategies to mitigate weaknesses of Spore and other computer simulations: directly targeting misconceptions through refutational approaches, targeting specific principles of scientific inquiry, and directly addressing issues related to models as cognitive tools.

Bean, Thomas E.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Schrader, P. G.

2010-10-01

234

Turkish Undergraduates' Misconceptions of Evaporation, Evaporation Rate, and Vapour Pressure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on students' misconceptions related to evaporation, evaporation rate, and vapour pressure. Open-ended diagnostic questions were used with 107 undergraduates in the Primary Science Teacher Training Department in a state university in Turkey. In addition, 14 students from that sample were interviewed to clarify their written…

Canpolat, Nurtac

2006-01-01

235

Using a Teaching Model To Correct Known Misconceptions in Electrochemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a concrete teaching model designed to eliminate students' misconceptions about current flow in electrochemistry. The model uses a semi-permeable membrane rather than a salt bridge to complete the circuit and demonstrate the maintenance of cell neutrality. Concludes that use of the model led to improvement in students' understanding at…

Huddle, Penelope Ann; White, Margaret Dawn; Rogers, Fiona

2000-01-01

236

Remediating Misconceptions Concerning Chemical Bonding through Conceptual Change Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of conceptual change texts oriented instruction on 9th grade students' understanding of chemical bonding concepts. In this study, the main aim of the preparation of conceptual change texts was to activate students' prior knowledge and misconceptions and to help them to understand the chemical…

Pabuccu, Aybuke; Geban, Omer

2006-01-01

237

A Few Common Misconceptions about Distance Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, with new technologies emerging daily and the growing need for more flexibility in scheduling, there seems to be an overall drive towards the need for distance learning. According to PBS Campus, 67% of colleges and universities agree that online education is a critical, long- term strategy for their institution. As a result, 49% of public colleges and universities

Laurie G. Hillstock; Brackett Hall

2005-01-01

238

Common Misconceptions about Disasters: Panic, the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

* This paper represents the opinions of the author and not necessarily the policies or positions of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry or the U.S. Depart- ment of Health and Human Services. As a document compiled by a federal employee, this paper is exempt from copyright protection and may be reproduced without permis- sion.

Erik Auf der Heide

2004-01-01

239

Common Misconceptions about Service-Oriented Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

You don't have to look far to become aware of the effect that service-oriented architecture (SOA) is having on software systems. Vendors are aggressively marketing hardware, software, tools, and services that support SOA implementation within organizations as diverse as the Department of Defense, banks, federal agencies, manufacturing companies, and health care providers. Even more significantly, customers are embracing SOA as

Grace A. Lewis; Edwin Morris; Soumya Simanta; Lutz Wrage

2007-01-01

240

A Few Common Misconceptions about Distance Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At present, with new technologies emerging daily and the growing need for more flexibility in scheduling, there seems to be an overall drive towards the need for distance learning. According to PBS Campus, 67% of colleges and universities agree that online education is a critical, longterm strategy for their institution. As a result, 49% of…

Hillstock, Laurie G.

2005-01-01

241

Common misconceptions about data analysis and statistics.  

PubMed

Ideally, any experienced investigator with the right tools should be able to reproduce a finding published in a peer-reviewed biomedical science journal. In fact, however, the reproducibility of a large percentage of published findings has been questioned. Undoubtedly, there are many reasons for this, but one reason may be that investigators fool themselves due to a poor understanding of statistical concepts. In particular, investigators often make these mistakes: 1) P-hacking, which is when you reanalyze a data set in many different ways, or perhaps reanalyze with additional replicates, until you get the result you want; 2) overemphasis on P values rather than on the actual size of the observed effect; 3) overuse of statistical hypothesis testing, and being seduced by the word "significant"; and 4) over-reliance on standard errors, which are often misunderstood. PMID:25204545

Motulsky, Harvey J

2014-10-01

242

Common misconceptions about data analysis and statistics.  

PubMed

Ideally, any experienced investigator with the right tools should be able to reproduce a finding published in a peer-reviewed biomedical science journal. In fact, the reproducibility of a large percentage of published findings has been questioned. Undoubtedly, there are many reasons for this, but one reason maybe that investigators fool themselves due to a poor understanding of statistical concepts. In particular, investigators often make these mistakes: 1. P-Hacking. This is when you reanalyze a data set in many different ways, or perhaps reanalyze with additional replicates, until you get the result you want. 2. Overemphasis on P values rather than on the actual size of the observed effect. 3. Overuse of statistical hypothesis testing, and being seduced by the word "significant". 4. Overreliance on standard errors, which are often misunderstood. PMID:25213136

Motulsky, Harvey J

2014-11-01

243

Harnessing Technology to Improve Formative Assessment of Student Conceptions in STEM: Forging a National Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concept inventories, consisting of multiple-choice questions designed around common student misconceptions, are designed to reveal student thinking. However, students often have complex, heterogeneous ideas about scientific concepts. Constructed-response assessments, in which students must create their own answer, may better reveal students'…

Haudek, Kevin C.; Kaplan, Jennifer J.; Knight, Jennifer; Long, Tammy; Merrill, John; Munn, Alan; Nehm, Ross; Smith, Michelle; Urban-Lurain, Mark

2011-01-01

244

Utility of Concept Cartoons in Diagnosing and Overcoming Misconceptions Related to Photosynthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the effectiveness of concept cartoons in diagnosing and overcoming students' misconceptions related to photosynthesis subject was examined. Firstly, the literature has been thoroughly examined and misconceptions about photosynthesis subject have been listed and then grouped. Concept cartoons related to these groups have been…

Ekici, Fatma; Ekici, Erhan; Aydin, Fatih

2007-01-01

245

Misconceptions of Turkish Pre-Service Teachers about Force and Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to diagnose the misconceptions held by pre-service physics teachers about force and motion. The secondary aim of the study was to detect whether misconceptions vary according to gender, educational level, and culture. The study was conducted with 79 student-teachers attending to one of the largest faculties of…

Bayraktar, Sule

2009-01-01

246

Better Categorizing Misconceptions Using a Contemporary Cognitive Science Lens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of the last three decades of discipline-based education research in the geosciences has focused on the important work of identifying the range and domain of misconceptions students bring into undergraduate science survey courses. Pinpointing students' prior knowledge is a cornerstone for developing constructivist approaches and learning environments for effective teaching. At the same time, the development of a robust a priori formula for professors to use in mitigating students' misconceptions remains elusive. An analysis of the literature and our own research has persuaded researchers at the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research to put forth a model that will allow professors to operate on students' various learning difficulties in a more productive manner. Previously, much of the field's work binned erroneous student thinking into a single construct, and from that basis, curriculum developers and instructors addressed student misconceptions with a single instructional strategy. In contrast, we propose a model based on the notion that 'misconceptions' are a mixture of at least four learning barriers: incorrect factual information, inappropriately applied mental algorithms (phenomenological primitives), insufficient cognitive structures (e.g. spatial reasoning), and affective/emotional difficulties (e.g. students' spiritual commitments). In this sense, each of these different types of learning barriers would be more effectively addressed with an instructional strategy purposefully targeting these different attributes. Initial applications of this model to learning problems in geosciences have been fruitful, suggesting that an effort towards categorizing persistent learning difficulties in the geosciences beyond the single generalized category of 'misconceptions' might allow our community to more effectively design learning experiences for our students and the general public

Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

2013-12-01

247

Determining misconceptions about astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students believe that moon phases are caused by Earth's shadow. Used a card-sorting approach where students are given cards with statements and are challenged to state whether they agree, do not agree or do not know.

Skam, K.

248

Early Childhood Teachers' Misconceptions about Mathematics Education for Young Children in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we discuss nine common misconceptions about learning and teaching mathematics for young children that are widespread among prospective and practicing early childhood teachers in the United States. These misconceptions include: 1. Young children are not ready for mathematics education; 2. Mathematics is for some bright kids with…

Lee, Joon Sun; Ginsburg, Herbert P.

2009-01-01

249

Misconceptions about School Leadership--Or, Who Is Buried in King Tut's Tomb?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author draws on personal experience and leadership literature to develop this story about learning from misconceptions. Specifically, comparisons are drawn between the author's historical misconceptions and common beliefs about the nature and administration of schools. The article uses the dispelled historical fallacies as a vehicle for…

Zimmerman, Judith A.

2009-01-01

250

HIV/AIDS Misconceptions among Latinos: Findings from a Population-Based Survey of California Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS among Latino adults (N=454) in California were examined using data from a population-based telephone survey conducted in 2000. Common misconceptions concerning modes of HIV transmission included transmission via mosquito or animal bite (64.1%), public facilities (48.3%), or kissing someone on the cheek (24.8%). A…

Ritieni, Assunta; Moskowitz, Joel; Tholandi, Maya

2008-01-01

251

Myths and Misconceptions about Traumatic Brain Injury: Endorsements by School Psychologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of school psychologists regarding myths and misconceptions pertaining to traumatic brain injury (TBI). A sample of 304 school psychologists in the state of North Carolina was surveyed on 11 common myths and misconceptions about TBI. Results indicated that this group performed significantly better…

Hooper, Stephen R.

2006-01-01

252

ARTICLE IN PRESS The efficiency of algorithms--misconceptions  

E-print Network

July 2003 Abstract The implementation of a new computer science (CS) curriculum in high schools which; Improving classroom teaching 1. Introduction A new computer science (CS) curriculum has been designed of our study was to find out what misconceptions students hold regarding the notion of efficiency. We did

Gal-Ezer, Judith

253

Naive Psychological Science: The Prevalence, Strength, and Sources of Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies show that misconceptions about psychology are pervasive. This study examined how the strength of prior beliefs and the sources of misinformation relate to conceptual change following an introductory psychology course. Ninety introductory psychology students completed a 36-item "Psychological Information" questionnaire. Testing during the…

Taylor, Annette Kujawski; Kowalski, Patricia

2004-01-01

254

Using Analogy to Overcome Misconceptions about Conservation of Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study (n=192) examined the use of analogical instruction to overcome misconceptions about conservation of matter. Students who understood the concept conservation of matter when iodine was evaporated were able to transfer their understanding to the evaporation of acetone. This indicates that teaching by analogy can be an effective tool in…

Stavy, Ruth

1991-01-01

255

First Year Turkish Science Undergraduates' Understandings and Misconceptions of Light  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aims to identify first year Turkish Science undergraduates' understandings and misconceptions of the concept of light and its propagation. For this purpose, an instrument composed of four open-ended questions was developed by the researchers. The diagnostic test was piloted with twenty students and modifications were made prior…

Yalcin, Mehmet; Altun, Sema; Turgut, Umit; Aggul, Fatma

2009-01-01

256

Using Analogical Reasoning to Deal with 'Deep' Misconceptions in Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presents examples of the role of analogical reasoning in expert problem solving. These are intended to show that using an analogy can change an expert's understanding of a problem situation by changing the conceptual model he or she uses to think about the situation. This suggests that using a good analogy may allow students to overcome a deep misconception by helping them to change the conceptual model they use to think about a physical phenomenon. This pilot study presents evidence from a tutoring interview showing that the use of analogies can help in overcoming misconceptions. The main strategies employed to effect conceptual change (taken from strategies observed in expert protocols) were the use of analogies and specific techniques for confirming these analogies. It is suggested that analysis of such tutoring interviews could lead to a cognitive model for how deep misconceptions may be changed during learning. Potential classroom applications are considered briefly. Several figures are provided.

Clement, John J.; Brown, David

2006-12-06

257

Moving Beyond Misconceptions: A New Model for Learning Challenges in Cognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For over 40 years, the science education community has given its attention to cataloging the substantial body of "misconceptions" in individual's thinking about science, and to addressing the consequences of those misconceptions in the science classroom. Despite the tremendous amount of effort given to researching and disseminating information related to misconceptions, and the development of a theory of conceptual change to mitigate misconceptions, progress continues to be less than satisfying. An analysis of the literature and our own research has persuaded the CAPER Center for Astronomy and Physics Education Research to put forth model that will allow us to operate on students' learning difficulties in a more fruitful manner. Previously, much of the field's work binned erroneous student thinking into a single construct, and from that basis, curriculum developers and instructors addressed student misconceptions with a single instructional strategy. In contrast this model suggests that "misconceptions" are a mixture of at least four learning barriers: incorrect factual information, inappropriately applied mental algorithms (phenomenological primitives), insufficient cognitive structures (e.g. spatial reasoning), and affective/emotional difficulties. Each of these types of barriers should be addressed with an appropriately designed instructional strategy. Initial applications of this model to learning problems in the Earth & Space Sciences have been fruitful, suggesting that an effort towards categorizing persistent learning difficulties in the geosciences beyond the level of "misconceptions" may allow our community to craft tailored and more effective learning experiences for our students and the general public.

Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

2011-12-01

258

Teaching to the Misconception: Critical Thinking and Pre-Service Elementary Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few decades, numerous studies have demonstrated that pre-service and in-service teachers fall victim to the same misconceptions as the students they are or will be teaching. At the same time, research has shown that addressing the misconceptions head-on and leading students to a deep, personal understanding of why their previous conceptions were erroneous aids in replacement of misconceptions with an accurate understanding of the natural world. This paper demonstrates how this was accomplished in a required university-level Earth/space/physical science course for pre-service elementary school teachers, with an emphasis on examples from the Sun-Earth-Moon system.

Larsen, K.

2014-07-01

259

From Misconceptions to Conceptual Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We all have misconceptions about the world in which we live--how it works, how we interact with it, how it changes, and the reasons behind those changes. These misunderstandings are personal notions we create to make meaning of our surroundings. Often, these misunderstandings go unchallenged for a lifetime. This article addresses how these…

Gooding, Julia; Metz, Bill

2011-01-01

260

Myths and Misconceptions of Acceleration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accelerating students through school at a faster than normal rate is routinely met with skepticism and doubt pertaining to its effectiveness. In the research community, however, the topic is nearly dead. Research has continually supported this practice as effective when carefully implemented. This article attempts to debunk common myths (such as…

Anderson, Daniel

2008-01-01

261

Addressing climate and energy misconceptions - teaching tools offered by the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite a prevalence of peer-reviewed scientific research and high-level reports by intergovernmental agencies (e.g., IPCC) that document changes in our climate and consequences for human societies, the public discourse regards these topics as controversial and sensitive. The chasm between scientific-based understanding of climate systems and public understanding can most easily be addressed via high quality, science-based education on these topics. Well-trained and confident educators are required to provide this education. However, climate science and energy awareness are complex topics that are rapidly evolving and have a great potential for controversy. Furthermore, the interdisciplinary nature of climate science further increases the difficulty for teachers to stay abreast of the science and the policy. Research has shown that students and educators alike hold misconceptions about the climate system in general and the causes and effects of climate change in particular. The NSF-funded CLEAN Pathway (http://cleanet.org) as part of the National Science Digital Library (http://www.nsdl.org) strives to address these needs and help educators address misconceptions by providing high quality learning resources and professional development opportunities to support educators of grade levels 6 through 16. The materials focus on teaching climate science and energy use. The scope and framework of the CLEAN Pathway is defined by the Essential Principles of Climate Science (CCSP, 2009) and the Energy Literacy Principles recently developed by the Department of Energy. Following this literacy-based approach, CLEAN helps with developing mental models to address misconceptions around climate science and energy awareness through a number of different avenues. These are: 1) Professional development opportunities for educators - interactive webinars for secondary teachers and virtual workshops for college faculty, 2) A collection of scientifically and pedagogically reviewed, high-quality learning resources on climate and energy topics, 3) Detailed information on effective approaches for teaching climate and energy science for a range of grade levels, and 4) A community support forum (http://iceeonline.org, coordinated by a partner project - Inspiring Climate Education Excellence, ICEE), where educators can exchange information and share advice regarding climate and energy education. In this presentation we focus on our experience coordinating professional development opportunities as well as the "Teaching about Climate and Energy" web pages that are offered through the CLEAN Pathway to show-case how misconceptions can be addressed by educators when teaching or learning about climate and energy topics. Providing educators with a robust foundation of topical knowledge, guiding them through common misconceptions and providing them with a collection of well-vetted learning resources is the approach offered by CLEAN to address student misconceptions of climate and energy topics.

Gold, A. U.; Ledley, T. S.; Kirk, K. B.; Grogan, M.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Manduca, C. A.; Fox, S.; Niepold, F.; Howell, C.; Lynds, S. E.

2011-12-01

262

Affidavit of Common Law Marriage Student Name (please print) CSUID  

E-print Network

as a common law divorce. A common law spouse may be entitled to distribution of property, support, and that has not been legally terminated by death or divorce. We understand that this agreement can be terminated only through death or legal divorce proceedings. Signature Common Law Wife Date Signature Common

263

Air Pollution: The Knowledge and Attitudes of Secondary School Students in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the knowledge and understanding of Hong Kong secondary school students about the composition of unpolluted and polluted air, and the nature and effects of air pollutants. A number of misconceptions are highlighted, including the common belief amongst younger students that oxygen was more common in unpolluted air than nitrogen.…

Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin; Yeung, Stephen Pui-ming

2004-01-01

264

Student Misinterpretations and Misconceptions Based on Their Explanations of Two Computer Animations of Varying Complexity Depicting the Same Oxidation-Reduction Reaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of 55 students were shown unnarrated versions of two different particulate-level computer animations of varying complexity depicting the oxidation-reduction reaction of aqueous silver nitrate and solid copper metal. These students were asked to explain their understanding of the chemical reaction based on their interpretations of these…

Rosenthal, Deborah P.; Sanger, Michael J.

2012-01-01

265

Engaging and supporting students in the new common first year engineering program at UniSA  

Microsoft Academic Search

UniSA has introduced a common first year program for all of its undergraduate engineering degrees from 2008. The common first year program aims to provide students with a foundation in multidisciplinary areas of engineering. To a large extent it is a strategic response to increasing competition for local and international students. A key element of the common first year program

Syed Mahfuzul Aziz

266

Junior High School Students' Ideas about the Shape and Size of the Atom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of the atom is one of the building blocks of science education. Although the concept is a foundation for students' subsequent learning experiences, it is difficult for students to comprehend because of common misconceptions and its abstractness. The purpose of this study is to examine junior high school students' (ages 12-13) ideas…

Cokelez, Aytekin

2012-01-01

267

Affidavit of Common Law Marriage Student Name (please print) CSUID  

E-print Network

there is no such thing as a common law divorce. A common law spouse may be entitled to distribution of property, support that has not been legally terminated by death or divorce. We understand that this agreement can be terminated only through death or legal divorce proceedings. Signature Common Law Spouse 1 Date Signature

Rutledge, Steven

268

Affidavit of Common Law Marriage Student Name (please print) CSUID  

E-print Network

that there is no such thing as a common law divorce. A common law spouse may be entitled to distribution of property, support of either party that has not been legally terminated by death or divorce. We understand that this agreement can be terminated only through death or legal divorce proceedings. Signature Common Law Wife Date

269

Common Stressors among International College Students: Research and Counseling Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International college students studying in North America endure substantial psychological stress in their daily lives. The nature and function of stressors in the context of international college students' subjective appraisal are discussed and analyzed using the Lazarus and Folkman's concept of stress. Recommendations for future research are…

Chen, Charles P.

1999-01-01

270

"In Fourteen Hundred and Ninety-Two, Columbus Sailed the Ocean Blue": Effects of Multiple Document Readings on Student Attitudes and Misconceptions. Reading Research Report No. 82.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the effects of students reading multiple documents on their perceptions of a historical event, in this case the "discovery" of America by Christopher Columbus, 85 high school freshmen read 3 of 4 different texts (or sets of texts) dealing with Columbus. One text was an encyclopedia article, one a set of articles from "Newsweek" and…

Stahl, Steven A.; And Others

271

The Differentiation of Heat and Temperature: An Evaluation of the Effect of Microcomputer Teaching on Students' Misconceptions. Technical Report 87-5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two classroom studies, one conducted in the spring of 1985 and the second in the spring of 1986, showed that many high school students do not differentiate between heat and temperature; instead, they have a single concept that contains some of the features of heat and some of the features of temperature. Because the distinction between these two…

Wiser, Marianne

272

Probing Middle School Students' Understanding of Ideas About Interdependence in Living Systems Through Content-Aligned Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Association for Advancement of Science Project 2061, with funding from the National Science Foundation, is developing student assessment items for middle school science that are precisely aligned with national content standards. These distractor-driven multiple choice items, in which common student misconceptions are used as distractors, will enable educators to probe student understanding of targeted concepts and gain a

Kristen A. Lennon; George E. DeBoer; AAAS Project

273

Changing Misconceptions in Newton's Laws of Motion Through Playing Computer Games and Peer Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to acquire information about students' misconceptions on Newton's laws of motion. Three major hypotheses were examined: (1) students' performance on the posttest after playing the games set in the context of a Newtonian microworld will be significantly better than their performance on the pretest; (2) performance of the students playing the games in a peer cooperative

Hyejoo Back

1996-01-01

274

Reaching the Mountaintop: Addressing the Common Core Standards in Mathematics for Students with Mathematics Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards provide teachers with a framework of necessary mathematics skills across grades K-12, which vary considerably from previous mathematics standards. In this article, we discuss concerns about the implications of the Common Core for students with mathematics difficulties (MD), given that students with MD, by…

Powell, Sarah R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Doug

2013-01-01

275

Meeting the Common Core State Standards for Students with Autism: The Challenge for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can we ensure that students with autism spectrum disorders are provided access to the curriculum that is provided to all students? This article discusses the specific challenges presented by students with autism spectrum disorders that can impact their access to the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts. Specific evidence-based…

Constable, Susan; Grossi, Barrie; Moniz, Alexis; Ryan, Lynne

2013-01-01

276

Underachieving Students in Community Colleges: Common Personality and Biographical Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights a study to determine which personality traits (e.g., locus of control, academic self-concept, and study habits and attitudes) and biographical characteristics (e.g., age, sex, race, and marital status) of community college and technical institute students correlate significantly with grade point average and academic success. (AYC)

Griffin, John M.

1980-01-01

277

Common Fractions. [Student Worksheets for Vocational Agricultural Courses].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning module provides students with practice in applying mathematical operations to vocational agriculture. The module consists of unit objectives, definitions, information, problems to solve, worksheets suitable for various levels of vocational agriculture instruction, and answer keys for the problems and worksheets. This module, which…

Jewell, Larry R.

278

A 'Common Practice' Approach to Attract and Retain Engineering Students  

E-print Network

components with an array of activities to achieve an increase in the quantity and quality of prospective engineering students. The Process Control Breadboard (PCB) is a proof-of-concept system that serves as a demonstration tool and a hands-on design..., build, and test platform. Although the PCB system is fully capable of providing university-level design capability [4,5], this paper will focus on using the system to synthesize HVAC related systems in K-12 outreach activities. Middle...

Mountain, J. R.; Hibbeler, L. C.

2006-01-01

279

Textbook Errors & Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Metabolism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea that errors and misconceptions in biology textbooks are often slow to be discovered and corrected is discussed. Selected errors, misconceptions, and topics of confusion about cell metabolism are described. Fermentation, respiration, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, uniformity of catabolism, and metabolic pathways as models are…

Storey, Richard D.

1991-01-01

280

Software commonly used by students Below is a list of software commonly used by Swinburne University students.  

E-print Network

Robot Showcase SketchBook 3DS Max Alias Automotive MAC / PC Entertainment Creation Suite: Maya MAC / PC. Refer to the the ITS Software page for instructions. The Office 365 offer includes the popular may request a licence via their Wolfram account by submitting an online form. Yes. Students may

Liley, David

281

Misconceived bioethics?: The misconception of the "therapeutic misconception".  

PubMed

Bioethics needs to include study of the social and historical context in which ethical meanings in medical encounters make sense. It needs to do this in order to remain relevant, vibrant, and aware of how it might unwittingly facilitate the agendas of others. As an illustration, this paper critiques some of the accepted meanings and purposes of the idea of the Therapeutic Misconception (TM) which has been an increasingly attractive concept with which to organize thinking about experimentation ethics. By considering the history of alternative viewpoints against which TM was offered as a replacement, this paper suggests that TM, and bioethics more generally, may contribute to increasingly technocratic and standardized practices in medicine. PMID:16413057

Belkin, Gary S

2006-01-01

282

Overcoming Misconceptions in Mechanics: A Comparison of Two Example-based Teaching Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Analogies and examples from student's experiences are frequently cited as important to teaching conceptual material. This study was conducted in order to explore the effectiveness of an analogical teaching technique, which uses a connected sequence of "bridging" analogies, compared with a more standard teaching-by-example technique. The target concept involved the common misconception that static objects are unable to exert forces. Of the 21 high school students with no prior physics instruction who were individually interviewed, 14 initially maintained that a table does not exert a force upward on a book resting on it. The latter were divided into two matched groups. Students in each group were asked to think aloud as they worked through one of the two written explanations. After instruction, the experimental group performed significantly better on target and transfer problems, as well as indicating significantly higher subjective estimates of how "understandable and believable" the explanation was. These findings suggest that: (1) teachers need to be aware that certain examples they themselves find compelling may not be at all illuminating for the student; (2) even when the example is compelling to the student, it may not be seen as analogous to the target problem in the lesson; and (3) teachers need to keep in mind the goal of helping students develop visualizable, qualitative models of physical phenomena.

Brown, David E.; Clement, John J.

2006-05-23

283

Science misconceptions and working memory capacity among Saudi adolescents: A neo-Piagetian investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to investigate the relationships between science misconceptions and working memory capacity in Saudi adolescent students. The participants in this study were from eleventh and twelfth grades; both male and female students and natural and social science Saudi comprised the sample. Also investigated in this study were the conceptions and misconceptions of gravity in a non-European culture, that is Saudi culture, and the variables that differentiated those individuals who could overcome their misconceptions from those who could not and the gender differences in science misconceptions in the context of Saudi culture. Another important focus of this study was to investigate the participants' responses and explanations on the science misconceptions tasks (WLT and EGT). As would be expected, there was a strong correlation between WLT and EGT in the responses of students and their explanations. The most successful students on the WLT and EGT were natural science students rather than social science students, and there were no gender differences between male and female participants. Also investigated were the correlations between the dependent variables (i.e., the WLT and EGT; the measures of science misconceptions) and the independent variables, which were the visual working memory capacity tasks (i.e., FIT and VPS), the field independence/dependence (FASP), students' grade point average (GPA), age, academic major, gender, and grade level. It was found that both of the dependent variables (i.e., the WLT and EGT) correlated significantly with the same independent variables, the FIT, VPS, FASP, academic major, and students' grade point average (GPA).

Al-Jubaili, Ahmad Yahya

284

Critical Evaluation by Students of Websites in Web 2.0 Landscapes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's classrooms, students now turn to the Internet as their primary source of information, though the common belief in the idea that "digital natives" can easily traverse a landscape littered with misconceptions, multiple perspectives, and competing ideas has large implications in the classroom. Research into students reading multiple online…

McVerry, J. Gregory

2011-01-01

285

Helping Students Make Sense of Graphs: An Experimental Trial of SmartGraphs Software  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphs are commonly used in science, mathematics, and social sciences to convey important concepts; yet students at all ages demonstrate difficulties interpreting graphs. This paper reports on an experimental study of free, Web-based software called SmartGraphs that is specifically designed to help students overcome their misconceptions regarding…

Zucker, Andrew; Kay, Rachel; Staudt, Carolyn

2014-01-01

286

A Data Generating Review that Bops,Twists and Pulls at Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics is an integral part of the K-12 mathematics curriculum (age 5-18). Naturally, students construct misconceptions of what they learn. This article discusses The Bop It[C]Challenge, a review activity assesses student understanding and reveals their misunderstandings of statistical concepts. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

Gardner, Kimberly

2013-01-01

287

Meet the Students: Finding Common Ground between Student and Institutional Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are gaps between the traits, expectations, and desired outcomes from their college experience for students, especially our tra- ditional-aged students from Generation NeXt, and what higher education institutions hope for the academic behaviors and outcomes of these same students to be. These differences in perspective and goals affect student and institutional success and outcomes. Sug- gestions for closing the

Mark Taylor

288

Teacher and Student Ratings of the Disturbingness of Common Problem Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses by 43 teachers and 200 junior high school students to the 55 common problems listed on the Disturbing Behavior Checklist 1 are compared. Rank orderings of the two groups' ratings of the disturbingness of behaviors show moderate agreement. (Author)

Mullen, Joyce A.; Wood, Frank H.

1986-01-01

289

Student perceptions of staff in the Information Commons: a survey at the University of Sheffield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Technology has transformed teaching and learning environments in tertiary education, introducing new collaborative library spaces and developing the roles and skills of library staff. Academic libraries need continually to re-examine their services to ensure they meet student needs. The current survey aimed to discover how students perceived staff in the Information Commons (IC) and whether their perceptions of

Rachel Bickley; Sheila Corrall

2011-01-01

290

The Common Core State Standards and Reading: Interpretations and Implications for Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The K-5 reading standards within the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards provide guidance to teachers about grade level expectations for students. Though the authors of the standards acknowledge that some students may experience difficulty reaching the rigorous expectations, they explain that the standards outline a pathway to…

Haager, Diane; Vaughn, Sharon

2013-01-01

291

Headache is a relatively common problem among college students. Fortunately for most people, headaches  

E-print Network

are tension headaches and migraine headaches, which together make up 80% of headaches seen in medical officesHeadache is a relatively common problem among college students. Fortunately for most people, headaches are infrequent and do not interfere with normal activities. However, some students experience

Virginia Tech

292

Daytime Sleepiness, Poor Sleep Quality, Eveningness Chronotype, and Common Mental Disorders among Chilean College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To evaluate whether daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, and morningness and eveningness preferences are associated with common mental disorders (CMDs) among college students. Methods: A total of 963 college students completed self-administered questionnaires that collected information about sociodemographic characteristics, sleep…

Concepcion, Tessa; Barbosa, Clarita; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Pepper, Micah; Andrade, Asterio; Gelaye, Bizu; Yanez, David; Williams, Michelle A.

2014-01-01

293

Prospective Teachers' Use of Behavior Alteration Techniques: Reactions to Common Student Misbehaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pertinent to potential recommendations for communication training in teacher preparation, a study investigated prospective teachers' intended use of communication control strategies in managing student misbehaviors. As an extension of previous instructional research, a typology of common student misbehavior types (active/passive) and intensity…

Tucker, Linda; And Others

294

Reliability and Validity Issues for Two Common Measures of Medical Students' Attitudes toward Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results are reported from 2 common measures of medical student attitudes toward older adults: Maxwell-Sullivan Attitude Survey (MSAS); and UCLA Geriatrics Attitude Survey (GAS), with students entering the University of South Carolina School of Medicine (USCSM) in the period 2000--2005. A reliability analysis incorporating item means, Cronbach's…

Stewart, T. J.; Roberts, E.; Eleazer, P.; Boland, R.; Wieland, D.

2006-01-01

295

Therapeutic misconception: hope, trust and misconception in paediatric research.  

PubMed

Although the therapeutic misconception (TM) has been well described over a period of approximately 20 years, there has been disagreement about its implications for informed consent to research. In this paper we review some of the history and debate over the ethical implications of TM but also bring a new perspective to those debates. Drawing upon our experience of working in the context of translational research for rare childhood diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, we consider the ethical and legal implications of the TM for parental consent to research. In this situation, it is potentially the parent who is vulnerable to TM. In our analysis we not only consider the context of informed consent for research but also the wider environment in which the value of research is promoted, more broadly through the media but also more specifically through the communication strategies of patient organizations. All dissemination about developments in research for health runs the risk of portraying an overly optimistic view of the promise of biotechnological solutions and has the potential to encourage a 'collective' TM. In this paper we consider the challenge that TM presents to parents as well as explore the ethical and legal responsibilities of researchers to ensure an appropriately informed consent: compatible with a hopeful disposition of parents who consent for the their children whilst avoiding a blind and misleading optimism. PMID:22350619

Woods, Simon; Hagger, Lynn E; McCormack, Pauline

2014-03-01

296

Link Data to Learning Goals: Common District Assessments Connect Teaching Effectiveness to Student Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2010, district leaders of Douglas County Public Schools, Douglasville, Georgia, launched an ambitious initiative to ensure that teachers set goals that focus on increasing their effectiveness and show student growth. To achieve this goal, the district leadership team focused on common district assessments to establish common learning…

Psencik, Kay; Baldwin, Rhonda

2012-01-01

297

Misconceptions concerning the behavior, fate and transport of the fuel oxygenates TBA and MTBE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The release of gasoline from underground storage tanks and the subsequent appearance of dissolved constituents in drinking water has focused attention on the use of MTBE in reformulated fuels. Natural biodegradation of MTBE in soil, photo-oxidation in the atmosphere or chemical oxidation during remediation of gasoline releases can produce the intermediate tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). TBA is also a fuel oxygenate and can be found as a co-product in MTBE synthesized from methanol and TBA. Because the physical properties of ethers and alcohols differ somewhat from the predominant hydrocarbon compounds in gasoline, misconceptions have developed about the behavior of fuel oxygenates in storage and in the subsurface. Critical review of several misconceptions about MTBE and TBA in gasoline reveals the concepts were conceived to rationalize early field observations and/or incomplete data sets. Closer scrutiny, in light of recent laboratory investigations, field data, case studies and world literature, clarifies these misconceptions and assumptions about the behavior of ether oxygenates and their degradation products in the environment. Commonly held misconceptions focus on four general areas of fuel and fuel oxygenate management: storage/dispensing, hydrology, remediation, and health effects. Storage/dispensing misconceptions address materials stability to ethers and alcohols in fuel and the environmental forensics of fuel systems failure. Groundwater and hydrology misconceptions deal with plume dynamics and the impact of fuel on drinking water resources. Remediation misconceptions focus on the performance of traditional hydrocarbon remediation technologies, recent developments in biodegradation and natural attenuation, drivers of remedial design and remediation costs. Health effects misconceptions address both acute and chronic exposure risk evaluations by national and international health agencies. Generally MTBE and TBA are manageable by the same processes and precautions used for gasoline and other fuel hydrocarbons. Indeed specific physical properties of ethers and alcohols expedite their treatment by traditional remediation methods of pump and treat, soil vapor extraction and bioventing.

Woodward, R.; Sloan, R.

2003-04-01

298

Misconceptions in Halliday, Resnick and Walker's textbook  

E-print Network

Eleven misconceptions involving Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology are exposed, that appeared in the textbook: Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition, by Halliday, Resnick and Walker, Willey, New York (2005), or other companion textbooks.

Berman, M S

2005-01-01

299

Metonymy and Student Programming Errors Craig S. Miller  

E-print Network

Metonymy and Student Programming Errors Craig S. Miller School of Computing DePaul University 243 S. Wabash Avenue Chicago, IL cmiller@cs.depaul.com ABSTRACT The common occurrence of metonymy in everyday Education General Terms Human Factors, Languages Keywords Metonymy, Misconceptions, Novice programming 1

Schaefer, Marcus

300

Decimats: Helping Students to Make Sense of Decimal Place Value  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A considerable body of research exists on students' understanding of decimal fractions and the prevalence and persistence of common misconceptions related to this understanding. Results from major studies such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in the United States and the Concepts in Secondary Mathematics and Science (CSMS)…

Roche, Anne

2010-01-01

301

Misconceptions and the Qualitative Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reports concepts which 12th-grade physics students hold about motion before and after a lecture is given. Compares quantitative and qualitative research methodology and describes some responses to test items. Shows six questions, student responses, and typical incorrect explanations used by students.

Ridgeway, Dori

2006-06-23

302

Genesis & the Human Ribcage: An Opportunity to Correct a Misconception & Introduce an Evolution Lesson into the Anatomy Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many anatomy students begin the course with a misconception that human males and females do not have the same number of ribs. At the root of that misconception is Genesis 2:21-22, in which God removes a rib from Adam to make Eve. Removal of a body part is a surgical procedure, and one does not pass on the results of surgery to one's offspring. The…

Senter, Phil

2013-01-01

303

An Online Elective Course for Undergraduate Students on Common Prescription Medications  

PubMed Central

Objectives To design, implement, and evaluate an online elective course on common prescription medications for undergraduate (pre- and non-health professional) students. Design An 8-module online course on common prescription medications was designed following the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) instructional design model and offered to students for 8 consecutive semesters. Assessment Following each offering, performance data were analyzed and a course review conducted, including evaluation of entrance survey data and course evaluations. Direct analysis of data over 2 offerings and grade distribution comparisons over all 8 offerings, demonstrated consistent knowledge gains. Feedback from course evaluations and a continual increase in enrollment over the 8 semesters indicated student satisfaction with the course. Conclusion Systematic design and quality assurance/improvement strategies resulted in the successful establishment of an online pharmacotherapy course for undergraduate, nonpharmacy students. PMID:19657502

Janke, Kristin K.; Bumgardner, Melissa A.

2009-01-01

304

Turkish Students' Force Meanings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are Turkish pre, elementary, middle, and high school students' force ideas? And, how do Turkish students' non-normative force ideas differ or be similar to the well-known force misconceptions reported in the literature? Students have false and persistent beliefs about the physical world and they struggle with challenging misconceptions based…

Menekse, Muhsin; Clark, Douglas B.; Ozdemir, Gokhan; D'angelo, Cynthia; Scheligh, Sharon

2009-01-01

305

A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part IV. Common Difficulties Students Experience with Cosmology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is our fourth paper in our five paper series describing our national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. While previous papers in this series focused on the processes by which we collected and quantitatively analyzed our data, this paper presents the most common pre-instruction…

Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

2012-01-01

306

Interchanges: Commenting on Douglas Downs and Elizabeth Wardle's "Teaching about Writing, Righting Misconceptions"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors comment on Douglas Downs and Elizabeth Wardle's "Teaching about Writing, Righting Misconceptions." As Downs and Wardle note, a one-year academic writing course will not prepare students to write in all fields, and evidence suggests limitations on the transfer of skills. The authors agree, in addition, that the study of…

Miles, Libby; Pennell, Michael; Owens, Kim Hensley; Dyehouse, Jeremiah; O'Grady, Helen; Reynolds, Nedra; Schwegler, Robert; Shamoon, Linda

2008-01-01

307

Reality versus Perception: Using Research to Resolve Misconceptions about Developmental Programs and Promote Credibility and Acceptance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author uses a comparison of various measures of success for developmental students at Patrick Henry Community College with the faculty's perceptions of these measures to break down misconceptions and stereotypes about developmental education and provide ever-needed credibility and acceptance for developmental programs.…

Overby, Bronte A.

2004-01-01

308

Ecotoxicology in Wonderland: Myths and misconceptions  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of science and policy in ecotoxicology has given rise to several major myths and misconceptions. Three important ones are discussed here in terms of their influence on regulatory and scientific uncertainty. (1) Chronic toxicity data are ``better`` than acute data. It is commonly asserted that chronic data better reflect ``realistic`` responses than mortality and are more amenable to use in regulatory driven extrapolations. Problematic aspects, however, remain. Chronic data are time dependent, more difficult to interpret ecologically and are as difficult to extrapolate. Combined these imply less certainty about the implications of chronic toxicity-based regulations than might otherwise be believed. (2) Toxicity data obtained in controlled laboratory testing can be successfully extrapolated to field situations with appropriate models. A basic incompatibility between attempts to control variability in experimental situations (e.g. reducing abiotic and biotic influences) and the requirement to understand the causes of variability observed in the field exists. Large uncertainties in model predictions result from this incompatibility and call into question the premise of applying lab data to field situations. (3) A ``most sensitive`` species can be readily determined and effectively used. Sensitivity can only be defined with any accuracy in the context of a specific stressor and community. The possible combinations and permutations of stressors and communities is so large that the notion that a single measurement can accurately reflect complex spatial and temporal dynamics is clearly absurd. Incomplete ecological knowledge and inappropriate adjustment for body size and metabolic modifying factors raise obvious questions about the certainty with which sentinel species based regulations can adequately achieved stated objectives.

McCarty, L.S. [L.S. McCarty Scientific Research and Consulting, Oakville, Ontario (Canada); Power, M. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural Economics

1995-12-31

309

Applying Symmetries of Common Objects to Help Students Understand Stereoselectivity for Apparently Symmetric Substrates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have found it an effective way of teaching symmetry in the context of stereoselectivity, to use common everyday objects with the same point groups as the substrates involved. This has helped students to distinguish between those symmetry elements which allow for stereospecificity and those which preclude it. Two symmetry elements, the simple…

Jittam, Piyachat; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

2008-01-01

310

Student Success Best Practices, Common Metrics, and UNLV in the National Context  

E-print Network

Student Success Best Practices, Common Metrics, and UNLV in the National Context Lew Sanborne, Ph and cultural diversification, urban growth, social justice, and sustainability. Our commitment to our dynamic, and economic sustainability; · Strong, reciprocal, and interdependent relationships between UNLV and the region

Hemmers, Oliver

311

Factors that Affect the Physical Science Career Interest of Female Students: Testing Five Common Hypotheses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using multivariate matching methods on national data drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project ("n" = 7505), we test the following five commonly held beliefs regarding what…

Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

2013-01-01

312

Common Core State Standards and Diverse Urban Students: Using Multi-Tiered Systems of Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As America's Great City Schools implement the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), they have a unique opportunity to integrate strategies for teaching, intervening, and supporting the nation's urban students in a way that will ensure they have the literacy, numeracy, behavioral, and engagement skills necessary to be successful in college and…

Gamm, Sue; Elliott, Judy; Halbert, Julie Wright; Price-Baugh, Ricki; Hall, Robin; Walston, Denise; Uro, Gabriela; Casserly, Michael

2012-01-01

313

Modern Physics for Engineers Summary of Topics, Methods, and Common Student Difficulties  

E-print Network

Modern Physics for Engineers Summary of Topics, Methods, and Common Student Difficulties 1. Review that hits the screen at a single location. This lecture led to an unexpected onslaught of deep, fundamental. They're probably mixing it up with the Schrodinger model. 5. Atomic Spectra and Discharge Lamps Sim

Colorado at Boulder, University of

314

Opening the Common Core: How to Bring ALL Students to College and Career Readiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do you wish you could leverage the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) to equip all students--not just high achievers--with the higher-level thinking skills they need? You can, and this book will show you how. The authors helped lead their district--Rockville Centre in Long Island, New York--in closing achievement gaps and increasing the number of…

Burris, Carol Corbett; Garrity, Delia T.

2012-01-01

315

Five recurrent misconceptions regarding cardiogenic shock management.  

PubMed

Medical therapeutic knowledge advances by continual action and reaction between retrospective and prospective evaluation on the one hand and clinical real-life observation and assessment on the other. In this regard, our goal is to articulate and demystify certain myths and misconceptions that impede the optimal management of patients with circulatory failure related to acute cardiac diseases. More specifically, we outline 5 statements that represent misconceptions about cardiogenic shock management that we have frequently faced throughout years of caring for critically ill patients. Moreover, for each statement, we suggest concise, corrective responses. PMID:25093742

Bendjelid, Karim

2014-01-01

316

Addressing the Multiplication Makes Bigger and Division Makes Smaller Misconceptions via Prediction and Clickers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a lesson that uses prediction items, clickers and visuals via PowerPoint slides to help prospective middle-school teachers address two common misconceptions: multiplication makes bigger and division makes smaller (MMB-DMS). Classroom research was conducted to explore the viability of such a lesson. Results show that the…

Lim, Kien H.

2011-01-01

317

Uncertainty and Misconceptions About Child Sexual Abuse: Implications for the Criminal Justice System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent amendments to the uniform evidence legislation in Australia mean that it will be possible for prosecutors to call expert opinion evidence to bolster the credibility of child complainants in child sexual assault (CSA) trials. Yet little is known about the extent of the common beliefs and misconceptions in the Australian population about child sexual abuse and the degree of

Anne Cossins; Jane Goodman-Delahunty; Kate OBrien

2009-01-01

318

Misconceptions in Rational Numbers, Probability, Algebra, and Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the author examined the relationship of probability misconceptions to algebra, geometry, and rational number misconceptions and investigated the potential of probability instruction as an intervention to address misconceptions in all 4 content areas. Through a review of literature, 5 fundamental concepts were identified that, if…

Rakes, Christopher R.

2010-01-01

319

Clarification of Selected Misconceptions in Physical Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some misconceptions relating to location and to the earth's hydrosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. Provides correction and explanation of various phenomena. Includes ocean names and sizes, sea level, coriolis effect, greenhouse effect, lightning, magma, and mass wasting. Suggests that myths can be dispelled by exposure combined with…

Nelson, Burton D.; And Others

1992-01-01

320

Scientific and Cultural Knowledge in Intercultural Science Education: Student Perceptions of Common Ground  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no consensus in the science education research community on the meanings and representations of western science and indigenous knowledge or the relationships between them. How students interpret these relationships and their perceptions of any connections has rarely been studied. This study reports student perceptions of the meaning and relationship between scientific and cultural knowledge. Personal meaning maps adapted for small groups were conducted in seven culturally diverse schools, school years 7-9 (with students aged 12-15 years) (n = 190), with six schools in Western Australia and one school in Malawi, Africa. Of the six Australian school groups, two comprised Australian Aboriginal students in an after-school homework programme and the other four schools had a multicultural mix of students. Students in this study identified connections between scientific and cultural knowledge and constructed connections from particular thematic areas—mainly factual content knowledge as opposed to ideas related to values, attitudes, beliefs and identity. Australian Aboriginal students made fewer connections between the two knowledge domains than Malawian students whose previous science teacher had made explicit connections in her science class. Examples from Aboriginal culture were the most dominant illustrations of cultural knowledge in Australian schools, even in school groups with students from other cultures. In light of our findings, we discuss the construction of common ground between scientific knowledge and cultural knowledge and the role of teachers as cultural brokers and travel agents. We conclude with recommendations on creating learning environments that embrace different cultural knowledges and that promote explicit and enquiring discussions of values, attitudes, beliefs and identity associated with both knowledge domains.

Gondwe, Mzamose; Longnecker, Nancy

2014-06-01

321

Sixteen common misconceptions about the evolution of cooperation in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of cooperation poses a problem for the biological and social sciences. However, many aspects of the biological and social science literatures on this subject have developed relatively independently, with a lack of interaction. This has led to a number of misunderstandings with regard to how natural selection operates and the conditions under which cooperation can be favoured. Our

Stuart A. West; Claire El Mouden; Andy Gardner

2011-01-01

322

Forensic Developmental PsychologyUnveiling Four Common Misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarize recent developments in the field of forensic developmental psychology that challenge traditional conceptions about the reliability of children's reports. The areas covered involve the disclosure patterns of sexually abused children, the nature of suggestive interviews, developmental differences in suggestibility, and the amount of suggestion required to produce false reports and beliefs.

Maggie Bruck; Stephen Ceci

2004-01-01

323

IS SOUTH AFRICAN AGRICULTURAL LAND OVERVALUED? COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gap between the average market and agricultural value of South African land showed a steady decline since 1984. The decline is attributable to the withdrawal of some of the major policy support services to the farming community and inflationary conditions, which had a negative influence on both sellers and buyers. The negative effect of the terms of trade was,

H. D. van Schalkwyk; J. van Zyl

1994-01-01

324

A study of common beliefs and misconceptions in physical science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Science Belief Test is an online instrument comprised of 47 statements that require true or fals responses and request\\u000a written explanations to accompany these responses. It targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy\\u000a and was initially designed to assess preservice elementary teachers’ beliefs about general science content. A set of responses\\u000a for six of the physical

Mary Stein; Timothy G. Larrabee; Charles R. Barman

2008-01-01

325

Debunking some Common Misconceptions on E-Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent explosion in distance learning programs on the world-wide web has spawned a lively debate on the future and the potential of these programs. While distance learn- ing will clearly play a growing role in higher education and professional training in the years ahead, it is unclear how prominent that role will be. Here we outline the main advan-

Ugo A. Buy

2001-01-01

326

Understanding Natural Selection: Essential Concepts and Common Misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural selection is one of the central mechanisms of evolutionary change and is the process responsible for the evolution\\u000a of adaptive features. Without a working knowledge of natural selection, it is impossible to understand how or why living things\\u000a have come to exhibit their diversity and complexity. An understanding of natural selection also is becoming increasingly relevant\\u000a in practical contexts,

T. Ryan Gregory

2009-01-01

327

Common Misconceptions of Normal Hip Joint Relations on Pelvic Radiographs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study defines normal bilateral variations in offset and hip center location on pelvic radiographs. The relationship of the femoral head center to the tip of the greater trochanter and that of offset to medullary canal diameter are also defined. Measurements of the offset, hip center location, height of the tip of the greater trochanter from the femoral head center,

Shibu P. Krishnan; R. W. J. Carrington; Syed Mohiyaddin; Nicholas Garlick

2006-01-01

328

Common Misconceptions About The Scattering Of Ultrasound By Blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new unifying approach for modelling the scattering of ultrasound in blood is described. The approach consists of summing the backscattered wavelets from elemental acoustic volumes each being occupied by a large number of red cells. It is shown that the average backscattered power is in general proportional to the variance rather than to the mean, of the local red

L. Y. L. Mo; R. S. C. Cobbold; K. K. Shung

1990-01-01

329

A Study of Common Beliefs and Misconceptions in Physical Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Science Belief Test is an online instrument comprised of 47 statements that require true or false responses and request written explanations to accompany these responses. It targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy and was initially designed to assess preservice elementary teachers' beliefs about general…

Stein, Mary; Larrabee, Timothy G.; Barman, Charles R.

2008-01-01

330

Spork & Beans: Addressing Evolutionary Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

They are found at picnics and family outings, apparently attracted by the food provided at these events. Large populations in fast food establishments further support their association with food. Yet little is known about the biology of "Utensilus plastica" (common name: plastic eating utensil). The authors have conducted an in-depth study of this…

Burton, Stephen R.; Dobson, Christopher

2009-01-01

331

Investigating Common Descent: Formulating Explanations and Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students formulate explanations and models that simulate structural and biochemical data as they investigate the misconception that humans evolved from apes. Students should recognize that present-day species evolved from earlier species and the relatedness of organisms is the result of common ancestry. They will also discover that similarities among existing organisms provide evidence for evolution, anatomical similarities of living things reflect common ancestry, and all life forms use the same basic DNA building blocks. Basic concepts also include the fact that scientists pose, test, and revise multiple hypotheses to explain what they observe, our understanding of life through time is based upon multiple lines of evidence, the similarity of DNA nucleotide sequences can be used to infer the degree of kinship between species, and anatomical evidence is also used to infer lines of descent. This site includes a list of materials and all information required for this activity.

332

Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.  

PubMed

It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(?); (?)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented. PMID:25053101

Lee, Jungmin

2015-01-01

333

Concept Mapping--An Effective Mode to Impart Content Knowledge for Elementary Student Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students hold many misconceptions in school science. Research reveals that teachers themselves, at times, are one source of misconceptions among students. A good number of such misconceptions, carried on to the next generation via school, are held by teachers; from their own school days and kept uncorrected even after their teacher education…

Gafoor, K. Abdul; Ragisha, K. K.

2013-01-01

334

The understanding levels of preservice teachers’ of basic science concepts’ measurement units and devices, their misconceptions and its causes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study it is aimed to determine preservice science teachers’ and elementary teachers’ level of understanding about measurement units, and devices; and misconceptions about basic science concepts (mass, weight, density, heat, temperature, energy, specific heat etc.). The sample included 92 undergraduate students who are second year preservice elementary teacher; and first and second year elementary science teacher. In this

Özgül Keles; Hülya Ertas; Naim Uzun; Mustafa Cansiz

2010-01-01

335

Describing and Analyzing Learning in Action: An Empirical Study of the Importance of Misconceptions in Learning Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although misconceptions in science have been established in interview studies, their role during the learning process is poorly examined. In this paper, we use results from a classroom study to analyze to what extent nonscientific ideas in electrochemistry that students report in interviews enter into their learning in a more authentic setting. We…

Hamza, Karim M.; Wickman, Per-Olof

2008-01-01

336

Response Times and Misconception-like Responses to Science Questions Andrew F. Heckler (heckler.6@osu.edu)  

E-print Network

documented in science education that students often respond to scientific concept questions in regular of incorrect answering or "misconception-like" responses to scientific concept questions have been well-accuracy trade- off models in which responders place high priority on answering quickly. Keywords: Scientific

Heckler, Andrew F.

337

Current misconception 3: that subgroup-specific trial mortality results often provide a good basis for individualising patient care  

PubMed Central

Misconceptions and ill-founded theories can arise in all areas of science. However, the apparent accessibility of many epidemiology findings and popular interest in the subject can lead to additional misunderstandings. The article below is the third in an occasional series of short editorials highlighting some current misinterpretations of epidemiological findings. Invited authors will be given wide scope in judging the prevalence of the misconception under discussion. We hope that this series will prove instructive to cancer researchers in other disciplines as well as to students of epidemiology. Adrian L Harris and Leo Kinlen PMID:21448174

Peto, R

2011-01-01

338

How Do Students Misunderstand Number Representations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We used both student interviews and diagnostic testing to reveal students' misconceptions about number representations in computing systems. This article reveals that students who have passed an undergraduate level computer organization course still possess surprising misconceptions about positional notations, two's complement representation, and…

Herman, Geoffrey L.; Zilles, Craig; Loui, Michael C.

2011-01-01

339

Sociology and the Pedagogy of Common Sense: Dialogues with "Non-Traditional" Sociology Students in a New Scottish University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I examine the problem of common-sense democracy, understood here as a habitus of equal participation in social and political dialogue, through the teaching of sociology to non-traditional students at a Scottish post-1992 university. For the eighteenth century Scottish philosopher Thomas Reid, common sense was intrinsically…

Law, Alex

2007-01-01

340

Campus Library 2.0: The Information Commons Is a Scalable, One-Stop Shopping Experience for Students and Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 2003, Mt. Holyoke, an elite, largely undergraduate liberal arts college with a student population of roughly 2000, unveiled its take on the information commons. Located in an area known as Miles-Smith 4, the commons functions as a conduit between the main library and Dwight Hall, which houses the library offices, state-of-the-art media…

Albanese, Andrew Richard

2004-01-01

341

The preventive misconception: experiences from CAPRISA 004.  

PubMed

Overestimating personal protection afforded by participation in a preventive trial, e.g. harboring a "preventive misconception" (PM), raises theoretical ethical concerns about the adequacy of the informed consent process, behavioral disinhibition, and adherence to prevention interventions. Data from the CAPRISA 004 1 % tenofovir gel trial were utilized to empirically evaluate these concerns. We found it necessary to re-think the current definition of PM during evaluation to distinguish between true misconception and reasonable inferences of protection based on increased access to evidence-based prevention interventions and/or clinical care. There was a significant association between PM and decreased condom use (p < 0.0001) and between PM and likelihood to present with an STI symptom (p = 0.023). There was, however, limited evidence in support of PM representing a lack of meaningful informed consent, or to suggest that it impacts adherence. Moreover, considering current insufficiencies in female-initiated HIV prevention interventions, PM is perhaps of limited concern in microbicide trials. PMID:24715227

Dellar, Rachael C; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Mansoor, Leila E; Grobler, Anneke; Humphries, Hilton; Werner, Lise; Ntombela, Fanelesibonge; Luthuli, Londiwe; Abdool Karim, Salim S

2014-09-01

342

Clarifying the misconception about the principle of floatation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims to clarify the misconception about the violation of the principle of floatation. Improper understanding of the definition of ‘displaced fluid’ by a floating body leads to the misconception. With the help of simple experiments, this article shows that there is no violation of the principle of floatation.

Yadav, Manoj K.

2014-09-01

343

Prevalence of Blood Circulation Misconceptions among Prospective Elementary Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that misconceptions about human blood circulation and gas exchange persist across grade levels. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to investigate the prevalence and persistence of blood circulation misconceptions among prospective elementary teachers; and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of learning activities for…

Pelaez, Nancy J.; Boyd, Denise D.; Rojas, Jacqueline B.; Hoover, Mildred A.

2005-01-01

344

Resolution of Misconceptions of Latency and Adolescent Sicklers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions regarding sickle cell disease are qualitatively different among latency age patients as compared to adolescents. The evolution and resolution of these misconceptions determine the effectiveness of self-help programs for sickle cell patients. The Mount Sinai Hospital Sickle Cell Counseling Service is a coordinated center for sickle…

Christy-Levine, Diane

345

The ear and its malformations: strange beliefs and misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the strange beliefs and misconceptions related to the ear and its malformations, and how these have changed from ancient times until today.Methods. Ancient documents, journal articles, and history books were studied to research ancient and current beliefs and misconceptions with regard to the ear and its malformations.Results. The ear has been the centre of various beliefs and

Irene E Gamatsi; Thomas P Nikolopoulos; Dimitra E Lioumi

2003-01-01

346

Design Practices and Misconceptions: Helping Beginners in Engineering Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes beginner habits and misconceptions related to design practices. Once teachers are aware of these habits and misconceptions, they can more easily recognize them and work to remedy them through instruction. Presented herein are eight practice habits. Each item begins with the practice, describes a related design habit or…

Crismond, David

2013-01-01

347

AITA : Limitations and Misconceptions of AI John A. Bullinaria, 2003  

E-print Network

AITA : Limitations and Misconceptions of AI © John A. Bullinaria, 2003 1. Limitations In this lecture you will discuss (rather than be lectured about) two related aspects of AI: 1. Limitations ­ What intelligent things are there that AI can never do? 2. Misconceptions ­ What can AI actually do, that some

Bullinaria, John

348

More Misconceptions to Avoid When Teaching about Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As follow-up to a previous article "Avoid Misconceptions When Teaching about Plants," the author identifies fifty additional misconceptions. Undergeneralizations are added to the list of oversimplifications, obsolete concepts, terms, misidentifications, and flawed research. A glossary at the end of the article compares words used in botany with…

Hershey, David R.

2005-01-01

349

Developing and validating a chemical bonding instrument for Korean high school students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument designed to collect and investigate on Korean high school students' understanding about concepts regarding chemical bonding. The Chemical Bonding Diagnostic Test (CBDT) was developed by the procedure by previously relevant researches (Treagust, 1985; Peterson, 1986; Tan, 1994). The final instrument consisted of 15 two-tier items. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach alpha) for the whole test was 0.74. Also, the range of values for the discrimination index was from 0.38 to 0.90 and the overall average difficulty index was 0.38. The test was administered to 716 science declared students in Korean high school. The 37 common misconceptions on chemical bonding were identified through analysis of the items from the CBDT. The grade 11 students had slightly more misconceptions than the grade 12 students for ionic bonding, covalent bonding, and hydrogen bonding while the grade 12 students had more misconceptions about octet rule and hydrogen bonding than the grade 11 students. From the analysis of ANCOVA, there was no significant difference in grades, and between grade levels and gender on the mean score of CBDT. However, there was a significant difference in gender and a significant interaction between grade levels and chemistry preference. In conclusion, Korean high school students had the most common misconception about the electron configuration on ionic bonding and the water density on hydrogen bonding. Korean students' understanding about the chemical bonding was dependent on the interaction between grade levels and the chemistry preference. Consequently, grade 12 chemistry-preferred students had the highest mean scores among student groups concerned by this study.

Jang, Nak Han

350

First year chemical engineering students' conceptions of energy in solution processes: Phenomenographic categories for common knowledge construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we examine first-year chemical engineering students' conceptions of the energy changes taking place in dissolution. Students were individually interviewed with three tasks in which three different salts were dissolved in water, and 17 transcripts were analyzed using a phenomenographic methodology. Four descriptive categories of energy in dissolution were discerned: (a) you give energy (n = 1); (b) water gives energy (n = 17); (c) salt gives off energy (n = 13); and (d) reaction gives off energy (n = 7). Four students gave the same explanation for all three tasks, but more students used the same explanation for two of the tasks: four for Tasks A and B, four for Tasks B and C, and eight for Tasks A and C. Moreover, salt gives off energy was the most common explanation for Tasks A and B (n = 3), reaction gives off energy for Tasks B and C (n = 3), and water gives energy for Tasks A and C (n = 8). Four of the students showed variations of conception within tasks. Students described the solution process of all three tasks using a range of concepts, including previously learned chemical concepts. Even where students used the same chemical concepts in each of the tasks, they did not always give the same meaning to the concepts they used. The phenomenographic categories explanations given by students were used as a basis for developing an approach to teaching energy in solution processes. It is argued that this approach of using phenomenographic categories described at a collective level as a basis for discourse for constructing common knowledge should be used in teaching. It is proposed that a future study must be conducted to develop new trajectories students take to arrive at common knowledge and to understand how to move learners from their personal conceptions to plausible models in solution chemistry within the classroom learning community. Implications for policy are also discussed.

Ebenezer, Jazlin V.; Fraser, Duncan M.

2001-09-01

351

Common Literacy Struggles with College Students: Using the Reciprocal Teaching Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many college students struggle with the literacy skills needed to be successful in higher education (Bettinger & Long, 2009; Snyder, Tan, & Hoffman, 2004). The difficulties emerge within students' capabilities in reading and writing. Students must be taught the skills needed to be successful to complete the tasks assigned in college classes and in…

Gruenbaum, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

352

Combining item response theory and diagnostic classification models: a psychometric model for scaling ability and diagnosing misconceptions.  

PubMed

Traditional testing procedures typically utilize unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models to provide a single, continuous estimate of a student's overall ability. Advances in psychometrics have focused on measuring multiple dimensions of ability to provide more detailed feedback for students, teachers, and other stakeholders. Diagnostic classification models (DCMs) provide multidimensional feedback by using categorical latent variables that represent distinct skills underlying a test that students may or may not have mastered. The Scaling Individuals and Classifying Misconceptions (SICM) model is presented as a combination of a unidimensional IRT model and a DCM where the categorical latent variables represent misconceptions instead of skills. In addition to an estimate of ability along a latent continuum, the SICM model provides multidimensional, diagnostic feedback in the form of statistical estimates of probabilities that students have certain misconceptions. Through an empirical data analysis, we show how this additional feedback can be used by stakeholders to tailor instruction for students' needs. We also provide results from a simulation study that demonstrate that the SICM MCMC estimation algorithm yields reasonably accurate estimates under large-scale testing conditions. PMID:25205005

Bradshaw, Laine; Templin, Jonathan

2014-07-01

353

Myths and misconceptions about tuberculosis transmission in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Myths and misconceptions about TB can serve as a barrier to efforts at reducing stigmatisation of people infected and affected by the disease. Understanding such drivers of myths and misconceptions is important for improving information, education and communication (IEC) efforts of national control and preventive interventions. This study therefore assesses the influence of interaction of spatial, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics on myths and misconceptions. Methods Data was drawn from male (N?=?4,546) and female (N?=?4,916) files of the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. A myth and misconception variable was created from five-related constructs with internal consistency score of r?=?0. 8802 for males (inter-item correlation: 0.5951) and for females, r?=?0. 0.9312 (inter-item correlation: 0.7303). The Pearson Chi-square was used to test the bivariate relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable. Logistic regression was subsequently used to explore the factors determining myths and misconceptions of TB transmission. Results Majority of Ghanaians (males: 66.75%; females: 66.13%) did not hold myths and misconceptions about TB transmission. Females resident in the Upper East (aOR?=?0.31, CI?=?0.17-0.55) and Upper West (aOR?=?0.41, CI?=?0.24-0.69) and males resident in the Northern (aOR?=?0.23, CI?=?0.13-0.39) and the Greater Accra (aOR?=?0.25, CI?=?0.16-0.39) regions were independently associated with no misconceptions about TB transmission. Significant differences were also found in education, ethnicity and age. Conclusion That spatial and other socioeconomic difference exists in myths and misconceptions suggest the need for spatial, socioeconomic and demographic segmentations in IEC on TB. This holds potentials for reaching out to those who are in critical need of information and education on the transmission processes of TB. PMID:24028419

2013-01-01

354

Knowledge Sharing among University Students Facilitated with a Creative Commons Licensing Mechanism: A Case Study in a Programming Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creative Commons (CC) mechanism has been suggested as a potential means to foster a reliable environment for online knowledge sharing activity. This study investigates the role of the CC mechanism in supporting knowledge sharing among a group of university students studying programming from the perspectives of social cognitive and social capital…

Liu, Chen-Chung; Lin, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yi; Chao, Po-Yao

2014-01-01

355

Open up the Ceiling on the Common Core State Standards: Preparing Students for 21st-Century Literacy--Now  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards Initiative is the latest effort to reform education through standards. This article examines how the Standards promise to prepare students for the changing world of the 21st century, yet do not consider the changing nature of literacy--especially the centrality of the Internet as a 21st century text, and online…

Drew, Sally Valentino

2013-01-01

356

An Examination of Intervention Research with Secondary Students with EBD in Light of Common Core State Standards for Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this review, the authors offer a critical analysis of published interventions for improving mathematics performance among middle and high school students with EBD in light of the Common Core State Standards. An exhaustive review of literature from 1975 to December 2012 yielded 20 articles that met criteria for inclusion. The authors analyzed…

Mulcahy, Candace A.; Maccini, Paula; Wright, Kenneth; Miller, Jason

2014-01-01

357

Problems with the Consensus Definition of the Therapeutic Misconception  

PubMed Central

In a previous article,1 I attempted to assess the likely impact of the most prominent versions of the therapeutic misconception (TM) on research subjects’ informed consent. I concluded that the TM is not nearly as significant a concern as is commonly thought, and that focusing on it is more likely to undermine than promote research subjects’ informed consent. A recent commentary rejects these conclusions, as least as they pertain to the “consensus” definition of the TM.2 The authors of the commentary argue that work on the TM remains central to ensuring the appropriateness of research subjects’ consent and, by implication, the ethical acceptability of clinical research. The present work evaluates the arguments offered in support of these claims. This analysis reveals that the authors offer few substantive responses to my arguments, and the responses they do offer fail to undermine my prior conclusions. Furthermore, consideration of an additional issue—the emergence of learning healthcare systems—suggests that the TM is likely to be even less significant in the future, hence, focusing on it may be even more problematic than I argued previously. PMID:24597427

Wendler, David S.

2014-01-01

358

Using the Big Ideas in Cosmology to Teach College Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in our understanding of the Universe have revolutionized our view of its structure, composition and evolution. However, these new ideas have not necessarily been used to improve the teaching of introductory astronomy students. In this project, we have conducted research into student understanding of cosmological ideas so as to develop effective web-based tools to teach basic concepts important to modern cosmology. The tools are intended for use at the introductory college level. Our research uses several instruments, including open-ended and multiple choice surveys conducted at multiple institutions, as well as interviews and course artifacts at one institution, to ascertain what students know regarding modern cosmological ideas, what common misunderstandings and misconceptions they entertain, and what sorts of materials can most effectively overcome students' difficulty in learning this material. These data are being used to create a suite of interactive, web-based tutorials that address the major ideas in cosmology. One common misconception that students in our introductory courses possess is that scientific explanations are “made up,” and not supported by observational data. Having students engage with real data is a powerful means to help students overcome this misconception. For this reason, the tutorials we are developing include authentic student interaction with actual data where possible. Students master the scientific concepts and reasoning processes that lead to our current understanding of the Universe through interactive tasks, prediction, reflection, experimentation, and model building. This workshop will demonstrate the use of some of the modules we have created and will allow participants to test the modules for themselves.

McLin, K. M.; Coble, K.; Metevier, A. J.; Bailey, J. M.; Cominsky, L. R.

2013-04-01

359

Savant syndrome: realities, myths and misconceptions.  

PubMed

It was 126 years ago that Down first described savant syndrome as a specific condition and 70 years ago that Kanner first described Early Infantile Autism. While as many as one in ten autistic persons have savant abilities, such special skills occur in other CNS conditions as well such that approximately 50 % of cases of savant syndrome have autism as the underlying developmental disability and 50 % are associated with other disabilities. This paper sorts out realities from myths and misconceptions about both savant syndrome and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that have developed through the years. The reality is that low IQ is not necessarily an accompaniment of savant syndrome; in some cases IQ can be superior. Also, savants can be creative, rather than just duplicative, and the skills increase over time on a continuum from duplication, to improvisation to creation, rather than diminishing or suddenly disappearing. Genius and prodigy exist separate from savant syndrome and not all such highly gifted persons have Asperger's Disorder. This paper also emphasizes the critical importance of separating 'autistic-like' symptoms from ASD especially in children when the savant ability presents as hyperlexia (children who read early) or as Einstein syndrome (children who speak late), or have impaired vision (Blindisms) because prognosis and outcome are very different when that careful distinction is made. In those cases the term 'outgrowing autism' might be mistakenly applied when in fact the child did not have ASD in the first place. PMID:23918440

Treffert, Darold A

2014-03-01

360

Scratch This! The IF-AT as a Technique for Stimulating Group Discussion and Exposing Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Frequent and immediate feedback is critical for learning and retaining content as well as developing effective learning teams (Michaelson, Knight, and Fink 2004). The Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique (IF-AT) provides a single and efficient way for learners to self-assess their progress in a course and to structure significant small-group discussion. Used within the proper context, the IF-AT succeeds as a relatively simple, low-tech tool for providing immediate feedback, targeting student misconceptions, and generating group discussion.

Kellerman, Anne; Baepler, Paul; Cotner, Sehoya

2008-03-01

361

Understanding Subgroups in Common State Assessments: Special Education Students and ELLs. NCEO Brief. Number 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most assessment developers have a sense of the nature of the general student population, they often lack an understanding of the characteristics of special education students and English Language Learners (ELLs) who will participate in the assessment. The Race-to-the-Top Assessment Consortia have the rare opportunity to know who these…

National Center on Educational Outcomes, University of Minnesota, 2011

2011-01-01

362

Commonalities and Differences among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual College Students: Considerations for Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the appropriateness of collapsing lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students into a single category in quantitative research designs as well as the nature of their engagement with the collegiate environment. Data were collected as part of a national study and represent a total of 980 LGB self-identified college students

Dugan, John P.; Yurman, Lauren

2011-01-01

363

Students in Higher Education Governance in Europe: Contrasts, Commonalities and Controversies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a synthesizing overview of the roles of students in higher education governance in Europe. We first review the existing literature on student involvement in higher education governance in order to locate the contribution of this special issue of "Tertiary Education and Management." Second, we summarize the key findings of the…

Pabian, Petr; Minksova, Lenka

2011-01-01

364

Hints of a Fundamental Misconception in Cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the frequency and range of student ideas regarding the Big Bang, nearly 1,000 students from middle school, secondary school, and college were surveyed and asked if they had heard of the Big Bang and, if so, to describe it. In analyzing their responses, we uncovered an unexpected result that more than half of the students who stated that

Edward E. Prather; Timothy F. Slater; Erika G. Offerdahl

2002-01-01

365

Constructivist Approach: Removing Misconceptions about Chemical Bonding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study is to examine the effect of instruction based on constructivist approach on 9th grade students' understanding of chemical bonding concepts (n=41). Also, the effects of gender differences were investigated. Control group students were taught by traditional instruction. Experimental group students were instructed by…

Uzuntiryaki, Esen

366

The Graduate Student Commons Located above Joe's Pizza and Subs in Quarry Plaza,  

E-print Network

, relax, hang out -Free printing (up to 10 pgs/day) -Kitchen with water cooler, microwave, & small fridge Effective Dissertation Writing Processes Led by Writing Program faculty. For advanced grad students of any

California at Santa Cruz, University of

367

Using a Student-Generated Survey to Inform Planning for a User-Focused Learning Commons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A master's comprehensive University is planning a learning commons to support undergraduate learning. The planning process included a literature review, site visits to commons, consultations with experts in the field, discussions with campus specialists, and surveys of patrons. The literature reports two primary forms of data gathering for…

Weiner, Sharon A.; Weiner, John M.

2010-01-01

368

University students' conceptions of basic astronomy concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A questionnaire of 19 questions given to 76 students entering an `Introduction to astronomy' course at university showed that the students held a series of misconceptions on several central topics in basic astronomy.

Trumper, Ricardo

2005-11-28

369

WWC Review of the Report "Conceptualizing Astronomical Scale: Virtual Simulations on Handheld Tablet Computers Reverse Misconceptions." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2014 study, "Conceptualizing Astronomical Scale: Virtual Simulations on Handheld Tablet Computers Reverse Misconceptions," examined the effects of using the true-to-scale (TTS) display mode versus the orrery display mode in the iPad's Solar Walk software application on students' knowledge of the Earth's place in the…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

2014-01-01

370

Perspectives: Assessing and Addressing Student Science Ideas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our students are not blank slates. They come to school with a wide range of experiences that have shaped their science understandings--reading books, watching TV, and playing video games. From many years of research about student science ideas, it is evident that student science misconceptions are prevalent, strongly held, and highly resistant to change. Here the authors describe some research-based strategies that science teachers can use to assess and address students' misconceptions.

Smith, S. R.; Abell, Sandra K.

2008-03-01

371

The Graduate Student Commons Located right above Joe's Pizza and Subs in Quarry  

E-print Network

-Multimedia equipment including Nintendo Wii, DVD player, and board games -Lounge area & balcony to study own 24-hour access code to The Commons so you can use the space after staffed hours and easily gain

California at Santa Cruz, University of

372

The Initial Knowledge State of High School Astronomy Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study of 1,414 high school earth science and astronomy students characterizes the prevalence of their astronomical misconceptions. The multiple-choice instrument was prepared by scouring the literature on scientific misconceptions for evidence of preconceptions and from the author's interviews with students. Views that were incorrect, but espoused by a large fraction of students, were included as distractors. Results have been analyzed using classical test theory. A linear multiple regression model has helped to show the relative contributions of demographic and school factors to the number of misconceptions held by students. The instrument was found to be a reliable and valid test of students' misconceptions. The mean student score was 34 percent. Fifty-one student misconceptions were revealed by this test, nineteen of which were preferred by students to the correct answer. Several misconceptions appeared more frequently among the higher-performing students. Significant differences in student performance were found in several subgroups based upon schooling and demographic factors. Twenty -five percent out of a total of 30 percent of the variance in total test score could be accounted for by gender, race, and math level courses taken. Grade level and previous enrollment in an earth science course were not found to be predictive of total score. Mother's education proved to be of small import; level of father's education was not significant. This test is a useful addition to instruments that measure student misconceptions. It could find application in tests of effective intervention for conceptual learning. Significantly shortened versions of this instrument that account for 75 and 90 percent of the variance in the forty-seven-item instrument are recommended. Such tests of misconceptions may be somewhat disheartening to teachers and their students. A test made up of only misconception questions will probably have average total scores less than 40 percent. If teachers are to test their students using misconception questions, they should adjust grading policies to reflect this lower average score.

Sadler, Philip Michael

1992-01-01

373

Ethnocentric Pedagogy and Minority Student Growth: Implications for the Common School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By 1985, California will have become the first Third World State in the continental United States; there is a critical need for changes in the pervasive ethnocentric pedagogy to make schools more responsive to the multicultural reality of student populations. (CMG)

Cervantes, Robert A.

1984-01-01

374

Students' Argumentative Writing Skills in Science and First-Language Education: Commonalities and Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to build arguments is a crucial skill and a central educational goal in all school subjects including science as it enables students to formulate reasoned opinions and thus to cope with the increasing complexity of knowledge. In the present cross-sectional study, we examined the domain-specificity of argumentative writing in science by…

Heitmann, Patricia; Hecht, Martin; Schwanewedel, Julia; Schipolowski, Stefan

2014-01-01

375

28 Private Colleges Agree To Use Common Approaches to Student Aid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how 28 private colleges have endorsed a set of policies designed to preserve need-blind admissions. The group agreed on guidelines for the formula used to calculate a family's ability to pay for college, resulting in more aid for more needy students. (EV)

Hoover, Eric

2001-01-01

376

Transitioning High School Students with Learning Disabilities to the College Environment: Avoiding Common Pitfalls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College personnel from a Special Services Program explain how parents, students, and school psychologists can best prepare high school seniors with disabilities for the transition to college. The difference between accommodation under the Americans with Disabilities Act versus Public Law 94-142 is highlighted with an emphasis on those needs which…

Pagels, Carrie F.

377

Including Students with Disabilities in Common Non-Summative Assessments. NCEO Brief. Number 6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusive large-scale assessments have become the norm in states across the U.S. Participation rates of students with disabilities in these assessments have increased dramatically since the mid-1990s. As consortia of states move toward the development and implementation of assessment systems that include both non-summative assessments and…

National Center on Educational Outcomes, 2012

2012-01-01

378

Where EAPs are underpromoted, the most common explanations for why January 2014  

E-print Network

Where EAPs are underpromoted, the most common explanations for why January 2014 What are the most's why: Alcoholism still suffers from enormous myths and misconceptions. For most of history, alcoholism the facts as we know them today. Still, these pervasive misconceptions turn alcoholism into an accusation

Kim, Duck O.

379

Concept Inventories: Tools For Uncovering STEM Students' Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Concept inventories are receiving increased interest fromSTEM faculty. What are concept inventories, why the interest, and what do I need to know about concept inventories? This chapter answers these questions in the following order. In the first section, you will read a brief history of STEM concept inventory development, which should answer the question, "Why the interest in concept inventories?" In the next two sections, you will read first a short discussionon the theory of assessment as it applies to concept inventories and then a description of how to construct a concept inventory. Together, these two sections should answer the question, "What is a concept inventory?" And finally, you will read how others have used concept inventories and relatedtools to improve their teaching effectiveness. This is a chapter in the section on Assessment and Education Research in the Course, Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) April 2004 conference proceedings published under the title Invention and Impact: Building Excellence in Undergraduate Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Education.

Jim Richardson (University of Alabama;)

2004-12-01

380

Play It Again, Sam! Adapting Common Games into Multimedia Models Used for Student Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides guidelines on how to adapt common games such as checkers, tic tac toe, obstacle courses, and memory joggers into interactive games in multimedia courseware. Emphasizes creating generic games that can be recycled and used for multiple topics to save development time and keep costs low. Discusses topic themes, game structure, and…

Metcalf, Karen K.; Barlow, Amy; Hudson, Lisa; Jones, Elizabeth; Lyons, Dennis; Piersall, James; Munfus, Laureen

1998-01-01

381

The Common Core and the Future of Student Assessment in Ohio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ohio adopted the Common Core standards in English language arts (ELA) and math last year, but now stands at a crossroad in making sure statewide assessments are aligned to those standards. Ohio is a participating member in two federally funded assessment consortia--the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) and the Partnership for the…

Porter-Magee, Kathleen

2011-01-01

382

Reasoning about Evolutionary History: Post-Secondary Students' Knowledge of Most Recent Common Ancestry and Homoplasy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evolution curricula are replete with information about Darwin's theory of evolution as well as microevolutionary mechanisms underlying this process of change. However, other fundamental facets of evolutionary theory, particularly those related to macroevolution are often missing. One crucial idea typically overlooked is that of most recent common

Morabito, Nancy P.; Catley, Kefyn M.; Novick, Laura R.

2010-01-01

383

SOLUTION OF VERBAL PROBLEMS USING CONCEPT OF LEAST COMMON MULTIPLIER (LCM) AND GREATEST COMMON DIVISOR (GCD) IN PRIMARY  

E-print Network

290 SOLUTION OF VERBAL PROBLEMS USING CONCEPT OF LEAST COMMON MULTIPLIER (LCM) AND GREATEST COMMON DIVISOR (GCD) IN PRIMARY SCHOOL MATHEMATICS AND MISCONCEPTIONS Nevin ORHUN Anadolu University, Department verbal problems concerned with least common multiplier (lcm) and greatest common divisor (gcd

Spagnolo, Filippo

384

Attitudes and Misconceptions about Predictive Genetic Testing for Cancer Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe awareness, knowledge, and attitudes about genetic testing for cancer risk among the general public. Results: Thirty-eight adults participated in focus groups in West Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Participants’ beliefs about what genetic testing is ranged from ‘dianetics’ to an accurate description of DNA analysis. Themes included misconceptions about genetic tests, the ability to gain control of one’s life through

Abigail L. Rose; Nikki Peters; Judy A. Shea; Katrina Armstrong

2005-01-01

385

Prospective Primary School Teachers' Misconceptions about States of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify prospective primary school teachers' misconceptions about the states of matter. The sample of the study was 227 fourth-year prospective primary school teachers in a Department of Primary Education in Turkey. Researcher asked from every participant to write a response to an open ended question about…

Tatar, Erdal

2011-01-01

386

Primary Science Assessment Item Setters' Misconceptions Concerning Biological Science Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment is an integral and vital part of teaching and learning, providing feedback on progress through the assessment period to both learners and teachers. However, if test items are flawed because of misconceptions held by the question setter, then such test items are invalid as assessment tools. Moreover, such flawed items are also likely to…

Boo, Hong Kwen

2007-01-01

387

Textbook Errors and Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Energetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses misconceptions and outdated models appearing in biology textbooks for concepts involving bioenergetics and chemical reactions; adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as the energy currency of cells; the myth of high energy phosphate bonds; structural properties of ATP; ATP production from respiration and fermentation; ATP as an energy storage…

Storey, Richard D.

1992-01-01

388

Misconceptions Influencing Nonformal Education for Women. Question Series-5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper discusses three major obstacles to a change in women's status in developing nations: (1) Misconceptions about development. Women are the largest group who suffer as a result of the concept of development as quantitative, material, technological, and elitist, because that conceptualization does not lead to social change. Development based…

Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, New Delhi (India).

389

A Compilation and Review of over 500 Geoscience Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper organizes and analyses over 500 geoscience misconceptions relating to earthquakes, earth structure, geologic resources, glaciers, historical geology, karst (limestone terrains), plate tectonics, rivers, rocks and minerals, soils, volcanoes, and weathering and erosion. Journal and reliable web resources were reviewed to discover (1) the…

Francek, Mark

2013-01-01

390

Prevalent misconceptions about acute retinal vascular occlusive disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute retinal vascular occlusive disorders collectively constitute one of the major causes of blindness or seriously impaired vision, and yet there is marked controversy on their pathogeneses, clinical features and particularly their management. This is because the subject is plagued by multiple misconceptions. These include that: (i) various acute retinal vascular occlusions represent a single disease; (ii) estimation of visual

Sohan Singh Hayreh

2005-01-01

391

Myths and misconceptions: the origin and evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much effort has been spent trying to work out the origin and history of tuberculosis. Understanding these concepts could have important consequences for the development of vaccines and therapies that are effective against all strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We discuss a series of misconceptions about the origin of both M. tuberculosis and the disease it causes that have arisen over

R. Glyn Hewinson; Kristin Kremer; Roland Brosch; Stephen V. Gordon; Noel H. Smith

2009-01-01

392

Knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS among Iranian students  

PubMed Central

Background Young people are of particular importance in state policies against Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). We intended to assess the knowledge and attitude of high school students regarding AIDS in Iran. Methods Through a cluster-sampling, 4641 students from 52 high schools in Tehran were assessed by anonymous questionnaires in February 2002. Results The students identified television as their most important source of information about AIDS. Only a few students answered all the knowledge questions correctly, and there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmission. Mosquito bites (33%), public swimming pools (21%), and public toilets (20%) were incorrectly identified as routes of transmission. 46% believed that Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive (HIV positive) students should not attend ordinary schools. Most of the students wanted to know more about AIDS. In this study knowledge level was associated with students' attitudes and discipline (p < 0.001). Conclusion Although the knowledge level seems to be moderately high, misconceptions about the routes of transmission were common. There was a substantial intolerant attitude towards AIDS and HIV positive patients. We recommend that strategies for AIDS risk reduction in adolescents be developed in Iranian high schools. PMID:15157281

Tavoosi, Anahita; Zaferani, Azadeh; Enzevaei, Anahita; Tajik, Parvin; Ahmadinezhad, Zahra

2004-01-01

393

Mastering the Concepts of Geologic Time: Novice Students' Understanding of the Principles of Relative Age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Misconceptions can adversely affect students’ mastery of the fundamental geoscience concepts necessary for development of the knowledge base required to become a professional geoscientist. In the fall of 2009, in-class learning assessments were introduced into a large (400 student) undergraduate introductory geoscience course to help students develop expert-like problem solving skills for geologic problems. They were also designed to reveal studentsmisconceptions on geoscience concepts in order to help direct the course of instruction. These assessments were based on simple, real-world scenarios that geoscientists encounter in their research. One of these assessments focused on the application of concepts of geologic time. It asked students to give the relative ages of granite, schist and shale based on a sketch of two outcrops, and to describe the reasoning behind their answer. In order to test all of the principles of relative age, the assignment had two possible solutions. A post-course analysis of student responses on these assessments was carried out using a modified constant comparative analysis method to identify common misconceptions. This analysis revealed that 61% of students failed to identify both possible solutions. Furthermore, 55% of students applied the principle of superposition to intrusive igneous and metamorphic rocks, and 18% treated the once connected outcrops as having separate geologic histories. 56% of students could not support their proposed geologic history with appropriate reasoning. These results suggest that the principles of relative geologic time that students had the greatest difficulty with were when to apply the principle of superposition and how to apply the principle of original continuity. Students also had difficulty using the principles of relative age to provide appropriate scientific reasoning for their choices.

Speta, M.; Reid, L.

2010-12-01

394

December 2012 67 Learning alongside students  

E-print Network

refined. These misconceptions about en- gineering have led to negative stereotypes and disinter- est in a variety of contexts, we can help change these negative misconceptions. Our ex- perience indicates- day products that engineers design, and relevant chal- lenges that engineers address. From common

395

Open Access to Field Research: Engaging the General Public and Dispelling Misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general public holds many misconceptions about the geosciences. Often, people confuse geologists with archaeologists, or believe geoscience careers are limited to petroleum and/or mineral exploration. People in resource-rich areas may have had only negative experiences with geoscientists, where resource extraction has come at the expense of quality of life and property. These misconceptions and negative perceptions are serious threats that can result in uninformed and biased teaching of the geosciences. To address these threats, the true nature and relevance of the geosciences need to be communicated to students and the general public whenever possible. Field work, an essential component of geoscience research and education, offers an ideal opportunity for such communication by bringing researchers and students in direct contact with private citizens and local agencies. By providing open access to field research, a meaningful outreach opportunity can be seamlessly integrated into a research program. Encouraging all students and the general public to participate in field-based research activities can promote understanding of the scientific process, the nature of the geosciences, and the importance of scientific research to a wide variety of audiences, dispelling misconceptions. For a field project conducted in the Warner Range of northeastern California, we initially had two goals: to corroborate an NSF-funded seismic experiment with surface geologic mapping, and to offer a research opportunity for undergraduates. The nature of a seismic experiment necessitates extensive communication with local citizens and agencies. This logistical communication soon led us to add more goals to the project: to conduct outreach activities in the small, rural communities in and around the field area and to collaborate with the many researchers from multiple institutions and government agencies with projects in the region. These outreach and collaboration efforts have now become essential components of the field work and have led us to continue and expand the research goals of the project as well. Throughout the project, we took steps to ensure that misconceptions were minimized. These included school presentations, public presentation of data from the seismic experiment, and sharing of mapping and data with local agencies and other researchers. In addition, we invited local landowners, reporters, and representatives from local agencies to spend time in the field with us - and many did. The Warner Range lies in a volcanically and seismically active region with numerous hot springs and geothermal energy resources under development. We found that locals wanted to know more about their surroundings, and in addition to providing specific information about our research in the region, we were very successful in educating many people about the nature of scientific research and the geosciences in general. Field work provides an unequaled opportunity for outreach. A minimal investment of time reaps huge rewards in public perception of scientific research and the nature of geoscientists, and begins to mitigate the damage caused by misconceptions and negative experiences. Additionally, outreach can feed back into the research goals of the project and expand opportunities for collaboration and cross-disciplinary studies. This synergy between research and education must be highlighted and encouraged if we wish to reduce threats to the teaching of the geosciences.

Egger, A. E.

2005-12-01

396

Int. J. Technology Enhanced Learning, Vol. 4, Nos. 3/4, 2012 191 Copyright 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.  

E-print Network

students with common errors or misconceptions. Three studies were conducted with students of different; learning from errors; empirical studies; fractions misconceptions; adaptive learning; conceptual learning

McLaren, Bruce Martin

397

The efficacy of print and video in correcting cognitive misconceptions in science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One hundred fifty-three fifth grade students found to have misconceptions about seasonal change were randomly assigned to either a video-print or print-video group. In Study One, each group read or viewed content about seasonal change and a free recall, multiple choice and application task were administered during the following week. Two weeks later, Study Two replicated the procedures with the groups receiving content in the alternate media. Hypotheses predicting video would be more effective than print in correcting misconceptions were rejected since there was either no significance on the measures or performance was higher after reading. Exposure to both media favored the video-print order. Low and high ability readers performed better after print treatment with no significant difference between media among average ability readers. More concepts than content vocabulary were present in written responses by both video and print groups. Post-hoc analysis revealed no gender differences, no significant difference in length of free recall between Study One and Study Two and significant differences between reading abilities on all measures.

Finney, Mary Jo

398

The Prepared Practitioner: Shedding Light on Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This month's theme is classroom research--a great opportunity to discuss one of the author's favorite studies, which took place in a single classroom, examining a single teacher, and a single instructional unit. What could one possibly learn from a teacher teaching different aged students, in a different place, and even a different time? Discover the answer to this thought-provoking question in this month's column.

Colburn, Alan

2008-10-01

399

Aggregation of student answers in a classroom setting  

E-print Network

In a typical class, an instructor does not have enough time to poll all students for answers to questions, although it would be the best method for discovering students' misconceptions. The aggregator module of a system ...

Smith, Amanda C

2006-01-01

400

Common failures in gas turbine blades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern aviation gas turbine engines are considered to be highly reliable in that failures in service are rare. In fact this is a misconception, and freedom from service failures is largely the result of stringent standards imposed during frequent inspections. Most failures are thus detected at the incipient stage and appropriate action taken to prevent service failure. The common failure

Tim J Carter

2005-01-01

401

Assessing Climate Misconceptions of Middle School Learners and Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Middle School students and their teachers are among the many populations in the U.S. with misconceptions regarding the science or even reality of climate change. Teaching climate change science in schools is of paramount importance since all school-age children will eventually assume responsibility for the management and policy-making decisions of our planet. The recently published Framework for K-12 Science Education (National Research Council, 2012) emphasizes the importance of students understanding global climate change and its impacts on society. A preliminary assessment of over a thousand urban middles school students found the following from pretests prior to a climate literacy curriculum: - Do not understand that climate occurs on a time scale of decades (most think it is weeks or months) -Do not know the main atmospheric contributors to global warming -Do not understand the role of greenhouse gases as major contributors to increasing Earth's surface temperature -Do not understand the role of water vapor to trap heat and add to the greenhouse effect -Cannot identify some of the human activities that increase the amount of CO2 -Cannot identify sources of carbon emissions produced by US citizens -Cannot describe human activities that are causing the long-term increase of carbon -dioxide levels over the last 100 years -Cannot describe carbon reduction strategies that are feasible for lowering the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere To address the lack of a well-designed middle school science climate change curriculum that can be used to help teachers promote the teaching and learning of important climate change concepts, we developed a 20-day Environmental Literacy and Inquiry (ELI): Climate Change curriculum in partnership with a local school district. Comprehension increased significantly from pre- to post-test after enactment of the ELI curriculum in the classrooms. This work is part of an ongoing systemic curriculum reform initiative to promote (1) environmental literacy and inquiry and (2) foster the development of geospatial thinking and reasoning using geospatial technologies as an essential component of the middle school science curriculum. The curriculum is designed to align instructional materials and assessments with learning goals. The following frameworks were used to provide guidelines for the climate change science content in addition to the science inquiry upon which schools must focus: Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences (U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2009) and the AAAS Project 2061 Communicating and Learning About Global Climate Change (AAAS, 2007). The curriculum is a coherent sequence of learning activities that include climate change investigations with Google Earth, Web-based interactivities that include an online carbon emissions calculator and a Web-based geologic time-line, and inquiry-based ("hands-on") laboratories. The climate change science topics include the atmosphere, Earth system energy balance, weather, greenhouse gases, paleoclimatology, and "humans and climate". It is hoped that with a solid foundation of climate science in the classroom, middle school learners will be in a position to evaluate new scientific discoveries, emerging data sets, and reasonably assess information and misinformation by which they are surrounded on a daily basis.

Sahagian, D. L.; Anastasio, D. J.; Bodzin, A.; Cirucci, L.; Bressler, D.; Dempsey, C.; Peffer, T.

2012-12-01

402

Using Models to Address Misconceptions in Size and Scale Related to the Earth, Moon, Solar System, and Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many children and adults have misconceptions about space-related concepts such as size and distance: Earth-Moon size and distance, distances between the planets, distances to the stars (including the Sun), etc. Unfortunately, when images are used to illustrate common phenomena, such as Moon phases and seasons, they may do a good job of explaining the phenomenon, but may reinforce other misconceptions. For topics such as phases and seasons, scale (size and distance) can easily lead to confusion and reinforce misconceptions. For example, when showing Moon phases, the Moon is usually represented as large relative to the Earth and the true relative distance cannot be easily shown. Similarly, when showing the tilt of the Earth’s axis as the reason for the seasons, the Earth is usually almost as large as the Sun and the distance between them is usually only a few times Earth’s diameter.What lessons have we learned? It is critical with any model to engage the participants: if at all possible, everyone should participate. A critical part of any modeling needs to be a discussion, involving the participants, of the limitations of the model: what is modeled accurately and what is not? This helps to identify and rectify misconceptions and helps to avoid creating new ones. The activities highlighted on our poster represent programs and collaborations that date back more than two decades: The University of Arizona, Tucson Unified School District, Science Center of Inquiry, Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona, and the Planetary Science Institute. Examples of activities that we will present on our poster include: •Earth/Moon size and distance •Macramé model of the Solar System •Human orrery and tabletop orrery •3-D nature of the constellations •Comparing our Solar System to other planetary systems •Origin of the Universe: scale of time and distance

Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Salthouse, K.; Canizo, T. L.

2012-10-01

403

Misconceptions of depression in african americans.  

PubMed

Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues. PMID:24999332

Sohail, Zohaib; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy; Richie, William D

2014-01-01

404

Misconceptions of Depression in African Americans  

PubMed Central

Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues. PMID:24999332

Sohail, Zohaib; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy; Richie, William D.

2014-01-01

405

Drawing on Students' Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective instruction requires continual assessment of student understanding to identify and redirect misconceptions. This is particularly important when dealing with topics that seem straightforward to the teacher but may go beyond the personal experience of many students, such as the life cycle of flowering plants. Life cycles are a core topic…

Schussler, Elisabeth; Winslow, Jeff

2007-01-01

406

Effectiveness of Refutational Teaching for High- and Low-Achieving Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assessed the effectiveness of refutational readings and lecture on decreasing psychological misconceptions for students of high versus low levels of achievement. During the course of a semester we addressed introductory psychology students' misconceptions with refutational readings, refutational lecture, or not at all. From pre- and post-test…

Kowalski, Patricia; Taylor, Annette Kujawski

2011-01-01

407

Using Simple Manipulatives to Improve Student Comprehension of a Complex Biological Process: Protein Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biological systems and living processes involve a complex interplay of biochemicals and macromolecular structures that can be challenging for undergraduate students to comprehend and, thus, misconceptions abound. Protein synthesis, or translation, is an example of a biological process for which students often hold many misconceptions. This article…

Guzman, Karen; Bartlett, John

2012-01-01

408

The (mis)concept of species recognition.  

PubMed

To many, the concept of 'species recognition' is integral to the origin and maintenance of species. However, the heuristic value of species recognition is hampered by its reliance on the problematic concept of species. In this paper, we first discuss assumptions associated with prevailing use of the term, including the typological implications of the concept, the false dichotomy of compatibility and mate quality, and the commonly held model of species recognition in which animals determine taxonomic status before mate status. Subsequently, we propose research directions aimed to improve our understanding of the role of courtship behavior in speciation. We propose two complementary research approaches, one addressing the processes that drive the evolution of mate recognition systems and the other addressing the phenotypic architecture of behavioral isolation. Our approach emphasizes the fitness consequences and multidimensional nature of mate choice. PMID:22575840

Mendelson, Tamra C; Shaw, Kerry L

2012-08-01

409

Coadaptation and conflict, misconception and muddle, in the evolution of genomic imprinting.  

PubMed

Common misconceptions of the 'parental conflict' theory of genomic imprinting are addressed. Contrary to widespread belief, the theory defines conditions for cooperation as well as conflict in mother-offspring relations. Moreover, conflict between genes of maternal and paternal origin is not the same as conflict between mothers and fathers. In theory, imprinting can evolve either because genes of maternal and paternal origin have divergent interests or because offspring benefit from a phenotypic match, or mismatch, to one or other parent. The latter class of models usually require maintenance of polymorphism at imprinted loci for the maintenance of imprinted expression. The conflict hypothesis does not require maintenance of polymorphism and is therefore a more plausible explanation of evolutionarily conserved imprinting. PMID:24129605

Haig, D

2014-08-01

410

Women's misconceptions about cancer screening: implications for informed decision-making.  

PubMed

Informed decision-making about cancer screening requires that patients have a correct understanding of a test's purpose, benefits, and risks. Misconceptions, however, may be common. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and thematically coded using a purposive sample of 24 socioeconomically diverse white, African American, Latino and Chinese American women recruited from general medicine practices and community settings. Interviews focused on participants ideas related to cancer prevention and screening. Women expressed cancer-related beliefs characterized by inaccuracies, distortions, and over-simplifications. Many of these beliefs may go unrecognized in clinical settings yet have a profound influence on risk communication and, therefore, informed decision-making. Effective communication depends, first, on clinicians and patients sharing an accurate understanding of background concepts such as "prevention," "screening," and "cancer." PMID:15893209

Denberg, Thomas D; Wong, Sabrina; Beattie, Angela

2005-06-01

411

Transfer Student COMMON APPLICATION  

E-print Network

# (if applicable) _______-______-________ Date of Birth (mm/dd/yy) ________/______/_________ Gender male Psychology Spanish and Hispanic Studies Statistics Theatre Women, Gender and Sexuality Studies College Management Marketing Supply Chain Management P.C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science Applied

Napier, Terrence

412

What can biochemistry students learn about protein translation? Using variation theory to explore the space of learning created by some common external representations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochemistry education relies heavily on students' ability to visualize abstract cellular and molecular processes, mechanisms, and components. As such, biochemistry educators often turn to external representations to provide tangible, working models from which students' internal representations (mental models) can be constructed, evaluated, and revised. However, prior research has shown that, while potentially beneficial, external representations can also lead to alternative student conceptions. Considering the breadth of biochemical phenomena, protein translation has been identified as an essential biochemical process and can subsequently be considered a fundamental concept for biochemistry students to learn. External representations of translation range from static diagrams to dynamic animations, from simplistic, stylized illustrations to more complex, realistic presentations. In order to explore the potential for student learning about protein translation from some common external representations of translation, I used variation theory. Variation theory offers a theoretical framework from which to explore what is intended for students to learn, what is possible for students to learn, and what students actually learn about an object of learning, e.g., protein translation. The goals of this project were threefold. First, I wanted to identify instructors' intentions for student learning about protein translation. From a phenomenographic analysis of instructor interviews, I was able to determine the critical features instructors felt their students should be learning. Second, I wanted to determine which features of protein translation were possible for students to learn from some common external representations of the process. From a variation analysis of the three representations shown to students, I was able to describe the possible combinations of features enacted by the sequential viewing of pairs of representations. Third, I wanted to identify what students actually learned about protein translation by viewing these external representations. From a phenomenographic analysis of student interviews, I was able to describe changes between students prior lived object of learning and their post lived object of learning. Based on the findings from this project, I can conclude that variation can be used to cue students to notice particular features of an external representation. Additionally, students' prior knowledge and, potentially, the intended objects of learning from previous instructors can also affect what students can learn from a representation. Finally, further study is needed to identify the extent to which mode and level of abstraction of an external representation affect student learning outcomes.

Bussey, Thomas J.

413

Misconceptions About Human Rights and Women’s Rights in Islam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women’s rights\\u000a in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case\\u000a that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second misconception is that

Khalida Tanvir Syed

2008-01-01

414

Bacterially induced bone destruction: mechanisms and misconceptions.  

PubMed Central

Normal bone remodelling requires the coordinated regulation of the genesis and activity of osteoblast and osteoclast lineages. Any interference with these integrated cellular systems can result in dysregulation of remodelling with the consequent loss of bone matrix. Bacteria are important causes of bone pathology in common conditions such as periodontitis, dental cysts, bacterial arthritis, and osteomyelitis. It is now established that many of the bacteria implicated in bone diseases contain or produce molecules with potent effects on bone cells. Some of these molecules, such as components of the gram-positive cell walls (lipoteichoic acids), are weak stimulators of bone resorption in vitro, while others (PMT, cpn60) are as active as the most active mammalian osteolytic factors such as cytokines like IL-1 and TNF. The complexity of the integration of bone cell lineage development means that there are still question marks over the mechanism of action of many well-known bone-modulatory molecules such as parathyroid hormone. The key questions which must be asked of the now-recognized bacterial bone-modulatory molecules are as follows: (i) what cell population do they bind to, (ii) what is the nature of the receptor and postreceptor events, and (iii) is their action direct or dependent on the induction of secondary extracellular bone-modulating factors such as cytokines, eicosanoids, etc. In the case of LPS, this ubiquitous gram-negative polymer probably binds to osteoblasts or other cells in bone through the CD14 receptor and stimulates them to release cytokines and eicosanoids which then induce the recruitment and activation of osteoclasts. This explains the inhibitor effects of nonsteroidal and anticytokine agents on LPS-induced bone resorption. However, other bacterial factors such as the potent toxin PMT may act by blocking the normal maturation pathway of the osteoblast lineage, thus inducing dysregulation in the tightly regulated process of resorption and replacement of bone matrix. At the present time, it is not possible to define a general mechanism by which bacteria promote loss of bone matrix. Many bacteria are capable of stimulating bone matrix loss, and the information available would suggest that each organism possesses different factors which interact with bone in different ways. With the rapid increase in antibiotic resistance, particularly with Staphylococcus aureus and M. tuberculosis, organisms responsible for much bone pathology in developed countries only two generations ago, we would urge that much greater attention should be focused on the problem of bacterially induced bone remodelling in order to define pathogenetic mechanisms which could be therapeutic targets for the development of new treatment modalities. PMID:8698454

Nair, S P; Meghji, S; Wilson, M; Reddi, K; White, P; Henderson, B

1996-01-01

415

Using the Big Ideas in Cosmology to Teach College Students  

E-print Network

Recent advances in our understanding of the Universe have revolutionized our view of its structure, composition and evolution. However, these new ideas have not necessarily been used to improve the teaching of introductory astronomy students. In this project, we have conducted research into student understanding of cosmological ideas so as to develop effective web-based tools to teach basic concepts important to modern cosmology. The tools are intended for use at the introductory college level. Our research uses several instruments, including open-ended and multiple choice surveys conducted at multiple institutions, as well as interviews and course artifacts at one institution, to ascertain what students know regarding modern cosmological ideas, what common misunderstandings and misconceptions they entertain, and what sorts of materials can most effectively overcome student difficulties in learning this material. These data are being used to create a suite of interactive, web-based tutorials that address the ...

McLin, Kevin M; Metevier, Anne J; Coble, Kimberly; Bailey, Janelle M

2013-01-01

416

Making the Common Good Common  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

Chase, Barbara

2011-01-01

417

Breach in the 9th Ward Levee, New Orleans August 2005 GettyImages  

E-print Network

technical competencies, ideally with a team of peers. · Interview students & extract common misconceptions misconceptions. · Teaches teamwork, creativity, even patience · Integrates social values, societal consequences

Womeldorf, Carole

418

School Students' Ideas about Air Pollution: Hindrance or Help for Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a free-form questionnaire to explore 10- and 11-year-old students' ideas about the nature of air pollution and its biological and physical effects. Suggests that students hold misconceptions in this area. (DDR)

Thornber, Jillian; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

1999-01-01

419

Playing with Science: An Investigation of Young Children's Science Conceptions and Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to investigate the conceptions and misconceptions of young children (ages 3-8) related to science concepts, skills, and phenomena. These conceptions and misconceptions were investigated within the framework of the Pennsylvania Early Learning Standards for Pre-Kindergarten and the Pennsylvania Standards for…

Smolleck, Lori; Hershberger, Vanessa

2011-01-01

420

Common Ground: Education & the Military Meeting the Needs of Students. The Report of the NASBE Study Group on Education and the Military  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community, higher education, and business partnerships are often touted as critical links to helping students graduate from high school and making sure that they are college- and career-ready when they do. Now a panel of state board of education members from across the country has found common ground for partnerships with the country's single…

National Association of State Boards of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

421

Harnessing Technology to Improve Formative Assessment of Student Conceptions in STEM: Forging a National Network  

PubMed Central

Concept inventories, consisting of multiple-choice questions designed around common student misconceptions, are designed to reveal student thinking. However, students often have complex, heterogeneous ideas about scientific concepts. Constructed-response assessments, in which students must create their own answer, may better reveal students’ thinking, but are time- and resource-intensive to evaluate. This report describes the initial meeting of a National Science Foundation–funded cross-institutional collaboration of interdisciplinary science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education researchers interested in exploring the use of automated text analysis to evaluate constructed-response assessments. Participants at the meeting shared existing work on lexical analysis and concept inventories, participated in technology demonstrations and workshops, and discussed research goals. We are seeking interested collaborators to join our research community. PMID:21633063

Haudek, Kevin C.; Kaplan, Jennifer J.; Knight, Jennifer; Long, Tammy; Merrill, John; Munn, Alan; Nehm, Ross; Smith, Michelle; Urban-Lurain, Mark

2011-01-01

422

Patterns of thinking about phylogenetic trees: A study of student learning and the potential of tree thinking to improve comprehension of biological concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolution education is a critical yet challenging component of teaching and learning biology. There is frequently an emphasis on natural selection when teaching about evolution and conducting educational research. A full understanding of evolution, however, integrates evolutionary processes, such as natural selection, with the resulting evolutionary patterns, such as species divergence. Phylogenetic trees are models of evolutionary patterns. The perspective gained from understanding biology through phylogenetic analyses is referred to as tree thinking. Due to the increasing prevalence of tree thinking in biology, understanding how to read phylogenetic trees is an important skill for students to learn. Interpreting graphics is not an intuitive process, as graphical representations are semiotic objects. This is certainly true concerning phylogenetic tree interpretation. Previous research and anecdotal evidence report that students struggle to correctly interpret trees. The objective of this research was to describe and investigate the rationale underpinning the prior knowledge of introductory biology students' tree thinking Understanding prior knowledge is valuable as prior knowledge influences future learning. In Chapter 1, qualitative methods such as semi-structured interviews were used to explore patterns of student rationale in regard to tree thinking. Seven common tree thinking misconceptions are described: (1) Equating the degree of trait similarity with the extent of relatedness, (2) Environmental change is a necessary prerequisite to evolution, (3) Essentialism of species, (4) Evolution is inherently progressive, (5) Evolution is a linear process, (6) Not all species are related, and (7) Trees portray evolution through the hybridization of species. These misconceptions are based in students' incomplete or incorrect understanding of evolution. These misconceptions are often reinforced by the misapplication of cultural conventions to make sense of trees. Chapter 2 explores the construction, validity, and reliability of a tree thinking concept inventory. Concept inventories are research based instruments that diagnose faulty reasoning among students. Such inventories are tools for improving teaching and learning of concepts. Test scores indicate that tree thinking misconceptions are held by novice and intermediate biology students. Finally, Chapter 3 presents a tree thinking rubric. The rubric aids teachers in selecting and improving introductory tree thinking learning exercises that address students' tree thinking misconceptions.

Naegle, Erin

423

Reducing HIV Stigma Among Nursing Students: A Brief Intervention.  

PubMed

HIV stigma can be devastating and is common among health care providers, particularly nurses. The objectives of this study were to (a) assess the acceptability and feasibility of a brief stigma-reduction curriculum among a convenience sample of Indian nursing students and (b) examine the preliminary effect of this curriculum on their knowledge, attitudes, and intent to discriminate. At baseline, 57% of students had at least one misconception about HIV transmission, 38% blamed people living with HIV for their infection, and 87% and 95% demonstrated intent to discriminate while dispensing medications and drawing blood, respectively. Following the curriculum, HIV-related knowledge increased while blame, endorsement of coercive policies, and intent to discriminate decreased significantly. In addition, more than 95% of participants described the curriculum as practice changing. This brief intervention resulted in decreased stigma levels and was also highly acceptable to the nursing students. Next steps include rigorous evaluation in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:24569699

Shah, Shilpa M; Heylen, Elsa; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Perumpil, Sheeja; Ekstrand, Maria L

2014-11-01

424

The Bottom Line: An Exercise to Help Students Understand How Social Inequality Is Actively Constructed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the important misconceptions in the American view of poverty is that people are poor because they do not work. This article presents an exercise, the "bottom line," which helps dispel students' misconceptions about the working poor. Through extensive primary-data collection and assembling a budget for low-skilled workers, the exercise: (1)…

Abelev, Melissa; Vincent, M. Bess; Haney, Timothy J.

2008-01-01

425

Common misconceptions about cognitive mediation of treatment change: A commentary to Longmore and Worrell (2007)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article by Richard J. Longmore and Michael Worrell [Clinical Psychology Review, Volume 27, 2007, pp. 173–187] reviews a selection of studies showing no significant difference between treatment conditions that include formal cognitive restructuring techniques and other behavioral treatment modalities that do not include techniques to directly challenge cognitions. Based on this literature, Longmore and Worrell question the validity of

Stefan G. Hofmann

2008-01-01

426

Common Misconceptions about the Dynamical Theory of Crystal Lattices: Cauchy Relations, Lattice Potentials and Infinite Crystals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The requirement of rotational invariance for lattice potential energies is investigated. Starting from this condition, it is shown that the Cauchy relations for the elastic constants are fulfilled if the lattice potential is built from pair interactions or when the first-neighbour approximation is adopted. This is seldom recognized in widely used…

Elcoro, Luis; Etxebarria, Jesus

2011-01-01

427

Separating Fact from Fiction: Beliefs and Common Misconceptions about Latinos in a Rural Pennsylvanian Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berwick is a small Pennsylvanian town that has a re putation for being a closed, insular, and xenophobic community to which Latinos are migrating in large numbers. Berwick was chosen as the focus of an ethnographic research project to determine how local non-Latino residents perceive recent Latino i mmigrants to their community. The authors were surprised to find that not

Andrea Frantz; Brandi Burlingame; Sharon Cabana

428

How to Deal with “The Language-as-Fixed-Effect Fallacy”: Common Misconceptions and Alternative Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Clark's (1973) critique of statistical procedures in language and memory studies (the “language-as-fixed-effect fallacy”) has had a profound effect on the way such analyses have been carried out in the past 20 years, it seems that the exact nature of the problem and the proposed solution have not been understood very well. Many investigators seem to assume that generalization

Jeroen G. W. Raaijmakers; Joseph M. C. Schrijnemakers; Frans Gremmen

1999-01-01

429

Utilitarian Theories Reconsidered: Common Misconceptions, More Recent Developments, and Health Policy Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the prevalence of the terms utilitarianism and utilitarian in the health care and health policy literature, anecdotal evidence suggests that authors are often not fully aware of the diversity of utilitarian theories, their principles, and implications. Further, it seems that authors often categorically reject utilitarianism under the assumption that it violates individual rights. The tendency of act utilitarianism to

Afschin Gandjour; Karl Wilhelm Lauterbach

2003-01-01

430

The state retirement age: Common misconceptions about retirement and the state pension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Age Partnership Group (APG) and the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) recently commissioned a number of studies under the general heading: ‘Extending Working Life’, as part of a national guidance campaign. The campaign aims to raise employers' awareness of flexible employment and retirement opportunities prior to the implementation of age legislation towards the end of 2006. In general

Hannah Zeilig; Anthea Tinker; Ann Salvage

2005-01-01

431

History of pancreaticoduodenectomy: early misconceptions, initial milestones and the pioneers  

PubMed Central

Pancreaticoduodenectomy is one of the most challenging surgical procedures which requires the highest level of surgical expertise. This procedure has constantly evolved over the years through the meticulous efforts of a number of surgeons before reaching its current state. This review navigates through some of the early limitations and misconceptions and highlights the initial milestones which laid the foundation of this procedure. The current review also provides a few excerpts from the lives and illuminates on some of the seminal contributions of the three great surgeons: William Stewart Halsted, Walther Carl Eduard Kausch and Allen Oldfather Whipple. These surgeons pioneered the nascent stages of this procedure and paved the way for the modern day pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:21609369

Are, Chandrakanth; Dhir, Mashaal; Ravipati, Lavanya

2011-01-01

432

Eschewing definitions of the therapeutic misconception: a family resemblance analysis.  

PubMed

Twenty-five years after the term "therapeutic misconception' (TM) first entered the literature, most commentators agree that it remains widespread. However, the majority of scholarly attention has focused on the reasons why a patient cum human subject might confuse the goals of research with the goals of therapy. Although this paper addresses the social and cultural factors that seem to animate the TM among subjects, it also fills a niche in the literature by examining why investigators too might operate under a similar confusion. In framing these issues, the paper expressly adopts a Wittgensteinian approach to evaluating the TM, suggesting that interlocutors do not need any analytic definition of the TM to use the term meaningfully in thinking about the moral implications of the TM in practice. PMID:21606116

Goldberg, Daniel S

2011-06-01

433

Interactive Tutoring System for High School Geometry Dual Degree Report  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2.3 Why do students get misconceptions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 A few common? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.2 All about misconceptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2.1 What are misconceptions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2.2 Learning theories

Iyer, Sridhar

434

Targeted Prevention of Common Mental Health Disorders in University Students: Randomised Controlled Trial of a Transdiagnostic Trait-Focused Web-Based Intervention  

PubMed Central

Background A large proportion of university students show symptoms of common mental disorders, such as depression, anxiety, substance use disorders and eating disorders. Novel interventions are required that target underlying factors of multiple disorders. Aims To evaluate the efficacy of a transdiagnostic trait-focused web-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of common mental disorders in university students. Method Students were recruited online (n?=?1047, age: M?=?21.8, SD?=?4.2) and categorised into being at high or low risk for mental disorders based on their personality traits. Participants were allocated to a cognitive-behavioural trait-focused (n?=?519) or a control intervention (n?=?528) using computerised simple randomisation. Both interventions were fully automated and delivered online (trial registration: ISRCTN14342225). Participants were blinded and outcomes were self-assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks and at 12 weeks after registration. Primary outcomes were current depression and anxiety, assessed on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9) and Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD7). Secondary outcome measures focused on alcohol use, disordered eating, and other outcomes. Results Students at high risk were successfully identified using personality indicators and reported poorer mental health. A total of 520 students completed the 6-week follow-up and 401 students completed the 12-week follow-up. Attrition was high across intervention groups, but comparable to other web-based interventions. Mixed effects analyses revealed that at 12-week follow up the trait-focused intervention reduced depression scores by 3.58 (p<.001, 95%CI [5.19, 1.98]) and anxiety scores by 2.87 (p?=?.018, 95%CI [1.31, 4.43]) in students at high risk. In high-risk students, between group effect sizes were 0.58 (depression) and 0.42 (anxiety). In addition, self-esteem was improved. No changes were observed regarding the use of alcohol or disordered eating. Conclusions This study suggests that a transdiagnostic web-based intervention for university students targeting underlying personality risk factors may be a promising way of preventing common mental disorders with a low-intensity intervention. Trial Registration ControlledTrials.com ISRCTN14342225 PMID:24736388

Musiat, Peter; Conrod, Patricia; Treasure, Janet; Tylee, Andre; Williams, Chris; Schmidt, Ulrike

2014-01-01

435

Rates of Change IM&E Workshop, March 2729, 2010  

E-print Network

Key issues and common misconceptions 2.1 Centrality The concept of rate of change is perhaps misconceptions about rates of change. Common misconceptions: · Many students have a poor grasp of the concept linguistic and notational issues associated with these distinctions. Common misconceptions: · Students tend

McGraw, Rebecca

436

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report The carbon sequestration potential of three common turfgrasses  

E-print Network

sequestration potential of three common turfgrasses: Lolium perenne; Fescue rubra; and Poa pratensis Yihan Wu; Fescue rubra; and Poa pratensis BIOL 448 ­ DIRECTED STUDIES IN BIOLOGY YIHAN WU August 30, 2013 Research

437

Students' Knowledge of "Things That Go Bump in the Night."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questionnaires designed to tap misconceptions of the content of psychology courses can serve as pedagogical devices useful for introducing students to topics and for evaluating student learning. The topic of sleep and dreams is of particular interest to students. To develop a useful introductory tool and to evaluate students' knowledge of sleep,…

Palladino, Joseph J.; Carducci, Bernardo J.

438

Uncovering Student Thinking in Mathematics: 25 Formative Assessment Probes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students learn at varying rates, and if a misconception in mathematics develops early, it may be carried from year to year and obstruct a student's progress. To identify fallacies in students' preconceived ideas, "Uncovering Student Thinking in Mathematics" offers educators a powerful diagnostic technique in the form of field-tested assessment…

Rose, Cheryl M.; Minton, Leslie; Arline, Carolyn B.

2006-01-01

439

Urban High School Students' Critical Science Agency: Conceptual Understandings and Environmental Actions Around Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates how the enactment of a climate change curriculum supports students' development of critical science agency, which includes students developing deep understandings of science concepts and the ability to take action at the individual and community levels. We examined the impact of a four to six week urban ecology curriculum on students from three different urban high schools in the USA. Data collection included pre and posttest written assessments from all students ( n = 75) and pre and post interviews from focal students ( n = 22) to examine how students' conceptual understandings, beliefs and environmental actions changed. Our analyses showed that at the beginning of the curriculum, the majority of students believed that climate change was occurring; yet, they had limited conceptual understandings about climate change and were engaged in limited environmental actions. By the end of the curriculum, students had a significant increase in their understanding of climate change and the majority of students reported they were now engaged in actions to limit their personal impact on climate change. These findings suggest that believing a scientific theory (e.g. climate change) is not sufficient for critical science agency; rather, conceptual understandings and understandings of personal actions impact students' choices. We recommend that future climate change curriculum focus on supporting students' development of critical science agency by addressing common student misconceptions and by focusing on how students' actions can have significant impacts on the environment.

McNeill, Katherine L.; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

2012-04-01

440

Which common clinical conditions should medical students be able to manage by graduation? A perspective from Australian interns  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The objectives of the study were to report the devel- opment of a core curriculum that details the clinical conditions medical students should be able to manage upon graduation; and to canvass the opinion of interns (first-year postgraduate doctors) regarding their perceptions of the level of skill required to manage each condition. Literature relating to core curriculum development and

I. E. Rolfe; S.-A. Pearson; R. W. Sanson-Fisher; C. Ringland; S. Bayley; A. Hart; S. Kelly

2002-01-01

441

The Effects of Scripted Peer Tutoring and Programming Common Stimuli on Social Interactions of a Student with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of scripted peer-tutoring reading activities, with and without programmed common play-related stimuli, on social interactions between a kindergartner with autism spectrum disorder and his typically developing peer-tutoring partners during free play. A withdrawal design with multiple baselines across peers showed no…

Petursdottir, Anna-Lind; McComas, Jennifer; McMaster, Kristen; Horner, Kathy

2007-01-01

442

Addressing secondary students' naïve ideas about freshwater springs in order to develop an instructional tool to promote conceptual reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Water knowledge" has now become a socio-political and future-orientated necessity. Erroneous notions or preconceptions of hydrology can have a deleterious effect on our understanding of the scientific facts and their interrelations that are of relevance to sustainable water management. This explorative pilot study shows that erroneous and naïve ideas about the origin of freshwater springs are common at the lower secondary level. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to investigate the nature of misconceptions about freshwater springs among 13-year-old students, and (2) to develop an efficient instructional tool that promotes conceptual reconstruction in the learners' minds. To assess students' naïve ideas we conducted interviews, examined student work, and asked students to fill in a questionnaire. The identified naïve ideas were used to construct an instructional tool based on the findings of learning psychology aiming at promoting deep learning, thus facilitating a lasting conceptual reconstruction of the concept of freshwater springs.

Reinfried, S.; Tempelmann, S.; Aeschbacher, U.

2012-02-01

443

Correcting Misconception Using Unrealistic Virtual Reality Simulation in Physics Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we have developed an unrealistic simulation program presented in an immersive virtual reality system according to students' concept no matter whether the concept is correct or not. The students can be actively engaged in discussion about the reality in nature. We investigated how the unrealistic virtual reality program affects students' cognitive conflict and conceptual change. Our result

Jong-Heon Kim; Sang-Tae Park; Heebok Lee; Heeman Lee

2005-01-01

444

Neuromyths in Education: Prevalence and Predictors of Misconceptions among Teachers  

PubMed Central

The OECD’s Brain and Learning project (2002) emphasized that many misconceptions about the brain exist among professionals in the field of education. Though these so-called “neuromyths” are loosely based on scientific facts, they may have adverse effects on educational practice. The present study investigated the prevalence and predictors of neuromyths among teachers in selected regions in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. A large observational survey design was used to assess general knowledge of the brain and neuromyths. The sample comprised 242 primary and secondary school teachers who were interested in the neuroscience of learning. It would be of concern if neuromyths were found in this sample, as these teachers may want to use these incorrect interpretations of neuroscience findings in their teaching practice. Participants completed an online survey containing 32 statements about the brain and its influence on learning, of which 15 were neuromyths. Additional data was collected regarding background variables (e.g., age, sex, school type). Results showed that on average, teachers believed 49% of the neuromyths, particularly myths related to commercialized educational programs. Around 70% of the general knowledge statements were answered correctly. Teachers who read popular science magazines achieved higher scores on general knowledge questions. More general knowledge also predicted an increased belief in neuromyths. These findings suggest that teachers who are enthusiastic about the possible application of neuroscience findings in the classroom find it difficult to distinguish pseudoscience from scientific facts. Possessing greater general knowledge about the brain does not appear to protect teachers from believing in neuromyths. This demonstrates the need for enhanced interdisciplinary communication to reduce such misunderstandings in the future and establish a successful collaboration between neuroscience and education. PMID:23087664

Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki C.; Howard-Jones, Paul; Jolles, Jelle

2012-01-01

445

Neuromyths in Education: Prevalence and Predictors of Misconceptions among Teachers.  

PubMed

The OECD's Brain and Learning project (2002) emphasized that many misconceptions about the brain exist among professionals in the field of education. Though these so-called "neuromyths" are loosely based on scientific facts, they may have adverse effects on educational practice. The present study investigated the prevalence and predictors of neuromyths among teachers in selected regions in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. A large observational survey design was used to assess general knowledge of the brain and neuromyths. The sample comprised 242 primary and secondary school teachers who were interested in the neuroscience of learning. It would be of concern if neuromyths were found in this sample, as these teachers may want to use these incorrect interpretations of neuroscience findings in their teaching practice. Participants completed an online survey containing 32 statements about the brain and its influence on learning, of which 15 were neuromyths. Additional data was collected regarding background variables (e.g., age, sex, school type). Results showed that on average, teachers believed 49% of the neuromyths, particularly myths related to commercialized educational programs. Around 70% of the general knowledge statements were answered correctly. Teachers who read popular science magazines achieved higher scores on general knowledge questions. More general knowledge also predicted an increased belief in neuromyths. These findings suggest that teachers who are enthusiastic about the possible application of neuroscience findings in the classroom find it difficult to distinguish pseudoscience from scientific facts. Possessing greater general knowledge about the brain does not appear to protect teachers from believing in neuromyths. This demonstrates the need for enhanced interdisciplinary communication to reduce such misunderstandings in the future and establish a successful collaboration between neuroscience and education. PMID:23087664

Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki C; Howard-Jones, Paul; Jolles, Jelle

2012-01-01

446

Students' preconceptions in introductory mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from written tests and videotaped problem-solving interviews show that many physics students have a stable, alternative view of the relationship between force and acceleration. This ''conceptual primitive'' is misunderstood at the qualitative level in addition to any difficulties that might occur with mathematical formulation. The misconception is highly resistant to change and is remarkably similar to one discussed by

John Clement

1982-01-01

447

Students' Preconceptions in Introductory Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses data from tests and videotaped interviews indicating conceptual primitives as a source of student difficulty in physics. These include key concepts (mass, acceleration) and fundamental principles/models (Newton's and conservation laws, atomic model). Demonstrates that misconceptions can be studied using problems of minimum complexity to…

Clement, John

1982-01-01

448

Using Hollywood Movies to Teach Basic Geological Concepts: A Comparison of Student Outcomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the history of cinema, events based in Earth Science have been the focus of many an action- disaster plot. From the most recent 2008 remake of Journey to the Center of the Earth, to 1965's Crack in the World, and all the way back to the 1925 silent film rendition of The Lost World, Hollywood's obsession with the geological sciences has been clear. These particular sub-genres of disaster films and science fiction present science that, from a Hollywood viewpoint, looks exciting and seems realistic. However, from a scientific viewpoint, the presentations of science are often shockingly incorrect and unfortunately serve to perpetuate common misconceptions. In 2003, Western Kentucky University began offering an elective non-majors science course, Geology and Cinema, to combat these misconceptions while using the framework of Hollywood films as a tool to appeal and connect to a broad student population. To see if this method is truly working, this study performs a student outcome comparison for basic geologic knowledge and general course perception between several sections of standard, lecture-based Introductory Geology courses and concurrent semester sections of Geology and Cinema. Preliminary results indicate that while performance data is similar between the courses, students have a more positive perception of the Cinema sections.

Crowder, M. E.

2008-12-01

449

Secondary Students' Interpretations of Photosynthesis and Plant Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies misconceptions held by grade 9 students (14-15-years old) in Turkey about photosynthesis and plant nutrition. Uses a questionnaire to test students' conceptions and reports conflicting and often incorrect ideas about photosynthesis, respiration, and energy flow in plants. Suggests that there are difficulties in changing students' prior…

Ozay, Esra; Oztas, Haydar

2003-01-01

450

Scherr, Modeling student thinking... Page 1 of 12 9/6/2005 Modeling student thinking: An example from special relativity  

E-print Network

Scherr, Modeling student thinking... Page 1 of 12 9/6/2005 Modeling student thinking: An example correspond to the "misconceptions" and "pieces" models of student reasoning. I then analyze instructional models. I show that specific instructional strategies reflect specific theoretical orientations

Maryland at College Park, University of

451

Environmental pollution, pesticides, and the prevention of cancer: misconceptions.  

PubMed

The major causes of cancer are: 1) smoking, which accounts for about a third of U.S. cancer and 90% of lung cancer; 2) dietary imbalances: lack of sufficient amounts of dietary fruits and vegetables. The quarter of the population eating the fewest fruits and vegetables has double the cancer rate for most types of cancer than the quarter eating the most; 3) chronic infections, mostly in developing countries; and 4) hormonal factors, influenced primarily by lifestyle. There is no cancer epidemic except for cancer of the lung due to smoking. Cancer mortality rates have declined by 16% since 1950 (excluding lung cancer). Regulatory policy that focuses on traces of synthetic chemicals is based on misconceptions about animal cancer tests. Recent research indicates that rodent carcinogens are not rare. Half of all chemicals tested in standard high-dose animal cancer tests, whether occurring naturally or produced synthetically, are "carcinogens"; there are high-dose effects in rodent cancer tests that are not relevant to low-dose human exposures and which contribute to the high proportion of chemicals that test positive. The focus of regulatory policy is on synthetic chemicals, although 99.9% of the chemicals humans ingest are natural. More than 1000 chemicals have been described in coffee: 28 have been tested and 19 are rodent carcinogens. Plants in the human diet contain thousands of natural "pesticides" produced by plants to protect themselves from insects and other predators: 63 have been tested and 35 are rodent carcinogens. There is no convincing evidence that synthetic chemical pollutants are important as a cause of human cancer. Regulations targeted to eliminate minuscule levels of synthetic chemicals are enormously expensive: the Environmental Protection Agency has estimated that environmental regulations cost society $140 billion/year. Others have estimated that the median toxic control program costs 146 times more per hypothetical life-year saved than the median medical intervention. Attempting to reduce tiny hypothetical risks has other costs as well: if reducing synthetic pesticides makes fruits and vegetables more expensive, thereby decreasing consumption, then the cancer rate will increase, especially for the poor. The prevention of cancer will come from knowledge obtained from biomedical research, education of the public, and lifestyle changes made by individuals. A reexamination of priorities in cancer prevention, both public and private, seems called for. PMID:9367339

Ames, B N; Gold, L S

1997-11-01

452

Motion implies force: Where to expect vestiges of misconception?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The reported progress of post-instruction students in understanding the force-motion relationship in classical mechanics might be partially caused by the kind of questions used in tests. Citing a parallelism with historical progress towards correct force-motion understanding, this research points to the factors which might help to discover the vestiges of the naive views of motion in novice students, and explains the motivation of their regression to the motion-implies-force preconception. Among the factors of the novel context of qualitative questions, and situations of nonzero acceleration, especially when velocity and force are unparallel. The understanding of these factors should help to foster genuine progress in students' conceptual understanding as well as to provide its reliable check. The research sample included pre- and post-instructional high-school students, students of a University Pre-academic Study Department and preservice teachers in a Technology Teachers College.

Galili, Igal; Bar, Varda

2006-05-08

453

A Comparative Qualitative Study of Misconceptions Associated with Contraceptive Use in Southern and Northern Ghana  

PubMed Central

Evidence from Ghana consistently shows that unmet need for contraception is pervasive with many possible causes, yet how these may differ by cultural zone remains poorly understood. This qualitative study was designed to elicit information on the nature and form of misconceptions associated with contraceptive use among northern and southern Ghanaians. Twenty-two focus group discussions (FGDs) with married community members were carried out. Community health officers, community health volunteers, and health care managers were also interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. FGDs and in-depth interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using QSR Nvivo 10 to compare contraceptive misconceptions in northern and southern Ghana. Results indicate that misconceptions associated with the use of contraceptives were widespread but similar in both settings. Contraceptives were perceived to predispose women to both primary and secondary infertility, uterine fibroids, and cancers. As regular menstrual flow was believed to prevent uterine fibroids, contraceptive use-related amenorrhea was thought to render acceptors vulnerable to uterine fibroids as well as cervical and breast cancers. Contraceptive acceptors were stigmatized and ridiculed as promiscuous. Among northern respondents, condom use was generally perceived to inhibit erection and therefore capable of inducing male impotence, while in southern Ghana, condom use was believed to reduce sensation and sexual gratification. The study indicates that misconceptions associated with contraceptive use are widespread in both regions. Moreover, despite profound social and contextual differences that distinguish northern and southern Ghanaians, prevailing fears and misconceptions are shared by respondents from both settings. Findings attest to the need for improved communication to provide accurate information for dispelling these misconceptions.

Adongo, Philip B.; Tabong, Philip T.-N.; Azongo, Thomas B.; Phillips, James F.; Sheff, Mallory C.; Stone, Allison E.; Tapsoba, Placide

2014-01-01

454

Misconceptions about High-Fructose Corn Syrup: Is It Uniquely Responsible for Obesity, Reactive Dicarbonyl Compounds, and Advanced Glycation Endproducts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Misconceptions about high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) abound in the scientific literature, the advice of health professionals to their patients, media reporting, product advertising, and the irrational behavior of consumers. Foremost among these is the misconception that HFCS has a unique and substantive responsibility for the current obesity crisis. Inaccurate information from ostensibly reliable sources and selective presentation of research data

John S. White

2009-01-01

455

Deriving Common Model Characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students confront several different models - from the DNA helix Watson and Crick constructed in their laboratory to a map of McDonalds density in the US - and work in small groups to derive their commonalities.

Momsen, Jennifer; Long, Tammy M.; Speth, Elena B.

456

Math, Literacy, & Common Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly every state has signed on to use the Common Core State Standards as a framework for teaching English/language arts and mathematics to students. Translating them for the classroom, however, requires schools, teachers, and students to change the way they approach teaching and learning. This report examines the progress some states have made…

Education Week, 2012

2012-01-01

457

The experience of dysmenorrhoea among Ghanaian senior high and university students: pain characteristics and effects  

PubMed Central

Background Dysmenorrhoea is a common problem of women at the reproductive age and may have negative effect on the education of females at various stages on the educational ladder. Context and purpose This study sought to gain an in-depth understanding of the experience of dysmenorrhoea and its effect on female students in a secondary and a tertiary institution in Accra, Ghana. Methods The study employed a descriptive phenomenology design and was conducted at a University and a Senior High School (SHS) in Accra. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit participants and data was saturated with 16 participants. Concurrent analysis was done by applying the processes of content analysis and the NVivo software was used to manage the data. Results It was realized that dysmenorrhoea is associated with symptoms such as diarrhoea, headache and vomiting. Pain may start one week to the day of menstruation and the severity differed across the days of menstruation. The effect of dysmenorrhoea included activity intolerance, altered emotion and interaction, altered sleep pattern, absenteeism and inattentiveness, wishes and regrets, and misconceptions. Conclusions It was concluded that severe dysmenorrhoea has a debilitating effect on female students and is associated with misconceptions that could result in drastic action with fatal consequences. Thus, there is the need to enhance education on dysmenorrhoea, and an aggressive step should be taken to effectively manage dysmenorrhoea. PMID:25064081

2014-01-01

458

Coherent Backscattering: Conceptions and Misconceptions (Reply to Comments by Bruce W. Hapke and Robert M. Nelson)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the note by Hapke and Nelson has virtually no relevance to our original publication, it contains a number of statements that are misleading and/or wrong. We, therefore, use this opportunity to dispel several profound misconceptions that continue to hinder the progress in remote sensing of planetary surfaces.

Tishkovets, Victor P.; Mishchenko, Michael

2010-01-01

459

Therapeutic misconception in research subjects: development and validation of a measure. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Therapeutic misconception (TM) occurs when patients are not able to make a distinction between the goals of research and the aims of routine treatment. TM is experienced by over 50% of potential participants and may be a barrier to obtaining meaningful consent. This study validated a new, theoretically grounded measure of TM.

460

Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Misconceptions about Colligative Properties: Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed at identifying prospective chemistry teachers' misconceptions of colligative properties. In order to fulfill this aim, a diagnostic test composed of four open-ended questions was used. The test was administered to seventy-eight prospective chemistry teachers just before qualifying to teaching in secondary schools. Nine different…

Pinarbasi, Tacettin; Sozbilir, Mustafa; Canpolat, Nurtac

2009-01-01

461

Mental Models and other Misconceptions in Children's Understanding of the Earth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive ''mental models'' of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous.…

Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

2009-01-01

462

Seafarers, Great Circles, and a Tad of Rhumb: Understanding the Mercator Misconception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being flat, Mercator maps inherently misrepresent some aspects of Earth's geography. That's because there is absolutely no way to simultaneously conserve all of the elements of three-dimensional space in a two-dimensional model. To dispel misconceptions, check out the Activity Worksheet and the website resources included in this article. Along…

DiSpezio, Michael A.

2010-01-01

463

Why is the ocean blue? One of these misconceptions is that the ocean is blue  

E-print Network

Why is the ocean blue? One of these misconceptions is that the ocean is blue because the sky owed its color to the sky, it would be a lighter shade of blue and it would be white on cloudy days transparent not turquoise blue, as it is observed even in indoor pools, where there's no sky to be reflected

Cruz-Pol, Sandra L.

464

Issues in Sexuality for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: Myths, Misconceptions, and Mistreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The myths and misconceptions surrounding the topic of sexuality and people with developmental disabilities were examined to better understand the detrimental effects they were having on the sexual health of individuals with developmental disabilities. Persons with developmental disabilities are often infantilised and viewed as asexual. This…

Irvine, Angela

2005-01-01

465

Environmental Science Misconceptions--Resolution of an Anomaly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on research on the ability of a short-term intervention to substantially increase elementary pre-service teacher knowledge of major environmental science issues. The study was conducted each semester over seven years. Student understanding of such issues as global warming, ozone depletion, and local groundwater problems was…

Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

466

Task Templates Based on Misconception Research. CSE Report 646.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers spend much time and effort developing measures, including measures of students? conceptual knowledge. In an effort to make such assessments easier to design, the Principled Assessment Designs for Inquiry (PADI) project has developed a framework for designing tasks and to illustrate that its use has ?reverse engineered? several …

Cromley, Jennifer G.; Mislevy, Robert J.

2004-01-01

467

Chemistry Misconceptions Associated with Understanding Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration…

Cliff, William H.

2009-01-01

468

Exploring Student Understanding of Energy through the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We present a study of student understanding of energy in quantum mechanical tunneling and barrier penetration. This paper will focus on student responses to two questions that were part of a test given in class to two modern physics classes and in individual interviews with 17 students. The test, which we refer to as the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey (QMCS), is being developed to measure student understanding of basic concepts in quantum mechanics. In this paper we explore and clarify the previously reported misconception that reflection from a barrier is due to particles having a range of energies rather than wave properties. We also confirm previous studies reporting the student misconception that energy is lost in tunneling, and report a misconception not previously reported, that potential energy diagrams shown in tunneling problems do not represent the potential energy of the particle itself. The present work is part of a much larger study of student understanding of quantum mechanics.

Mckagan, Sam B.; Wieman, Carl E.

2009-07-13

469

Student resources for learning introductory physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With good reason, physics education research has focused almost exclusively on student difficulties and misconceptions. This work has been productive for curriculum development as well as in motivating the physics teaching community to examine and reconsider methods and assumptions, but it is limited in what it can tell us about student knowledge and learning. This article reviews perspectives on student resources for learning, with an emphasis on the practical benefits to be gained for instruction.

Hammer, David

2005-11-23

470

Students' Conceptions of Scale Regarding Groundwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study involved surveying three groups of students regarding their ideas about the structure, scale, and percieved importance of groundwater. The survey results show that many participants selected sizes of groundwater structures that mirrored surface analogs; however, some students applied scales on the order of houses and skyscrapers to typical pore and crack structures. The authors' research indicates that students bring to the classroom many misconceptions that are well-positioned to interfere with their understanding of hydrogeologic principles.

Dickerson, Daniel; Callahan, Timothy; Van Sickle, Meta; Hay, Genny

471

Common sense concepts about motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common sense beliefs of college students about motion and its causes are surveyed and analyzed. A taxonomy of common sense concepts which conflict with Newtonian theory is developed as a guide to instruction.

Halloun, Ibrahim; Hestenes, David

2005-11-02

472

Generating Cognitive Dissonance in Student Interviews through Multiple Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores what students understand about enzyme-substrate interactions, using multiple representations of the phenomenon. In this paper we describe our use of the 3 Phase-Single Interview Technique with multiple representations to generate cognitive dissonance within students in order to uncover misconceptions of enzyme-substrate…

Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

2012-01-01

473

Are You Teaching Your Students about Stem Cells?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity targets students' misconceptions about embryonic and adult stem cells while also addressing an important grades 9-12 science content standard. The authors designed the activity to provide students an opportunity to explore differences between embryonic and adult stem cells prior to formal explanation. The overarching goal of this…

Concannon, James; Brown, Patrick L.; Brandt, Trisha

2009-01-01

474

The Conceptual Understanding of Sound by Students with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The purpose of the study presented here was to understand and describe the misconceptions of students with visual impairments about sound and instructional techniques that may help them to develop a scientific understanding. Methods: Semistructured interview-centered pre-and posttests were used to identify the students' conceptual…

Wild, Tiffany A.; Hilson, Margilee P.; Hobson, Sally M.

2013-01-01

475

Students' Conceptions as Dynamically Emergent Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is wide consensus that learning in science must be considered a process of conceptual change rather than simply information accrual. There are three perspectives on students' conceptions and conceptual change in science that have significant presence in the science education literature: students' ideas as misconceptions, as…

Brown, David E.

2014-01-01

476

Describing Changes in Undergraduate Students' Preconceptions of Research Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that students bring naive scientific conceptions to learning situations which are often incongruous with accepted scientific explanations. These preconceptions are frequently determined to be misconceptions; consequentially instructors spend time to remedy these beliefs and bring students' understanding of scientific concepts to…

Cartrette, David P.; Melroe-Lehrman, Bethany M.

2012-01-01

477

Student Difficulties in Learning Density: A Distributed Cognition Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Density has been reported as one of the most difficult concepts for secondary school students (e.g. Smith et al. 1997). Discussion about the difficulties of learning this concept has been largely focused on the complexity of the concept itself or student misconceptions. Few, if any, have investigated how the concept of density was constituted in…

Xu, Lihua; Clarke, David

2012-01-01

478

Junior High School Students' Ideas about the Shape and Size of the Atom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of the atom is one of the building blocks of science education. Although the concept is a foundation for students' subsequent learning experiences, it is difficult for students to comprehend because of common misconceptions and its abstractness. The purpose of this study is to examine junior high school students' (ages 12-13) ideas about the shape and size of the atom and the evolution of these ideas over 2 years. The study's sample size was 126 students, including 76 sixth-grade and 50 seventh-grade students. The educational curriculum and relevant literature guided the development of a questionnaire that consisted of three open-ended questions intended to determine students' knowledge of the structure and physical properties of the atom. After administering the questionnaire, collected data were analysed qualitatively. The study shows that students had difficulty developing a mental image of the atom, and contrary to the conclusions of other studies, students demonstrated a preference for working with complex and abstract models.

Cokelez, Aytekin

2012-08-01

479

A cross-college age study of science and nonscience students' conceptions of basic astronomy concepts in preservice training for high-school teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A questionnaire of 19 questions given to a total of 433 students in college preservice training for future high-school teachers showed that science and nonscience majors held a series of misconceptions on several central topics in basic astronomy.

Trumper, R.

480

Best Practices for Identifying Gifted Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents often go to principals to ask for help in supporting their gifted children. They may request acceleration for their child in mathematics, a specialized curriculum or course, extracurricular activities, a pullout program, or even a different teacher. Since misconceptions about identifying gifted students are prevalent, it's important that…

Johnsen, Susan K.

2009-01-01

481

Making Mathematics Relevant for Students in Bali  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reactions of students towards mathematics in Bali (in the NW Province of Cameroon) are appalling. This is due to a misconception regarding its uses. The author thinks that these problems derive partly from the influence that the Western curriculum has had in Bali--mathematical contexts are based around train times in Liverpool instead of from…

Sema, Pryde Nubea

2008-01-01

482

Incentivising students to pursue Computer Science Programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistics show that the number of students enrolling in technology based degree programmes has dropped dramatically in the past number of years. There are many possible reasons for this, including misconceptions on the nature of the discipline and a media fueled perception of a lack of employment in the field. This paper reports on the design, realisation and assessment of

Meriel Huggard; C. McGoldrick

2006-01-01

483

Turkish Students' Ideas about Global Warming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global warming in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global warming were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this study.…

Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

2008-01-01

484

Student Illustrations and Writing About the Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity used to identify students' initial ideas and potential scientific misconceptions about the Sun. Learners will draw and label the Sun and write a supplemental paragraph containing what they know about the Sun. This is Activity 1 of a larger resource entitled Eye on the Sky.

485

Reducing Misconceptions and False Beliefs in Police and Criminal Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although certainly not alone, the field of police and criminal psychology seems to be an area that is highly susceptible to myths and misinformation. Whether it is the notion that police have higher suicide and divorce rates or that crime rates greatly increase during a full moon, there are many commonly held beliefs that are not supported by scientific evidence.

Michael G. Aamodt

2008-01-01

486

Knowledge communication and CBR Frode Srmo1  

E-print Network

. In addition, many systems contain a library of common misconceptions in the domain (bug libraries), used to identify the student's likely misconceptions about the domain. Given a student model, it is expected

Aamodt, Agnar

487

Student Attitudes Towards Public Funding Of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research in astronomy is strongly dependent on public (taxpayer) dollars. In this study we examine the attitudes of college students toward funding of astronomy projects. A survey was given to 269 college students prior to taking an introductory astronomy course. Students were given a short test designed to examine misconceptions about astronomy. They were then asked about their willingness to support public funding for astronomy projects. Students with fundamental misconceptions about mundane topics such as the cause of the seasons and phases of the moon were less than half as likely to support public funding of astronomy projects. Results are also reported showing the relationship between a willingness to fund projects and whether the students had experiences including reading books or magazines on astronomy, exposure to astronomy in high school, and using a telescope.

Stine, Peter

2009-01-01

488

Common Wart  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Common Wart A parent's guide to condition and treatment information A A A This image displays a large wart on ... over 100 types of the human papillomavirus (HPV). Common warts are usually found on areas of the ...

489

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In the course of a year, people ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest ...

490

The Ideas of Greek High School Students about the "Ozone Layer."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study of Greek high school students' (n=116) perceptions of the ozone layer. Finds that students have a good understanding of the position and purpose of the ozone layer in terms of protection from ultraviolet rays, but students also hold misconceptions linking the ozone layer to the greenhouse effect and other forms of local…

Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin; Papantoniou, Vasso Spiliotopoulou

1999-01-01

491

Assessing 16-Year-Old Students' Understanding of Aqueous Solution at Submicroscopic Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Submicrorepresentations (SMR) could be an important element, not only for explaining the experimental observations to students, but also in the process of evaluating students' knowledge and identifying their chemical misconceptions. This study investigated the level of students' understanding of the solution concentration and the process of…

Devetak, Iztok; Vogrinc, Janez; Glazar, Sasa Aleksij

2009-01-01

492

A Cross-Age Study of Student Understanding of the Concept of Diffusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines seventh grade life science students, tenth grade biology students, and college zoology students for understanding of the concept of diffusion. Describes the differences among the grade levels in sound or partial understanding, misconceptions, and no understanding. Discusses the effect of developmental level on understanding. (KR)

Westbrook, Susan L.; Marek, Edmund A.

1991-01-01

493

Primary Student-Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect: A mixed method study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greenhouse effect is a reasonably complex scientific phenomenon which can be used as a model to examine students' conceptual understanding in science. Primary student-teachers' understanding of global environmental problems, such as climate change and ozone depletion, indicates that they have many misconceptions. The present mixed method study examines Finnish primary student-teachers' understanding of the greenhouse effect based on the

Ilkka Johannes Ratinen

2011-01-01

494

Title of Dissertation: THE DYNAMICS OF VARIABILITY IN INTRODUCTORY PHYSICS STUDENTS' THINKING: EXAMPLES FROM  

E-print Network

' THINKING: EXAMPLES FROM KINEMATICS Brian W. Frank, Doctor of Philosophy, 2009 Directed By: Research to address students' existing intuitions about the physical world as an integral part of learning physics of student misconceptions cast students' intuitive thinking as largely static, unitary in structure

Maryland at College Park, University of

495

Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Students' Understanding of Concepts in Electrochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was conducted to investigate the degree of effectiveness of cooperative learning instruction over a traditional approach on 11th grade students' understanding of electrochemistry. The study involved forty-one 11th grade students from two science classes with the same teacher. To determine students' misconceptions concerning…

Acar, Burcin; Tarhan, Leman

2007-01-01

496

Reducing the Over-Referral of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students (CLD) for Language Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This position paper presents a conceptual framework for preventing the inappropriate referral of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students for language disability related services. The article examines the causes and impact of over-referral of CLD students for language disabilities from sociopolitical, socio-cultural, sociolinguistic, and socioeconomic perspectives. It argues that general education teachers' misconceptions about CLD students comprise an enormous challenge.

Clara Lee Brown

497

Using Models to Address Misconceptions in Size and Scale Related to the Earth, Moon, Solar System, and Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many children and adults have misconceptions about space-related size and distance: Earth-Moon size and distance, distance between the planets, distances to the nearest stars (other than the Sun), the size of the Milky Way Galaxy, and the size of the Universe. An illustration or visualization may reinforce someone's understanding of, for example, the phases of the Moon. However, what other misconceptions, especially related to scale, are being reinforced?

Lebofsky, L. A.; Cañizo, T. L.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Salthouse, K.

2013-04-01

498

Privacy Rights of Students The Federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 [also commonly known and referred to as The  

E-print Network

. IT SHOULD BE NOTED, HOWEVER, THAT SJSU POLICY ON DISCLOSURE OF STUDENT INFORMATION IS MORE RESTRICTIVE THANBULLETIN Privacy Rights of Students The Federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 of parents and students as well as access to their records by third parties as maintained by the institution

Eirinaki, Magdalini

499

Clays, common  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

Virta, R.L.

1998-01-01