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1

Omani Twelfth Grade Students' Most Common Misconceptions in Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study, undertaken in the Sultanate of Oman, explored twelfth grade students' common misconceptions in seven chemistry conceptual areas. The sample included 786 twelfth grade students in Oman while the instrument was a two-tier test called Chemistry Misconceptions Diagnostic Test (CMDT), consisting of 25 items with 12 items…

Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah K.; Al-Shuaili, Ali H.; Taylor, Neil

2012-01-01

2

Common Student Misconceptions in Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study represents a preliminary investigation designed to identify common misconceptions in students' understanding of physiological and biochemical topics within the academic domain of sport and exercise sciences. A specifically designed misconception inventory (consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions) was administered to a cohort…

Morton, James P.; Doran, Dominic A.; MacLaren, Don P. M.

2008-01-01

3

Common student misconceptions in exercise physiology and biochemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The present study represents a preliminary investigationdesigned to identify common misconceptions in students' understanding of physiological and biochemical topics within the academic domain of sport and exercise sciences. A specifically designed misconception inventory (consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions) was administered to a cohort of level 1, 2, and 3 undergraduate students enrolled in physiology and biochemistry-related modules of the BSc Sport Science degree at the authors' institute. Of the 10 misconceptions proposed by the authors, 9 misconceptions were confirmed. Of these nine misconceptions, only one misconception appeared to have been alleviated by the current teaching strategy employed during the progression from level 1 to 3 study. The remaining eight misconceptions prevailed throughout the course of the degree program, suggesting that students enter and leave university with the same misconceptions in certain areas of exercise physiology and biochemistry. The possible origins of these misconceptions are discussed, as are potential teaching strategies to prevent and/or remediate them for future years.

James P. Morton (Liverpool John Moores University Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences); Dominic A Doran (John Moores University Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences); Don P.M. MacLaren (John Moores University Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences)

2008-01-28

4

Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol  

MedlinePLUS

Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:May 29,2014 Cholesterol can be both good and bad, so it's important to learn the facts about ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

5

Common Misconceptions concerning Graduate School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses five common misconceptions that graduate students may have about their future graduate school experiences. Two of these misconceptions are that graduate school would be a continuation of undergraduate experiences and that the study of chemical engineering has nothing to do with human values, ethics, and morals. (JN)

Duda, J. L.

1984-01-01

6

Ten Common NWP Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Webcast introduces forecasters to ten of the most commonly encountered or significant misconceptions about NWP models. It attempts to dispel these misconceptions with the truth about how NWP is performed and provides advice on how NWP products may be used more effectively with this knowledge. Based on a teletraining session delivery in 2001, the content has been revised and updated, and new examples are drawn from both U.S. and Canadian models.

Spangler, Tim

2002-01-01

7

Common Misconceptions about Students from South?East Asia Studying in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

International students from South?East Asia who study in Australia are often portrayed negatively compared to local students in terms of learning and study practices. This article discusses some of the misconceptions held by university teachers and administrators about South?East Asian students studying in Australia and examines them in the light of recent research. In particular, it challenges the views that

Denise Chalmers; Simone Volet

1997-01-01

8

Common Misconceptions about Icebergs and Glaciers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes some common misconceptions that elementary students may have about icebergs and glaciers (including density and buoyancy). It also includes suggestions for formative assessment and teaching for conceptual change.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

9

Common misconceptions about professional licensure.  

PubMed

Although most health care professionals know that licensing boards can take disciplinary action against them for professional misconduct or gross negligence in clinical practice, nurses may not appreciate the true extent of authority the nursing boards maintain or the issues they address. This three-part series will discuss nursing disciplinary actions and provide tips for maintaining one's license in good standing. Part 1 discusses misconceptions nurses commonly have about licensure. Part 2 will discuss common reasons boards of nursing conduct investigations and take disciplinary action. Part 3 will be a discussion of strategies for protecting your license. PMID:23013700

Brous, Edie

2012-10-01

10

Science Sampler: Correcting student misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Before learning any formal science, children try to make sense of natural phenomena on their own. However, several studies have shown that it can be difficult to convince a student to give up a long-held misconception in favor of an accurate scientific explanation. Misconceptions can be confronted through hands-on and minds-on activities. The strategies outlined in this article will foster a climate of inquiry within the classroom.

Abdi, S. W.

2006-01-01

11

Grade-12 Students' Misconceptions of Covalent Bonding and Structure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a multiple choice, pencil and paper, diagnostic instrument used to measure student understanding of covalent bonding and structure concepts. Reports evidence of seven commonly held misconceptions. (MVL)

Peterson, Raymond F.; Treagust, David F.

1989-01-01

12

Overcoming Students' Misconceptions in Earth Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Minnesota's Introductory Geology Program recently began to develop and use geologic concept surveys. Designed to measure changes in student knowledge and confidence through the semester, these surveys clearly demonstrate the remarkable tenacity of students' prior knowledge and misconceptions in surviving or resisting course instruction, unless instruction is specifically designed to counteract those misconceptions. Students do not simply absorb new information and knowledge, but interpret it in light of their previous understanding of how things work. They use this previous understanding to interpret, revise and often dismiss new information presented in class. This filtering process is one of the most important, if often overlooked, barriers to effective instruction. The present study demonstrates that classroom `interventions', targeted to specific misconceptions can overcome this barrier. Once students believe that their previous understanding is incorrect or incomplete and inadequately explains phenomena, they are more likely to understand, accept and use a new interpretation in subsequent explanations. These ideas are well known in education departments, but are less well established in the earth science field. Compared to physics and mathematics, earth science education also suffers from a relative lack of research on students' prior knowledge and misconceptions, the basis on which successful `interventions' rely. The present study presents a suite of common earth science misconceptions and demonstrates the effectiveness of targeted `interventions' in overcoming them, compared to traditional instruction methods. The results clearly demonstrate the importance of instructors knowing what knowledge or concepts students bring to their courses, as well as the remarkable effort still needed to identify and document students' perceptions of how the Earth works. This work is sponsored in part by the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE), U.S. Department of Education.

Kirkby, K. C.; Finley, F. N.; Morin, P. J.; Chen, A. P.

2006-12-01

13

Students' Misconceptions in Psychology: How You Ask Matters...Sometimes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions about psychology are prevalent among introductory students. Just how prevalent and what can be done to change these misconceptions depends on valid methods of assessment. The most common method of assessment, the true/false questionnaire, is problematic. The present study compared true/false with forced choice formats to determine…

Taylor, Annette Kujawski; Kowalski, Patricia

2012-01-01

14

Misconceptions - What Students Think They Know  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

StudentsÃÂ understanding of many physiological phenomena is often seriously flawed. That is, students have faulty mental models of many of the things we ask them to learn. Such conceptual difficulties are often referred to as misconceptions. The problem with misconceptions is that they are often quite persistent, and they seriously interfere with the studentsÃÂ ability to learn physiology.

PhD Joel A. Michael (Rush Medical College Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology)

2002-03-01

15

Diagnosing and Dealing with Student Misconceptions: Floating and Sinking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Misconceptions broadly exist in a variety of subject areas, such as physics, biology, geography, and other sciences. Among them, bringing students to an understanding of why things sink and float has proved to be one of the most challenging topics for student conceptual change. To address this issue, the authors designed ten multiple-choice items to help teachers diagnose common misconceptions related to sinking and floating, which are described in this article.

Tomita, Miki K.; Shavelson, Richard J.; Yin, Yue

2008-04-01

16

Misconceptions about Sound among Engineering Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our first objective was to detect misconceptions about the microscopic nature of sound among senior university students enrolled in different engineering programmes (from chemistry to telecommunications). We sought to determine how these misconceptions are expressed (qualitative aspect) and, only very secondarily, to gain a general idea of the…

Pejuan, Arcadi; Bohigas, Xavier; Jaen, Xavier; Periago, Cristina

2012-01-01

17

Linking neuroscientific research on decision making to the educational context of novice students assigned to a multiple-choice scientific task involving common misconceptions about electrical circuits.  

PubMed

Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty and certainty associated with answers to multiple-choice questions involving common misconceptions about electric circuits. Twenty-two scientifically novice participants (humanities and arts college students) were asked, in an fMRI study, whether or not they thought the light bulbs in images presenting electric circuits were lighted up correctly, and if they were certain or uncertain of their answers. When participants reported that they were unsure of their responses, analyses revealed significant activations in brain areas typically involved in uncertainty (anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula cortex, and superior/dorsomedial frontal cortex) and in the left middle/superior temporal lobe. Certainty was associated with large bilateral activations in the occipital and parietal regions usually involved in visuospatial processing. Correct-and-certain answers were associated with activations that suggest a stronger mobilization of visual attention resources when compared to incorrect-and-certain answers. These findings provide insights into brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty that are activated when common misconceptions, identified as such by science education research literature, interfere in decision making in a school-like task. We also discuss the implications of these results from an educational perspective. PMID:24478680

Potvin, Patrice; Turmel, Elaine; Masson, Steve

2014-01-01

18

Misconceptions About Sound Among Engineering Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our first objective was to detect misconceptions about the microscopic nature of sound among senior university students enrolled in different engineering programmes (from chemistry to telecommunications). We sought to determine how these misconceptions are expressed (qualitative aspect) and, only very secondarily, to gain a general idea of the extent to which they are held (quantitative aspect). Our second objective was to explore other misconceptions about wave aspects of sound. We have also considered the degree of consistency in the model of sound used by each student. Forty students answered a questionnaire including open-ended questions. Based on their free, spontaneous answers, the main results were as follows: a large majority of students answered most of the questions regarding the microscopic model of sound according to the scientifically accepted model; however, only a small number answered consistently. The main model misconception found was the notion that sound is propagated through the travelling of air particles, even in solids. Misconceptions and mental-model inconsistencies tended to depend on the engineering programme in which the student was enrolled. However, students in general were inconsistent also in applying their model of sound to individual sound properties. The main conclusion is that our students have not truly internalised the scientifically accepted model that they have allegedly learnt. This implies a need to design learning activities that take these findings into account in order to be truly efficient.

Pejuan, Arcadi; Bohigas, Xavier; Jaén, Xavier; Periago, Cristina

2012-12-01

19

Common Earth Science Misconceptions in Science Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of the Earth science content of science textbooks found a wide range of misconceptions. These are discussed in this article with reference to the published literature on Earth science misconceptions. Most misconceptions occurred in the "sedimentary rocks and processes" and "Earth's structure and plate tectonics" categories; the most…

King, Chris

2012-01-01

20

Misconceptions about Gravity Held by College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was part of a continuing exploration of the naive misconceptions of students in the physical sciences conducted within the context of current literature in alternative frameworks. The sample was selected from among those students registered for a liberal education physical science class at a small private college. The method used was a…

Piburn, Michael D.; And Others

21

Identifying and Reconstructing Common Cold Misconceptions among Developing K-12 Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Common cold misconceptions may contribute to ill-informed decisions and recommendations made by K-12 educators who often encounter infected students. Understanding the structure of educators' misconceptions can be used to improve health instruction in teacher professional preparation programs. Purpose: The purposes of this project were…

Johnson, Marcus Lee; Bungum, Timothy

2013-01-01

22

Applying Scientific Principles to Resolve Student Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions about sinking and floating phenomena are some of the most challenging to overcome (Yin 2005), possibly because explaining sinking and floating requires students to understand challenging topics such as density, force, and motion. Two scientific principles are typically used in U.S. science curricula to explain sinking and floating:…

Yin, Yue

2012-01-01

23

Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Photosynthesis and Plant Respiration: Preliminary Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated the common misconceptions of lower secondary school students regarding the concepts of photosynthesis and plant respiration. These are abstract concepts which are difficult to comprehend for adults let alone for lower secondary school students. Research of the students misconceptions are conducted worldwide. The researches…

Svandova, Katerina

2014-01-01

24

Breaking Down Barriers: Addressing student misconceptions in the K-12 classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A typical astronomy question an educator may ask their students is "What is a black hole?" Many times, students' responses sound more like an episode of Star Trek than an understanding about the universe and how it works: responses such as "Black holes are worm holes in space" or "A black hole is a huge vacuum in space, sucking everything in". These are all common astronomy misconceptions about black holes. A misconception is defined as a preconceived notion of how the world, or in the case of astronomy - the universe, works. Misconceptions may originate for a variety of reasons, from miscommunication, to oversimplification, to misrepresentation via the media or pop culture. Students who latch on to an astronomy misconception may have difficulty learning new information that is built upon the existing misconception. Additionally, educators who are not able to identify and address misconceptions can create learning barriers that may resonate throughout a students' life. This poster will introduce some of the extensive research that has gone into determining typical student misconceptions about astronomy, ways to identify them, and how students develop them. The poster will also explain why teachers need to be aware of ideas and concepts students may harbor as well as how misconceptions can be remedied.

Eisenhamer, B.; McCallister, J. D.; Knisely, L.

2004-05-01

25

The Effective Use of an Interactive Software Program to Reduce Students' Misconceptions about Batteries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The misconceptions of students regarding electricity and electrochemistry in the context of operation of a common flashlight are discussed. An Interactive Software Program (ISP) is used for better conceptual understanding of the operation of commercial batteries in a circuit.

Yang, E.-M.; Greenbowe, T. J.; Andre, T.

2004-01-01

26

Cognitive Processes and Students' Misconceptions in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several categories of misconceptions which appear to be emerging across studies are discussed. They include: mis-perceptions; stunted conceptions; mis-translations; confused conceptions; lost conceptions; and true misconceptions. True misconceptions are metaphors and analogies which represent truly complete systems of explanation but are…

Smith, Deborah C.

27

Students' Misconceptions about Diffusion: How Can They Be Enhanced.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the concept of diffusion is thought to be simple and easily understood by most students, research studies revealed that many misconceptions regarding diffusion exist among secondary education students as well as college freshmen. Describes a study designed to seek out the causes for these misconceptions and to find ways to eliminate them.…

Merek, Edmund A.; And Others

1994-01-01

28

Misconceptions of students and teachers in chemical equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A written test was developed and administered to diagnose misconceptions in different areas of chemical equilibrium among 162 undergraduate chemistry students and 69 school?teachers of chemistry. Analysis of the responses reveal widespread misconceptions among both students and teachers in areas related to the prediction of equilibrium conditions, rate and equilibrium, applying equilibrium principles to daily life, and to acid?base and

Anil C. Banerjee

1991-01-01

29

Misconceptions of Selected Ecological Concepts Held by Some Nigerian Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identified some of the misconceptions held by secondary science students (N=232) related to selected ecological concepts and generalizations. Lists the alternative conceptions expressed by these students on food chains and energy flows and pyramids. Offers perspectives on dealing with the sources of the misconceptions. (ML)

Adeniyi, E. Ola

1985-01-01

30

Students' Misconceptions about Heat Transfer Mechanisms and Elementary Kinetic Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heat and thermodynamics is a conceptually rich area of undergraduate physics. In the Indian context in particular there has been little work done in this area from the point of view of misconceptions. This prompted us to undertake a study in this area. We present a study of students' misconceptions about heat transfer mechanisms, i.e. conduction,…

Pathare, S. R.; Pradhan, H. C.

2010-01-01

31

Misconceptions about "Misconceptions": Preservice Secondary Science Teachers' Views on the Value and Role of Student Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There remains a lack of agreement in the field of science education as to whether student "misconceptions" ought to be considered obstacles or resources, and this has implications for the ways in which prospective teachers think about the value of their students' ideas. This empirical study examines how 14 preservice secondary science teachers in…

Larkin, Douglas

2012-01-01

32

Student Misconceptions of an Electric Circuit: What Do They Mean?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a common misconception in the area of electric circuits at the level of introductory college physics. The data, collected from clinical interviews, shed light on the cognitive sources of misconception. Also discusses some implications for laboratory approaches used in science courses. (Author/SK)

Fredette, Norman H.; Clement, John J.

1981-01-01

33

Students' Misconceptions in Electrochemistry: Current Flow in Electrolyte Solutions and the Salt Bridge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines students' misconceptions and proposed mechanisms related to current flow in electrolyte solutions and the salt bridge. Confirms reported misconceptions and identifies several new ones. Discusses probable sources of misconceptions and some methods for preventing them. Contains 27 references. (JRH)

Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

1997-01-01

34

Comparing Misconceptions in Physics between Chinese and American Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares misconceptions associated with electric circuits between high school students in the People's Republic of China and in the United States. In general, findings indicate that the Chinese students did better on the problems than did the American students. Discusses the importance of physics in the Chinese curriculum. (JRH)

Unruh, Roy D.; And Others

1997-01-01

35

Misconceptions about Traumatic Brain Injury among Students Preparing to Be Special Education Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The researchers performed a survey study to determine the effectiveness of collegiate programmes in dispelling common misconceptions about traumatic brain injury (TBI) while preparing undergraduate and graduate students for special education (SpEd) careers. Respondents included 136 undergraduate and 147 graduate SpEd students in their final…

Hux, Karen; Bush, Erin; Evans, Kelli; Simanek, Gina

2013-01-01

36

Student acquisition of biological evolution-related misconceptions: The role of public high school introductory biology teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to eliminate student misconceptions concerning biological evolution, it is important to identify their sources. The purposes of this study were to: (a) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma public high school Biology I teachers; (b) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma public high school students prior to and following instruction in Biology I course curriculum; and (c) identify which, if any, biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma public high school Biology I teachers were being transmitted to their students by way of instruction in biological evolution curriculum. Seventy-six teachers and 993 of their students participated in this study. To identify participants' misconceptions, calculate conception index scores, and collect demographic data, the Biological Evolution Literacy Survey (BEL Survey) was developed. The BEL Survey presents 23 biological misconception statements grouped into five categories. Analysis revealed teacher participants possessed a 72.9% mean rate of understanding of evolution concepts coupled with a 23.0% mean misconception rate whereas student participants possessed a pre-instruction 43.9% mean rate of understanding combined with a 39.1% mean misconception rate. Students exited the Biology I classroom more confident in their evolution knowledge but holding greater numbers of misconceptions than they possessed prior to entering the course. Significant relationships were revealed between students' acquisition of misconceptions and teachers' bachelor's degree field, terminal degree, and hours dedicated to instruction. One student misconception was revealed to be significantly more common following instruction as opposed to prior to instruction.

Yates, Tony Brett

37

Secondary & College Biology Students' Misconceptions About Diffusion & Osmosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests on diffusion and osmosis given to (n=116) secondary biology students, (n=123) nonbiology majors, and (n=117) biology majors found that, even after instruction, students continue to have misconceptions about these ideas. Appendix includes diffusion and osmosis test. (MKR)

Odom, Arthur Louis

1995-01-01

38

Faring with Facets: Building and Using Databases of Student Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of educational researchers have developed pedagogical approaches that involve the teacher in discovering and helping to correct misconceptions that students bring to their study of their subject matter. During the last decade, several computer systems have been developed to support teaching and learning using this kind of approach. A…

Madhyastha, Tara; Tanimoto, Steven

2009-01-01

39

Predicting Students' Performance in Introductory Psychology from their Psychology Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students bring many misconceptions about psychology to the introductory psychology course. We investigated whether scores on a 10-item Knowledge of Psychology Test (adapted from Vaughan, 1977) taken on the first class day were related to final class grades in 11 introductory psychology classes taught by the same instructor at three colleges. A…

Kuhle, Barry X.; Barber, Jessica M.; Bristol, Adam S.

2009-01-01

40

A Summary of the Research on Student Graphing Misconceptions and Their Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is not enough for teachers to simply understand where their students have mathematical miscues or misconceptions. It is essential for teachers to identify why those mistakes and misconceptions occur. Reflecting on student misunderstandings can inform instruction that addresses students' mathematical misconceptions. In their review of the introductory instructional substance of functions and graphs, entitled \\

Emily R. Fagan

2002-01-01

41

Common Misconceptions in the Diagnosis and Management of Anemia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia is the most common systemic complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); so common that it is almost invariably not investigated and rarely treated. Several misconceptions are the reason for these clinical errors, and our goal will be to review them. The most common misconceptions are: anemia is uncommon in IBD; iron deficiency is also uncommon; just by treating the

Javier P. Gisbert; Fernando Gomollón

2008-01-01

42

Common Origins of Diverse Misconceptions: Cognitive Principles and the Development of Biology Thinking  

PubMed Central

Many ideas in the biological sciences seem especially difficult to understand, learn, and teach successfully. Our goal in this feature is to explore how these difficulties may stem not from the complexity or opacity of the concepts themselves, but from the fact that they may clash with informal, intuitive, and deeply held ways of understanding the world that have been studied for decades by psychologists. We give a brief overview of the field of developmental cognitive psychology. Then, in each of the following sections, we present a number of common challenges faced by students in the biological sciences. These may be in the form of misconceptions, biases, or simply concepts that are difficult to learn and teach, and they occur at all levels of biological analysis (molecular, cellular, organismal, population, and ecosystem). We then introduce the notion of a cognitive construal and discuss specific examples of how these cognitive principles may explain what makes some misconceptions so alluring and some biological concepts so challenging for undergraduates. We will argue that seemingly unrelated misconceptions may have common origins in a single underlying cognitive construal. These ideas emerge from our own ongoing cross-disciplinary conversation, and we think that expanding this conversation to include other biological scientists and educators, as well as other cognitive scientists, could have significant utility in improving biology teaching and learning.

Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

2012-01-01

43

Students' Misconceptions and Errors in Transformation Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyses the students' performances in two-dimensional transformation geometry and explores the mistakes made by the students taking the analytic geometry course given by researchers. An examination was given to students of Education Faculties who have taken the analytic geometry course at Eskisehir Osmangazi University in Turkey. The…

Ada, Tuba; Kurtulus, Aytac

2010-01-01

44

Grade-12 Students' Misconceptions Relating to Fundamental Characteristics of Atoms and Molecules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies misconceptions related to the fundamental characteristics of atoms and molecules held by twelfth-grade students. Data were obtained by administration of semistructured interviews to a stratified, random sample of 30 students. Fifty-two misconceptions were observed and reported. Some of the misconceptions identified parallel the…

Griffiths, Alan K.; Preston, Kirk R.

1992-01-01

45

Student Misconceptions About Astronomy and the Best Order of Teaching Astronomical Concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My (Andrej Favia) Ph.D. thesis involves quantifying the "difficulty" of unlearning common astronomy misconceptions. I do this by applying factor analysis and Item Response Theory (IRT) to a retrospective inventory of when, or if, college students dispelled the misconceptions under consideration. Our inventory covers 235 misconceptions identified over the span of 10 years of teaching the college astronomy lecture course at the Universe of Maine by NFC. The analysis yields logical groupings of topics (e.g., teach one planet at a time rather than use comparative planetology) and the "order of difficulty" of the associated topics. We have results for about one fourth of the inventory, and our results show that there are concepts of different difficulties, which suggest that they should be presented in different orders. We also find that the order of teaching concepts is sometimes different for high school and college level courses.

Favia, Andrej; Comins, N. F.; Thorpe, G.

2013-01-01

46

Mathematics, Thermodynamics, and Modeling to Address Ten Common Misconceptions about Protein Structure, Folding, and Stability  

PubMed Central

To fully understand the roles proteins play in cellular processes, students need to grasp complex ideas about protein structure, folding, and stability. Our current understanding of these topics is based on mathematical models and experimental data. However, protein structure, folding, and stability are often introduced as descriptive, qualitative phenomena in undergraduate classes. In the process of learning about these topics, students often form incorrect ideas. For example, by learning about protein folding in the context of protein synthesis, students may come to an incorrect conclusion that once synthesized on the ribosome, a protein spends its entire cellular life time in its fully folded native confirmation. This is clearly not true; proteins are dynamic structures that undergo both local fluctuations and global unfolding events. To prevent and address such misconceptions, basic concepts of protein science can be introduced in the context of simple mathematical models and hands-on explorations of publicly available data sets. Ten common misconceptions about proteins are presented, along with suggestions for using equations, models, sequence, structure, and thermodynamic data to help students gain a deeper understanding of basic concepts relating to protein structure, folding, and stability.

2010-01-01

47

Student Misconceptions Caused by Misuse of Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calculators used widely by students, teachers, scientists, engineers and many others provide an interesting case study of a compelling technology that has helped change the way many professionals work. They not only help in enhancing problem solving skills of most individuals, but also help visualise solutions to problems in a better way. Research…

Paige, Robert

2007-01-01

48

Differences in Brain Activation between Novices and Experts in Science during a Task Involving a Common Misconception in Electricity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science education studies have revealed that students often have misconceptions about how nature works, but what happens to misconceptions after a conceptual change remains poorly understood. Are misconceptions rejected and replaced by scientific conceptions, or are they still present in students' minds, coexisting with newly acquired…

Masson, Steve; Potvin, Patrice; Riopel, Martin; Foisy, Lorie-Marlène Brault

2014-01-01

49

Scientific Methods: Using the movie "Awakenings" to dispel common misconceptions about the scientific method.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is to dispel the misconception that there is one single structured scientific method used by all scientists, and tackle some ethical issues raised in life. This is accomplished using the popular movie "Awakenings" and student observations and reflections.

Lauris Grundmanis, Hill-Murray School, Maplewood, MN 55109

50

Reliability in Content Analysis: Some Common Misconceptions and Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a recent article in this journal, Lombard, Snyder-Duch, and Bracken (2002) surveyed 200 content analyses for their reporting of reliability tests, compared the virtues and drawbacks of five popular reliability measures, and proposed guidelines and standards for their use. Their discussion revealed that numerous misconceptions circulate in the…

Krippendorff, Klaus

2004-01-01

51

Studentsmisconceptions about Newton's second law in outer space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studentsmisconceptions about Newton's second law in frictionless outer space were investigated. The research was formed according to an epistemic game theoretical framework. The term ‘epistemic’ refers to students’ participation in problem-solving activities as a means of constructing new knowledge. The term ‘game’ refers to a coherent activity that consists of moves and rules. A set of questions in which students are asked to solve two similar Newton's second law problems, one of which is on the Earth and the other in outer space, was administered to 116 undergraduate students. The findings indicate that there is a significant difference between students’ epistemic game preferences and race-type (outer space or frictional surface) question. So students who used Newton's second law on the ground did not apply this law and used primitive reasoning when it came to space. Among these students, voluntary interviews were conducted with 18 students. Analysis of interview transcripts showed that: (1) the term ‘space’ causes spontaneity among students that prevents the use of the law; (2) students hesitate to apply Newton's second law in space due to the lack of a condition—the friction; (3) students feel that Newton's second law is not valid in space for a variety of reasons, but mostly for the fact that the body in space is not in contact with a surface.

Temiz, B. K.; Yavuz, A.

2014-07-01

52

Ability and Critical Thinking as Predictors of Change in Students' Psychological Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the conceptual change literature, this study assessed factors influencing change in students' misconceptions about psychology. We expected students' ability and their critical thinking to predict whether they would change their misconceptions following completion of an introductory psychology course. GPA, scores on a test of critical…

Kowalski, Patricia; Taylor, Annette Kujawski

2004-01-01

53

Thai High-School Students' Misconceptions about and Models of Light Refraction through a Planar Surface  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the optics misconceptions of 220 year 11 Thai high-school students. These misconceptions became apparent when the students attempted to explain how an object submerged in a water tank is "seen" by an observer looking into the tank from above and at an angle. The two diagnostic questions used in the study probe the…

Kaewkhong, Kreetha; Mazzolini, Alex; Emarat, Narumon; Arayathanitkul, Kwan

2010-01-01

54

Elementary Teachers' Understanding of Students' Science Misconceptions: Implications for Practice and Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine what elementary teachers know about student science misconceptions and how teachers address student misconceptions in instruction. The sample included 30 teachers from California with at least 1-year of experience teaching grades 3, 4, and 5. A semistructured interview was used. The interview transcripts were…

Gomez-Zwiep, Susan

2008-01-01

55

The Geoscience Concept Test: A New Assessment Tool Based on Student Misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed and began pilot testing of an earth science assessment tool called the geoscience concept test (GCT). The GCT uses student misconceptions as distractors in a 30 item multiple-choice instrument. Student misconceptions were first assessed through the analysis of nearly 300 questionnaires administered in introductory geology courses at three institutions. Results from the questionnaires guided the development of an

J. Libarkin; S. W. Anderson; W. J. Boone; M. Beilfuss; J. Dahl

2002-01-01

56

Zeroing in on Number and Operations, Grades 1-2: Key Ideas and Common Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Zeroing in on Number and Operations" series, which aligns with the Common Core State Standards and the NCTM Standards on Focal Points, features easy-to-use tools for teaching key concepts in number and operations and for addressing common misconceptions. Sharing the insights they've gained through decades of mathematics teaching and research,…

Dacey, Linda; Collins, Anne

2010-01-01

57

Zeroing in on Number and Operations, Grades 3-4: Key Ideas and Common Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Zeroing in on Number and Operations" series, which aligns with the Common Core State Standards and the NCTM Standards and Focal Points, features easy-to-use tools for teaching key concepts in number and operations and for addressing common misconceptions. Sharing the insights they've gained in decades of mathematics teaching and research,…

Dacey, Linda; Collins, Anne

2010-01-01

58

A Study on Student Teachers' Misconceptions and Scientifically Acceptable Conceptions about Mass and Gravity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study were considered under three headings. The first was to elicit misconception that science and physics student teachers (pre-service teachers) had about the terms, "inertial mass", "gravitational mass", "gravity", "gravitational force" and "weight". The second was to understand how prior learning affected their misconceptions,…

Gonen, Selahattin

2008-01-01

59

Black Boxes in Analytical Chemistry: University Students' Misconceptions of Instrumental Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions of chemistry and chemical engineering university students concerning instrumental analysis have been established from coordinated tests, tutorial interviews and laboratory lessons. Misconceptions can be divided into: (1) formal, involving specific concepts and formulations within the general frame of chemistry; (2)…

Carbo, Antonio Domenech; Adelantado, Jose Vicente Gimeno; Reig, Francisco Bosch

2010-01-01

60

Misconceptions of High School Students Related to the Conceptions of Absolutism and Constitutionalism in History Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study is to analyze the 10th grade high school students' misconceptions related to the sense of ruling in the Ottoman State during the absolutist and constitutional periods and to investigate the causes of these misconceptions. The data were collected through eight open-ended questions related to the concepts of absolutism and…

Bal, Mehmet Suat

2011-01-01

61

Student Acquisition of Biological Evolution-Related Misconceptions: The Role of Public High School Introductory Biology Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to eliminate student misconceptions concerning biological evolution, it is important to identify their sources. The purposes of this study were to: (a) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma public high school Biology I teachers; (b) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma…

Yates, Tony Brett

2011-01-01

62

Student Misconceptions in Writing Balanced Equations for Dissolving Ionic Compounds in Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to identify student misconceptions and difficulties in writing symbolic-level balanced equations for dissolving ionic compounds in water. A sample of 105 college students were asked to provide balanced equations for dissolving four ionic compounds in water. Another 37 college students participated in semi-structured…

Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

2012-01-01

63

Developing Simulation-Based Computer Assisted Learning to Correct Students' Statistical Misconceptions Based on Cognitive Conflict Theory, Using "Correlation" as an Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding and applying statistical concepts is essential in modern life. However, common statistical misconceptions limit the ability of students to understand statistical concepts. Although simulation-based computer assisted learning (CAL) is promising for use in students learning statistics, substantial improvement is still needed. For…

Liu, Tzu-Chien

2010-01-01

64

Expanding Confusion: common misconceptions of cosmological horizons and the superluminal expansion of the Universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use standard general relativity to illustrate and clarify several common\\u000amisconceptions about the expansion of the Universe. To show the abundance of\\u000athese misconceptions we cite numerous misleading, or easily misinterpreted,\\u000astatements in the literature. In the context of the new standard Lambda-CDM\\u000acosmology we point out confusions regarding the particle horizon, the event\\u000ahorizon, the ``observable universe'' and

Tamara M. Davis

2003-01-01

65

High School 9th Grade Students' Understanding Level and Misconceptions about Temperature and Factors Affecting It  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to explore students' understanding levels and misconceptions about temperature and factors affecting it. The concept of the study was chosen from Geography National Curriculum. In this study, a questionnaire was developed after a pilot study with an aim to ascertain the students' understanding levels of temperature and…

Akbas, Yavuz

2012-01-01

66

The Persistence of Misconceptions about the Human Blood Circulatory System among Students in Different Grade Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the persistence of misconceptions in the topic of the human blood circulatory system among students in different grade levels. For this reason, after discussions with biology educators, two tests consisting of open-ended questions were developed by the researcher and administered to students in four…

Ozgur, Sami

2013-01-01

67

University and Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about the Concept of "Aromaticity" in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aromaticity concept is given incorrect or incomplete to the student in secondary education and knowledge based on this basic concept has been caused to another misconception in future. How are the achievement levels relating to the comprehension of various characteristics of aromatic compounds for the first and third grade students attending…

Topal, Giray; Oral, Behcet; Ozden. Mustafa

2007-01-01

68

Improving Algebra Preparation: Implications from Research on Student Misconceptions and Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through historical and contemporary research, educators have identified widespread misconceptions and difficulties faced by students in learning algebra. Many of these universal issues stem from content addressed long before students take their first algebra course. Yet elementary and middle school teachers may not understand how the subtleties of…

Welder, Rachael M.

2012-01-01

69

Geo-myths and Misconceptions: Students' Alternate Views of How Our World Works  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obviously students do not enter our classrooms as blank slates, prepared to accept our elegant constructions of how the world works. They already have well established, often surprisingly complex, ideas of their world that, even if erroneous, do serve to satisfactorily explain many phenomena. These ideas are remarkably hardy and, when challenged, tend to adapt or mutate more readily than to go extinct. Some of these misconceptions have a remarkable ancestry, stretching back to our society's early scientific cosmologies and may be very deeply embedded, and broadly disseminated, in our society. Others are clearly the product of more recent knowledge, but knowledge that has been misinterpreted or misapplied in unexpected ways. As long as instructors are aware of these misconceptions, they can be challenged, and with some success eliminated or replaced. Once students experience the fact that their interpretations do not adequately explain the geologic phenomena before them, they may be more willing to entertain a new concept. If they then are provided new, more useful ideas and given multiple experiences applying those ideas, then they are more likely to actually give up their misconceptions and use the new ideas in the future. The greatest problems occur when instructors are simply unaware of a misconception's existence. Often the gulf between instructors' and students' knowledge of the subject matter is so great that the instructors' familiarity becomes a liability. They cannot conceive of some ideas that appear intuitive from their students' perspective, so these misconceptions are never challenged and survive instruction intact. More importantly, students use their misconceptions to interpret other ideas presented in a course. The result is usually a strange amalgam of old and new ideas. The students make new ideas "fit" with their original misconceptions and often reject ideas they see as being contrary to their initial beliefs. In a worse case scenario, course instruction may actually appear to support their misconceptions, actively embedding them even more solidly within the students' world view. As examples, up to a fifth of incoming students at our University assume that magma comes from the Earth's liquid outer core. In some classes, up to 40% of the students believe that the presence of seawater is necessary for the formation of basalt. If we are not aware of the existence of these startlingly widespread notions, we will remain incapable of correcting them. This work was partially supported by the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE), U.S. Department of Education.

Finley, F.; Kirkby, K. C.; Morin, P. J.

2004-12-01

70

Earth Science Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a list of over 50 commonly held misconceptions based on a literature review found in students and adults. The list covers earth science topics such as space, the lithosphere, the biosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the cryosphere. (KR)

Philips, William C.

1991-01-01

71

Preservice Chemistry Teachers in Action: An Evaluation of Attempts for Changing High School Students' Chemistry Misconceptions into More Scientific Conceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has revealed that students may hold several misconceptions regarding fundamental topics of chemistry. With the idea that teachers play a critical role in diagnosis and remediation of students' misconceptions, a "course" for preservice chemistry teachers was designed. The purpose of this study was to describe the views and…

Yakmaci-Guzel, Buket

2013-01-01

72

Common misconceptions about 5-aminosalicylates and thiopurines in inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

Misconceptions are common in the care of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this paper, we state the most commonly found misconceptions in clinical practice and deal with the use of 5-aminosalicylates and thiopurines, to review the related scientific evidence, and make appropriate recommendations. Prevention of errors needs knowledge to avoid making such errors through ignorance. However, the amount of knowledge is increasing so quickly that one new danger is an overabundance of information. IBD is a model of a very complex disease and our goal with this review is to summarize the key evidence for the most common daily clinical problems. With regard to the use of 5-aminosalicylates, the best practice may to be consider abandoning the use of these drugs in patients with small bowel Crohn’ s disease. The combined approach with oral plus topical 5-aminosalicylates should be the first-line therapy in patients with active ulcerative colitis; once-daily treatment should be offered as a first choice regimen due to its better compliance and higher efficacy. With regard to thiopurines, they seem to be as effective in ulcerative colitis as in Crohn’ s disease. Underdosing of thiopurines is a form of undertreatment. Thiopurines should probably be continued indefinitely because their withdrawal is associated with a high risk of relapse. Mercaptopurine is a safe alternative in patients with digestive intolerance or hepatotoxicity due to azathioprine. Finally, thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) screening cannot substitute for regular monitoring because the majority of cases of myelotoxicity are not TPMT-related.

Gisbert, Javier P; Chaparro, Maria; Gomollon, Fernando

2011-01-01

73

The Investigation of 6th Grade Student Misconceptions Originated from Didactic about the "Digestive System" Subject  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the misconceptions emerged as a result of instruction were examined from the viewpoint of the Didactic Transposition Theory. To this end, two randomly selected sample groups (n = 33 and n = 31) from the students of two nearby schools in downtown Balikesir were included in the study. It was observed that different knowledge…

Ozgur, Sami; Pelitoglu, Fatma Cildir

2008-01-01

74

Factors Mediating the Effect of Gender on Ninth-Grade Turkish Students' Misconceptions Concerning Electric Circuits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to identify and analyze possible factors that mediate the effect of gender on ninth-grade Turkish students' misconceptions concerning electric circuits. A Simple Electric Circuit Concept Test (SECCT), including items with both practical and theoretical contexts, and an Interest-Experience Questionnaire about Electricity…

Sencar, Selen; Eryilmaz, Ali

2004-01-01

75

Development and Use of Diagnostic Tests to Evaluate Students' Misconceptions in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 10 steps for developing a diagnostic test of students' misconceptions and the use of two tests in chemistry (covalent bonding and structure) and in biology (photosynthesis and respiration in plants). Discusses the results and some implications for teaching science. (YP)

Treagust, David F.

1988-01-01

76

Growing Pebbles and Conceptual Prisms - Understanding the Source of Student Misconceptions about Rock Formation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes narrative essays--stories of rock formation--written by pre-service elementary school teachers. Reports startling misconceptions among preservice teachers on pebbles that grow, human involvement in rock formation, and sedimentary rocks forming as puddles as dry up, even though these students had completed a college level course on Earth…

Kusnick, Judi

2002-01-01

77

Biology Undergraduates' Misconceptions about Genetic Drift  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores biology undergraduates' misconceptions about genetic drift. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to describe students' definitions, identify common misconceptions, and examine differences before and after instruction on genetic drift. We identify and describe five overarching categories that include 16 distinct…

Andrews, T. M.; Price, R. M.; Mead, L. S.; McElhinny, T. L.; Thanukos, A.; Perez, K. E.; Herreid, C. F.; Terry, D. R.; Lemons, P. P.

2012-01-01

78

Overcoming Students' Misconceptions Concerning Thermal Physics with the Aid of Hints and Peer Interaction during a Lecture Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As has been shown by previous research, students may possess various misconceptions in the area of thermal physics. In order to help them overcome misconceptions observed prior to instruction, we implemented a one-hour lecture-based intervention in their introductory thermal physics course. The intervention was held after the conventional lectures…

Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

2013-01-01

79

Some Misconceptions in Meiosis Shown by Students Responding to an Advanced Level Practical Examination Question in Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are problems revealed in student responses to a practical task which formed part of an advanced level examination. The frequencies with which some misconceptions about cell reproduction and genetics occurred are presented. The nature of these misconceptions is analyzed and their implications discussed. (CW)

Brown, C. R.

1990-01-01

80

Misconceptions in the Teaching of Heat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the commonly held misconceptions on heat and examines potential contributing factors. Defines and provides examples of internal energy and heat. Suggests approaches to the teaching of heat for secondary level students. (ML)

Mak, Se-Yuen; Young, Kenneth

1987-01-01

81

College Students' Misconceptions of Environmental Issues Related to Global Warming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are currently exposed to world environmental problems--including global warming and the greenhouse effect--in science classes at various points during their K-12 and college experience. However, the amount and depth of explosure to these issues can be quite variable. Students are also exposed to sources of misinformation leading to…

Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

82

Using Writing to Confront Student Misconceptions in Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Writing can be used to foster and enhance understanding of important concepts for General Education students enrolled in introductory physics. This paper discusses a particular writing strategy, called a folder activity, which is used in an introductory physics course for non-science majors at American University. The folder activity has proven to be an effective tool for student learning. For

Teresa L. Hein

1999-01-01

83

Invisible Misconceptions: Student Understanding of Ultraviolet and Infrared Radiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of nonvisible wavelengths for the study of astronomy suggests that student understanding of nonvisible light is an important consideration in astronomy classrooms. Questionnaires, interviews, and panel discussions were used to investigate 6-12 student and teacher conceptions of ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR). Alternative…

Libarkin, Julie C.; Asghar, Anila; Crockett, C.; Sadler, Philip

2011-01-01

84

Advanced Undergraduate and Early Graduate Physics Students' Misconception about Solar Wind Flow: Evidence of Students' Difficulties in Distinguishing Paradigms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anecdotal evidence has suggested that advanced undergraduate students confuse the spiral structure of the interplanetary magnetic field with the flow of the solar wind. Though it is a small study, this paper documents this misconception and begins to investigate the underlying issues behind it. We present evidence that the traditional presentation…

Gross, Nicholas A.; Lopez, Ramon E.

2009-01-01

85

An Astronomical Misconceptions Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions that students bring with them to the introductory science classroom plague every area of science and are especially prevalent in astronomy. One way to identify and possibly dispel some of these misconceptions is through the use of a misconceptions survey. The following is a report on the development, implementation, and some early…

LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.

2011-01-01

86

Atheist Students on Campus: From Misconceptions to Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People who follow trends in higher education are aware of a renewed emphasis on religious plurality and spirituality on college campuses. But all the articles, conferences, and campus activities surrounding religion and spirituality rarely, if at all, acknowledge one group: students who are atheists. If colleges are to be truly inclusive, they…

Goodman, Kathleen M.; Mueller, John A.

2009-01-01

87

Misconceptions in astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study performed by the Astronomical Observatory of Brera (Italy) and the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Valencia (Spain), we analyse some common misconceptions in astronomy. In particular we explored the evolution of these misconceptions (if any) depending on age and socio-educational factors, from a cognitive structures point of view. Cognitive structures interact with learnt contents and produce resistant conceptual schemes that are almost completely unknown and ignored by teachers and educators. We carried out an extensive survey (more than 2000 tests in the two countries) and we studied the spontaneous schemes and concepts used by youngsters when facing some basic astronomical ideas, in order to focus efforts on helping to change the above schemes by inducing a "clash of ideas" for the students. In that way, students could acquire a dynamic mental model consistent with the scientific model.

Gallego-Calvente, A. T.; Sandrelli, S.; Ortiz-Gil, A.

2008-06-01

88

Using conceptual maps to assess students' climate change understanding and misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex and interdisciplinary nature of climate change science poses special challenges for educators in helping students understand the climate system, and how it is evolving under natural and anthropogenic forcing. Students and citizens alike have existing mental models that may limit their perception and processing of the multiple relationships between processes (e.g., feedback) that arise in global change science, and prevent adoption of complex scientific concepts. Their prior knowledge base serves as the scaffold for all future learning and grasping its range and limitations serves as an important basis upon which to anchor instruction. Different instructional strategies can be adopted to help students understand the inherently interdisciplinary topic of global climate change, its interwoven human and natural causes, and the connections it has with society through a complex range of political, social, technological and economic factors. One assessment method for students' understanding of global climate change with its many uncertainties, whether associated with the workings of the climate system or with respect to social, cultural and economic processes that mediate human responses to changes within the system, is through the use of conceptual maps. When well designed, they offer a representation of students' mental model prior and post instruction. We will present two conceptual mapping activities used in the classroom to assess students' knowledge and understanding about global climate change and uncover misconceptions. For the first one, concept maps will be used to demonstrate evidence of learning and conceptual change, while for the second we will show how conceptual maps can provide information about gaps in knowledge and misconceptions students have about the topic.

Gautier, C.

2011-12-01

89

Addressing Student Misconceptions Concerning Electron Flow in Aqueous Solutions with Instruction Including Computer Animations and Conceptual Change Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effects of both computer animations of microscopic chemical processes occurring in a galvanic cell and conceptual-change instruction based on chemical demonstrations on students' conceptions of current flow in electrolyte solutions. Finds that conceptual change instruction was effective at dispelling student misconceptions but…

Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

2000-01-01

90

The Effect of Conceptual Change Approach to Eliminate 9th Grade High School Students' Misconceptions about Air Pressure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of teaching based on conceptual change overcome misconceptions of 9th grade high school students about the subject of air pressure. The sampling of the study was formed with two classes of 9th grade students from a general high school in the city-center of Trabzon. A quasi-experimental…

Akbas, Yavuz; Gencturk, Ebru

2011-01-01

91

Evaluating Secondary Students' Misconceptions of Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plants Using a Two-Tier Diagnostic Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the premise that multiple choice tests can be used as diagnostic tools for teachers in identifying and remedying student misconceptions, this study focused on the development of an instrument for diagnosing secondary students' understanding of photosynthesis and respiration. Information is presented on: (1) procedures of development of…

Treagust, David F.; Haslam, Filocha

92

Misconceptions of chemical equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Those propositions deemed necessary for an understanding of chemical equilibrium and Le Chatelier's Principle were defined by the investigators and validated.Thirty, Year 12 Western Australian chemistry students (17 years of age) who had studied chemical equilibrium were interviewed and students’ responses were coded into various categories of misconception that had been identified. The most significant misconceptions revealed by the study

Mark W. Hackling; Patrick J. Garnett

1985-01-01

93

Nigerian Dental Technology Students and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Knowledge, Misconceptions and Willingness to Care  

PubMed Central

Background: The rehabilitative dental care is important for maintaining adequate nutrition, guarding against wasting syndrome and malnutrition among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the Nigerian dental technology students’ knowledge and misconceptions about HIV infection and their willingness to care for HIV-infected patients. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study of dental technology students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted in 2010. Data was subjected to descriptive, non-parametric and parametric statistics using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 (Chicago Illinois, USA). P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The knowledge about the mode of HIV transmission and prevention among the respondents was high with some misconceptions. Specifically, the misconceptions about HIV transmission through a mosquito bite (P = 0.02) and shaking of hands (P = 0.03) were higher among respondents in the higher class than those in lower class. However, 10.6% (21/198), 6.1% (12/198) and 4.0% (8/198) of the respondents erroneous described HIV as harmless, self-limitation and antibiotics responsive infection respectively. Of the respondents, 78.8% (156/198) and 83.3% (165/198) of them expressed willingness to care for HIV-infected patients and expressed need for training in the clinical care of HIV-infected patients respectively. Overall, the respondents opined that the dental therapists are the most suitable dental professional to pass HIV-related information to patients in the dental setting ahead of dentists and dental surgery assistants. Conclusion: The expressed willingness to care for HIV-infected patients, knowledge about the mode of HIV transmission and prevention among the respondents were high with existent misconceptions. There were no significant differences in the knowledge about HIV infection and willingness to care for HIV-infected patients among respondents in the lower class and those in upper class.

Azodo, CC; Omili, MA; Akeredolu, PA

2014-01-01

94

Fundamental Research in Engineering Education. Identifying and Repairing Student Misconceptions in Thermal and Transport Science: Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes progress on two related lines of chemical engineering education research: 1) identifying persistent student misconceptions in thermal and transport science (fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and thermodynamics); and, 2) developing a method to help students repair these misconceptions. Progress on developing the Thermal and…

Miller, Ronald L.; Streveler, Ruth A.; Yang, Dazhi; Roman, Aidsa I. Santiago

2011-01-01

95

Understandings and misconceptions of biology concepts held by students attending small high schools and students attending large high schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Do students from small high schools show fewer understandings and more misconceptions of biology concepts than students attending large high schools? Fifty students attending large high schools (enrollments exceeding 900 students) and fifty students attending small high schools (enrollments less than 150 students) were randomly selected and than evaluated on their understandings and misunderstandings of four biology concepts: diffusion, homeostasis, food production in plants, and classification of animals and plants. Students attending small high schools showed less instances of understanding and more instances of misunderstanding the concepts of diffusion and homeostasis. These differences could be related to a higher percentage of students in large schools capable of formal operations; sound understanding of diffusion and homeostasis required students to use formal operations. No difference was observed between the large and small school samples for the concepts of food production in plants and classification of plants and animals. Students in the small school sample lived in agricultural communities and their daily experiences allowed them to develop some understanding of food production in plants and prevented instances of misunderstandings from being developed. Classification of animals and plants required concrete operations to understand; therefore, students in small schools were capable of developing sound understanding as well as students from large schools.

Simpson, William D.; Marek, Edmund A.

96

Trends Concerning Four Misconceptions in Students' Intuitively-Based Probabilistic Reasoning Sourced in the Heuristic of Representativeness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student difficulty in the study of probability arises in intuitively-based misconceptions derived from heuristics. One such heuristic, the one of note for this research study, is that of representativeness, in which an individual informally assesses the probability of an event based on the degree to which the event is similar to the sample from…

Kustos, Paul Nicholas

2010-01-01

97

Assessing the Effects of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students' Achievements, Misconceptions and Attitudes towards Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment software programs related to "genetic concepts" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the genetic concepts achievement test (GAT), the genetic concept test (GCT) and biology attitude scale (BAS) was…

Kara, Yilmaz; Yesilyurt, Selami

2007-01-01

98

Students' Misconceptions in Interpreting Center and Variability of Data Represented via Histograms and Stem-and-Leaf Plots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper identifies and discusses misconceptions that students have in making judgments of center and variability when data are presented graphically. An assessment addressing interpreting center and variability in histograms and stem-and-leaf plots was administered to, and follow-up interviews were conducted with, undergraduates enrolled in…

Cooper, Linda L.; Shore, Felice S.

2008-01-01

99

Determining Misconceptions about Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a procedure for ascertaining secondary students' misconceptions about concepts relating to astronomy. Summarizes results that indicate the usefulness of the approach and the range and extent of the misconceptions which could be revealed. Makes suggestions about how to use the technique in such a way that the findings will challenge the…

Skam, Keith

1994-01-01

100

Avoiding object misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies and describes a number of misconceptions observed in students learning about object technology. It identifies simple, concrete, measures course designers and teachers can take to avoid these misconceptions arising. The context for this work centres on an introductory undergraduate course and a postgraduate course. Both these courses are taught by distance education. These courses both use Smalltalk

Simon Holland; Robert Griffiths; Mark Woodman

1997-01-01

101

Misconceptions About Astronomy: Their Origins and Effects on Teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting in early childhood, everyone acquires ideas about astronomy that are incorrect. By the time students enter introductory astronomy courses in college, they often harbor hundreds of such misconceptions. Over the past three years I have been meeting with small groups of students who are taking introductory astronomy at the University of Maine. In these focus groups we discuss the nature and origin of the misconceptions they have. These students and their peers in the formal introductory astronomy course have supplied me with over 550 common misconceptions about astronomy. In this paper I present the most common misconceptions and a classification scheme relating them to their origins. I classify the misconceptions as to whether they are primarily due to incorrect internal (mental) processes, to incorrect external input such as inaccurate information from teachers and parents, or from both internal and external source equally. I then present a list of specific sources, such as Aristotelian reasoning or inaccurate observations, that account for all the misconceptions I have received to date. I discussion how the misconceptions they have upon starting a course in astronomy affect students as they learn correct astronomical concepts and how being aware of these misconceptions can help teachers more effectively present the course material.

Comins, N. F.

1993-12-01

102

Biology undergraduates' misconceptions about genetic drift.  

PubMed

This study explores biology undergraduates' misconceptions about genetic drift. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to describe students' definitions, identify common misconceptions, and examine differences before and after instruction on genetic drift. We identify and describe five overarching categories that include 16 distinct misconceptions about genetic drift. The accuracy of students' conceptions ranges considerably, from responses indicating only superficial, if any, knowledge of any aspect of evolution to responses indicating knowledge of genetic drift but confusion about the nuances of genetic drift. After instruction, a significantly greater number of responses indicate some knowledge of genetic drift (p = 0.005), but 74.6% of responses still contain at least one misconception. We conclude by presenting a framework that organizes how students' conceptions of genetic drift change with instruction. We also articulate three hypotheses regarding undergraduates' conceptions of evolution in general and genetic drift in particular. We propose that: 1) students begin with undeveloped conceptions of evolution that do not recognize different mechanisms of change; 2) students develop more complex, but still inaccurate, conceptual frameworks that reflect experience with vocabulary but still lack deep understanding; and 3) some new misconceptions about genetic drift emerge as students comprehend more about evolution. PMID:22949422

Andrews, T M; Price, R M; Mead, L S; McElhinny, T L; Thanukos, A; Perez, K E; Herreid, C F; Terry, D R; Lemons, P P

2012-01-01

103

Biology Undergraduates' Misconceptions about Genetic Drift  

PubMed Central

This study explores biology undergraduates’ misconceptions about genetic drift. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to describe students’ definitions, identify common misconceptions, and examine differences before and after instruction on genetic drift. We identify and describe five overarching categories that include 16 distinct misconceptions about genetic drift. The accuracy of students’ conceptions ranges considerably, from responses indicating only superficial, if any, knowledge of any aspect of evolution to responses indicating knowledge of genetic drift but confusion about the nuances of genetic drift. After instruction, a significantly greater number of responses indicate some knowledge of genetic drift (p = 0.005), but 74.6% of responses still contain at least one misconception. We conclude by presenting a framework that organizes how students’ conceptions of genetic drift change with instruction. We also articulate three hypotheses regarding undergraduates’ conceptions of evolution in general and genetic drift in particular. We propose that: 1) students begin with undeveloped conceptions of evolution that do not recognize different mechanisms of change; 2) students develop more complex, but still inaccurate, conceptual frameworks that reflect experience with vocabulary but still lack deep understanding; and 3) some new misconceptions about genetic drift emerge as students comprehend more about evolution.

Andrews, T. M.; Price, R. M.; Mead, L. S.; McElhinny, T. L.; Thanukos, A.; Perez, K. E.; Herreid, C. F.; Terry, D. R.; Lemons, P. P.

2012-01-01

104

Electromagnetic Scattering by a Morphologically Complex Object: Fundamental Concepts and Common Misconceptions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following Keller(Proc Symp Appl Math 1962;13:227:46), we classify all theoretical treatments of electromagnetic scattering by a morphologically complex object into first- principle (or "honest" in Keller s terminology) and phenomenological (or "dishonest") categories. This helps us identify, analyze, and dispel several profound misconceptions widespread in the discipline of electromagnetic scattering by solitary particles and discrete random media. Our goal is not to call for a complete renunciation of phenomenological approaches but rather to encourage a critical and careful evaluation of their actual origin, virtues, and limitations. In other words, we do not intend to deter creative thinking in terms of phenomenological short-cuts, but we do want to raise awareness when we stray (often for practical reasons) from the fundamentals. The main results and conclusions are illustrated by numerically-exact data based on direct numerical solutions of the macroscopic Maxwell equations.

Mischenko, Michael I.; Travis, Larry D.; Cairns, Brian; Tishkovets, Victor P.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Rosenbush, Vera K.; Kiselev, Nikolai N.

2011-01-01

105

The Impact of Language and Response Format on Student Endorsement of Psychological Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the possibility that the language and response format used in self-report questionnaires influences how readily people endorse misconceptions. Four versions of a 40-item misconception test were administered to European ("n" = 281) and North American ("n" = 123) psychology and nonpsychology…

Hughes, Sean; Lyddy, Fiona; Kaplan, Robin

2013-01-01

106

N-Squad Episode 1. Students learn misconceptions about alcohol, medical examination, the role of the digestive system in processing alcohol, and liver histology.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In N-Squad Episode 1 students work with forensic scientists to solve an alcohol related crime. Along the way, they will learn about alcohol's interaction with the digestive system, misconceptions about alcohol, medical examination, and liver histology.

Learning, Center F.

2011-09-28

107

Clarifying Chemical Bonding. Overcoming Our Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrations to help students change their misconceptions about chemical bond breaking are presented. Students' misconceptions about chemical bonds in both biological and chemical systems are discussed. A calculation for the release of energy from respiration is presented. (KR)

Hapkiewicz, Annis

1991-01-01

108

RETRACTED ARTICLE: What Are They Thinking? The Development and Use of an Instrument That Identifies Common Science Misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the rationale for, and development of, an online instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. Science Beliefs is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. It utilizes a true or false, along with a written-explanation, format. The true or false responses provide a cursory view of the extent to which specific beliefs are prevalent, while the accompanying explanations reveal underlying reasons for those beliefs. The stages of instrument development, reliability and validity information, along with the original sources of the items are discussed. The developed instrument has the potential to help science educators understand some specific barriers to deepening understanding across a range of science topics.

Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles R.; Larrabee, Timothy

2007-04-01

109

Overcoming students' misconceptions concerning thermal physics with the aid of hints and peer interaction during a lecture course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As has been shown by previous research, students may possess various misconceptions in the area of thermal physics. In order to help them overcome misconceptions observed prior to instruction, we implemented a one-hour lecture-based intervention in their introductory thermal physics course. The intervention was held after the conventional lectures and homework sessions, and it consisted of three phases: individual working, hinting, and peer discussion. To probe students’ conceptual understanding before, during, and after the intervention, use was made of a diagnostic test related to the multiphased process of an ideal gas [D. E. Meltzer, Am. J. Phys. 72, 1432 (2004)AJPIAS0002-950510.1119/1.1789161]. The students’ conceptions were monitored by analyzing the explanations they provided and by recording the peer discussions of five voluntary pairs. The intervention helped students to realize the flaws in their explanations and increased the proportion of their scientific explanations, the increase being statistically significant in five tasks out of seven. When the same themes were addressed in a post-test, it was shown that the level of accurate explanations remained almost constant after the intervention, and hence it could be deduced that the impact had not been short-lived. In comparison with earlier studies conducted with the same material, our intervention produced a better learning outcome, the difference being 15-20 percentage points. In addition, the number of misconceptions on the part of the students was smaller in our study, although with individual exceptions. Hence, we conclude that the intervention was successful and that similar interventions could also be designed and implemented in other areas of physics.

Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

2013-12-01

110

Mathematics, Thermodynamics, and Modeling to Address Ten Common Misconceptions about Protein Structure, Folding, and Stability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To fully understand the roles proteins play in cellular processes, students need to grasp complex ideas about protein structure, folding, and stability. Our current understanding of these topics is based on mathematical models and experimental data. However, protein structure, folding, and stability are often introduced as descriptive, qualitative…

Robic, Srebrenka

2010-01-01

111

Reducing Plate Tectonic Misconceptions with Lecture Tutorials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to address student difficulties with and common misconceptions about plate tectonics, we created five Lecture Tutorials suitable for introductory geoscience courses. Lecture Tutorials are 10-15 minute worksheets that students complete in class in small groups to make learning more student-centered. Students build their knowledge with questions that progressively become more difficult, requiring them think about their misconceptions. Our research indicates that the Lecture Tutorials successfully decrease student misconceptions. For example, few introductory students identify the mantle wedge as the location of melting at subduction zones. Instead, students frequently think melting occurs at the trench, in magma chambers within volcanoes, or where images commonly show the subducting slab disappearing. One of the Lecture Tutorials helps the students determine why melting occurs and therefore identify the correct locations of melting at convergent boundaries, divergent boundaries, and hotspots. This Lecture Tutorial includes a hypothetical “debate” with statements expressing the misconceptions and one expressing the correct scientific idea of where melting occurs. Students are asked to explain why they agree with one of the statements, so they must directly think about any misconceptions they may have. Additional difficulties addressed by the Lecture Tutorials include identification of the direction of plate movement at ocean ridges and the locations and formation of basic plate tectonic features, such as trenches, volcanoes, ocean ridges, and plate boundaries. After instruction, students completed questionnaires that probed their understanding of plate tectonics, and students who completed the Lecture Tutorials performed significantly better on relevant questions. For example, when asked to circle the locations on a diagram where melting occurred, students who completed the Lecture Tutorials correctly circled the mantle wedge more often than other students (33% vs. 8%). The percentage of students who drew incorrect arrows indicating converging plates at ocean ridges was smaller for students who completed the Lecture Tutorials (9%) than for those who did not (21%). Because the Lecture Tutorials frequently asked students to identify, explain, and draw basic features relevant to plate tectonics, we hypothesized that students who completed the Lecture Tutorials would correctly identify more of these features, and this is what we observed. Students who completed the Lecture Tutorials identified 6.3 features on average, compared to 2.8 for those students who did not complete the Lecture Tutorials. The Lecture Tutorial students correctly labeled 82% of the identified features, compared to 71% for other students. The plate tectonic Lecture Tutorials along with others on additional introductory geoscience topics are available as a workbook called Lecture Tutorials for Introductory Geoscience published by W. H. Freeman.

Kortz, K. M.; Smay, J. M.; Mattera, A. V.; Clark, S. K.

2009-12-01

112

Overcoming Misconceptions in Neurophysiology Learning: An Approach Using Color-Coded Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anyone who has taught neurophysiology would be aware of recurring concepts that students find difficult to understand. However, a greater problem is the development of misconceptions that may be difficult to change. For example, one common misconception is that action potentials pass directly across chemical synapses. Difficulties may be…

Guy, Richard

2012-01-01

113

Pre-Service Teachers' Preconceptions, Misconceptions, and Concerns about Virtual Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last decade, online distance education has become a common mode of study in most states in the USA, where it is known as virtual schooling (VS), but many people have misconceptions about it. Pre-service teachers' personal histories as students and their preconceptions, misconceptions, and concerns influence pre-service teacher training…

Compton, Lily; Davis, Niki; Correia, Ana-Paula

2010-01-01

114

Understanding the Common Elements of Evidence-Based Practice: Misconceptions and Clinical Examples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors proposed a distillation and matching model (DMM) that describes how evidence-based treatment operations can be conceptualized at a lower order level of analysis than simply by their manuals. Also referred to as the "common elements" approach, this model demonstrates the feasibility of coding and identifying the…

Chorpita, Bruce F.; Becker, Kimberly D.; Daleiden, Eric L.

2007-01-01

115

Effect of Cabri-Assisted Instruction on Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Graphs of Quadratic Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pre-existing misconceptions are serious impediments to learning in mathematics. Means for detecting and correcting them have received much attention in the literature of educational research. Dynamic geometry software has been tried at different grade levels. This quasi-experimental study investigates the effect of Cabri-assisted instruction on…

Koklu, Oguz; Topcu, Abdullah

2012-01-01

116

Genius is not immune to persistent misconceptions: conceptual difficulties impeding Isaac Newton and contemporary physics students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has shown that serious misconceptions frequently survive high school and university instruction in mechanics. It is interesting to inquire whether Newton himself encountered conceptual difficulties before he wrote the Principia: (a) Did he have serious difficulties? (b) If so, were they difficult to overcome? We shall present evidence from Newton's writings of affirmative answers to both questions.Newton's development

Melvin S. Steinberg; David E. Brown; John Clement

1990-01-01

117

Glucose as the sole metabolic fuel- a study on the possible influence of teachers knowledge on the establishment of a misconception among Brazilian high school students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the present work, I investigated the origin of the misconception that glucose is the sole metabolic fuel previously described among Brazilian high school students. The results of a multiple-choice test composed of 24 questions about a broad range of biology subjects were analyzed. The test was part of a contest and was answered by a sample composed of undergraduate students as well as biologists and practicing biology teachers. The majority of the responders had difficulties in recognizing the existence of gluconeogenesis and the possibility of ATP production using other fuels other than carbohydrates. Biology teachers and biologists seemed to either lack the knowledge or present the misconception regarding energy-yielding metabolism found among students. I argue that in both cases, biology teachers are likely to teach metabolism-related subjects in a manner that may contribute to the appearance of the misconception among high school students.

Mauricio Roberto Motta Pinto da Luz (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Fundação Oswaldo Cruz)

2008-06-25

118

Glucose as the sole metabolic fuel: overcoming a misconception using conceptual change to teach the energy-yielding metabolism to Brazilian high school students.  

PubMed

A misconception regarding the human metabolism has been shown to be widespread among high school students. The students consider glucose as the sole metabolic fuel, disregarding that lipids and amino acids can be oxidized for ATP production by human cells. This misconception seems to be a consequence of formal teaching in grade and high schools. The present study reports the evaluation of a teaching strategy based on the use of a dialogic teaching methodology within a conceptual change approach to remediate that misconception. Students were stimulated to formulate hypotheses, outline experiments, and to discuss their outcomes. The results showed that students were able to reformulate their original concepts immediately after teaching. The majority of the students showed adequate learning of the topic eight months after the application of the teaching strategy, although some level of misconception recurrence was observed. The educational consequences of the teaching unit are discussed in the context of the possible reasons for its success as well as the need for similar initiatives at grade school to avoid the establishment of the misconception. PMID:23868377

Luz, Mauricio R M P; Oliveira, Gabriel A; Da Poian, Andrea T

2013-01-01

119

Research and Teaching: Persisting Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A content-based test instrument administered to a large class of general biology students as pre- and post-tests revealed that knowledge was gained after the semester. A misconception index calculated from these data served to identify specific misconcept

Nazario, Gladys M.; Rodriguez, Julio; Burrowes, Patricia A.

2002-02-01

120

Naive beliefs in 'sophisticated' subjects: misconceptions about trajectories of objects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

University students were asked to solve simple problems about the trajectories of falling objects. A majority of the students revealed a variety of misconceptions about motion. However, the few basic patterns of responses produced by the subjects suggest considerable commonality in the types of naive physical "laws" people develop on the basis of everyday experience with the world.

Caramazza, Alfonso; Green, Bert; Mccloskey, Michael

2005-11-03

121

Behavioral Misconceptions Facing the Software Engineer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses common misconceptions of a software engineer in the design of a practical information system. These misconceptions concern the usage and behavioral patterns of the scientists, engineers, and managers for whom the system is designed.

1970-01-01

122

Impact of an integrated science and reading intervention (INSCIREAD) on bilingual students' misconceptions, reading comprehension, and transferability of strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes a research study that resulted in an instructional model directed at helping fourth grade diverse students improve their science knowledge, their reading comprehension, their awareness of the relationship between science and reading, and their ability to transfer strategies. The focus of the instructional model emerged from the intersection of constructs in science and reading literacy; the model identifies cognitive strategies that can be used in science and reading, and inquiry-based instruction related to the science content read by participants. The intervention is termed INSCIREAD (Instruction in Science and Reading). The GoInquire web-based system (2006) was used to develop students' content knowledge in slow landform change. Seventy-eight students participated in the study. The treatment group comprised 49 students without disabilities and 8 students with disabilities. The control group comprised 21 students without disabilities. The design of the study is a combination of a mixed-methods quasi-experimental design (Study 1), and a single subject design with groups as the unit of analysis (Study 2). The results from the quantitative measures demonstrated that the text recall data analysis from Study 1 yielded near significant statistical levels when comparing the performance of students without disabilities in the treatment group to that of the control group. Visual analyses of the results from the text recall data from Study 2 showed at least minimal change in all groups. The results of the data analysis of the level of the generated questions show there was a statistically significant increase in the scores students without disabilities obtained in the questions they generated from the pre to the posttest. The analyses conducted to detect incongruities, to summarize and rate importance, and to determine the number of propositions on a science and reading concept map data showed a statistically significant difference between students without disabilities in the treatment and the control groups on post-intervention scores. The analysis of the data from the number of misconceptions of students without disabilities showed that the frequency of 4 of the 11 misconceptions changed significantly from pre to post elicitation stages. The analyses of the qualitative measures of the think alouds and interviews generally supported the above findings.

Martinez, Patricia

123

Lunar Phases: Addressing Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise was designed to address student misconceptions about why the Moon exhibits phases. Using a sketchbook, digital camera, or flex cam, a student sits at the center of a darkened room illuminated by a single light source in a stationary position. Stools are set up surrounding the student in the center and other students take those positions, always keeping their faces toward the center. The center student sketches or take pictures of the faces at each of the positions. Substituting a sphere (such as a ball) for the students' faces provides an even more vivid illustration of the shadowing of the sphere and connects directly to the rationale for lunar phases.

Childs, Philip

124

Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel: A Study on the Possible Influence of Teachers' Knowledge on the Establishment of a Misconception among Brazilian High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present work, I investigated the origin of the misconception that glucose is the sole metabolic fuel previously described among Brazilian high school students. The results of a multiple-choice test composed of 24 questions about a broad range of biology subjects were analyzed. The test was part of a contest and was answered by a sample…

da Luz, Mauricio Roberto Motta Pinto

2008-01-01

125

Astronomical Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do you think that the Moon does not rotate? Do you think that the phases of the Moon are created by the Earth's shadow? Do you think that the seasons are a result of the Earth's distance from the Sun? If you answered "yes" to any of these, then you are one of many who possess misconceptions about astronomy.

Barrier, Regina M.

2010-01-01

126

Misconceptions in Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This list is a work in progress. We are using it to build a library of (mis)information and categorize the location of the proper science. Click on the linked misconceptions to see the scientific explanations of these common mistakes courtesy of a number of informative online scientific resources. The effort to find and link more and more good science to this list is ongoing, and eventually all these misconceptions will be linked to lead to the proper science. The different topics include: stars, the solar system, galaxies, physics, black holes, cosmology and the history and philosophy of astronomy.

Comins, Neil

2009-05-27

127

Idea Bank: Changing Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During student-centered learning activities, students actively engage in their own learning based on individual prior understandings. It can be difficult for a teacher to know if students fully understand the concepts being presented, especially if they do not comment or ask questions because they are shy or afraid of getting something wrong. Teachers may not know students' true ideas until they express themselves on a written summative exam, and then it is often too late to correct them before rushing off to the next topic. Therefore, the author uses pretests, daily learning logs, and posttests to assess student learning and change misconceptions. She shares her strategy in this month's Idea Bank.

Holzmiller, Tara

2008-12-01

128

What Research Says: The Cardiovascular System: Children's Conceptions and Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports findings of a study on children's perceptions and alternate conceptions about the human circulatory system. Summarizes the responses of fifth and eighth grade students on questions dealing with the heart and blood. Offers examples of hands-on activities and confrontation strategies that address common misconceptions on circulation. (ML)

Arnaudin, Mary W.; Mintzes, Joel J.

1986-01-01

129

Addressing the Misconceptions of Middle School Students About Becoming a Scientist or Engineer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessment of our educational outreach program shows that students and their parents are excited about space science, but stereotypes about science and scientists drastically effect student attitudes about science and pursuing a technical career.

Newsom, H. E.; Sorge, C.; Hagerty, J. J.

2000-01-01

130

Misconceptions on the Biological Concept of Food: Results of a Survey of High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explains the results of a survey of students' ideas about food as a scientific concept. The survey found that high school students in Singapore (n=66) displayed an anthropocentric view of food that was not generally applied across living organisms in heterotrophs (animals) or autotrophs (plants) as a whole. It is also noted that…

Lee, Y. J.; Diong, C. H.

131

Misconceptions Highlighted among Medical Students in the Annual International Intermedical School Physiology Quiz  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The annual Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe. The 8th IMSPQ, in 2010, hosted by the Department of Physiology, University of Malaya, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, had 200 students representing 41…

Cheng, Hwee-Ming; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

2012-01-01

132

Rate of Change: AP Calculus Students' Understandings and Misconceptions after Completing Different Curricular Paths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined Advanced Placement Calculus students' mathematical understanding of rate of change, after studying four years of college preparatory (integrated or single-subject) mathematics. Students completed the Precalculus Concept Assessment (PCA) and two open-ended tasks with questions about rates of change. After adjusting for prior…

Teuscher, Dawn; Reys, Robert E.

2012-01-01

133

Teaching Projectile Motion to Eliminate Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student misconceptions of projectile motion are well documented, but their effect on the teaching and learning of the mathematics of motion under gravity has not been investigated. An experimental unit was designed that was intended to confront and eliminate misconceptions in senior secondary school students. The approach was found to be…

Prescott, Anne; Mitchelmore, Michael

2005-01-01

134

Misconceptions in Astronomy: Before and After a Constructivist Learning Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of a pilot study on college studentsmisconceptions in astronomy. The study was conducted on the campus of a Midwestern university among 43 non-science major students enrolled in an introductory astronomy laboratory course. The laboratory course was based on a constructivist learning environment where students learned astronomy by doing astronomy. During the course, students worked with educational simulations created by Project CLEA team and RedShift College Education Astronomy Workbook by Bill Walker as well as were involved in think-pair-share discussions based on Lecture-Tutorials (Prather et al 2008). Several laboratories were prompted by an instructor's brief presentations. On the first and last days of the course students were surveyed on what their beliefs were about causes of the seasons, the moon's apparent size in the sky and its phases, planetary orbits, structure of the solar system, the sun, distant stars, and the nature of light. The majority of the surveys’ questions were based on Neil Comins’ 50 most commonly cited misconceptions. The outcome of the study showed that while students constructed correct understanding of a number of phenomena, they also created a set of new misconceptions. For example, if on the first day of the course, nine out of 43 students knew what caused the seasons on Earth; on the last day of the course, 20 students gained the similar understanding. However, by the end of the course more students believed that smaller planets must rotate faster based on the conservation of angular momentum and Kepler's laws. Our findings suggest that misconceptions pointed out by Neil Comins over a decade ago are still relevant today; and that learning based exclusively on simulations and collaborative group discussions does not necessarily produce the best results, but may set a ground for creating new misconceptions.

Ruzhitskaya, Lanika; Speck, A.

2009-01-01

135

Seeing is believing - reducing misconceptions about children's hospice care through effective teaching with undergraduate nursing students.  

PubMed

Children's palliative care has evolved in recent years and is now recognised as a distinct area of health and social care practice. Whilst children's hospices are viewed as central to quality care for these children and families, lack of knowledge regarding the exact nature of care they provide exists. Education can go part way to changing attitudes and knowledge about the key contribution of hospices, thus improving future care. Alternative and innovative strategies to stimulate meaningful learning are pivotal to children's nurse education and this paper examines one such innovation adopted with 2nd year children's nursing students. Aiming to help students explore the ethos of children's hospice an educational visit was arranged, followed by an on line discussion. Although some practical challenges were encountered, the visit heightened student awareness moving them from the readily held perception that children's hospices were exclusively for dying children and was viewed by students as more effective than a traditional classroom session. PMID:23111411

Price, Jayne; Dornan, Jean; Quail, Lorraine

2013-09-01

136

Identification of Student Misconceptions in Genetics Problem Solving via Computer Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a computer program presenting four genetics problems to monitor the problem solving process of college students. Identifies three main areas of difficulty: computational skills; determination of gametes; and application of previous learning to new situations. (Author/YP)

Browning, Mark E.; Lehman, James D.

1988-01-01

137

The Effect of Refuting Misconceptions in the Introductory Psychology Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students often come into the introductory psychology course with many misconceptions and leave with most of them intact. Borrowing from other disciplines, we set out to determine whether refutational lecture and text are effective in dispelling student misconceptions. These approaches first activate a misconception and then immediately counter it…

Kowalski, Patricia; Taylor, Annette Kujawski

2009-01-01

138

StudentsÃÂ Misconception About Energy-Yielding Metabolism: Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Energy-yielding metabolism is a subject that is particularly important, because energy production is a fundamental requirement for cells even though they execute many other processes simultaneously. An integrated view of metabolism is essential for understanding how the whole organism functions, including activities of studentsÃÂ daily life, such as eating, dieting, and physical exercise. In fact, the media constantly exert pressure on young people, stimulating students to undergo countless diet and exercise programs. Additionally, diabetes mellitus and obesity, which are diseases with close ties to metabolism, have been increasing among adolescents.

Dr. Gabriel A. Oliveira (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Departamento de Bioquímica Médica); Dr. Cristiane R. Sousa (Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Departamento de Ultra-estrutura e Biologia Celular); Dr. Andrea T. Da Poian (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Departamento de Bioquímica Médica,); Dr. Maurício R. M. P. Luz (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Setor Curricular de Biologia)

2003-09-01

139

Concept Mapping and Misconceptions: A Study of High-School Students' Understandings of Acids and Bases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation of students understandings of acids and bases using concept maps, multiple-choice tests, and clinical interviews is described. The methodology and resulting analysis are illustrated with two abbreviated case studies selected from the study. Discussion of concept mapping points to how it starkly represents gaps in the understanding…

Ross, Bertram; And Others

1991-01-01

140

Students' Misconceptions About the Correspondences Between a Map and the Terrain Represented by the Map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skillful use of maps is a prerequisite for success in many fields of geoscience. Geoscience instructors find that many high school and undergraduate students are not skilled at using maps and other spatial representations to obtain or convey information. In an attempt to understand why so many students come to their study of geoscience with such poor map skills, we are studying map comprehension and map curricula in elementary schools. An analysis of published K-5 map skills curriculum materials shows that students are rarely explicitly instructed on the crucial skill of translating from map to reality and vice versa. Instead they are asked questions that can be answered entirely within the frame of reference of the map without thinking about the terrain represented by the map. We have developed a field-based test of map skills that requires students to transfer information from a map into the real world and from the real world onto a map. In the world-to-map task, students place stickers on a map to show where colored flags are located in the real world, just as a field geologist places colored pencil marks on a map to show where specific rock units are located. In the map-to-world test, students use a map to go to locations specified by stickers on a map and place markers on the ground at each location. This is the same skill required by an environmental scientist who follows a map to go to specific sampling locations. Approximately a fifth of 4th graders produce deeply-flawed answers on these tasks, showing a lack of understanding of the basic correspondences between features on the map and the represented terrain. Flaws include placing round stickers arbitrarily on round map symbols, and placing a sticker on a built object that should have been on a natural feature or vice versa. Another category of mistake is to reverse west/east and/or north/south; this mistake tends to be associated with poor performance on a standard psychometric test of mental rotations ability.

Kastens, K. A.; Griffith, J.; Liben, L.; Pistolesi, L.

2003-12-01

141

Misconceptions Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow  

PubMed Central

A recent essay in CBE—Life Sciences Education criticized biology education researchers’ use of the term misconceptions and recommended that, in order to be up-to-date with education research, biology education researchers should use alternative terms for students’ incorrect ideas in science. We counter that criticism by reviewing the continued use and the meaning of misconceptions in education research today, and describe two key debates that account for the controversy surrounding the term. We then identify and describe two areas of research that have real implications for tomorrow's biology education research and biology instruction: 1) hypotheses about the structure of student knowledge (coherent vs. fragmented) that gives rise to misconceptions; and 2) the “warming trend” that considers the effects of students’ motivation, beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning (their epistemic beliefs), and learning strategies (their cognitive and metacognitive skills) on their ability to change their misconceptions in science. We conclude with a description of proposed future work in biology education research related to misconceptions.

Kalinowski, Steven T.; Andrews, Tessa C.

2014-01-01

142

Gender differences in science misconceptions in eighth grade astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between gender and science misconceptions at the eighth grade level. This study attempted to ascertain if there are significant differences between genders in the number and types of science misconceptions eighth grade science students have. The specific misconceptions used in this investigation concern gravity, seasons, and phases of the moon. It remains a serious problem in science education that girls are being inadequately trained to question and reflect on their science understandings. It has been suggested that girls may have more problems with misconceptions than do boys. In keeping with the constructivist ideas as to what constitutes an effective way to teach science (Burke, 1995; Lorsbach & Tobin, 2000) this study explored the ability of students to understand theoretical and conceptual principles of science. The data for this study was obtained using the methodology of a multiple choice survey which contains common misconceptions and the correct answers as choices. This survey was administered to eighth grade students in a large suburban school district by their science teachers. Interviews of a randomly selected sample group of 20 (10 boys and 10 girls) were conducted by the researcher. The results of the study used a t-test to compare boys and girls to see if there was a significant difference in types and/or number of science misconceptions. A matrix of possible answers to the survey was used to analyze the results of the interviews. There was a statistically significant difference between the means for the two groups, indicating a gender difference in knowledge of astronomy concepts. The results of the interviews also showed a difference in astronomy knowledge and background information. In addition the interviews showed that girls were very unsure of their answers while boys defended their answers even when they were incorrect.

Gray, Pamela A.

143

Gender differences in science misconceptions in eighth grade astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between gender and science misconceptions at the eighth grade level. This study attempted to ascertain if there are significant differences between genders in the number and types of science misconceptions eighth grade science students have. The specific misconceptions used in this investigation concern gravity, seasons, and phases of the moon.

Pamela A. Gray

2006-01-01

144

A Testing System for Diagnosing Misconceptions in DC Electric Circuits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a test-based diagnosis system for misconceptions in DC electric circuits and its three parts: problem library, problem selector and diagnoser. Discusses misconception discrimination and diagnosis theories, and reports the system supports satisfactory diagnosis. Includes an analysis of nine student misconceptions about electrical circuits…

Chang, Kuo-En; Liu, Sei-Hua; Chen, Sei-Wang

1998-01-01

145

Addressing Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The law of conservation of mass can be counterintuitive for most students because they often think the mass of a substance is related to its physical state. As a result, students may hold a number of alternative conceptions related to this concept, including, for example, the believe that gas has no mass, that solids have greater mass than fluids,…

Dial, Katrina; Riddley, Diana; Williams, Kiesha; Sampson, Victor

2009-01-01

146

Misconceptions Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent essay in "CBE-Life Sciences Education" criticized biology education researchers' use of the term "misconceptions" and recommended that, in order to be up-to-date with education research, biology education researchers should use alternative terms for students' incorrect ideas in science. We counter that…

Leonard, Mary J.; Kalinowski, Steven T.; Andrews, Tessa C.

2014-01-01

147

Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel: The Possible Influence of Formal Teaching on the Establishment of a Misconception about Energy-Yielding Metabolism among Students from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy-yielding metabolism is an important biochemistry subject that is related to many daily experiences and health issues of students. An adequate knowledge of the general features of EYM is therefore important, both from an academic and social point of view. In a previous study, we have shown that high-school students present the misconception

Luz, Mauricio R. M. P.; de Oliveira, Gabriel Aguiar; de Sousa, Cristiane Ribeiro; Da Poian, Andrea T.

2008-01-01

148

Idea Bank: Melting a Misconception  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following lab was originally designed to teach the importance of manipulating a single variable in an experiment. However, the lab also dispels a common misconception, teaches the value of following lab instructions, and provides a good working definition of the term variable.

Merolla, Jill

2004-03-01

149

Misconceptions about the Golden Ratio.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Typically, the mathematical properties concerning the golden ratio are stated correctly, but much of what is presented with respect to the golden ratio in art, architecture, literature, and aesthetics is false or seriously misleading. Discussed here are some of the most commonly repeated misconceptions promulgated, particularly within mathematics…

Markowsky, George

1992-01-01

150

Using Just in Time Teaching in a Global Climate Change Course to Address Misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just in Time Teaching (JiTT) is employed in an introductory Global Climate Change college course with the intention of addressing common misconceptions and climate myths. Students enter the course with a variety of prior knowledge and opinions on global warming, and JiTT can be used as a constructivist pedagogical approach to make use of this prior knowledge. Students are asked to watch a short video or do a reading, sometimes screen capture videos created by the professor as review of material from the previous class, a video available on the web from NASA or NOAA, for example, or a reading from an online article or their textbook. After the video or reading, students answer a question carefully designed to pry at a common misconception, or simply are asked for the 'muddiest point' that remains on the concept. This assignment is done the night before class using a web program. The program aggregates the answers in an organized way so the professor can use the answers to design the day's lesson to address common misconceptions or concerns students displayed in their answers, as well as quickly assign participation credit to students who completed the assignment. On the other hand, if students display that they have already mastered the material, the professor can confidently move on to the next concept. The JiTT pedagogical method personalizes each lecture period to the students in that particular class for maximum efficiency while catching and fixing misconceptions in a timely manner. This technique requires students to spend time with the material outside of class, acts as review of important concepts, and increases engagement in class due to the personalization of the course. Evaluation results from use of this technique will be presented. Examples of successful JiTT videos, questions, student answers, and techniques for addressing misconceptions during lecture will also be presented with the intention that instructors can easily apply this technique to their next course.

Schuenemann, K. C.

2013-12-01

151

Misconceptions Surrounding Climate Change: A Review of the Literature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Misconceptions about climate change abound in every corner of society. The result manifests itself ranging from apprehension to total disregard for climate change conditions. According to several sources, however, a large percentage of the U. S. population do, indeed indicate some concern over global warming and climate change in general. These climate change misconceptions are numerous and include, to name a few; confusion between weather and climate, how greenhouse gases are affecting the earth, the effects of ozone depletion, earth's natural cycles, volcanic activity, nuclear waste and a host of other anthropogenic influences. This paper is a review of the current research literature relating to climate change misconceptions. These errant views will be addressed, cataloged, enumerated, and ranked to get a grasp on where the general population, politicians, scientists, and educators as well as students stand on informed climate change information. The categories where misconceptions arise have been identified in this literature review study and include the following: Natural cycles of the earth, ecological which include deforestation, urban development and any human intervention on the environment, educational - including teacher strategies, student understanding and textbook updates, emotional, ozone layer and its interactions, polar ice, political regulations, mandates and laws, pollution from human sources as well as from nature, religious beliefs and dogma and social beliefs. We suggest appropriate solutions for addressing these misconceptions, especially in the classroom setting, and broadly include available funding sources for work in climate change education. Some solutions include need for compilation of appropriate education resources and materials for public use, need for the development of educational materials that appropriately address the variety of publics, and need for programs that are conducting climate change education research and EPO work to communicate and share resources in a common community. Many organizations are addressing these critical needs and we will compile these efforts in our analysis as well.

Templeton, C. M.; McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.

2011-12-01

152

An Analogy-Based Computer Tutor for Remediating Physics Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an intelligent tutoring system designed to help students remedy misconceptions of physics concepts based on a teaching strategy called bridging analogies. Highlights include tutoring strategies; misconceptions in science education; the example situation network; confidence checking; formative evaluation with college students, including…

Murray, Tom; And Others

1990-01-01

153

A Student with Diabetes Is in My Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines for managing the child with diabetes in educational settings address the nature of diabetes, attitudes of students with diabetes, common misconceptions, effects on students in the classroom, helpful strategies, and resources. (DB)

Rosenthal-Malek, Andrea; Greenspan, Jan

1999-01-01

154

Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

Olson, Mark

2013-01-01

155

Effect of Misconception on Transfer in Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We examine the effect of misconceptions about friction on students' ability to solve problems and transfer from one context to another. We analyze written responses to paired isomorphic problems given to introductory physics students and discussions with a subset of students. Misconceptions associated with friction in problems were sometimes so robust that pairing them with isomorphic problems not involving friction did not help students fully discern their underlying similarities.

Singh, Chandralekha

2009-06-24

156

Bariatric Surgery Misconceptions  

MedlinePLUS

... related issues. Misconception: Surgery increases the risk for suicide. Truth: Individuals affected by severe obesity who are ... still others with overwhelming life stressors who commit suicide after bariatric surgery. Two large studies have found ...

157

Bariatric Surgery Misconceptions  

MedlinePLUS

... healthy nutrient levels. Misconception: Obesity is only an addiction, similar to alcoholism or drug dependency. Truth: Although ... complex disease caused by many factors. When treating addiction, such as alcohol and drugs, one of the ...

158

A Comparison of the Misconceptions about the Time-Efficiency of Algorithms by Various Profiles of Computer-Programming Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on how students in vocational high schools and universities interpret the algorithms in structural computer programming that concerns time-efficiency. The targeted research group consisted of 242 students from two vocational high schools and two departments of the Faculty of Education in Istanbul. This study used qualitative and…

Ozdener, Nesrin

2008-01-01

159

A Probabilistic Model for Students' Errors and Misconceptions on the Structure of Matter in Relation to Three Cognitive Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the effect of 3 cognitive variables such as logical thinking, field dependence/field independence, and convergent/divergent thinking on some specific students' answers related to the particulate nature of matter was investigated by means of probabilistic models. Besides recording and tabulating the students' responses, a combination…

Tsitsipis, Georgios; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Papageorgiou, George

2012-01-01

160

Media Influences on the Formation of Misconceptions about Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a series of studies over the past several years, the authors have examined the extent of psychological misconceptions, their strength, sources, and various factors that may contribute to reducing these, including individual differences. Generally, introductory psychology students come into the course with many popular misconceptions. These…

Taylor, Annette Kujawski; Kowalski, Patricia

161

Building a Common Platform on Students' Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article sets out to examine how school science activities can encourage students' participation while supporting a specific science content. One ordinary class with 12-year-old students was chosen and their regular classroom work was studied without intervention and with a minimum of interference. Lessons were video filmed, transcribed and…

Lundin, Mattias

2007-01-01

162

Teaching to What Students Have in Common  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although students vary in their abilities and interests, "hyper-individualizing" the curriculum in an attempt to accommodate these differences is not the best way to help each student excel, write Willingham and Daniel. Drawing on educational research, the authors give examples of several cognitive must haves (things that the cognitive system…

Willingham, Daniel; Daniel, David

2012-01-01

163

More than misconceptions: Multiple perspectives on student knowledge and reasoning, and an appropriate role for education research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article analyzes an excerpt of a discussion from a high school physics class from several different perspectives on students' knowledge and reasoning, illustrating a range in what an instructor might perceive in students' work and take as tasks for instruction. It suggests a view of current education research as providing perspectives to expand, refine, and support instructors' perceptions and judgment, rather than as providing definitive principles or proven methods.

Hammer, David

2005-10-27

164

Classroom Terraria: Enhancing Student Understanding of Plant-Related Gas Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite our best teaching efforts, many students hold misconceptions related to the roles plants play in gas-related processes (Amir and Tamir 1994; Hershey 1992; 2004). In an effort to remedy this problem, the author presents a series of activities that address common plant-related gas-process misconceptions held by middle school students. The…

Thompson, Stephen

2010-01-01

165

Transforming Misconceptions: Using Transformative Experience to Promote Positive Affect and Conceptual Change in Students Learning about Biological Evolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching and learning about complex scientific content, such as biological evolution, is challenging in part because students have a difficult time seeing the relevance of evolution in their everyday lives. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of the Teaching for Transformative Experiences in Science (TTES) model (Pugh, 2002)…

Heddy, Benjamin C.; Sinatra, Gale M.

2013-01-01

166

Impact of an integrated science and reading intervention (INSCIREAD) on bilingual students' misconceptions, reading comprehension, and transferability of strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes a research study that resulted in an instructional model directed at helping fourth grade diverse students improve their science knowledge, their reading comprehension, their awareness of the relationship between science and reading, and their ability to transfer strategies. The focus of the instructional model emerged from the intersection of constructs in science and reading literacy; the model

Patricia Martinez

2008-01-01

167

Student Aid: Common Sense and Civil Disobedience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criticism of Harvard's financial aid policy for Selective Service nonregistrants focuses on the example it sets to other institutions and the offering of jobs and loans to students in close association with their act of civil disobedience, the violation of a public law. (MSE)

Fisher, James L.

1983-01-01

168

Catastrophic Misconceptions in Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Models the ideas of children's misconceptions and subsequent acceptance of conventional scientific thought on the simple cusp of catastrophe theory. Demonstrates one theory of the forces which are necessary to change a misconception to a scientific concept. (CW)

Boyes, E.

1988-01-01

169

Misconceptions and their change in university-level astronomy courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students enter courses with prior knowledge of the subject area. Unfortunately, these naive notions often are misconceptions (or ``folk concepts'') that hinder learning of appropriate concepts in the field.

Michael Zeilik; Candace Schau; Nancy Mattern

1998-01-01

170

Six persistent research misconceptions.  

PubMed

Scientific knowledge changes rapidly, but the concepts and methods of the conduct of research change more slowly. To stimulate discussion of outmoded thinking regarding the conduct of research, I list six misconceptions about research that persist long after their flaws have become apparent. The misconceptions are: 1) There is a hierarchy of study designs; randomized trials provide the greatest validity, followed by cohort studies, with case-control studies being least reliable. 2) An essential element for valid generalization is that the study subjects constitute a representative sample of a target population. 3) If a term that denotes the product of two factors in a regression model is not statistically significant, then there is no biologic interaction between those factors. 4) When categorizing a continuous variable, a reasonable scheme for choosing category cut-points is to use percentile-defined boundaries, such as quartiles or quintiles of the distribution. 5) One should always report P values or confidence intervals that have been adjusted for multiple comparisons. 6) Significance testing is useful and important for the interpretation of data. These misconceptions have been perpetuated in journals, classrooms and textbooks. They persist because they represent intellectual shortcuts that avoid more thoughtful approaches to research problems. I hope that calling attention to these misconceptions will spark the debates needed to shelve these outmoded ideas for good. PMID:24452418

Rothman, Kenneth J

2014-07-01

171

CONSTRUCTING PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE FROM STUDENTS' WRITING IN SECONDARY MATHEMATICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One field of knowledge important to effective teaching is pedagogical content knowledge. With experience, teachers become aware of how students comprehend or typically misconstrue mathematical concepts, skills, and generalizations. They become aware of common misconceptions and \\

L Diane Miller

1991-01-01

172

Constructing pedagogical content knowledge from students' writing in secondary mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

One field of knowledge important to effective teaching is pedagogical content knowledge. With experience, teachers become aware of how students comprehend or typically misconstrue mathematical concepts, skills, and generalizations. They become aware of common misconceptions and \\

L. Diane Miller

1991-01-01

173

Bullying a Common Problem for Middle-School Students  

NSF Publications Database

... br/>Press Release 05-049Bullying a Common Problem for Middle-School Students Behavior affects ... March 31, 2005 According to UCLA researchers, bullying?including verbal harassment and physical ...

174

Applying Common Core Standards to Students with Disabilities in Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following article includes general information on the Common Core State Standards, how the standards apply to the music and academic education of students with disabilities, and web resources that will helpful to music educators teaching students with and without disabilities.

Darrow, Alice-Ann

2014-01-01

175

Relationship of beliefs, epistemology, and alternate conceptions to college student understanding of evolution and common descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were combined to explore the relationships between an understanding of evolution and 4 epistemology factors: (a) control of learning, (b) speed of learning , (c) stability of knowledge, and (d) belief in evolution/creationism. A 17-item instrument was developed that reliably measured a belief in creationism and subtle differences between this belief and an acceptance of evolution. The subjects were 45 students enrolled in a biology course at a 2-year community college. Evolution was taught in a traditional format, and common descent was taught in an inquiry-based laboratory session consisting of: (a) a comparison of hemoglobin DNA sequences of the human, chimpanzee, and gorilla; and (b) a comparison of 8 primate skull casts, including the modern human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and five prehistoric fossils. Prior to instruction the students completed an epistemology questionnaire and a knowledge test about evolution. Five weeks after instruction, the students completed a posttest. A t-test revealed no differences between the pretest and the posttest. However, the group of students that scored higher on the posttest than on the pretest was found to have a stronger belief in the uncertainty of knowledge. Pearson r was computed to check for relationships between the 4 epistemological factors and the understanding of evolution. There was a significant relationship between a belief in creationism and a lessor understanding of evolution as measured on both the pretest and the posttest (ps < .05). The relationship between gender and test scores was also examined with men demonstrating statistically significantly higher scores on the common descent component than women did. Narrative data included interviews and branching/grouping activities. Four alternate conceptions about common descent were identified. Even after instruction, 16 out of 39 students thought humans evolved from the chimpanzee. Additionally, students grouped the 8 primate skulls into just 2 categories: human and animals. Other misconceptions included a nonevolutionary use of the term, related, and the use of naive organizers leading to incorrect conclusions about the relatedness of certain organisms, such as a connection between fish and whales. These organizers included: (a) similarity of traits, (b) environment, (c) relative size, (d) function, and (e) complexity.

Miller, Joyce Catherine

176

Creationism as a Misconception: Socio-cognitive conflict in the teaching of evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This position paper argues that students' understanding and acceptance of evolution may be supported, rather than hindered, by classroom discussion of creationism. Parallels are drawn between creationism and other scientific misconceptions, both of the scientific community in the past and of students in the present. Science teachers frequently handle their students' misconceptions as they arise by offering appropriate socio-cognitive conflict,

Colin Foster

2012-01-01

177

Understanding Science: Misconceptions About Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page explores misinterpretations of the scientific process and explains why these commonly-held beliefs are incorrect. A few examples of such misconceptions are: "Without an experiment, a study is not rigorous or scientific"; "There is a single scientific method that all scientists follow"; "Scientific ideas are absolute"; "The job of a scientist is to find support for his/her hypothesis"; "Investigations that don't reach a firm conclusion are useless." The authors also clarify vocabulary mix-ups that occur when lay language and scientific language use the same words differently (such as "uncertainty", "law", and "error"). This web page is part of the Understanding Science project developed by the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with a diverse group of scientists and teachers.

2010-09-29

178

The Retention of Geologic Misconceptions: Alternative Ideas That Persist After Instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used a 30 item multiple-choice instrument called the geoscience concept test (GCT) to study learning in introductory college-level science courses. The GCT uses common misconceptions as wrong answers, and allows us to pre- and post-test individual courses to gauge the effectiveness of instruction. The GCT was given at the beginning of the semester to 2215 college students in 42 classes at 32 different institutions in 19 different states (21 public and 6 private four-year institutions, 4 community colleges, and one tribal college). The pilot was also given to 1907 students as a semester-end post-test in 30 different classes. We were able to match pre- and post-test results for 967 students through an analysis of volunteered personal and demographic data. Although statistical analysis shows that learning occurred in all classes, closer inspection of the data show that the student population retained a number of misconceptions. Students retained several incorrect ideas relating to geologic time despite instruction. For example, 71% of post-tested students believe that the study of fossils, rock layers, or carbon is the most accurate means for calculating the age of the Earth. Nearly 25% of students believed that dinosaurs only existed on Earth for 500,000 years, and 40% believe dinosaurs came into existence about halfway through the geologic time scale. Many alternative ideas about plate tectonics and the formation of rocks also existed after instruction. Nearly half of the post-tested students (47%) believed that tectonic plates do not extend all way to the surface of the Earth, and 65% did not believe that animals could form oceanic rocks. Identification of strongly held misconceptions in a post-tested student population provides instructors with information that could impact the way they present material to their introductory classes.

Wandersee, J. H.; Clary, R. M.; Anderson, S. W.; Libarkin, J.

2003-12-01

179

Misconceptions in wetting phenomena.  

PubMed

In a recent paper ('t Mannetje, D.; Banpurkar, A.; Koppelman, H.; Duits, M. H. G.; van den Ende, D.; Mugele, F. Electrically Tunable Wetting Defects Characterized by a Simple Capillary Force Sensor. Langmuir 2013, 29, 9944-9949), there are a few misconceptions regarding the interpretations of theories emanating from Shanahan and de Gennes in describing centrifugal adhesion balance (CAB) experiments, making their results seemingly contradictory to the theory. These are clarified here. We show that their results, if interpreted correctly, do not contradict the theories mentioned above. PMID:24256467

Tadmor, Rafael

2013-12-10

180

Case Study Analysis and the Remediation of Misconceptions about Respiratory Physiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most students enter the physiology classroom with one or more fundamental misconceptions about respiratory physiology. This study examined the prevalence of four respiratory misconceptions and determined the role of case analysis in the remediation of one of them. A case study was used to help students learn about oxygen transport in the blood and…

Cliff, William H.

2006-01-01

181

Text and Truth: Reading, Student Experience, and the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the rumors making the rounds of K-12 educators goes something like this: The Common Core State Standards do not allow "prereading"--the pedagogical practice meant to help students better understand a text they are about to read--or for that matter any classroom activities that contextualize a text through outside sources. The interesting…

Sandler, Susan; Hammond, Zaretta

2012-01-01

182

Spore: Spawning Evolutionary Misconceptions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of computer simulations as educational tools may afford the means to develop understanding of evolution as a natural, emergent, and decentralized process. However, special consideration of developmental constraints on learning may be necessary when using these technologies. Specifically, the essentialist (biological forms possess an immutable essence), teleological (assignment of purpose to living things and/or parts of living things that may not be purposeful), and intentionality (assumption that events are caused by an intelligent agent) biases may be reinforced through the use of computer simulations, rather than addressed with instruction. We examine the video game Spore for its depiction of evolutionary content and its potential to reinforce these cognitive biases. In particular, we discuss three pedagogical strategies to mitigate weaknesses of Spore and other computer simulations: directly targeting misconceptions through refutational approaches, targeting specific principles of scientific inquiry, and directly addressing issues related to models as cognitive tools.

Bean, Thomas E.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Schrader, P. G.

2010-10-01

183

Remediating Misconceptions Concerning Chemical Bonding through Conceptual Change Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of conceptual change texts oriented instruction on 9th grade students' understanding of chemical bonding concepts. In this study, the main aim of the preparation of conceptual change texts was to activate students' prior knowledge and misconceptions and to help them to understand the chemical…

Pabuccu, Aybuke; Geban, Omer

2006-01-01

184

Misconceptions in Optics: Their Persistence at University Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study on misconceptions in optics with the objective of checking their persistence over time in spite of the continued academic instruction of students. Involves (n=4000) students of all levels of the Spanish educational system as well as with those at a Spanish university with degrees in medicine, chemical sciences, technical…

Gil Llinas, J.; Suero Lopez, M. I.; Perez Rodriguez, A. L.; Solano Macias, F.

2003-01-01

185

Internet as a Source of Misconception: "Radiation and Radioactivity"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine students' usage styles of the Internet for seeking information and to investigate whether information obtained from the Internet is a source of misconceptions. For this reason, a two-stage study was conducted. At the first stage, a questionnaire was developed to get information about students' Internet usage…

Acar Sesen, Burcin; Ince, Elif

2010-01-01

186

Turkish Undergraduates' Misconceptions of Evaporation, Evaporation Rate, and Vapour Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focused on students' misconceptions related to evaporation, evaporation rate, and vapour pressure. Open-ended diagnostic questions were used with 107 undergraduates in the Primary Science Teacher Training Department in a state university in Turkey. In addition, 14 students from that sample were interviewed to clarify their written responses and to further probe their understandings of the questions asked in the test. The findings revealed a number of misconceptions, many of which have not been previously documented. The results have implications for tertiary level teaching suggesting that a substantial review of teaching strategies is needed.

Canpolat, Nurtaç

2006-12-01

187

Misconception in Physical Science at the Middle School Grades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presentation will focus on the physical science content and pedagogy workshops addressing student's misconceptions at the middle school level. These workshops were conducted at Springfield College during summer 2010 for in- service teachers from Springfield MA Public Schools. A partnership among Springfield MA Public Schools, Springfield College, and the City of Springfield Science Museum was developed to implement an innovative program to prepare highly- qualified educators. Concepts of force, motion, energy, and energy transformation were explored in a physics laboratory setting and student's misconceptions were addressed.

Lojewska, Zenobia; Barkman, Robert; Polito, Peter; Smist, Julianne; Konicek-Moran, Richard

2011-04-01

188

Misconceptions in Physical Science at the Middle School Grades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presentation will focus on the physical science content and pedagogy workshops addressing student's misconceptions at the middle school level. These workshops were conducted at Springfield College during summer 2010 for in-service teachers from Springfield MA Public Schools. A partnership among Springfield MA Public Schools, Springfield College, and the City of Springfield Science Museum was developed to implement an innovative program to prepare highly-qualified educators. Concepts of force, motion, energy, and energy transformation were explored in a physics laboratory setting and student's misconceptions were addressed.

Lojewska, Zenobia; Barkman, Robert; Polito, Peter; Smist, Julianne; Konicek-Moran, Richard

2011-11-01

189

Revisiting Science Misconceptions: How are we doing?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Misconceptions in science continue in K-12 settings. Although "A Nation at Risk" helped spearheaded the development of creative instructional strategies, concept maps, and a multitude of other reforms, many basic science concepts remain misunderstood by students. Recent research conducted by the author and colleagues finds it difficult to determine if a student knows and understands a scientific concept when the student cannot find the language necessary to explain what s/he thinks they know. In fact, student explanations for understandings are often confusing and include mixed conceptual ideas. This session discusses the findings, instructional tools, and the use of academic language as a tool for conceptual development. In my research, I found it difficult to determine if students know and understand scientific concepts. A majority of students surveyed were unable to use language to explain what they think they know, and explanations were often confusing, containing mixed concepts. This demonstrates the importance of teacher content, academic language, and active engagement in learning through doing science. We will focus on how to identify whether or not students have the language necessary to explicitly explain their scientific understandings, and how we can help them to develop their skills through the consistent use of academic language to mitigate scientific misconceptions. Embedded will be the importance of content knowledge and active engagement in teaching and learning. This interactive dialogue and activity is designed to provoke thinking about strong content background, engagement of students in learning, and related clusters of vocabulary to express content (i.e. acid vs base, or fault vs earthquakes). Total number of students who either agreed or disagreed with a statement. Comparing the correctness of the agree or disagree statements with written explanations.

Millham, R. A.

2013-12-01

190

Personal health budgets: common myths and misconceptions.  

PubMed

Personal health budgets (PHBs) were introduced at 61 sites across England; 20 of which were evaluated in a report published in November 2012. There has been collective resistance to PHBs and negative reporting in the professional healthcare press. However, there is some early evidence that PHBs are proving to be successful. Nurses in the community are having a pivotal role in their implementation. This article addresses a number of negative and often misleading myths about PHBs that have been publicised in some areas of the professional press. PMID:23588016

Morris-Thompson, Trish; Singh, Smriti; Scarsbrook, Karen; Marks-Maran, Di

191

Students' Understanding of Differentiation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated students' (N=110) understanding of elementary calculus using clinical interview method. Analysis of responses to tasks concerning differentiation and rate of change led to detailed data concerning degree of understanding attained and common errors/misconceptions. Implications for mathematics instruction are discussed. (This is a…

Orton, A.

1983-01-01

192

Better Categorizing Misconceptions Using a Contemporary Cognitive Science Lens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of the last three decades of discipline-based education research in the geosciences has focused on the important work of identifying the range and domain of misconceptions students bring into undergraduate science survey courses. Pinpointing students' prior knowledge is a cornerstone for developing constructivist approaches and learning environments for effective teaching. At the same time, the development of a robust a priori formula for professors to use in mitigating students' misconceptions remains elusive. An analysis of the literature and our own research has persuaded researchers at the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research to put forth a model that will allow professors to operate on students' various learning difficulties in a more productive manner. Previously, much of the field's work binned erroneous student thinking into a single construct, and from that basis, curriculum developers and instructors addressed student misconceptions with a single instructional strategy. In contrast, we propose a model based on the notion that 'misconceptions' are a mixture of at least four learning barriers: incorrect factual information, inappropriately applied mental algorithms (phenomenological primitives), insufficient cognitive structures (e.g. spatial reasoning), and affective/emotional difficulties (e.g. students' spiritual commitments). In this sense, each of these different types of learning barriers would be more effectively addressed with an instructional strategy purposefully targeting these different attributes. Initial applications of this model to learning problems in geosciences have been fruitful, suggesting that an effort towards categorizing persistent learning difficulties in the geosciences beyond the single generalized category of 'misconceptions' might allow our community to more effectively design learning experiences for our students and the general public

Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

2013-12-01

193

Uphill Water Flow - An Example of the Crucial Role of Students' Prior Knowledge in Geoscience Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important, but often underappreciated, challenges in geoscience education is posed by student misconceptions. Instructors of large geoscience undergraduate class seldom have the time to identify student misconceptions and are often forced to assume a certain base level of student knowledge upon which the course material is built. Empirical results from the past two decades of misconception research in mathematics and physics, however, reveal just how risky this assumption can be. Students' prior knowledge and misconceptions can greatly hinder their acquisition of new expertise and often result in short term rather than long term retention of course concepts. Successful transformation of student misconceptions has been achieved by coupling constructive learning with specific challenges to common misconceptions, but this approach necessitates knowing what those misconceptions are. At present, much more research is needed to identify the misconceptions and prior knowledge students bring to geoscience classes. As an example, the idea that water flows downhill is one of the simplest concepts we have in earth science. A logical, familiar and easily demonstrated concept, it seems a safe assumption that students already know, or will readily accept, that water flows downhill. Yet a recent study of students' map interpretation revealed a remarkable suite of often deeply-held misconception regarding surface water flow. Although the study's original goal was to measure the relative effectiveness of anaglyph and traditional topographic contour maps in conveying the geometry of the land surface, post-study interviews of participating students discovered many misconceptions about surface water flow and factors such as elevation, earth rotation, distance to a large water body, and compass directions. Of fifty-three students interviewed, only six students confidently expressed the idea that water flow is primarily controlled by changes in elevation. Many erroneous responses arose, such as equating `south' with `into the earth', asserting a hemispherical dependence of water flow on earth, equating water flow on familiar spherical objects with water flow on the Earth's surface, an inability to explain east-west river flow, and errors in predicting changes in river flow direction due to hypothetical changes in the Earth's rotation. In addition, our interview results suggest a large percentage of students have problems with small to large scale transfer and that students' confusion regarding water flow exists on multiple conceptual layers. Some of these ideas were so deeply held that students, even when confronted, were willing to believe that water would flow uphill to match their understanding of how it should behave. While it is still unclear how these basic misconceptions impair students' ability to grasp other concepts in an introductory geology course, our interview results serve to demonstrate that assuming students and instructors share common base level knowledge is surprisingly risky.

Chen, A. P.; Kirkby, K. C.; Morin, P. J.

2006-12-01

194

Naive Psychological Science: The Prevalence, Strength, and Sources of Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies show that misconceptions about psychology are pervasive. This study examined how the strength of prior beliefs and the sources of misinformation relate to conceptual change following an introductory psychology course. Ninety introductory psychology students completed a 36-item "Psychological Information" questionnaire. Testing during the…

Taylor, Annette Kujawski; Kowalski, Patricia

2004-01-01

195

A Misconception in Biology: Amino Acids and Translation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated a persistent error among introductory college biology and genetics students, namely, that amino acids are produced by genetic translation (protein synthesis). Contributors to this misconception were revealed through multiple-choice items and interviews. Implications for education are discussed with specific steps suggested to correct…

Fisher, Kathleen M.

1985-01-01

196

Using Analogy to Overcome Misconceptions about Conservation of Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study (n=192) examined the use of analogical instruction to overcome misconceptions about conservation of matter. Students who understood the concept conservation of matter when iodine was evaporated were able to transfer their understanding to the evaporation of acetone. This indicates that teaching by analogy can be an effective tool in…

Stavy, Ruth

1991-01-01

197

Misconceptions about School Leadership--Or, Who Is Buried in King Tut's Tomb?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author draws on personal experience and leadership literature to develop this story about learning from misconceptions. Specifically, comparisons are drawn between the author's historical misconceptions and common beliefs about the nature and administration of schools. The article uses the dispelled historical fallacies as a vehicle for…

Zimmerman, Judith A.

2009-01-01

198

Using Analogical Reasoning to Deal with 'Deep' Misconceptions in Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presents examples of the role of analogical reasoning in expert problem solving. These are intended to show that using an analogy can change an expert's understanding of a problem situation by changing the conceptual model he or she uses to think about the situation. This suggests that using a good analogy may allow students to overcome a deep misconception by helping them to change the conceptual model they use to think about a physical phenomenon. This pilot study presents evidence from a tutoring interview showing that the use of analogies can help in overcoming misconceptions. The main strategies employed to effect conceptual change (taken from strategies observed in expert protocols) were the use of analogies and specific techniques for confirming these analogies. It is suggested that analysis of such tutoring interviews could lead to a cognitive model for how deep misconceptions may be changed during learning. Potential classroom applications are considered briefly. Several figures are provided.

Clement, John J.; Brown, David

2006-12-06

199

Teacher's Toolkit: Misconceptions in the science classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To address misconceptions, teachers first need to uncover them. Although misconceptions will surely emerge as you move through a lesson, it's best to identify them prior to new learning. Here's where the role of preassessment goes beyond uncovering what s

Dispezio, Michael

2010-09-01

200

Teaching to the Misconception: Critical Thinking and Pre-Service Elementary Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few decades, numerous studies have demonstrated that pre-service and in-service teachers fall victim to the same misconceptions as the students they are or will be teaching. At the same time, research has shown that addressing the misconceptions head-on and leading students to a deep, personal understanding of why their previous conceptions were erroneous aids in replacement of misconceptions with an accurate understanding of the natural world. This paper demonstrates how this was accomplished in a required university-level Earth/space/physical science course for pre-service elementary school teachers, with an emphasis on examples from the Sun–Earth–Moon system.

Larsen, K.

2014-07-01

201

Avoid Misconceptions When Teaching about Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The resource is useful for teacher's professional development by alerting educators to many plant misconceptions in teaching literature. In the thought provoking, peer reviewed resource fifty misconceptions are identified. Some misconceptions are easier to identify because they are oversimplifications, overgeneralizations, or misidentifications. Others are more difficult to identify because they are obsolete concepts and terms or flawed research.

David Hershey (;)

2004-08-01

202

A Test of Contemporary Misconceptions in Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to construct and evaluate a contemporary misconception test based on popular myths in psychology. Misconceptions in psychology are commonplace, strongly held, and can be problematic for teaching accurate information. This study examined several predictors of misconceptions in eleven psychological topic areas. We also…

Gardner, Rick M.; Brown, Dana L.

2013-01-01

203

Prototypical Concepts and Misconceptions of Plate Tectonic Boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students of geology encounter many prototypical/exemplar concepts* that include representative, but not necessarily defining, features and characteristics. This study of students' prototypical representations of plate tectonic boundaries indicates that their representations are rich sources of information about their misconceptions about plate tectonics. After lectures in plate tectonics and mountain building, 353 students in a general education geology class were asked to draw a continent-continent convergent boundary. For this study, a correct answer is defined as having the major features in correct proportions as depicted in the plate boundary diagrams on the USGS web. Fifty-two percent of the drawings were either incorrect or incomplete such that they could not be interpreted. Only 48% were readily interpretable, and of these 22% drew the boundary correctly, showing a thickening of crust where two continents collide. Thirty-three percent drew the boundary showing concave slabs of continental crust as one might imagine two pieces of firm rubber pushed together on a rigid surface and 45% depicted mountains as one might imagine inverted ice cream cones on a rigid plank. Twenty-one senior class geology majors and graduate students were given the same assignment. Forty-eight percent rendered a correct drawing, whereas 38% drew the same ice cream cone on a plank type picture that 45% of the general education students drew. In a second class of 12 geology majors, only 1 student drew a cross section of a continent-ocean boundary similar to standard representation. Four of 12 drew mountains on the top of continental crust over a subduction zone but did not draw a compensating mass within the crust or lithosphere. Prototypical drawings provide more information about students' concepts than do most multiple-choice questions. For example, sixty-two percent of theses students who drew mountains similar to foam rubber pads pushed together on a desk or ice cream cones on a plank correctly answered a multiple-choice question that would appear to indicate a better understanding than the drawings reveal. Furthermore, 12 interviewed students made statements that could be interpreted to indicate that they understood the concept of mountain building at plate tectonic boundaries better than their drawings suggest. Incoherence of multiple-choice responses, verbal statements and drawings may be common in novice learners. If cognitive scientists are correct in their model of multiple types of mental representations for the same term, then the fact that novices may hold inconsistent representations is not surprising. The fact that students at various academic levels draw very similar prototypes that are incorrect is evidence that students have distinct and persistent prototype misconceptions. * Cognitive scientists define a prototypical/exemplar concept as a mental representation of the best examples or central tendencies of a term.

Sibley, D. F.; Patino, L. C.

2003-12-01

204

Air Pollution: The Knowledge and Attitudes of Secondary School Students in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the knowledge and understanding of Hong Kong secondary school students about the composition of unpolluted and polluted air, and the nature and effects of air pollutants. A number of misconceptions are highlighted, including the common belief amongst younger students that oxygen was more common in unpolluted air than nitrogen.…

Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin; Yeung, Stephen Pui-ming

2004-01-01

205

The Gauss and Ampere Laws: Different Laws but Similar Difficulties for Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to analyse university students' reasoning regarding two laws of electromagnetism: Gauss's law and Ampere's law. It has been supposed that the problems seen in understanding and applying both laws do not spring from students' misconceptions. Students habitually use reasoning known in the literature as 'common sense' methodology that…

Guisasola, Jenaro; Almudi, Jose M.; Salinas, Julia; Zuza, Kristina; Ceberio, Mikel

2008-01-01

206

Utilizing the Common Criteria for Advanced Student Research Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In most computer science graduate programs, students must complete an advanced research project that demonstrates the students technical competence in both the theory and practice of the field. Information security is a specialization area of computer sci...

C. E. Irvine T. D. Nguyen

2006-01-01

207

Addressing climate and energy misconceptions - teaching tools offered by the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite a prevalence of peer-reviewed scientific research and high-level reports by intergovernmental agencies (e.g., IPCC) that document changes in our climate and consequences for human societies, the public discourse regards these topics as controversial and sensitive. The chasm between scientific-based understanding of climate systems and public understanding can most easily be addressed via high quality, science-based education on these topics. Well-trained and confident educators are required to provide this education. However, climate science and energy awareness are complex topics that are rapidly evolving and have a great potential for controversy. Furthermore, the interdisciplinary nature of climate science further increases the difficulty for teachers to stay abreast of the science and the policy. Research has shown that students and educators alike hold misconceptions about the climate system in general and the causes and effects of climate change in particular. The NSF-funded CLEAN Pathway (http://cleanet.org) as part of the National Science Digital Library (http://www.nsdl.org) strives to address these needs and help educators address misconceptions by providing high quality learning resources and professional development opportunities to support educators of grade levels 6 through 16. The materials focus on teaching climate science and energy use. The scope and framework of the CLEAN Pathway is defined by the Essential Principles of Climate Science (CCSP, 2009) and the Energy Literacy Principles recently developed by the Department of Energy. Following this literacy-based approach, CLEAN helps with developing mental models to address misconceptions around climate science and energy awareness through a number of different avenues. These are: 1) Professional development opportunities for educators - interactive webinars for secondary teachers and virtual workshops for college faculty, 2) A collection of scientifically and pedagogically reviewed, high-quality learning resources on climate and energy topics, 3) Detailed information on effective approaches for teaching climate and energy science for a range of grade levels, and 4) A community support forum (http://iceeonline.org, coordinated by a partner project - Inspiring Climate Education Excellence, ICEE), where educators can exchange information and share advice regarding climate and energy education. In this presentation we focus on our experience coordinating professional development opportunities as well as the "Teaching about Climate and Energy" web pages that are offered through the CLEAN Pathway to show-case how misconceptions can be addressed by educators when teaching or learning about climate and energy topics. Providing educators with a robust foundation of topical knowledge, guiding them through common misconceptions and providing them with a collection of well-vetted learning resources is the approach offered by CLEAN to address student misconceptions of climate and energy topics.

Gold, A. U.; Ledley, T. S.; Kirk, K. B.; Grogan, M.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Manduca, C. A.; Fox, S.; Niepold, F.; Howell, C.; Lynds, S. E.

2011-12-01

208

Mistreatment of university students most common during medical studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study concerns the occurrence of various forms of mistreatment by staff and fellow students experienced by students in the Faculty of Medicine and the other four faculties of the University of Oulu, Finland. METHODS: A questionnaire with 51 questions on various forms of physical and psychological mistreatment was distributed to 665 students (451 females) after lectures or examinations

Arja Rautio; Vappu Sunnari; Matti Nuutinen; Marja Laitala

2005-01-01

209

The Differentiation of Heat and Temperature: An Evaluation of the Effect of Microcomputer Teaching on Students' Misconceptions. Technical Report 87-5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two classroom studies, one conducted in the spring of 1985 and the second in the spring of 1986, showed that many high school students do not differentiate between heat and temperature; instead, they have a single concept that contains some of the features of heat and some of the features of temperature. Because the distinction between these two…

Wiser, Marianne

210

Do Beginning Psychology of Aging Students Believe 10 Common Myths of Aging?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study which investigated whether college students enrolled in introductory psychology of aging courses believe 10 common myths about aging. Results showed that students did not subscribe to the myths. (AM)

Panek, Paul E.

1982-01-01

211

Utilizing the Common Criteria for Advanced Student Research Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most computer science graduate programs, students must complete an advanced research project that demonstrates the students technical competence in both the theory and practice of the field. In- formation security is a specialization area of computer science whose research results have direct benefits to real world problems. The Com- mon Criteria (CC) is an international standard for security evaluation

Thuy D. Nguyen; Cynthia E. Irvine

2006-01-01

212

Kindergarten Common Core State Standards Flip Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 42-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the Kindergarten level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades 1-5.

2012-06-01

213

Five popular misconceptions about osmosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Osmosis is the flow of solvent across a semipermeable membrane from a region of lower to higher solute concentration. It is of central importance in plant and animal physiology and finds many uses in industry. A survey of published papers, web resources, and current textbooks reveals that numerous misconceptions about osmosis continue to be cited and taught. To clarify these issues, we re-derive the thermodynamics of osmosis using the canonical formalism of statistical mechanics and go on to discuss the main points that continue to lead to misunderstandings.

Kramer, Eric M.; Myers, David R.

2012-08-01

214

Primary-Grade Students' Knowledge and Thinking about Food Production and the Origins of Common Foods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual interviews were conducted with 96 K-3 students, stratified according to grade level, achievement level, and gender. The students were asked to explain land-to-hand progressions involved in bringing several common foods to our tables, identify products derived from common farm animals, explain why a pound of cereal costs more than a…

Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet; O'Mahony, Carolyn

2003-01-01

215

Reaching the Mountaintop: Addressing the Common Core Standards in Mathematics for Students with Mathematics Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards provide teachers with a framework of necessary mathematics skills across grades K-12, which vary considerably from previous mathematics standards. In this article, we discuss concerns about the implications of the Common Core for students with mathematics difficulties (MD), given that students with MD, by…

Powell, Sarah R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Doug

2013-01-01

216

Learning commons: Bridging the academic and student affairs divide to enhance learning across campus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Guelph Learning Commons brings student affairs professionals and librarians together to offer students a coherent and integrated approach to learning, writing, research, and technology support. It is distinguished by three characteristics: (1) a partnership model between academic and student affairs; (2) a solid foundation of theoretical perspectives to guide program development; and (3) a conceptual model to

Nancy Schmidt; Janet Kaufman

2005-01-01

217

Assessment of student conceptions of evolutionary trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biologists use evolutionary trees to depict hypotheses about the relationships among taxa. Trees possess lines that represent lineages, internal nodes that represent where lineages become evolutionarily isolated from one another and terminal nodes that represent the taxa under consideration. Interpreting a tree (i.e., "tree-thinking") is an important skill for biologists yet many students struggle when reading evolutionary trees. Common documented misconceptions include using morphological similarity, internal node counting or terminal node proximity, instead of identifying the internal node that represents a most recent common ancestor (MRCA), to determine relationships among taxa. I developed an instrument to assess whether students were using common ancestry or another, non-scientific, strategy to determine relationships among taxa. The study is the first to explicitly test hypotheses about how students approach reading evolutionary trees. To test the hypotheses an instrument was developed. The instrument is the first reliable and valid assessment testing student understanding of how to use most recent common ancestor to interpret evolutionary relationships in tree diagrams. Instructors can use the instrument as a diagnostic tool enabling them to help students learn this challenging concept. This study shows that, contrary to the assertion that students hold misconceptions about evolutionary trees made in the literature, students do not consistently use erroneous strategies when interpreting trees. This study suggests that a constructivist perspective of cognitive structure describes students' conception of evolutionary trees more closely than a misconception perspective.

Blacquiere, Luke

218

Debunking some misconceptions about nanotoxicology.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology is currently undergoing an impressive expansion in material science research and development of systems that have novel properties due to their small size. Most of the research efforts have been focused on applications, while the implications efforts (i.e., environmental health and safety) have lagged behind. As a consequence, the success of nanotechnology will require assurances that the products being developed are safe from an environmental, health, and safety standpoint. These concerns have led to a debate among governmental agencies and advocacy groups on whether implementation of special regulations should be required for commercialization of products containing nanomaterials. Therefore the assessments of nanomaterial-related health risks must be accurate and verifiable. A mechanism for conducting well-designed toxicology studies includes rigorous attention to nanoparticle physicochemical characterization, as well as consideration of potential routes of exposure, justification of nanoparticle doses, and inclusion of benchmark controls. Unfortunately, some results obtained from earlier studies have fostered general perceptions and fears about nanoparticle health hazards-based mainly upon simple metrics such as particle size, surface area, and particle dose. In addition, there are currently held views that results of screening in silico or in vitro cell culture assays can serve as adequate screening substitutes for identifying health hazards. Some of these "misconceptions" should be challenged or confirmed by the implementation of thorough and accurately detailed nanotoxicology studies. In this article, the author briefly discusses some of the generalized "misconceptions" regarding nanomaterial toxicity and presents alternative views on these issues. PMID:21033694

Warheit, David B

2010-12-01

219

Five misconceptions in cancer diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Much investment has been put into facilities for early cancer diagnosis. It is difficult to know how successful this investment has been. New facilities for rapid investigation in the UK have not reduced mortality, and may cause delays in diagnosis of patients with low-risk, or atypical, symptoms. In part, the failure of new facilities to translate into mortality benefits can be explained by five misconceptions. These are described, along with suggested research and organisational remedies. The first misconception is that cancer is diagnosed in hospitals. Consequently, secondary care data have been used to drive primary care decisions. Second, GPs are thought to be poor at cancer diagnosis, yet the type of education on offer to improve this may not be what is needed. Third, symptomatic cancer diagnosis has been downgraded in importance with the introduction of screening, yet screening identifies only a small minority of cancers. Fourth, pressure is put on GPs to make referrals for those with an individual high risk of cancer — disenfranchising those with ‘low-risk but not no-risk’ symptoms. Finally, considerable nihilism exists about the value of early diagnosis, despite considerable observational evidence that earlier diagnosis of symptomatic cancer is beneficial.

Hamilton, William

2009-01-01

220

Myths and Misconceptions in Fall Protection  

SciTech Connect

Since 1973, when OSHA CFRs 1910 and 1926 began to influence the workplace, confusion about the interpretation of the standards has been a problem and fall protection issues are among them. This confusion is verified by the issuance of 351 (as of 11/25/05) Standard Interpretations issued by OSHA in response to formally submitted questions asking for clarification. Over the years, many workers and too many ES&H Professionals have become 'self-interpreters', reaching conclusions that do not conform to either the Standards or the published Interpretations. One conclusion that has been reached by the author is that many ES&H Professionals are either not aware of, or do not pay attention to the Standard Interpretations issued by OSHA, or the State OSHA interpretation mechanism, whoever has jurisdiction. If you fall in this category, you are doing your organization or clients a disservice and are not providing them with the best information available. Several myths and/or misconceptions have been promulgated to the point that they become accepted fact, until an incident occurs and OSHA becomes involved. For example, one very pervasive myth is that you are in compliance as long as you maintain a distance of 6 feet from the edge. No such carte blanche rule exists. In this presentation, this myth and several other common myths/misconceptions will be discussed. This presentation is focused only on Federal OSHA CFR1910 Subpart D--Walking-Working Surfaces, CFR1926 Subpart M--Fall Protection and the Fall Protection Standard Interpretation Letters. This presentation does not cover steel erection, aerial lifts and other fall protection issues. Your regulations will probably be different than those presented if you are operating under a State plan.

Epp, R J

2006-02-23

221

Common Fractions. [Student Worksheets for Vocational Agricultural Courses].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning module provides students with practice in applying mathematical operations to vocational agriculture. The module consists of unit objectives, definitions, information, problems to solve, worksheets suitable for various levels of vocational agriculture instruction, and answer keys for the problems and worksheets. This module, which…

Jewell, Larry R.

222

Underachieving Students in Community Colleges: Common Personality and Biographical Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights a study to determine which personality traits (e.g., locus of control, academic self-concept, and study habits and attitudes) and biographical characteristics (e.g., age, sex, race, and marital status) of community college and technical institute students correlate significantly with grade point average and academic success. (AYC)

Griffin, John M.

1980-01-01

223

Some Misconceptions about Communicative Language Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents four misconceptions surrounding communicative language teaching (CLT) and discusses the reasons for their existence. These misconceptions are: (1) CLT means not teaching grammar; (2) CLT means teaching only speaking; (3) CLT means pair work, which means role play; and (4) CLT means expecting too much from the teacher. (13 references)…

Thompson, Geoff

1996-01-01

224

Overcoming Misconceptions in Mechanics: A Comparison of Two Example-based Teaching Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Analogies and examples from student's experiences are frequently cited as important to teaching conceptual material. This study was conducted in order to explore the effectiveness of an analogical teaching technique, which uses a connected sequence of "bridging" analogies, compared with a more standard teaching-by-example technique. The target concept involved the common misconception that static objects are unable to exert forces. Of the 21 high school students with no prior physics instruction who were individually interviewed, 14 initially maintained that a table does not exert a force upward on a book resting on it. The latter were divided into two matched groups. Students in each group were asked to think aloud as they worked through one of the two written explanations. After instruction, the experimental group performed significantly better on target and transfer problems, as well as indicating significantly higher subjective estimates of how "understandable and believable" the explanation was. These findings suggest that: (1) teachers need to be aware that certain examples they themselves find compelling may not be at all illuminating for the student; (2) even when the example is compelling to the student, it may not be seen as analogous to the target problem in the lesson; and (3) teachers need to keep in mind the goal of helping students develop visualizable, qualitative models of physical phenomena.

Brown, David E.; Clement, John J.

2006-05-23

225

Using Lecture Tutorials to Increase Student Learning in Introductory Geoscience Courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students often leave introductory geoscience courses with their misconceptions still intact, and we developed Lecture Tutorials (LTs) to help alleviate this problem. LTs are 10-15 minute interactive worksheets that students complete in small groups in class, after a short introductory lecture. Topics for the LTs (e.g., climate change, the rock cycle, etc.) were chosen because they are commonly taught in

K. M. Kortz; J. J. Smay; D. P. Murray

2007-01-01

226

Critical Evaluation by Students of Websites in Web 2.0 Landscapes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's classrooms, students now turn to the Internet as their primary source of information, though the common belief in the idea that "digital natives" can easily traverse a landscape littered with misconceptions, multiple perspectives, and competing ideas has large implications in the classroom. Research into students reading multiple online…

McVerry, J. Gregory

2011-01-01

227

Improving the climate literary of students, educators and the public - The Climate Literacy Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Climate Literacy Initiative of the Association of American Geographers (AAG) was largely born out of the growing realization of the misconceptions held by university students about the atmosphere, weather, climate and increasingly, climate variability and change. One way to quantify students' perceptions and scientific understanding about a topic like global warming, was via the reflection rubric common to service-learning

L. L. Dupigny-Giroux

2007-01-01

228

Instructional Misconceptions in Acid-Base Equilibria: An Analysis from a History and Philosophy of Science Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implications of history and philosophy of chemistry are explored in the context of chemical models. Models and modeling provide the context through which epistemological aspects of chemistry can be promoted. In this work, the development of ideas and models about acids and bases (with emphasis on the Arrhenius, the Brønsted-Lowry, and the Lewis models) are presented. In addition, misconceptions (alternative and instructional ones) on acid-base (ionic) equilibria are examined from the history and philosophy of science perspective. The relation between the development of the models and students misconceptions are investigated. Finally, the hypothesis that history and philosophy could help educators anticipate students misconceptions is examined.

Kousathana, Margarita; Demerouti, Margarita; Tsaparlis, Georgios

229

Using simple manipulatives to improve student comprehension of a complex biological process: protein synthesis.  

PubMed

Biological systems and living processes involve a complex interplay of biochemicals and macromolecular structures that can be challenging for undergraduate students to comprehend and, thus, misconceptions abound. Protein synthesis, or translation, is an example of a biological process for which students often hold many misconceptions. This article describes an exercise that was developed to illustrate the process of translation using simple objects to represent complex molecules. Animations, 3D physical models, computer simulations, laboratory experiments and classroom lectures are also used to reinforce the students' understanding of translation, but by focusing on the simple manipulatives in this exercise, students are better able to visualize concepts that can elude them when using the other methods. The translation exercise is described along with suggestions for background material, questions used to evaluate student comprehension and tips for using the manipulatives to identify common misconceptions. PMID:22987553

Guzman, Karen; Bartlett, John

2012-01-01

230

Investigating Climate Science Misconceptions Using a Teacher Professional Development Workshop Registration Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EarthLabs Climate project, an NSF-Discovery Research K12 program, has developed a suite of three online classroom-ready modules: Climate and the Cryosphere; Climate and the Carbon Cycle; and Climate and the Biosphere. The EarthLabs Climate project included week-long professional development workshops during June of 2012 and 2013 in Texas and Mississippi. Evaluation of the 2012 and 2013 workshops included participant self-reported learning levels in many areas of climate science. Teachers' answers indicated they had increased their understanding of the topics addressed in the workshops. However, the project team was interested in refining the evaluation process to determine exactly those areas of climate science in which participants increased content knowledge and ameliorated misconceptions. Therefore, to enhance the investigation into what teachers got out of the workshop, a pre-test/post-test design was implemented for 2013. In particular, the evaluation team was interested in discovering the degree to which participants held misconceptions and whether those beliefs were modified by attendance at the workshops. For the 2013 workshops, a registration survey was implemented that included the Climate Concept Inventory (a climate content knowledge quiz developed by the education research team for the project). The multiple-choice questions are also part of the pre/post student quiz used in classrooms in which the EarthLabs Climate curriculum was implemented. Many of the questions in this instrument assess common misconceptions by using them as distractors in the multiple choice options. The registration survey also asked respondents to indicate their confidence in their answer to each question, because, in addition to knowledge limitations, lack of confidence also can be a barrier to effective teaching. Data from the registration survey informed workshop managers of the topic content knowledge of participants, allowing fine-tuning of the professional development to address attendee's knowledge levels. In addition, the pre-test/post-test design allowed evaluators to investigate changes in participant understanding in a way more robust than self-reported learning. In this presentation, we will address the findings from these analyses and discuss implications for addressing misconceptions in teacher professional development.

Lynds, S. E.; Gold, A. U.; McNeal, K.; Libarkin, J. C.; Buhr Sullivan, S. M.; Ledley, T. S.; Haddad, N.; Ellins, K. K.

2013-12-01

231

Technological Literacy. A Common Essential Learning for Saskatchewan Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1986, after a thorough review of educational goals for Saskatchewan (Canada) schools, the Saskatchewan Department of Education published its findings and recommendations. A key recommendation was to incorporate six "common essential learnings" categories into all courses of study offered in Saskatchewan schools. One of these six categories,…

Fleming, Reg

232

Detecting and Correcting Misconceptions with Lifelike Avatars in 3D Learning Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifelike pedagogical agents offer significant promise for addressing a central problem posed by learning environments: detecting and correcting students' misconceptions. By designing engaging lifelike avatars and introducing them into task-oriented 3D learning environments, we can enable them to serve a dual communication role. They can serve as students' representatives in learning environments and simultaneously provide realtime advice to address their

Joël P. Grégoire; Luke S. Zettlemoyer; James C. Lester

233

A Data Generating Review that Bops,Twists and Pulls at Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics is an integral part of the K-12 mathematics curriculum (age 5-18). Naturally, students construct misconceptions of what they learn. This article discusses The Bop It[C]Challenge, a review activity assesses student understanding and reveals their misunderstandings of statistical concepts. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

Gardner, Kimberly

2013-01-01

234

Overcoming Eighth Graders' Misconceptions about Microscopic Views of Phase Change: A Study of an Analogy Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an analogy activity designed to overcome junior high school students' misconceptions about the microscopic views of phase change. Eighth grade students (N=80) were randomly assigned to either a control group receiving traditional teaching, or an experimental group participating in the…

Tsai, Chin-Chung

235

Creationism as a Misconception: Socio-Cognitive Conflict in the Teaching of Evolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This position paper argues that students' understanding and acceptance of evolution may be supported, rather than hindered, by classroom discussion of creationism. Parallels are drawn between creationism and other scientific misconceptions, both of the scientific community in the past and of students in the present. Science teachers frequently…

Foster, Colin

2012-01-01

236

Teacher and Student Ratings of the Disturbingness of Common Problem Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses by 43 teachers and 200 junior high school students to the 55 common problems listed on the Disturbing Behavior Checklist 1 are compared. Rank orderings of the two groups' ratings of the disturbingness of behaviors show moderate agreement. (Author)

Mullen, Joyce A.; Wood, Frank H.

1986-01-01

237

Therapeutic misconception: hope, trust and misconception in paediatric research.  

PubMed

Although the therapeutic misconception (TM) has been well described over a period of approximately 20 years, there has been disagreement about its implications for informed consent to research. In this paper we review some of the history and debate over the ethical implications of TM but also bring a new perspective to those debates. Drawing upon our experience of working in the context of translational research for rare childhood diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, we consider the ethical and legal implications of the TM for parental consent to research. In this situation, it is potentially the parent who is vulnerable to TM. In our analysis we not only consider the context of informed consent for research but also the wider environment in which the value of research is promoted, more broadly through the media but also more specifically through the communication strategies of patient organizations. All dissemination about developments in research for health runs the risk of portraying an overly optimistic view of the promise of biotechnological solutions and has the potential to encourage a 'collective' TM. In this paper we consider the challenge that TM presents to parents as well as explore the ethical and legal responsibilities of researchers to ensure an appropriately informed consent: compatible with a hopeful disposition of parents who consent for the their children whilst avoiding a blind and misleading optimism. PMID:22350619

Woods, Simon; Hagger, Lynn E; McCormack, Pauline

2014-03-01

238

Reliability and Validity Issues for Two Common Measures of Medical Students' Attitudes toward Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results are reported from 2 common measures of medical student attitudes toward older adults: Maxwell-Sullivan Attitude Survey (MSAS); and UCLA Geriatrics Attitude Survey (GAS), with students entering the University of South Carolina School of Medicine (USCSM) in the period 2000--2005. A reliability analysis incorporating item means, Cronbach's…

Stewart, T. J.; Roberts, E.; Eleazer, P.; Boland, R.; Wieland, D.

2006-01-01

239

Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault: A Common Problem among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This article summarizes research on the role of alcohol in college students' sexual assault experiences. Sexual assault is extremely common among college students. At least half of these sexual assaults involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, the vic- tim or both. Method: Two research literatures were reviewed: the sexual assault literature and the literature that examines alcohol's effects on

ANTONIA ABBEY

2002-01-01

240

Decimats: Helping Students to Make Sense of Decimal Place Value  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A considerable body of research exists on students' understanding of decimal fractions and the prevalence and persistence of common misconceptions related to this understanding. Results from major studies such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in the United States and the Concepts in Secondary Mathematics and Science (CSMS)…

Roche, Anne

2010-01-01

241

Textbook Errors & Misconceptions in Biology: Photosynthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Glaring and basic textbook errors and misconceptions about photosynthesis are discussed. The Calvin Cycle, photosynthetic products, alternative cycles, and plants as producers are considered. Included are observations of both college and secondary textbooks. (CW)

Storey, Richard D.

1989-01-01

242

Constructing pedagogical content knowledge from students’ writing in secondary mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

One field of knowledge important to effective teaching is pedagogical content knowledge. With experience, teachers become\\u000a aware of how students comprehend or typically misconstrue mathematical concepts, skills, and generalizations. They become\\u000a aware of common misconceptions and “buggy algorithms” constructed by students and of the stages of understanding that students\\u000a are likely to pass through in moving from a state of

L. Diane Miller

1991-01-01

243

Misconceptions about Evolution and the Mechanisms of Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource will help teachers deal with common misconceptions about evolution, those that are simple misunderstandings and others that may stem from purposeful attempts to interfere with the teaching of evolution. First, five common misunderstandings about evolution and how it works are examined. They include the origin of life, ladder of progress, randomness of evolution, trying to adapt, and satisfying needs. The next section indicates that evolution explains the history of life and has no other implications. This site also debunks the alleged incompatibility of religion and evolution.

244

Physical Activity and the Common Cold in Undergraduate University Students: Implications for Health Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The common cold, known as upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), is the world's most prevalent illness. The purpose of this study was to determine if physical activity is linked to the incidence and/or duration of the common cold. Method: Undergraduate university students (n=200) were asked to complete two questionnaires. The…

Vossen, Deborah P.; McArel, Heather; Vossen, Jeffery F.; Thompson, Angela M.

2004-01-01

245

3rd Grade Common Core State Standards Flip Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 60-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the grade 3 level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades K-2 and 4-5.

2012-06-01

246

Misconceptions and the Qualitative Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reports concepts which 12th-grade physics students hold about motion before and after a lecture is given. Compares quantitative and qualitative research methodology and describes some responses to test items. Shows six questions, student responses, and typical incorrect explanations used by students.

Ridgeway, Dori

2006-06-23

247

Genesis & the Human Ribcage: An Opportunity to Correct a Misconception & Introduce an Evolution Lesson into the Anatomy Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many anatomy students begin the course with a misconception that human males and females do not have the same number of ribs. At the root of that misconception is Genesis 2:21-22, in which God removes a rib from Adam to make Eve. Removal of a body part is a surgical procedure, and one does not pass on the results of surgery to one's offspring. The…

Senter, Phil

2013-01-01

248

A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part IV. Common Difficulties Students Experience with Cosmology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is our fourth paper in our five paper series describing our national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. While previous papers in this series focused on the processes by which we collected and quantitatively analyzed our data, this paper presents the most common pre-instruction…

Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

2012-01-01

249

An Online Elective Course for Undergraduate Students on Common Prescription Medications  

PubMed Central

Objectives To design, implement, and evaluate an online elective course on common prescription medications for undergraduate (pre- and non-health professional) students. Design An 8-module online course on common prescription medications was designed following the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) instructional design model and offered to students for 8 consecutive semesters. Assessment Following each offering, performance data were analyzed and a course review conducted, including evaluation of entrance survey data and course evaluations. Direct analysis of data over 2 offerings and grade distribution comparisons over all 8 offerings, demonstrated consistent knowledge gains. Feedback from course evaluations and a continual increase in enrollment over the 8 semesters indicated student satisfaction with the course. Conclusion Systematic design and quality assurance/improvement strategies resulted in the successful establishment of an online pharmacotherapy course for undergraduate, nonpharmacy students.

Janke, Kristin K.; Bumgardner, Melissa A.

2009-01-01

250

An Inventory on Rotational Kinematics of a Particle: Unravelling Misconceptions and Pitfalls in Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student difficulties regarding the angular velocity ([image omitted]) and angular acceleration ([image omitted]) of a particle have remained relatively unexplored in contrast to their linear counterparts. We present an inventory comprising multiple choice questions aimed at probing misconceptions and eliciting ill-suited reasoning patterns. The…

Mashood, K. K.; Singh, Vijay A.

2012-01-01

251

Organic Chemistry Educators' Perspectives on Fundamental Concepts and Misconceptions: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study was conducted with 23 organic chemistry educators to discover what general chemistry concepts they typically review, the concepts they believe are fundamental to introductory organic chemistry, the topics students find most difficult in the subject, and the misconceptions they observe in undergraduate organic chemistry…

Duis, Jennifer M.

2011-01-01

252

Using Structured Examples and Prompting Reflective Questions to Correct Misconceptions about Thermodynamic Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the effectiveness of using "structured examples in concert with prompting reflective questions" to address misconceptions held by mechanical engineering students about thermodynamic principles by employing pre-test and post-test design, a structured questionnaire, lecture room observation, and participants'…

Olakanmi, E. O.; Doyoyo, M.

2014-01-01

253

Original Article Awareness about Common Diseases in selected Female College Students of Karachi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the level of awareness about five common diseases, namely: Tuberculosis (TB), Typhoid, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV\\/AIDS among college female students of Karachi. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of female students aged 16-21 years from three colleges selected by con- venient sampling method was conducted from January to May 2004. Data was collected through a self-admin- istered

Sabeena Jalal Khan; Qudsia Anjum; Najib Ullah Khan; Faiza Ghulam Nabi

254

Misconceptions as necessary stepping stones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I've been reading an online book called Ready, Set, Science! Putting Research to Work in K-8 Science Classrooms (www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11882) and have found the discussion very enlightening. I think that any beginning science teacher might want to look at this book for guidance in designing lessons and managing student discussions to help students become more thoughtful, productive, and independent learners. While the book gives examples of K-8 classrooms, the examples of classroom discourse could serve as a road map for teachers at any level who want to make their classrooms more student centered and a place where all learners are actively engaged.

Blanton, Patricia

2010-04-01

255

Shampoo, Soy Sauce, and the Prince's Pendant: Density for Middle-Level Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a series of activities that are designed to clear up common student misconceptions regarding the difficult concepts of mass and density at the middle-level. Concept development, problem solving, design, measurement, and quantitative activities are interwoven throughout these lessons. Each set of lessons is designed to conform to one full cycle of the 5E learning model.

Chandrasekhar, Meera; Litherland, Rebecca

2006-10-01

256

Challenges posed by some misconceptions in mathematical physics: A case study of work done and potential energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is focused on the concept and formalism of work done and potential energy on the very fundamental level. A detailed analysis of the incomplete presentations of the topics found a major misconception that precluded acknowledgement of existence of certain nonradial effects caused by classical radial/center-bound gravitational force fields is offered. Certain consequences of this and some related misconceptions are also discussed as well the adverse impact of these misconceptions on research on education, teaching and learning of these topics, and on the future development of physical and mathematical theories related to, or relying on, these topics. The most noticeable conclusion of this study is that a more complete and transparent mathematical approach to physics is needed in order to prevent generating similar misconception in the future theories of physics and mathematical sciences in general. A conclusion of importance to educators is that they cannot rely on research scientists anymore, but should evaluate the contents of topics presented to undergraduate and graduate students in order to recognize possible misconceptions and reformulate presentations of topics whose mathematical incompleteness might lead to cognitive conflicts. These conclusions, when generalized, provide specific guidelines for educators, and especially for academic teachers, curriculum designers and researchers on issues pertinent to education. This study is not dealing with misconceptions created by students.

Yah, Jake K.

257

Alternate Assessments of Students with Significant Disabilities: Alternative Approaches, Common Technical Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines three typical approaches to alternate assessment for students with significant cognitive disabilities--portfolios, performance assessments, and rating scales. A detailed analysis of common and unique design features of these approaches is provided, including features of each approach that influence the psychometric quality of…

Elliott, Stephen N.; Roach, Andrew T.

2007-01-01

258

Applying Symmetries of Common Objects to Help Students Understand Stereoselectivity for Apparently Symmetric Substrates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have found it an effective way of teaching symmetry in the context of stereoselectivity, to use common everyday objects with the same point groups as the substrates involved. This has helped students to distinguish between those symmetry elements which allow for stereospecificity and those which preclude it. Two symmetry elements, the simple…

Jittam, Piyachat; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

2008-01-01

259

Common Core State Standards and Diverse Urban Students: Using Multi-Tiered Systems of Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As America's Great City Schools implement the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), they have a unique opportunity to integrate strategies for teaching, intervening, and supporting the nation's urban students in a way that will ensure they have the literacy, numeracy, behavioral, and engagement skills necessary to be successful in college and…

Gamm, Sue; Elliott, Judy; Halbert, Julie Wright; Price-Baugh, Ricki; Hall, Robin; Walston, Denise; Uro, Gabriela; Casserly, Michael

2012-01-01

260

Misconceptions in Rational Numbers, Probability, Algebra, and Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the author examined the relationship of probability misconceptions to algebra, geometry, and rational number misconceptions and investigated the potential of probability instruction as an intervention to address misconceptions in all 4 content areas. Through a review of literature, 5 fundamental concepts were identified that, if…

Rakes, Christopher R.

2010-01-01

261

Managing Misconceptions: Seafarers, great circles, and a tad of rhumb--Understanding the Mercator misconception  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Being flat, Mercator maps inherently misrepresent some aspects of Earth's geography. That's because there is absolutely no way to simultaneously conserve all of the elements of three-dimensional space in a two-dimensional model. To dispel misconceptions,

Dispezio, Michael A.

2010-11-01

262

Recycling misconceptions of perceived self-efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This commentary addresses misconceptions concerning perceived self-efficacy contained in the article by Eastman and Marzillier. People who regard themselves as highly efficacious act, think, and feel differently from those who perceive themselves as inefficacious. Self-percepts of efficacy thus contribute significantly to performance accomplishments rather than residing in the host organism simply as inert predictors of behaviors to come. A substantial

Albert Bandura

1984-01-01

263

Assertive community treatment: Correcting some misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Except for Mowbray, the commentators approach the issue of mental health services quite differently than we do, a fact which may have contributed to some of their misconceptions. Although not stressed in our original report, our view of mental health services is eclectic and pragmatic, encompassing a wide range of psychosocial approaches. We agree with Salem that a range of

Gary R. Bond; Thomas F. Witheridge; Jerry Dincin; Daniel Wasmer

1991-01-01

264

Viktor Lowenfeld: Some Misconceptions, Some Insights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the major components of Viktor Lowenfeld's approach to art education, devoting specific attention to the misconceptions often attributed to his use of developmental stages. Notes that Lowenfeld was not the first individual to describe developmental stages in art learning and promotes a more accurate interpretation of how…

Michael, John A.

1986-01-01

265

Single-Subject Research Designs: Some Misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, several articles have advocated the use of single-subject experimental designs in rehabilitation research. However, a survey of three leading journals in the field of rehabilitation psychology revealed that only a very small percentage of published research in the last five years employed single-subject research designs. It was hypothesized that some basic misconceptions about this research strategy prevent

1991-01-01

266

Clarification of Selected Misconceptions in Physical Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some misconceptions relating to location and to the earth's hydrosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. Provides correction and explanation of various phenomena. Includes ocean names and sizes, sea level, coriolis effect, greenhouse effect, lightning, magma, and mass wasting. Suggests that myths can be dispelled by exposure combined with…

Nelson, Burton D.; And Others

1992-01-01

267

Myths and Misconceptions in Adult Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions include the following: (1) literacy changes the way people think; (2) illiteracy will soon be eradicated; (3) U.S. literacy is far worse than elsewhere; (4) U.S. government has made major investments in literacy; (5) increased public awareness has led to significant improvements; and (6) better applications of technology will solve…

Wagner, Daniel A.

1993-01-01

268

MYTHS AND MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING: WHAT EVERY TEACHER NEEDS TO UNLEARN  

Microsoft Academic Search

By discussing commonly held myths and misconceptions, this paper attempts to clarify a number of important issues in the area of second language learning. These include the ease and rapidity with which children learn a second language, the optimal age at which to begin second language instruction, the importance of the extent of exposure to the second language, the relationship

BARRY MCLAUGHLIN

269

Spork & Beans: Addressing Evolutionary Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

They are found at picnics and family outings, apparently attracted by the food provided at these events. Large populations in fast food establishments further support their association with food. Yet little is known about the biology of "Utensilus plastica" (common name: plastic eating utensil). The authors have conducted an in-depth study of this…

Burton, Stephen R.; Dobson, Christopher

2009-01-01

270

How Deep Can be a Dyke? II: Common Misconceptions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The choice of a conceptual model of a dyke either as a continuous conduit joining the region of magma storage and the surface during an eruptive event or, alternatively, as isolated batches of ascending magma, depends on a number of hypothesis that might not be explicitly stated. For instance, it is often assumed 1) that the internal pressure of a dyke equals the pressure exerted by the outer rock at the middle of the dyke, 2) that laboratory measured tensile strengths or fracture toughness of rocks control fracture initiation regardless of confining pressure, or 3) that the mantle behaves as an elastic solid during dyke events. These, and other hypothesis, are justified if fracture conditions are those of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). Geological and physical evidence, however, suggest that a) mantle rocks are a viscoelastic material with a relaxation time of ca. 34 yrs, b) confining pressure can invalidate the conditions behind LEFM, and c) the strong rheological contrast between magma and the surrounding rock influences the form in which stresses are transmitted in both materials. When these observations are accounted for, not only it becomes evident that LEFM might not be appropriate to describe the formation of dykes, but also it is shown that the continuous conduit model of a dyke is favored. Consequently, the existence of dykes extending to depths of 250 km beneath the surface is a physical reality. These observations also are important in controlling the ultimate 3D aspect of an intrusive, and might play an important role in the development of saucer shaped intrusions.

Cañón-Tapia, E.

2007-12-01

271

Using Lecture Tutorials to Increase Student Learning in Introductory Geoscience Courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students often leave introductory geoscience courses with their misconceptions still intact, and we developed Lecture Tutorials (LTs) to help alleviate this problem. LTs are 10-15 minute interactive worksheets that students complete in small groups in class, after a short introductory lecture. Topics for the LTs (e.g., climate change, the rock cycle, etc.) were chosen because they are commonly taught in introductory classes and include recognized misconceptions. The LTs typically follow a sequence beginning with factual-based questions that progressively become more difficult and culminating in application-type questions designed to provoke both discussion and critical thinking. Often, one of the latter questions is presented in the form of a debate between two students, where one student expresses the scientifically held view and the other espouses a view based on a common misconception. Students in the class must determine with which student in the LT they agree and explain why. These hypothetical debates allow students to confront their own misconceptions and replace them with the accepted scientific views. Lecture Tutorials increase student learning more than lectures alone. After a short lecture, students correctly answered 58% of multiple-choice questions (including embedded Geoscience Concept Inventory questions), and that value increased by 18% after they completed the LT. To determine if the increase resulted from extra time spent on the topic rather than the unique approach of LTs, we also tested how an extended lecture, in lieu of LTs, affected student scores. After an extended lecture, student scores increased by only 5% on multiple-choice questions. Therefore, we conclude that LTs are more effective than lecture alone in increasing student knowledge. LTs have been written to be relatively easy to implement in classrooms without a large time commitment or dramatic course redesign. Thirteen LTs have currently been tested, and more are being developed. They are available for instructor use by visiting the webpage: http://faculty.ccri.edu/kkortz/lt.shtml.

Kortz, K. M.; Smay, J. J.; Murray, D. P.

2007-12-01

272

How Do Students Misunderstand Number Representations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We used both student interviews and diagnostic testing to reveal students' misconceptions about number representations in computing systems. This article reveals that students who have passed an undergraduate level computer organization course still possess surprising misconceptions about positional notations, two's complement representation, and…

Herman, Geoffrey L.; Zilles, Craig; Loui, Michael C.

2011-01-01

273

More Misconceptions to Avoid When Teaching about Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The resource is useful for teacher's professional development by alerting educators to many plant misconceptions in teaching literature. In the thought provoking, peer reviewed resource fifty additional misconceptions are identified. In this complementary article to "Avoid Misconceptions When Teaching about Plants" the author addresses undergeneralizations, overgeneralizations, obsolete concepts and terms, misidentifications, and flawed research. A glossary at the end of the article compares words used in botany with their popular usage.

David R. Hershey (;)

2005-10-01

274

Will Writing Awareness Transfer to Writing Performance? Response to Douglas Downs and Elizabeth Wardle, "Teaching about Writing, Righting Misconceptions"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author offers his critiques on Downs and Wardle's course, Introduction to Writing Studies. Downs and Wardle use their course to alert students to the very misconceptions that prompt the shift from "teaching writing" to "teaching about writing"--namely the inability of first-year composition courses to make good on the pledge…

Kutney, Joshua P.

2007-01-01

275

Teaching Tree-Thinking to Undergraduate Biology Students  

PubMed Central

Evolution is the unifying principle of all biology, and understanding how evolutionary relationships are represented is critical for a complete understanding of evolution. Phylogenetic trees are the most conventional tool for displaying evolutionary relationships, and “tree-thinking” has been coined as a term to describe the ability to conceptualize evolutionary relationships. Students often lack tree-thinking skills, and developing those skills should be a priority of biology curricula. Many common student misconceptions have been described, and a successful instructor needs a suite of tools for correcting those misconceptions. I review the literature on teaching tree-thinking to undergraduate students and suggest how this material can be presented within an inquiry-based framework.

2011-01-01

276

Design Practices and Misconceptions: Helping Beginners in Engineering Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes beginner habits and misconceptions related to design practices. Once teachers are aware of these habits and misconceptions, they can more easily recognize them and work to remedy them through instruction. Presented herein are eight practice habits. Each item begins with the practice, describes a related design habit or…

Crismond, David

2013-01-01

277

The ear and its malformations: strange beliefs and misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the strange beliefs and misconceptions related to the ear and its malformations, and how these have changed from ancient times until today.Methods. Ancient documents, journal articles, and history books were studied to research ancient and current beliefs and misconceptions with regard to the ear and its malformations.Results. The ear has been the centre of various beliefs and

Irene E Gamatsi; Thomas P Nikolopoulos; Dimitra E Lioumi

2003-01-01

278

Misconceptions about Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…

Syed, Khalida Tanvir

2008-01-01

279

Campus Library 2.0: The Information Commons Is a Scalable, One-Stop Shopping Experience for Students and Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 2003, Mt. Holyoke, an elite, largely undergraduate liberal arts college with a student population of roughly 2000, unveiled its take on the information commons. Located in an area known as Miles-Smith 4, the commons functions as a conduit between the main library and Dwight Hall, which houses the library offices, state-of-the-art media…

Albanese, Andrew Richard

2004-01-01

280

Factors that affect the physical science career interest of female students: Testing five common hypotheses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using multivariate matching methods on national data drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project (n=7505), we test the following five commonly held beliefs regarding what factors might impact females’ physical science career interest: (i) having a single-sex physics class, (ii) having a female physics teacher, (iii) having female scientist guest speakers in physics class, (iv) discussing the work of female scientists in physics class, and (v) discussing the underrepresentation of women in physics class. The effect of these experiences on physical science career interest is compared for female students who are matched on several factors, including prior science interests, prior mathematics interests, grades in science, grades in mathematics, and years of enrollment in high school physics. No significant effects are found for single-sex classes, female teachers, female scientist guest speakers, and discussing the work of female scientists. However, discussions about women’s underrepresentation have a significant positive effect.

Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

2013-12-01

281

Teaching evolution (and all of biology) more effectively: Strategies for engagement, critical reasoning, and confronting misconceptions.  

PubMed

The strength of the evidence supporting evolution has increased markedly since the discovery of DNA but, paradoxically, public resistance to accepting evolution seems to have become stronger. A key dilemma is that science faculty have often continued to teach evolution ineffectively, even as the evidence that traditional ways of teaching are inferior has become stronger and stronger. Three pedagogical strategies that together can make a large difference in students' understanding and acceptance of evolution are extensive use of interactive engagement, a focus on critical thinking in science (especially on comparisons and explicit criteria) and using both of these in helping the students actively compare their initial conceptions (and publicly popular misconceptions) with more fully scientific conceptions. The conclusion that students' misconceptions must be dealt with systematically can be difficult for faculty who are teaching evolution since much of the students' resistance is framed in religious terms and one might be reluctant to address religious ideas in class. Applications to teaching evolution are illustrated with examples that address criteria and critical thinking, standard geology versus flood geology, evolutionary developmental biology versus organs of extreme perfection, and the importance of using humans as a central example. It is also helpful to bridge the false dichotomy, seen by many students, between atheistic evolution versus religious creationism. These applications are developed in detail and are intended to be sufficient to allow others to use these approaches in their teaching. Students and other faculty were quite supportive of these approaches as implemented in my classes. PMID:21669785

Nelson, Craig E

2008-08-01

282

An Intervention Using Concept Sketching for Addressing Dislocation-Related Misconceptions In Introductory Materials Classes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In materials science and engineering (MSE) a major goal of the discipline is to effectively teach learners from other engineering disciplines about engineering a material's macroscale properties based on the knowledge and understanding of its atomic-scale structure. This goal is a significant intellectual challenge because learners must develop a conceptual framework to understand and solve materials-related problems in their own discipline. There are significant difficulties in addressing materials-related problems in a discipline because robust misconceptions are used by students attempting to understand and correlate the concrete "macroworld" of everyday objects, properties, and phenomena to the abstract "atomic and micro-scale world" of atoms, molecules and microstructure, which are types of features of a material that actually control its properties. These misconceptions, which are scientifically-inaccurate interpretations about materials, can neither explain nor predict materials' phenomena or properties. In this study, different teaching methods were used to address the question, "What is the effect of pedagogy on student conceptual understanding of deformation and thermal processing and associated property changes of metals in an introductory materials class?" For classes in 2002, 2003, and 2007, content delivered by lectures, pair-based discussions, and team-based concept sketching, respectively, were compared in teaching the effect of deformation or annealing on a metal's properties by invoking the atomic-level structural feature of dislocations to understand macroscopic-level property changes in strength, ductility, and fracture toughness. The effect of the pedagogy was assessed from responses to dislocation-related questions on the Materials Concept Inventory (MCI). Results showed that a team-based concept sketching pedagogy was most effective in achieving conceptual change of faulty mental models about deformation-related misconceptions. This indicates that concept sketching may be an effective pedagogy both for revealing misconceptions and achieving conceptual change about other physical phenomena in materials engineering, as well as diverse physical phenomena in other engineering disciplines.

Krause, Stephen; Tasooji, Amaneh

2009-11-03

283

Describing and analyzing learning in action: An empirical study of the importance of misconceptions in learning science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although misconceptions in science have been established in interview studies,theirroleduringthelearningprocessispoorlyexamined.Inthispaper,weuseresults from a classroom study to analyze to what extent nonscientific ideas in electrochemistry that students report in interviews enter into their learning in a more authentic setting. We audio-recorded talk between eight pairs of Swedish upper secondary students during a practical on electrochemical cells. Learning was operationalized on a discursive

Karim M. Hamza; Per-Olof Wickman

2008-01-01

284

Divided by a Common Degree Program? Profiling Online and Face-to-Face Information Science Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines profiles of online and face-to-face students in a single information science school: the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee School of Information Studies. A questionnaire was administered to 76 students enrolled in online course sections and 72 students enrolled in face-to-face course sections. The questionnaire examined student

Haigh, Maria

2007-01-01

285

Knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Fever is an extremely common sign in paediatric patients and the most common cause for a child to be taken to the doctor. The literature indicates that physicians and parents have too many misconceptions and conflicting results about fever management. In this study we aim to identify knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in April-May 2010 involving primary care physicians (n=80). The physicians were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used. Results In our study only 10% of the physicians knew that a body temperature of above 37.2°C according to an auxiliary measurement is defined as fever. Only 26.2% of the physicians took into consideration signs and symptoms other than fever to prescribe antipyretics. 85% of the physicians prescribed antipyretics to control fever or prevent complications of fever especially febrile seizures. Most of the physicians (76.3%) in this study reported that the height of fever may be used as an indicator for severe bacterial infection. A great majority of physicians (91.3%) stated that they advised parents to alternate the use of ibuprofen and paracetamol. Conclusions There were misconceptions about the management and complications of fever. There is a perceived need to improve the recognition, assessment, and management of fever with regards to underlying illnesses in children.

2012-01-01

286

Prevailing Misconceptions of Vitiligo among Saudi School Children  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify the prevailing myths and misconception about vitiligo among the school students in Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in 18 schools of Qassim Regions in Saudi Arabia, Data was collected by 486 pre-tested, self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaires included a section on social-demographic information (age, sex, education of parents) besides prevailing myths on vitiligo. Data was analyzed by using SPSS (version 17 for Windows). Results The response rate: Males 46.3%, and females 53.3%. With vitiligo disease: 24.1% and non-diseased 75.9%, with positive family history: Males 9.3%, female 13.8%. Myths among students compared with gender: Vitiligo with; Fish/milk food (P= 0.374), calcium deficiency (P= 0.001), iron deficiency (P= <0.001), Vit C deficiency (P= 0.225), infectious (P= <0.001), Chicken pox like disease (P= <0.001), precancerous (P= 0.212) and not curable (P= <0.001). Myths among students compared with diseased/not diseased, namely that relation of vitiligo with: Fish/milk food (P= 0.006), calcium deficiency (P= <0.001), iron deficiency (P= 0.022), Vit C deficiency (P= <0.001), infectious (P= 0.228), Chicken pox like disease (P= <0.001), precancerous (P= 0.051) and not curable (P= 0.231). Conclusion The prevailing myths and conceptions delay seeking medical advice and should be addressed by focused health education programs through school health services.

Sharaf, Fawzy Khalil

2014-01-01

287

Using the Big Ideas in Cosmology to Teach College Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in our understanding of the Universe have revolutionized our view of its structure, composition and evolution. However, these new ideas have not necessarily been used to improve the teaching of introductory astronomy students. In this project, we have conducted research into student understanding of cosmological ideas so as to develop effective web-based tools to teach basic concepts important to modern cosmology. The tools are intended for use at the introductory college level. Our research uses several instruments, including open-ended and multiple choice surveys conducted at multiple institutions, as well as interviews and course artifacts at one institution, to ascertain what students know regarding modern cosmological ideas, what common misunderstandings and misconceptions they entertain, and what sorts of materials can most effectively overcome students' difficulty in learning this material. These data are being used to create a suite of interactive, web-based tutorials that address the major ideas in cosmology. One common misconception that students in our introductory courses possess is that scientific explanations are “made up,” and not supported by observational data. Having students engage with real data is a powerful means to help students overcome this misconception. For this reason, the tutorials we are developing include authentic student interaction with actual data where possible. Students master the scientific concepts and reasoning processes that lead to our current understanding of the Universe through interactive tasks, prediction, reflection, experimentation, and model building. This workshop will demonstrate the use of some of the modules we have created and will allow participants to test the modules for themselves.

McLin, K. M.; Coble, K.; Metevier, A. J.; Bailey, J. M.; Cominsky, L. R.

2013-04-01

288

Common Literacy Struggles with College Students: Using the Reciprocal Teaching Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many college students struggle with the literacy skills needed to be successful in higher education (Bettinger & Long, 2009; Snyder, Tan, & Hoffman, 2004). The difficulties emerge within students' capabilities in reading and writing. Students must be taught the skills needed to be successful to complete the tasks assigned in college classes and in…

Gruenbaum, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

289

Misconceptions about Einstein: His Work and His Views.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses eight misconceptions concerning Einstein's work and views, as part of a presentation at the Einstein Symposium held at the 178th National American Chemical Society Meetings in Washington, D.C., in September, 1979. (CS)

Resnick, Robert

1980-01-01

290

A New Direction: How a Compass Pointed the Way to Clearing Up an Attractive Misconception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ask a typical high school student to draw a picture of how a bar magnet works and most of the drawings produced will show a ``+'' and ``-'' sign at the two ends. Some students will write ``N'' and ``S.'' If you then ask some follow-up questions, they will often resort to talking about ``charges'' being responsible for the magnetism. For several years, I have tried to tackle this prevalent misconception and guide students toward a more sophisticated model of domains, with at least one unexpected outcome along the way. This year, my AP Physics B class helped me develop a simple demonstration that may convince some students that charges are not in charge of magnetism.1

Hood, Tracy

2012-10-01

291

Savant syndrome: realities, myths and misconceptions.  

PubMed

It was 126 years ago that Down first described savant syndrome as a specific condition and 70 years ago that Kanner first described Early Infantile Autism. While as many as one in ten autistic persons have savant abilities, such special skills occur in other CNS conditions as well such that approximately 50 % of cases of savant syndrome have autism as the underlying developmental disability and 50 % are associated with other disabilities. This paper sorts out realities from myths and misconceptions about both savant syndrome and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that have developed through the years. The reality is that low IQ is not necessarily an accompaniment of savant syndrome; in some cases IQ can be superior. Also, savants can be creative, rather than just duplicative, and the skills increase over time on a continuum from duplication, to improvisation to creation, rather than diminishing or suddenly disappearing. Genius and prodigy exist separate from savant syndrome and not all such highly gifted persons have Asperger's Disorder. This paper also emphasizes the critical importance of separating 'autistic-like' symptoms from ASD especially in children when the savant ability presents as hyperlexia (children who read early) or as Einstein syndrome (children who speak late), or have impaired vision (Blindisms) because prognosis and outcome are very different when that careful distinction is made. In those cases the term 'outgrowing autism' might be mistakenly applied when in fact the child did not have ASD in the first place. PMID:23918440

Treffert, Darold A

2014-03-01

292

University students' conceptions of basic astronomy concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A questionnaire of 19 questions given to 76 students entering an `Introduction to astronomy' course at university showed that the students held a series of misconceptions on several central topics in basic astronomy.

Trumper, Ricardo

2005-11-28

293

Are Common Course Numbering and a Core Curriculum Valid Indicators in the Articulation of General Education Credits among Transfer Students?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a study of native and transfer students conducted at an urban doctoral-granting university (Southern University, Louisiana) to determine the comparability of commonly numbered coursework between a two-year college and the university within the same state system of higher education. Using a cluster analytic model, the study…

Ratcliff, James L.; Jones, Elizabeth A.

294

Open up the Ceiling on the Common Core State Standards: Preparing Students for 21st-Century Literacy--Now  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards Initiative is the latest effort to reform education through standards. This article examines how the Standards promise to prepare students for the changing world of the 21st century, yet do not consider the changing nature of literacy--especially the centrality of the Internet as a 21st century text, and online…

Drew, Sally Valentino

2013-01-01

295

Pre-service elementary teachers' misconceptions with respect to three environmental issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to identify and describe pre-service elementary teachers' misconceptions with respect to three environmental issues: the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion and acid precipitation; and to compare the knowledge level of students with a science concentration to students with a non-science concentration. One hundred and nineteen junior or senior level elementary education majors enrolled in a science teaching methods course at a large Mid-western university participated in this study. Out of 119, 26 students had science as their area of concentration. A 29-statement survey was used to collect the data. For validation, the survey questionnaire was pilot tested and reviewed by five experienced faculty members before it was administered to the subjects. The statements in the questionnaire focused on the causes, effects, and interaction of the three environmental issues: the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion and acid precipitation. Students responded to each survey statement using a Likert scale. Students were invited to explain their answers in the space provided below various statements. In addition, 23 students agreed to an in-depth follow up interview to further explore their knowledge level and misconceptions. For the quantitative analysis, a X2 test of significance was used to determine the difference in the knowledge level of the two groups of students. No statistically significant difference was found in the knowledge level of the science and non-science students. The analysis of the qualitative section of the survey reveals that the majority of pre-service elementary teachers possess an array of incorrect ideas about the nature, causes and effects of the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, and acid rain. Recommendations are made for changes in the preparation of pre-service elementary teachers to address the deficiencies identified in this study.

Khalid, Tahsin

2000-10-01

296

Constructivist Approach: Removing Misconceptions about Chemical Bonding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study is to examine the effect of instruction based on constructivist approach on 9th grade students' understanding of chemical bonding concepts (n=41). Also, the effects of gender differences were investigated. Control group students were taught by traditional instruction. Experimental group students were instructed by…

Uzuntiryaki, Esen

297

Student Failure in First Year Modules in the Biosciences: An Interview Based Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undergraduate retention is a major concern for universities and first year failure is a significant contributor to the overall statistics for non-progression. This report describes an interview-based investigation of students' perceptions for the reasons underlying their failure in 1st and 2nd semester modules. The most commonly cited reasons were misconceptions about the academic expectations both in terms of the volume

Jon Scott; Maria Graal

2007-01-01

298

Scratch This! The IF-AT as a Technique for Stimulating Group Discussion and Exposing Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Frequent and immediate feedback is critical for learning and retaining content as well as developing effective learning teams (Michaelson, Knight, and Fink 2004). The Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique (IF-AT) provides a single and efficient way for learners to self-assess their progress in a course and to structure significant small-group discussion. Used within the proper context, the IF-AT succeeds as a relatively simple, low-tech tool for providing immediate feedback, targeting student misconceptions, and generating group discussion.

Kellerman, Anne; Baepler, Paul; Cotner, Sehoya

2008-03-01

299

The first-year veterinary student and mental health: the role of common stressors.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the impact of academic and non-academic stressors on depression levels in a longitudinal investigation of 78 first-year veterinary medical students enrolled at Kansas State University (KSU). Students completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale during their first and second semesters to evaluate the dependent variable, depression. Students provided information about specific stressors and relevant demographic variables that yielded independent variables. One-third of veterinary medical students surveyed in their first and second semesters reported depression levels above the clinical cut-off; 15% of the sample experienced an increase in depression of at least one standard deviation, despite the apparent stability of the proportion of students experiencing significant depressive symptoms. Students whose depression scores increased by one standard deviation or who maintained scores above the clinical cut-off score were identified as struggling. Struggling students reported more first-semester homesickness and academic concerns, along with difficulty fitting in with peers and poorer perceived physical health during the second semester. This study helped to identify those students most prone to develop or maintain concerning depression scores. The discussion section addresses specific suggestions for intervening with struggling students. PMID:18339964

Hafen, McArthur; Reisbig, Allison M J; White, Mark B; Rush, Bonnie R

2008-01-01

300

100 Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics is the art and science of gathering, analyzing, and making conclusions from data. However, many people do not fully understand how to interpret statistical results and conclusions. Placing students in a collaborative environment involving project-based learning may enable them to overcome misconceptions of probability and enhance the…

Riskowski, Jody L.; Olbricht, Gayla; Wilson, Jennifer

2010-01-01

301

Perspectives: Assessing and Addressing Student Science Ideas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our students are not blank slates. They come to school with a wide range of experiences that have shaped their science understandings--reading books, watching TV, and playing video games. From many years of research about student science ideas, it is evident that student science misconceptions are prevalent, strongly held, and highly resistant to change. Here the authors describe some research-based strategies that science teachers can use to assess and address students' misconceptions.

Smith, S. R.; Abell, Sandra K.

2008-03-01

302

Students in Higher Education Governance in Europe: Contrasts, Commonalities and Controversies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a synthesizing overview of the roles of students in higher education governance in Europe. We first review the existing literature on student involvement in higher education governance in order to locate the contribution of this special issue of "Tertiary Education and Management." Second, we summarize the key findings of the…

Pabian, Petr; Minksova, Lenka

2011-01-01

303

Commonalities and Differences among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual College Students: Considerations for Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the appropriateness of collapsing lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students into a single category in quantitative research designs as well as the nature of their engagement with the collegiate environment. Data were collected as part of a national study and represent a total of 980 LGB self-identified college students

Dugan, John P.; Yurman, Lauren

2011-01-01

304

Social Justice and Critical Peace Education: Common Ideals Guiding Student Teacher Transformation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objective of this paper is to report on two teacher educators' development and assessment of a framework and workshop to introduce student teachers to social justice and peace education ideals within the domains of teachers' work during student teachers' first full-time experience of teaching in diverse schools in a major city in the…

Christopher, Doris H.; Taylor, Marilyn J.

2011-01-01

305

Social justice and critical peace education: Common ideals guiding student teacher transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this paper is to report on two teacher educators’ development and assessment of a framework and workshop to introduce student teachers to social justice and peace education ideals within the domains of teachers’ work during student teachers’ first full-time experience of teaching in diverse schools in a major city in the Pacific region. The framework builds

Doris H. Christopher; Marilyn J. Taylor

2011-01-01

306

Clinical misconceptions dispelled by epidemiological research.  

PubMed

The epidemiological approach to investigation of cardiovascular disease was innovated in 1948 by Ancel Keys' Seven Countries Study and T.R. Dawber's Framingham Heart Study. Conducted in representative samples of the general population, these investigations provided an undistorted perception of the clinical spectrum of cardiovascular disease, its incidence and prognosis, the lifestyles and personal attributes that predispose to cardiovascular disease, and clues to pathogenesis. The many insights gained corrected numerous widely held misconceptions derived from clinical studies. It was learned, for example, that the adverse consequences of hypertension do not derive chiefly from the diastolic pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy was not an incidental compensatory phenomenon, and small amounts of proteinuria were more than orthostatic trivia. Exercise was considered dangerous for cardiovascular disease candidates; smoking, cholesterol, and a fatty diet were regarded as questionable promoters of atherosclerosis. The entities of sudden death and unrecognized myocardial infarction were not widely appreciated as prominent features of coronary disease, and the disabling and lethal nature of cardiac failure and atrial fibrillation was underestimated. It took epidemiological research to coin the term "risk factor" and dispel the notion that cardiovascular disease must have a single origin. Epidemiological investigation provided health professionals with multifactorial risk profiles to more efficiently target candidates for cardiovascular disease for preventive measures. Clinicians now look to epidemiological research to provide definitive information about possible predisposing factors for cardiovascular disease and preventive measures that are justified. As a result, clinicians are less inclined to regard usual or average values as acceptable and are more inclined to regard optimal values as "normal." Cardiovascular events are coming to be regarded as a medical failure rather than the first indication of treatment. PMID:7586324

Kannel, W B

1995-12-01

307

DISPELLING MYTHS AND MISCONCEPTIONS TO IMPLEMENT A SAFETY CULTURE  

SciTech Connect

Industrial accidents are typically reported in terms of technological malfunctions, ignoring the human element in accident causation. However, over two-thirds of all accidents are attributable to human and organizational factors (e.g., planning, written procedures, job factors, training, communication, and teamwork), thereby affecting risk perception, behavior and attitudes. This paper reviews the development of WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Program that addresses human and organizational factors from a top-down, bottom-up approach. This approach is derived from the Department of Energy's Integrated Safety Management System. As a result, dispelling common myths and misconceptions about safety, while empowering employees to ''STOP work'' if necessary, have contributed to reducing an unusually high number of vehicle, ergonomic and slip/trip/fall incidents successfully. Furthermore, the safety culture that has developed within WESKEM, LLC's workforce consists of three common characteristics: (1) all employees hold safety as a value; (2) each individual feels responsible for the safety of their co-workers as well as themselves; and (3) each individual is willing and able to ''go beyond the call of duty'' on behalf of the safety of others. WESKEM, LLC as a company, upholds the safety culture and continues to enhance its existing ES&H program by incorporating employee feedback and lessons learned collected from other high-stress industries, thereby protecting its most vital resource - the employees. The success of this program is evident by reduced accident and injury rates, as well as the number of safe work hours accrued while performing hands-on field activities. WESKEM, LLC (Paducah + Oak Ridge) achieved over 800,000 safe work hours through August 2002. WESKEM-Paducah has achieved over 665,000 safe work hours without a recordable injury or lost workday case since it started operations on February 28, 2000.

Potts, T. Todd; Smith, Ken; Hylko, James M.

2003-02-27

308

Characteristics of learning computer-controlled mechanisms by teachers and students in a common laboratory environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing popularity of robotics education motivates developing its didactics and studying it in teacher training programs.\\u000a This paper presents a study conducted in the Department of Education in Technology and Science, Technion, in which university\\u000a students and school pupils cope with robotics challenges of designing, building and operating computer-controlled mechanisms.\\u000a The university students were involved in developing robot prototypes and

Evgeny Korchnoy; Igor M. Verner

2010-01-01

309

Assessing Middle School and College Students' Conceptions About Wind, Fog, and Tornadoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological content is presented in K-12 educational standards and in university general education courses, yet little research has been done to explore how students conceptualize weather phenomena. This investigation probes the understanding of students at three cognitive levels-6th grade earth science students, university non-meteorology majors, and meteorology major students-of three meteorological phenomena-wind, fog, and tornadoes. All students were enrolled in schools in San Francisco, CA. The meteorological content chosen for this project-wind, fog, and tornadoes-was deliberate. Wind is a fundamental process on our planet, and has the potential to cause great damage. Students have direct experience with wind on a daily basis. Fog is a dominant feature of San Francisco climatology, and a familiar phenomenon to students living in our region. Tornadoes are associated with devastating winds and represent a destructive weather phenomenon that students only experience indirectly through movies representations and other media outlets. The phases consisted of (a) a fifteen-question survey, (b) written essay assessments, and (c) videotaped interviews. Phase I, a weather survey, was given to the entire population (65 middle school students, 50 university non-meteorology majors, and 10 university meteorology majors) and consisted of 10-15 challenge statements. Challenge statements assert a common misconception or truism and ask the students to rank their level of agreement on a 4-point Likert scale (strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree). Phase II presented the students a subset of statements and questions, and they were given 5 minutes to explain why they chose their response. To quantify the resulting qualitative data, the written essay assessments were scored using a developed conceptual rubric by multiple observers, using inter-observer reliability to measure agreement in scoring. The results from this phase helped to structure the interview protocol utilized in Phase III. A subset of the population was interviewed, allowing us to probe deeper into students' conceptions about weather. This three-phase approach allowed us to identify and explore misconceptions concerning wind, fog, and tornadoes. Preliminary results from phase I and II probing student conceptions of wind show that over 54% of 6th grade students do not see any connection between the sun and wind, offering instead that the moon, clouds, and the ocean are key contributors to wind development. 13% of students observe that because there is wind at night, and conclude from this that the sun could not play a role in creating wind. By identifying students' misconceptions about wind, fog, and tornadoes, scientists and educators can create more effective learning experiences that address student misconceptions, promote conceptual change, and move students toward a more scientific viewpoint.

Polito, E.; Monteverdi, J. P.; Garcia, O.; Tanner, K. D.

2008-12-01

310

Using a Student-Generated Survey to Inform Planning for a User-Focused Learning Commons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A master's comprehensive University is planning a learning commons to support undergraduate learning. The planning process included a literature review, site visits to commons, consultations with experts in the field, discussions with campus specialists, and surveys of patrons. The literature reports two primary forms of data gathering for…

Weiner, Sharon A.; Weiner, John M.

2010-01-01

311

Young Students Learning Formal Algebraic Notation and Solving Linear Equations: Are Commonly Experienced Difficulties Avoidable?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study looks at a mixed ability group of 21 Year 5 primary students (aged 9-10 years old) who had previously never had formal instruction using letters to stand for unknowns or variables in a mathematics context; nor had they been introduced to formal algebraic notation. Three lessons were taught using the computer software "Grid Algebra"…

Hewitt, Dave

2012-01-01

312

Collaborative Strategies for Teaching Common Acid-Base Disorders to Medical Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to recognize and diagnose acid-base disorders is of the utmost importance in the clinical setting. However, it has been the experience of the authors that medical students often have difficulties learning the basic principles of acid-base physiology in the respiratory physiology curriculum, particularly when applying this knowledge to…

Petersen, Marie Warrer; Toksvang, Linea Natalie; Plovsing, Ronni R.; Berg, Ronan M. G.

2014-01-01

313

Characteristics of Learning Computer-Controlled Mechanisms by Teachers and Students in a Common Laboratory Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing popularity of robotics education motivates developing its didactics and studying it in teacher training programs. This paper presents a study conducted in the Department of Education in Technology and Science, Technion, in which university students and school pupils cope with robotics challenges of designing, building and operating…

Korchnoy, Evgeny; Verner, Igor M.

2010-01-01

314

Exploring How Non-Native Teachers Can Use Commonalities with Students to Teach the Target Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a qualitative study demonstrating how teachers who are non-native speakers (NNS) of the target language and who have learned the target language in a similar environment as their students can use their past learning experiences as pedagogical tools in their classes. An analysis of transcripts from classrooms with NNS and…

Reynolds-Case, Anne

2012-01-01

315

Misconceptions about incline speed for nonlinear slopes.  

PubMed

In 3 experiments, college students provided qualitative predictions about a marble's speed along nonlinear inclines. When predicting the outcome of a race between identical marbles along differently shaped ramps, most students predicted incorrectly that the shorter path was necessarily quicker (the shorter-quicker belief). When comparing instantaneous speed at 2 points, most students predicted incorrectly that incline speed depended on the slope at that point (the slope-speed belief). A final experiment provides evidence that the slope-speed belief reflects a deeper fallacy regarding the resistance encountered while traversing inclines and lifting objects. This fallacy also predicts the prevalent belief that heavier objects fall faster than lighter objects during incline descent or free fall. PMID:12190261

Rohrer, Doug

2002-08-01

316

Myths, misconceptions, and heroics in the management of hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The story of the treatment of hypertension since the 1930s has been marked by myths, misconceptions, controversies and heroics. Heroics on the part of physicians who recognized in the 1940s-1960s that elevated blood pressure was a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and attempted to lower blood pressure by injecting typhoid bacilli, performing extensive surgery (sympathectomy, adrenalectomy) or administered medications

Marvin Moser

2003-01-01

317

Prospective Primary School Teachers' Misconceptions about States of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify prospective primary school teachers' misconceptions about the states of matter. The sample of the study was 227 fourth-year prospective primary school teachers in a Department of Primary Education in Turkey. Researcher asked from every participant to write a response to an open ended question about…

Tatar, Erdal

2011-01-01

318

Attitudes and Misconceptions about Predictive Genetic Testing for Cancer Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe awareness, knowledge, and attitudes about genetic testing for cancer risk among the general public. Results: Thirty-eight adults participated in focus groups in West Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Participants’ beliefs about what genetic testing is ranged from ‘dianetics’ to an accurate description of DNA analysis. Themes included misconceptions about genetic tests, the ability to gain control of one’s life through

Abigail L. Rose; Nikki Peters; Judy A. Shea; Katrina Armstrong

2005-01-01

319

Therapeutic misconception and the appreciation of risks in clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies repeatedly have shown that clinical research subjects have trouble appreciating the implications for their clinical care of participating in a clinical trial. When this failure is based on a lack of appreciation of the impact on individualized clinical care of elements of the research design, it has been called the “therapeutic misconception”. Failure to distinguish the consequences of research

Charles W. Lidz; Paul S. Appelbaum; Thomas Grisso; Michelle Renaud

2004-01-01

320

Palestinian Physicians' Misconceptions about and Approval of Wife Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents the results of a study that examined Palestinian physicians' misconceptions about abused wives and abusive husbands and the extent to which Palestinian physicians approve of wife abuse. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 396 physicians. The results revealed that between 10% and 49% of the Palestinian physicians…

Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.

2010-01-01

321

Misconceptions Influencing Nonformal Education for Women. Question Series-5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper discusses three major obstacles to a change in women's status in developing nations: (1) Misconceptions about development. Women are the largest group who suffer as a result of the concept of development as quantitative, material, technological, and elitist, because that conceptualization does not lead to social change. Development based…

Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, New Delhi (India).

322

Primary Science Assessment Item Setters' Misconceptions Concerning Biological Science Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment is an integral and vital part of teaching and learning, providing feedback on progress through the assessment period to both learners and teachers. However, if test items are flawed because of misconceptions held by the question setter, then such test items are invalid as assessment tools. Moreover, such flawed items are also likely to…

Boo, Hong Kwen

2007-01-01

323

Play It Again, Sam! Adapting Common Games into Multimedia Models Used for Student Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides guidelines on how to adapt common games such as checkers, tic tac toe, obstacle courses, and memory joggers into interactive games in multimedia courseware. Emphasizes creating generic games that can be recycled and used for multiple topics to save development time and keep costs low. Discusses topic themes, game structure, and…

Metcalf, Karen K.; Barlow, Amy; Hudson, Lisa; Jones, Elizabeth; Lyons, Dennis; Piersall, James; Munfus, Laureen

1998-01-01

324

Teaching Business Ethics: The Effectiveness of Common Pedagogical Practices in Developing Students' Moral Judgment Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effectiveness of pedagogical practices used to teach business ethics. The business community has greatly increased its demands for better ethics education in business programs. Educators have generally agreed that the ethical principles of business people have declined. It is important, then, to examine how common

Bosco, Susan M.; Melchar, David E.; Beauvais, Laura L.; Desplaces, David E.

2010-01-01

325

The Common Core and the Future of Student Assessment in Ohio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ohio adopted the Common Core standards in English language arts (ELA) and math last year, but now stands at a crossroad in making sure statewide assessments are aligned to those standards. Ohio is a participating member in two federally funded assessment consortia--the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) and the Partnership for the…

Porter-Magee, Kathleen

2011-01-01

326

Drawing on Students' Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective instruction requires continual assessment of student understanding to identify and redirect misconceptions. This is particularly important when dealing with topics that seem straightforward to the teacher but may go beyond the personal experience of many students, such as the life cycle of flowering plants. Life cycles are a core topic…

Schussler, Elisabeth; Winslow, Jeff

2007-01-01

327

Matter Scatter and Energy Anarchy. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is Simply Common Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows that the second law of thermodynamics is in the common experience of many people and if taught first, before the law of conservation, can result in fewer misconceptions among pupils. Stresses the use of common experiences in teaching. (CW)

Ross, Keith A.

1988-01-01

328

Assessing Climate Misconceptions of Middle School Learners and Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Middle School students and their teachers are among the many populations in the U.S. with misconceptions regarding the science or even reality of climate change. Teaching climate change science in schools is of paramount importance since all school-age children will eventually assume responsibility for the management and policy-making decisions of our planet. The recently published Framework for K-12 Science Education (National Research Council, 2012) emphasizes the importance of students understanding global climate change and its impacts on society. A preliminary assessment of over a thousand urban middles school students found the following from pretests prior to a climate literacy curriculum: - Do not understand that climate occurs on a time scale of decades (most think it is weeks or months) -Do not know the main atmospheric contributors to global warming -Do not understand the role of greenhouse gases as major contributors to increasing Earth's surface temperature -Do not understand the role of water vapor to trap heat and add to the greenhouse effect -Cannot identify some of the human activities that increase the amount of CO2 -Cannot identify sources of carbon emissions produced by US citizens -Cannot describe human activities that are causing the long-term increase of carbon -dioxide levels over the last 100 years -Cannot describe carbon reduction strategies that are feasible for lowering the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere To address the lack of a well-designed middle school science climate change curriculum that can be used to help teachers promote the teaching and learning of important climate change concepts, we developed a 20-day Environmental Literacy and Inquiry (ELI): Climate Change curriculum in partnership with a local school district. Comprehension increased significantly from pre- to post-test after enactment of the ELI curriculum in the classrooms. This work is part of an ongoing systemic curriculum reform initiative to promote (1) environmental literacy and inquiry and (2) foster the development of geospatial thinking and reasoning using geospatial technologies as an essential component of the middle school science curriculum. The curriculum is designed to align instructional materials and assessments with learning goals. The following frameworks were used to provide guidelines for the climate change science content in addition to the science inquiry upon which schools must focus: Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences (U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2009) and the AAAS Project 2061 Communicating and Learning About Global Climate Change (AAAS, 2007). The curriculum is a coherent sequence of learning activities that include climate change investigations with Google Earth, Web-based interactivities that include an online carbon emissions calculator and a Web-based geologic time-line, and inquiry-based ("hands-on") laboratories. The climate change science topics include the atmosphere, Earth system energy balance, weather, greenhouse gases, paleoclimatology, and "humans and climate". It is hoped that with a solid foundation of climate science in the classroom, middle school learners will be in a position to evaluate new scientific discoveries, emerging data sets, and reasonably assess information and misinformation by which they are surrounded on a daily basis.

Sahagian, D. L.; Anastasio, D. J.; Bodzin, A.; Cirucci, L.; Bressler, D.; Dempsey, C.; Peffer, T.

2012-12-01

329

Core Knowledge Confusions Among University Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have demonstrated that university students hold several paranormal beliefs and that paranormal beliefs can be best explained with core knowledge confusions. The aim of this study was to explore to what extent university students confuse the core ontological attributes of lifeless material objects (e.g. a house, a stone), living organisms (e.g. plants), and mental states (e.g., thoughts); whether some core knowledge confusions are more common than others; whether the confusions differ between students from different fields of study, and to replicate the finding that paranormal beliefs increase together with core knowledge confusions. The results showed that half of the participants considered at least four, and one quarter of the participants considered 8-30 confusion statements to be literally true and that the confusions were strongly and positively associated with the amount of paranormal beliefs. The findings indicate that university education does not abolish the misconceptions that characterize children's thinking.

Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm, Annika M.; Takada, Mikito; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Verkasalo, Markku

2011-05-01

330

Effectiveness of Refutational Teaching for High- and Low-Achieving Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assessed the effectiveness of refutational readings and lecture on decreasing psychological misconceptions for students of high versus low levels of achievement. During the course of a semester we addressed introductory psychology students' misconceptions with refutational readings, refutational lecture, or not at all. From pre- and post-test…

Kowalski, Patricia; Taylor, Annette Kujawski

2011-01-01

331

Using Simple Manipulatives to Improve Student Comprehension of a Complex Biological Process: Protein Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biological systems and living processes involve a complex interplay of biochemicals and macromolecular structures that can be challenging for undergraduate students to comprehend and, thus, misconceptions abound. Protein synthesis, or translation, is an example of a biological process for which students often hold many misconceptions. This article…

Guzman, Karen; Bartlett, John

2012-01-01

332

Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment and Staff Counts From the Common Core of Data: School Year 2007-08. First Look. NCES 2010-309  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This First Look presents national and state level data on student enrollment by grade and by race/ethnicity within grade, the numbers of teachers and other education staff, and several student/staff ratios for the 2007-08 school year. It uses data from the State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education of the Common Core of Data…

Noel, Amber M.; Sable, Jennifer

2009-01-01

333

Misconceptions of Depression in African Americans  

PubMed Central

Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues.

Sohail, Zohaib; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy; Richie, William D.

2014-01-01

334

Using Models to Address Misconceptions in Size and Scale Related to the Earth, Moon, Solar System, and Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many children and adults have misconceptions about space-related concepts such as size and distance: Earth-Moon size and distance, distances between the planets, distances to the stars (including the Sun), etc. Unfortunately, when images are used to illustrate common phenomena, such as Moon phases and seasons, they may do a good job of explaining the phenomenon, but may reinforce other misconceptions. For topics such as phases and seasons, scale (size and distance) can easily lead to confusion and reinforce misconceptions. For example, when showing Moon phases, the Moon is usually represented as large relative to the Earth and the true relative distance cannot be easily shown. Similarly, when showing the tilt of the Earth’s axis as the reason for the seasons, the Earth is usually almost as large as the Sun and the distance between them is usually only a few times Earth’s diameter.What lessons have we learned? It is critical with any model to engage the participants: if at all possible, everyone should participate. A critical part of any modeling needs to be a discussion, involving the participants, of the limitations of the model: what is modeled accurately and what is not? This helps to identify and rectify misconceptions and helps to avoid creating new ones. The activities highlighted on our poster represent programs and collaborations that date back more than two decades: The University of Arizona, Tucson Unified School District, Science Center of Inquiry, Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona, and the Planetary Science Institute. Examples of activities that we will present on our poster include: •Earth/Moon size and distance •Macramé model of the Solar System •Human orrery and tabletop orrery •3-D nature of the constellations •Comparing our Solar System to other planetary systems •Origin of the Universe: scale of time and distance

Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Salthouse, K.; Canizo, T. L.

2012-10-01

335

Changing Misconceptions in Newton's Laws of Motion Through Playing Computer Games and Peer Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted to acquire information about students' misconceptions on Newton's laws of motion. Three major hypotheses were examined: (1) students' performance on the posttest after playing the games set in the context of a Newtonian microworld will be significantly better than their performance on the pretest; (2) performance of the students playing the games in a peer cooperative learning setting will improve significantly better than the students who play the games individually; (3) there will be a differential relationship between students with different abilities' performance on the posttest and student interactions in a cooperative learning setting measured by verbal interaction variables. Fifty-three subjects were drawn from 12th grade physics classes at two high schools located in a suburban area of the State of Connecticut. All the students had studied vector addition, Newton's laws of motion, and conservation of momentum. To test the hypotheses, some students played the computer games in a cooperative learning setting and others in an individual learning setting. A series of force and motion problems (White, 1981, 1983) was used as a pretest and a posttest. The nature of verbal interactions in the peer cooperative learning setting was also examined to find the relationship between interaction variables and achievement on the posttest. Comparisons of results were also made with the results of White's study (1981) in which the same dynamics problems were used as a pretest and a posttest. The results show that the students who played computer games in both learning settings performed better on the posttest than on the pretest. On the difference between the performance improvement of the students in two learning settings, the students of all three levels in a peer cooperative learning setting improved more than the students of each corresponding level in individual learning setting. An analysis of videotapes of student verbal interactions in the cooperative learning setting revealed that giving and receiving explanations when terminal responses were needed seemed to be detrimental to the improvement of high and low ability students. In addition, an analysis of checklist responses indicated that the students' feelings on the experiences with computer games and peer cooperative learning were overwhelmingly positive.

Back, Hyejoo

336

What can biochemistry students learn about protein translation? Using variation theory to explore the space of learning created by some common external representations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochemistry education relies heavily on students' ability to visualize abstract cellular and molecular processes, mechanisms, and components. As such, biochemistry educators often turn to external representations to provide tangible, working models from which students' internal representations (mental models) can be constructed, evaluated, and revised. However, prior research has shown that, while potentially beneficial, external representations can also lead to alternative student conceptions. Considering the breadth of biochemical phenomena, protein translation has been identified as an essential biochemical process and can subsequently be considered a fundamental concept for biochemistry students to learn. External representations of translation range from static diagrams to dynamic animations, from simplistic, stylized illustrations to more complex, realistic presentations. In order to explore the potential for student learning about protein translation from some common external representations of translation, I used variation theory. Variation theory offers a theoretical framework from which to explore what is intended for students to learn, what is possible for students to learn, and what students actually learn about an object of learning, e.g., protein translation. The goals of this project were threefold. First, I wanted to identify instructors' intentions for student learning about protein translation. From a phenomenographic analysis of instructor interviews, I was able to determine the critical features instructors felt their students should be learning. Second, I wanted to determine which features of protein translation were possible for students to learn from some common external representations of the process. From a variation analysis of the three representations shown to students, I was able to describe the possible combinations of features enacted by the sequential viewing of pairs of representations. Third, I wanted to identify what students actually learned about protein translation by viewing these external representations. From a phenomenographic analysis of student interviews, I was able to describe changes between students prior lived object of learning and their post lived object of learning. Based on the findings from this project, I can conclude that variation can be used to cue students to notice particular features of an external representation. Additionally, students' prior knowledge and, potentially, the intended objects of learning from previous instructors can also affect what students can learn from a representation. Finally, further study is needed to identify the extent to which mode and level of abstraction of an external representation affect student learning outcomes.

Bussey, Thomas J.

337

Coadaptation and conflict, misconception and muddle, in the evolution of genomic imprinting.  

PubMed

Common misconceptions of the 'parental conflict' theory of genomic imprinting are addressed. Contrary to widespread belief, the theory defines conditions for cooperation as well as conflict in mother-offspring relations. Moreover, conflict between genes of maternal and paternal origin is not the same as conflict between mothers and fathers. In theory, imprinting can evolve either because genes of maternal and paternal origin have divergent interests or because offspring benefit from a phenotypic match, or mismatch, to one or other parent. The latter class of models usually require maintenance of polymorphism at imprinted loci for the maintenance of imprinted expression. The conflict hypothesis does not require maintenance of polymorphism and is therefore a more plausible explanation of evolutionarily conserved imprinting. PMID:24129605

Haig, D

2014-08-01

338

Creating Cognitive Dissonance Between Students' Preconceptions To Encourage Individual Cognitive Accommodation and a Group Cooperative Construction of a Scientific Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' preconceptions (also called misconceptions) interfere with desired learning and resist attempts to eradicate them. By applying previous findings about misconceptions regarding the particle model for gases, a new approach was designed for teaching the subject. A "critical situation" was treated in which students in sixth and seventh grade…

Nussbaum, Joseph; Novick, Shimshon

339

School Students' Ideas about Air Pollution: Hindrance or Help for Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a free-form questionnaire to explore 10- and 11-year-old students' ideas about the nature of air pollution and its biological and physical effects. Suggests that students hold misconceptions in this area. (DDR)

Thornber, Jillian; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

1999-01-01

340

Help Kids WELCOME Disabled Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusion of children with disabilities in today's classrooms poses a challenge to teachers, principals, and parents not only to prepare students with special needs for the classroom, but also to overcome the misconceptions of general education students. The author of this article offers suggestions and strategies designed to help principals and…

Klotz, Mary Beth

2004-01-01

341

Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The symbolic-level questions were based on balanced equations, and the particulate-level questions used multiple-choice questions involving dynamic animations or static pictures. This paper analyzes students' responses to these questions to look for associations among four variables—Answer (the correct answer and three misconceptions), Representation (symbolic or particulate question), Visualization (static or animated pictures), and Representation Order (symbolic questions before or after the particulate questions). The results indicate that the correct answer and the acid-base misconception were more popular than the ion-pair or subscript error misconceptions, the ion-pair misconception was more popular for the particulate questions than the symbolic questions, and that participants were more likely to select the correct answer when viewing static particulate questions compared to animated particulate questions, especially if the particulate questions are seen first. These results suggest that the animated motion of dissolving these compounds in water may be distracting for students.

Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

2013-04-01

342

Harnessing technology to improve formative assessment of student conceptions in STEM: forging a national network.  

PubMed

Concept inventories, consisting of multiple-choice questions designed around common student misconceptions, are designed to reveal student thinking. However, students often have complex, heterogeneous ideas about scientific concepts. Constructed-response assessments, in which students must create their own answer, may better reveal students' thinking, but are time- and resource-intensive to evaluate. This report describes the initial meeting of a National Science Foundation-funded cross-institutional collaboration of interdisciplinary science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education researchers interested in exploring the use of automated text analysis to evaluate constructed-response assessments. Participants at the meeting shared existing work on lexical analysis and concept inventories, participated in technology demonstrations and workshops, and discussed research goals. We are seeking interested collaborators to join our research community. PMID:21633063

Haudek, Kevin C; Kaplan, Jennifer J; Knight, Jennifer; Long, Tammy; Merrill, John; Munn, Alan; Nehm, Ross; Smith, Michelle; Urban-Lurain, Mark

2011-01-01

343

"I Think a Lot of It Is Common Sense. ..." Early Years Students, Professionalism and the Development of a "Vocational Habitus"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on research from a small-scale project investigating the vocational training of students in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in England. We draw on data from interviews with 42 students and five tutors in order to explore the students' understandings of professionalism in early years. In the paper, we discuss first, the…

Vincent, Carol; Braun, Annette

2011-01-01

344

‘I think a lot of it is common sense. …’ Early years students, professionalism and the development of a ‘vocational habitus’  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on research from a small-scale project investigating the vocational training of students in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in England. We draw on data from interviews with 42 students and five tutors in order to explore the students’ understandings of professionalism in early years. In the paper, we discuss first, the then Labour Government’s drive to

Carol Vincent; Annette Braun

2011-01-01

345

‘I think a lot of it is common sense…’ Early years students, professionalism and the development of a ‘vocational habitus’  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on research from a small-scale project investigating the vocational training of students in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in England. We draw on data from interviews with 42 students and five tutors in order to explore the students’ understandings of professionalism in early years. In the paper, we discuss first, the then Labour Government’s drive to

Carol Vincent; Annette Braun

2011-01-01

346

Common Themes, Challenges, Issues, and Aspirations of International Students Pursuing Doctoral Degrees in Education at a Midwestern University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International students' studying abroad is a complicated phenomenon that has touched both the countries that send the students and those that receive them. The issues of international students have affected academic circles as well as public and private sectors. Participation of all stakeholders in higher education is crucial to the progress of…

Mtika, Joe Mithi

2009-01-01

347

Patterns of thinking about phylogenetic trees: A study of student learning and the potential of tree thinking to improve comprehension of biological concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolution education is a critical yet challenging component of teaching and learning biology. There is frequently an emphasis on natural selection when teaching about evolution and conducting educational research. A full understanding of evolution, however, integrates evolutionary processes, such as natural selection, with the resulting evolutionary patterns, such as species divergence. Phylogenetic trees are models of evolutionary patterns. The perspective gained from understanding biology through phylogenetic analyses is referred to as tree thinking. Due to the increasing prevalence of tree thinking in biology, understanding how to read phylogenetic trees is an important skill for students to learn. Interpreting graphics is not an intuitive process, as graphical representations are semiotic objects. This is certainly true concerning phylogenetic tree interpretation. Previous research and anecdotal evidence report that students struggle to correctly interpret trees. The objective of this research was to describe and investigate the rationale underpinning the prior knowledge of introductory biology students' tree thinking Understanding prior knowledge is valuable as prior knowledge influences future learning. In Chapter 1, qualitative methods such as semi-structured interviews were used to explore patterns of student rationale in regard to tree thinking. Seven common tree thinking misconceptions are described: (1) Equating the degree of trait similarity with the extent of relatedness, (2) Environmental change is a necessary prerequisite to evolution, (3) Essentialism of species, (4) Evolution is inherently progressive, (5) Evolution is a linear process, (6) Not all species are related, and (7) Trees portray evolution through the hybridization of species. These misconceptions are based in students' incomplete or incorrect understanding of evolution. These misconceptions are often reinforced by the misapplication of cultural conventions to make sense of trees. Chapter 2 explores the construction, validity, and reliability of a tree thinking concept inventory. Concept inventories are research based instruments that diagnose faulty reasoning among students. Such inventories are tools for improving teaching and learning of concepts. Test scores indicate that tree thinking misconceptions are held by novice and intermediate biology students. Finally, Chapter 3 presents a tree thinking rubric. The rubric aids teachers in selecting and improving introductory tree thinking learning exercises that address students' tree thinking misconceptions.

Naegle, Erin

348

Empowering Mong Students: Home and School Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated how home and school factors affected the education of Mong students. Data from interviews with elementary students, teachers, and parents indicated that Mong families had high expectations for their children. Students' negative schooling experiences were exacerbated by the mismatch between home and school cultures, misconceptions and…

Thao, Yer J.

2003-01-01

349

Students' Knowledge of Sleep and Dreams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 34-item sleep and dream information questionnaire was administered to 232 introductory psychology students to introduce them to the topics of sleep and dreams and to evaluate their knowledge of these areas. A majority of the items were answered correctly by students. Serious misconceptions by students are discussed. (RM)

Palladino, Joseph J.; Carducci, Bernardo J.

1984-01-01

350

Misconceptions about Density of Decimals: Insights from Indonesian Pre-Service Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extensive studies have documented various difficulties with, and misconceptions about, decimal numeration across different levels of education. This paper reports on pre-service teachers' misconceptions about the density of decimals. Written test data from 140 Indonesian pre-service teachers, observation of group and classroom discussions provided…

Widjaja, Wanty; Stacey, Kaye; Steinle, Vicki

2008-01-01

351

A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers’ Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test procedure as described by Treagust constitutes the framework for this study. To differentiate a

Harika Ozge Arslan; Ceyhan Cigdemoglu; Christine Moseley

2012-01-01

352

Student Difficulties with Wave Concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation contains the results of a research study on misconceptions students have concerning wave mechanics and motion. The results indicate that many students have incorrect mental models of waves and use these erroneous models to interpret problems related to wave mechanics. The study also tested instructional methods to help students overcome their difficulties, which represent an obstacle to learning quantum mechanics. Student thinking on classical wave motion and the related mathematics is also examined.

Wittmann, Michael C.

2005-08-07

353

Teachers' Perceptions regarding Gifted and Talented Early Childhood Students (Three to Eight Years of Age)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored teachers' prominent perceptions, misconceptions and significant differences among these misconceptions regarding giftedness in early childhood students, ages 3 to 8 through a survey. Teachers were asked 25 questions about the topics of giftedness and gifted young children. A total of 119 teachers completed the survey. First,…

Jeong, Hea Won Grace

2010-01-01

354

Science and Nonscience Students' Ideas about Basic Astronomy Concepts in Preservice Training for Elementary School Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 14-item questionnaire was given to 100 students in preservice training to become primary and secondary education faculty. Results showed that science and non-science majors held a series of misconceptions about several basic topics central to astronomy. The changes in astronomy misconceptions were analyzed by means of a written questionnaire…

Kalkan, Huseyin; Kiroglu, Kasim

2007-01-01

355

The Bottom Line: An Exercise to Help Students Understand How Social Inequality Is Actively Constructed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the important misconceptions in the American view of poverty is that people are poor because they do not work. This article presents an exercise, the "bottom line," which helps dispel students' misconceptions about the working poor. Through extensive primary-data collection and assembling a budget for low-skilled workers, the exercise: (1)…

Abelev, Melissa; Vincent, M. Bess; Haney, Timothy J.

2008-01-01

356

Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment and Staff Counts from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2008-09. First Look. NCES 2010-347  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings on the numbers of public school students and staff in the United States and other jurisdictions in school year 2008-09, using data from the State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that are reported by state…

Sable, Jennifer; Plotts, Chris

2010-01-01

357

Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment and Staff Counts from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2010-11. First Look. NCES 2012-327  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings on the numbers of public school students and staff in the United States and other jurisdictions for school year 2010-11, using data from the State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that are reported by state…

Keaton, Patrick

2012-01-01

358

Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment and Staff Counts from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2009-10. First Look. NCES 2011-347  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings on the numbers of public school students and staff in the United States and other jurisdictions in school year 2009-10, using data from the State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that are reported by state…

Chen, Chen-Su

2011-01-01

359

Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment and Staff from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2006-07. First Look. NCES 2009-305  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings on the numbers of public school students and staff in the United States and other jurisdictions in school year 2006-07, using data from the State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that are reported by State…

Sable, Jennifer; Noel, Amber; Hoffman, Lee

2008-01-01

360

[Teachers' knowledge, misconceptions, and lacks concerning Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder].  

PubMed

This study was designed to analyze the knowledge, misconceptions, and lacks about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 193 teachers, as a replication of the study carried by Sciutto, Terjesen and Bender in 2000. Teachers completed the Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (KADDS) (Spanish version), adapted by the authors of this research, to measure knowledge of ADHD in three content areas: general knowledge, symptoms/diagnosis, and treatment. Results indicated an average of correct responses of 31.67, 63.88 and 40.46% in general knowledge, symptoms/diagnosis and treatment, respectively. Teachers displayed significantly more knowledge in the Symptoms/Diagnosis scale than in the other scales. Their knowledge correlated positively with: years of experience with hyperactive children, number of hyperactive pupils in their classrooms, and level of perceived self-efficacy. These findings are consistent with those obtained by Sciutto and colleagues. PMID:17959111

Jarque Fernández, Sonia; Tárraga Mínguez, Raúl; Miranda Casas, Ana

2007-11-01

361

Uncovering Student Thinking in Mathematics: 25 Formative Assessment Probes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students learn at varying rates, and if a misconception in mathematics develops early, it may be carried from year to year and obstruct a student's progress. To identify fallacies in students' preconceived ideas, "Uncovering Student Thinking in Mathematics" offers educators a powerful diagnostic technique in the form of field-tested assessment…

Rose, Cheryl M.; Minton, Leslie; Arline, Carolyn B.

2006-01-01

362

Undergraduate Students' Preferences of Knowledge to Solve Particle Mechanics Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the nature of undergraduate students' errors and misconceptions in particle mechanics. This paper provides in-depth descriptions of the errors presented by students and accounts for them in terms of students' procedural or conceptual knowledge. Specifically, this study analyses students' written responses to questions on…

Luneta, Kakoma; Makonye, Judah P.

2011-01-01

363

The Student Experience of Criterion-Referenced Assessment (Through the Introduction of a Common Criteria Assessment Grid).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines student experience of criterion-referenced assessment and, in particular, a criteria assessment grid developed for the Business School at Oxford Brookes University (UK). Findings revealed that students desired more reliable marking processes and clearer guidelines on assessment requirements and criteria. The criterion-referenced grid,…

O'Donovan, Berry; Price, Margaret; Rust, Chris

2001-01-01

364

Using Classroom Assessment to Improve Student Learning: Math Problems Aligned with NCTM and Common Core State Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linking assessment to everyday classroom instruction requires a shift in both thinking and practice. For many, the term "assessment" simply means "grade". "Using Classroom Assessment to Improve Student Learning" shows how teachers can move away from using tests, letter or numerical grades, or passing or failing as evidence of student learning to…

Collins, Anne

2011-01-01

365

Students Better Be on Their Best Behavior: How to Prepare for the Most Common Job Interviewing Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly every student will go through the selection interview process to obtain a job in his or her future vocation. Regardless of the major of the student or the profession which they will pursue, the selection interview remains a constant. There has been some attention paid to the validity of the selection interview, and personality constructs…

Browning, Blair W.; Cunningham, John R.

2012-01-01

366

Assessing 16YearOld Students’ Understanding of Aqueous Solution at Submicroscopic Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submicrorepresentations (SMR) could be an important element, not only for explaining the experimental observations to students,\\u000a but also in the process of evaluating students’ knowledge and identifying their chemical misconceptions. This study investigated\\u000a the level of students’ understanding of the solution concentration and the process of dissolving ionic and molecular crystals\\u000a at particulate level, and identifies possible misconceptions about this

Iztok Devetak; Janez Vogrinc; Saša Aleksij Glažar

2009-01-01

367

Making the Common Good Common  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

Chase, Barbara

2011-01-01

368

Targeted Prevention of Common Mental Health Disorders in University Students: Randomised Controlled Trial of a Transdiagnostic Trait-Focused Web-Based Intervention  

PubMed Central

Background A large proportion of university students show symptoms of common mental disorders, such as depression, anxiety, substance use disorders and eating disorders. Novel interventions are required that target underlying factors of multiple disorders. Aims To evaluate the efficacy of a transdiagnostic trait-focused web-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of common mental disorders in university students. Method Students were recruited online (n?=?1047, age: M?=?21.8, SD?=?4.2) and categorised into being at high or low risk for mental disorders based on their personality traits. Participants were allocated to a cognitive-behavioural trait-focused (n?=?519) or a control intervention (n?=?528) using computerised simple randomisation. Both interventions were fully automated and delivered online (trial registration: ISRCTN14342225). Participants were blinded and outcomes were self-assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks and at 12 weeks after registration. Primary outcomes were current depression and anxiety, assessed on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9) and Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD7). Secondary outcome measures focused on alcohol use, disordered eating, and other outcomes. Results Students at high risk were successfully identified using personality indicators and reported poorer mental health. A total of 520 students completed the 6-week follow-up and 401 students completed the 12-week follow-up. Attrition was high across intervention groups, but comparable to other web-based interventions. Mixed effects analyses revealed that at 12-week follow up the trait-focused intervention reduced depression scores by 3.58 (p<.001, 95%CI [5.19, 1.98]) and anxiety scores by 2.87 (p?=?.018, 95%CI [1.31, 4.43]) in students at high risk. In high-risk students, between group effect sizes were 0.58 (depression) and 0.42 (anxiety). In addition, self-esteem was improved. No changes were observed regarding the use of alcohol or disordered eating. Conclusions This study suggests that a transdiagnostic web-based intervention for university students targeting underlying personality risk factors may be a promising way of preventing common mental disorders with a low-intensity intervention. Trial Registration ControlledTrials.com ISRCTN14342225

Musiat, Peter; Conrod, Patricia; Treasure, Janet; Tylee, Andre; Williams, Chris; Schmidt, Ulrike

2014-01-01

369

Electromagnetic Scattering by a Morphologically Complex Object: Fundamental Concepts and Common Misconceptions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following Keller(Proc Symp Appl Math 1962;13:227:46), we classify all theoretical treatments of electromagnetic scattering by a morphologically complex object into first- principle (or in Keller's terminology) and phenomenological (or 'dishonest') categor...

B. Cairns J. M. Dlugach L. D. Travis M. I. Mischenko N. N. Kiselev V. K. Rosenbush V. P. Tishkovets

2011-01-01

370

Common Misconceptions about the Dynamical Theory of Crystal Lattices: Cauchy Relations, Lattice Potentials and Infinite Crystals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The requirement of rotational invariance for lattice potential energies is investigated. Starting from this condition, it is shown that the Cauchy relations for the elastic constants are fulfilled if the lattice potential is built from pair interactions or when the first-neighbour approximation is adopted. This is seldom recognized in widely used…

Elcoro, Luis; Etxebarria, Jesus

2011-01-01

371

Myths, Misconceptions, and Misunderstanding: A different spin on Coriolis--Applying frame of reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article addresses misconceptions surrounding the Coriolis force and describes how it should be presented as a function within inertial and noninertial frames of reference. Not only does this demonstrate the nature of science as it strives to best in

Dispezio, Michael A.

2011-01-01

372

The Earth's Mantle Is Solid: Teachers' Misconceptions About the Earth and Plate Tectonics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the misconceptions revealed by the teachers' answers and outlines more accurate answers and explanations based on established evidence and uses these to provide a more complete understanding of plate tectonic process and the structure of Earth. (Author/YDS)

King, Chris

2000-01-01

373

Misconceptions toward methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and associated factors among new MMT users in Guangzhou, China.  

PubMed

The methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program is scaling up in China, but little is known about drug users' cognitions of MMT. To investigate the prevalence and associated factors of MMT-related misconceptions, a totally of 300 newly admitted MMT users were interviewed in three MMT clinics in Guangzhou. Four statements were used to assess MMT-related misconceptions. The results showed that the majority of participants misconceived that MMT is intended primarily for detoxification (92.3%), that one could be completely detoxified and quit using methadone after using it for 2-3months (64.2%), that MMT is not a long-term or even lifetime treatment (77.9%); and that one should attempt to reduce its treatment dosage as methadone is harmful to one's health (84.3%); 48.5% of the respondents possessed all four types of misconceptions. Prior experience of methadone use in voluntary drug detoxification centers (OR=1.82 to 2.55, p<0.05) was associated with some misconception items, whilst being introduced by some peer drug users or community members to use MMT (versus not being introduced by anyone; OR=0.38 to 0.50, p<0.05), having taken up HIV voluntary counseling and testing prior to admission (OR=0.52, p<0.05), and a higher HIV-related knowledge level (OR=0.38, p<0.05) were associated with lower likelihoods for possessing some of the misconceptions. The findings suggested that MMT-related misconceptions were very prevalent among newly recruited MMT users in China. Misconceptions are potential factors causing drop-outs. Interventions targeting such misconceptions are greatly warranted. PMID:22353775

Xu, Huifang; Gu, Jing; Lau, Joseph T F; Zhong, Ying; Fan, Lirui; Zhao, Yuteng; Hao, Chun; He, Wenya; Ling, Wenhua

2012-05-01

374

Students' Preconceptions in Introductory Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses data from tests and videotaped interviews indicating conceptual primitives as a source of student difficulty in physics. These include key concepts (mass, acceleration) and fundamental principles/models (Newton's and conservation laws, atomic model). Demonstrates that misconceptions can be studied using problems of minimum complexity to…

Clement, John

1982-01-01

375

Students' perceptions of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the potential significance of global warming to society, education about this issue is important. However, little is known of the preconceptions and misconceptions of young adults in this area. In this study the ideas of a group of first year undergraduate students about the “Greenhouse Effect” have been studied by questionnaire. The results show that although some

Edward Boyes; Martin Stanisstreet

1992-01-01

376

Which common clinical conditions should medical students be able to manage by graduation? A perspective from Australian interns  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The objectives of the study were to report the devel- opment of a core curriculum that details the clinical conditions medical students should be able to manage upon graduation; and to canvass the opinion of interns (first-year postgraduate doctors) regarding their perceptions of the level of skill required to manage each condition. Literature relating to core curriculum development and

I. E. Rolfe; S.-A. Pearson; R. W. Sanson-Fisher; C. Ringland; S. Bayley; A. Hart; S. Kelly

2002-01-01

377

Community College Alumni as Customers: A Discussion of the Benefits and Risks of a Common Student Data Repository.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This white paper provides an overview of the present state of community college evaluation processes and procedures, discusses possible enhancements, and outlines the basic design concepts for a unified system to collect, organize and manage student data. The intended audience is community college administrators, researchers, and others who…

Hamlin, W. Thomas

378

Use of GFP for in vivo imaging: concepts and misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although GFP and fluorescent proteins are used extensively for in vivo imaging, there are many misconceptions about GFP imaging especially compared to luciferase. GFP is not toxic, indeed, transgenic animals with GFP expressed in every cell (1) live as long as non-transgenic animals. Cancer cells with GFP are as aggressive and malignant as the cells without GFP (2-4). Cell lines can be made very bright with fluorescent proteins with no toxicity. The in vivo signal from fluorescent proteins is at least 1,000 times greater than luciferase (5). GFP is so bright that a single molecule of GFP can be seen in a bacterium (6). GFP can be observed through the skin on deep organs (7). Skin autofluorescence presents no problem for in vivo GFP imaging with proper filters (8). Fur can be rapidly clipped removing this autofluorescence (9). GFP is readily quantified by the image area which correlates to tumor volume (10). There are now numerous clones of GFP, RFP, YFP and proteins that change color (11) that can be used in vivo.

Hoffman, Robert M.

2008-02-01

379

LaplaceÃÂs Law and the Alveolus: A Misconception of Anatomy and a Misapplication of Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Both the anatomy and the mechanics of inflation of the alveoli, as presented in most textbooks of physiology, have been misunderstood and misrepresented. The typical representation of the acinus as a ÃÂbunch of grapesÃÂ bears no resemblance to its real anatomy; the alveoli are not independent little balloons. Because of the prevalence of this misconception, LaplaceÃÂs law, as it applies to spheres, has been invoked as a mechanical model for the forces of alveolar inflation and as an explanation for the necessity of pulmonary surfactant in the alveolus. Alveoli are prismatic or polygonal in shape, i.e., their walls are flat, and Laplace law considerations in their inflation apply only to the very small curved region in the fluid where these walls intersect. Alveoli do not readily collapse into one another because they are suspended in a matrix of connective tissue ÃÂcablesÃÂ and share common, often perforated walls, so there can be no pressure differential across them. Surfactant has important functions along planar surfaces of the alveolar wall and in mitigating the forces that tend to close the small airways. LaplaceÃÂs law as it applies to cylinders is an important feature of the mechanics of airway collapse, but the law as it applies to spheres is not relevant to the individual alveolus.

PhD Henry D. Prange (Indiana University Medical Sciences Program)

2003-03-01

380

Student Knowledge of Scientific and Natural Resource Concepts Concerning Acidic Deposition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed is the level of scientific and natural resource knowledge possessed by fourth-, eighth- and eleventh-grade students. Misconceptions are noted. Discussed are implications for teaching about acidic deposition. (CW)

Brody, Michael; And Others

1989-01-01

381

Uncovering Student Ideas in Science, Volume 2: 25 More Formative Assessment Probes (e-Book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If Hollywood filmed this sequel, the studio would call it "Probes II: More Battles Against Misunderstandings." Like the blockbuster before it, Volume 2 will reveal the surprising misconceptions students bring to the classroom--so you can adjust your teachi

Eberle, Francis; Tugel, Joyce; Keeley, Page

2009-06-23

382

Science Sampler: Enhancing Student Understanding of Physical and Chemical Changes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students within the Findlay, Ohio, City School District, as well as students across the country, struggle with understanding physical and chemical changes. Therefore, in this article, the authors suggest some standards-based activities to clarify misconceptions and provide formative assessments to measure your students' progress as they determine…

McIntosh, Julie; White, Sandra; Suter, Robert

2009-01-01

383

Springing into Inquiry: Using Student Ideas to Investigate Seasons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although inquiry is more engaging and results in more meaningful learning (Minner, Levy, and Century 2010) than traditional science classroom instruction, actually involving students in the process is difficult. Furthermore, many students have misconceptions about Earth's seasons, which are supported by students' prior knowledge of heat sources.…

Wilcox, Jesse; Kruse, Jerrid

2012-01-01

384

Popular Misconceptions Regarding the Diabetes Management: Where Should We Focus Our Attention?  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a universal health problem with a global prevalence of 1.3%. India is known as the “Diabetes capital of the world” as it harbours the largest number of diabetes patients. There is lack of awareness about the existing interventions for preventing diabetes and for the management of the complications. One of the barriers in the way of seeking health care advice is the misconception about the disease, which revolves around all the aspects of diabetes, which include its prevention, control and treatment. Objectives: To determine the various misconceptions about the management of Diabetes mellitus in the study area.To find out the association of various misconceptions with the socio-demographic factors. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Urban Health Centre (UHC) Ariankuppam, Pondicherry. A total of 406 adult patients were interviewed. A pretested, semi-structured interview schedule was developed in the local language, and it was utilized to collect the data. The collected interview schedules were scrutinized for the accuracy of the information which was provided and for any lacunae. The compilation and analysis were carried out with the help of the Epi- Info software. The T test and the Chi-square test were used according to the distribution of the data, to see the associations of the different factors. Results: The commonest misconceptions were “Diabetes can be cured by herbal treatment” (46.6%) and “Bitter foods reduce the elevated blood sugar levels” (46.6%). The misconception, “The treatment should be stopped if the diabetes is controlled for few months” significantly decreased with advancing age. There were no significant differences between females and males when the various misconceptions were compared. The commonest misconception among females was “Bitter foods reduce the elevated blood sugar levels” (49.4%) and among males, it was “Diabetes can be cured by herbal treatment” (47.9%). When the misconceptions were compared, it was found that there were significant differences between the subjects who belonged to different religions. Conclusion: The misconceptions regarding the diabetes management in the general population, irrespective of the education and particularly among the Muslim community, were widespread. A majority of these misconceptions were diet and drug related.

Patil, Rajkumar; Nasrin A, Nisha; Datta, Shib Sekhar; Boratne, Abhijit V; Lokeshmaran

2013-01-01

385

Using Hollywood Movies to Teach Basic Geological Concepts: A Comparison of Student Outcomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the history of cinema, events based in Earth Science have been the focus of many an action- disaster plot. From the most recent 2008 remake of Journey to the Center of the Earth, to 1965's Crack in the World, and all the way back to the 1925 silent film rendition of The Lost World, Hollywood's obsession with the geological sciences has been clear. These particular sub-genres of disaster films and science fiction present science that, from a Hollywood viewpoint, looks exciting and seems realistic. However, from a scientific viewpoint, the presentations of science are often shockingly incorrect and unfortunately serve to perpetuate common misconceptions. In 2003, Western Kentucky University began offering an elective non-majors science course, Geology and Cinema, to combat these misconceptions while using the framework of Hollywood films as a tool to appeal and connect to a broad student population. To see if this method is truly working, this study performs a student outcome comparison for basic geologic knowledge and general course perception between several sections of standard, lecture-based Introductory Geology courses and concurrent semester sections of Geology and Cinema. Preliminary results indicate that while performance data is similar between the courses, students have a more positive perception of the Cinema sections.

Crowder, M. E.

2008-12-01

386

Drawing rocks at primary school: a tool for emerging misconceptions and promoting conceptual change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drawing rocks at primary school: a tool for emerging misconceptions and promoting conceptual change Luca Benciolini Dipartimento di Fisica, Chimica e Ambiente, Università di Udine (Italy) and Giuseppe Muscio Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale (Udine, Italy) In order to investigate spontaneous ideas of children about rock samples, the Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale in collaboration with the Università di Udine submitted six classrooms of fifth and fourth grade-students to a specific test. One hundred thirty-three students without a specific background in Earth Sciences were asked to give a) a written description of a rock sample; b) a drawing of the sample; c) a written short story about the sample. The selected thirty-five samples in the opinion of the researchers contain 255 geologically relevant self-evident characters such as fossils, clastic textures, planar discontinuities and so on. Childs spontaneously described 209 geological characters. Forty-seven fifth-grade students (group A) have been previously followed specific training in multisensory description of objects and observed the 90% of the geologically relevant characters. Group B (forty-three fifth-grade) and group C (forty-three fourth-grade) on the contrary, without any previous instructions discovered the 77%. In order to follow childs building their knowledge through experience we found that the main problem was the lack of consistency between written and drawing description. Heterogeneities as evident as a magmatic contact have been correctly represented by the drawing but it has not been worth of any attention in the written description. On the contrary, written description may sometimes contain careful description of the clastic sedimentary process but these criteria are applied for example to a travertine, without any relations with observed characters. Descriptions and drawing of rock outcrops performed by university students demonstrate the persistence of this attitude. Thus, groups B and C were then asked to describe their drawings. We found encouraging progress stimulated by thinking on their own work. We suggest that drawing activities and laboratory book notes could represent useful strategies in order to stimulate specific skill in observing reality, and to understand complex and heterogeneous natural objects. Conceptual change is promoted by comparing children experiences with their previous ideas.

Benciolini, L.; Muscio, G.

2012-04-01

387

Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of 1977 cases that involved students and institutions of higher education indicates that students seem to be more concerned with their rights as educational consumers. The majority of cases concern controversies focusing on classroom and academic evaluation and treatment of students; receipt of various forms of financial aid; use of…

Gehring, Donald D.; Young, D. Parker

388

Therapeutic misconception and the appreciation of risks in clinical trials.  

PubMed

Studies repeatedly have shown that clinical research subjects have trouble appreciating the implications for their clinical care of participating in a clinical trial. When this failure is based on a lack of appreciation of the impact on individualized clinical care of elements of the research design, it has been called the "therapeutic misconception". Failure to distinguish the consequences of research participation from receiving ordinary treatment may seriously undermine the informed consent of research subjects. This article reports results concerning appreciation of the risks of trial participation from intensive interviews with 155 subjects from 40 different clinical trials at two different medical centers in the USA. Working from transcripts of the interviews, every statement of a risk or disadvantage of trial participation was identified and coded into one of 5 different categories. Totally, 23.9% of subjects reported no risks or disadvantages in spite of being explicitly asked about them. Another 2.6% reported only incidental disadvantages such as having to drive a long way to get to the experimental site. In all 14.2% reported only disadvantages associated with the standard treatment (usually side effects). Another 45.8% told the interviewer about disadvantages and risks associated with the experimental intervention (usually side effects). Only 13.5% could report any risks or disadvantages resulting from the research design itself, such as randomization, placebos, double-blind designs and restrictive protocols. The results of this research suggest that subjects often sign consents to participate in clinical trials with only the most modest appreciation of the risks and disadvantages of participation. PMID:14990370

Lidz, Charles W; Appelbaum, Paul S; Grisso, Thomas; Renaud, Michelle

2004-05-01

389

The ethics of research on deep brain stimulation for depression: decisional capacity and therapeutic misconception  

PubMed Central

Research on deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treatment-resistant depression appears promising, but concerns have been raised about the decisional capacity of severely depressed patients and their potential misconceptions about the research. We assessed 31 DBS research participants with the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR), a well-validated capacity measure, and with a scale to measure therapeutic misconception, which occurs when subjects do not recognize key differences between treatment and clinical research. Correlations with baseline depressive symptoms were explored. Subjects’ performance on the MacCAT-CR was excellent, but therapeutic misconception was still apparent. A trend toward significance was found in the correlation between baseline depression ratings and total therapeutic misconception score. Responses to open-ended prompts revealed both reassuring and concerning statements related to expectations of risk, benefit, and individualization. Even severely depressed patients did not manifest impairments in their capacity to consent to DBS research. Therapeutic misconception, however, remained prevalent.

Fisher, Carl Erik; Dunn, Laura B.; Christopher, Paul P.; Holtzheimer, Paul E.; Leykin, Yan; Mayberg, Helen S.; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Appelbaum, Paul S.

2013-01-01

390

Guessing, Partial Knowledge, and Misconceptions in Multiple-Choice Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number right (NR) method, in which students pick one option as the answer, is the conventional method for scoring multiple-choice tests that is heavily criticized for encouraging students to guess and failing to credit partial knowledge. In addition, computer technology is increasingly used in classroom assessment. This paper investigates the…

Lau, Paul Ngee Kiong; Lau, Sie Hoe; Hong, Kian Sam; Usop, Hasbee

2011-01-01

391

Freshman Biology Majors' Misconceptions about Diffusion and Osmosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The data for this study were obtained from a sample of 117 biology majors enrolled in an introductory biology course. The Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test, composed of 12 two-tier items, was administered to the students. Among the major findings are: (1) there was no significant difference in scores of male and female students; (2) math…

Odom, A. Louis; Barrow, Lloyd H.

392

Motion implies force: Where to expect vestiges of misconception?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The reported progress of post-instruction students in understanding the force-motion relationship in classical mechanics might be partially caused by the kind of questions used in tests. Citing a parallelism with historical progress towards correct force-motion understanding, this research points to the factors which might help to discover the vestiges of the naive views of motion in novice students, and explains the motivation of their regression to the motion-implies-force preconception. Among the factors of the novel context of qualitative questions, and situations of nonzero acceleration, especially when velocity and force are unparallel. The understanding of these factors should help to foster genuine progress in students' conceptual understanding as well as to provide its reliable check. The research sample included pre- and post-instructional high-school students, students of a University Pre-academic Study Department and preservice teachers in a Technology Teachers College.

Galili, Igal; Bar, Varda

2006-05-08

393

Helping Students Make Sense of Graphs: An Experimental Trial of SmartGraphs Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphs are commonly used in science, mathematics, and social sciences to convey important concepts; yet students at all ages demonstrate difficulties interpreting graphs. This paper reports on an experimental study of free, Web-based software called SmartGraphs that is specifically designed to help students overcome their misconceptions regarding graphs. SmartGraphs allows students to interact with graphs and provides hints and scaffolding to help students, if they need help. SmartGraphs activities can be authored to be useful in teaching and learning a variety of topics that use graphs (such as slope, velocity, half-life, and global warming). A 2-year experimental study in physical science classrooms was conducted with dozens of teachers and thousands of students. In the first year, teachers were randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions. Data show that students of teachers who use SmartGraphs as a supplement to normal instruction make greater gains understanding graphs than control students studying the same content using the same textbooks, but without SmartGraphs. Additionally, teachers believe that the SmartGraphs activities help students meet learning goals in the physical science course, and a great majority reported they would use the activities with students again. In the second year of the study, several specific variations of SmartGraphs were researched to help determine what makes SmartGraphs effective.

Zucker, Andrew; Kay, Rachel; Staudt, Carolyn

2014-06-01

394

Helping Students Make Sense of Graphs: An Experimental Trial of SmartGraphs Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphs are commonly used in science, mathematics, and social sciences to convey important concepts; yet students at all ages demonstrate difficulties interpreting graphs. This paper reports on an experimental study of free, Web-based software called SmartGraphs that is specifically designed to help students overcome their misconceptions regarding graphs. SmartGraphs allows students to interact with graphs and provides hints and scaffolding to help students, if they need help. SmartGraphs activities can be authored to be useful in teaching and learning a variety of topics that use graphs (such as slope, velocity, half-life, and global warming). A 2-year experimental study in physical science classrooms was conducted with dozens of teachers and thousands of students. In the first year, teachers were randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions. Data show that students of teachers who use SmartGraphs as a supplement to normal instruction make greater gains understanding graphs than control students studying the same content using the same textbooks, but without SmartGraphs. Additionally, teachers believe that the SmartGraphs activities help students meet learning goals in the physical science course, and a great majority reported they would use the activities with students again. In the second year of the study, several specific variations of SmartGraphs were researched to help determine what makes SmartGraphs effective.

Zucker, Andrew; Kay, Rachel; Staudt, Carolyn

2013-10-01

395

Misconceptions and Errors in LOGO: The Role of Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research tested the influences of different instructional practices on second- and fourth-grade children's acquisition of LOGO graphics commands. In a less-mediated context, students received instruction about LOGO and then worked on whatever they wished in LOGO. In another, more-mediated context, students received instruction about LOGO and then used software designed to encourage reflection about the meaning and consequences of

Richard Lehrer; Joan Littlefield

1991-01-01

396

The role of genetics in students' understandings of biological evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important element of an education is an understanding of biology. Science education researchers have shown that both high school and college biology students finish their biology instruction with a poor understanding of evolution, an important unifying concept of the discipline. The goal of this study is to examine the role of genetics in students understanding of evolution. Eight introductory college biology students' understandings of evolutionary biology and their use of genetics concepts as they addressed problems in evolution were examined. Data collected included students' classwork and individual student interviews. Data analysis began with an examination of each students understanding of evolution concepts. The framework for this analysis was based on Mayr's (1982) description of Darwin's five theories: evolution as such, common descent, natural selection, gradualism, and multiplication of species. The descriptions of students' understandings of evolution are followed by an account of how students used genetics concepts to support their explanations of evolutionary processes. The data from this study illustrate how students used transmission genetics, molecular biology and population genetics to support their understandings of evolution. The students in this study constructed syntheses of genetics and evolution concepts that they employed to solve problems. These syntheses fell into three categories: productive, semi-productive and obstructive. Students who achieved a productive synthesis of genetics and evolution concepts also held appropriate understandings of common descent, natural selection, gradualism, and speciation. Students who constructed either a semi-productive or obstructive synthesis of genetics and evolution did not benefit in the same way. Productive synthesis students benefited from their syntheses of genetics and evolution concepts in three ways. They were able to construct complete problem solutions for evolutionary problems, to dismiss common misconceptions associated with natural selection, and to construct an appropriate understanding of evolutionary processes, particularly natural selection and speciation. The findings of this study suggest one way teachers can help their students to develop an understanding of evolution is to teach genetics first. Knowledge of genetics provided students in this study a tool to explain the origin of variations in populations, evidence for common descent, and strengthened their understandings of the mechanisms of evolution.

Rowe, Mary Frances

2001-10-01

397

Students' Conceptions of Scale Regarding Groundwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study involved surveying three groups of students regarding their ideas about the structure, scale, and percieved importance of groundwater. The survey results show that many participants selected sizes of groundwater structures that mirrored surface analogs; however, some students applied scales on the order of houses and skyscrapers to typical pore and crack structures. The authors' research indicates that students bring to the classroom many misconceptions that are well-positioned to interfere with their understanding of hydrogeologic principles.

Dickerson, Daniel; Callahan, Timothy; Van Sickle, Meta; Hay, Genny

398

The experience of dysmenorrhoea among Ghanaian senior high and university students: pain characteristics and effects  

PubMed Central

Background Dysmenorrhoea is a common problem of women at the reproductive age and may have negative effect on the education of females at various stages on the educational ladder. Context and purpose This study sought to gain an in-depth understanding of the experience of dysmenorrhoea and its effect on female students in a secondary and a tertiary institution in Accra, Ghana. Methods The study employed a descriptive phenomenology design and was conducted at a University and a Senior High School (SHS) in Accra. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit participants and data was saturated with 16 participants. Concurrent analysis was done by applying the processes of content analysis and the NVivo software was used to manage the data. Results It was realized that dysmenorrhoea is associated with symptoms such as diarrhoea, headache and vomiting. Pain may start one week to the day of menstruation and the severity differed across the days of menstruation. The effect of dysmenorrhoea included activity intolerance, altered emotion and interaction, altered sleep pattern, absenteeism and inattentiveness, wishes and regrets, and misconceptions. Conclusions It was concluded that severe dysmenorrhoea has a debilitating effect on female students and is associated with misconceptions that could result in drastic action with fatal consequences. Thus, there is the need to enhance education on dysmenorrhoea, and an aggressive step should be taken to effectively manage dysmenorrhoea.

2014-01-01

399

How Do Organic Chemistry Students Understand and Apply Hydrogen Bonding?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how students completing a two-semester organic sequence understand, explain, and apply hydrogen bonding to determine the physical attributes of molecules. Suggests that some students completing what is typically their second year of college-level chemistry still possess misconceptions about hydrogen bonds. (Contains 21 references.) (ASK)

Henderleiter, J.; Smart, R.; Anderson, J.; Elian, O.

2001-01-01

400

Using Concept Cartoons in Formative Assessment: Scaffolding Students' Argumentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate how concept cartoons, together with other diagnostic and scaffolding tools, could be used in formative assessment, to stimulate talk and argumentation among students in small groups, as part of peer-assessment and self-assessment; and to provide diagnostic feedback about students' misconceptions to the…

Chin, Christine; Teou, Lay-Yen

2009-01-01

401

Generating Cognitive Dissonance in Student Interviews through Multiple Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores what students understand about enzyme-substrate interactions, using multiple representations of the phenomenon. In this paper we describe our use of the 3 Phase-Single Interview Technique with multiple representations to generate cognitive dissonance within students in order to uncover misconceptions of enzyme-substrate…

Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

2012-01-01

402

Using Adolescent Literature To Develop Student Pride in Rural Living.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning activities that promote student pride in rural living include examining the misconceptions and prejudices associated with rural living, exploring the variables of a rural lifestyle, student research of their town's history, and reading books that positively portray rural living. Includes a bibliography of 69 adolescent books with rural…

Spiegel, Lisa A.

1997-01-01

403

Are You Teaching Your Students about Stem Cells?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity targets students' misconceptions about embryonic and adult stem cells while also addressing an important grades 9-12 science content standard. The authors designed the activity to provide students an opportunity to explore differences between embryonic and adult stem cells prior to formal explanation. The overarching goal of this…

Concannon, James; Brown, Patrick L.; Brandt, Trisha

2009-01-01

404

Student Difficulties in Learning Density: A Distributed Cognition Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Density has been reported as one of the most difficult concepts for secondary school students (e.g. Smith et al. 1997). Discussion about the difficulties of learning this concept has been largely focused on the complexity of the concept itself or student misconceptions. Few, if any, have investigated how the concept of density was constituted in…

Xu, Lihua; Clarke, David

2012-01-01

405

Student Achievement and Science Curriculum Development Using a Constructive Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is an approach to learning in which students are given the opportunity to discuss and rationalize the conflict between the students' existing misconceptions and the phenomenon to be studied. Curriculum materials for a unit on acids and bases were developed using this strategy. (KR)

Hand, Brian; Treagust, David F.

1991-01-01

406

The Conceptual Understanding of Sound by Students with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The purpose of the study presented here was to understand and describe the misconceptions of students with visual impairments about sound and instructional techniques that may help them to develop a scientific understanding. Methods: Semistructured interview-centered pre-and posttests were used to identify the students' conceptual…

Wild, Tiffany A.; Hilson, Margilee P.; Hobson, Sally M.

2013-01-01

407

Describing Changes in Undergraduate Students' Preconceptions of Research Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that students bring naive scientific conceptions to learning situations which are often incongruous with accepted scientific explanations. These preconceptions are frequently determined to be misconceptions; consequentially instructors spend time to remedy these beliefs and bring students' understanding of scientific concepts to…

Cartrette, David P.; Melroe-Lehrman, Bethany M.

2012-01-01

408

Student Illustrations and Writing About the Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity used to identify students' initial ideas and potential scientific misconceptions about the Sun. Learners will draw and label the Sun and write a supplemental paragraph containing what they know about the Sun. This is Activity 1 of a larger resource entitled Eye on the Sky.

409

Best Practices for Identifying Gifted Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents often go to principals to ask for help in supporting their gifted children. They may request acceleration for their child in mathematics, a specialized curriculum or course, extracurricular activities, a pullout program, or even a different teacher. Since misconceptions about identifying gifted students are prevalent, it's important that…

Johnsen, Susan K.

2009-01-01

410

Making Mathematics Relevant for Students in Bali  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reactions of students towards mathematics in Bali (in the NW Province of Cameroon) are appalling. This is due to a misconception regarding its uses. The author thinks that these problems derive partly from the influence that the Western curriculum has had in Bali--mathematical contexts are based around train times in Liverpool instead of from…

Sema, Pryde Nubea

2008-01-01

411

Students' Guide to Scholarships and Loans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comprehensive guide to financial aid takes college-bound students through a step-by-step process of defining their monetary needs and locating sources of finance to meet those needs. Part I provides "Useful Things to Know," including an overview of college in the eighties, 20 tips for hard times, and misconceptions that can cost time and…

Leider, Robert

412

Junior High School Students' Ideas about the Shape and Size of the Atom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of the atom is one of the building blocks of science education. Although the concept is a foundation for students' subsequent learning experiences, it is difficult for students to comprehend because of common misconceptions and its abstractness. The purpose of this study is to examine junior high school students' (ages 12-13) ideas about the shape and size of the atom and the evolution of these ideas over 2 years. The study's sample size was 126 students, including 76 sixth-grade and 50 seventh-grade students. The educational curriculum and relevant literature guided the development of a questionnaire that consisted of three open-ended questions intended to determine students' knowledge of the structure and physical properties of the atom. After administering the questionnaire, collected data were analysed qualitatively. The study shows that students had difficulty developing a mental image of the atom, and contrary to the conclusions of other studies, students demonstrated a preference for working with complex and abstract models.

Cokelez, Aytekin

2012-08-01

413

Chemistry Misconceptions Associated with Understanding Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration…

Cliff, William H.

2009-01-01

414

Misinforming, Misunderstanding, Misconceptions: What Informing Science Can Do  

Microsoft Academic Search

First of all a survey of the most relevant definitions and hypotheses concerning data, information, com- munication and knowledge is proposed. Main aim of this introduction is to give to the reader a reference frame for the analysis of the students' learning and for their knowledge construction works. Soon after some wrong ideas are analyzed with respect to the above

Antonio Cartelli

2003-01-01

415

Myths, Misconceptions, Problems and Issues in Arts Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

First, we need the arts to express feelings words cannot convey. Second, we need the arts to stir creativity and enrich a student's way of knowing. Third, we need the arts to integrate the fragments of academic life. Fourth, we need the arts to empower the disabled and give hope to the disenchanted. Above all, we need the arts to

Janis Boyd

416

The Role of Causal Attributions in Public Misconceptions About Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Social psychological theories such as attribution theory have been applied to conditions such as depression and physical disability, but not to traumatic brain injury (TBI). The goal of this paper is to show that that attribution theory and related concepts help to explain the public's misconceptions about TBI and other challenges faced by clinicians and families of persons with

John McClure

2011-01-01

417

Why is it so difficult? Misconceptions about Eastern European education in transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eastern European educational systems today face many problems, frequently described in recent publications. This paper discusses several misconceptions both in Western and in Eastern countries, which render more difficult the change process. These concern the inherited situation, reforms underway, power relationships, decentralisation, the roles of tradition and Western assistance, curriculum, financial and statistical data and the relationship between education and society.

Sandi, Ana Maria

1992-11-01

418

Coherent Backscattering: Conceptions and Misconceptions (Reply to Comments by Bruce W. Hapke and Robert M. Nelson)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the note by Hapke and Nelson has virtually no relevance to our original publication, it contains a number of statements that are misleading and/or wrong. We, therefore, use this opportunity to dispel several profound misconceptions that continue to hinder the progress in remote sensing of planetary surfaces.

Tishkovets, Victor P.; Mishchenko, Michael

2010-01-01

419

An Analysis of Misconceptions in Science Textbooks: Earth Science in England and Wales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys of the earth science content of all secondary (high school) science textbooks and related publications used in England and Wales have revealed high levels of error/misconception. The 29 science textbooks or textbook series surveyed (51 texts in all) showed poor coverage of National Curriculum earth science and contained a mean level of one…

King, Chris John Henry

2010-01-01

420

Myths, Misconceptions, and Misunderstandings: A Different Spin on Coriolis--Applying Frame of Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses misconceptions surrounding the Coriolis force and describes how it should be presented as a function within inertial and noninertial frames of reference. Not only does this demonstrate the nature of science as it strives to best interpret the natural world (and presents alternative explanations), but it offers a rich…

DiSpezio, Michael A.

2011-01-01

421

Therapeutic misconception in research subjects: development and validation of a measure. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Therapeutic misconception (TM) occurs when patients are not able to make a distinction between the goals of research and the aims of routine treatment. TM is experienced by over 50% of potential participants and may be a barrier to obtaining meaningful consent. This study validated a new, theoretically grounded measure of TM.

422

Seafarers, Great Circles, and a Tad of Rhumb: Understanding the Mercator Misconception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being flat, Mercator maps inherently misrepresent some aspects of Earth's geography. That's because there is absolutely no way to simultaneously conserve all of the elements of three-dimensional space in a two-dimensional model. To dispel misconceptions, check out the Activity Worksheet and the website resources included in this article. Along…

DiSpezio, Michael A.

2010-01-01

423

Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Misconceptions about Colligative Properties: Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed at identifying prospective chemistry teachers' misconceptions of colligative properties. In order to fulfill this aim, a diagnostic test composed of four open-ended questions was used. The test was administered to seventy-eight prospective chemistry teachers just before qualifying to teaching in secondary schools. Nine different…

Pinarbasi, Tacettin; Sozbilir, Mustafa; Canpolat, Nurtac

2009-01-01

424

Why Is It So Difficult? Misconceptions about Eastern European Education in Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines misconceptions in both Western and Eastern countries about educational systems in postcommunist Eastern Europe. Discusses issues of slow pace of educational reform, change through formal power structures, centralization versus decentralization, role of tradition, macro- and micro-level problems, Western assistance, and the relationship…

Sandi, Ana Maria

1992-01-01

425

The Surprise Element: How Allaying Parents' Misconceptions Improves a Teacher's Communicative Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Challenged by parents' misconceptions about the role of cooperative learning activities in developing their gifted children, a teacher began to mentor the parents. The act of mentoring those parents resulted in the teacher's longer-term professional development: specifically, creating a process of seeking structured feedback from parents and…

Kumar, Rashmi

2010-01-01

426

Development and Application of a Diagnostic Instrument to Evaluate Grade-11 and -12 Students' Concepts of Covalent Bonding and Structure Following a Course of Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a procedure used to develop a written diagnostic instrument to identify misconceptions and misunderstandings of the chemistry topic. Reports the characteristic data for the instrument, and student understanding of covalent bonding and structure. (Author/YP)

Peterson, Raymond F.; And Others

1989-01-01

427

A Cross-Age Study of Student Understanding of the Concept of Diffusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines seventh grade life science students, tenth grade biology students, and college zoology students for understanding of the concept of diffusion. Describes the differences among the grade levels in sound or partial understanding, misconceptions, and no understanding. Discusses the effect of developmental level on understanding. (KR)

Westbrook, Susan L.; Marek, Edmund A.

1991-01-01

428

Mapping Students' Thinking Patterns in Learning Organic Chemistry by the Use of Knowledge Space Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students' thinking patterns in learning organic chemistry were tracked through the one-year course taught to a total of approximately 1300 students, mostly biology majors, for a period of 2 years. As expected, the students' knowledge base increases, but the cognitive organization of the knowledge is surprisingly weak and misconceptions persist even after two years of college chemistry. Both a simple

Mare Taagepera; S. Noori

2000-01-01

429

Near-Native Speakers in the Foreign-Language Classroom: The Case of Haitian Immigrant Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study examined Haitian immigrant students' experiences in the French language classrooms. It is based on surveys conducted with students and their classmates and personal observations, discussing and explaining some of the misconceptions about Haitian immigrants and describing the Haitian students' experiences learning French in the…

Katz, Stacey

430

Assessing 16-Year-Old Students' Understanding of Aqueous Solution at Submicroscopic Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Submicrorepresentations (SMR) could be an important element, not only for explaining the experimental observations to students, but also in the process of evaluating students' knowledge and identifying their chemical misconceptions. This study investigated the level of students' understanding of the solution concentration and the process of…

Devetak, Iztok; Vogrinc, Janez; Glazar, Sasa Aleksij

2009-01-01

431

Conceptual understanding of thermodynamics: A study of undergraduate and graduate students  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a perception among college students that physical chemistry is an impossibly difficult subject. The hypothesis guiding this study is that this perception is caused by the mismatch between the physical chemistry curriculum and the cognitive needs of students, whose learning styles, misconceptions, and difficulties are not explicitly addressed. A qualitative approach was used to examine students' conceptions of

Francis Patron

1997-01-01

432

Six Classroom Exercises to Teach Natural Selection to Undergraduate Biology Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in introductory biology courses frequently have misconceptions regarding natural selection. In this paper, we describe six activities that biology instructors can use to teach undergraduate students in introductory biology courses how natural selection causes evolution. These activities begin with a lesson introducing students to natural…

Kalinowski, Steven T.; Leonard, Mary J.; Andrews, Tessa M.; Litt, Andrea R.

2013-01-01

433

Primary Student-Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect: A mixed method study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greenhouse effect is a reasonably complex scientific phenomenon which can be used as a model to examine students' conceptual understanding in science. Primary student-teachers' understanding of global environmental problems, such as climate change and ozone depletion, indicates that they have many misconceptions. The present mixed method study examines Finnish primary student-teachers' understanding of the greenhouse effect based on the

Ilkka Johannes Ratinen

2011-01-01

434

The Persuasion Model of conceptual change and its application to misconceptions in evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work has attempted to account for the factors involved in conceptual change (e.g. Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982; Pintrich, Marx & Boyle, 1993). While progress has been made, cognitive restructuring remains to be positioned within a unifying theory of change. Here, a new model of conceptual change is put forward. The Persuasion Model of conceptual change builds on previous frameworks (Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982; Pintrich, Marx & Boyle, 1993; Vosniadou, 1994) including the psychology of persuasion (Heuristic-Systematic Model, Chaiken, 1980; Elaboration Likelihood Model, Petty & Cacioppo, 1986; Social Judgement Theory, Sherif & Hovland, 1953) and cognitive and motivational theories of learning (Johnson-Laird, 1983; Mayer & Moreno, 1988; Wittrock, 1974b). High quality, elaborative processing of a persuasive message leads to change. Mental models are positioned as the mechanism by which meaning is created, manipulated, inspected and evaluated. These processes result in a continuum of cognitive restructuring. A study of conceptual change in Evolutionary Biology examined the viability of the Persuasion Model. It was predicted that knowledge, beliefs, interest and cognitive style would predict elaborative processing. Processing was hypothesized to influence information comprehensibility, plausibility, fruitfulness and compatibility with prior knowledge. Judgments were hypothesized to influence learning outcomes. Evolutionary knowledge and beliefs were assessed at pre- and posttest in 375 college students using multiple choice, likert-scale and extended response items. Need for Cognition, Need for Cognitive Closure, Epistemological Beliefs, Religiosity, Dogmatism, Moral Values and Argument Evaluation Ability were measured using paper-and-pencil questionnaires. Participants read a text and indicated elaborative processing and information evaluation. Ninety percent of participants held at least one misconception at pre-test. Significant gains on outcome measures were found. More sophisticated responses were found for items pertaining to non-human than human topics. Elaborative processing was predicted by individual differences in knowledge, beliefs, interest and Need for Cognition. Elaborative processing influenced favorability ratings of the information, and these contributed to learning outcomes. The results show support for hypotheses derived from the Persuasion Model, as conceptual change could not be predicted without reference to multiple factors that have not previously been measured in concert.

Garner, Joanna Kate

435

The Impact of Developmental Education: Myths and Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides an examination of criticism directed towards developmental education. Ten common myths regarding the impact and effectiveness of developmental education are addressed and refuted. Some of the myths reviewed include the history of developmental education; theory-based developmental education programs; faculty training;…

Littleton, Roosevelt, Jr.

436

Effects of the use of thematic organizers in conjunction with concept mapping on learning, misconceptions, and retention in middle school science class  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was devised to determine effects of the use of interactive thematic organizers and concept maps in middle school science classes during a unit study on minerals. The design, a pretest-posttest control group, consisted of matched groups (three experimental groups and one comparison group). It also included a student survey assessing qualitative aspects of the investigation. The 67 6th-grade students and one science teacher who participated in the study were from an independent K-12 school. Students represented a normal, well-distributed range of abilities. Group I (control) proceeded with their usual method of studying a unit---reading aloud the text and answering workbook questions. Group II worked with interactive thematic organizers, designed to activate prior knowledge and help students make inferences about target concepts in three treatments. Group III created three interactive concept maps, which represented both understandings and misconceptions. Concept maps were reviewed and repaired as students completed each treatment. Group IV participated in both thematic organizer and concept map treatments. Statistical analyses were determined through a pretest and a delayed recall posttest essay for all four groups. Two scores were assigned---one quantitative raw score of correct explicit answers and one rubric score based on the quality of interpretive responses. Group II also received scores for thematic organizer responses. Group III received rubric scores for concept maps. Group IV received all possible scores. Paired t-tests reported comparisons of scores across the treatment groups. A linear regression indicated whether or not concept map misconceptions affected posttest scores. Finally, an ANCOVA reported statistical significance across the four treatment groups. Findings of data analysis indicated statistically significant improvement in posttest scores among students in the three experimental groups. Students who participated in both treatments represented the highest scores among the four groups. Results of the ANCOVA indicated there was statistically significant difference in scores among the four treatments. Recommendations were made to further investigate development of interactive thematic organizers with student-chosen hyperlinks to concepts, as well as a recommendation that researchers investigate teacher understandings of interpretive purpose and form in the creation of thematic organizers.

Keown, Sandra L.

437

Addition with Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers can use this interactive tool to help students build a conceptual understanding of adding fractions with common denominators by linking visual models to procedures. Students first add using models, and then progress to using numbers. This page includes a video demonstration of the tool and sample lessons from the Conceptua curriculum. Free registration is required to use the tool. A paid subscription is necessary to access full curriculum and allow full student use.

2011-01-01

438

Discovering Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use pattern blocks to represent fractions with unlike denominators. Students discover that they need to convert all the pattern blocks to the same shape in order to add them. Therefore, they find and use common denominators for the addition of fractions.

Kloper, Adam

2012-07-22

439

Math, Literacy, & Common Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly every state has signed on to use the Common Core State Standards as a framework for teaching English/language arts and mathematics to students. Translating them for the classroom, however, requires schools, teachers, and students to change the way they approach teaching and learning. This report examines the progress some states have made…

Education Week, 2012

2012-01-01

440

Determination of Misconceptions that are Encountered by Teacher Candidates and Solution Propositions for Relieving of These Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to think, to interpret and judge correctly, the humans have to comprehend what they have learned. Concepts are the abstract representatives of the classifications that are formed by objects, events, ideas and behaviors which have common specifications. (Fidan, N., 1985). Concepts reduce the complexity by simplifying the environment that…

Kesan, Cenk; Kaya, Deniz

2007-01-01

441

Discrepant Teaching Events: Using an Inquiry Stance to Address Students' Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science instructors have long known that the use of discrepant events with unexpected outcomes is a powerful method of activating thinking. A discrepant "teaching" event is similar to a discrepant science event in that it vividly portrays what is often an abstract construct or concept and has an unexpected outcome. The unexpected outcome creates…

Longfield, Judith

2009-01-01

442

Leading the Common Core State Standards: From Common Sense to Common Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many educators agree that we already know how to foster student success, so what is keeping common sense from becoming common practice? The author provides step-by-step guidance for overcoming the barriers to adopting the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and achieving equity and excellence for all students. As an experienced teacher and…

Dunkle, Cheryl A.

2012-01-01

443

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.

Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

2010-10-01

444

Describing Changes in Undergraduate Students' Preconceptions of Research Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research has shown that students bring naïve scientific conceptions to learning situations which are often incongruous with accepted scientific explanations. These preconceptions are frequently determined to be misconceptions; consequentially instructors spend time to remedy these beliefs and bring students' understanding of scientific concepts to acceptable levels. It is reasonable to assume that students also maintain preconceptions about the processes of authentic scientific research and its associated activities. This study describes the most commonly held preconceptions of authentic research activities among students with little or no previous research experience. Seventeen undergraduate science majors who participated in a ten week research program discussed, at various times during the program, their preconceptions of research and how these ideas changed as a result of direct participation in authentic research activities. The preconceptions included the belief that authentic research is a solitary activity which most closely resembles the type of activity associated with laboratory courses in the undergraduate curriculum. Participants' views showed slight maturation over the research program; they came to understand that authentic research is a detail-oriented activity which is rarely successfully completed alone. These findings and their implications for the teaching and research communities are discussed in the article.

Cartrette, David P.; Melroe-Lehrman, Bethany M.

2012-12-01

445

Crafting an International Study of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large international investigations into the learning of science, such as the TIMSS and PISA studies, have been enlightening with regard to effective instructional practices. Data from these studies revealed weaknesses and promising practices within nations' educational systems, with evidence to suggest that these studies have led to international reforms in science education. However, these reforms have focused on the general characteristics of teaching and learning across all sciences. While extraordinarily useful, these studies have provided limited insight for any given content domain. To date, there has been no systematic effort to measure individual's conceptual astronomy understanding across the globe. This paper describes our motivations for a coordinated, multinational study of astronomy understanding. First, reformed education is based upon knowing the preexisting knowledge state of our students. The data from this study will be used to assist international astronomy education and public outreach (EPO) professionals in their efforts to improve practices across global settings. Second, while the US astronomy EPO community has a long history of activity, research has established that many practices are ineffective in the face of robust misconceptions (e.g.: seasons). Within an international sample we hope to find subpopulations that do not conform to our existing knowledge of student misconceptions, leading us to cultural or educational practices that hint at alternative, effective means of instruction. Finally, it is our hope that this first venture into large-scale disciplinary collaboration will help us to craft a set of common languages and practices, building capacity and leading toward long-term cooperation across the international EPO community. This project is sponsored and managed by the Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research (CAPER), in collaboration with members of the International Astronomical Union-Commission 46. We are actively welcoming and seeking partners in this work.

Slater, Stephanie; Bretones, P. S.; McKinnon, D.; Schleigh, S.; Slater, T. F.; for Astronomy, Center; Education Research, Physics

2013-01-01

446

Comparative Impact of Two Training Packages on Awareness and Practices of First Aid for Injuries and Common Illnesses among High School Students in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about various illnesses and their management is not satisfactory among high school students especially in rural areas in India. Various incorrect practices and myths associated with illnesses and injuries still exit. Training and education about correct management of injuries and illnesses for students is a sound and logical investment. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken among 120 students of

Sonu Goel; Amarjeet Singh

447

Using Models to Address Misconceptions in Size and Scale Related to the Earth, Moon, Solar System, and Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many children and adults have misconceptions about space-related size and distance: Earth-Moon size and distance, distance between the planets, distances to the nearest stars (other than the Sun), the size of the Milky Way Galaxy, and the size of the Universe. An illustration or visualization may reinforce someone's understanding of, for example, the phases of the Moon. However, what other misconceptions, especially related to scale, are being reinforced?

Lebofsky, L. A.; Cañizo, T. L.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Salthouse, K.

2013-04-01

448

HIV misconceptions associated with condom use among black South Africans: an exploratory study  

PubMed Central

In South Africa, approximately 20% of 15–49-year-olds are infected with HIV. Among black South Africans, high levels of HIV/AIDS misconceptions (e.g. HIV is manufactured by whites to reduce the black African population; AIDS is caused by supernatural forces or witchcraft) may be barriers to HIV prevention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 150 young, black adults (aged 18–26; 56% males) visiting a public clinic for sexually transmitted infections, to investigate whether HIV/AIDS misconceptions were related to low condom use in main partner relationships. We assessed agreement with HIV/AIDS misconceptions relating to the supernatural (e.g. witchcraft as a cause of HIV) and to genocide (e.g. the withholding of a cure). In multivariate models, agreement that ‘Witchcraft plays a role in HIV transmission’ was significantly related to less positive attitudes about condoms, less belief in condom effectiveness for HIV prevention, and lower intentions to use condoms among men. The belief that ‘Vitamins and fresh fruits and vegetables can cure AIDS’ was associated with lower intentions among men to use condoms. Women who endorsed the belief linking HIV to witchcraft had a higher likelihood of unprotected sex with a main partner, whereas women who endorsed the belief that a cure for AIDS was being withheld had a lower likelihood of having had unprotected sex. Knowledge about distinct types of HIV/AIDS misconceptions and their correlates can help in the design of culturally appropriate HIV-prevention messages that address such beliefs.

Bogart, Laura M; Skinner, Donald; Weinhardt, Lance S; Glasman, Laura; Sitzler, Cheryl; Toefy, Yoesrie; Kalichman, Seth C

2011-01-01

449

HIV misconceptions associated with condom use among black South Africans: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

In South Africa, approximately 20% of 15-49-year-olds are infected with HIV. Among black South Africans, high levels of HIV/AIDS misconceptions (e.g. HIV is manufactured by whites to reduce the black African population; AIDS is caused by supernatural forces or witchcraft) may be barriers to HIV prevention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 150 young, black adults (aged 18-26; 56% males) visiting a public clinic for sexually transmitted infections, to investigate whether HIV/AIDS misconceptions were related to low condom use in main partner relationships. We assessed agreement with HIV/AIDS misconceptions relating to the supernatural (e.g. witchcraft as a cause of HIV) and to genocide (e.g. the withholding of a cure). In multivariate models, agreement that 'Witchcraft plays a role in HIV transmission' was significantly related to less positive attitudes about condoms, less belief in condom effectiveness for HIV prevention, and lower intentions to use condoms among men. The belief that 'Vitamins and fresh fruits and vegetables can cure AIDS' was associated with lower intentions among men to use condoms. Women who endorsed the belief linking HIV to witchcraft had a higher likelihood of unprotected sex with a main partner, whereas women who endorsed the belief that a cure for AIDS was being withheld had a lower likelihood of having had unprotected sex. Knowledge about distinct types of HIV/AIDS misconceptions and their correlates can help in the design of culturally appropriate HIV-prevention messages that address such beliefs. PMID:21804784

Bogart, Laura M; Skinner, Donald; Weinhardt, Lance S; Glasman, Laura; Sitzler, Cheryl; Toefy, Yoesrie; Kalichman, Seth C

2011-01-01

450

What Do Middle and High School Students Know about the Particulate Nature of Matter after Instruction? Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores middle and high school students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter after they were taught the concept. A total of 87 students (41 high school and 46 middle school) participated in the study. Findings suggest that students held misconceptions about the law of conservation of matter, chemical composition of matter…

Aydeniz, Mehmet; Kotowski, Erin Leigh

2012-01-01

451

The Impact of Teacher Classroom Practices on Student Achievement during the Implementation of a Reform-based Chemistry Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence of a gap in student understanding has been well documented in chemistry: the typical student holds an abundance of misconceptions. The current expectation is that educational reform will foster greater student achievement via inquiry teaching within classrooms. Using assessments involving both conceptual and algorithmic knowledge of gas behaviour, gas laws, and phase changes in chemistry, this study aims to

Gillian Roehrig; Shauna Garrow

2007-01-01

452

Students' Beliefs About the Role of Atoms in Radioactive Decay and Half-life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigates students' misconceptions about radioactivity, radioactive decay, and half-life. Individual demonstration interviews and open-response and multiple-choice conceptual tests administered to students from a wide range of science backgrounds show that they are often unable to differentiate between the ideas of irradiation and contamination, and that many of their reasoning difficulties stem from their inaccurate mental models regarding the atom. The author's research indicates that these misconceptions are well-positioned to interfere with students' understanding of how half-life is used to determine geologic time.

Prather, Edward

453

Assessing Students' Ability to Trace Matter in Dynamic Systems in Cell Biology  

PubMed Central

College-level biology courses contain many complex processes that are often taught and learned as detailed narratives. These processes can be better understood by perceiving them as dynamic systems that are governed by common fundamental principles. Conservation of matter is such a principle, and thus tracing matter is an essential step in learning to reason about biological processes. We present here multiple-choice questions that measure students' ability and inclination to trace matter through photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Data associated with each question come from students in a large undergraduate biology course that was undergoing a shift in instructional strategy toward making fundamental principles (such as tracing matter) a central theme. We also present findings from interviews with students in the course. Our data indicate that 1) many students are not using tracing matter as a tool to reason about biological processes, 2) students have particular difficulties tracing matter between systems and have a persistent tendency to interconvert matter and energy, and 3) instructional changes seem to be effective in promoting application of the tracing matter principle. Using these items as diagnostic tools allows instructors to be proactive in addressing students' misconceptions and ineffective reasoning.

Wilson, Christopher D.; Anderson, Charles W.; Heidemann, Merle; Merritt, Brett W.; Richmond, Gail; Sibley, Duncan F.; Parker, Joyce M.

2006-01-01

454

Modeling student thinking: An example from special relativity.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our understanding of the nature of student ideas informs our instructional and research agendas. In this paper, I characterize student ideas in terms of five observable properties (determinacy, coherence, context-dependence, variability, and malleability) and describe how those observable properties correspond to the âmisconceptionsâ and âpiecesâ models of student reasoning. I then analyze instructional materials and student thinking in a particular topic area (special relativity) in terms of each of those two models. I show that specific instructional strategies reflect specific theoretical orientations, and explore the extent to which observed student behavior corresponds to predictions made by the theoretical models. The analysis suggests that while both the misconceptions and pieces models are flexible enough to accommodate all of the data, some aspects of student thinking seem best described in terms of pieces, and others seem better characterized as misconceptions. The purpose of the analysis is to illustrate the effect of theoretical orientation on instruction, instructional research, and curriculum development.

Scherr, Rachel E.

2009-04-13

455

Common sense concepts about motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common sense beliefs of college students about motion and its causes are surveyed and analyzed. A taxonomy of common sense concepts which conflict with Newtonian theory is developed as a guide to instruction.

Halloun, Ibrahim; Hestenes, David

2005-11-02

456

Prevalence and Patterns of Commonly Abused Psychoactive Prescription Drugs in a Sample of University Students from Lebanon: An Opportunity for Cross-Cultural Comparisons  

PubMed Central

Background Concerns about psychoactive prescription drug abuse among youth are growing worldwide, but the majority of published studies remain from the US and Canada impeding cross-cultural comparisons. This study examines the prevalence, sources, motivations and substance-use correlates of commonly abused medications among youth from Lebanon. Methods An IRB-approved cross-sectional study was conducted (May 2010) at the American University of Beirut. Proportionate cluster sampling was used to generate a representative sample of AUB students (n=570). A self-filled anonymous questionnaire was administered. Results Lifetime medical and nonmedical prevalence of medications were (respectively): pain (36.9%, 15.1%), anxiety (8.3%, 4.6%), sleeping (6.5%, 5/8%) and stimulants (2.6%, 3.5%). Gender differences were not observed. Lebanese were least likely to report non-medical use. Nonmedical users mostly used the drugs for their intended purpose (e.g., sleeping to help in sleep, stimulants to increase alertness). Parents and pharmacists (without a doctor’s prescription) were the top two sources of all medications but stimulants whereby friends predominated. Diversion was observed in about 20% of the medical users. Lifetime marijuana users and past year alcohol abusers were three times as likely to use any prescription drug nonmedically. Conclusions In Lebanon, as in Western cultures, a considerable proportion of youth may be self-medicating. The absence of medical supervision coupled with motivations such as “to get high” renders this issue a high priority on the national youth agenda. Besides larger more comprehensive surveys, the findings signal the immediate need to raise awareness among youth, parents, health professionals and other stakeholders, as well as to reinforce relevant policies.

Ghandour, Lilian A.; El Sayed, Donna S.; Martins, Silvia S.

2013-01-01

457

Air pollution: the knowledge and ideas of students in Tehran-Iran, and a comparison with other countries.  

PubMed

Study of students' knowledge about air pollution can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical environmental problem. This research examines guidance school and high school students' ideas about air pollution and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a closed questionnaire was used to examine knowledge and ideas of 2140 randomly selected school students of Tehran-Iran about composition of unpolluted air, air pollution and its causes and consequences. Cognitive scores were also calculated. Outcomes were compared with results of similar researches in Australia, Hong Kong and the United Kingdom. While a student's 'cognitive score' could range from -16 to +16, Iranian students' mean cognitive score was equal to +2.97. There was not significant statistical difference between girls and boys (P=0.32). In response to question "most common gas in unpolluted air" nitrogen was mentioned by only 23.7%, While 45.1% of students mentioned oxygen. In general, student's knowledge was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions such as "supposing oxygen as the most prevalent gas in unpolluted air". The findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society of Iran have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter. PMID:23945895

Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Salehpour, Sousan; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Azin, Seyed Ali; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Boyes, Eddie; Stanisstreet, Martin; Attarchi, Mirsaeed

2013-01-01

458

Assessing the Life Science Knowledge of Students and Teachers Represented by the K-8 National Science Standards  

PubMed Central

We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on the National Research Council (NRC) K–8 life sciences content standards. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we constructed 476 unique multiple-choice items that measure the degree to which test takers hold either a misconception or an accepted scientific view. Tested nationally with 30,594 students, following their study of life science, and their 353 teachers, these items reveal a range of interesting results, particularly student difficulties in mastering the NRC standards. Teachers also answered test items and demonstrated a high level of subject matter knowledge reflecting the standards of the grade level at which they teach, but exhibiting few misconceptions of their own. In addition, teachers predicted the difficulty of each item for their students and which of the wrong answers would be the most popular. Teachers were found to generally overestimate their own students’ performance and to have a high level of awareness of the particular misconceptions that their students hold on the K–4 standards, but a low level of awareness of misconceptions related to the 5–8 standards.

Sadler, Philip M.; Coyle, Harold; Smith, Nancy Cook; Miller, Jaimie; Mintzes, Joel; Tanner, Kimberly; Murray, John

2013-01-01

459

Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Students about the Algebraic Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to evaluate preservice primary mathematics teachers' ability to discuss and investigate students' thinking process about the concepts of variable, equality and equation, to analyse their ability to predict student difficulties and misconceptions and, in this respect, to present their subject-matter knowledge and…

Tanisli, Dilek; Kose, Nilufer Yavuzsoy

2013-01-01

460

Students' Alternative Conceptions of the Human Circulatory System: A Cross-Age Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concept maps and structured/clinical interviews were completed by 25 fourth graders and 25 college freshmen to determine knowledge of the human circulatory system. Students (N=945) at various levels were then measured for misconception frequencies. Student preconceptions appear to be tenacious, but confrontation strategies may assist fundamental…

Arnaudin, Mary W.; Mintzes, Joel J.

1985-01-01

461

Student Achievement Effects of Technology-Supported Remediation of Understanding of Fractions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students have difficulty learning fractions, and problems in understanding fractions persist into adulthood, with moderate to severe consequences for everyday and occupational decision-making. Remediation of student misconceptions is hampered by deficiencies in teachers' knowledge of the discipline and pedagogical content knowledge. We theorized…

Ross, John A.; Bruce, Catherine D.

2009-01-01

462

Promoting Pre-Service Elementary Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium through Discussions in Small Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of small group discussion on students' conceptual understanding of chemical equilibrium. Students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts was measured using the Misconception Identification Test. The test consisted of 30 items and administered as pre-posttests to a total of 81…

Bilgin, Ibrahim

2006-01-01

463

The Parallelism between Scientists' and Students' Resistance to New Scientific Ideas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares resistance by scientists to new ideas in scientific discovery with students' resistance to conceptual change in scientific learning. Studies the resistance by students to abandoning their misconceptions concerning scientific topics and the resistance by scientists to scientific discovery. (Contains 64 references.) (Author/YDS)

Campanario, Juan Miguel

2002-01-01

464

Students' Illustrations of the Human Nervous System as a Formative Assessment Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study to explore the students knowledge level and conceptual understanding of the human nervous system. Drawings and observations used pre, post and throughout the intervention revealed students misconceptions about the nervous system and how drawings may be used as a formative assessment tool.

2010-09-01

465

Evolution of Students' Ideas about Natural Selection through a Constructivist Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating students about the process of evolution through natural selection is vitally important because not only is it the unifying theory of biological science, it is also widely regarded as difficult for students to fully comprehend. Anderson and colleagues (2002) describe alternative ideas and misconceptions about natural selection as highly…

Baumgartner, Erin; Duncan, Kanesa

2009-01-01

466

Examining Learner Autonomy Dimensions: Students' Perceptions of Their Responsibility and Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper was written to clarify misconceptions that East Asian students are somehow less autonomous than learners from other cultural backgrounds. Specifically, based on motivational levels, it examines Japanese university students' perceptions of their responsibility and ability of autonomous English learning and what they can do inside and…

Gamble, Craig; Yoshida, Keiko; Aliponga, Jonathan; Ando, Shirley; Koshiyama, Yasuko; Wilkins, Michael

2012-01-01

467

Awareness of Hypertension among Black College Students: An Exploratory Study with Counseling Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored awareness of hypertension among a sample of Black, urban college students (N=419). Ascertained factors related to awareness of hypertension. Results indicated that the predominant misconception held was that hypertension only affects the elderly. Suggests group counseling methods to increase Black college students' awareness of…

Livingston, Ivor L.

1982-01-01

468

Interpreting a Graph and Constructing Its Derivative Graph: Stability and Change in Students' Conceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This present study investigated engineering students' conceptions and misconceptions related to derivative, particularly interpreting the graph of a function and constructing its derivative graph. Participants were 147 first year engineering students from four universities enrolled in first year undergraduate calculus courses with or without the…

Ubuz, Behiye

2007-01-01

469

What do medical students know about in-hospital radiation hazards  

SciTech Connect

A questionnaire (eight multiple-choice questions) administered to 49 fourth-year medical students from the Limburg State University in the Netherlands shows that several misunderstandings, misconceptions, and erroneous beliefs exist in regard to in-hospital radiation hazards. The authors conclude that it is unlikely that ignorance about this subject is restricted to Dutch medical students.

Janssen, J.H.; Wellens, H.J.

1989-01-01

470

Students' Understanding of Light Concepts Primary School: A Cross-Age Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we investigated 4th, 6th, and 8th grade students' misconceptions about light, sight, vision, source of light and examined students' conceptual development of these concepts at different grade levels. Data collection was done using five two-tiered test questions with one open-ended question, an interview about concepts and a drawing…

Sahin, Cigdem; Ipek, Hava; Ayas, Alipasa

2008-01-01

471

Student achievement effects of technology-supported remediation of understanding of fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students have difficulty learning fractions, and problems in understanding fractions persist into adulthood, with moderate to severe consequences for everyday and occupational decision-making. Remediation of student misconceptions is hampered by deficiencies in teachers’ knowledge of the discipline and pedagogical content knowledge. We theorized that a technology resource could provide the sequencing and scaffolding that teachers might have difficulty providing. Five

John A. Ross; Catherine D. Bruce

2009-01-01

472

The Way They Were: Students in the Golden Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By vaunting the successes of the past while minimizing the failures, educators have painted an unreal, rosy picture that is now accepted as historical truth. This misconception hurts education by implying that school organization and curriculum can make no difference because today's students can't compare to those of long ago. (RM)

Wolfthal, Maurice

1984-01-01

473

High School Students' Understanding of Projectile Motion Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of conceptual change-based instruction and traditionally designed physics instruction on students' understanding of projectile motion concepts. Misconceptions related to projectile motion concepts were determined by related literature on this subject. Accordingly, the Projectile Motion…

Dilber, Refik; Karaman, Ibrahim; Duzgun, Bahattin

2009-01-01

474

Sketching Graphs--An Efficient Way of Probing Students' Conceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a teaching method that allows for the fast and early detection of students' conceptions, misconceptions and their development. The empirical study of two examples where the method was applied is reported. The prerequisites for the efficient use of the method are discussed and results of the pilot study of its effectiveness are…

Merhar, Vida Kariz; Planinsic, Gorazd; Cepic, Mojca

2009-01-01

475

Student Conceptions of Ionic Compounds in Solution and the Influences of Sociochemical Norms on Individual Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the symbolic interactionist perspective that meaning is constituted as individuals interact with one another, this study examined how group thinking during cooperative inquiry-based activity on chemical bonding theories shaped and influenced college students' understanding of the properties of ionic compounds in solution. The analysis revealed the development of sociochemical norms and specific ways of reasoning about chemical ideas that led to shifts in student thinking and understanding of the nature of dissolved ionic solids. The analysis similarly revealed two kinds of teacher-initiated discourses, dialogical and monologic, that impacted student learning differently. I discuss the nature of this teacher-initiated discourse and number of moves, such as confirming, communicative, and re-orienting, that the course instructor made to communicate to students what counts as justifiable chemical reasoning and appropriate representations of chemical knowledge. I further describe the use of sociochemical dialogues as lens to study the ways in which chemistry instructors and students develop normative ways of reasoning and chemical justifications. Because the activity was designed as an intervention to target student misconceptions about ionic bonding, I also examined the extent to which the activity elicited and corrected commonly found student chemical misconceptions. To do so, student-generated particulate drawings were coded qualitatively into one of four broad themes: i) use of molecular framework with discrete atoms, ii) use of ionic framework with discrete ionic species, iii) use of quasi-ionic framework with partial ionic-molecular thinking, or iv) use of an all-encompassing "other" category. The findings suggested the intervention significantly improved students' conceptual knowledge of ionic compounds in solution - there was statistically significant increase in the number of drawings using ionic and quasi-ionic frameworks in the pre-activity vs. post-activity (2.3% vs. 59.5%, chi²(1) = 129.16, p < 0.001) and significant reduction in the number of ionic compounds represented as molecular in the pre-activity vs. post-activity (71.2% vs. 24.1%, chi²(1) = 72.24, p < 0.001). I discuss these findings and their implications for research and teaching.

Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M.

476

Examining students' understanding of electrical circuits through multiple-choice testing and interviews  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research has shown that high school and university students have misconceptions about direct current resistive electric circuits. At present, there are no standard diagnostic examinations in electric circuits. Such an instrument would be useful in determining what conceptual problems students have before or after instruction. The information provided by the exam can be used by classroom instructors to evalu Two versions of a diagnostic instrument known as Determining and Interpreting Resistive Electric circuits Concepts Tests (DIRECT) were developed, each consisting of 29 questions. DIRECT was administered to groups of students in the United States, Canada and Germany that had completed their study of electrostatics and direct current electric circuits. Individual interviews were conducted after the administration of version 1.0 to determine how students interpreted the questions and to uncover the reasoning behind their selections. The analyses indicate that students, especially females, tend to hold multiple misconceptions, even after instruction. The idea that the battery is a constant source of current was used most often in answering the questions. Although students tend to use different misconceptions for each question presented, they do use misconceptions associated with the global objective of the question. Studentsâ definitions of terms used on the exam and their misconceptions were examined. Students tended to confuse terms, especially current. They assigned the properties of current to voltage and/or resistance. One of the major findings was that students were able to translate easily from a ârealisticâ representation of a circuit to the corresponding schematic diagram. Results indicated that students do not have a clear understanding of the underlying mechanisms of electric circuit phenomena. Students had difficulty handling simultaneous changes of variable. Some of the students who were interviewed reverted to formulas to answer the questions.

Engelhardt, Paula V.

2012-01-20

477

What Clients of Couple Therapy Model Developers and Their Former Students Say about Change, Part II: Model-Independent Common Factors and an Integrative Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proponents of the common factors movement in marriage and family therapy (MFT) suggest that, rather than specific models of therapy, elements common across models of therapy and common to the process of therapy itself are responsible for therapeutic change. This article--the second of two companion articles--reports on a study designed to further…

Davis, Sean D.; Piercy, Fred P.

2007-01-01

478

Improving the climate literary of students, educators and the public - The Climate Literacy Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Climate Literacy Initiative of the Association of American Geographers (AAG) was largely born out of the growing realization of the misconceptions held by university students about the atmosphere, weather, climate and increasingly, climate variability and change. One way to quantify students' perceptions and scientific understanding about a topic like global warming, was via the reflection rubric common to service-learning pedagogy. This revealed the dichotomy that students, and society in general, face between a research-style presentation of scientific results versus an opinion article that might appear in a local news outlet. These reflections also revealed the underlying gaps in student knowledge about basic atmospheric dynamics and the complexities of the linkages across the air-land-ocean interface. In order to address these knowledge gaps, climate pedagogy and resources are critical. A weather and climate needs assessment of some Vermont K-8 teachers revealed that their primary interests revolved around curriculum development and enhancement; experimental learning for their students; innovative activities using existing Internet-based resources and; professional development. This presentation will highlights the activities of the Climate Literacy Initiative, including its collaboration with the ESPERE group in Germany and the Climate Change Education Working group, sponsored by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program.

Dupigny-Giroux, L. L.

2007-12-01

479

First-Year College Students' Conflict with Religion and Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study took place during a First Year Seminar course where 20 incoming college freshmen studied the central topic of the nature of science within the context of biological evolution. The instructor researched students’ understandings in the nature of science as they progressed through the course by examining a variety of qualitative and quantitative data including class writings, pre- and post-test selected items from the VOSTS (Views on Science-Technology-Society), and interviews. The intended outcomes of the course were to reduce the number of student misconceptions in the nature of science and to ease student apprehension when learning about evolution. Data were analyzed to determine whether students were moving toward a more generally accepted idea of the nature of science or toward another type of misconception.

Martin-Hansen, Lisa Michelle

2008-04-01

480

Common Standards for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

Principal, 2010

2010-01-01

481

Information Commons to Go  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

Bayer, Marc Dewey

2008-01-01