Sample records for common student misconceptions

  1. Common Student Misconceptions in Electrochemistry: Galvanic, Electrolytic, and Concentration Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates student (N=16) misconceptions concerning electrochemistry related to galvanic, electrolytic, and concentration cells. Findings indicate that most students demonstrating misconceptions were still able to calculate cell potentials correctly. Discusses common misconceptions and possible sources of these. Contains 33 references.…

  2. Omani Twelfth Grade Students' Most Common Misconceptions in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah K.; Al-Shuaili, Ali H.; Taylor, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The current study, undertaken in the Sultanate of Oman, explored twelfth grade students' common misconceptions in seven chemistry conceptual areas. The sample included 786 twelfth grade students in Oman while the instrument was a two-tier test called Chemistry Misconceptions Diagnostic Test (CMDT), consisting of 25 items with 12 items…

  3. Common student misconceptions in exercise physiology and biochemistry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    James P. Morton (Liverpool John Moores University Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences)

    2008-01-28

    The present study represents a preliminary investigationdesigned to identify common misconceptions in students' understanding of physiological and biochemical topics within the academic domain of sport and exercise sciences. A specifically designed misconception inventory (consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions) was administered to a cohort of level 1, 2, and 3 undergraduate students enrolled in physiology and biochemistry-related modules of the BSc Sport Science degree at the authors' institute. Of the 10 misconceptions proposed by the authors, 9 misconceptions were confirmed. Of these nine misconceptions, only one misconception appeared to have been alleviated by the current teaching strategy employed during the progression from level 1 to 3 study. The remaining eight misconceptions prevailed throughout the course of the degree program, suggesting that students enter and leave university with the same misconceptions in certain areas of exercise physiology and biochemistry. The possible origins of these misconceptions are discussed, as are potential teaching strategies to prevent and/or remediate them for future years.

  4. Ten Common NWP Misconceptions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2002-05-02

    This module introduces forecasters to ten of the most commonly encountered or significant misconceptions about NWP models. This list of ten misconceptions includes issues surrounding data assimilation, model resolution, physical parameterizations, and post-processing of model forecast output.

  5. Common Misconceptions about Day and Night, Seasons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jessica Fries-Gaither

    This article describes common misconceptions held by elementary students about the cause of day and night and seasons. The article provides ideas for formative assessment, teaching strategies, and the National Science Education Standards.

  6. Common Misconceptions about Software Architecture

    E-print Network

    van der Hoek, André

    Common Misconceptions about Software Architecture by Philippe Kruchten Rational Fellow Rational Software Canada References to architecture are everywhere: in every article, in every ad. And we take definition of software architecture. Are we all understanding the same thing? We gladly accept that software

  7. Common Errors and Misconceptions in Mathematical Proving by Education Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavrou, Stavros Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Ninety-seven education students majoring or minoring in mathematics had their math homework examined in a Number Theory or Abstract Algebra course. Each student's homework was observed for the purpose of identifying common errors and misconceptions when writing mathematical proofs. The results showed that students collectively made four…

  8. Diagnosing Portuguese Students' Misconceptions about the Mineral Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteiro, Antonio; Nobrega, Clevio; Abrantes, Isabel; Gomes, Celeste

    2012-01-01

    Educational researchers and teachers are well aware that misconceptions--erroneous ideas that differ from the scientifically accepted ones--are very common amongst students. Daily experiences, creative and perceptive thinking and science textbooks give rise to students' misconceptions which lead them to draw erroneous conclusions that become…

  9. Overcoming Students' Misconceptions in Earth Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, K. C.; Finley, F. N.; Morin, P. J.; Chen, A. P.

    2006-12-01

    The University of Minnesota's Introductory Geology Program recently began to develop and use geologic concept surveys. Designed to measure changes in student knowledge and confidence through the semester, these surveys clearly demonstrate the remarkable tenacity of students' prior knowledge and misconceptions in surviving or resisting course instruction, unless instruction is specifically designed to counteract those misconceptions. Students do not simply absorb new information and knowledge, but interpret it in light of their previous understanding of how things work. They use this previous understanding to interpret, revise and often dismiss new information presented in class. This filtering process is one of the most important, if often overlooked, barriers to effective instruction. The present study demonstrates that classroom `interventions', targeted to specific misconceptions can overcome this barrier. Once students believe that their previous understanding is incorrect or incomplete and inadequately explains phenomena, they are more likely to understand, accept and use a new interpretation in subsequent explanations. These ideas are well known in education departments, but are less well established in the earth science field. Compared to physics and mathematics, earth science education also suffers from a relative lack of research on students' prior knowledge and misconceptions, the basis on which successful `interventions' rely. The present study presents a suite of common earth science misconceptions and demonstrates the effectiveness of targeted `interventions' in overcoming them, compared to traditional instruction methods. The results clearly demonstrate the importance of instructors knowing what knowledge or concepts students bring to their courses, as well as the remarkable effort still needed to identify and document students' perceptions of how the Earth works. This work is sponsored in part by the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE), U.S. Department of Education.

  10. Students' Misconceptions in Psychology: How You Ask Matters...Sometimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Annette Kujawski; Kowalski, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Misconceptions about psychology are prevalent among introductory students. Just how prevalent and what can be done to change these misconceptions depends on valid methods of assessment. The most common method of assessment, the true/false questionnaire, is problematic. The present study compared true/false with forced choice formats to determine…

  11. Misconceptions - What Students Think They Know

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Joel A. Michael (Rush Medical College Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology)

    2002-03-01

    StudentsÂ? understanding of many physiological phenomena is often seriously flawed. That is, students have faulty mental models of many of the things we ask them to learn. Such conceptual difficulties are often referred to as misconceptions. The problem with misconceptions is that they are often quite persistent, and they seriously interfere with the studentsÂ? ability to learn physiology.

  12. Diagnosing and Dealing with Student Misconceptions: Floating and Sinking

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miki K. Tomita

    2008-04-01

    Misconceptions broadly exist in a variety of subject areas, such as physics, biology, geography, and other sciences. Among them, bringing students to an understanding of why things sink and float has proved to be one of the most challenging topics for student conceptual change. To address this issue, the authors designed ten multiple-choice items to help teachers diagnose common misconceptions related to sinking and floating, which are described in this article.

  13. Misconceptions about Sound among Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pejuan, Arcadi; Bohigas, Xavier; Jaen, Xavier; Periago, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Our first objective was to detect misconceptions about the microscopic nature of sound among senior university students enrolled in different engineering programmes (from chemistry to telecommunications). We sought to determine how these misconceptions are expressed (qualitative aspect) and, only very secondarily, to gain a general idea of the…

  14. Linking neuroscientific research on decision making to the educational context of novice students assigned to a multiple-choice scientific task involving common misconceptions about electrical circuits

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, Patrice; Turmel, Élaine; Masson, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty and certainty associated with answers to multiple-choice questions involving common misconceptions about electric circuits. Twenty-two scientifically novice participants (humanities and arts college students) were asked, in an fMRI study, whether or not they thought the light bulbs in images presenting electric circuits were lighted up correctly, and if they were certain or uncertain of their answers. When participants reported that they were unsure of their responses, analyses revealed significant activations in brain areas typically involved in uncertainty (anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula cortex, and superior/dorsomedial frontal cortex) and in the left middle/superior temporal lobe. Certainty was associated with large bilateral activations in the occipital and parietal regions usually involved in visuospatial processing. Correct-and-certain answers were associated with activations that suggest a stronger mobilization of visual attention resources when compared to incorrect-and-certain answers. These findings provide insights into brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty that are activated when common misconceptions, identified as such by science education research literature, interfere in decision making in a school-like task. We also discuss the implications of these results from an educational perspective. PMID:24478680

  15. Students' Misconceptions about Random Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachapova, Farida; Kachapov, Ilias

    2012-01-01

    This article describes some misconceptions about random variables and related counter-examples, and makes suggestions about teaching initial topics on random variables in general form instead of doing it separately for discrete and continuous cases. The focus is on post-calculus probability courses. (Contains 2 figures.)

  16. Applying Scientific Principles to Resolve Student Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Misconceptions about sinking and floating phenomena are some of the most challenging to overcome (Yin 2005), possibly because explaining sinking and floating requires students to understand challenging topics such as density, force, and motion. Two scientific principles are typically used in U.S. science curricula to explain sinking and floating:…

  17. The Effective Use of an Interactive Software Program to Reduce Students' Misconceptions about Batteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, E.-M.; Greenbowe, T. J.; Andre, T.

    2004-01-01

    The misconceptions of students regarding electricity and electrochemistry in the context of operation of a common flashlight are discussed. An Interactive Software Program (ISP) is used for better conceptual understanding of the operation of commercial batteries in a circuit.

  18. Definitional and Research Issues in the Common Factors Approach to Psychotherapy Integration: Misconceptions, Clarifications, and Proposals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgios K. Lampropoulos

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on two common misconceptions of common factors in therapy. The first misconception entails the confusion between common factors and therapeutic factors, and thus the inappropriate and misleading use of the term “therapeutic common factors” in various situations. The second misconception is the mixing of commonalities of different kinds and levels in proposed lists and studies of common

  19. Student Misconceptions about the Genesis of the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel

    2000-01-01

    Contends that before teaching about the Holocaust teachers must assess their students' understanding of this event. Considers five student misconceptions about the origins of the Holocaust. Includes responses by students in grades 10-12. Explains the inaccuracy of each misconception, using the work of Holocaust historians as supporting evidence.…

  20. 85The Space Shuttle Fly me to the moon? A common misconception shared by

    E-print Network

    altitude. Problem 1 ­ The Moon is `located' at an orbit speed of 1.0 km/sec. What must be the Space Shuttle85The Space Shuttle ­ Fly me to the moon? A common misconception shared by many students, and perhaps some members of the public, is that the Space Shuttle could have been used to travel to the Moon

  1. Misconceptions of Selected Ecological Concepts Held by Some Nigerian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeniyi, E. Ola

    1985-01-01

    Identified some of the misconceptions held by secondary science students (N=232) related to selected ecological concepts and generalizations. Lists the alternative conceptions expressed by these students on food chains and energy flows and pyramids. Offers perspectives on dealing with the sources of the misconceptions. (ML)

  2. Misconceptions of students and teachers in chemical equilibrium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil C. Banerjee

    1991-01-01

    A written test was developed and administered to diagnose misconceptions in different areas of chemical equilibrium among 162 undergraduate chemistry students and 69 school?teachers of chemistry. Analysis of the responses reveal widespread misconceptions among both students and teachers in areas related to the prediction of equilibrium conditions, rate and equilibrium, applying equilibrium principles to daily life, and to acid?base and

  3. Cognitive Processes and Students' Misconceptions in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Deborah C.

    Several categories of misconceptions which appear to be emerging across studies are discussed. They include: mis-perceptions; stunted conceptions; mis-translations; confused conceptions; lost conceptions; and true misconceptions. True misconceptions are metaphors and analogies which represent truly complete systems of explanation but are…

  4. Science Sampler: Why we have seasons and other common misconceptions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joan Lindgren

    2003-01-01

    The video, A Private Universe , engages students in the ideas regarding alternative conceptions. This video is effective in capturing preservice teachers' attention and altering their own beliefs regarding alternative conceptions, especially as they relate to "the reason for the seasons." The video makes clear how prevalent alternative conceptions are, how resistant to change such notions can be, and the tenacity with which learners hold these conceptions. This article describes how the author, an assistant professor, utilized this film to address preservice teachers' misconceptions as well as those of their future students.

  5. Growing Pebbles and Conceptual Prisms: Understanding the Source of Student Misconceptions About Rock Formation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Judi Kusnick

    2002-01-01

    This article describes a study analyzing narrative essays, stories of rock formation, written by pre-service elementary school teachers. Most of these students had completed a college-level course in earth science, yet they expressed startling misconceptions about how rocks form. These misconceptions arise from deeply held but largely unexamined beliefs (conceptual prisms) that result from the interaction of the student's world view and personal experiences. The study addressed three basic research questions: how do students describe the process of rock formation in narrative essays?, are there common patterns in students' naive conceptions about geology?, and can these patterns be explained by a few underlying beliefs that shape student ideas?

  6. COMPUTER SCIENCE: MISCONCEPTIONS, CAREER PATHS

    E-print Network

    Hristidis, Vagelis

    COMPUTER SCIENCE: MISCONCEPTIONS, CAREER PATHS AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES School of Computing Undergraduate Student) #12;Computer Science Misconceptions Intro to Computer Science - Florida International University 2 Some preconceived ideas & stereotypes about Computer Science (CS) are quite common

  7. Common Misconceptions in the Diagnosis and Management of Anemia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javier P. Gisbert; Fernando Gomollón

    2008-01-01

    Anemia is the most common systemic complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); so common that it is almost invariably not investigated and rarely treated. Several misconceptions are the reason for these clinical errors, and our goal will be to review them. The most common misconceptions are: anemia is uncommon in IBD; iron deficiency is also uncommon; just by treating the

  8. Secondary & College Biology Students' Misconceptions About Diffusion & Osmosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur Louis

    1995-01-01

    Tests on diffusion and osmosis given to (n=116) secondary biology students, (n=123) nonbiology majors, and (n=117) biology majors found that, even after instruction, students continue to have misconceptions about these ideas. Appendix includes diffusion and osmosis test. (MKR)

  9. Common origins of diverse misconceptions: cognitive principles and the development of biology thinking.

    PubMed

    Coley, John D; Tanner, Kimberly D

    2012-01-01

    Many ideas in the biological sciences seem especially difficult to understand, learn, and teach successfully. Our goal in this feature is to explore how these difficulties may stem not from the complexity or opacity of the concepts themselves, but from the fact that they may clash with informal, intuitive, and deeply held ways of understanding the world that have been studied for decades by psychologists. We give a brief overview of the field of developmental cognitive psychology. Then, in each of the following sections, we present a number of common challenges faced by students in the biological sciences. These may be in the form of misconceptions, biases, or simply concepts that are difficult to learn and teach, and they occur at all levels of biological analysis (molecular, cellular, organismal, population, and ecosystem). We then introduce the notion of a cognitive construal and discuss specific examples of how these cognitive principles may explain what makes some misconceptions so alluring and some biological concepts so challenging for undergraduates. We will argue that seemingly unrelated misconceptions may have common origins in a single underlying cognitive construal. These ideas emerge from our own ongoing cross-disciplinary conversation, and we think that expanding this conversation to include other biological scientists and educators, as well as other cognitive scientists, could have significant utility in improving biology teaching and learning. PMID:22949417

  10. Common Origins of Diverse Misconceptions: Cognitive Principles and the Development of Biology Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2012-01-01

    Many ideas in the biological sciences seem especially difficult to understand, learn, and teach successfully. Our goal in this feature is to explore how these difficulties may stem not from the complexity or opacity of the concepts themselves, but from the fact that they may clash with informal, intuitive, and deeply held ways of understanding the world that have been studied for decades by psychologists. We give a brief overview of the field of developmental cognitive psychology. Then, in each of the following sections, we present a number of common challenges faced by students in the biological sciences. These may be in the form of misconceptions, biases, or simply concepts that are difficult to learn and teach, and they occur at all levels of biological analysis (molecular, cellular, organismal, population, and ecosystem). We then introduce the notion of a cognitive construal and discuss specific examples of how these cognitive principles may explain what makes some misconceptions so alluring and some biological concepts so challenging for undergraduates. We will argue that seemingly unrelated misconceptions may have common origins in a single underlying cognitive construal. These ideas emerge from our own ongoing cross-disciplinary conversation, and we think that expanding this conversation to include other biological scientists and educators, as well as other cognitive scientists, could have significant utility in improving biology teaching and learning. PMID:22949417

  11. Predicting Students' Performance in Introductory Psychology from their Psychology Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhle, Barry X.; Barber, Jessica M.; Bristol, Adam S.

    2009-01-01

    Students bring many misconceptions about psychology to the introductory psychology course. We investigated whether scores on a 10-item Knowledge of Psychology Test (adapted from Vaughan, 1977) taken on the first class day were related to final class grades in 11 introductory psychology classes taught by the same instructor at three colleges. A…

  12. Important student misconceptions in mechanics and thermal science: Identification using Model-Eliciting Activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian P. Self; Ronald L. Miller; Andrew Kean; Tamara J. Moore; Teresa Ogletree; Frank Schreiber

    2008-01-01

    As any engineering faculty member teaching undergraduates knows, students possess a wide variety of misconceptions about fundamental engineering concepts. In the thermal sciences, there are numerous misconceptions about heat, energy, and temperature; mechanics students hold misconceptions about inertia, angular velocity, and energy. This is complicated by the fact that we possess many years of everyday experiences with energy flows, forces,

  13. Student Misconceptions About Astronomy and the Best Order of Teaching Astronomical Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favia, Andrej; Comins, N. F.; Thorpe, G.

    2013-01-01

    My (Andrej Favia) Ph.D. thesis involves quantifying the "difficulty" of unlearning common astronomy misconceptions. I do this by applying factor analysis and Item Response Theory (IRT) to a retrospective inventory of when, or if, college students dispelled the misconceptions under consideration. Our inventory covers 235 misconceptions identified over the span of 10 years of teaching the college astronomy lecture course at the Universe of Maine by NFC. The analysis yields logical groupings of topics (e.g., teach one planet at a time rather than use comparative planetology) and the "order of difficulty" of the associated topics. We have results for about one fourth of the inventory, and our results show that there are concepts of different difficulties, which suggest that they should be presented in different orders. We also find that the order of teaching concepts is sometimes different for high school and college level courses.

  14. Scientific Methods: Using the movie "Awakenings" to dispel common misconceptions about the scientific method.

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lauris Grundmanis, Hill-Murray School, Maplewood, MN 55109

    This activity is to dispel the misconception that there is one single structured scientific method used by all scientists, and tackle some ethical issues raised in life. This is accomplished using the popular movie "Awakenings" and student observations and reflections.

  15. Students' Misconceptions and Errors in Transformation Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ada, Tuba; Kurtulus, Aytac

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the students' performances in two-dimensional transformation geometry and explores the mistakes made by the students taking the analytic geometry course given by researchers. An examination was given to students of Education Faculties who have taken the analytic geometry course at Eskisehir Osmangazi University in Turkey. The…

  16. Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

  17. Students' Misconceptions about Perceived Physiological Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Joel A.

    1998-01-01

    Explores faulty models that students have for physiological processes. Undergraduate students (N=393) in three different research universities predicted the changes in heart rate, strength of cardiac contraction, breathing frequency, and depth of breathing under conditions that result in increased cardiac output. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  18. Exploring Lecturers' Views of First-Year Health Science Students' Misconceptions in Biomedical Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badenhorst, Elmi; Mamede, Sílvia; Hartman, Nadia; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2015-01-01

    Research has indicated that misconceptions hamper the process of knowledge construction. Misconceptions are defined as persistent ideas not supported by current scientific views. Few studies have explored how misconceptions develop when first year health students conceptually move between anatomy and physiology to construct coherent knowledge…

  19. Diagnosis of Spanish Primary School Students' Common Alternative Science Conceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Fermin M.

    1997-01-01

    Explores common alternative conceptions of a natural science topic familiar to students that was part of the regular curriculum. Finds that similar misconceptions are evident in upper and lower elementary school students. (Author/CCM)

  20. Student Misconceptions Caused by Misuse of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Calculators used widely by students, teachers, scientists, engineers and many others provide an interesting case study of a compelling technology that has helped change the way many professionals work. They not only help in enhancing problem solving skills of most individuals, but also help visualise solutions to problems in a better way. Research…

  1. College Students' Misconceptions about Evolutionary Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meir, Eli; Perry, Judy; Herron, Jon C.; Kingsolver, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Evolution is at the center of the biological sciences and is therefore a required topic for virtually every college biology student. Over the past year, the authors have been building a new simulation software package called EvoBeaker to teach college-level evolutionary biology through simulated experiments. They have built both micro and…

  2. Exploring lecturers' views of first-year health science students' misconceptions in biomedical domains.

    PubMed

    Badenhorst, Elmi; Mamede, Sílvia; Hartman, Nadia; Schmidt, Henk G

    2015-05-01

    Research has indicated that misconceptions hamper the process of knowledge construction. Misconceptions are defined as persistent ideas not supported by current scientific views. Few studies have explored how misconceptions develop when first year health students conceptually move between anatomy and physiology to construct coherent knowledge about the human body. This explorative study analysed lecturers' perceptions of first-year health science students' misconceptions in anatomy and physiology to gain a deeper understanding of how and why misconceptions could potentially arise, by attempting to link sources of misconceptions with four schools of thought, namely theories on concept formation, complexity, constructivism and conceptual change. This was a qualitative study where ten lecturers involved in teaching anatomy and physiology in the health science curricula at the University of Cape Town were interviewed to explore perceptions of students' misconceptions. Analytical induction was used to uncover categories within the interview data by using a coding system. A deeper analysis was done to identify emerging themes that begins to explore a theoretical understanding of why and how misconceptions arise. Nine sources of misconceptions were identified, including misconceptions related to language, perception, three dimensional thinking, causal reasoning, curricula design, learning styles and moving between macro and micro levels. The sources of misconceptions were then grouped together to assist educators with finding educational interventions to overcome potential misconceptions. This explorative study is an attempt in theory building to understand what is at the core of biomedical misconceptions. Misconceptions identified in this study hold implications for educators as not all students have the required building blocks and cognitive skills to successfully navigate their way through biomedical courses. Theoretical insight into the sources of misconceptions can assist educators in addressing potential hampering factors in the construction of coherent scientific knowledge. PMID:25099944

  3. Diagnosing students' misconceptions in algebra: results from an experimental pilot study.

    PubMed

    Russell, Michael; O'Dwyer, Laura M; Miranda, Helena

    2009-05-01

    Computer-based diagnostic assessment systems hold potential to help teachers identify sources of poor performance and to connect teachers and students to learning activities designed to help advance students' conceptual understandings. The present article presents findings from a study that examined how students' performance in algebra and their overcoming of common algebraic misconceptions were affected by the use of a diagnostic assessment system that focused on important algebra concepts. This study used a four-group randomized cluster trial design in which teachers were assigned randomly to one of four groups: a "business as usual" control group, a partial intervention group that was provided with access to diagnostic tests results, a partial intervention group that was provided with access to the learning activities, and a full intervention group that was given access to the test results and learning activities. Data were collected from 905 students (6th-12th grade) nested within 44 teachers. We used hierarchical linear modeling techniques to compare the effects of full, partial, and no (control) intervention on students' algebraic ability and misconceptions. The analyses indicate that full intervention had a net positive effect on ability and misconception measures. PMID:19363182

  4. Zeroing in on Number and Operations, Pre-K-K: Key Ideas and Common Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dacey, Linda; Collins, Anne

    2011-01-01

    "The Zeroing in on Number and Operations" series, which aligns with the Common Core State Standards and the NCTM Standards on Focal Points, features easy-to-use tools for teaching key concepts in number and operations and for addressing common misconceptions. Sharing the insights they've gained through decades of mathematics teaching and research,…

  5. Zeroing in on Number and Operations, Grades 3-4: Key Ideas and Common Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dacey, Linda; Collins, Anne

    2010-01-01

    "The Zeroing in on Number and Operations" series, which aligns with the Common Core State Standards and the NCTM Standards and Focal Points, features easy-to-use tools for teaching key concepts in number and operations and for addressing common misconceptions. Sharing the insights they've gained in decades of mathematics teaching and research,…

  6. Identifying Students' Misconceptions about Nuclear Chemistry: A Study of Turkish High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakiboglu, Canan; Tekin, Berna Bulbul

    2006-01-01

    This study represents the first attempt to elucidate and detail the types of misconceptions high school students hold relating to basic concepts and topics of nuclear chemistry. A diagnostic multiple-choice test was administered to 157 tenth-grade students (15-16 years old) and the data were analyzed. The results show that high school students

  7. Reducing Plate Tectonic Misconceptions with Lecture Tutorials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Kortz; J. M. Smay; A. V. Mattera; S. K. Clark

    2009-01-01

    In order to address student difficulties with and common misconceptions about plate tectonics, we created five Lecture Tutorials suitable for introductory geoscience courses. Lecture Tutorials are 10-15 minute worksheets that students complete in class in small groups to make learning more student-centered. Students build their knowledge with questions that progressively become more difficult, requiring them think about their misconceptions. Our

  8. What Are They Thinking? The Development and Use of an Instrument that Identifies Common Science Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles R.; Larrabee, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the rationale for, and development of, an online instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. Science Beliefs is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. It utilizes a true or false, along with a written-explanation, format. The true or…

  9. A Review of Selected Literature on Students' Misconceptions of Heat and Temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Sözbilir

    This study is intended to review some of the studies carried out on students' understandings of heat and temperature. The review puts together the important findings of the studies, summarises the misconceptions identified so far and the possible sources of these misconceptions. Therefore, this study would be beneficial for researchers and lecturers in science education area and for science teachers.

  10. Highly Prevalent but Not Always Persistent: Undergraduate and Graduate Student's Misconceptions about Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Sean; Lyddy, Fiona; Kaplan, Robin; Nichols, Austin Lee; Miller, Haylie; Saad, Carmel Gabriel; Dukes, Kristin; Lynch, Amy-Jo

    2015-01-01

    Although past research has documented the prevalence of misconceptions in introductory psychology classes, few studies have assessed how readily upper-level undergraduate and graduate students endorse erroneous beliefs about the discipline. In Study 1, we administered a 30-item misconception test to an international sample of 670 undergraduate,…

  11. A Study on Student Teachers' Misconceptions and Scientifically Acceptable Conceptions about Mass and Gravity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonen, Selahattin

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were considered under three headings. The first was to elicit misconception that science and physics student teachers (pre-service teachers) had about the terms, "inertial mass", "gravitational mass", "gravity", "gravitational force" and "weight". The second was to understand how prior learning affected their misconceptions,…

  12. Misconceptions of High School Students Related to the Conceptions of Absolutism and Constitutionalism in History Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Mehmet Suat

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze the 10th grade high school students' misconceptions related to the sense of ruling in the Ottoman State during the absolutist and constitutional periods and to investigate the causes of these misconceptions. The data were collected through eight open-ended questions related to the concepts of absolutism and…

  13. Airside Economizer- Comparing Different Control Strategies and Common Misconceptions

    E-print Network

    Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.

    control that is commonly used in the industry. Some of the questions this paper tries to answer include: 1. What is the optimal activation temperature for a temperature-based economizer that provides the most energy savings? 2. How does enthalpy..., are often not available or unreliable. The maintenance and the accuracy of the RH sensors are also a major concern in implementing the enthalpy-based economizer. For the temperature-based economizer, the activation temperature is the outside air...

  14. Cognitive analysis of students' errors and misconceptions in variables, equations, and functions 

    E-print Network

    Li, Xiaobao

    2009-05-15

    such issues, three basic algebra concepts - variable, equation, and function – are used to analyze students’ errors, possible buggy algorithms, and the conceptual basis of these errors: misconceptions. Through the research on these three basic concepts...

  15. Student Acquisition of Biological Evolution-Related Misconceptions: The Role of Public High School Introductory Biology Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Tony Brett

    2011-01-01

    In order to eliminate student misconceptions concerning biological evolution, it is important to identify their sources. The purposes of this study were to: (a) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma public high school Biology I teachers; (b) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma…

  16. Ecological Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Bruce H.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a summary of the research literature on students' ecological conceptions and the implications of misconceptions. Topics include food webs, ecological adaptation, carrying capacity, ecosystem, and niche. (Contains 35 references.) (MKR)

  17. Student Misconceptions in Writing Balanced Equations for Dissolving Ionic Compounds in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify student misconceptions and difficulties in writing symbolic-level balanced equations for dissolving ionic compounds in water. A sample of 105 college students were asked to provide balanced equations for dissolving four ionic compounds in water. Another 37 college students participated in semi-structured…

  18. Development and Application of an Instrument to Identify Students Misconceptions: Diffusion and Osmosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misischia, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    A large number of undergraduate students have naive understandings about the processes of Diffusion and Osmosis. Some students overcome these misconceptions, but others do not. The study involved nineteen undergraduate movement science students at a Midwest University. Participants' were asked to complete a short answer (fill-in the blank) test,…

  19. Identifying and Addressing Student Difficulties and Misconceptions: Examples from Physics and from Materials Science and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Here I present my work identifying and addressing student difficulties with several materials science and physics topics. In the first part of this thesis, I present my work identifying student difficulties and misconceptions about the directional relationships between net force, velocity, and acceleration in one dimension. This is accomplished…

  20. University and Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about the Concept of "Aromaticity" in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topal, Giray; Oral, Behcet; Ozden. Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Aromaticity concept is given incorrect or incomplete to the student in secondary education and knowledge based on this basic concept has been caused to another misconception in future. How are the achievement levels relating to the comprehension of various characteristics of aromatic compounds for the first and third grade students attending…

  1. Determination of Secondary School Students' Cognitive Structure, and Misconception in Ecological Concepts through Word Association Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yücel, Elif Özata; Özkan, Mulis

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we determined cognitive structures and misconceptions about basic ecological concepts by using "word association" tests on secondary school students, age between 12-14 years. Eighty-nine students participated in this study. Before WAT was generated, basic ecological concepts that take place in the secondary science…

  2. The Persistence of Misconceptions about the Human Blood Circulatory System among Students in Different Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgur, Sami

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the persistence of misconceptions in the topic of the human blood circulatory system among students in different grade levels. For this reason, after discussions with biology educators, two tests consisting of open-ended questions were developed by the researcher and administered to students in four…

  3. Effects of conceptual assignments and conceptual change discussions on students' misconceptions and achievement regarding force and motion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of conceptual assignments and conceptual change discussions on students' achievement and misconceptions about force and motion. The study was conducted with 6 physics teachers and their 18 classes, consisting of 396 high school physics students. The teachers administered the Force Misconception and Force Achievement Tests to their physics classes as

  4. Misconceptions and Conceptual Changes Concerning Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics among Portuguese Students Aged 16-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Luis; Thompson, David

    1997-01-01

    This study investigates student misconceptions in the areas of continent, ocean, permanence of ocean basins, continental drift, Earth's magnetic field, and plates and plate motions. A teaching-learning model was designed based on a constructivist approach. Results show that students held a substantial number of misconceptions. (Author/DKM)

  5. Common Myths, Misconceptions and Assumptions About Mtbe: Where Are We Now?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, R. E.

    Critical review of twelve (12) myths and misconceptions about MTBE reveals they were conceived to rationalize early field observations and/or incomplete data sets. Closer scrutiny, in light of recent laboratory investigations, field data, case studies and world literature, indicates the myths are unsubstantiated misconceptions and as- sumptions about the behavior of ether oxygenates in the environment. Commonly held myths focus on four general areas of fuel and fuel oxygenates management: stor- age/dispensing, hydrology, remediation and health effects. Storage/dispensing mis- conceptions address materials stability to ethers in fuel and the environmental foren- sics of fuel systems failure. Groundwater and hydrology myths deal with plume dy- namics and the impact of fuel on drinking water resources. Remediation myths focus on the performance of traditional hydrocarbon remediation technologies, recent de- velopments in biodegradation and natural attenuation, drivers of remedial design and remediation costs. Health effects myths address both acute and chronic exposure risk evaluations by national and international health agencies. MTBE is manageable by the same processes and precautions used for gasoline and other fuel hydrocarbons.

  6. Cognitive analysis of students' errors and misconceptions in variables, equations, and functions

    E-print Network

    Li, Xiaobao

    2009-05-15

    Analysis of Students? Errors and Misconceptions in Variables, Equations, and Functions. (December 2006) Xiaobao Li, Dipl., Chuzhou Teacher College; M.S., Nanjing Normal University Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Gerald Kulm... of the ?equal sign? is a basic topic in elementary mathematics; nevertheless, researchers found that even college students had trouble understanding and using the equal sign (Barcellos, 2005). Thus, it is understandable why so many students give up learning...

  7. Growing Pebbles and Conceptual Prisms - Understanding the Source of Student Misconceptions about Rock Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusnick, Judi

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes narrative essays--stories of rock formation--written by pre-service elementary school teachers. Reports startling misconceptions among preservice teachers on pebbles that grow, human involvement in rock formation, and sedimentary rocks forming as puddles as dry up, even though these students had completed a college level course on Earth…

  8. Development of the Bonding Representations Inventory to Identify Student Misconceptions about Covalent and Ionic Bonding Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luxford, Cynthia J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2014-01-01

    Teachers use multiple representations to communicate the concepts of bonding, including Lewis structures, formulas, space-filling models, and 3D manipulatives. As students learn to interpret these multiple representations, they may develop misconceptions that can create problems in further learning of chemistry. Interviews were conducted with 28…

  9. Thai high-school students' misconceptions about and models of light refraction through a planar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaewkhong, Kreetha; Mazzolini, Alex; Emarat, Narumon; Arayathanitkul, Kwan

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the optics misconceptions of 220 year 11 Thai high-school students. These misconceptions became apparent when the students attempted to explain how an object submerged in a water tank is 'seen' by an observer looking into the tank from above and at an angle. The two diagnostic questions used in the study probe the students' ability to use a ray diagram to explain the relationship between object, image and observer, and then to use the ray diagram to qualitatively determine the position of the image. The study indicates that these high-school students, even after instruction, had significant misconceptions about the direction of propagation of light, how light refracts at an interface, and how to determine the position of an image. The study revealed that students used various concept models to explain how the object can be 'seen' in this situation. Only 22% of all students had a qualitative understanding of how to use a ray diagram to determine image position, and only 1 of 220 students could identify the correct image position using correct reasoning. Our results indicate that students require very careful instruction if they are to understand how objects are 'seen' and how images are formed when light refracts through a planar surface.

  10. Some Misconceptions in Meiosis Shown by Students Responding to an Advanced Level Practical Examination Question in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are problems revealed in student responses to a practical task which formed part of an advanced level examination. The frequencies with which some misconceptions about cell reproduction and genetics occurred are presented. The nature of these misconceptions is analyzed and their implications discussed. (CW)

  11. Effects of Conceptual Assignments and Conceptual Change Discussions on Students' Misconceptions and Achievement Regarding Force and Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effects of conceptual assignments and conceptual change discussions on high school students' achievement and misconceptions about force and motion. Analyzes pretest and posttest data from the Force Misconception and Force Achievement Tests (FMFAT). Discusses the effects on the conceptual change discussion on reducing…

  12. Overcoming Students' Misconceptions Concerning Thermal Physics with the Aid of Hints and Peer Interaction during a Lecture Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2013-01-01

    As has been shown by previous research, students may possess various misconceptions in the area of thermal physics. In order to help them overcome misconceptions observed prior to instruction, we implemented a one-hour lecture-based intervention in their introductory thermal physics course. The intervention was held after the conventional lectures…

  13. Learning Disabilities in Higher Education: Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ann Grasso; Heikkila, M. Kathleen

    1988-01-01

    This paper offers a critical examination of common misconceptions concerning college students with learning disabilities (LD), including, among others: LD college students are older versions of high school LD students, college entrance data can accurately predict LD student success, and LD students disclose their handicaps to institutions of…

  14. Moon Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Ronald; Lewis, Bradford F.

    2003-01-01

    Over the course of history, scientists have constructed models and equations that provide insight into the motions of the heavens. However, research indicates many people hold alternative conceptions that, to them, explain the same observable phenomenon. Science educators have found that students learning about lunar phases may hold misconceptions

  15. Essay Contest Reveals Misconceptions of High School Students in Genetics Content

    PubMed Central

    Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Van Horne, Katie; Zhang, Hubert; Boughman, Joann

    2008-01-01

    National educational organizations have called upon scientists to become involved in K–12 education reform. From sporadic interaction with students to more sustained partnerships with teachers, the engagement of scientists takes many forms. In this case, scientists from the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), the Genetics Society of America (GSA), and the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) have partnered to organize an essay contest for high school students as part of the activities surrounding National DNA Day. We describe a systematic analysis of 500 of 2443 total essays submitted in response to this contest over 2 years. Our analysis reveals the nature of student misconceptions in genetics, the possible sources of these misconceptions, and potential ways to galvanize genetics education. PMID:18245328

  16. Research and Teaching: Two-Dimensional, Implicit Confidence Tests as a Tool for Recognizing Student Misconceptions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Linda B. Taylor

    2006-11-01

    The misconceptions that students bring with them, or that arise during instruction, are a critical barrier to learning. Implicit-confidence tests, a simple modification of the multiple-choice test, can be used as a strategy for recognizing student misconceptions. An important issue, however, is whether such tests are gender-neutral. We analyzed the results of exams administered to students (both majors and nonmajors) in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology (MCDB) 1111: Biofundamentals at the University of Colorado at Boulder. At a statistically significant level ( 95%), there was no difference between women and men regardless of whether their answers were confidently correct or incorrect, suggesting that such two-dimensional tests are a gender-neutral tool.

  17. Identifying Students' Misconceptions in Writing Balanced Equations for Dissolving Ionic Compounds in Water and Using Multiple-Choice Questions at the Symbolic and Particulate Levels to Confront These Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naah, Basil M.

    2012-01-01

    Students who harbor misconceptions often find chemistry difficult to understand. To improve teaching about the dissolving process, first semester introductory chemistry students were asked to complete a free-response questionnaire on writing balanced equations for dissolving ionic compounds in water. To corroborate errors and misconceptions

  18. Advanced Undergraduate and Early Graduate Physics Students' Misconception about Solar Wind Flow: Evidence of Students' Difficulties in Distinguishing Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Nicholas A.; Lopez, Ramon E.

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence has suggested that advanced undergraduate students confuse the spiral structure of the interplanetary magnetic field with the flow of the solar wind. Though it is a small study, this paper documents this misconception and begins to investigate the underlying issues behind it. We present evidence that the traditional presentation…

  19. Investigating the effects of repeated Miranda warnings: do they perform a curative function on common Miranda misconceptions?

    PubMed

    Rogers, Richard; Fiduccia, Chelsea E; Robinson, Emily V; Steadham, Jennifer A; Drogin, Eric Y

    2013-01-01

    In Miranda v. Arizona (1966), the Supreme Court of the United States required that custodial suspects be apprised of their Constitutional rights against self-incrimination. The Court could not have anticipated the rampant popularization of Miranda warnings in subsequent movies and television dramas. Influenced by public media, many arrestees assume that they already "know" their rights, with no awareness of their misconceptions. The current investigation examines whether repeated exposures to Miranda warnings performs any "curative" function (i.e., dispelling common Miranda misconceptions held by pretrial defendants). The accumulative effects of five different Miranda warnings were tested over a several-hour period on 260 detainees. For the nearly half (113 or 43.5%) with three or more misconceptions, improvement (i.e., ?2 fewer misconceptions) occurred for only 35 defendants. Predictably, this improved group also tended to display a better understanding of Miranda-relevant vocabulary words and a better recall of the administered Miranda warnings than their unimproved counterparts. On average, the improved group also performed better on general measures of intelligence, and listening and reading comprehension, while still evidencing substantial cognitive deficits. The curative function of Miranda advisements is considered in light of these findings. PMID:23670943

  20. College Students' Misconceptions of Environmental Issues Related to Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

    Students are currently exposed to world environmental problems--including global warming and the greenhouse effect--in science classes at various points during their K-12 and college experience. However, the amount and depth of explosure to these issues can be quite variable. Students are also exposed to sources of misinformation leading to…

  1. Invisible Misconceptions: Student Understanding of Ultraviolet and Infrared Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libarkin, Julie C.; Asghar, Anila; Crockett, C.; Sadler, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The importance of nonvisible wavelengths for the study of astronomy suggests that student understanding of nonvisible light is an important consideration in astronomy classrooms. Questionnaires, interviews, and panel discussions were used to investigate 6-12 student and teacher conceptions of ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR). Alternative…

  2. The Relationship between Biology Classes and Biological Reasoning and Common Heath Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keselman, Alla; Hundal, Savreen; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia; Bibi, Raquel; Edelman, Jay A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship among (1) college major, (2) knowledge used in reasoning about common health beliefs, and (3) judgment about the accuracy of those beliefs. Seventy-four college students, advanced biology and non-science majors, indicated their agreement or disagreement with commonly believed, but often inaccurate,…

  3. Diagnosing and Dealing with Student Misconceptions: Floating and Sinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Yue; Tomita, Miki K.; Shavelson, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    When students enter the classroom, they often hold prior knowledge or conceptions about the natural world. These conceptions will influence how they come to understand what they are taught in school. Some of their existing knowledge provides good foundation for formal schooling, but other prior conceptions, however, are incompatible with currently…

  4. Misconceptions of chemical equilibrium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark W. Hackling; Patrick J. Garnett

    1985-01-01

    Those propositions deemed necessary for an understanding of chemical equilibrium and Le Chatelier's Principle were defined by the investigators and validated.Thirty, Year 12 Western Australian chemistry students (17 years of age) who had studied chemical equilibrium were interviewed and students’ responses were coded into various categories of misconception that had been identified. The most significant misconceptions revealed by the study

  5. Development and application of an instrument to identify students misconceptions: Diffusion and osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misischia, Cynthia M.

    A large number of undergraduate students have naive understandings about the processes of Diffusion and Osmosis. Some students overcome these misconceptions, but others do not. The study involved nineteen undergraduate movement science students at a Midwest University. Participants' were asked to complete a short answer (fill-in the blank) test, and if possible participate in a follow-up interview. The researcher constructed short answer test that consisted of a three-tier structure that required students to generate answers, diminishing the influence found in two-tiered instruments such as 'recognition' of correct answers and test taking skills More importantly, each level built upon knowledge demonstrated in the previous tier; this allowed the researcher to determine where the breakdown occurred. Part one of the test consisted of 9 questions that prompted students to provide short answer definitions. Part two of the exam consisted of 7 questions that contained two parts. The first question required a true or false answer and the second required a brief explanation. The final part of the test consisted of 12 questions related to three scenarios. After each question students were also asked to record how confident they were with their answers on a three point scale. This helped to determine whether students had 'confidence' in their answers, or if they were just guessing. A total of three students agreed to participate in audio-recorded interviews. Descriptive and correlational data was used in the analysis of this study. This data included: (1) test; (2) interview; (3); Point biserial correlation coefficients; (4) Cronbach's alpha correlation coefficients; (5) Kendall's Tau-b correlation coefficients; (5) and error pattern analysis Evidence from this study demonstrates that students do have misconceptions, about the processes of diffusion and osmosis.

  6. Formative Assessment PreTest to Identify College Students’ Prior Knowledge, Misconceptions and Learning Difficulties in Biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reuven Lazarowitz; Carl Lieb

    2006-01-01

    A formative assessment pretest was administered to undergraduate students at the beginning of a science course in order to find out their prior knowledge, misconceptions and learning difficulties on the topic of the human respiratory system and energy issues. Those findings could provide their instructors with the valuable information required in order to adapt their teaching methods to the students

  7. Identifying Senior High School Students' Misconceptions about Statistical Correlation, and Their Possible Causes: An Exploratory Study Using Concept Mapping with Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Tzu-Chien; Lin, Yi-Chun; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2009-01-01

    Correlation is an essential concept in statistics; however, students may hold misconceptions about correlation, even after receiving instruction. This study aimed to elucidate (1) the misconceptions held by senior high school students about correlation, using the tool of concept mapping along with interviewing, (2) the possible causes of these…

  8. Goguadze, G., Sosnovsky, S., Isotani, S. & McLaren, B.M. (2011). Evaluating a bayesian student model of decimal misconceptions. In the Proceedings of the 4th

    E-print Network

    McLaren, Bruce Martin

    2011-01-01

    model of decimal misconceptions. In the Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Educational Data Mining. Evaluating a Bayesian Student Model of Decimal Misconceptions G. GOGUADZE Saarland for an adaptive educational system. This paper describes the evaluation of a Bayesian model of student

  9. Comparing the Impacts of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students' Achievements, Misconceptions, and Attitudes towards Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Yilmaz; Yesilyurt, Selami

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment design of instructional software programs related to the "cell division" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the cell division achievement test (CAT), the cell division concept test (CCT) and…

  10. Assessing the Effects of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students' Achievements, Misconceptions and Attitudes towards Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Yilmaz; Yesilyurt, Selami

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment software programs related to "genetic concepts" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the genetic concepts achievement test (GAT), the genetic concept test (GCT) and biology attitude scale (BAS) was…

  11. Clarifying Chemical Bonding. Overcoming Our Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hapkiewicz, Annis

    1991-01-01

    Demonstrations to help students change their misconceptions about chemical bond breaking are presented. Students' misconceptions about chemical bonds in both biological and chemical systems are discussed. A calculation for the release of energy from respiration is presented. (KR)

  12. Comparing the Impacts of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students' Achievements, Misconceptions, and Attitudes towards Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Y?lmaz; Ye?ilyurt, Selami

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment design of instructional software programs related to the "cell division" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the cell division achievement test (CAT), the cell division concept test (CCT) and biology attitude scale (BAS) was applied at the beginning and at the end of the research. After the treatment, general achievement in CAT increased in favor of experimental groups. Instructional software programs also had the positive effect to the awareness of students' understandings to the general functions of mitosis and meiosis. However, the current study revealed that there were still some misconceptions in the experimental groups even after the treatment. It was also noticed that only using edutainment software program significantly changed students' attitudes towards biology.

  13. Towards Intelligent Tutoring with Erroneous Examples: A Taxonomy of Decimal Misconceptions

    E-print Network

    McLaren, Bruce Martin

    ] and incorrect beliefs such as "multiplication makes bigger" and "division makes smaller" [2,4] are examples346 Towards Intelligent Tutoring with Erroneous Examples: A Taxonomy of Decimal Misconceptions.altman@vanderbilt.edu Abstract. In the mathematics domain of decimals, students have common and persistent misconceptions

  14. Mathematics, Thermodynamics, and Modeling to Address Ten Common Misconceptions about Protein Structure, Folding, and Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robic, Srebrenka

    2010-01-01

    To fully understand the roles proteins play in cellular processes, students need to grasp complex ideas about protein structure, folding, and stability. Our current understanding of these topics is based on mathematical models and experimental data. However, protein structure, folding, and stability are often introduced as descriptive, qualitative…

  15. The Effects and Side-Effects of Statistics Education: Psychology Students' (Mis-)Conceptions of Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Primi, Caterina; Chiesi, Francesca; Handley, Simon

    2009-01-01

    In three studies we looked at two typical misconceptions of probability: the representativeness heuristic, and the equiprobability bias. The literature on statistics education predicts that some typical errors and biases (e.g., the equiprobability bias) increase with education, whereas others decrease. This is in contrast with reasoning theorists'…

  16. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... digital magazine delivers helpful articles and the latest news on keeping your heart healthy. Sign up today! Email:* State: Zip Code: By clicking submit below you agree to the Terms and Conditions Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Target Heart Rates 3 All About Heart Rate ( ...

  17. Misconceptions at the Middle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jessica Fries-Gaither

    This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, explores the misconceptions that middle school science students might have in earth, life, and physical science and provides resources for uncovering them through formative assessments and teaching strategies.

  18. Misconceptions in Astronomy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Comins, Neil

    This list is a work in progress. We are using it to build a library of (mis)information and categorize the location of the proper science. Click on the linked misconceptions to see the scientific explanations of these common mistakes courtesy of a number of informative online scientific resources. The effort to find and link more and more good science to this list is ongoing, and eventually all these misconceptions will be linked to lead to the proper science. The different topics include: stars, the solar system, galaxies, physics, black holes, cosmology and the history and philosophy of astronomy.

  19. Using intervention-oriented evaluation to diagnose and correct students' persistent climate change misconceptions: A Singapore case study.

    PubMed

    Pascua, Liberty; Chang, Chew-Hung

    2015-10-01

    The evaluation of classroom-based educational interventions is fraught with tensions, the most critical of which is choosing between focusing the inquiry on measuring the effects of treatment or in proximately utilizing the data to improve practice. This paper attempted to achieve both goals through the use of intervention-oriented evaluation of a professional development program intended to diagnose and correct students' misconceptions of climate change. Data was gathered, monitored and analyzed in three stages of a time-series design: the baseline, treatment and follow-up stages. The evaluation itself was the 'intervention' such that the data was allowed to 'contaminate' the treatment. This was achieved through giving the teacher unimpeded access to the collected information and to introduce midcourse corrections as she saw fit to her instruction. Results showed a significant development in students' conceptual understanding only after the teacher's decision to use direct and explicit refutation of misconceptions. Due to the accessibility of feedback, it was possible to locate specifically at which point in the process that the intervention was most effective. The efficacy of the intervention was then measured through comparing the scores across the three research stages. The inclusion of a comparison group to the design is recommended for future studies. PMID:25935362

  20. Unweaving misconceptions: Guided learning, simulations, and misconceptions in learning principles of natural selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, Brian E.

    College students often come to the study of evolutionary biology with many misconceptions of how the processes of natural selection and speciation occur. How to relinquish these misconceptions with learners is a question that many educators face in introductory biology courses. Constructivism as a theoretical framework has become an accepted and promoted model within the epistemology of science instruction. However, constructivism is not without its skeptics who see some problems of its application in lacking necessary guidance for novice learners. This study within a quantitative, quasi-experimental format tested whether guided online instruction in a video format of common misconceptions in evolutionary biology produced higher performance on a survey of knowledge of natural selection versus more constructivist style learning in the form of student exploration of computer simulations of the evolutionary process. Performances on surveys were also explored for a combination of constructivist and guided techniques to determine if a consolidation of approaches produced higher test scores. Out of the 94 participants 95% displayed at least one misconception of natural selection in the pre-test while the study treatments produced no statistically significant improvements in post-test scores except within the video (guided learning treatment). These overall results demonstrated the stubbornness of misconceptions involving natural selection for adult learners and the difficulty of helping them overcome them. It also bolsters the idea that some misconceptions of natural selection and evolution may be hardwired in a neurological sense and that new, more long-term teaching techniques may be warranted. Such long-term strategies may not be best implemented with constructivist techniques alone, and it is likely that some level of guidance may be necessary for novice adult learners. A more substantial, nuanced approach for undergraduates is needed that consolidates successful teaching strategies to adult students that is based on current research.

  1. Lunar Phases: Addressing Misconceptions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Philip Childs

    This exercise was designed to address student misconceptions about why the Moon exhibits phases. Using a sketchbook, digital camera, or flex cam, a student sits at the center of a darkened room illuminated by a single light source in a stationary position. Stools are set up surrounding the student in the center and other students take those positions, always keeping their faces toward the center. The center student sketches or take pictures of the faces at each of the positions. Substituting a sphere (such as a ball) for the students' faces provides an even more vivid illustration of the shadowing of the sphere and connects directly to the rationale for lunar phases.

  2. Idea Bank: Changing Misconceptions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tara Holzmiller

    2008-12-01

    During student-centered learning activities, students actively engage in their own learning based on individual prior understandings. It can be difficult for a teacher to know if students fully understand the concepts being presented, especially if they do not comment or ask questions because they are shy or afraid of getting something wrong. Teachers may not know students' true ideas until they express themselves on a written summative exam, and then it is often too late to correct them before rushing off to the next topic. Therefore, the author uses pretests, daily learning logs, and posttests to assess student learning and change misconceptions. She shares her strategy in this month's Idea Bank.

  3. What Research Says: The Cardiovascular System: Children's Conceptions and Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnaudin, Mary W.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    1986-01-01

    Reports findings of a study on children's perceptions and alternate conceptions about the human circulatory system. Summarizes the responses of fifth and eighth grade students on questions dealing with the heart and blood. Offers examples of hands-on activities and confrontation strategies that address common misconceptions on circulation. (ML)

  4. Misconceptions in radicals in high school mathematics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erdogan Mehmet Özkan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine misconceptions of the radicals of the high school students that attend 9 class. The samples of study consists of the students of an Anatolian High School in Istanbul, Turkey. Some sample questions are asked to related students to understand the misconceptions. According to the result of the study, it is seen that

  5. Student Learning Commons Questions & Answers for Faculty

    E-print Network

    Student Learning Commons Questions & Answers for Faculty What is the SFU Student Learning Commons with academic writing, studying and learning strategies, English language support, and works closely lectures, or developing more effective studying strategies. Can faculty send students to the SLC? Faculty

  6. Misconceptions about the Concept of Natural Selection by Medical Biology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumby, Margaret N.

    1984-01-01

    Examined Australian medical school students' (N=150) conceptual frameworks and reasoning patterns related to natural selection. Results indicate that the majority believed that evolutionary changes occur as a result of need. Implications related to student learning and to science and medical education are considered. (JN)

  7. Rate of Change: AP Calculus Students' Understandings and Misconceptions after Completing Different Curricular Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teuscher, Dawn; Reys, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Advanced Placement Calculus students' mathematical understanding of rate of change, after studying four years of college preparatory (integrated or single-subject) mathematics. Students completed the Precalculus Concept Assessment (PCA) and two open-ended tasks with questions about rates of change. After adjusting for prior…

  8. Misconceptions Highlighted among Medical Students in the Annual International Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

    2012-01-01

    The annual Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe. The 8th IMSPQ, in 2010, hosted by the Department of Physiology, University of Malaya, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, had 200 students representing 41…

  9. Correcting Students' Misconceptions about Automobile Braking Distances and Video Analysis Using Interactive Program Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockicko, Peter; Trpišová, Beáta; Ondruš, Ján

    2014-01-01

    The present paper informs about an analysis of students' conceptions about car braking distances and also presents one of the novel methods of learning: an interactive computer program Tracker that we used to analyse the process of braking of a car. The analysis of the students' conceptions about car braking distances consisted in…

  10. Mathematical misconceptions in graphing and central tendency among sixth grade and undergraduate students 

    E-print Network

    Hammer, Mary Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    . Seventy-nine 6th grade students were assessed in the spring semester of 2001 with a question, referred to as Vet Club, which asked the students to construct a graph from a given set of data and then analyze the data in terms of central tendencies...

  11. Misconceptions on the Biological Concept of Food: Results of a Survey of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Y. J.; Diong, C. H.

    This paper explains the results of a survey of students' ideas about food as a scientific concept. The survey found that high school students in Singapore (n=66) displayed an anthropocentric view of food that was not generally applied across living organisms in heterotrophs (animals) or autotrophs (plants) as a whole. It is also noted that…

  12. Remediating High School Students' Misconceptions Concerning Diffusion and Osmosis through Concept Mapping and Conceptual Change Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekkaya, Ceren

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of combining conceptual change text and concept mapping strategies on students' understanding of diffusion and osmosis. Results indicate that while the average percentage of students in the experimental group holding a scientifically correct view rose, the percentage of correct responses in the control group…

  13. Correcting Students' Misconceptions about Automobile Braking Distances and Video Analysis Using Interactive Program Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockicko, Peter; Trpišová, Beáta; Ondruš, Ján

    2014-12-01

    The present paper informs about an analysis of students' conceptions about car braking distances and also presents one of the novel methods of learning: an interactive computer program Tracker that we used to analyse the process of braking of a car. The analysis of the students' conceptions about car braking distances consisted in obtaining their estimates of these quantities before and after watching a video recording of a car braking from various initial speeds to a complete stop and subsequent application of mathematical statistics to the obtained sets of students' answers. The results revealed that the difference between the value of the car braking distance estimated before watching the video and the real value of this distance was not caused by a random error but by a systematic error which was due to the incorrect students' conceptions about the car braking process. Watching the video significantly improved the students' estimates of the car braking distance, and we show that in this case, the difference between the estimated value and the real value of the car braking distance was due only to a random error, i.e. the students' conceptions about the car braking process were corrected. Some of the students subsequently performed video analysis of the braking processes of cars of various brands and under various conditions by means of Tracker that gave them exact knowledge of the physical quantities, which characterize a motor vehicle braking. Interviewing some of these students brought very positive reactions to this novel method of learning.

  14. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    PubMed Central

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems—teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking—that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that seemingly unrelated biological misconceptions may have common origins in these intuitive ways of knowing, termed cognitive construals. We presented 137 undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors with six biological misconceptions. They indicated their agreement with each statement, and explained their rationale for their response. Results indicate frequent agreement with misconceptions, and frequent use of construal-based reasoning among both biology majors and nonmajors in their written explanations. Moreover, results also show associations between specific construals and the misconceptions hypothesized to arise from those construals. Strikingly, such associations were stronger among biology majors than nonmajors. These results demonstrate important linkages between intuitive ways of thinking and misconceptions in discipline-based reasoning, and raise questions about the origins, persistence, and generality of relations between intuitive reasoning and biological misconceptions. PMID:25713093

  15. A Testing System for Diagnosing Misconceptions in DC Electric Circuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Kuo-En; Liu, Sei-Hua; Chen, Sei-Wang

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a test-based diagnosis system for misconceptions in DC electric circuits and its three parts: problem library, problem selector and diagnoser. Discusses misconception discrimination and diagnosis theories, and reports the system supports satisfactory diagnosis. Includes an analysis of nine student misconceptions about electrical circuits…

  16. Not all preconceptions are misconceptions: finding 'anchoring conceptions' for grounding instruction on students' intuitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Clement; David E. Brown; Aletta Zietsman

    1989-01-01

    This study begins the task of mapping out the domain of valid, potentially helpful beliefs of students and raises the possibility of drawing on these intuitions in teaching conceptual material. Some issues are explored surrounding the identification of such intuitions, referred to as anchoring conceptions or anchors. We attempt to: (1) propose some organizing theoretical and observational definitions of the

  17. Essay Contest Reveals Misconceptions of High School Students in Genetics Content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Mills Shaw; K. Van Horne; H. Zhang; J. Boughman

    2008-01-01

    National educational organizations have called upon scientists to become involved in K-12 education reform. From sporadic interaction with students to more sustained partnerships with teachers, the engagement of scientists takes many forms. In this case, scientists from the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), the Genetics Society of America (GSA), and the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) have partnered

  18. Students' Misconceptions About the Correspondences Between a Map and the Terrain Represented by the Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastens, K. A.; Griffith, J.; Liben, L.; Pistolesi, L.

    2003-12-01

    Skillful use of maps is a prerequisite for success in many fields of geoscience. Geoscience instructors find that many high school and undergraduate students are not skilled at using maps and other spatial representations to obtain or convey information. In an attempt to understand why so many students come to their study of geoscience with such poor map skills, we are studying map comprehension and map curricula in elementary schools. An analysis of published K-5 map skills curriculum materials shows that students are rarely explicitly instructed on the crucial skill of translating from map to reality and vice versa. Instead they are asked questions that can be answered entirely within the frame of reference of the map without thinking about the terrain represented by the map. We have developed a field-based test of map skills that requires students to transfer information from a map into the real world and from the real world onto a map. In the world-to-map task, students place stickers on a map to show where colored flags are located in the real world, just as a field geologist places colored pencil marks on a map to show where specific rock units are located. In the map-to-world test, students use a map to go to locations specified by stickers on a map and place markers on the ground at each location. This is the same skill required by an environmental scientist who follows a map to go to specific sampling locations. Approximately a fifth of 4th graders produce deeply-flawed answers on these tasks, showing a lack of understanding of the basic correspondences between features on the map and the represented terrain. Flaws include placing round stickers arbitrarily on round map symbols, and placing a sticker on a built object that should have been on a natural feature or vice versa. Another category of mistake is to reverse west/east and/or north/south; this mistake tends to be associated with poor performance on a standard psychometric test of mental rotations ability.

  19. Addressing Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dial, Katrina; Riddley, Diana; Williams, Kiesha; Sampson, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The law of conservation of mass can be counterintuitive for most students because they often think the mass of a substance is related to its physical state. As a result, students may hold a number of alternative conceptions related to this concept, including, for example, the believe that gas has no mass, that solids have greater mass than fluids,…

  20. Measurement Myths and Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Laura D.; Goodwin, William L.

    1999-01-01

    Presents frequently encountered measurement misconceptions and various measurement "rules." Origins of the misconceptions and rules are described, along with the reasons why they are problematic. Alternate approaches or considerations are given. Misconceptions discussed pertain to the estimation of internal consistency reliability and item…

  1. The effect of student-centered and teacher-centered instruction with and without conceptual advocacy on biology students' misconceptions, achievement, attitudes toward science, and cognitive retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallop, Roger Graham

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of student-centered and teacher-centered instructional strategies with and without conceptual advocacy (CA) on ninth-grade biology students' misconceptions (MIS), biology achievement (ACH), attitudes toward science (ATT), and cognitive retention of scientific method and measurement, spontaneous generation, and characteristics of living things. Students were purposively selected using intact classes and assigned to one of four treatment groups (i.e., student-centered instruction without CA, student-centered instruction with CA, teacher-centered instruction with CA, and teacher-centered instruction without CA). A modified quasi-experimental design was used in which students were not matched in the conventional sense but instead, groups were shown to be equivalent on the dependent measure via a pretest. A 5-day treatment implementation period addressed science conceptions under investigation. The treatment period was based on the number of class periods teachers at the target school actually spend teaching the biological concepts under investigation using traditional instruction. At the end of the treatment period, students were posttested using the Concepts in Biology instrument and Science Questionnaire. Eight weeks after the posttest, these instruments were administered again as a delayed posttest to determine cognitive retention of the correct biological conceptions and attitudes toward science. MANCOVA and follow-up univariate ANCOVA results indicated that student-centered instruction without CA (i.e., Group 1) did not have a significant effect on students' MIS, ACH, and ATT (F = .029, p = .8658; F = .002, p =.9688, F = .292, p = .5897, respectively). On the other hand, student-centered instruction with CA (i.e., Group 2) had a significant effect on students' MIS and ACH (F =10.33, p = .0016 and F = 10.17, p = .0017, respectively), but did not on ATT (F = .433, p = .5117). Teacher-centered instruction with CA (i.e., Group 3) had a significant effect on students' MIS in favor of Group 4 (i.e., control group) (F = 4.11, p = .0444), and did not have a significant effect on ACH and ATT (F = 1.83, p = .1777 and F = 1.89, p = .1709, respectively). Student gender and teacher gender did not have a significant effect on students' MIS, ACH, and ATT. In the cognitive retention model, there was no significant difference among the research factors relative to the 3 dependent measures.

  2. Understandings and Misconceptions of Biology Concepts Held by Students Attending Small High Schools and Students Attending Large High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, William D.; Marek, Edmund A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of school size to understanding of scientific concepts. Results indicated that students in small high schools had fewer instances of understanding and more instances of misunderstanding of the concepts of diffusion and homeostasis. No difference was observed for concepts related to food production in plants and…

  3. Common postural defects among music students.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Piñeiro, Patricia; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Martínez, Aurora

    2015-07-01

    Postural quality during musical performance affects both musculoskeletal health and the quality of the performance. In this study we examined the posture of 100 students at a Higher Conservatory of Music in Spain. By analysing video tapes and photographs of the students while performing, a panel of experts extracted values of 11 variables reflecting aspects of overall postural quality or the postural quality of various parts of the body. The most common postural defects were identified, together with the situations in which they occur. It is concluded that most students incur in unphysiological postures during performance. It is hoped that use of the results of this study will help correct these errors. PMID:26118530

  4. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  5. "So My Program Doesn't Run!" Definition, Origins, and Practical Expressions of Students' (Mis)Conceptions of Correctness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolikant, Y. Ben-David; Mussai, M.

    2008-01-01

    We studied students' conceptions of correctness and their influence on students' correctness-related practices by examining how 159 students had analyzed the correctness of error-free and erroneous algorithms and by interviewing seven students regarding their work. We found that students conceptualized program correctness as the sum of the…

  6. Overcoming Misconceptions in Quantum Mechanics with the Time Evolution Operator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quijas, P. C. Garcia; Aguilar, L. M. Arevalo

    2007-01-01

    Recently, there have been many efforts to use the research techniques developed in the field of physics education research to improve the teaching and learning of quantum mechanics. In particular, part of this research is focusing on misconceptions held by students. For instance, a set of misconceptions is associated with the concept of stationary…

  7. Diagnostic Opportunities Using Rasch Measurement in the Context of a Misconceptions-Based Physical Science Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wind, Stefanie A.; Gale, Jessica D.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice (MC) items that are constructed such that distractors target known misconceptions for a particular domain provide useful diagnostic information about student misconceptions (Herrmann-Abell & DeBoer, 2011, 2014; Sadler, 1998). Item response theory models can be used to examine misconceptions distractor-driven multiple-choice…

  8. Teachers' Misconceptions about the Effects of Addition of More Reactants or Products on Chemical Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Derek; Ma, Hong-jia; Yang, Jie

    2009-01-01

    The importance of research on misconceptions about chemical equilibrium is well recognized by educators, but in the past, researchers' interest has centered on student misconceptions and has neglected teacher misconceptions. Focusing on the effects of adding more reactants or products on chemical equilibrium, this article discusses the various…

  9. The Effect of Online Collaboration on Middle School Student Science Misconceptions as an Aspect of Science Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Jillian L.; Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative, quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design examined the effects of online collaborative learning on middle school students' science literacy. For a 9-week period, students in the control group participated in collaborative face-to-face activities whereas students in the experimental group participated in…

  10. Technology Rich Biology Labs: Effects of Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuech, Robert; Zogg, Gregory; Zeeman, Stephan; Johnson, Mark

    This paper describes a study conducted on the lab sections of the general biology course for non-science majors at the University of New England, and reports findings of student misconceptions about photosynthesis and the mass/carbon uptake during plant growth. The current study placed high technology analytic tools in the hands of introductory…

  11. Subsidence misconceptions and myths

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.E.; Bruhn, R.W.; Knott, D.L. [GAI Consultants, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Subsidence due to coal mining is poorly understood by non-specialists. This has led to numerous misconceptions and myths based on limited observations and lack of knowledge. The three most common are: (1) Mine maps are inaccurate, (2) Deep mines are not a problem, and (3) If no subsidence has occurred for many years after mining, there is no risk of future subsidence. Maps are important during mining and most are carefully prepared. Future use to evaluate conditions at mine level often includes drilling to confirm what the map shows. The idea of a safe depth from subsidence is often based on the false premise that mining results in sufficient breakup of the overlying rock strata that bulking compensates for the coal extracted. The safe depth idea first appeared in the literature about 1880 and remained prevalent well into this century. Sadly, it is still encountered. The modem understanding of fragmentation of the immediate mine roof with the overlying beds sagging down on the broken roof rock was first described in 1900. With full extraction mining, either longwall or retreat room and pillar, surface subsidence occurs regardless of the depth of the mine. Subsidence over longwall mines at depths of 2000 feet can be 90 percent of the mined seam thickness. Numerous studies of undermined sites conclude that mining occurred many years ago and since no subsidence has occurred, there is no risk of future movement. This is true if sufficient coal pillars have been left to support the overlying strate. However, every year subsidence occurs over mines that have been closed for 100 years or more. In a study of subsidera incidents over the Pittsburgh Coal, the senior authors found that 50 percent of the incidents occurred above mines that had been closed for at least 50 years and 10 percent over mines, closed for at least 80 years.

  12. A Comparison of the Misconceptions about the Time-Efficiency of Algorithms by Various Profiles of Computer-Programming Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdener, Nesrin

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on how students in vocational high schools and universities interpret the algorithms in structural computer programming that concerns time-efficiency. The targeted research group consisted of 242 students from two vocational high schools and two departments of the Faculty of Education in Istanbul. This study used qualitative and…

  13. Transforming Misconceptions: Using Transformative Experience to Promote Positive Affect and Conceptual Change in Students Learning about Biological Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heddy, Benjamin C.; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching and learning about complex scientific content, such as biological evolution, is challenging in part because students have a difficult time seeing the relevance of evolution in their everyday lives. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of the Teaching for Transformative Experiences in Science (TTES) model (Pugh, 2002)…

  14. Partnering for Student Learning: The University Library Information Commons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bob Fernekes

    This paper examines the emerging role of the Library Information Commons for providing integrated instruction and support of student learning with a focus on the Georgia Institute of Technology. It reports on the success of the Information Commons as a collaborative venture between the Library and Information Technology, discusses organizing principles, and reviews the literature on partnering for student learning

  15. Chemistry misconceptions associated with understanding calcium and phosphate homeostasis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William H. Cliff (Niagara University Biology)

    2009-12-01

    Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration when calcium ions were added to a saturated calcium phosphate solution. Fifty-two percent of the students correctly predicted that the phosphate concentration would decrease in accord with the common ion effect. Forty-two percent of the students predicted that the phosphate concentration would not change. Written explanations showed that most students failed to evoke the idea of competing chemical equilibria. A second question assessed the predicted change in calcium concentration after solid calcium phosphate was added to a saturated solution. Only 11% of the students correctly predicted no change in calcium concentration; 86% of the students predicted an increase, and many based their prediction on a mistaken application of Le Chatelier's principle to heterogeneous equilibria. These results indicate that many students possess misconceptions about chemical equilibrium that may hamper understanding of the processes of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Instructors can help students gain greater understanding of these physiochemical phenomena by adopting strategies that enable students achieve more accurate conceptions of chemical equilibria.

  16. Tutoring Strategies for LD College Students' Common Writing Errors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deBeer, Liz

    Despite the repeated adage that "no two LD (learning disabled) students are alike, it is not only possible but important to focus on the most common errors of LD college writers in order to learn how best to serve these students. There are in fact two main categories of these students: severely learning disabled and classically learning disabled.…

  17. Teaching Students to Dig Deeper: The Common Core in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ben

    2013-01-01

    This important new book identifies the skills and qualities students need, based on the Common Core State Standards, to be "really" ready for college and careers. Go beyond content knowledge...the deep thinking and learning skills detailed in this book will equip students for success! Prepare your students for their futures by helping them become:…

  18. Student Teacher Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dove, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Describes the results of a survey designed to ascertain details of student teachers' knowledge and misconceptions about the greenhouse effect, acid rain, and ozone layer depletion. Results indicate familiarity with the issues but little understanding of the concepts involved and many commonly held misconceptions. (JRH)

  19. Relationship of beliefs, epistemology, and alternate conceptions to college student understanding of evolution and common descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Joyce Catherine

    Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were combined to explore the relationships between an understanding of evolution and 4 epistemology factors: (a) control of learning, (b) speed of learning , (c) stability of knowledge, and (d) belief in evolution/creationism. A 17-item instrument was developed that reliably measured a belief in creationism and subtle differences between this belief and an acceptance of evolution. The subjects were 45 students enrolled in a biology course at a 2-year community college. Evolution was taught in a traditional format, and common descent was taught in an inquiry-based laboratory session consisting of: (a) a comparison of hemoglobin DNA sequences of the human, chimpanzee, and gorilla; and (b) a comparison of 8 primate skull casts, including the modern human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and five prehistoric fossils. Prior to instruction the students completed an epistemology questionnaire and a knowledge test about evolution. Five weeks after instruction, the students completed a posttest. A t-test revealed no differences between the pretest and the posttest. However, the group of students that scored higher on the posttest than on the pretest was found to have a stronger belief in the uncertainty of knowledge. Pearson r was computed to check for relationships between the 4 epistemological factors and the understanding of evolution. There was a significant relationship between a belief in creationism and a lessor understanding of evolution as measured on both the pretest and the posttest (ps < .05). The relationship between gender and test scores was also examined with men demonstrating statistically significantly higher scores on the common descent component than women did. Narrative data included interviews and branching/grouping activities. Four alternate conceptions about common descent were identified. Even after instruction, 16 out of 39 students thought humans evolved from the chimpanzee. Additionally, students grouped the 8 primate skulls into just 2 categories: human and animals. Other misconceptions included a nonevolutionary use of the term, related, and the use of naive organizers leading to incorrect conclusions about the relatedness of certain organisms, such as a connection between fish and whales. These organizers included: (a) similarity of traits, (b) environment, (c) relative size, (d) function, and (e) complexity.

  20. Dispositional Statements on Student Teacher Evaluation Instruments: Commonalities across Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Alice; Wilkins, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate summative student teacher evaluation instruments to determine the most common dispositions evaluated by teacher preparatory programs. Thirty-two (32) final student teaching instruments were purposely selected from across the United States and examined. Thirteen disposition categories emerged from the…

  1. Applying Common Core Standards to Students with Disabilities in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2014-01-01

    The following article includes general information on the Common Core State Standards, how the standards apply to the music and academic education of students with disabilities, and web resources that will helpful to music educators teaching students with and without disabilities.

  2. Spore: Spawning Evolutionary Misconceptions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, Thomas E.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Schrader, P. G.

    2010-10-01

    The use of computer simulations as educational tools may afford the means to develop understanding of evolution as a natural, emergent, and decentralized process. However, special consideration of developmental constraints on learning may be necessary when using these technologies. Specifically, the essentialist (biological forms possess an immutable essence), teleological (assignment of purpose to living things and/or parts of living things that may not be purposeful), and intentionality (assumption that events are caused by an intelligent agent) biases may be reinforced through the use of computer simulations, rather than addressed with instruction. We examine the video game Spore for its depiction of evolutionary content and its potential to reinforce these cognitive biases. In particular, we discuss three pedagogical strategies to mitigate weaknesses of Spore and other computer simulations: directly targeting misconceptions through refutational approaches, targeting specific principles of scientific inquiry, and directly addressing issues related to models as cognitive tools.

  3. Misconceptions in Optics: Their Persistence at University Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil Llinas, J.; Suero Lopez, M. I.; Perez Rodriguez, A. L.; Solano Macias, F.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study on misconceptions in optics with the objective of checking their persistence over time in spite of the continued academic instruction of students. Involves (n=4000) students of all levels of the Spanish educational system as well as with those at a Spanish university with degrees in medicine, chemical sciences, technical…

  4. Using a Teaching Model To Correct Known Misconceptions in Electrochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddle, Penelope Ann; White, Margaret Dawn; Rogers, Fiona

    2000-01-01

    Describes a concrete teaching model designed to eliminate students' misconceptions about current flow in electrochemistry. The model uses a semi-permeable membrane rather than a salt bridge to complete the circuit and demonstrate the maintenance of cell neutrality. Concludes that use of the model led to improvement in students' understanding at…

  5. Misconceptions of Turkish Pre-Service Teachers about Force and Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayraktar, Sule

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to diagnose the misconceptions held by pre-service physics teachers about force and motion. The secondary aim of the study was to detect whether misconceptions vary according to gender, educational level, and culture. The study was conducted with 79 student-teachers attending to one of the largest faculties of…

  6. A Few Common Misconceptions about Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillstock, Laurie G.

    2005-01-01

    At present, with new technologies emerging daily and the growing need for more flexibility in scheduling, there seems to be an overall drive towards the need for distance learning. According to PBS Campus, 67% of colleges and universities agree that online education is a critical, longterm strategy for their institution. As a result, 49% of…

  7. Common misconceptions in contact dermatitis counseling

    E-print Network

    Katta, Rajani

    2008-01-01

    patient's choice of skin care products. The term fragrance-Avoiding fragrance in skin care products is a much moreskin allergy Patients with dermatitis may present with concerns about parabens in their cosmetics and personal care

  8. Revisiting Science Misconceptions: How are we doing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millham, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Misconceptions in science continue in K-12 settings. Although "A Nation at Risk" helped spearheaded the development of creative instructional strategies, concept maps, and a multitude of other reforms, many basic science concepts remain misunderstood by students. Recent research conducted by the author and colleagues finds it difficult to determine if a student knows and understands a scientific concept when the student cannot find the language necessary to explain what s/he thinks they know. In fact, student explanations for understandings are often confusing and include mixed conceptual ideas. This session discusses the findings, instructional tools, and the use of academic language as a tool for conceptual development. In my research, I found it difficult to determine if students know and understand scientific concepts. A majority of students surveyed were unable to use language to explain what they think they know, and explanations were often confusing, containing mixed concepts. This demonstrates the importance of teacher content, academic language, and active engagement in learning through doing science. We will focus on how to identify whether or not students have the language necessary to explicitly explain their scientific understandings, and how we can help them to develop their skills through the consistent use of academic language to mitigate scientific misconceptions. Embedded will be the importance of content knowledge and active engagement in teaching and learning. This interactive dialogue and activity is designed to provoke thinking about strong content background, engagement of students in learning, and related clusters of vocabulary to express content (i.e. acid vs base, or fault vs earthquakes). Total number of students who either agreed or disagreed with a statement. Comparing the correctness of the agree or disagree statements with written explanations.

  9. Seven Common Mistakes Found in Student-Produced Video Productions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    1998-01-01

    Outlines seven common mistakes in student-produced videos; suggests ways to avoid them. Mistakes include too much open screen space; unnatural, abrupt transitions between camera shots; odd juxtapositions of performers with background objects; endless talk without shot changes; no space between the subject's head and top of the video screen;…

  10. Text and Truth: Reading, Student Experience, and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Susan; Hammond, Zaretta

    2012-01-01

    One of the rumors making the rounds of K-12 educators goes something like this: The Common Core State Standards do not allow "prereading"--the pedagogical practice meant to help students better understand a text they are about to read--or for that matter any classroom activities that contextualize a text through outside sources. The interesting…

  11. Some Misconceptions and Misunderstandings Perpetuated by Teachers and Textbooks of Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrass, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Lists 15 commonly encountered misconceptions/misunderstandings in biology, together with specific suggestions to help teachers and textbook authors clarify each misconception. Included are problems related to understanding differences between acellular and multicellular, respiration and photosynthesis, egestion and excretion, and homeostasis and…

  12. Early Childhood Teachers' Misconceptions about Mathematics Education for Young Children in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joon Sun; Ginsburg, Herbert P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we discuss nine common misconceptions about learning and teaching mathematics for young children that are widespread among prospective and practicing early childhood teachers in the United States. These misconceptions include: 1. Young children are not ready for mathematics education; 2. Mathematics is for some bright kids with…

  13. Naive Psychological Science: The Prevalence, Strength, and Sources of Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Annette Kujawski; Kowalski, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Studies show that misconceptions about psychology are pervasive. This study examined how the strength of prior beliefs and the sources of misinformation relate to conceptual change following an introductory psychology course. Ninety introductory psychology students completed a 36-item "Psychological Information" questionnaire. Testing during the…

  14. Using Analogies to Prevent Misconceptions about Chemical Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin Pekmez, Esin

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to find the effectiveness of using analogies to prevent misconceptions about chemical equilibrium. Nineteen analogies, which were based on dynamic aspects of chemical equilibrium and application of Le Chatelier's principle, were developed. The participations of this study consisted of 11th grade students (n: 151)…

  15. Adolescence: myths and misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Dhall, A

    1995-01-01

    Adolescence is the period of physical and psychological growth between childhood and adulthood. The author is a practicing obstetrician and gynecologist in New Delhi. Over the course of her medical career, she has identified many myths and misconceptions about adolescents and adolescence. With regard to male adolescents, masturbation-related myths may be the most frequently harbored. Male adolescents have a hormone-driven need to have sexual intercourse, frequently. Masturbation is a healthy, no-cost way to relieve sexual tension. There is neither need to pay a prostitute nor fear of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. A young man can masturbate virtually whenever he wants. Despite the guilt and misinformation implanted by adults that masturbation causes weakness, boys masturbate rather frequently. Also contrary to popular myth, the nocturnal emissions which may result in growing boys as a result of sexual excitement during a dream are completely normal and no reason for concern. Further, boys should not worry about penis size, for, when erect, they all work just fine. People grow at different rates. Menstruation starts when 17% of a woman's body weight is fat. The onset of menstruation may therefore start earlier in well-fed girls compared to in girls who are more lean. The frequency and duration of menses are not constant. Menstrual irregularity therefore does not necessarily mean that a young woman is pregnant or that professional medical treatment is required. Breasts, like penises, serve their intended function irrespective of size. The hymen is a membrane at the opening of the vagina. It may have a hole in the center or the side for the escape of menstrual blood. There are myths that an intact hymen is indicative of virginity, the hymen should be intact until marriage, and the first sexual experience should be painful for a woman. The hymen is elastic and even some prostitutes have been found to have intact hymens. The hymen also may tear due to a fall, cycling, or horse riding. Furthermore, myths exist that kissing can cause pregnancy or AIDS, homosexuality is abnormal and incompatible with heterosexual relationships later in life, and different positions of coitus may adversely affect physical health. Adolescents sorely need sources of sound scientific factual information to dispel their myths. PMID:12346860

  16. Teacher's Toolkit: Misconceptions in the science classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael DiSpezio

    2010-09-01

    To address misconceptions, teachers first need to uncover them. Although misconceptions will surely emerge as you move through a lesson, it's best to identify them prior to new learning. Here's where the role of preassessment goes beyond uncovering what s

  17. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed "misconceptions," among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists…

  18. Depression and College Students What do these students have in common?

    E-print Network

    Jacobs, Lucia

    F646 Depression and College Students What do these students have in common? When I took a part depressed...got treatment...and got better. College offers new experiences and challenges. This can for weeks, or interfere with academic or social functioning, it may be clinical depression. Clinical

  19. Using Mobile Peer Mentors for Student Engagement: Student Rovers in the Learning Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tout, Dan; Pancini, Geri; McCormack, Rob

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a 2010 evaluation of Victoria University's Student Rover program, an on-campus work-based learning program in which mobile student mentors are employed and deployed within the university's Learning Commons to provide "just-in-time" and "just-in-place" learning support to other…

  20. Addressing climate and energy misconceptions - teaching tools offered by the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, A. U.; Ledley, T. S.; Kirk, K. B.; Grogan, M.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Manduca, C. A.; Fox, S.; Niepold, F.; Howell, C.; Lynds, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Despite a prevalence of peer-reviewed scientific research and high-level reports by intergovernmental agencies (e.g., IPCC) that document changes in our climate and consequences for human societies, the public discourse regards these topics as controversial and sensitive. The chasm between scientific-based understanding of climate systems and public understanding can most easily be addressed via high quality, science-based education on these topics. Well-trained and confident educators are required to provide this education. However, climate science and energy awareness are complex topics that are rapidly evolving and have a great potential for controversy. Furthermore, the interdisciplinary nature of climate science further increases the difficulty for teachers to stay abreast of the science and the policy. Research has shown that students and educators alike hold misconceptions about the climate system in general and the causes and effects of climate change in particular. The NSF-funded CLEAN Pathway (http://cleanet.org) as part of the National Science Digital Library (http://www.nsdl.org) strives to address these needs and help educators address misconceptions by providing high quality learning resources and professional development opportunities to support educators of grade levels 6 through 16. The materials focus on teaching climate science and energy use. The scope and framework of the CLEAN Pathway is defined by the Essential Principles of Climate Science (CCSP, 2009) and the Energy Literacy Principles recently developed by the Department of Energy. Following this literacy-based approach, CLEAN helps with developing mental models to address misconceptions around climate science and energy awareness through a number of different avenues. These are: 1) Professional development opportunities for educators - interactive webinars for secondary teachers and virtual workshops for college faculty, 2) A collection of scientifically and pedagogically reviewed, high-quality learning resources on climate and energy topics, 3) Detailed information on effective approaches for teaching climate and energy science for a range of grade levels, and 4) A community support forum (http://iceeonline.org, coordinated by a partner project - Inspiring Climate Education Excellence, ICEE), where educators can exchange information and share advice regarding climate and energy education. In this presentation we focus on our experience coordinating professional development opportunities as well as the "Teaching about Climate and Energy" web pages that are offered through the CLEAN Pathway to show-case how misconceptions can be addressed by educators when teaching or learning about climate and energy topics. Providing educators with a robust foundation of topical knowledge, guiding them through common misconceptions and providing them with a collection of well-vetted learning resources is the approach offered by CLEAN to address student misconceptions of climate and energy topics.

  1. Common Law Rights for Private University Students: Beyond the State Action Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Paul G.; Hoffman, Peter M.

    1974-01-01

    Reexamines the common law precedent on student expulsions and suspensions and seeks to formulate a comprehensive doctrinal basis for common law judicial intervention that will realistically protect the rights of public and private university students alike. (Author)

  2. A Study on Identifying the Misconceptions of Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers about Basic Astronomy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanli, Uygar

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the importance given to astronomy teaching in science and physics education has been gradually increasing. At the same time, teachers play an important role in remediating the misconceptions about astronomy concepts held by students. The present study aims to determine the misconceptions of pre-service physics teachers (n = 117),…

  3. Kindergarten Common Core State Standards Flip Book

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This 42-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the Kindergarten level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades 1-5.

  4. The Gauss and Ampere Laws: Different Laws but Similar Difficulties for Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guisasola, Jenaro; Almudi, Jose M.; Salinas, Julia; Zuza, Kristina; Ceberio, Mikel

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to analyse university students' reasoning regarding two laws of electromagnetism: Gauss's law and Ampere's law. It has been supposed that the problems seen in understanding and applying both laws do not spring from students' misconceptions. Students habitually use reasoning known in the literature as 'common sense' methodology that…

  5. "In Fourteen Hundred and Ninety-Two, Columbus Sailed the Ocean Blue": Effects of Multiple Document Readings on Student Attitudes and Misconceptions. Reading Research Report No. 82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Steven A.; And Others

    To examine the effects of students reading multiple documents on their perceptions of a historical event, in this case the "discovery" of America by Christopher Columbus, 85 high school freshmen read 3 of 4 different texts (or sets of texts) dealing with Columbus. One text was an encyclopedia article, one a set of articles from "Newsweek" and…

  6. (Mis)Conceptions about Generalizability Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews some of the more salient conceptual features of generalizability (G) theory. Provides a framework for considering some misconceptions about G theory. Focuses on particularly prevalent or serious misconceptions. G theory provides a rich conceptual framework and tools for working with a defined universe, but it does not tell an investigator…

  7. Textbook Errors & Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storey, Richard D.

    1991-01-01

    The idea that errors and misconceptions in biology textbooks are often slow to be discovered and corrected is discussed. Selected errors, misconceptions, and topics of confusion about cell metabolism are described. Fermentation, respiration, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, uniformity of catabolism, and metabolic pathways as models are…

  8. Science misconceptions and working memory capacity among Saudi adolescents: A neo-Piagetian investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jubaili, Ahmad Yahya

    This study was designed to investigate the relationships between science misconceptions and working memory capacity in Saudi adolescent students. The participants in this study were from eleventh and twelfth grades; both male and female students and natural and social science Saudi comprised the sample. Also investigated in this study were the conceptions and misconceptions of gravity in a non-European culture, that is Saudi culture, and the variables that differentiated those individuals who could overcome their misconceptions from those who could not and the gender differences in science misconceptions in the context of Saudi culture. Another important focus of this study was to investigate the participants' responses and explanations on the science misconceptions tasks (WLT and EGT). As would be expected, there was a strong correlation between WLT and EGT in the responses of students and their explanations. The most successful students on the WLT and EGT were natural science students rather than social science students, and there were no gender differences between male and female participants. Also investigated were the correlations between the dependent variables (i.e., the WLT and EGT; the measures of science misconceptions) and the independent variables, which were the visual working memory capacity tasks (i.e., FIT and VPS), the field independence/dependence (FASP), students' grade point average (GPA), age, academic major, gender, and grade level. It was found that both of the dependent variables (i.e., the WLT and EGT) correlated significantly with the same independent variables, the FIT, VPS, FASP, academic major, and students' grade point average (GPA).

  9. STUDENT LEARNING COMMONS Annual Report 2006/07

    E-print Network

    and classroom collaborations with faculty and other instructors, with content delivered in the context, including English as additional language (EAL) learners, graduate students, First Nation students, students to provide English language learners with opportunities to practice verbal language skills, an important key

  10. Using Lecture Tutorials to Increase Student Learning in Introductory Geoscience Courses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Kortz; J. J. Smay; D. P. Murray

    2007-01-01

    Students often leave introductory geoscience courses with their misconceptions still intact, and we developed Lecture Tutorials (LTs) to help alleviate this problem. LTs are 10-15 minute interactive worksheets that students complete in small groups in class, after a short introductory lecture. Topics for the LTs (e.g., climate change, the rock cycle, etc.) were chosen because they are commonly taught in

  11. Helping Students Make Sense of Graphs: An Experimental Trial of SmartGraphs Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Andrew; Kay, Rachel; Staudt, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Graphs are commonly used in science, mathematics, and social sciences to convey important concepts; yet students at all ages demonstrate difficulties interpreting graphs. This paper reports on an experimental study of free, Web-based software called SmartGraphs that is specifically designed to help students overcome their misconceptions regarding…

  12. A Data Generating Review that Bops,Twists and Pulls at Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Statistics is an integral part of the K-12 mathematics curriculum (age 5-18). Naturally, students construct misconceptions of what they learn. This article discusses The Bop It[C]Challenge, a review activity assesses student understanding and reveals their misunderstandings of statistical concepts. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

  13. Overcoming Eighth Graders' Misconceptions about Microscopic Views of Phase Change: A Study of an Analogy Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an analogy activity designed to overcome junior high school students' misconceptions about the microscopic views of phase change. Eighth grade students (N=80) were randomly assigned to either a control group receiving traditional teaching, or an experimental group participating in the…

  14. Using simple manipulatives to improve student comprehension of a complex biological process: protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Karen; Bartlett, John

    2012-01-01

    Biological systems and living processes involve a complex interplay of biochemicals and macromolecular structures that can be challenging for undergraduate students to comprehend and, thus, misconceptions abound. Protein synthesis, or translation, is an example of a biological process for which students often hold many misconceptions. This article describes an exercise that was developed to illustrate the process of translation using simple objects to represent complex molecules. Animations, 3D physical models, computer simulations, laboratory experiments and classroom lectures are also used to reinforce the students' understanding of translation, but by focusing on the simple manipulatives in this exercise, students are better able to visualize concepts that can elude them when using the other methods. The translation exercise is described along with suggestions for background material, questions used to evaluate student comprehension and tips for using the manipulatives to identify common misconceptions. PMID:22987553

  15. Misconceptions about Evolution and the Mechanisms of Evolution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource will help teachers deal with common misconceptions about evolution, those that are simple misunderstandings and others that may stem from purposeful attempts to interfere with the teaching of evolution. First, five common misunderstandings about evolution and how it works are examined. They include the origin of life, ladder of progress, randomness of evolution, trying to adapt, and satisfying needs. The next section indicates that evolution explains the history of life and has no other implications. This site also debunks the alleged incompatibility of religion and evolution.

  16. Misconceptions concerning the behavior, fate and transport of the fuel oxygenates TBA and MTBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, R.; Sloan, R.

    2003-04-01

    The release of gasoline from underground storage tanks and the subsequent appearance of dissolved constituents in drinking water has focused attention on the use of MTBE in reformulated fuels. Natural biodegradation of MTBE in soil, photo-oxidation in the atmosphere or chemical oxidation during remediation of gasoline releases can produce the intermediate tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). TBA is also a fuel oxygenate and can be found as a co-product in MTBE synthesized from methanol and TBA. Because the physical properties of ethers and alcohols differ somewhat from the predominant hydrocarbon compounds in gasoline, misconceptions have developed about the behavior of fuel oxygenates in storage and in the subsurface. Critical review of several misconceptions about MTBE and TBA in gasoline reveals the concepts were conceived to rationalize early field observations and/or incomplete data sets. Closer scrutiny, in light of recent laboratory investigations, field data, case studies and world literature, clarifies these misconceptions and assumptions about the behavior of ether oxygenates and their degradation products in the environment. Commonly held misconceptions focus on four general areas of fuel and fuel oxygenate management: storage/dispensing, hydrology, remediation, and health effects. Storage/dispensing misconceptions address materials stability to ethers and alcohols in fuel and the environmental forensics of fuel systems failure. Groundwater and hydrology misconceptions deal with plume dynamics and the impact of fuel on drinking water resources. Remediation misconceptions focus on the performance of traditional hydrocarbon remediation technologies, recent developments in biodegradation and natural attenuation, drivers of remedial design and remediation costs. Health effects misconceptions address both acute and chronic exposure risk evaluations by national and international health agencies. Generally MTBE and TBA are manageable by the same processes and precautions used for gasoline and other fuel hydrocarbons. Indeed specific physical properties of ethers and alcohols expedite their treatment by traditional remediation methods of pump and treat, soil vapor extraction and bioventing.

  17. 3rd Grade Common Core State Standards Flip Book

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This 60-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the grade 3 level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades K-2 and 4-5.

  18. 4th Grade Common Core State Standards Flip Book

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This 75-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the grade 4 level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades K-3 and 5.

  19. 5th Grade Common Core State Standards Flip Book

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    This 68-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the grade 5 level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades K-4.

  20. A 'Common Practice' Approach to Attract and Retain Engineering Students

    E-print Network

    Mountain, J. R.; Hibbeler, L. C.

    2006-01-01

    , “Development of a Process Control Breadboard System to Attract and Retain Engineering Students,” National Science Foundation Award Number: EEC-0234671, Division of Engineering Education and Centers – Unsolicited Proposals Program. [9] Mountain, J. R...

  1. Differences in College Students' Belief in Common Myths about Rape by Gender and Year in College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonker, Robert J.; And Others

    The degree to which college students agree with common myths about rape was investigated, using the Attitude Toward Rape Questionnaire. The effect of gender and years in college on student attitudes was also assessed. The sample consisted of 500 randomly-selected students from a state-assisted, four-year residential university in Ohio. The…

  2. Meeting the Common Core State Standards for Students with Autism: The Challenge for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constable, Susan; Grossi, Barrie; Moniz, Alexis; Ryan, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    How can we ensure that students with autism spectrum disorders are provided access to the curriculum that is provided to all students? This article discusses the specific challenges presented by students with autism spectrum disorders that can impact their access to the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts. Specific evidence-based…

  3. Decimats: Helping Students to Make Sense of Decimal Place Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Anne

    2010-01-01

    A considerable body of research exists on students' understanding of decimal fractions and the prevalence and persistence of common misconceptions related to this understanding. Results from major studies such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in the United States and the Concepts in Secondary Mathematics and Science (CSMS)…

  4. Commonly Known, Commonly Not Known, Totally Unknown: A Framework for Students becoming Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willison, John; O'Regan, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    Providing undergraduate students with research experience has been asserted as a way of reinventing university education. This assertion lacks both substantial empirical evidence and a coherent theoretical framework. In this paper, the authors consider both research and theory relating to undergraduate research and present the Research Skill…

  5. Student Models of Electric Current and Electric Potential in Activity-Based Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markes, Trecia

    2005-03-01

    With a three-year FIPSE grant, it has been possible at the University of Nebraska at Kearney (UNK) to develop and implement activity-based introductory physics at the algebra level. It has generally been recognized that students enter physics classes with misconceptions about current and potential difference in simple series and parallel circuits. Many of these misconceptions persist after instruction. Pretest and posttest responses on the ``Electric Circuit Concept Test'' (ECCT) are analyzed to determine the models that students use. Responses are divided into expert model (correct answer), one or more student models (approximately equally common incorrect answers), and null model (all other answers) categories. A description of each student model is also given. Changes in the use of these models are used to identify persistent and non-persistent misconceptions.

  6. Prejudice and misconceptions about tuberculosis and HIV in rural and urban communities in Ethiopia: a challenge for the TB\\/HIV control program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amare Deribew; Gemeda Abebe; Ludwig Apers; Chali Jira; Markos Tesfaye; Jafar Shifa; Alemseged Abdisa; Kifle Woldemichael; Fetene Deribie; Mesele Bezabih; Abraham Aseffa; Robert Colebunders

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, where HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are very common, little is known about the prejudice and misconceptions of rural communities towards People living with HIV\\/AIDS (PLHA) and TB. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study in Gilgel Gibe Field Research area (GGFRA) in southwest Ethiopia to assess the prejudice and misconceptions of rural and urban communities towards PLHA

  7. Utilizing the Common Criteria for Advanced Student Research Projects

    E-print Network

    Irvine, Cynthia E.

    the students technical competence in both the theory and practice of the field. In- formation security and the suitability and benefits of applying the CC in this context are discussed. 1 Introduction Information security, the commercial sector has tended to ignore the principles [1] and fundamentals of information security in product

  8. Common respiratory and gastrointestinal illness in paediatric student nurses and medical technology students.

    PubMed Central

    Gerth, H. J.; Grüner, C.; Müller, R.; Dietz, K.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the risk of acquiring common respiratory and gastrointestinal illness for paediatric nurses. Using self-administered questionnaires, student nurses at two children's hospitals and students at one school of medical technology reported biweekly the number of minor illnesses, symptoms, and indicators of severity of infection over a 3-year period (1975-8). Although a systematic bias was evident with some symptoms, others appeared to be quite reliable. The following four syndromes were defined to estimate the risk: upper respiratory syndrome (URS), lower respiratory syndrome (LRS), respiratory and gastrointestinal syndrome (RGS), and gastrointestinal syndrome (GS). Surveillance days were allocated to groups with high- or low-intensity contact with children. The incidence of all illnesses was 2.9 per person-year in the low-intensity contact group and 4.4 per person-year in the high-intensity contact group. The reported incidence of LRS and RGS in the high-intensity contact group was 1.55 times higher than in the low-intensity group (P less than 0.001). LRS and RGS incidence was similar in nurses at both schools. During low contact periods it corresponded to that of the medical technologists. PMID:3556436

  9. Software commonly used by students Below is a list of software commonly used by Swinburne University students.

    E-print Network

    Liley, David

    R2012b onwards MAC / PC MAC / PC Blackboard N/A SPSS / SPSS AMOS 22 Site Licence. Free to use download the software from the ITS Software page. MAC / PC Site Licence. Free to use on Swinburne computers. Site Licence. Free to use on Swinburne computers. Yes. Students may download the software from the ITS

  10. Organic Chemistry Educators' Perspectives on Fundamental Concepts and Misconceptions: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duis, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted with 23 organic chemistry educators to discover what general chemistry concepts they typically review, the concepts they believe are fundamental to introductory organic chemistry, the topics students find most difficult in the subject, and the misconceptions they observe in undergraduate organic chemistry…

  11. An Inventory on Rotational Kinematics of a Particle: Unravelling Misconceptions and Pitfalls in Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashood, K. K.; Singh, Vijay A.

    2012-01-01

    Student difficulties regarding the angular velocity ([image omitted]) and angular acceleration ([image omitted]) of a particle have remained relatively unexplored in contrast to their linear counterparts. We present an inventory comprising multiple choice questions aimed at probing misconceptions and eliciting ill-suited reasoning patterns. The…

  12. Flip-Flops in Students' Conceptions of State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, G. L.; Zilles, C.; Loui, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a qualitative interview-based study to reveal students' misconceptions about state in sequential circuits. This paper documents 16 misconceptions of state, how students' conceptions of state shift and change, and students' methodological weaknesses. These misconceptions can be used to inform and direct instruction. This study…

  13. Daytime Sleepiness, Poor Sleep Quality, Eveningness Chronotype, and Common Mental Disorders among Chilean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Concepcion, Tessa; Barbosa, Clarita; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Pepper, Micah; Andrade, Asterio; Gelaye, Bizu; Yanez, David; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, and morningness and eveningness preferences are associated with common mental disorders (CMDs) among college students. Methods: A total of 963 college students completed self-administered questionnaires that collected information about sociodemographic characteristics, sleep…

  14. Impact of the Common Core on Social-Emotional Learning Initiatives with Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubi, Aaron A.; Bocanegra, Joel O.

    2015-01-01

    A leading challenge for educators in the twenty-first century is to effectively promote academic outcomes among diverse student learners. Indeed, students from diverse and/or minority ethno-cultural, linguistic, and socioeconomic backgrounds are much more likely to experience academic difficulties and dropout. The Common Core initiative has been…

  15. Common Challenges and Diverse Experiences: First-in-Their-Family College Students' Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukoski, Beth Em

    2012-01-01

    "First-generation college student" is a category ubiquitous in higher education literature due to the social mobility this group has the potential of deriving from educational attainment. However, the first category is comprised of a diverse group of students who do not share any other common research construct, such as race/ethnicity,…

  16. Headache is a relatively common problem among college students. Fortunately for most people, headaches

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    Headache is a relatively common problem among college students. Fortunately for most people, headaches are infrequent and do not interfere with normal activities. However, some students experience severe and/or frequent headaches that result in loss of time from school and other activities. What

  17. Student Reading Growth Illuminates the Common Core Text-Complexity Standard: Raising Both Bars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Gary L.; Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, Jackson A.

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) establish a challenging text-complexity standard for all high school graduates to read at college and workplace text-complexity levels. We argue that implementation of the CCSS standard requires concurrent examination of historical student reading-growth trends. An example of a historical student average…

  18. Misconceptions and facts about treating hypertension.

    PubMed

    Argulian, Edgar; Grossman, Ehud; Messerli, Franz H

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension is a powerful risk factor strongly linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Because of its high prevalence, health care providers at many levels are involved in treating hypertension. Distinct progress has been made in improving the rates of hypertension awareness and treatment over years, but the overall control of hypertension remains inadequate. Several recent guidelines from different sources have been put forward in an attempt to bridge the gap between existing evidence and clinical practice. Despite this effort, several misconceptions about treating hypertensive cardiovascular disease continue to persist among clinicians. This review highlights some of the misconceptions regarding antihypertensive therapy. PMID:25486449

  19. Five recurrent misconceptions regarding cardiogenic shock management.

    PubMed

    Bendjelid, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Medical therapeutic knowledge advances by continual action and reaction between retrospective and prospective evaluation on the one hand and clinical real-life observation and assessment on the other. In this regard, our goal is to articulate and demystify certain myths and misconceptions that impede the optimal management of patients with circulatory failure related to acute cardiac diseases. More specifically, we outline 5 statements that represent misconceptions about cardiogenic shock management that we have frequently faced throughout years of caring for critically ill patients. Moreover, for each statement, we suggest concise, corrective responses. PMID:25093742

  20. Student Models of Motion and Force in Activity-Based Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markes, C. Trecia

    2004-05-01

    With a three-year FIPSE grant, it has been possible at the University of Nebraska at Kearney (UNK) to develop and implement activity-based introductory physics at the algebra level. It has generally been recognized that students enter physics classes with misconceptions about motion and force. Many of these misconceptions persist after instruction. Pretest and posttest responses on the "Motion and Force Conceptual Evaluation" (FMCE) have been analyzed to determine the models that students use. Responses were divided into expert model (correct answer), student model (common incorrect answer), and null model (all other answers) categories. Changes in the use of these models were used to identify persistent and non-persistent misconceptions.

  1. Turkish Students' Force Meanings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menekse, Muhsin; Clark, Douglas B.; Ozdemir, Gokhan; D'angelo, Cynthia; Scheligh, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    What are Turkish pre, elementary, middle, and high school students' force ideas? And, how do Turkish students' non-normative force ideas differ or be similar to the well-known force misconceptions reported in the literature? Students have false and persistent beliefs about the physical world and they struggle with challenging misconceptions based…

  2. Addressing the Multiplication Makes Bigger and Division Makes Smaller Misconceptions via Prediction and Clickers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kien H.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a lesson that uses prediction items, clickers and visuals via PowerPoint slides to help prospective middle-school teachers address two common misconceptions: multiplication makes bigger and division makes smaller (MMB-DMS). Classroom research was conducted to explore the viability of such a lesson. Results show that the…

  3. Teaching Simple Experimental Design to Undergraduates: Do Your Students Understand the Basics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Sara M.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides instructors with guidelines for teaching simple experimental design for the comparison of two treatment groups. Two designs with specific examples are discussed along with common misconceptions that undergraduate students typically bring to the experiment design process. Features of experiment design that maximize power and…

  4. Briefing Paper Misconceptions of the Financial Crisis

    E-print Network

    Birmingham, University of

    Briefing Paper Misconceptions of the Financial Crisis One of the main purposes of the FinCris project1 , is to investigate different accounts of responsibility for the financial crisis. Understanding to promoting financial inclusion. Determining which individuals and institutions were responsible involves

  5. Teaching Heat--An Analysis of Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews some of the literature concerned with teaching heat, briefly assessing treatments of the subject given in a number of textbooks and considering misconceptions which can develop from the way heat is currently taught in many schools. Suggests an approach for developing an understanding of heat and associated thermodynamic concepts. (JN)

  6. Recycling misconceptions of perceived self-efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Bandura

    1984-01-01

    This commentary addresses misconceptions concerning perceived self-efficacy contained in the article by Eastman and Marzillier. People who regard themselves as highly efficacious act, think, and feel differently from those who perceive themselves as inefficacious. Self-percepts of efficacy thus contribute significantly to performance accomplishments rather than residing in the host organism simply as inert predictors of behaviors to come. A substantial

  7. Perception and Landscape: Conceptions and Misconceptions1

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    241 Perception and Landscape: Conceptions and Misconceptions1 Stephen Kaplan 2/ 1/ Submitted intuitively meaningful. INTRODUCTION It would seem that the psychology of perception should have something- tions about the nature of perception. While certain of these favorite assumptions are probably false

  8. How prepared are medical students to diagnose and manage common ocular conditions

    PubMed Central

    Esparaz, Elizabeth Shanika; Binder, S. Bruce; Borges, Nicole J.

    2014-01-01

    It is essential that primary care physicians have a solid fund of knowledge of the diagnosis and management of common eye conditions as well as ocular emergencies, as management of these diseases commonly involves appropriate referral to an ophthalmologist. Thus, it is crucial to receive comprehensive clinical knowledge of ophthalmic disease in the primary care setting during medical school. This study investigated how well prepared medical students are to diagnose and manage common ocular conditions. The study used scores from a standardized 12-question quiz administered to fourth-year medical students (N = 97; 88% response rate) and second-year medical students (N = 97; 97% response rate). The quiz comprising diagnosis and referral management questions covered the most frequently tested ophthalmology topics on board exams and assessed students’ ability to recognize when referral to an ophthalmologist is appropriate. Fourth-year medical students had quiz scores ranging from 0%-94.5% with an average score of 68.7%. Second-year students had quiz scores ranging from 27.2%–86.4%, with an average score of 63.8%. Passing rate was 70%. Student’s t-test showed fourth-year students had a significantly higher quiz average (P = 0.003). In general, both classes performed better on diagnostic questions (fourth-year, 73.7%; second year, 65.8%) rather than on management questions (fourth-year, 64.8%; second year, 61.8%). Both second-year and fourth-year students on average fell short on passing the ophthalmology proficiency quiz, and in general students were more adept at diagnosing rather than managing ocular conditions and emergencies. PMID:25417863

  9. How prepared are medical students to diagnose and manage common ocular conditions.

    PubMed

    Esparaz, Elizabeth Shanika; Binder, S Bruce; Borges, Nicole J

    2014-01-01

    It is essential that primary care physicians have a solid fund of knowledge of the diagnosis and management of common eye conditions as well as ocular emergencies, as management of these diseases commonly involves appropriate referral to an ophthalmologist. Thus, it is crucial to receive comprehensive clinical knowledge of ophthalmic disease in the primary care setting during medical school. This study investigated how well prepared medical students are to diagnose and manage common ocular conditions. The study used scores from a standardized 12-question quiz administered to fourth-year medical students (N = 97; 88% response rate) and second-year medical students (N = 97; 97% response rate). The quiz comprising diagnosis and referral management questions covered the most frequently tested ophthalmology topics on board exams and assessed students' ability to recognize when referral to an ophthalmologist is appropriate. Fourth-year medical students had quiz scores ranging from 0%-94.5% with an average score of 68.7%. Second-year students had quiz scores ranging from 27.2%-86.4%, with an average score of 63.8%. Passing rate was 70%. Student's t-test showed fourth-year students had a significantly higher quiz average (P = 0.003). In general, both classes performed better on diagnostic questions (fourth-year, 73.7%; second year, 65.8%) rather than on management questions (fourth-year, 64.8%; second year, 61.8%). Both second-year and fourth-year students on average fell short on passing the ophthalmology proficiency quiz, and in general students were more adept at diagnosing rather than managing ocular conditions and emergencies. PMID:25417863

  10. A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part IV. Common Difficulties Students Experience with Cosmology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

    2012-01-01

    This is our fourth paper in our five paper series describing our national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. While previous papers in this series focused on the processes by which we collected and quantitatively analyzed our data, this paper presents the most common pre-instruction…

  11. Uphill Water Flow - An Example of the Crucial Role of Students' Prior Knowledge in Geoscience Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Chen; K. C. Kirkby; P. J. Morin

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important, but often underappreciated, challenges in geoscience education is posed by student misconceptions. Instructors of large geoscience undergraduate class seldom have the time to identify student misconceptions and are often forced to assume a certain base level of student knowledge upon which the course material is built. Empirical results from the past two decades of misconception

  12. Airside Economizer – Comparing Different Control Strategies and Common Misconceptions

    E-print Network

    Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.

    for a few representative cities are presented. For drier weather regions, the activation temperatures are significantly higher than those for hot and humid weather regions. The second part of the paper discusses the benefits of the enthalpy... in the industry. Some questions this paper tries to answer include: 1. What is the optimal activation temperature for a temperature-based economizer that provides the most energy savings? 2. How does enthalpy-based economizer compare with temperature...

  13. Understanding Natural Selection: Essential Concepts and Common Misconceptions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ryan Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Natural selection is one of the central mechanisms of evolutionary change and is the process responsible for the evolution\\u000a of adaptive features. Without a working knowledge of natural selection, it is impossible to understand how or why living things\\u000a have come to exhibit their diversity and complexity. An understanding of natural selection also is becoming increasingly relevant\\u000a in practical contexts,

  14. Using Common Formative Assessments to Promote Student Achievement: A Case Study of Practice, Leadership, and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Patricia T. C.

    2012-01-01

    It is the moral responsibility of educators to work diligently to provide every student with rich, challenging coursework in efforts to prepare them for post high school careers and education. The use of common formative assessments provides teachers with the valuable, timely information they need to make instructional decisions that will better…

  15. Common and Domain-Specific Cognitive Characteristics of Gifted Students: An Integrated Model of Human Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Kwang-Han; Porath, Marion

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify common and domain-specific cognitive characteristics of gifted students based on an integrated model of human abilities. This study is based on the premise that abilities identified by tests can appear as observable characteristics in test or school situations. Abilities proposed by major models of…

  16. Applying Symmetries of Common Objects to Help Students Understand Stereoselectivity for Apparently Symmetric Substrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jittam, Piyachat; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2008-01-01

    We have found it an effective way of teaching symmetry in the context of stereoselectivity, to use common everyday objects with the same point groups as the substrates involved. This has helped students to distinguish between those symmetry elements which allow for stereospecificity and those which preclude it. Two symmetry elements, the simple…

  17. Alternate Assessments of Students with Significant Disabilities: Alternative Approaches, Common Technical Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen N. Elliott; Andrew T. Roach

    2007-01-01

    This article examines three typical approaches to alternate assessment for students with significant cognitive disabilities—portfolios, performance assessments, and rating scales. A detailed analysis of common and unique design features of these approaches is provided, including features of each approach that influence the psychometric quality of their results. Validity imperatives for alternate assessments are reviewed, and approaches for addressing the need

  18. The Role of University Branches in the Formation of Common Cultural Competences of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korotkova, Marina Albertovna; Rimskaya, Tatyana Grigoryevna

    2015-01-01

    The present study describes the capabilities and potential of educational institutions in the formation of common cultural competences of students studying at regional municipalities of the Russian Far East. The study offers the directions and methods of interaction between government and local self-government authorities and training institutions…

  19. Applying to an Engineering Program Students enter first-year engineering in a common program and select their departmental program

    E-print Network

    Calgary, University of

    Applying to an Engineering Program Students enter first-year engineering in a common program and select their departmental program choice near the end of their first year. Students rank the seven programs from most-preferred to least

  20. Investigating Common Descent: Formulating Explanations and Models

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity has students formulate explanations and models that simulate structural and biochemical data as they investigate the misconception that humans evolved from apes. Students should recognize that present-day species evolved from earlier species and the relatedness of organisms is the result of common ancestry. They will also discover that similarities among existing organisms provide evidence for evolution, anatomical similarities of living things reflect common ancestry, and all life forms use the same basic DNA building blocks. Basic concepts also include the fact that scientists pose, test, and revise multiple hypotheses to explain what they observe, our understanding of life through time is based upon multiple lines of evidence, the similarity of DNA nucleotide sequences can be used to infer the degree of kinship between species, and anatomical evidence is also used to infer lines of descent. This site includes a list of materials and all information required for this activity.

  1. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(?); (?)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented. PMID:25053101

  2. A study to enhance medical students’ professional decision-making, using teaching interventions on common medications

    PubMed Central

    Wilcock, Jane; Strivens, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Aim To create sustained improvements in medical students’ critical thinking skills through short teaching interventions in pharmacology. Method The ability to make professional decisions was assessed by providing year-4 medical students at a UK medical school with a novel medical scenario (antenatal pertussis vaccination). Forty-seven students in the 2012 cohort acted as a pretest group, answering a questionnaire on this novel scenario. To improve professional decision-making skills, 48 students from the 2013 cohort were introduced to three commonly used medications, through tutor-led 40-min teaching interventions, among six small groups using a structured presentation of evidence-based medicine and ethical considerations. Student members then volunteered to peer-teach on a further three medications. After a gap of 8 weeks, this cohort (post-test group) was assessed for professional decision-making skills using the pretest questionnaire, and differences in the 2-year groups analysed. Results Students enjoyed presenting on medications to their peers but had difficulty interpreting studies and discussing ethical dimensions; this was improved by contextualising information via patient scenarios. After 8 weeks, most students did not show enhanced clinical curiosity, a desire to understand evidence, or ethical questioning when presented with a novel medical scenario compared to the previous year group who had not had the intervention. Students expressed a high degree of trust in guidelines and expert tutors and felt that responsibility for their own actions lay with these bodies. Conclusion Short teaching interventions in pharmacology did not lead to sustained improvements in their critical thinking skills in enhancing professional practice. It appears that students require earlier and more frequent exposure to these skills in their medical training. PMID:26051556

  3. Response Times and Misconception-like Responses to Science Questions Andrew F. Heckler (heckler.6@osu.edu)

    E-print Network

    Heckler, Andrew F.

    Response Times and Misconception-like Responses to Science Questions Andrew F. Heckler (heckler.6 documented in science education that students often respond to scientific concept questions in regular with answering science concept questions have examined the patterns of response choices, in this study we

  4. The understanding levels of preservice teachers’ of basic science concepts’ measurement units and devices, their misconceptions and its causes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Özgül Keles; Hülya Ertas; Naim Uzun; Mustafa Cansiz

    2010-01-01

    In this study it is aimed to determine preservice science teachers’ and elementary teachers’ level of understanding about measurement units, and devices; and misconceptions about basic science concepts (mass, weight, density, heat, temperature, energy, specific heat etc.). The sample included 92 undergraduate students who are second year preservice elementary teacher; and first and second year elementary science teacher. In this

  5. Describing and Analyzing Learning in Action: An Empirical Study of the Importance of Misconceptions in Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamza, Karim M.; Wickman, Per-Olof

    2008-01-01

    Although misconceptions in science have been established in interview studies, their role during the learning process is poorly examined. In this paper, we use results from a classroom study to analyze to what extent nonscientific ideas in electrochemistry that students report in interviews enter into their learning in a more authentic setting. We…

  6. Re-Examining the Similarities between Teacher and Student Conceptions about Physical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoon, Jacob N.; Heddle, Mandy L.; Duran, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of research that has explored students' misconceptions about science phenomena. Less research, however, has been devoted to identifying teachers' misconceptions, but the results of the few existing studies demonstrate that teachers and students possess similar misconceptions. This study explored the physical science…

  7. More Misconceptions to Avoid When Teaching about Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    2005-01-01

    As follow-up to a previous article "Avoid Misconceptions When Teaching about Plants," the author identifies fifty additional misconceptions. Undergeneralizations are added to the list of oversimplifications, obsolete concepts, terms, misidentifications, and flawed research. A glossary at the end of the article compares words used in botany with…

  8. Resolution of Misconceptions of Latency and Adolescent Sicklers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy-Levine, Diane

    Misconceptions regarding sickle cell disease are qualitatively different among latency age patients as compared to adolescents. The evolution and resolution of these misconceptions determine the effectiveness of self-help programs for sickle cell patients. The Mount Sinai Hospital Sickle Cell Counseling Service is a coordinated center for sickle…

  9. Clarifying the Misconception about the Principle of Floatation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadav, Manoj K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify the misconception about the violation of the principle of floatation. Improper understanding of the definition of "displaced fluid" by a floating body leads to the misconception. With the help of simple experiments, this article shows that there is no violation of the principle of floatation.

  10. Misconceptions about triangle in Elementary school Palmina Cutugno1

    E-print Network

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    89 Misconceptions about triangle in Elementary school Palmina Cutugno1 & Filippo Spagnolo2 1. Introduction The intent of studying the misconceptions on the triangle was suggested by the direct contact the relations intervening when examining triangle sides. In the course of observation it was possible to notice

  11. Misconceptions about the Moon Held by Preservice Teachers in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, Meme F.; Capie, William

    The objective of this study was to assess the misconceptions held by preservice teachers about essential concepts of the moon related to information taught in elementary schools in Taiwan and to develop multiple-choice test items to identify the misconceptions about the moon. Additionally, this study considered relationships of gender, religion,…

  12. Prevalence of Blood Circulation Misconceptions among Prospective Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelaez, Nancy J.; Boyd, Denise D.; Rojas, Jacqueline B.; Hoover, Mildred A.

    2005-01-01

    Research shows that misconceptions about human blood circulation and gas exchange persist across grade levels. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to investigate the prevalence and persistence of blood circulation misconceptions among prospective elementary teachers; and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of learning activities for…

  13. Misconceptions about Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Khalida Tanvir

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…

  14. AITA : Limitations and Misconceptions of AI John A. Bullinaria, 2003

    E-print Network

    Bullinaria, John

    AITA : Limitations and Misconceptions of AI © John A. Bullinaria, 2003 1. Limitations In this lecture you will discuss (rather than be lectured about) two related aspects of AI: 1. Limitations ­ What intelligent things are there that AI can never do? 2. Misconceptions ­ What can AI actually do, that some

  15. The preventive misconception: experiences from CAPRISA 004.

    PubMed

    Dellar, Rachael C; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Mansoor, Leila E; Grobler, Anneke; Humphries, Hilton; Werner, Lise; Ntombela, Fanelesibonge; Luthuli, Londiwe; Abdool Karim, Salim S

    2014-09-01

    Overestimating personal protection afforded by participation in a preventive trial, e.g. harboring a "preventive misconception" (PM), raises theoretical ethical concerns about the adequacy of the informed consent process, behavioral disinhibition, and adherence to prevention interventions. Data from the CAPRISA 004 1 % tenofovir gel trial were utilized to empirically evaluate these concerns. We found it necessary to re-think the current definition of PM during evaluation to distinguish between true misconception and reasonable inferences of protection based on increased access to evidence-based prevention interventions and/or clinical care. There was a significant association between PM and decreased condom use (p < 0.0001) and between PM and likelihood to present with an STI symptom (p = 0.023). There was, however, limited evidence in support of PM representing a lack of meaningful informed consent, or to suggest that it impacts adherence. Moreover, considering current insufficiencies in female-initiated HIV prevention interventions, PM is perhaps of limited concern in microbicide trials. PMID:24715227

  16. Developing and validating a chemical bonding instrument for Korean high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Nak Han

    The major purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument designed to collect and investigate on Korean high school students' understanding about concepts regarding chemical bonding. The Chemical Bonding Diagnostic Test (CBDT) was developed by the procedure by previously relevant researches (Treagust, 1985; Peterson, 1986; Tan, 1994). The final instrument consisted of 15 two-tier items. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach alpha) for the whole test was 0.74. Also, the range of values for the discrimination index was from 0.38 to 0.90 and the overall average difficulty index was 0.38. The test was administered to 716 science declared students in Korean high school. The 37 common misconceptions on chemical bonding were identified through analysis of the items from the CBDT. The grade 11 students had slightly more misconceptions than the grade 12 students for ionic bonding, covalent bonding, and hydrogen bonding while the grade 12 students had more misconceptions about octet rule and hydrogen bonding than the grade 11 students. From the analysis of ANCOVA, there was no significant difference in grades, and between grade levels and gender on the mean score of CBDT. However, there was a significant difference in gender and a significant interaction between grade levels and chemistry preference. In conclusion, Korean high school students had the most common misconception about the electron configuration on ionic bonding and the water density on hydrogen bonding. Korean students' understanding about the chemical bonding was dependent on the interaction between grade levels and the chemistry preference. Consequently, grade 12 chemistry-preferred students had the highest mean scores among student groups concerned by this study.

  17. Why is therapeutic misconception so prevalent?

    PubMed

    Lidz, Charles W; Albert, Karen; Appelbaum, Paul; Dunn, Laura B; Overton, Eve; Pivovarova, Ekaterina

    2015-04-01

    Therapeutic misconception (TM)-when clinical research participants fail to adequately grasp the difference between participating in a clinical trial and receiving ordinary clinical care-has long been recognized as a significant problem in consent to clinical trials. We suggest that TM does not primarily reflect inadequate disclosure or participants' incompetence. Instead, TM arises from divergent primary cognitive frames. The researchers' frame places the clinical trial in the context of scientific designs for assessing intervention efficacy. In contrast, most participants have a cognitive frame that is personal and focused primarily on their medical problems. To illustrate this, we draw on interview material from both clinical researchers and participants in clinical trials. We suggest that reducing TM requires encouraging subjects to adjust their frame, not just add information to their existing frame. What is necessary is a scientific reframing of participation in a clinical trial. PMID:25719358

  18. Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault: A Common Problem among College Students*

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Objective This article summarizes research on the role of alcohol in college students’ sexual assault experiences. Sexual assault is extremely common among college students. At least half of these sexual assaults involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, the victim or both. Method Two research literatures were reviewed: the sexual assault literature and the literature that examines alcohol’s effects on aggressive and sexual behavior. Results Research suggests that alcohol consumption by the perpetrator and/or the victim increases the likelihood of acquaintance sexual assault occurring through multiple pathways. Alcohol’s psychological, cognitive and motor effects contribute to sexual assault. Conclusions Although existing research addresses some important questions, there are many gaps. Methodological limitations of past research are noted, and suggestions are made for future research. In addition, recommendations are made for college prevention programs and policy initiatives. PMID:12022717

  19. Access to the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics through Early Numeracy Skill Building for Students with Significant Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Bree A.; Staples, Kelli

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of systematic early numeracy skill instruction on grade-aligned 4th and 5th grade Common Core math skill acquisition for three 4th and 5th grade students with a significant intellectual disability. Students were taught early numeracy skills (e.g., number identification, making sets to five items, simple addition)…

  20. Campus Library 2.0: The Information Commons Is a Scalable, One-Stop Shopping Experience for Students and Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Andrew Richard

    2004-01-01

    In fall 2003, Mt. Holyoke, an elite, largely undergraduate liberal arts college with a student population of roughly 2000, unveiled its take on the information commons. Located in an area known as Miles-Smith 4, the commons functions as a conduit between the main library and Dwight Hall, which houses the library offices, state-of-the-art media…

  1. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report The carbon sequestration potential of three common turfgrasses

    E-print Network

    of a project/report. #12;2 The carbon sequestration potential of three common turfgrasses: Lolium perenne1 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report The carbon sequestration potential of three common turfgrasses: Lolium perenne; Fescue rubra; and Poa pratensis Yihan Wu

  2. Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The…

  3. Scratch This! The IF-AT as a Technique for Stimulating Group Discussion and Exposing Misconceptions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anne Kellerman

    2008-03-01

    Frequent and immediate feedback is critical for learning and retaining content as well as developing effective learning teams (Michaelson, Knight, and Fink 2004). The Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique (IF-AT) provides a single and efficient way for learners to self-assess their progress in a course and to structure significant small-group discussion. Used within the proper context, the IF-AT succeeds as a relatively simple, low-tech tool for providing immediate feedback, targeting student misconceptions, and generating group discussion.

  4. The Gauss and Ampere laws: different laws but similar difficulties for student learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guisasola, Jenaro; Almudí, José M.; Salinas, Julia; Zuza, Kristina; Ceberio, Mikel

    2008-09-01

    This study aims to analyse university students' reasoning regarding two laws of electromagnetism: Gauss's law and Ampere's law. It has been supposed that the problems seen in understanding and applying both laws do not spring from students' misconceptions. Students habitually use reasoning known in the literature as 'common sense' methodology that leads to incorrect forms of reasoning. To test our hypothesis, questionnaires were designed emphasizing explanations. The results obtained show the low level of students' reasoning in both electricity and magnetism in terms of Gauss's and Ampere's laws.

  5. DISPELLING MYTHS AND MISCONCEPTIONS TO IMPLEMENT A SAFETY CULTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, T. Todd; Smith, Ken; Hylko, James M.

    2003-02-27

    Industrial accidents are typically reported in terms of technological malfunctions, ignoring the human element in accident causation. However, over two-thirds of all accidents are attributable to human and organizational factors (e.g., planning, written procedures, job factors, training, communication, and teamwork), thereby affecting risk perception, behavior and attitudes. This paper reviews the development of WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Program that addresses human and organizational factors from a top-down, bottom-up approach. This approach is derived from the Department of Energy's Integrated Safety Management System. As a result, dispelling common myths and misconceptions about safety, while empowering employees to ''STOP work'' if necessary, have contributed to reducing an unusually high number of vehicle, ergonomic and slip/trip/fall incidents successfully. Furthermore, the safety culture that has developed within WESKEM, LLC's workforce consists of three common characteristics: (1) all employees hold safety as a value; (2) each individual feels responsible for the safety of their co-workers as well as themselves; and (3) each individual is willing and able to ''go beyond the call of duty'' on behalf of the safety of others. WESKEM, LLC as a company, upholds the safety culture and continues to enhance its existing ES&H program by incorporating employee feedback and lessons learned collected from other high-stress industries, thereby protecting its most vital resource - the employees. The success of this program is evident by reduced accident and injury rates, as well as the number of safe work hours accrued while performing hands-on field activities. WESKEM, LLC (Paducah + Oak Ridge) achieved over 800,000 safe work hours through August 2002. WESKEM-Paducah has achieved over 665,000 safe work hours without a recordable injury or lost workday case since it started operations on February 28, 2000.

  6. Using the Big Ideas in Cosmology to Teach College Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLin, K. M.; Coble, K.; Metevier, A. J.; Bailey, J. M.; Cominsky, L. R.

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the Universe have revolutionized our view of its structure, composition and evolution. However, these new ideas have not necessarily been used to improve the teaching of introductory astronomy students. In this project, we have conducted research into student understanding of cosmological ideas so as to develop effective web-based tools to teach basic concepts important to modern cosmology. The tools are intended for use at the introductory college level. Our research uses several instruments, including open-ended and multiple choice surveys conducted at multiple institutions, as well as interviews and course artifacts at one institution, to ascertain what students know regarding modern cosmological ideas, what common misunderstandings and misconceptions they entertain, and what sorts of materials can most effectively overcome students' difficulty in learning this material. These data are being used to create a suite of interactive, web-based tutorials that address the major ideas in cosmology. One common misconception that students in our introductory courses possess is that scientific explanations are “made up,” and not supported by observational data. Having students engage with real data is a powerful means to help students overcome this misconception. For this reason, the tutorials we are developing include authentic student interaction with actual data where possible. Students master the scientific concepts and reasoning processes that lead to our current understanding of the Universe through interactive tasks, prediction, reflection, experimentation, and model building. This workshop will demonstrate the use of some of the modules we have created and will allow participants to test the modules for themselves.

  7. Hints of a Fundamental Misconception in Cosmology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward E. Prather; Timothy F. Slater; Erika G. Offerdahl

    2002-01-01

    To explore the frequency and range of student ideas regarding the Big Bang, nearly 1,000 students from middle school, secondary school, and college were surveyed and asked if they had heard of the Big Bang and, if so, to describe it. In analyzing their responses, we uncovered an unexpected result that more than half of the students who stated that

  8. Clinical misconceptions dispelled by epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Kannel, W B

    1995-12-01

    The epidemiological approach to investigation of cardiovascular disease was innovated in 1948 by Ancel Keys' Seven Countries Study and T.R. Dawber's Framingham Heart Study. Conducted in representative samples of the general population, these investigations provided an undistorted perception of the clinical spectrum of cardiovascular disease, its incidence and prognosis, the lifestyles and personal attributes that predispose to cardiovascular disease, and clues to pathogenesis. The many insights gained corrected numerous widely held misconceptions derived from clinical studies. It was learned, for example, that the adverse consequences of hypertension do not derive chiefly from the diastolic pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy was not an incidental compensatory phenomenon, and small amounts of proteinuria were more than orthostatic trivia. Exercise was considered dangerous for cardiovascular disease candidates; smoking, cholesterol, and a fatty diet were regarded as questionable promoters of atherosclerosis. The entities of sudden death and unrecognized myocardial infarction were not widely appreciated as prominent features of coronary disease, and the disabling and lethal nature of cardiac failure and atrial fibrillation was underestimated. It took epidemiological research to coin the term "risk factor" and dispel the notion that cardiovascular disease must have a single origin. Epidemiological investigation provided health professionals with multifactorial risk profiles to more efficiently target candidates for cardiovascular disease for preventive measures. Clinicians now look to epidemiological research to provide definitive information about possible predisposing factors for cardiovascular disease and preventive measures that are justified. As a result, clinicians are less inclined to regard usual or average values as acceptable and are more inclined to regard optimal values as "normal." Cardiovascular events are coming to be regarded as a medical failure rather than the first indication of treatment. PMID:7586324

  9. Misconceptions of a School Construction Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, David

    2004-01-01

    Just as technology has changed the way teachers teach and students learn, so too has technology transformed the way our industry manages school construction programs. Gone are the days when a school construction project had to be planned around the limitations of the contractor rather than the needs of students. Also different are the ways schools…

  10. Matter Scatter and Energy Anarchy. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is Simply Common Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Keith A.

    1988-01-01

    Shows that the second law of thermodynamics is in the common experience of many people and if taught first, before the law of conservation, can result in fewer misconceptions among pupils. Stresses the use of common experiences in teaching. (CW)

  11. A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Harika Ozge; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test…

  12. The Common Core State Standards: Implications for Community Colleges and Student Preparedness for College. An NCPR Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Elisabeth A.; Fay, Maggie P.

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English and math were finalized in 2010 and, as of July 2012, have been adopted in full by 45 states. These standards provide a framework that is intended to ensure that all students who graduate from high school in the United States have attained the knowledge and competencies that prepare them well for…

  13. An Examination of Intervention Research with Secondary Students with EBD in Light of Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Candace A.; Maccini, Paula; Wright, Kenneth; Miller, Jason

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the authors offer a critical analysis of published interventions for improving mathematics performance among middle and high school students with EBD in light of the Common Core State Standards. An exhaustive review of literature from 1975 to December 2012 yielded 20 articles that met criteria for inclusion. The authors analyzed…

  14. Limiting Student Speech: A Narrow Path toward Success. A Response to "Challenging the Common Guidelines in Social Justice Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnick, Marissa C. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this response, Minnick asserts that unequal representation of students' voices, an idea presented in Sensoy and DiAngelo's "Challenging the Common Guidelines in Social Justice Education," presents multiple negative classroom implications. Foremost, Minnick argues that Sensoy and DiAngelo's lack of clarity regarding when a teacher…

  15. Perspectives: Assessing and Addressing Student Science Ideas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    S. Ren? Smith

    2008-03-01

    Our students are not blank slates. They come to school with a wide range of experiences that have shaped their science understandings--reading books, watching TV, and playing video games. From many years of research about student science ideas, it is evident that student science misconceptions are prevalent, strongly held, and highly resistant to change. Here the authors describe some research-based strategies that science teachers can use to assess and address students' misconceptions.

  16. Hints of a Fundamental Misconception in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Edward E.; Slater, Timothy F.; Offerdahl, Erika G.

    To explore the frequency and range of student ideas regarding the Big Bang, nearly 1,000 students from middle school, secondary school, and college were surveyed and asked if they had heard of the Big Bang and, if so, to describe it. In analyzing their responses, we uncovered an unexpected result that more than half of the students who stated that they had heard of the Big Bang also provided responses that suggest they believe that the Big Bang was a phenomenon that organized pre-existing matter. To further examine this result, a second group of college students was asked specifically to describe what existed or occurred before, during, and after the Big Bang. Nearly 70% gave responses clearly stating that matter existed prior to the Big Bang. These results are interpreted as strongly suggesting that most students are answering these questions by employing an internally consistent element of knowledge or reasoning (often referred to as a phenomenological primitive, or p-prim), consistent with the idea that "you can't make something from nothing." These results inform the debate about the extent to which college students have pre-existing notions that are poised to interfere with instructional efforts about contemporary physics and astronomy topics.

  17. Palestinian Physicians' Misconceptions about and Approval of Wife Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the results of a study that examined Palestinian physicians' misconceptions about abused wives and abusive husbands and the extent to which Palestinian physicians approve of wife abuse. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 396 physicians. The results revealed that between 10% and 49% of the Palestinian physicians…

  18. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Misconceptions in Interpreting and Applying Decimals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thipkong, Siriporn; Davis, Edward J.

    1991-01-01

    A study on the impact of misconceptions on preservice elementary teachers' processes in solving problems involving multiplication and division of decimals is described. Included are the purpose of the study, a description of the subjects, instruments, and interviews, the findings, and discussion. (KR)

  19. Attitudes and Misconceptions about Predictive Genetic Testing for Cancer Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abigail L. Rose; Nikki Peters; Judy A. Shea; Katrina Armstrong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe awareness, knowledge, and attitudes about genetic testing for cancer risk among the general public. Results: Thirty-eight adults participated in focus groups in West Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Participants’ beliefs about what genetic testing is ranged from ‘dianetics’ to an accurate description of DNA analysis. Themes included misconceptions about genetic tests, the ability to gain control of one’s life through

  20. Experimenter Confirmation Bias and the Correction of Science Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Michael; Coole, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a randomised educational experiment (n = 47) that examined two different teaching methods and compared their effectiveness at correcting one science misconception using a sample of trainee primary school teachers. The treatment was designed to promote engagement with the scientific concept by eliciting emotional responses from…

  1. Implementing Japanese Lesson Study in Foreign Countries: Misconceptions Revealed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujii, Toshiakira

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on data gathered during visits to Uganda and Malawi, conducted by the International Math-teacher Professionalization Using Lesson Study (IMPULS) project and the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The author's observations and experiences highlighted misconceptions about lesson study. The paper concludes that…

  2. Theoretical Misconceptions: Person-Centered Therapy and Brief Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Kenneth M.; Hubbell, Kelly

    This paper discusses some misconceptions about person-centered therapy being incompatible with brief counseling. Three major reasons contribute to why the person-centered approach has been omitted from the literature related to brief counseling. First, brief counseling was initially identified with the cognitive-behavioral school of therapy.…

  3. Textbook Errors and Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Energetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storey, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses misconceptions and outdated models appearing in biology textbooks for concepts involving bioenergetics and chemical reactions; adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as the energy currency of cells; the myth of high energy phosphate bonds; structural properties of ATP; ATP production from respiration and fermentation; ATP as an energy storage…

  4. A Compilation and Review of over 500 Geoscience Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper organizes and analyses over 500 geoscience misconceptions relating to earthquakes, earth structure, geologic resources, glaciers, historical geology, karst (limestone terrains), plate tectonics, rivers, rocks and minerals, soils, volcanoes, and weathering and erosion. Journal and reliable web resources were reviewed to discover (1) the…

  5. Prospective Primary School Teachers' Misconceptions about States of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Erdal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify prospective primary school teachers' misconceptions about the states of matter. The sample of the study was 227 fourth-year prospective primary school teachers in a Department of Primary Education in Turkey. Researcher asked from every participant to write a response to an open ended question about…

  6. Children's Understanding of False Beliefs that Result from Developmental Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Scott A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Three experiments studied preschoolers' understanding of false beliefs resulting from developmental misconceptions. Found that children showed some (but incomplete) mastery of Level 2 perspective taking, appearance-reality distinction, line of sight, and biological principles of growth and innate potential. Performance was comparable to that with…

  7. Applying Agnotology-Based Learning in a Mooc to Counter Climate Misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, J.

    2014-12-01

    A key challenge facing educators and climate communicators is the wide array of misconceptions about climate science, often fostered by misinformation. A number of myths interfere with a sound understanding of the science, with key myths moderating public support for mitigation policies. An effective way to reduce the influence of misinformation is through agnotology-based learning. Agnotology is the study of ignorance while agnotology-based learning teaches students through the direct addressing of myths and misconceptions. This approach of "refutational teaching" is being applied in a MOOC (Massive Online Open Course) currently being developed by Skeptical Science and The University of Queensland, in collaboration with universities in Canada, USA and the UK. The MOOC will examine the science of climate change denial. Why is the issue so controversial given there is an overwhelming consensus on human-caused global warming? How do climate myths distort the science? What can scientists and laypeople do in response to misinformation? The MOOC will be released on the EdX platform in early 2015. I will summarise the research underpinning agnotology-based learning and present the approach taken in the MOOC to be released in early 2015

  8. 100 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riskowski, Jody L.; Olbricht, Gayla; Wilson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Statistics is the art and science of gathering, analyzing, and making conclusions from data. However, many people do not fully understand how to interpret statistical results and conclusions. Placing students in a collaborative environment involving project-based learning may enable them to overcome misconceptions of probability and enhance the…

  9. Scientific and Cultural Knowledge in Intercultural Science Education: Student Perceptions of Common Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gondwe, Mzamose; Longnecker, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    There is no consensus in the science education research community on the meanings and representations of western science and indigenous knowledge or the relationships between them. How students interpret these relationships and their perceptions of any connections has rarely been studied. This study reports student perceptions of the meaning and…

  10. Uncovering Misconceptions About the Resting Membrane Potential

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Dee U. Silverthorn (University of Texas at Austin Section of Neurobiology)

    2002-06-01

    Resting membrane potential is one of the most difficult physiological concepts that students must master. Although the upper-division undergraduates in my physiology course have completed a semester of neurophysiology in which they worked problems using the Nernst and Goldman equations, they often fail to retain conceptual understanding of the underlying phenomena. I developed the following question to show them (and myself) what they donÂ?t understand.

  11. Subjective Theories of Indonesian Agronomy and Biology Teacher Students on Environmental Commons Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Sebastian; Barkmann, Jan; Sundawati, Leti; Bogeholz, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Fostering the cognitive skills to analyse environmental "commons dilemmas" is an urgent task of environmental education globally. Commons dilemmas are characterised by structural incentives to overexploit a natural resource; their solution is particularly pressing in threatened biodiversity "hotspot" areas. Solutions to these dilemmas require…

  12. Aggregation of student answers in a classroom setting

    E-print Network

    Smith, Amanda C

    2006-01-01

    In a typical class, an instructor does not have enough time to poll all students for answers to questions, although it would be the best method for discovering students' misconceptions. The aggregator module of a system ...

  13. Collaborative Strategies for Teaching Common Acid-Base Disorders to Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Marie Warrer; Toksvang, Linea Natalie; Plovsing, Ronni R.; Berg, Ronan M. G.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize and diagnose acid-base disorders is of the utmost importance in the clinical setting. However, it has been the experience of the authors that medical students often have difficulties learning the basic principles of acid-base physiology in the respiratory physiology curriculum, particularly when applying this knowledge to…

  14. Young Students Learning Formal Algebraic Notation and Solving Linear Equations: Are Commonly Experienced Difficulties Avoidable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Dave

    2012-01-01

    This study looks at a mixed ability group of 21 Year 5 primary students (aged 9-10 years old) who had previously never had formal instruction using letters to stand for unknowns or variables in a mathematics context; nor had they been introduced to formal algebraic notation. Three lessons were taught using the computer software "Grid Algebra"…

  15. Most Common Teacher Characteristics Related to Intentionality in Student Spiritual Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Teachers have the important commission of guiding students in their spiritual formation, which is the process through which an individual accepts Jesus Christ as Savior and continually becomes more like Him. Given this task, Christian teachers are able to be intentional within classroom management, through instruction, and by modeling. Teachers…

  16. The Use of Teacher-Created Common Assessments and Student Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfield, Elisabeth K. S.

    2012-01-01

    With the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, public school districts in the United States are working toward improving the achievement of their students on state standardized tests of accountability. Through the use of a quantitative methodological approach, the purpose of this study was to better understand the relationship, if any,…

  17. Promoting and Archiving Student Work through an Institutional Repository: Trinity University, LASR, and the Digital Commons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher W. Nolan; Jane Costanza

    2006-01-01

    The authors discuss the development of a related set of institutional repositories among several liberal arts college libraries. Contrary to the usual focus on faculty publications, the primary goal of these repositories is the promotion of student work, especially undergraduate theses. Discussion of issues concerning selection of materials and archival policies is included along with practical considerations of workflows and

  18. Changes in Student Models of Force and Motion in Activity-Based Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trecia Markes, C.

    2007-03-01

    With a three-year FIPSE grant, it has been possible at the University of Nebraska at Kearney (UNK) to develop and implement activity-based introductory physics at the algebra level. Many misconceptions about motion and force persist after instruction. Pretest and posttest responses on the ``Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation'' (FMCE) are analyzed to determine the models that students use. Responses are divided into expert model (correct answer), student model (common incorrect answer), and null model (all other answers) categories. Students are categorized as being in an expert state (mostly expert model answers), a mixed state (a combination of expert model answers, student model answers, and null model answers), or a student state (mostly student model answers). The change (if any) of state is identified for each student. The changes are analyzed to determine the effectiveness of activity-based instruction.

  19. The Common Core and the Future of Student Assessment in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter-Magee, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Ohio adopted the Common Core standards in English language arts (ELA) and math last year, but now stands at a crossroad in making sure statewide assessments are aligned to those standards. Ohio is a participating member in two federally funded assessment consortia--the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) and the Partnership for the…

  20. Reasoning about Evolutionary History: Post-Secondary Students' Knowledge of Most Recent Common Ancestry and Homoplasy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morabito, Nancy P.; Catley, Kefyn M.; Novick, Laura R.

    2010-01-01

    Evolution curricula are replete with information about Darwin's theory of evolution as well as microevolutionary mechanisms underlying this process of change. However, other fundamental facets of evolutionary theory, particularly those related to macroevolution are often missing. One crucial idea typically overlooked is that of most recent common

  1. Using Simple Manipulatives to Improve Student Comprehension of a Complex Biological Process: Protein Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman, Karen; Bartlett, John

    2012-01-01

    Biological systems and living processes involve a complex interplay of biochemicals and macromolecular structures that can be challenging for undergraduate students to comprehend and, thus, misconceptions abound. Protein synthesis, or translation, is an example of a biological process for which students often hold many misconceptions. This article…

  2. Changes in Student Models of Electric Current and Electric Potential in Activity-Based Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trecia Markes, C.

    2008-03-01

    With a three-year FIPSE grant, it has been possible at the University of Nebraska at Kearney (UNK) to develop and implement activity-based introductory physics at the algebra level. It has generally been recognized that students enter physics classes with misconceptions about current and potential difference in simple series and parallel circuits. Many of these misconceptions persist after instruction. Pretest and posttest responses on the ``Electric Circuit Concept Test'' (ECCT) are analyzed to determine the models that students use. Responses are divided into expert model (correct answer), one or more student models (approximately equally common incorrect answers), and null model (all other answers) categories. Students are categorized as being in an expert state (mostly expert model answers), a mixed state (a combination of expert model answers, student model answers, and null model answers), or a student state (mostly student model answers). The change (if any) of state is identified for each student. The changes are analyzed to determine the effectiveness of activity-based instruction.

  3. FAFSA Tips and Common Mistakes to Avoid When Applying for Student Aid The best way to complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) is early and online. The FAFSA is

    E-print Network

    Karsai, Istvan

    FAFSA Tips and Common Mistakes to Avoid When Applying for Student Aid The best way to complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) is early and online. The FAFSA is primarily designed to assess eligibility for federal student aid, but many states and colleges also use the FAFSA to determine

  4. Core Knowledge Confusions Among University Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm, Annika M.; Takada, Mikito; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Verkasalo, Markku

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that university students hold several paranormal beliefs and that paranormal beliefs can be best explained with core knowledge confusions. The aim of this study was to explore to what extent university students confuse the core ontological attributes of lifeless material objects (e.g. a house, a stone), living organisms (e.g. plants), and mental states (e.g., thoughts); whether some core knowledge confusions are more common than others; whether the confusions differ between students from different fields of study, and to replicate the finding that paranormal beliefs increase together with core knowledge confusions. The results showed that half of the participants considered at least four, and one quarter of the participants considered 8-30 confusion statements to be literally true and that the confusions were strongly and positively associated with the amount of paranormal beliefs. The findings indicate that university education does not abolish the misconceptions that characterize children's thinking.

  5. Misconceptions about Density of Decimals: Insights from Indonesian Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widjaja, Wanty; Stacey, Kaye; Steinle, Vicki

    2008-01-01

    Extensive studies have documented various difficulties with, and misconceptions about, decimal numeration across different levels of education. This paper reports on pre-service teachers' misconceptions about the density of decimals. Written test data from 140 Indonesian pre-service teachers, observation of group and classroom discussions provided…

  6. Can Using Human Examples Diminish the Number of Misconceptions Held Concerning Mendelian Genetics Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Explores high school biology and the teaching of genetics. The question is asked, Can the use of relevant, meaningful human genetics concepts diminish the number of misconceptions formed between new and existing concepts? Can the application of the Ausubelian learning theory also decrease the acquisition of misconceptions? (SAH)

  7. Playing with Science: An Investigation of Young Children's Science Conceptions and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolleck, Lori; Hershberger, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the conceptions and misconceptions of young children (ages 3-8) related to science concepts, skills, and phenomena. These conceptions and misconceptions were investigated within the framework of the Pennsylvania Early Learning Standards for Pre-Kindergarten and the Pennsylvania Standards for…

  8. What can biochemistry students learn about protein translation? Using variation theory to explore the space of learning created by some common external representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussey, Thomas J.

    Biochemistry education relies heavily on students' ability to visualize abstract cellular and molecular processes, mechanisms, and components. As such, biochemistry educators often turn to external representations to provide tangible, working models from which students' internal representations (mental models) can be constructed, evaluated, and revised. However, prior research has shown that, while potentially beneficial, external representations can also lead to alternative student conceptions. Considering the breadth of biochemical phenomena, protein translation has been identified as an essential biochemical process and can subsequently be considered a fundamental concept for biochemistry students to learn. External representations of translation range from static diagrams to dynamic animations, from simplistic, stylized illustrations to more complex, realistic presentations. In order to explore the potential for student learning about protein translation from some common external representations of translation, I used variation theory. Variation theory offers a theoretical framework from which to explore what is intended for students to learn, what is possible for students to learn, and what students actually learn about an object of learning, e.g., protein translation. The goals of this project were threefold. First, I wanted to identify instructors' intentions for student learning about protein translation. From a phenomenographic analysis of instructor interviews, I was able to determine the critical features instructors felt their students should be learning. Second, I wanted to determine which features of protein translation were possible for students to learn from some common external representations of the process. From a variation analysis of the three representations shown to students, I was able to describe the possible combinations of features enacted by the sequential viewing of pairs of representations. Third, I wanted to identify what students actually learned about protein translation by viewing these external representations. From a phenomenographic analysis of student interviews, I was able to describe changes between students prior lived object of learning and their post lived object of learning. Based on the findings from this project, I can conclude that variation can be used to cue students to notice particular features of an external representation. Additionally, students' prior knowledge and, potentially, the intended objects of learning from previous instructors can also affect what students can learn from a representation. Finally, further study is needed to identify the extent to which mode and level of abstraction of an external representation affect student learning outcomes.

  9. Harnessing technology to improve formative assessment of student conceptions in STEM: forging a national network.

    PubMed

    Haudek, Kevin C; Kaplan, Jennifer J; Knight, Jennifer; Long, Tammy; Merrill, John; Munn, Alan; Nehm, Ross; Smith, Michelle; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Concept inventories, consisting of multiple-choice questions designed around common student misconceptions, are designed to reveal student thinking. However, students often have complex, heterogeneous ideas about scientific concepts. Constructed-response assessments, in which students must create their own answer, may better reveal students' thinking, but are time- and resource-intensive to evaluate. This report describes the initial meeting of a National Science Foundation-funded cross-institutional collaboration of interdisciplinary science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education researchers interested in exploring the use of automated text analysis to evaluate constructed-response assessments. Participants at the meeting shared existing work on lexical analysis and concept inventories, participated in technology demonstrations and workshops, and discussed research goals. We are seeking interested collaborators to join our research community. PMID:21633063

  10. Harnessing Technology to Improve Formative Assessment of Student Conceptions in STEM: Forging a National Network

    PubMed Central

    Haudek, Kevin C.; Kaplan, Jennifer J.; Knight, Jennifer; Long, Tammy; Merrill, John; Munn, Alan; Nehm, Ross; Smith, Michelle; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Concept inventories, consisting of multiple-choice questions designed around common student misconceptions, are designed to reveal student thinking. However, students often have complex, heterogeneous ideas about scientific concepts. Constructed-response assessments, in which students must create their own answer, may better reveal students’ thinking, but are time- and resource-intensive to evaluate. This report describes the initial meeting of a National Science Foundation–funded cross-institutional collaboration of interdisciplinary science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education researchers interested in exploring the use of automated text analysis to evaluate constructed-response assessments. Participants at the meeting shared existing work on lexical analysis and concept inventories, participated in technology demonstrations and workshops, and discussed research goals. We are seeking interested collaborators to join our research community. PMID:21633063

  11. Eschewing definitions of the therapeutic misconception: a family resemblance analysis.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Daniel S

    2011-06-01

    Twenty-five years after the term "therapeutic misconception' (TM) first entered the literature, most commentators agree that it remains widespread. However, the majority of scholarly attention has focused on the reasons why a patient cum human subject might confuse the goals of research with the goals of therapy. Although this paper addresses the social and cultural factors that seem to animate the TM among subjects, it also fills a niche in the literature by examining why investigators too might operate under a similar confusion. In framing these issues, the paper expressly adopts a Wittgensteinian approach to evaluating the TM, suggesting that interlocutors do not need any analytic definition of the TM to use the term meaningfully in thinking about the moral implications of the TM in practice. PMID:21606116

  12. Confused legal and medical policy: the misconceptions of genetic screening.

    PubMed

    Kegley, J A

    2000-01-01

    Misconceptions about genetics and genetic decision-making lead to confused moral and legal policy in this area. Clarification is needed and provided about the nature of 'genetic disease' as not just an individual malady and often of multiple causation; about the stigma of guilt and discrimination which attends a label of genetically diseased; about the manner in which genetic decision-making impacts others making decisional privacy and confidentiality more problematic. The possibility of applying a public health model to genetic screening is explored and dismissed. A modified rights model, which gives more attention to familial obligations, is recommended with focus on a subjective substantial disclosure type of informed consent as appropriate to genetic decision-making. PMID:10994210

  13. Why we should continue to worry about the therapeutic misconception.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Larry R; King, Nancy M P; Henderson, Gail E

    2013-01-01

    In a recent article in The Journal of Clinical Ethics, David Wendler argues that worries about the therapeutic misconception (TM) are not only misconceived, but detract from the larger agenda of a proper informed consent for subjects involved in clinical research.1 By contrast, we argue that Wendler mischaracterizes those who support TM research, and that his arguments are fragmentary, often illogical, and neglect a critical difference between clinical care and clinical research. A clear explanation about the chief aim of research is, in fact, what gives the other elements in a consent process their meaning. We argue that informed consent must be both trial-specific and context-sensitive, and that concern about the TM is needed now more than ever. PMID:24597426

  14. Evaporation in different liquids: secondary students' conceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Co?tu, Bayram; Ayas, Alipa?a

    2005-01-01

    This study explores secondary school students’ understanding of evaporation and investigates whether students associate the concept of evaporation with only water as a liquid. An open-ended written test was developed using three different words (water, liquid or alcohol) to state the question phrases. The test was implemented on a sample of 313 students at different levels of schooling. Clinical interviews, in which ethyl alcohol was used as an example of liquids, were also undertaken with 12 students, either individually or as a group. From the collected data, it was found that most of the students at different levels lack understanding of the concept and have several misconceptions. Various misconceptions of the evaporation concept that differ from those cited in the related literature were determined. The most important result was that students’ written responses showed some specific misconceptions when they were presented with the questions using three different words; liquid, water and alcohol.

  15. Transfer Student COMMON APPLICATION

    E-print Network

    Napier, Terrence

    Science Bioengineering Chemical Engineering Civil Engineering Civil Engineering / Environmental Science Information and Systems Engineering Materials Science and Engineering Mechanical Engine, Business and Economics, or the P. C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science--unless they choose

  16. The Role of Darkness in Student Learning About Light Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, M. A.; Shipman, H. L.

    2005-12-01

    Light propagation is one of the most fundamental physics concepts utilized in astronomy education. A number of studies over the past twenty years have identified students' misconceptions with explaining light propagation from a variety of light sources and optical systems. Several studies reveal students' confusions when asked to explain the role of the observer and vision in the process of seeing luminous and non-luminous objects. One variable that has not been directly incorporated into research is exposure to complete darkness, both prior to and during instruction. The common perception that "light is not a prerequisite for sight" may be considered a faulty ontological assumption due to a lack of prior experience with darkness. This paper will report results from a study conducted on darkness and vision using 155 students from University of Delaware's Black Holes and Cosmic Evolution course. Analysis and conclusions will be presented in the context of light propagation and conceptual change literature.

  17. How Thermodynamics Drives Wet-out in Adhesive Bonding: Correcting Common Misconceptions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles W. Paul

    2008-01-01

    The traditional maxim that one should keep the adhesive surface energy below that of the substrate to ensure wet-out is shown to be a false and often counter-productive constraint in designing superior adhesive bonds. The confusion stems from the failure to carefully distinguish the one-substrate problem (coating) from the two-substrate problem (adhesive bonding). When two substrates are bonded the adhesive

  18. Myths, Misconceptions, and Misunderstanding: A different spin on Coriolis--Applying frame of reference

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael A. DiSpezio

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses misconceptions surrounding the Coriolis force and describes how it should be presented as a function within inertial and noninertial frames of reference. Not only does this demonstrate the nature of science as it strives to best in

  19. The Earth's Mantle Is Solid: Teachers' Misconceptions About the Earth and Plate Tectonics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the misconceptions revealed by the teachers' answers and outlines more accurate answers and explanations based on established evidence and uses these to provide a more complete understanding of plate tectonic process and the structure of Earth. (Author/YDS)

  20. Students' Knowledge of Sleep and Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, Joseph J.; Carducci, Bernardo J.

    1984-01-01

    A 34-item sleep and dream information questionnaire was administered to 232 introductory psychology students to introduce them to the topics of sleep and dreams and to evaluate their knowledge of these areas. A majority of the items were answered correctly by students. Serious misconceptions by students are discussed. (RM)

  1. Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment and Staff Counts from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2008-09. First Look. NCES 2010-347

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Plotts, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This report presents findings on the numbers of public school students and staff in the United States and other jurisdictions in school year 2008-09, using data from the State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that are reported by state…

  2. Here are some tips for filling out the FAFSA and some common errors to Be careful to enter student and parent Social Security Numbers

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    FAFSA Tips Here are some tips for filling out the FAFSA and some common errors to avoid. Be careful to enter student and parent Social Security Numbers correctly and enter your legal name is correct. Many schools have similar names or close codes and if you enter it incorrectly, your school

  3. Common Ground: Education & the Military Meeting the Needs of Students. The Report of the NASBE Study Group on Education and the Military

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Boards of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Community, higher education, and business partnerships are often touted as critical links to helping students graduate from high school and making sure that they are college- and career-ready when they do. Now a panel of state board of education members from across the country has found common ground for partnerships with the country's single…

  4. WHAT DO KOALAS AND FUNGI HAVE IN COMMON IN PRETORIA? Prepared by: Happy Maleme (MSc student whose project is entitled: "Survey of native

    E-print Network

    WHAT DO KOALAS AND FUNGI HAVE IN COMMON IN PRETORIA? Prepared by: Happy Maleme (MSc student whose and most Eucalyptus species originate from Australia. Koalas are entirely dependant on Eucalyptus leaves stressed and where chemical control measures cannot be used due to the threat that the chemicals would pose

  5. Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment and Staff Counts from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2010-11. First Look. NCES 2012-327

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keaton, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This report presents findings on the numbers of public school students and staff in the United States and other jurisdictions for school year 2010-11, using data from the State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that are reported by state…

  6. Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment and Staff Counts from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2009-10. First Look. NCES 2011-347

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chen-Su

    2011-01-01

    This report presents findings on the numbers of public school students and staff in the United States and other jurisdictions in school year 2009-10, using data from the State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that are reported by state…

  7. College Students with Children Are Common and Face Many Challenges in Completing Higher Education. Briefing Paper #C404

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Bethany; Froehner, Megan; Gault, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges college students with children face, as well as the steps colleges, universities, and the surrounding communities must take to help students succeed in their work as both students and parents. The role of parenthood in postsecondary settings needs greater focus from the higher education reform community. Unless…

  8. "I Think a Lot of It Is Common Sense. ..." Early Years Students, Professionalism and the Development of a "Vocational Habitus"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol; Braun, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on research from a small-scale project investigating the vocational training of students in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in England. We draw on data from interviews with 42 students and five tutors in order to explore the students' understandings of professionalism in early years. In the paper, we discuss first, the…

  9. Common Themes, Challenges, Issues, and Aspirations of International Students Pursuing Doctoral Degrees in Education at a Midwestern University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtika, Joe Mithi

    2009-01-01

    International students' studying abroad is a complicated phenomenon that has touched both the countries that send the students and those that receive them. The issues of international students have affected academic circles as well as public and private sectors. Participation of all stakeholders in higher education is crucial to the progress of…

  10. Undergraduate Students' Preferences of Knowledge to Solve Particle Mechanics Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luneta, Kakoma; Makonye, Judah P.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the nature of undergraduate students' errors and misconceptions in particle mechanics. This paper provides in-depth descriptions of the errors presented by students and accounts for them in terms of students' procedural or conceptual knowledge. Specifically, this study analyses students' written responses to questions on…

  11. Uncovering Student Thinking in Mathematics: 25 Formative Assessment Probes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Cheryl M.; Minton, Leslie; Arline, Carolyn B.

    2006-01-01

    Students learn at varying rates, and if a misconception in mathematics develops early, it may be carried from year to year and obstruct a student's progress. To identify fallacies in students' preconceived ideas, "Uncovering Student Thinking in Mathematics" offers educators a powerful diagnostic technique in the form of field-tested assessment…

  12. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about epilepsy and their predictors among university students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hijazeen, Jameel Khaleel; Abu-Helalah, Munir Ahmad; Alshraideh, Hussam Ahmad; Alrawashdeh, Omar Salameh; Hawa, Fadi Nather; Dalbah, Tariq Asem; Abdallah, Fadi Walid

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge about epilepsy and the attitudes toward people with epilepsy (PWE) and their predictors among university students in Jordan. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed in three of the largest public universities in Jordan, and a total of 500 questionnaires were collected from each university. The number of students who reported that they had heard or read about epilepsy was 1165 (77.6%), and their data were analyzed. A significant proportion of students thought that epilepsy could be caused by the evil spirit (31.5%) and the evil eye (28.1%) or that it could be a punishment from God (25.9%). Epilepsy's most commonly reported treatment methods were the Holy Quran (71.4%), medications (71.3%), and herbs (29.3%). The most common negative attitudes toward PWE were that the students would refuse to marry someone with epilepsy (50.5%) and that children with epilepsy must join schools for persons with disabilities (44.4%). Male students, students of humanities, and students with a low socioeconomic status tended to have more negative attitudes toward PWE. In conclusion, many students have misconceptions about the causes, treatment, and nature of epilepsy, and students have moderate negative attitudes toward PWE. Universities should have health promotion programs to increase awareness of their students about major public health problems such as epilepsy. PMID:25461223

  13. Blood safety decisions, 1982 to 1986: perceptions and misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Zuck, T F; Eyster, M E

    1996-10-01

    Although blood bankers and those who treat persons with hemophilia are supportive of most of the recommendations of the Report, the manner in which the analysis was conducted and some of the general conclusions that were reached appear flawed. The flaws may reflect the deficiencies in the process by which the Committee gathered data more than any bias on the part of its members themselves. The Report may accurately reflect the testimony heard, but it is biased by the committee's acceptance as fact the opinions of critics who claim the AIDS epidemic was mismanaged by the blood-collecting agencies, professional organizations, hemophilia organizations, and the federal government. Countervailing views on the various issues are ignored or incompletely discussed. Much testimony was taken from the victims of the transfusion-associated AIDS epidemic. Reliance seems to have been placed upon hindsight testimony (taken 10 years after the events), rather than on documentation of what was known at the time when events unfolded. The Report states that "[t]he Committee's charge did not include the development of assertions about what should have been done at the time,"l(pl:4) yet that is precisely what was done. These comments address just a few of the misconceptions we perceive in the Report. They are based on our understanding of the state of knowledge--or ignorance--at the time that decisions about the safety of the blood supply were made. If we are to avert future threats to the blood supply from emerging infectious diseases, a goal that is universally embraced, we must learn the lessons the past can teach us, as painful as they may be. However, the hazards of judging history in hindsight should be avoided. Neither allegations nor opinions should be accepted as facts without critical examination and without placement in the context of contemporary knowledge; to accept a lesser standard does a great injustice to all who were touched by this tragedy. PMID:8863782

  14. The Student Experience of Criterion-Referenced Assessment (Through the Introduction of a Common Criteria Assessment Grid).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donovan, Berry; Price, Margaret; Rust, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Examines student experience of criterion-referenced assessment and, in particular, a criteria assessment grid developed for the Business School at Oxford Brookes University (UK). Findings revealed that students desired more reliable marking processes and clearer guidelines on assessment requirements and criteria. The criterion-referenced grid,…

  15. Targeted Prevention of Common Mental Health Disorders in University Students: Randomised Controlled Trial of a Transdiagnostic Trait-Focused Web-Based Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Musiat, Peter; Conrod, Patricia; Treasure, Janet; Tylee, Andre; Williams, Chris; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Background A large proportion of university students show symptoms of common mental disorders, such as depression, anxiety, substance use disorders and eating disorders. Novel interventions are required that target underlying factors of multiple disorders. Aims To evaluate the efficacy of a transdiagnostic trait-focused web-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of common mental disorders in university students. Method Students were recruited online (n?=?1047, age: M?=?21.8, SD?=?4.2) and categorised into being at high or low risk for mental disorders based on their personality traits. Participants were allocated to a cognitive-behavioural trait-focused (n?=?519) or a control intervention (n?=?528) using computerised simple randomisation. Both interventions were fully automated and delivered online (trial registration: ISRCTN14342225). Participants were blinded and outcomes were self-assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks and at 12 weeks after registration. Primary outcomes were current depression and anxiety, assessed on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9) and Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD7). Secondary outcome measures focused on alcohol use, disordered eating, and other outcomes. Results Students at high risk were successfully identified using personality indicators and reported poorer mental health. A total of 520 students completed the 6-week follow-up and 401 students completed the 12-week follow-up. Attrition was high across intervention groups, but comparable to other web-based interventions. Mixed effects analyses revealed that at 12-week follow up the trait-focused intervention reduced depression scores by 3.58 (p<.001, 95%CI [5.19, 1.98]) and anxiety scores by 2.87 (p?=?.018, 95%CI [1.31, 4.43]) in students at high risk. In high-risk students, between group effect sizes were 0.58 (depression) and 0.42 (anxiety). In addition, self-esteem was improved. No changes were observed regarding the use of alcohol or disordered eating. Conclusions This study suggests that a transdiagnostic web-based intervention for university students targeting underlying personality risk factors may be a promising way of preventing common mental disorders with a low-intensity intervention. Trial Registration ControlledTrials.com ISRCTN14342225 PMID:24736388

  16. Addressing secondary students' naïve ideas about freshwater springs in order to develop an instructional tool to promote conceptual reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinfried, S.; Tempelmann, S.; Aeschbacher, U.

    2012-02-01

    "Water knowledge" has now become a socio-political and future-orientated necessity. Erroneous notions or preconceptions of hydrology can have a deleterious effect on our understanding of the scientific facts and their interrelations that are of relevance to sustainable water management. This explorative pilot study shows that erroneous and naïve ideas about the origin of freshwater springs are common at the lower secondary level. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to investigate the nature of misconceptions about freshwater springs among 13-year-old students, and (2) to develop an efficient instructional tool that promotes conceptual reconstruction in the learners' minds. To assess students' naïve ideas we conducted interviews, examined student work, and asked students to fill in a questionnaire. The identified naïve ideas were used to construct an instructional tool based on the findings of learning psychology aiming at promoting deep learning, thus facilitating a lasting conceptual reconstruction of the concept of freshwater springs.

  17. Addressing astronomy misconceptions and achieving national science standards utilizing aspects of multiple intelligences theory in the classroom and the planetarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrazine, Angela Renee

    The purpose of this study was to incorporate multiple intelligences techniques in both a classroom and planetarium setting to create a significant increase in student learning about the moon and lunar phases. Utilizing a free-response questionnaire and a 25 item multiple choice pre-test/post-test design, this study identified middle school students' misconceptions and measured increases in student learning about the moon and lunar phases. The study spanned two semesters and contained six treatment groups which consisted of both single and multiple interventions. One group only attended the planetarium program. Two groups attended one of two classes a week prior to the planetarium program, and two groups attended one of two classes a week after the planetarium program. The most rigorous treatment group attended a class both a week before and after the planetarium program. Utilizing Rasch analysis techniques and parametric statistical tests, all six groups exhibited statistically significant gains in knowledge at the 0.05 level. There were no significant differences between students who attended only a planetarium program versus a single classroom program. Also, subjects who attended either a pre-planetarium class or a post- planetarium class did not show a statistically significant gain over the planetarium only situation. Equivalent effects on student learning were exhibited by the pre-planetarium class groups and post-planetarium class groups. Therefore, it was determined that the placement of the second intervention does not have a significant impact on student learning. However, a decrease in learning was observed with the addition of a third intervention. Further instruction and testing appeared to hinder student learning. This is perhaps an effect of subject fatigue.

  18. Uncovering Student Ideas in Science, Volume 2: 25 More Formative Assessment Probes (e-Book)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Francis Eberle

    2009-06-23

    If Hollywood filmed this sequel, the studio would call it "Probes II: More Battles Against Misunderstandings." Like the blockbuster before it, Volume 2 will reveal the surprising misconceptions students bring to the classroom--so you can adjust your teachi

  19. Second-year medical students' perceptions of the professional nurse's role.

    PubMed

    Foley, M; Jacobson, L; Anvaripour, P L

    1995-06-01

    This study assesses second-year medical students' views of the nurse and compares them to those commonly held by the lay public. Using a modified version of the American Nurses Association National Commission's "Nursing Implementation Project Survey," views of the role of the registered professional nurse were elicited from second-year medical students in 1992 (n = 38), 1993 (n = 50), and 1994 (n = 70) during workshops designed for them to enhance nurse-physician collegiality. Misconceptions about the nursing profession and the scope of the nurse's role to ensure positive patient outcomes, were elucidated. Medical students welcomed opportunities within the curriculum to redefine their conceptions of the image of registered professional nurses. Nurses' advanced professional capabilities and interdisciplinary collegiality deserve continued attention throughout the medical school curriculum. PMID:7636605

  20. Putting to rest WISHE-ful misconceptions for tropical cyclone intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montomery, Michael T.; Persing, John; Smith, Roger K.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. The first is to point out and correct several misconceptions about the putative WISHE mechanism of tropical cyclone intensification that currently are being taught to atmospheric science students, to tropical weather forecasters, and to laypeople who seek to understand how tropical cyclones intensify. The mechanism relates to the simplest problem of an initial cyclonic vortex in a quiescent environment. This first part is important because the credibility of tropical cyclone science depends inter alia on being able to articulate a clear and consistent picture of the hypothesized intensification process and its dependencies on key flow parameters. The credibility depends also on being able to test the hypothesized mechanisms using observations, numerical models, or theoretical analyses. The second purpose of the paper is to carry out new numerical experiments using a state-of-the-art numerical model to test a recent hypothesis invoking the WISHE feedback mechanism during the rapid intensification phase of a tropical cyclone. The results obtained herein, in conjunction with prior work, do not support this recent hypothesis and refute the view that the WISHE intensification mechanism is the essential mechanism of tropical cyclone intensification in the idealized problem that historically has been used to underpin the paradigm. This second objective is important because it presents a simple way of testing the hypothesized intensification mechanism and shows that the mechanism is neither essential nor the dominant mode of intensification for the prototype intensification problem. In view of the operational, societal, and scientific interest in the physics of tropical cyclone intensification, we believe this paper will be of broad interest to the atmospheric science community and the findings should be useful in both the classroom setting and frontier research.

  1. Using Hollywood Movies to Teach Basic Geological Concepts: A Comparison of Student Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Throughout the history of cinema, events based in Earth Science have been the focus of many an action- disaster plot. From the most recent 2008 remake of Journey to the Center of the Earth, to 1965's Crack in the World, and all the way back to the 1925 silent film rendition of The Lost World, Hollywood's obsession with the geological sciences has been clear. These particular sub-genres of disaster films and science fiction present science that, from a Hollywood viewpoint, looks exciting and seems realistic. However, from a scientific viewpoint, the presentations of science are often shockingly incorrect and unfortunately serve to perpetuate common misconceptions. In 2003, Western Kentucky University began offering an elective non-majors science course, Geology and Cinema, to combat these misconceptions while using the framework of Hollywood films as a tool to appeal and connect to a broad student population. To see if this method is truly working, this study performs a student outcome comparison for basic geologic knowledge and general course perception between several sections of standard, lecture-based Introductory Geology courses and concurrent semester sections of Geology and Cinema. Preliminary results indicate that while performance data is similar between the courses, students have a more positive perception of the Cinema sections.

  2. Developing Students' Environmental Knowledge through Interactive Worksheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Roy; Witney, Eve; Tulip, David

    1998-01-01

    Environmental education is often characterized by a concern with developing attitudes and behavior rather than developing environmental knowledge and concepts. Students may thus unknowingly hold and later teach environmental misconceptions. Discusses the use of interactive worksheets to provide a time-effective means of developing students'…

  3. A Comparative Qualitative Study of Misconceptions Associated with Contraceptive Use in Southern and Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Adongo, Philip B.; Tabong, Philip T.-N.; Azongo, Thomas B.; Phillips, James F.; Sheff, Mallory C.; Stone, Allison E.; Tapsoba, Placide

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from Ghana consistently shows that unmet need for contraception is pervasive with many possible causes, yet how these may differ by cultural zone remains poorly understood. This qualitative study was designed to elicit information on the nature and form of misconceptions associated with contraceptive use among northern and southern Ghanaians. Twenty-two focus group discussions (FGDs) with married community members were carried out. Community health officers, community health volunteers, and health care managers were also interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. FGDs and in-depth interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using QSR Nvivo 10 to compare contraceptive misconceptions in northern and southern Ghana. Results indicate that misconceptions associated with the use of contraceptives were widespread but similar in both settings. Contraceptives were perceived to predispose women to both primary and secondary infertility, uterine fibroids, and cancers. As regular menstrual flow was believed to prevent uterine fibroids, contraceptive use-related amenorrhea was thought to render acceptors vulnerable to uterine fibroids as well as cervical and breast cancers. Contraceptive acceptors were stigmatized and ridiculed as promiscuous. Among northern respondents, condom use was generally perceived to inhibit erection and therefore capable of inducing male impotence, while in southern Ghana, condom use was believed to reduce sensation and sexual gratification. The study indicates that misconceptions associated with contraceptive use are widespread in both regions. Moreover, despite profound social and contextual differences that distinguish northern and southern Ghanaians, prevailing fears and misconceptions are shared by respondents from both settings. Findings attest to the need for improved communication to provide accurate information for dispelling these misconceptions. PMID:25250307

  4. A comparative qualitative study of misconceptions associated with contraceptive use in southern and northern ghana.

    PubMed

    Adongo, Philip B; Tabong, Philip T-N; Azongo, Thomas B; Phillips, James F; Sheff, Mallory C; Stone, Allison E; Tapsoba, Placide

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from Ghana consistently shows that unmet need for contraception is pervasive with many possible causes, yet how these may differ by cultural zone remains poorly understood. This qualitative study was designed to elicit information on the nature and form of misconceptions associated with contraceptive use among northern and southern Ghanaians. Twenty-two focus group discussions (FGDs) with married community members were carried out. Community health officers, community health volunteers, and health care managers were also interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. FGDs and in-depth interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using QSR Nvivo 10 to compare contraceptive misconceptions in northern and southern Ghana. Results indicate that misconceptions associated with the use of contraceptives were widespread but similar in both settings. Contraceptives were perceived to predispose women to both primary and secondary infertility, uterine fibroids, and cancers. As regular menstrual flow was believed to prevent uterine fibroids, contraceptive use-related amenorrhea was thought to render acceptors vulnerable to uterine fibroids as well as cervical and breast cancers. Contraceptive acceptors were stigmatized and ridiculed as promiscuous. Among northern respondents, condom use was generally perceived to inhibit erection and therefore capable of inducing male impotence, while in southern Ghana, condom use was believed to reduce sensation and sexual gratification. The study indicates that misconceptions associated with contraceptive use are widespread in both regions. Moreover, despite profound social and contextual differences that distinguish northern and southern Ghanaians, prevailing fears and misconceptions are shared by respondents from both settings. Findings attest to the need for improved communication to provide accurate information for dispelling these misconceptions. PMID:25250307

  5. Students' preconceptions in introductory mechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Clement

    1982-01-01

    Data from written tests and videotaped problem-solving interviews show that many physics students have a stable, alternative view of the relationship between force and acceleration. This ''conceptual primitive'' is misunderstood at the qualitative level in addition to any difficulties that might occur with mathematical formulation. The misconception is highly resistant to change and is remarkably similar to one discussed by

  6. Students' Preconceptions in Introductory Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, John

    1982-01-01

    Discusses data from tests and videotaped interviews indicating conceptual primitives as a source of student difficulty in physics. These include key concepts (mass, acceleration) and fundamental principles/models (Newton's and conservation laws, atomic model). Demonstrates that misconceptions can be studied using problems of minimum complexity to…

  7. Spotting the Camouflaged Gifted Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Joni J.

    1988-01-01

    Gifted students sometimes camouflage themselves behind a facade of underachievement. Causes of underachievement include: (1) social and emotional conflict due to societal misconceptions, expectations, and stereotypes; low self-concept; and family instability; (2) a stifling or inhibiting academic environment; and (3) physiological and neurological…

  8. Freshman Biology Majors' Misconceptions about Diffusion and Osmosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, A. Louis; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    The data for this study were obtained from a sample of 117 biology majors enrolled in an introductory biology course. The Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test, composed of 12 two-tier items, was administered to the students. Among the major findings are: (1) there was no significant difference in scores of male and female students; (2) math…

  9. Learner Errors and Misconceptions in Elementary Analysis: A Case Study of a Grade 12 Class in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luneta, Kakoma; Makonye, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    The paper focuses on analysing grade 12 learner errors and the misconceptions in calculus at a secondary school in Limpopo Province, South Africa. As part of the analysis the paper outlines the nature of mathematics errors and misconceptions. Coding of learners' errors was done through the lens of a typological framework. The analysis showed that…

  10. Science Sampler: Enhancing Student Understanding of Physical and Chemical Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Julie; White, Sandra; Suter, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Students within the Findlay, Ohio, City School District, as well as students across the country, struggle with understanding physical and chemical changes. Therefore, in this article, the authors suggest some standards-based activities to clarify misconceptions and provide formative assessments to measure your students' progress as they determine…

  11. PROBLEMS OF TEACHING PHYSICS TO FRESHMEN ENGINEERING STUDENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ESER AYDIROGLU; AYHAN BILSEL

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we shall attempt to find answers to two questions: How can student misconceptions, and nonscientific beliefs in freshmen physics be corrected? To what extent does teaching physics in a foreign language hinder student learning? We shall try to provide answers to these questions based on our experience of teaching freshmen engineering students at the Eastern Mediterranean University

  12. Refinement-Based Student Modeling and Automated Bug Library Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baffes, Paul; Mooney, Raymond

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of student modeling and intelligent tutoring systems focuses on the development of the ASSERT algorithm (Acquiring Stereotypical Student Errors by Refining Theories). Topics include overlay modeling; bug libraries (databases of student misconceptions); dynamic modeling; refinement-based modeling; and experimental results from tests at…

  13. Science Sampler: Enhancing student understanding of physical and chemical changes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Julie McIntosh

    2010-10-01

    Students within the Findlay, Ohio, City School District, as well as students across the country, struggle with understanding physical and chemical changes. Therefore, in this article, the authors suggest some standards-based activities to clarify misconceptions and provide formative assessments to measure your students’ progress as they determine the difference between chemical and physical changes.

  14. Research into Practice: Misconceptions about Multiplication and Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graeber, Anna O.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the two overgeneralizations "multiplications makes bigger" and "division makes smaller" in the context of solving word problems involving rational numbers less than one. Presents activities to help students make sense of multiplication and division in these situations. (MDH)

  15. Myths, Misconceptions, and Misunderstandings: A Different Spin on Coriolis--Applying Frame of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSpezio, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses misconceptions surrounding the Coriolis force and describes how it should be presented as a function within inertial and noninertial frames of reference. Not only does this demonstrate the nature of science as it strives to best interpret the natural world (and presents alternative explanations), but it offers a rich…

  16. Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Misconceptions about Colligative Properties: Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinarbasi, Tacettin; Sozbilir, Mustafa; Canpolat, Nurtac

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying prospective chemistry teachers' misconceptions of colligative properties. In order to fulfill this aim, a diagnostic test composed of four open-ended questions was used. The test was administered to seventy-eight prospective chemistry teachers just before qualifying to teaching in secondary schools. Nine different…

  17. Seafarers, Great Circles, and a Tad of Rhumb: Understanding the Mercator Misconception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSpezio, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Being flat, Mercator maps inherently misrepresent some aspects of Earth's geography. That's because there is absolutely no way to simultaneously conserve all of the elements of three-dimensional space in a two-dimensional model. To dispel misconceptions, check out the Activity Worksheet and the website resources included in this article. Along…

  18. Mental Models and other Misconceptions in Children's Understanding of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive ''mental models'' of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous.…

  19. Evaluating Educational Practices for Positively Affecting Student Perceptions of a Sales Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Shannon; Peltier, James W.; Pomirleanu, Nadia; Cross, James; Simon, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Despite demand for new graduates seeking a sales position, student reticence toward pursuing a sales career remains. While all students will not choose a sales career, diminishing the existence of sales-related misconceptions among the student population should establish sales as a viable career path for a larger number of students. We test six…

  20. The experience of dysmenorrhoea among Ghanaian senior high and university students: pain characteristics and effects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dysmenorrhoea is a common problem of women at the reproductive age and may have negative effect on the education of females at various stages on the educational ladder. Context and purpose This study sought to gain an in-depth understanding of the experience of dysmenorrhoea and its effect on female students in a secondary and a tertiary institution in Accra, Ghana. Methods The study employed a descriptive phenomenology design and was conducted at a University and a Senior High School (SHS) in Accra. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit participants and data was saturated with 16 participants. Concurrent analysis was done by applying the processes of content analysis and the NVivo software was used to manage the data. Results It was realized that dysmenorrhoea is associated with symptoms such as diarrhoea, headache and vomiting. Pain may start one week to the day of menstruation and the severity differed across the days of menstruation. The effect of dysmenorrhoea included activity intolerance, altered emotion and interaction, altered sleep pattern, absenteeism and inattentiveness, wishes and regrets, and misconceptions. Conclusions It was concluded that severe dysmenorrhoea has a debilitating effect on female students and is associated with misconceptions that could result in drastic action with fatal consequences. Thus, there is the need to enhance education on dysmenorrhoea, and an aggressive step should be taken to effectively manage dysmenorrhoea. PMID:25064081

  1. Chemistry Misconceptions Associated with Understanding Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration…

  2. Problem-based learning: Using students' questions to drive knowledge construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Christine; Chia, Li-Gek

    2004-09-01

    This study employed problem-based learning for project work in a year 9 biology class. The purpose of the study was to investigate (a) students' inspirations for their self-generated problems and questions, (b) the kinds of questions that students asked individually and collaboratively, and (c) how students' questions guided them in knowledge construction. Data sources included observation and field notes, students' written documents, audiotapes and videotapes of students working in groups, and student interviews. Sources of inspiration for students' problems and questions included cultural beliefs and folklore; wonderment about information propagated by advertisements and the media; curiosity arising from personal encounters, family members' concerns, or observations of others; and issues arising from previous lessons in the school curriculum. Questions asked individually pertained to validation of common beliefs and misconceptions, basic information, explanations, and imagined scenarios. The findings regarding questions asked collaboratively are presented as two assertions. Assertion 1 maintained that students' course of learning were driven by their questions. Assertion 2 was that the ability to ask the right'' questions and the extent to which these could be answered, were important in sustaining students' interest in the project. Implications of the findings for instructional practice are discussed.

  3. The Persuasion Model of conceptual change and its application to misconceptions in evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, Joanna Kate

    Previous work has attempted to account for the factors involved in conceptual change (e.g. Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982; Pintrich, Marx & Boyle, 1993). While progress has been made, cognitive restructuring remains to be positioned within a unifying theory of change. Here, a new model of conceptual change is put forward. The Persuasion Model of conceptual change builds on previous frameworks (Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982; Pintrich, Marx & Boyle, 1993; Vosniadou, 1994) including the psychology of persuasion (Heuristic-Systematic Model, Chaiken, 1980; Elaboration Likelihood Model, Petty & Cacioppo, 1986; Social Judgement Theory, Sherif & Hovland, 1953) and cognitive and motivational theories of learning (Johnson-Laird, 1983; Mayer & Moreno, 1988; Wittrock, 1974b). High quality, elaborative processing of a persuasive message leads to change. Mental models are positioned as the mechanism by which meaning is created, manipulated, inspected and evaluated. These processes result in a continuum of cognitive restructuring. A study of conceptual change in Evolutionary Biology examined the viability of the Persuasion Model. It was predicted that knowledge, beliefs, interest and cognitive style would predict elaborative processing. Processing was hypothesized to influence information comprehensibility, plausibility, fruitfulness and compatibility with prior knowledge. Judgments were hypothesized to influence learning outcomes. Evolutionary knowledge and beliefs were assessed at pre- and posttest in 375 college students using multiple choice, likert-scale and extended response items. Need for Cognition, Need for Cognitive Closure, Epistemological Beliefs, Religiosity, Dogmatism, Moral Values and Argument Evaluation Ability were measured using paper-and-pencil questionnaires. Participants read a text and indicated elaborative processing and information evaluation. Ninety percent of participants held at least one misconception at pre-test. Significant gains on outcome measures were found. More sophisticated responses were found for items pertaining to non-human than human topics. Elaborative processing was predicted by individual differences in knowledge, beliefs, interest and Need for Cognition. Elaborative processing influenced favorability ratings of the information, and these contributed to learning outcomes. The results show support for hypotheses derived from the Persuasion Model, as conceptual change could not be predicted without reference to multiple factors that have not previously been measured in concert.

  4. Junior High School Students' Ideas about the Shape and Size of the Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cokelez, Aytekin

    2012-08-01

    The concept of the atom is one of the building blocks of science education. Although the concept is a foundation for students' subsequent learning experiences, it is difficult for students to comprehend because of common misconceptions and its abstractness. The purpose of this study is to examine junior high school students' (ages 12-13) ideas about the shape and size of the atom and the evolution of these ideas over 2 years. The study's sample size was 126 students, including 76 sixth-grade and 50 seventh-grade students. The educational curriculum and relevant literature guided the development of a questionnaire that consisted of three open-ended questions intended to determine students' knowledge of the structure and physical properties of the atom. After administering the questionnaire, collected data were analysed qualitatively. The study shows that students had difficulty developing a mental image of the atom, and contrary to the conclusions of other studies, students demonstrated a preference for working with complex and abstract models.

  5. Using Models to Address Misconceptions in Size and Scale Related to the Earth, Moon, Solar System, and Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Cañizo, T. L.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Salthouse, K.

    2013-04-01

    Many children and adults have misconceptions about space-related size and distance: Earth-Moon size and distance, distance between the planets, distances to the nearest stars (other than the Sun), the size of the Milky Way Galaxy, and the size of the Universe. An illustration or visualization may reinforce someone's understanding of, for example, the phases of the Moon. However, what other misconceptions, especially related to scale, are being reinforced?

  6. Therapeutic misconception in clinical trials: fighting against it and living with it.

    PubMed

    Dal-Ré, R; Morell, F; Tejedor, J C; Gracia, D

    2014-11-01

    A clinical trial seeks information for the benefit of future patients and not necessarily for those who participate in the study. However, there are patients who believe that they will receive a direct therapeutic benefit by participating in a clinical trial, the so-called «therapeutic misconception». In this article, we describe the nature and extent of therapeutic misconception, which researchers can also experience. Its presence is especially important in phase 1 oncology trials and those with placebo group. To limit its occurrence, investigators have to ensure that participant information sheet are well written and to establish an effective and transparent discussion during the process of obtaining informed consent so that patients understand all aspects of their participation in the research and appreciate what this participation entails. PMID:24837147

  7. Generating Cognitive Dissonance in Student Interviews through Multiple Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2012-01-01

    This study explores what students understand about enzyme-substrate interactions, using multiple representations of the phenomenon. In this paper we describe our use of the 3 Phase-Single Interview Technique with multiple representations to generate cognitive dissonance within students in order to uncover misconceptions of enzyme-substrate…

  8. Students' Conceptions as Dynamically Emergent Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David E.

    2014-01-01

    There is wide consensus that learning in science must be considered a process of conceptual change rather than simply information accrual. There are three perspectives on students' conceptions and conceptual change in science that have significant presence in the science education literature: students' ideas as misconceptions, as…

  9. Students' Perceptions and Designs of Simple Control Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mioduser, David; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents a framework characterizing cognitive models generated by sixth-grade students for simple opening/closing control mechanisms, like the elevator door. The students' conceptions, missing conceptions, and misconceptions are analyzed at three levels: device knowledge; perception of the control process; and perceptions of information flow. (LAM)

  10. Predicting student performance in the first course in psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Slater E. Newman; Carl P. Duncan; Graham B. Bell; Kenneth H. Bradt

    1952-01-01

    The marks obtained by psychology students on the department examination at Northwestern University showed a correlation of .309 with these students' scores on the Ohio State Psychological Examination, taken on entrance to college. With Burton's Test of Misconceptions they correlated .369, and with an achievement test in psychology, .402. It is evident that none of the tests can satisfactorily be

  11. Scoring Student-Generated Concept Maps in Introductory College Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Deborah A.; Abegg, Gerald L.

    This study presents a quantitative method for scoring concept maps generated by students learning introductory college chemistry. Concept maps measure the amount of chemical information the student possesses, reasoning ability in chemistry, and specific misconceptions about introductory and physical chemistry concepts. They provide a visualization…

  12. Student Difficulties in Learning Density: A Distributed Cognition Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Lihua; Clarke, David

    2012-01-01

    Density has been reported as one of the most difficult concepts for secondary school students (e.g. Smith et al. 1997). Discussion about the difficulties of learning this concept has been largely focused on the complexity of the concept itself or student misconceptions. Few, if any, have investigated how the concept of density was constituted in…

  13. Students' Conceptions of Scale Regarding Groundwater

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Daniel Dickerson

    This study involved surveying three groups of students regarding their ideas about the structure, scale, and percieved importance of groundwater. The survey results show that many participants selected sizes of groundwater structures that mirrored surface analogs; however, some students applied scales on the order of houses and skyscrapers to typical pore and crack structures. The authors' research indicates that students bring to the classroom many misconceptions that are well-positioned to interfere with their understanding of hydrogeologic principles.

  14. Turkish Students' Ideas about Global Warming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global warming in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global warming were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this study.…

  15. Best Practices for Identifying Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnsen, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Parents often go to principals to ask for help in supporting their gifted children. They may request acceleration for their child in mathematics, a specialized curriculum or course, extracurricular activities, a pullout program, or even a different teacher. Since misconceptions about identifying gifted students are prevalent, it's important that…

  16. Perceptions of Academic Health Science Research Center Personnel Regarding Informed Consent Processes and Therapeutic Misconception

    PubMed Central

    Atz, Teresa W.; Sade, Robert M.; Williams, Pamela H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Instrumentation exists to measure voluntariness and misunderstanding in informed consent processes. However, research personnel’s perspectives about using instrumentation to measure therapeutic misconceptions in research participants has not been reported. We designed a workshop to promote research personnel knowledge of emerging instrumentation and to study the perceptions of research personnel regarding such instruments. Methods and Findings Two nationally recognized experts who have developed psychometric instruments to measure aspects of informed consent presented their recent findings to research personnel of the Medical University of South Carolina at a one-day workshop. Following the presentations, workshop attendees divided into two focus groups and shared their perceptions regarding the presentation content. Inductive thematic analysis detected themes related to informed consent processes including: investigator/provider role clarity; investigator transparency; therapeutic misconception; and screening subjects for understanding. Conclusion Our findings suggest future directions in applied, proactive empirical research to better understand investigator perceptions and practices related to transparency in research, and to develop instrumentation to detect risks to the integrity of informed consent in order to promote voluntariness and autonomy and minimize therapeutic misconception in research practices. PMID:24625182

  17. Six Classroom Exercises to Teach Natural Selection to Undergraduate Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Steven T.; Leonard, Mary J.; Andrews, Tessa M.; Litt, Andrea R.

    2013-01-01

    Students in introductory biology courses frequently have misconceptions regarding natural selection. In this paper, we describe six activities that biology instructors can use to teach undergraduate students in introductory biology courses how natural selection causes evolution. These activities begin with a lesson introducing students to natural…

  18. Near-Native Speakers in the Foreign-Language Classroom: The Case of Haitian Immigrant Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Stacey

    This case study examined Haitian immigrant students' experiences in the French language classrooms. It is based on surveys conducted with students and their classmates and personal observations, discussing and explaining some of the misconceptions about Haitian immigrants and describing the Haitian students' experiences learning French in the…

  19. Are College Students Prepared for a Technology-Rich Learning Environment?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria Ratliff

    2009-01-01

    The majority of today's college students have grown up in a world immersed in technology - computers, electronic media, cell phones and more. Due to this, educators often expect students to have the technology skills needed to perform in an academic environment. Unfortunately, this is often a misconception. This article reviews the technology readiness of students at a rural community

  20. Identifying student mental models from their response pattern to a physics multiple-choice test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maximiliano Jose Montenegro Maggio

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has shown that students present different misconceptions across different but similar physical situations, but the cause of these differences is still not clear. In this study, a novel analysis method was introduced to help to gain a better understanding of how different physical situations affect students' responses and learning. This novel analysis groups students into mental model groups

  1. A Cross-Age Study of Student Understanding of the Concept of Diffusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbrook, Susan L.; Marek, Edmund A.

    1991-01-01

    Examines seventh grade life science students, tenth grade biology students, and college zoology students for understanding of the concept of diffusion. Describes the differences among the grade levels in sound or partial understanding, misconceptions, and no understanding. Discusses the effect of developmental level on understanding. (KR)

  2. Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Students' Understanding of Concepts in Electrochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Burcin; Tarhan, Leman

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the degree of effectiveness of cooperative learning instruction over a traditional approach on 11th grade students' understanding of electrochemistry. The study involved forty-one 11th grade students from two science classes with the same teacher. To determine students' misconceptions concerning…

  3. Assessing 16-Year-Old Students' Understanding of Aqueous Solution at Submicroscopic Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devetak, Iztok; Vogrinc, Janez; Glazar, Sasa Aleksij

    2009-01-01

    Submicrorepresentations (SMR) could be an important element, not only for explaining the experimental observations to students, but also in the process of evaluating students' knowledge and identifying their chemical misconceptions. This study investigated the level of students' understanding of the solution concentration and the process of…

  4. Effects of Conceptual Change Texts and Laboratory Experiments on Fourth Grade Students' Understanding of Matter and Change Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durmu?, Jale; Bayraktar, ?ule

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether conceptual change texts and laboratory experiments are effective in overcoming misconceptions and whether the concepts were acquired permanently when these methods were utilized. In this study, we addressed some topics from the "Matter and Change" unit in science and technology class of elementary 4th grade. Students from three classes of an elementary school participated in the study ( N = 104). Students' misconceptions were determined by administering the "Matter Concept Test" before, immediately after and 13 weeks after the instructional period. The results of the study showed that both conceptual change texts and experiment method were more successful than traditional instruction in overcoming the misconceptions and acquiring permanent knowledge. However, there was not a significant difference between these two alternative approaches in terms of reducing the misconceptions.

  5. Crafting an International Study of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Stephanie; Bretones, P. S.; McKinnon, D.; Schleigh, S.; Slater, T. F.; Astronomy, Center; Education Research, Physics

    2013-01-01

    Large international investigations into the learning of science, such as the TIMSS and PISA studies, have been enlightening with regard to effective instructional practices. Data from these studies revealed weaknesses and promising practices within nations' educational systems, with evidence to suggest that these studies have led to international reforms in science education. However, these reforms have focused on the general characteristics of teaching and learning across all sciences. While extraordinarily useful, these studies have provided limited insight for any given content domain. To date, there has been no systematic effort to measure individual's conceptual astronomy understanding across the globe. This paper describes our motivations for a coordinated, multinational study of astronomy understanding. First, reformed education is based upon knowing the preexisting knowledge state of our students. The data from this study will be used to assist international astronomy education and public outreach (EPO) professionals in their efforts to improve practices across global settings. Second, while the US astronomy EPO community has a long history of activity, research has established that many practices are ineffective in the face of robust misconceptions (e.g.: seasons). Within an international sample we hope to find subpopulations that do not conform to our existing knowledge of student misconceptions, leading us to cultural or educational practices that hint at alternative, effective means of instruction. Finally, it is our hope that this first venture into large-scale disciplinary collaboration will help us to craft a set of common languages and practices, building capacity and leading toward long-term cooperation across the international EPO community. This project is sponsored and managed by the Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research (CAPER), in collaboration with members of the International Astronomical Union-Commission 46. We are actively welcoming and seeking partners in this work.

  6. Not All Preconceptions Are Misconceptions: Finding "Anchoring Conceptions" for Grounding Instruction on Students' Intuitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, John; And Others

    Three purposes of this study were to: (1) propose some organizing theoretical and observational definitions of the anchor construct; (2) present some initial findings from a diagnostic test designed to uncover anchors for high school physics instruction; and (3) provoke an initial discussion of the new methodological issues that arise in this…

  7. Prejudice and misconceptions about tuberculosis and HIV in rural and urban communities in Ethiopia: a challenge for the TB/HIV control program

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, where HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are very common, little is known about the prejudice and misconceptions of rural communities towards People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) and TB. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in Gilgel Gibe Field Research area (GGFRA) in southwest Ethiopia to assess the prejudice and misconceptions of rural and urban communities towards PLHA and TB. The study population consisted of 862 randomly selected adults in GGFRA. Data were collected by trained personnel using a pretested structured questionnaire. To triangulate the findings, 8 focus group discussions among women and men were done. Results Of the 862 selected study participants, 750(87%) accepted to be interviewed. The mean age of the respondents was 31.2 (SD ± 11.0). Of the total interviewed individuals, 58% of them were females. More than half of the respondents did not know the possibility of transmission of HIV from a mother to a child or by breast feeding. For fear of contagion of HIV, most people do not want to eat, drink, and share utensils or clothes with a person living with HIV/AIDS. A higher proportion of females [OR = 1.5, (95% CI: 1.0, 2.2)], non-literate individuals [OR = 2.3, (95%CI: 1.4, 3.6)], rural residents [OR = 3.8, (95%CI: 2.2, 6.6)], and individuals who had poor knowledge of HIV/AIDS [OR = 2.8, (95%CI: 1.8, 2.2)] were more likely to have high prejudice towards PLHA than respectively males, literates, urban residents and individuals with good knowledge. Exposure to cold air was implicated as a major cause of TB. Literates had a much better knowledge about the cause and methods of transmission and prevention of TB than non-literates. More than half of the individuals (56%) had high prejudice towards a patient with TB. A larger proportion of females [OR = 1.3, (95% CI: 1.0, 1.9)] and non-literate individuals [OR = 1.4, (95% CI: 1.1, 2.0)] had high prejudice towards patients with TB than males and literate individuals. Conclusion TB/HIV control programs in collaboration with other partners should invest more in social mobilization and education of the communities to rectify the widespread prejudice and misconceptions. PMID:20604951

  8. Can I get pregnant from oral sex? Sexual health misconceptions in e-mails to a reproductive health website

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, L.L.; Foster, Angel M.; Trussell, James

    2013-01-01

    Background This study identifies sexual and reproductive health misconceptions contained in e-mails sent to an emergency contraception website. Study design From July 1, 2003 through June 30, 2004, 1,134 English-language questions were e-mailed to http://ec.princeton.edu. We performed content analysis on these e-mails and grouped misconceptions into thematic categories. Results Of the questions sent during the study period, 27% (n=303, total n=1,134) evinced underlying misconceptions about sexual and reproductive health issues. Content analysis revealed five major thematic categories of misconceptions: sexual acts that can lead to pregnancy; definitions of “protected” sex; timing of pregnancy and pregnancy testing; dangers that emergency contraceptives pose to women and fetuses; and confusion between emergency contraception and abortion. Conclusions These misconceptions have several possible sources: abstinence-only sexual education programs in the U.S., the proliferation of medically inaccurate websites, terminology used in public health campaigns, non-evidence based medical protocols, and confusion between emergency contraception and medication abortion in the media. PMID:19135564

  9. Effects of participation in inquiry science workshops and follow-up activities on middle school science teachers' content knowledge, teacher-held misconceptions, and classroom practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda, Linda F.

    An important aspect of developing science literacy for all students is developing science-literate teachers. With the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act, many middle school teachers found themselves in a position where they were no longer qualified to teach middle school science. This study was designed to help science teachers increase their science content knowledge, identify and resolve misconceptions/errors they may have, and assist them in their teaching by providing strategies for inquiry-based teaching, science laboratory exercises, and science equipment. Teachers enrolled in biology courses offered by the Rocky Mountain Middle School Math and Science Partnership participated in this study. They were required to take pre-, post-, and follow-up assessments over course concepts, complete a survey over their background and teaching pedagogy, and be observed teaching in their classrooms for three class periods followed by an interview after each observation. The results included key findings: (1) These assessments indicated that science teachers can increase their science content knowledge by attending high-quality professional development courses designed to help increase basic science content knowledge on science content. (2) Teachers held numerous misconceptions as shown by the assessments and classroom observations. Some were resolved, some that appeared to be resolved at the time of the post test reappeared again on the follow-up test, and some were not resolved. (3) Teacher observations showed that they did use science equipment provided by the course instructors and they taught the content from the Biology course where appropriate. Teachers teaching classes other than biology demonstrated their ability to teach inquiry science by employing inquiry activities and teaching with a "scientific method" approach.

  10. Students' Beliefs About the Role of Atoms in Radioactive Decay and Half-life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Edward Prather

    This study investigates students' misconceptions about radioactivity, radioactive decay, and half-life. Individual demonstration interviews and open-response and multiple-choice conceptual tests administered to students from a wide range of science backgrounds show that they are often unable to differentiate between the ideas of irradiation and contamination, and that many of their reasoning difficulties stem from their inaccurate mental models regarding the atom. The author's research indicates that these misconceptions are well-positioned to interfere with students' understanding of how half-life is used to determine geologic time.

  11. Investigating the Nature of Third Grade Students' Experiences with Concept Maps to Support Learning of Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    To support and improve effective science teaching, educators need methods to reveal student understandings and misconceptions of science concepts and to offer all students an opportunity to reflect on their own knowledge construction and organization. Students can benefit by engaging in scientific activities in which they build personal…

  12. Gender Fair Efficacy of Concept Mapping Tests in Identifying Students' Difficulties in High School Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Shilna, V.

    2014-01-01

    In view of the perceived difficulty of organic chemistry unit for high schools students, this study examined the usefulness of concept mapping as a testing device to assess students' difficulty in the select areas. Since many tests used for identifying students misconceptions and difficulties in school subjects are observed to favour one or…

  13. Analysis of the effect of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrosse, Peggy

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding. Students might be able to formally recite a definition for a term without actually having understood the meaning of the term and its connection to other terms or to related concepts. Researchers (Cassels & Johnstone, 1983; Gabel, 1999; Johnstone, 1991) have been studying the difficulty students have in learning science, particularly chemistry. Gabel (1999) suggests that, "while research into misconceptions (also known as alternative conceptions) and problem-solving has dominated the field for the past 25 years, we are no closer to a solution that would improve the teaching and learning of chemistry" (P. 549). Gabel (1999) relates the difficulty in learning chemistry to use of language. She refers to student difficulty both with words that have more than one meaning in English and with words that are used to mean one idea in chemistry and another idea in every day language. The Frayer Model, a research-based teaching strategy, is a graphic organizer which students use to create meaningful definitions for terms in context (Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969). It was used as the treatment---the specific vocabulary instruction---in this research study. The researcher collected and analyzed data to answer three research questions that focused on the effect of using the Frayer model (a graphic organizer) on high school students' knowledge and understanding of academic language used in chemistry. The research took place in a New England high school. Four intact chemistry classes provided the student participants; two classes were assigned to the treatment group (TG) and two classes were assigned to the control group (CG). The TG received vocabulary instruction on 14 chosen terms using the Frayer Model. The CG received traditional vocabulary instruction with no special attention to the 14 terms selected for this study. The vocabulary knowledge was examined by means of multiple-choice pre- and post-tests which were administered to all student participants. The choices included a scientific synonym, an everyday synonym, and a synonym based on a common misconception related to the term. Student understanding of the chemistry content was examined using chemistry content understanding pre- and post-tests comprised of four probes based on the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996) and linked to common student misconceptions which were administered to all student participants. Vocabulary knowledge effect scores were compared between the TG and CG using a t-test. Only a slight gain in vocabulary knowledge mean effect scores was found in the TG compared to the CG; however, it was not statistically significant. Chemistry content understanding effect scores were compared between the TG and CG using Chi-square analysis. The results of the chemistry content understanding effect scores in the TG compared to the CG showed that the student participants in the CG did significantly better. Chemistry content understanding effect scores and vocabulary knowledge effect scores were compared using a t-test. Chapter V provides explanations for the results which do not corroborate those found by other researchers. The researcher contends that the use of the Frayer model for specific terms in content across the curriculum is worth further study.

  14. Conceptions of Evolution among Science Graduate Students

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    T. Ryan Gregory (University of Guelph; Department of Integrative Biology)

    2009-10-01

    Many studies have assessed whether and to what degree students (grade-schoolers to undergraduates), teachers, and the public in general accept and understand evolution. However, very little information has been available about the level of understanding of students pursuing an advanced postgraduate degree in science. The study discussed in this article involved a survey of graduate students from four science colleges at a midsized Canadian university. Encouragingly, the results indicate that graduate students in diverse disciplines exhibit a better understanding of evolutionary concepts than do students at other levels. However, a working knowledge of evolutionary mechanisms may remain elusive, and some misconceptions may persist, even at this advanced level.

  15. Students' and teachers' misapplication of le chatelier's principle: Implications for the teaching of chemical equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quílez-Pardo, Juan; Solaz-Portolés, Joan Josep

    The aim of this article was to study the reasons, strategies, and procedures that both students and teachers use to solve some chemical equilibrium questions and problems. Inappropriate conceptions on teaching and a lack of knowledge regarding the limited usefulness of Le Chatelier's principle, with its vague and ambiguous formulation and textbook presentation, may be some of the sources of misconceptions about the prediction of the effect of changing conditions on chemical equilibrium. To diagnose misconceptions and their possible sources, a written test was developed and administered to 170 1st-year university chemistry students. A chemical equilibrium problem, relating to the students' test, was solved by 40 chemistry teachers. First, we ascertained that teacher's conceptions might influence the problem-solving strategies of the learner. Based on this first aspect, our discussion also concerns students' and teachers' misconceptions related to the Le Chatelier's principle. Misconceptions emerged through: (a) misapplication and misunderstanding of Le Chatelier's principle; (b) use of rote-learning recall and algorithmic procedures; (c) incorrect control of the variables involved; (d) limited use of the chemical equilibrium law; (e) a lack of mastery of chemical equilibrium principles and difficulty in transferring such principles to new situations. To avoid chemical equilibrium misconceptions, a specific pattern of conceptual and methodological change may be considered.Received: 16 November 1993; Revised: 21 September 1994;

  16. The Ultimate Factor of Safety for Aircraft and Spacecraft Its History, Applications and Misconceptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipay, John J.; Modlin, C. Thomas, Jr.; Larsen, Curtis E.

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate factor of safety (FOSULT) concept used in aircraft and spacecraft has evolved over many decades. Currently an FOSULT 1.5 is the FAR-mandated value for aircraft while an FOSULT of 1.4 has been used in various spacecraft. This paper was motivated by the desire to concisely explain the origins, proper interpretation and application of the ultimate factor of safety concept, since the authors have seen throughout their careers many misconceptions and incorrect applications of this concept. The history of the ultimate factor of safety concept is briefly summarized, the proper application of the factor of safety in aircraft design, structural analysis and operations is covered in detail, examples of limit load exceedance in aircraft and spacecraft are discussed, the evolution of the 1.4 FOSULT for spacecraft is described and some misconceptions regarding the ultimate factor of safety concept are addressed. It is hoped that this paper can be a summary resource for engineers to understand the origin, purpose and proper application of the ultimate factor of safety.

  17. Mental models and other misconceptions in children's understanding of the earth.

    PubMed

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive "mental models" of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous. Participants were 6- and 7-year-olds (N=127) who were given either the mental model theorists' original drawing task or a new version in which the same instructions and questions were rephrased to minimize ambiguity and, thus, possible misinterpretation. In response to the new version, children gave substantially more indication of having scientific understanding and less of having naive mental models, suggesting that the misconceptions reported by the mental model theorists are largely methodological artifacts. There were also differences between the responses to the original version and those reported by Vosniadou and Brewer, indicating that other factors, such as cohort and cultural effects, are also likely to help explain the discrepant findings of previous research. PMID:19100995

  18. Comparative Impact of Two Training Packages on Awareness and Practices of First Aid for Injuries and Common Illnesses among High School Students in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonu Goel; Amarjeet Singh

    Knowledge about various illnesses and their management is not satisfactory among high school students especially in rural areas in India. Various incorrect practices and myths associated with illnesses and injuries still exit. Training and education about correct management of injuries and illnesses for students is a sound and logical investment. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken among 120 students of

  19. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  20. Common Standards for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

  1. Students' Illustrations of the Human Nervous System as a Formative Assessment Tool

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-09-01

    This article describes a study to explore the students knowledge level and conceptual understanding of the human nervous system. Drawings and observations used pre, post and throughout the intervention revealed students misconceptions about the nervous system and how drawings may be used as a formative assessment tool.

  2. College Students' Perceptions about the Plausibility of Human-Induced Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2012-01-01

    Overcoming students' misconceptions may be a challenge when teaching about phenomena such as climate change. Students tend to cite short-term weather effects as evidence to support or refute long-term climate transformations, which displays a fundamental misunderstanding about weather and climate distinctions. Confusion about weather and climate…

  3. Student achievement effects of technology-supported remediation of understanding of fractions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Ross; Catherine D. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Students have difficulty learning fractions, and problems in understanding fractions persist into adulthood, with moderate to severe consequences for everyday and occupational decision-making. Remediation of student misconceptions is hampered by deficiencies in teachers’ knowledge of the discipline and pedagogical content knowledge. We theorized that a technology resource could provide the sequencing and scaffolding that teachers might have difficulty providing. Five

  4. Students' Understanding on Newton's Third Law in Identifying the Reaction Force in Gravity Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Shaona; Zhang, Chunbin; Xiao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In the past three decades, previous researches showed that students had various misconceptions of Newton's Third Law. The present study focused on students' difficulties in identifying the third-law force pair in gravity interaction situations. An instrument involving contexts with gravity and non-gravity associated interactions was designed and…

  5. Promoting Pre-Service Elementary Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium through Discussions in Small Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilgin, Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of small group discussion on students' conceptual understanding of chemical equilibrium. Students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts was measured using the Misconception Identification Test. The test consisted of 30 items and administered as pre-posttests to a total of 81…

  6. Students' Alternative Conceptions of the Human Circulatory System: A Cross-Age Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnaudin, Mary W.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    1985-01-01

    Concept maps and structured/clinical interviews were completed by 25 fourth graders and 25 college freshmen to determine knowledge of the human circulatory system. Students (N=945) at various levels were then measured for misconception frequencies. Student preconceptions appear to be tenacious, but confrontation strategies may assist fundamental…

  7. Student Teacher Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion and Acid Rain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Dove

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and discussion of a study of student teachers’ knowledge and understanding of the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion and acid rain. It describes the results of a small scale survey designed to ascertain details of student knowledge and misconceptions about these environmental issues. The study reveals familiarity with the term ‘greenhouse effect’, but little understanding

  8. What do medical students know about in-hospital radiation hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, J.H.; Wellens, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    A questionnaire (eight multiple-choice questions) administered to 49 fourth-year medical students from the Limburg State University in the Netherlands shows that several misunderstandings, misconceptions, and erroneous beliefs exist in regard to in-hospital radiation hazards. The authors conclude that it is unlikely that ignorance about this subject is restricted to Dutch medical students.

  9. Progression in High School Students' (Aged 16-18) Conceptualizations about Chemical Reactions in Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, Hong-Kwen; Watson, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the development over time of students' understandings of the concept of chemical reaction in the context of two familiar reactions in solution. Based on interviews (n=48), results show that students made some progress in their understanding of the concept of chemical reaction but some fundamental misconceptions remained. (Author/MM)

  10. The Relationship between College Zoology Students' Beliefs about Evolutionary Theory and Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Anne; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Researchers administered surveys to college zoology students prior to, and immediately following a study of evolutionary theory, to assess their understanding and acceptance of evidence supporting the theory. Results showed students had many misconceptions about the theory. Their beliefs interfered with their ability to objectively view scientific…

  11. Using a Two-Tier Test to Analyse Students' and Teachers' Alternative Concepts in Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanli, U.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of physics teachers' as well as university and high school students' understanding of some astronomy concepts. In recent years, the significance of astronomy teaching in science education has gradually increased. Many research studies indicate that students have misconceptions about the reasons for seasons, the…

  12. Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Students about the Algebraic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanisli, Dilek; Kose, Nilufer Yavuzsoy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate preservice primary mathematics teachers' ability to discuss and investigate students' thinking process about the concepts of variable, equality and equation, to analyse their ability to predict student difficulties and misconceptions and, in this respect, to present their subject-matter knowledge and…

  13. The Parallelism between Scientists' and Students' Resistance to New Scientific Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campanario, Juan Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Compares resistance by scientists to new ideas in scientific discovery with students' resistance to conceptual change in scientific learning. Studies the resistance by students to abandoning their misconceptions concerning scientific topics and the resistance by scientists to scientific discovery. (Contains 64 references.) (Author/YDS)

  14. Common Chemistry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

    A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.

  15. Sketching Graphs--An Efficient Way of Probing Students' Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merhar, Vida Kariz; Planinsic, Gorazd; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a teaching method that allows for the fast and early detection of students' conceptions, misconceptions and their development. The empirical study of two examples where the method was applied is reported. The prerequisites for the efficient use of the method are discussed and results of the pilot study of its effectiveness are…

  16. What's in a Word? How Word Choice Can Develop (Mis)conceptions About the Nature of Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Renee Schwartz

    2007-10-01

    Despite over 10 years of reform efforts, research still shows that students typically have inadequate conceptions of what science is and what scientists do (McComas 2004; Lederman 2007). Many science students, as well as some teachers, use a single "scientific method" that, "proves a hypothesis" by systematic data collection. This view does not acknowledge creativity, inference, or tentativeness as characteristics of science. It not only misrepresents the nature of science, but likely makes science inaccessible to many students. The techniques included here raise awareness of common terminology and the image of the nature of science in general.

  17. Challenges Posed by Some Misconceptions in Mathematical Physics: A Case Study of Work Done and Potential Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yah, Jake K.

    2011-01-01

    This study is focused on the concept and formalism of work done and potential energy on the very fundamental level. A detailed analysis of the incomplete presentations of the topics found a major misconception that precluded acknowledgement of existence of certain nonradial effects caused by classical radial/center-bound gravitational force fields…

  18. Correcting Misconceptions on Electronics: Effects of a Simulation-Based Learning Environment Backed by a Conceptual Change Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Lung; Pan, Pei-Rong; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En

    2013-01-01

    Computer simulation has significant potential as a supplementary tool for effective conceptual-change learning based on the integration of technology and appropriate instructional strategies. This study elucidates misconceptions in learning on diodes and constructs a conceptual-change learning system that incorporates…

  19. Teaching and Learning in the Era of the Common Core: An Introduction to the Project and the Nine Research Papers in the "Students at the Center" Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs for the Future, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Despite the wide interest in and need for student-centered approaches to learning, educators have scant access to a comprehensive accounting of the key components of it. To build the knowledge base for the emerging field of student-centered learning, Jobs for the Future, a national nonprofit based in Boston, commissioned papers from nine teams of…

  20. Misconceptions in recent papers on special relativity and absolute space theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, D. G.; Kolen, P.

    1982-01-01

    Several recent papers which purport to substantiate or negate arguments in favor of certain theories of absolute space have been based on fallacious principles. This paper discusses three related instances, indicating where misconceptions have arisen. It is established, contrary to popular belief, that the classical Lorentz ether theory accounts for all the experimental evidence which supports the special theory of relativity. It is demonstrated that the ether theory predicts the null results obtained from pulsar timing and Moessbauer experiments. It is concluded that a measurement of the one-way velocity of light has physical meaning within the context of the Lorentz theory, and it is argued that an adequately designed experiment to measure the one-way velocity of light should be attempted.

  1. Common psychiatric problems in homosexual men and women consulting family physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M F

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the commoner psychiatric difficulties of homosexual patients seen in a family practice. It is written primarily to aid general practitioners in deciding who should be referred to a psychiatrist. Recent developments in the study of homosexuality indicate that homosexual persons are no more likely than heterosexuals to suffer psychiatric problems. Practical suggestions are made for management and counseling, and some of the misconceptions about the gay community are dispelled. PMID:7020902

  2. Seventh Grade Students' Qualitative Understanding of the Concept of Mass Influenced by Real Experiments and Virtual Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamenkovski, Sasha; Zajkov, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This research is conducted among 65 seventh graders (12-14 years old) who attend introductory course on physics. Tests and interviews are used to trace the roots of the students' misconceptions about mass. Results from the research reveal serious weaknesses in students' understanding of concept of mass, and its confusion with concepts of…

  3. The Persistence of Personal and Social Themes in Context: Long- and Short-Term Studies of Students' Scientific Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellden, Gustav F.; Solomon, Joan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we will examine the persistence of "misconceptions." We used data from a longitudinal study of personal ideas in 24 students' thinking about ecological processes. The results show students often speaking about personal experiences dating from an early age, to which they had also referred in similar interviews conducted years before.…

  4. Instructional Needs of the New Student. Proceedings of Workshops on Faculty and Staff Development, University of Kentucky Community College System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Inst. for Higher Educational Opportunity.

    Three conference papers comprise the bulk of this report on understanding "new students" and their academic needs. "The Promise of Learning Through Developmental Programs", by Johnnie Ruth Clarke, deals with the effectiveness of developmental studies while shattering misconceptions surrounding the labels typically assigned these students, such as…

  5. Conceptual Difficulties Experienced by Senior High School Students of Electrochemistry: Electric Circuits and Oxidation-Reduction Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnett, Pamela J.; Treagust, David F.

    1992-01-01

    Interview data exemplify students' attempts to integrate the concepts of electrochemistry with related knowledge that they had previously constructed or acquired in other classes. The implications for minimizing potential misconceptions center on the difficulties students experience when using more than one model for explaining scientific…

  6. Understanding Randomness and Its Impact on Student Learning: Lessons Learned from Building the Biology Concept Inventory (BCI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvin-Doxas, Kathy; Klymkowsky, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    While researching student assumptions for the development of the Biology Concept Inventory (BCI; http://bioliteracy.net), we found that a wide class of student difficulties in molecular and evolutionary biology appears to be based on deep-seated, and often unaddressed, misconceptions about random processes. Data were based on more than 500…

  7. Common Cold

    MedlinePLUS

    ... en español] National Library of Medicine, Medline Plus ? Common Cold Skip Content Marketing Share this: JavaScript is disabled in your browser. To view this content, please enable JavaScript and refresh the page. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. ...

  8. Common Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents K-12 and college common areas considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

  9. Common Chuckwalla

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Common Chuckwalla is primarily found across the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the United States and Mexico, at elevations ranging from sea level to 1,370 m. This large (125–180 mm) lizard is dorsoventrally flattened and has wrinkles on its belly and neck. Chuckwallas are strongly associa...

  10. Common Core: Fact vs. Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Despite students' interest in informational text, it has played second fiddle in literacy instruction for years. Now, though, nonfiction is getting its turn in the spotlight. The Common Core State Standards require that students become thoughtful consumers of complex, informative texts--taking them beyond the realm of dry textbooks and…

  11. Investigating Undergraduate Students’ Conceptions of Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, James M.; Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, Chris; Nieberding, Megan; Antonellis, Jessie C.

    2014-11-01

    Radiation is an essential topic to the physical sciences yet is often misunderstood by the general public. The last time most people have formal instruction about radiation is as students in high school and this knowledge will be carried into adulthood. Peoples’ conceptions of radiation influence their attitude towards research regarding radiation, radioactivity, and other work where radiation is prevalent. In order to understand students’ ideas about radiation after having left high school, we collected science surveys from nearly 12,000 undergraduates enrolled in introductory science courses over a span of 25 years. This research investigates the relationship between students’ conceptions of radiation and students’ personal beliefs and academic field of study.Our results show that many students in the sample were unable to adequately describe radiation. Responses were typically vague, brief, and emotionally driven. Students’ field of study was found to significantly correlate with their conceptions. Students pursuing STEM majors were 60% more likely to describe radiation as an emission and/or form of energy and cited atomic or radioactive sources of radiation twice as often as non-STEM students. Additionally, students’ personal beliefs also appear to relate to their conceptions of radiation. The most prominent misconception shown was that radiation is a generically harmful substance, which was found to be consistent throughout the duration of the study. In particular, non-science majors in our sample had higher rates of misconceptions, often generalized the idea of radiation into a broad singular topic, and had difficulty properly identifying sources.Generalized ideas of radiation and the inability to properly recognize sources of radiation may contribute to the prevalent misconception that radiation is an inexplicably dangerous substance. A basic understanding of both electromagnetic and particulate radiation and the existence of radiation at various energy levels may substantially deter fear-based generalizations and increase students’ abilities to make rational decisions when encountering various types of radiation in daily life.

  12. Students' understandings of the behavior of a gaseous substance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Edward Louis, II

    One hundred sixteen community college students enrolled in a basic chemistry class who had completed a unit on the behavior of a gaseous substance were given a written instrument that presented several mathematical and conceptual problems describing the behavior of a gas. Nine students representing a range of achievement levels were chosen for more intensive clinical interviews. Interview results revealed that students commonly experience difficulties at three different levels: (1) Mathematical understanding. Most students could manipulate the gas law equations, but few had a real understanding of the equation. There were some unique understanding of proportional relationships. (2) Conceptual understanding. Many students could represent pictorially the notion that gas molecules randomly occupy the entire space of its container. Many, however, had a different conception of this when the air was compressed. The reason for this seemed to be due to a misunderstanding of the kinetic molecular theory. (3) Real-world application . Students' use of their mathematical understanding to explain the behavior of air in a real syringe revealed some internal consistency found in mathematical explanations of real-world phenomena. Many students used mathematical strategies consistent with their mathematical understanding and satisfactory for producing reasonable estimates of numerical values. All of the 9 students had misconceptions about mathematical proportionality with most of them understanding proportional relationships as being additive in nature. Although some of the students were able to state the relationship between two variables, they could only do so outside of the context of the gas law equation. Only one student was able to propose a reasonable explanation of the proportional relationships between variables in a gas law equation. All 9 students were classified as either transitional or naive in the real-world use of their mathematical understandings with 3 of the 9 clearly having naive conceptions of the mathematics of gas behavior. Also, a majority of the 9 students could clearly represent the nature of the submicroscopic level of gas behavior when asked to draw it during the clinical interview. However, only 2 of these students had the chemist's understanding of this concept when put to use with a real-world task.

  13. Usage and awareness of the online Texas Common Application by students in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Texas A&M University

    E-print Network

    Dousay, Tonia Anne

    2000-01-01

    The impact of telecommunications on post-secondary education has quickly moved to the spotlight in the past five years. In 1997, the Texas Senate passed a resolution that amended the education code and resulted in the online Texas Common...

  14. Measuring University students' understanding of the greenhouse effect - a comparison of multiple-choice, short answer and concept sketch assessment tools with respect to students' mental models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, A. U.; Harris, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The greenhouse effect comes up in most discussions about climate and is a key concept related to climate change. Existing studies have shown that students and adults alike lack a detailed understanding of this important concept or might hold misconceptions. We studied the effectiveness of different interventions on University-level students' understanding of the greenhouse effect. Introductory level science students were tested for their pre-knowledge of the greenhouse effect using validated multiple-choice questions, short answers and concept sketches. All students participated in a common lesson about the greenhouse effect and were then randomly assigned to one of two lab groups. One group explored an existing simulation about the greenhouse effect (PhET-lesson) and the other group worked with absorption spectra of different greenhouse gases (Data-lesson) to deepen the understanding of the greenhouse effect. All students completed the same assessment including multiple choice, short answers and concept sketches after participation in their lab lesson. 164 students completed all the assessments, 76 completed the PhET lesson and 77 completed the data lesson. 11 students missed the contrasting lesson. In this presentation we show the comparison between the multiple-choice questions, short answer questions and the concept sketches of students. We explore how well each of these assessment types represents student's knowledge. We also identify items that are indicators of the level of understanding of the greenhouse effect as measured in correspondence of student answers to an expert mental model and expert responses. Preliminary data analysis shows that student who produce concept sketch drawings that come close to expert drawings also choose correct multiple-choice answers. However, correct multiple-choice answers are not necessarily an indicator that a student produces an expert-like correlating concept sketch items. Multiple-choice questions that require detailed knowledge of the greenhouse effect (e.g. direction of re-emission of infrared energy from greenhouse gas) are significantly more likely to be answered correctly by students who also produce expert-like concept sketch items than by students who don't include this aspect in their sketch and don't answer the multiple choice questions correctly. This difference is not as apparent for less technical multiple-choice questions (e.g. type of radiation emitted by Sun). Our findings explore the formation of student's mental models throughout different interventions and how well the different assessment techniques used in this study represent the student understanding of the overall concept.

  15. SU-E-I-60: The Correct Selection of Pitch and Rotation Time for Optimal CT Scanning : The Big Misconception

    SciTech Connect

    Ranallo, F; Szczykutowicz, T [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To provide correct guidance in the proper selection of pitch and rotation time for optimal CT imaging with multi-slice scanners. Methods: There exists a widespread misconception concerning the role of pitch in patient dose with modern multi-slice scanners, particularly with the use of mA modulation techniques. We investigated the relationship of pitch and rotation time to image quality, dose, and scan duration, with CT scanners from different manufacturers in a way that clarifies this misconception. This source of this misconception may concern the role of pitch in single slice CT scanners. Results: We found that the image noise and dose are generally independent of the selected effective mAs (mA*time/ pitch) with manual mA technique settings and are generally independent of the selected pitch and /or rotation time with automatic mA modulation techniques. However we did find that on certain scanners the use of a pitch just above 0.5 provided images of equal image noise at a lower dose compared to the use of a pitch just below 1.0. Conclusion: The misconception that the use of a lower pitch over-irradiates patients by wasting dose is clearly false. The use of a lower pitch provides images of equal or better image quality at the same patient dose, whether using manual mA or automatic mA modulation techniques. By decreasing the pitch and the rotation times by equal amounts, both helical and patient motion artifacts can be reduced without affecting the exam time. The use of lower helical pitch also allows better scanning of larger patients by allowing a greater scan effective mAs, if the exam time can be extended. The one caution with the use of low pitch is not related to patient dose, but to the length of the scan time if the rotation time is not set short enough. Partial Research funding from GE HealthCare.

  16. Common Data Set 2012-2013 G0 Please provide the URL of your institution's net price calculahttps://npc.collegeboard.org/student/app/iit

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    for commuters not living at home): G5 Transportation G5 Other expenses G6 G6 PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS: G6 PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS In-district: G6 PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS In-state (out-of-district): G6 PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS Out-of-state: G6 NONRESIDENT ALIENS: Provide the estimated expenses for a typical full-time undergraduate student

  17. Working for Small Organisations

    E-print Network

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    · a more entrepreneurial, less hierarchical work environment · early responsibilities and use of individualWorking for Small Organisations A common misconception amongst students is that a `graduate job

  18. Instruction and "The Commons". The College Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasowitz-Scheer, Abby

    2009-01-01

    Many academic libraries have embraced the concept of the information commons or the learning commons. These library spaces consist of collections of tools, services and programs intended to enhance the student learning experience. According to Scott Bennett (2008), an information commons supports learning, while the learning commons "enacts" the…

  19. Development of Three-Tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Diagnostic Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Misconceptions are major obstacles to learning physics, and the concepts of heat and temperature are some of the common misconceptions that are encountered in daily life. Therefore, it is important to develop valid and reliable tools to determine students' misconceptions about basic thermodynamics concepts. Three-tier tests are…

  20. Marvels, Mysteries, and Misconceptions of Vascular Compensation to Peripheral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    ZIEGLER, MATTHEW A.; DISTASI, MATTHEW R.; BILLS, RANDALL G.; MILLER, STEVEN J.; ALLOOSH, MOUHAMAD; MURPHY, MICHAEL P.; AKINGBA, A. GEORGE; STUREK, MICHAEL; DALSING, MICHAEL C.; UNTHANK, JOSEPH L.

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is a major health problem and there is a significant need to develop therapies to prevent its progression to claudication and critical limb ischemia. Promising results in rodent models of arterial occlusion have generally failed to predict clinical success and led to questions of their relevance. While sub-optimal models may have contributed to the lack of progress, we suggest that advancement has also been hindered by misconceptions of the human capacity for compensation and the specific vessels which are of primary importance. We present and summarize new and existing data from humans, Ossabaw miniature pigs, and rodents which provide compelling evidence that natural compensation to occlusion of a major artery (i) may completely restore perfusion, (ii) occurs in specific pre-existing small arteries, rather than the distal vasculature, via mechanisms involving flow-mediated dilation and remodeling (iii) is impaired by cardiovascular risk factors which suppress the flow-mediated mechanisms and (iv) can be restored by reversal of endothelial dysfunction. We propose that restoration of the capacity for flow-mediated dilation and remodeling in small arteries represents a largely unexplored potential therapeutic opportunity to enhance compensation for major arterial occlusion and prevent the progression to critical limb ischemia in the peripheral circulation. PMID:20141596

  1. Common Core State Standards in the Middle Grades: What's New in the Geometry Domain and How Can Teachers Support Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teuscher, Dawn; Tran, Dung; Reys, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) is a primary focus of attention for many stakeholders' (e.g., teachers, district mathematics leaders, and curriculum developers) intent on improving mathematics education. This article reports on specific content shifts related to the geometry domain in the middle grades (6-8)…

  2. Indigenous, Pre-Undergraduate and International Students at Central Queensland University, Australia: Three Cases of the Dynamic Tension between Diversity and Commonality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowser, Don; Danaher, Patrick A.; Somasundaram, Jay

    2007-01-01

    While diversity and commonality are not necessarily contradictory aspirations in relation to contemporary teaching in higher education, they exist potentially in a state of dynamic tension, fostered by market-based and government-induced policies that strive to have the largest and widest possible client- or customer-base, while reducing costs by…

  3. Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. Appendix C: Samples of Student Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This document presents writing samples that have been annotated to illustrate the criteria required to meet the Common Core State Standards for particular types of writing--argument, informative/explanatory text, and narrative--in a given grade. Each of the samples exhibits at least the level of quality required to meet the Writing standards for…

  4. Conceptions of Knowledge in Research on Students' Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect: Methodological Positions and Their Consequences for Representations of Knowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsson, Anders; Makitalo, Asa; Saljo, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Much of the research on students' understanding of the greenhouse effect and global warming reports poor results. Students are claimed to hold misconceptions and naive beliefs, and the impact of teaching on their conceptions is also low. In the present study, these results are called into question, and it is argued that they may to a large extent…

  5. College Students’ Perceptions About the Plausibility of Human-Induced Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doug Lombardi; Gale M. Sinatra

    2010-01-01

    Overcoming studentsmisconceptions may be a challenge when teaching about phenomena such as climate change. Students tend\\u000a to cite short-term weather effects as evidence to support or refute long-term climate transformations, which displays a fundamental\\u000a misunderstanding about weather and climate distinctions. Confusion about weather and climate may also reflect student misunderstanding\\u000a about deep time, a concept that spans several scientific

  6. Effect of Instruction Based on Conceptual Change Activities on Students' Understanding of Static Electricity Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baser, Mustafa; Geban, Omer

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of learning activities based on conceptual change conditions and traditionally designed physics instruction on tenth-grade students' understanding of static electricity concepts and their attitudes toward physics as a school subject. Misconceptions related to static electricity concepts…

  7. A Simple Exercise Reveals the Way Students Think About Scientific Modeling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laura Ruebush

    2009-01-01

    Scientific modeling is an integral part of contemporary science, yet many students have little understanding of how models are developed, validated, and used to predict and explain phenomena. A simple modeling exercise led to significant gains in understanding key attributes of scientific modeling while revealing some stubborn misconceptions.

  8. The Influence of Student Understanding of Classical Physics When Learning Quantum Mechanics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this conference presentation, the authors describe two examples of students having difficulty constructing an understanding of quantum mechanics due to an erroneous model of classical physics. For each example, the authors describe how a misconception of a classical concept impairs the learning of a quantum concept. This paper contains a brief discussion of how these difficulties may be addressed.

  9. Assessment of cognitive factors that impact on student knowledge of genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy Nelson Gerow

    1999-01-01

    Attaining an understanding of basic principles of inheritance and their implications is crucial for all people as society is confronted with a variety of ethical, sociological and ecological questions generated by the rapid growth of genetic knowledge. College level students are burdened by terminology, have difficulty making associations among related ideas, and often possess misconceptions or fragmented ideas about how

  10. Overcoming the Challenges of Counseling College Student Athletes. ERIC/CASS Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joshua C.

    This digest addresses one of the most recognized, yet unofficial, special populations on college campuses nationwide-- college student athletes. It is proposed that misconceptions and stereotypical viewpoints have hindered the development of effective counseling interventions with this population. Although college counseling centers are available,…

  11. Learning "through" Computers: Uncovering Students' Thought Processes while Solving Physics Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soong, Benson

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a study that illustrates how the author and an in service secondary school teacher used basic synchronous computer mediated communications (CMC) technology to help them uncover students' physics preconceptions and thought processes (including their misconceptions and misunderstandings) in a real class setting. In this paper, I…

  12. The Impact of the Affinity Learning Authoring Tool on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Leen-Kiat; Fowler, David; Zygielbaum, Art I.

    2008-01-01

    Affinity Learning is a system that allows the user to build a lesson on a subject matter by breaking it down into concepts, misconceptions, assessments, and remediation steps. Examples and questions can also used in these components. Affinity Learning has been found to be effective and can offer critical insights to student learning strategies.…

  13. Students' and Teachers' Misapplication of Le Chatelier's Principle: Implications for the Teaching of Chemical Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilez-Pardo, Juan; Solaz-Portoles, Joan Josep

    1995-01-01

    Study of strategies and procedures of 170 students and 40 teachers when solving chemical equilibrium problems found misconceptions emerging through: misapplication of Le Chatelier's Principle, use of rote-learning recall, incorrect control of variables, limited use of chemical equilibrium law, lack of mastery of chemical equilibrium principles,…

  14. Classroom Terraria: Enhancing Student Understanding of Plant-Related Gas Processes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephen Thompson

    2010-04-01

    Despite our best teaching efforts, many students hold misconceptions related to the roles plants play in gas-related processes (Amir and Tamir 1994; Hershey 1992; 2004). In an effort to remedy this problem, the author presents a series of activities that

  15. Students' Proofs of One-to-One and onto Properties in Introductory Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Ann; Champion, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Learning to write formal mathematical proofs presents a major challenge to undergraduates. Students who have succeeded in algorithm-intensive courses such as calculus often find the abstract logic and nonprocedural nature of proof writing to be technically difficult, ambiguous and "filled" with potential errors and misconceptions. This…

  16. Conceptual Difficulties Experienced by Senior High School Students of Electrochemistry: Electrochemical (Galvanic) and Electrolytic Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnett, Pamela J.; Treagust, David F.

    1992-01-01

    This research used semistructured interviews to investigate students' (n=32) understanding of electrochemistry following a 7-9 week course of instruction. Three misconceptions were identified and incorporated with five previously reported into an alternative framework about electric current involving drifting electrons. Also noted was the tendency…

  17. Effectiveness of a Conceptual Change-Oriented Teaching Strategy to Improve Students' Understanding of Galvanic Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkaya, Ali Riza; Uce, Musa; Saricayir, Hakan; Sahin, Musa

    2006-01-01

    The results of previous educational research raise some questions about the efficacy of conventional teaching strategies and point to a need for using teaching strategies that explicitly take into account misconceptions students bring to the classes or acquire during the teaching-learning process. Accordingly, this article presents efforts to…

  18. Common cold

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Each year, children suffer up to 5 colds and adults have two to three infections, leading to time off school or work, and considerable discomfort. Most symptoms resolve within 1 week, but coughs often persist for longer. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for common cold? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 21 systematic reviews and RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antihistamines, decongestants for short-term and for long-term relief, decongestants plus antihistamines, echinacea, steam inhalation, vitamin C, and zinc (intranasal gel or lozenges). PMID:21406124

  19. Relationships among selected physical science misconceptions held by preservice elementary teachers and four variables: Formal reasoning ability, working memory capacity, verbal intelligence, and field dependence/independence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Leslie Little

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of selected cognitive abilities and physical science misconceptions held by preservice elementary teachers. The cognitive abilities under investigation were: formal reasoning ability as measured by the Lawson Classroom Test of Formal Reasoning (Lawson, 1978); working memory capacity as measured by the Figural Intersection Test (Burtis & Pascual-Leone, 1974); verbal intelligence as measured by the Acorn National Academic Aptitude Test: Verbal Intelligence (Kobal, Wrightstone, & Kunze, 1944); and field dependence/independence as measured by the Group Embedded Figures Test (Witkin, Oltman, & Raskin, 1971). The number of physical science misconceptions held by preservice elementary teachers was measured by the Misconceptions in Science Questionnaire (Franklin, 1992). The data utilized in this investigation were obtained from 36 preservice elementary teachers enrolled in two sections of a science methods course at a small regional university in the southeastern United States. Multiple regression techniques were used to analyze the collected data. The following conclusions were reached following an analysis of the data. The variables of formal reasoning ability and verbal intelligence were identified as having significant relationships, both individually and in combination, to the dependent variable of selected physical science misconceptions. Though the correlations were not high enough to yield strong predictors of physical science misconceptions or strong relationships, they were of sufficient magnitude to warrant further investigation. It is recommended that further investigation be conducted replicating this study with a larger sample size. In addition, experimental research should be implemented to explore the relationships suggested in this study between the cognitive variables of formal reasoning ability and verbal intelligence and the dependent variable of selected physical science misconceptions. Further research should also focus on the detection of a broad range of science misconceptions among preservice elementary teachers.

  20. Investigating Science Literacy: Students' Conceptions of Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, James; Buxner, S.; Impey, C. D.; Nieberding, M. N.; Antonellis, J. C.; Collaborations of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS)

    2014-01-01

    This study is part of a larger investigation of students' science literacy in which we have been collecting survey data from undergraduate students enrolled in introductory science courses from 1980-2013. The overall survey asks students questions about basic topics in science and technology. We present results from the analysis of students' open-ended responses to the question "What is radiation?" Our findings show that a substantial number of students' perceptions of radiation are focused on the dangers of radiation and less on the applications. A large fraction of students correctly identified radiation as energy or light, although they expressed the misconception that only part of the electromagnetic spectrum counted as radiation. Overall, students expressed a number of misconceptions about the sources and uses of radiation although over 80% know that radiation can occur naturally or be man made. We present how these findings relate to other large trends from the survey. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  1. Three Misconceptions about Radiation--And What We Teachers Can Do to Confront Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    During the last few years teaching physics, I have noticed that my students are becoming more and more interested in the topic of radiation. Mobile phones, modern game consoles, and WiFi--all of these devices involving some kind of radiation are part of our students' everyday lives. Students are also frequently confronted in the media with…

  2. The Effect of Perspective on Misconceptions in Psychology: A Test of Conceptual Change Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsel, Eric; Johnston, Adam; Alvarado, Elly; Kettering, Jack; Rankin, Lauren; Ward, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    To test whether students' knowledge about psychology undergoes a conceptual change when learning about the discipline, 227 Introductory Psychology students from six different classes were given the Psychology as a Science (PAS) Scale in one of two conditions. Students were randomly assigned to complete the questionnaire from their own (Self…

  3. Confronting Scientific Misconceptions by Fostering a Classroom of Scientists in the Introductory Biology Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holding, Matthew L.; Denton, Robert D.; Kulesza, Amy E.; Ridgway, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental component of science curricula is the understanding of scientific inquiry. Although recent trends favor using student inquiry to learn concepts through hands-on activities, it is often unclear to students where the line is drawn between the content and the process of science. This activity explicitly introduces students to the…

  4. Laptop Use in University Common Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Bill

    2006-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence existed about the many students who use their laptops and the wireless network in university common spaces, but little was known about how, where, and why students use laptops on campus, and less was known about students' awareness of university wireless network policies and security. This article discusses the results of a…

  5. Infrared Astronomy and Education: Linking Infrared Whole Sky Mapping with Teacher and Student Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borders, Kareen; Mendez, Bryan; Thaller, Michelle; Gorjian, Varoujan; Borders, Kyla; Pitman, Peter; Pereira, Vincent; Sepulveda, Babs; Stark, Ron; Knisely, Cindy; Dandrea, Amy; Winglee, Robert; Plecki, Marge; Goebel, Jeri; Condit, Matt; Kelly, Susan

    The Spitzer Space Telescope and the recently launched WISE (Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer) observe the sky in infrared light. Among the objects WISE will study are asteroids, the coolest and dimmest stars, and the most luminous galaxies. Secondary students can do authentic research using infrared data. For example, students will use WISE data to mea-sure physical properties of asteroids. In order to prepare students and teachers at this level with a high level of rigor and scientific understanding, the WISE and the Spitzer Space Tele-scope Education programs provided an immersive teacher professional development workshop in infrared astronomy.The lessons learned from the Spitzer and WISE teacher and student pro-grams can be applied to other programs engaging them in authentic research experiences using data from space-borne observatories such as Herschel and Planck. Recently, WISE Educator Ambassadors and NASA Explorer School teachers developed and led an infrared astronomy workshop at Arecibo Observatory in PuertoRico. As many common misconceptions involve scale and distance, teachers worked with Moon/Earth scale, solar system scale, and distance and age of objects in the Universe. Teachers built and used basic telescopes, learned about the history of telescopes, explored ground and satellite based telescopes, and explored and worked on models of WISE Telescope. An in-depth explanation of WISE and the Spitzer telescopes gave participants background knowledge for infrared astronomy observations. We taught the electromagnetic spectrum through interactive stations. We will outline specific steps for sec-ondary astronomy professional development, detail student involvement in infrared telescope data analysis, provide data demonstrating the impact of the above professional development on educator understanding and classroom use, and detail future plans for additional secondary professional development and student involvement in infrared astronomy. Funding was provided by NASA, WISE Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Starbucks, and Washington Space Grant Consortium.

  6. Common Ground: Finding Commonalities in Diverse Musical Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gault, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on teaching commonalities in diverse musical genres. Teachers need to relate the musical activities performed in class to music that students experience in the world around them since they understand music in relation to history and culture. A key to selecting high-quality musical examples is to find music pieces that contain…

  7. Academic Engagement in the Library Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Charlie; Bodnar, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written about library commons in recent years. For the most part, that literature has dealt with designing information and learning commons that support student learning by giving them the tools and resources they need for their academic work. However, few authors have discussed how a library commons might facilitate collaboration…

  8. A Study of University Students' Understanding of Simple Electric Circuits. Part 2: Batteries, Ohm's Law, Power Dissipated, Resistors in Parallel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picciarelli, V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Results of a systematic investigation into university students' (n=236) misunderstandings of d.c. simple circuit operations are reported. These results provide evidence of various misconceptions present before and after teaching the following topics: a battery as a source of constant current; the functional relation expressed by Ohm's law; power…

  9. The Influence of 16-Year-Old Students' Gender, Mental Abilities, and Motivation on Their Reading and Drawing Submicrorepresentations Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devetak, Iztok; Glazar, Sasa Aleksij

    2010-01-01

    Submicrorepresentations (SMRs) are a powerful tool for identifying misconceptions of chemical concepts and for generating proper mental models of chemical phenomena in students' long-term memory during chemical education. The main purpose of the study was to determine which independent variables (gender, formal reasoning abilities, visualization…

  10. Assessing the Life Science Knowledge of Students and Teachers Represented by the K-8 National Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip M.; Coyle, Harold; Cook Smith, Nancy; Miller, Jaimie; Mintzes, Joel; Tanner, Kimberly; Murray, John

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on the National Research Council (NRC) K-8 life sciences content standards. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we constructed 476 unique multiple-choice items that measure the degree to which test…

  11. Toward Harmonious East-West Educational Partnerships: A Study of Cultural Differences between Taiwanese and Norwegian Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Hua-Li; Sandnes, Frode E.; Huang, Yo-Ping; Huang, Yueh-Min; Hagen, Simen

    2010-01-01

    The collaboration activities between educational institutions in the East and the West are on the increase as an increasingly globalized economy requires graduates to have the skills to work across cultural divides. Such collaborations are difficult and require patience. One challenge is that students or teachers may have misconceptions about…

  12. Focusing on the Nature of Causality in a Unit on Pressure: How Does It Affect Student Understanding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basca, Belinda B.; Grotzer, Tina A.

    Although pressure forms the basis for understanding topics such as the internal structure of the earth, weather cycles, rock formation, Bernoulli's principle, and plate tectonics, the presence of this concept in the school curriculum is at a minimal level. This paper suggests that the ideas, misconceptions, and perceptions of students have to do…

  13. Common Core: Rx for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paige

    2012-01-01

    When David Coleman, one of the authors of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), spoke to New York educators, he stated that over the last forty years 8th grade reading scores have been flat. Despite doubling expenditures on classroom instruction, there has been little growth. Most educators are aware that what worked for the students of the…

  14. Overcoming misconceptions via analogical reasoning: abstract transfer versus explanatory model construction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Brown; John Clement

    1989-01-01

    In most work investigating factors influencing the success of analogies in instruction, an underlying assumption is that students have little or no knowledge of the target situation (the situation to be explained by analogy). It is interesting to ask what influences the success of analogies when students believe they understand the target situation. If this understanding is not normative, instruction

  15. Using Conceptual Change Texts with Analogies for Misconceptions in Acids and Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetingul, Ipek; Geban, Omer

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of conceptual change oriented instruction over traditional instruction on students' understanding of acids and bases concept. Besides, effects of gender difference and science process skills on students' understanding of acids and bases were also investigated. Analysis of the results showed…

  16. A New Direction: How a Compass Pointed the Way to Clearing Up an Attractive Misconception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Ask a typical high school student to draw a picture of how a bar magnet works and most of the drawings produced will show a "+" and "-" sign at the two ends. Some students will write "N" and "S." If you then ask some follow-up questions, they will often resort to talking about "charges" being responsible for the magnetism. For several years, I…

  17. Investigating the informed consent process, therapeutic misconception and motivations of Egyptian research participants: a qualitative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mansour, H; Zaki, N; Abdelhai, R; Sabry, N; Silverman, H; El-Kamary, S S

    2015-03-01

    Few studies have explored the informed consent process among research participants in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the informed consent process, therapeutic misconception and motivation for participation among Egyptians participating in clinical trials. In a cross-sectional qualitative pilot study 103 participants in 10 clinical trials responded to a questionnaire. Over 90% agreed they had time to ask questions and received adequate information about the risks prior to consenting. All participants thought the research and the drug would improve their condition; only 46.1% were aware of receiving a non-approved experimental drug and 21.3% of being randomized. Reasons for participation included: better treatment (100%), to benefit society & advance science (85.4%), to receive free drugs (42.6%) and medical care (43.6%), to get hospitalized (15.8%) and to receive money or gifts (4.9%). Investigators need to emphasize the distinction between research and clinical care to address the high rate of therapeutic misconception. PMID:26074215

  18. Classroom Assessments: Revealing Student Thinking : Northwest Teacher, volume 3 number 2

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Amy Sutton

    2002-01-01

    In this issue of Northwest Teacher, youll read about teachers who are assessing their students learning along the way to gain insight into their thinking and understanding of an idea. They use the information they gain to improve their practice, adjusting their teaching strategies to meet the learning needs of each child in their classroom. They also encourage their students to assess themselves, to use evidence of their understanding or misconceptions to further their own learning.

  19. Integrating Sand Tray and Solution Focused Brief Counseling as a Model for Working with Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBrayer, Rachel H.; Chibbaro, Julia S.

    2012-01-01

    School counselors are master jugglers and must assume a variety of roles and tasks in order to be successful. Despite common misconceptions, Play Therapy is not for exclusive use with younger children. In fact, adolescents can also benefit from its unique properties. One integrated technique that could prove to be especially helpful with middle…

  20. What Happens to a Magnet in a Strong" Magnetic Field? An Experiment to Confront Classic Misconceptions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff-Reichert, Barbara L.

    2001-11-01

    Do you think your students could accurately predict the behavior of a magnetic dipole placed in a uniform magnetic field? Even graduate students often get it wrong! This talk will describe a simple experiment, designed for the introductory lab, which allows students to observe the behavior of a dipole in both a uniform and spatially varying field and helps to dispel major misonceptions about the source of magnetic forces. Using graphs based on a series of simple measurements, students can find the magnitude of the magnetic moment of a small magnet. In the process, they develop an operational definition of the magnetic moment as a way to describe the "strength" of a magnet. The experiment also allows students to study the field gradient along the axis of a single loop of current. Students in calculus based classes, which routinely use the Biot-Savart Law to calculate the field along the axis of a current loop, can use the resulting graph to verify their equations.

  1. Effects of Cooperative Learning on Students' Understanding of Metallic Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, Burcin; Tarhan, Leman

    2008-08-01

    The present study focused on investigating the effectiveness of instruction via newly developed teaching materials based on cooperative learning when compared to a traditional approach, on ninth grade students’ understanding of metallic bonding. Fifty-seven ninth grade science students from two science classes in the same high school participated in this study. The same teacher taught metallic bonding with cooperative learning to an experimental group ( N = 28) and with a traditional teacher centred approach to a control group ( N = 29). Students’ conceptual understanding of metallic bonding was measured using the Metallic Bonding Concept Test. The results from the Student’s t test indicated that the mean score of the students in the experimental group was significantly higher in the experimental group (78.60, SD = 8.62), than in the control group (54.33, SD = 9.11) after treatment. In the light of the results from the concept test and individual interviews, the misconceptions related to metallic bonding were found less in the experimental group than traditional. Five of these misconceptions were firstly identified in this study. The individual interviews which were done with students from experimental group immediately after the instruction showed that students had positive perceptions about their cooperative work experiences.

  2. A Guide for the Management of Speical Education Programs. 4.0 Drug Information for Educators, Parents, and Students. Newday Operations Guide for Drug Dependent Minor Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Cruz County Superintendent of Schools, CA.

    Presented is the fourth component of a special day class program for drug dependent minors, Drug Information for Educators, Parents, and Students. The first section, intended for educators, includes a drug abuse chart, information on the drug subculture, information on patterns of drug abuse and misconceptions about drugs, and suggested activities…

  3. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  4. REVISITING COMMONS – ARE COMMON PROPERTY REGIMES IRRATIONAL?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lubna Hasan

    2002-01-01

    This paper revisits the debate about communal management of natural resources and brings together various issues confronting it. Much of the criticism against common property regimes stems from an incorrect modeling of a common property situation, and misunderstandings about the terms and their wrong usage. Models of collective action (Hardin’s tragedy of the Commons, Olson’s Logic of Collective Action, and

  5. An analysis of strategies used by chemistry instructors to address student alternate conceptions in chemical equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piquette, Jeff Stephen

    This study explored general-chemistry instructors' awareness of and ability to identify common student alternate conceptions in chemical equilibrium. Instructor strategies directed at remediation of student alternate conceptions were also investigated and compared to successful, literature-based conceptual change methods. Fifty-two general chemistry instructor volunteers from 50 U.S. colleges and universities completed an interactive web-based survey that gathered their responses to open-ended questions, a rating scale, classroom scenarios, and a demographic form. The three scenarios asked respondents to evaluate hypothetical student exam answers, justify their evaluations, and report how they would assist students to better understand ideas about which they held alternate conceptions. Survey respondents who provided responses or remediation strategies that needed further clarification were sampled (n = 6); each amplified their views in an individual, researcher-led semi-structured phone interview. All survey responses and interview transcriptions were independently analyzed by three raters who followed Patton's (1990) guidelines for qualitative data analysis. Data analysis established that all 52 instructors of chemistry were able to report and identify common student alternate conceptions in chemical equilibrium. Those instructor-reported alternate conceptions were congruent with previously identified alternate conceptions (misconceptions) found in published literature, thus providing validation support for the earlier compilations. This study revealed that chemistry instructors employ a variety of strategies in efforts to address and remediate alternate conceptions. However, those strategies rarely include all four conditions outlined by Posner, Strike, Hewson, and Gertzog (1982) needed to stimulate conceptual change in students. Instructors are thus encouraged to become familiar with successful conceptual change strategies, using such methods as appropriate in their classrooms. Study participants offered some speculation about possible sources of student alternate conceptions. Further research into such origins is recommended so student acquisition of alternate conceptions about chemical equilibrium might be anticipated and possibly minimized. The strategy of using web-based technology as a faculty-survey technique was found to be convenient and powerful. Instructors and researchers are encouraged to continue exploring positive and negative aspects of web-based data-gathering techniques in future survey-based educational research.

  6. Style & Editing 10 Common Errors: Student Checklist

    E-print Network

    information: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_dangmod.html 4. Faulty Parallelism. Be sure you the educational system. More information: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_parallel.html 5 mathematician. This is how he was able to explain the workings of the universe. Revised: Einstein, who

  7. Diagnosing alternative conceptions of Fermi energy among undergraduate students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sapna; Ahluwalia, Pardeep Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Physics education researchers have scientifically established the fact that the understanding of new concepts and interpretation of incoming information are strongly influenced by the preexisting knowledge and beliefs of students, called epistemological beliefs. This can lead to a gap between what students actually learn and what the teacher expects them to learn. In a classroom, as a teacher, it is desirable that one tries to bridge this gap at least on the key concepts of a particular field which is being taught. One such key concept which crops up in statistical physics/solid-state physics courses, and around which the behaviour of materials is described, is Fermi energy (?F). In this paper, we present the results which emerged about misconceptions on Fermi energy in the process of administering a diagnostic tool called the Statistical Physics Concept Survey developed by the authors. It deals with eight themes of basic importance in learning undergraduate solid-state physics and statistical physics. The question items of the tool were put through well-established sequential processes: definition of themes, Delphi study, interview with students, drafting questions, administration, validity and reliability of the tool. The tool was administered to a group of undergraduate students and postgraduate students, in a pre-test and post-test design. In this paper, we have taken one of the themes i.e. Fermi energy of the diagnostic tool for our analysis and discussion. Students’ responses and reasoning comments given during interview were analysed. This analysis helped us to identify prevailing misconceptions/learning gaps among students on this topic. How spreadsheets can be effectively used to remove the identified misconceptions and help appreciate the finer nuances while visualizing the behaviour of the system around Fermi energy, normally sidestepped both by the teachers and learners, is also presented in this paper.

  8. Rethinking the therapeutic misconception: social justice, patient advocacy, and cancer clinical trial recruitment in the US safety net

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Approximately 20% of adult cancer patients are eligible to participate in a clinical trial, but only 2.5-9% do so. Accrual is even less for minority and medically underserved populations. As a result, critical life-saving treatments and quality of life services developed from research studies may not address their needs. This study questions the utility of the bioethical concern with therapeutic misconception (TM), a misconception that occurs when research subjects fail to distinguish between clinical research and ordinary treatment, and therefore attribute therapeutic intent to research procedures in the safety net setting. This paper provides ethnographic insight into the ways in which research is discussed and related to standard treatment. Methods In the course of two years of ethnographic fieldwork in a safety net hospital, I conducted clinic observations (n?=?150 clinic days) and in-depth in-person qualitative interviews with patients (n?=?37) and providers (n?=?15). I used standard qualitative methods to organize and code resulting fieldnote and interview data. Results Findings suggest that TM is limited in relevance for the interdisciplinary context of cancer clinical trial recruitment in the safety net setting. Ethnographic data show the value of the discussions that happen prior to the informed consent, those that introduce the idea of participation in research. These preliminary discussions are elemental especially when recruiting underserved and vulnerable patients for clinical trial participation who are often unfamiliar with medical research and how it relates to medical care. Data also highlight the multiple actors involved in research discussions and the ethics of social justice and patient advocacy they mobilize, suggesting that class, inequality, and dependency influence the forms of ethical engagements in public hospital settings. Conclusion On the ground ethics of social justice and patient advocacy are more relevant than TM as guiding ethical principles in the context of ongoing cancer disparities and efforts to diversify clinical trial participation. PMID:25240404

  9. Investigating alternative conceptions in learning disabled students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Terry Stokes

    Science teachers have long noticed the fact that their students come to school with their own concepts, produced from daily experiences and interactions with the world around them. Sometimes these ideas are in agreement with accepted scientific theories, but often they are not. These "incorrect" ideas, or "misconceptions" have been the focus of many studies, which can be helpful to teachers when planning their lessons. However, there is a dearth of information that is geared specifically to students with learning disabilities. These students generally have deficits in areas of perception and learning that could conceivably influence the way they formulate concepts. The purpose of this study was to examine the concepts held by students with learning disabilities on the causes of the day/night cycle, the phases of the moon, and the seasons. An interview format was judged to be the best method of ensuring that the students' ideas were clearly documented. The subjects were five, sixth-grade students in a city school, who had been determined to have a learning disability. In examining the results, there did not seem to be any direct link between the type of misconception formed and the learning deficit of the child. It seemed more likely that students formed their concepts the way students usually do, but the various disabilities they exhibited interfered with their learning of more appropriate conceptions. The results of this study will be helpful to science teachers, curriculum planners, or anyone who works with students who have learning disabilities. It is hoped that this will begin to fill a void in the area of learning disabilities research.

  10. Laying a Common Foundation for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    For decades, the American elementary and secondary education system has operated somewhat as the railroads did before Lincoln's day, with each state setting its own expectations for what students should know and be able to do. To address that problem, nearly every state, with little fanfare, has adopted the Common Core State Standards for student

  11. Novice Users' Misconceptions of BASIC Programming Statements. Report No. 82-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayman, Piraye; Mayer, Richard E.

    The nature of novice programmers' mental models for BASIC statements following preliminary BASIC instruction was assessed with 30 undergraduates who were taught BASIC through a self-paced, mastery manual and who were simultaneously given hands-on access to an Apple II microcomputer. Following instruction, the students were tested to determine…

  12. Integrating Research on Misconceptions, Reasoning Patterns and Three Types of Learning Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    This paper describes how the learning cycle leads students to become more skilled reasoners. The three phases of the learning cycle are described and examples and goals of each are provided. Information is also offered on the three types of learning cycles: the descriptive; the empirical-inductive; and the hypothetical-deductive. Each is described…

  13. Common Standards for Career Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Office of College and Career Readiness has developed the "Common Standards for Career Education Programs." The six common standards are: (1) Program Management and Planning; (2) Curriculum; (3) Instruction; (4) Professional Development; (5) Career and Technical Student Organizations; and (6) Instructional Facilities and Equipment. These…

  14. Mathematics Common Core Unpacked: Grade Four

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Drew Polly at UNCC

    This document provides descriptions and examples of what each Mathematics Common Core standard means a Grade Four student will know, understand and be able to do. This "unpacking" of the standards provides instructional guidelines and was developed to assist North Carolina educators teach the Mathematics Common Core (Standard Course of Study).

  15. Mathematics Common Core Unpacked: Grade Three

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Drew Polly at UNCC

    This document provides descriptions and examples of what each Mathematics Common Core standard means a Grade Three student will know, understand and be able to do. This "unpacking" of the standards provides instructional guidelines and was developed to assist North Carolina educators teach the Mathematics Common Core (Standard Course of Study).

  16. FAFSA Tips and Common Mistakes to Avoid January, 2014

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    FAFSA Tips and Common Mistakes to Avoid January, 2014 The best way to complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA and colleges use the FAFSA to determine eligibility for nonfederal student aid funds

  17. Response to "Chemistry misconceptions associated with understanding calcium and phosphate homeostasis"

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David S. Goldfarb (St. Vincent's Hospital, and New York University School of Medicine)

    2010-03-01

    I enjoyed Dr. Cliff's "conceptual diagnostic test" regarding calcium phosphate equilibrium and was relieved that I chose the correct answers (1). Question 2 was the more difficult one, and I hesitated before almost answering it incorrectly. Dr. Cliff asks what would happen if more calcium phosphate is added to a beaker containing calcium, phosphate, and calcium phosphate "at equilibrium." His answer states the question differently: "Only 11% of the students correctly answered the conceptual diagnostic question about the addition of solid calcium phosphate to a saturated [emphasis added] solution of calcium phosphate." The question did not specify that the solution was saturated but that it was "at equilibrium." It is not simply a question about understanding "mass action." One also needs to realize that the solvent is saturated if a solid in the solvent is at equilibrium. That is an additional concept itself and, when not made explicit, might explain why only 11% of the students answered it correctly.

  18. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    MedlinePLUS

    Home > Breastfeeding > Common breastfeeding challenges Breastfeeding This information in Spanish ( en español ) Common breastfeeding challenges Sore nipples Low milk supply Oversupply of milk Engorgement Plugged ducts Breast ...

  19. Undergraduate Students' Conceptions of Natural and Anthropogenic Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenbath, K. L.

    2011-12-01

    Scientists and educators strive to improve climate literacy throughout society, whether through communication of research findings or though classroom teaching. Despite these efforts, climate change misconceptions exist in students and the general public. When educators present evidence that contradicts misconceptions, students may begin to struggle with their inaccurate ideas and perhaps transition towards a scientifically-accepted understanding. These transitions, called conceptual change, can occur in college climate change courses. The purpose of this presentation is to describe college students' ideas of natural and anthropogenic climate change and the way these ideas change throughout a climate change course. This presentation is based on five case studies of undergraduate students in a large lecture-hall course dedicated to climate change. Each case study student represents a different level of climate change understanding at the beginning of the semester. These case studies and subsequent cross-case analyses result from a qualitative research study using interviews, field notes, artifact analysis, coding and categorization, and research memos. The cases show shifts in all five students' ideas of natural and anthropogenic climate change. During the first month of class, the three lower achieving students expressed uncertainty about the increase in average global temperatures due to anthropogenic climate change. At the end of the semester, these students explained that warming from climate change is natural, yet the rate of this warming is increasing due to human activities. Two of the lower achieving students constructed definitions of climate change different than the definition used by the professor in the classroom. These students solidified the idea that the term "climate change" describes the change that results from natural forcings only, while the term "global warming" describes change in the climate that results from human-caused forcings. Their constructed definition removes human-causes from association with the word "climate change", which may influence their climate change understanding. Of the two higher achieving students, one emphasized anthropogenic climate change at the beginning of the semester, but later focused on natural climate change during his interviews. The other high achieving student included tangential environmental topics in her descriptions of climate change throughout the entire semester, thus conflating climate change's definition. These alternative definitions of climate change indicate that the learners constructed hybrid conceptions in order to incorporate class content with their prior ideas. These hybrid conceptions indicate that the students' understandings lie somewhere between misconceptions and conceptual change. Since the students demonstrated these hybrid conceptions at the end of class, perhaps more time is needed for the students to process the information. These case studies identify the gaps the professor should address for conceptual change to fully occur.

  20. PAS Domains COMMON STRUCTURE AND COMMON FLEXIBILITY*

    E-print Network

    van Aalten, Daan

    ligand binding/activation to downstream transducer proteins. PAS1 domains are structural modules that can sequences of the different PAS domains show little similarity, their three-dimensional structures appearPAS Domains COMMON STRUCTURE AND COMMON FLEXIBILITY* Received for publication, February 19, 2003

  1. Faculty and Students, or Faculty Versus Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGehee, Nan E.

    In an attempt to discover why students are demanding participation in the decision-making processes of the university, the author examines four of the most common issues they have raised: (1) student conduct codes and disciplinary procedures. This is an area in which modern college students reject institutional authority; (2) a voice in the…

  2. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction Designed According to 7E Model of Constructivist Learning on Physics Student Teachers' Achievement, Concept Learning, Self-Efficacy Perceptions and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocakaya, Serhat; Gonen, Selahattin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Computer-Assisted Instruction designed according to 7E model of constructivist learning(CAI7E) related to "electrostatic'' topic on physics student teachers' cognitive development, misconceptions, self-efficacy perceptions and attitudes. The study was conducted in…

  3. Tsovaltzi, D., Melis, E., McLaren, B.M., Meyer, A-K., Dietrich, M. & Goguadze, G. (2010). Learning from erroneous examples: When and how do students benefit from them?

    E-print Network

    McLaren, Bruce Martin

    2010-01-01

    results indicate significant metacognitive learning gains of erroneous examples for lower-grade students, empirical studies, fractions misconceptions, adaptive learning, metacognition 1 Introduction ErroneousTsovaltzi, D., Melis, E., McLaren, B.M., Meyer, A-K., Dietrich, M. & Goguadze, G. (2010). Learning

  4. Biology Myth-Killers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Evan

    2014-01-01

    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  5. STUDENT HEALTH SERVICES Common Extra Fees for Students -Supplies

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    $8.00-$17.00 Elbow strap $14.00-$15.00 Eye shield, metal $2.00 Felt pad/4 inch ace (for ankle sprain.00-$27.00 Pedometer (free w/Beaver Stride sign-up) $11.00 Rib belt $13.00-$17.00 SAD light rental (2 weeks) 0.00 SAD

  6. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  7. Common Core and the Uncommon Learner: How Autism Affects Acquisition of Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Wendela Whitcomb

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS 2014a, b) are here to stay. State and local education agencies are responsible for ensuring that schools teach all students the core standards that they will need in college and the work force. However, the ever-growing population of students on the autism spectrum has unique learning needs which may make it…

  8. NASA's Role in Addressing Misconceptions: Scale of Our Solar System and Other Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2014-07-01

    Our Solar System is no longer unique. As of early September 2013, there were over 940 known planets orbiting other stars. Planetary systems are fairly common, and astronomers are now finding Earth-sized planets in the “Goldilocks Zone,” implying that there may be many habitable planets. The Next Generation Science Standards includes the Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe and Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns; Scale, Portion, and Quantity; and Systems and System Models. While we are learning more about the nature of our Solar System and its planets by studying other planetary systems, our discoveries are heavily biased by the techniques used to detect these systems: primarily radial velocity, transits, and direct observations.

  9. Misconceptions about coercion and undue influence: reflections on the views of IRB members.

    PubMed

    Largent, Emily; Grady, Christine; Miller, Franklin G; Wertheimer, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Payment to recruit research subjects is a common practice but raises ethical concerns relating to the potential for coercion or undue influence. We conducted the first national study of IRB members and human subjects protection professionals to explore attitudes as to whether and why payment of research participants constitutes coercion or undue influence. Upon critical evaluation of the cogency of ethical concerns regarding payment, as reflected in our survey results, we found expansive or inconsistent views about coercion and undue influence that may interfere with valuable research. In particular, respondents appear to believe that coercion and undue influence lie on a continuum; by contrast, we argue that they are wholly distinct: whereas undue influence is a cognitive distortion relating to assessment of risks and benefits, coercion is a threat of harm. Because payment is an offer, rather than a threat, payment is never coercive. PMID:22493972

  10. Overcoming misconceptions of graph interpretation of kinematics motion using calculator based rangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, John R.

    This is a quasi-experimental study of 261 first year high school students that analyzes gains made through the use of calculator based rangers attached to calculators. The study has qualitative components but is based on quantitative tests. Biechner's TUG-K test was used for the pretest, posttest, and post-posttest. The population was divided into one group that predicted the results before using the CBRs and another that did not predict first but completed the same activities. The data for the groups was further disaggregated into learning style groups (based on Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory), type of class (advanced vs. general physics), and gender. Four instructors used the labs developed by the author for this study and created significant differences between the groups by instructor based on interviews, participant observation and one way ANOVA. No significant differences were found between learning styles based on MANOVA. No significant differences were found between predict and nonpredict groups for the one way ANOVAs or MANOVA, however, some differences do exist as measured by a survey and participant observation. Significant differences do exist between gender and type of class (advanced/general) based on one way ANOVA and MANOVA. The males outscored the females on all tests and the advanced physics scored higher than the general physics on all tests. The advanced physics scoring higher was expected but the difference between genders was not.

  11. Science Center Cambridge Common

    E-print Network

    Johnston Gate Science Center Fire HQ Cambridge LAW SCHOOL Cambridge Common HARVARD YARD HA HAMMOND STREETLibrary Center Holyoke Science Center Widener Fire HQ Cambridge LAW SCHOOL Cambridge Common HARVARD BROADW AY PRESCOTTS QUINCYSTREET EVERETT STREET STREET MASSACHUSETTSAVENUE CAMBRIDGE MASSACHUSETTSAVENUE

  12. Power system commonality study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franklin D. Littman

    1992-01-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system\\/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this

  13. An Evidence-Based Look at Misconceptions in the Treatment of Patients with IBS-D

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Brian E.; Chey, William D.; Chang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder and affects up to 12% to 15% of adults in the United States, with a higher prevalence among women and those younger than 50 years. IBS adversely impacts quality of life and medical expenditures, with significant costs arising from healthcare visits and reduced workplace productivity. Recent studies have shown that the adverse effects of IBS are so significant that many patients are willing to accept risks of adverse events from effective treatment to gain symptom relief. Alosetron is a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for women with severe diarrhea-predominant IBS that has not responded to traditional therapies. Alosetron yields overall improvements in IBS symptoms in 51% of patients vs 36% treated with placebo, with efficacy continuing undiminished over the course of a 48-week randomized, controlled trial. In real-world clinical practice, patients receiving alosetron had significant improvements in multiple IBS-related clinical parameters, including the new FDA IBS-diarrhea composite endpoint, lower gastrointestinal symptoms, fecal incontinence, and quality of life. Ischemic colitis and complications of constipation have been rare in occurrence. After nearly a decade of alosetron use under the risk management plan, adjudication of ischemic colitis and complications of constipation cases indicate that their incidence rates have remained low and stable. PMID:24872792

  14. Flawed Assumptions, Models and Decision Making: Misconceptions Concerning Human Elements in Complex System

    SciTech Connect

    FORSYTHE,JAMES C.; WENNER,CAREN A.

    1999-11-03

    The history of high consequence accidents is rich with events wherein the actions, or inaction, of humans was critical to the sequence of events preceding the accident. Moreover, it has been reported that human error may contribute to 80% of accidents, if not more (dougherty and Fragola, 1988). Within the safety community, this reality is widely recognized and there is a substantially greater awareness of the human contribution to system safety today than has ever existed in the past. Despite these facts, and some measurable reduction in accident rates, when accidents do occur, there is a common lament. No matter how hard we try, we continue to have accidents. Accompanying this lament, there is often bewilderment expressed in statements such as, ''There's no explanation for why he/she did what they did''. It is believed that these statements are a symptom of inadequacies in how they think about humans and their role within technological systems. In particular, while there has never been a greater awareness of human factors, conceptual models of human involvement in engineered systems are often incomplete and in some cases, inaccurate.

  15. How Common Is the Common Core?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  16. The New "Traditional Student"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The author's experiences and those of the students he encounters at elite campuses no longer resemble the common experience of many college students today. What people used to call "nontraditional" students--older, working, married, and maybe still living at home--now constitute a large and growing percentage of those attending college in the…

  17. Demonstrating VOC capture efficiency using Permanent Total Enclosure technology: Common practices, challenges and rewards

    SciTech Connect

    Bemi, D. [Wolverine Massachusetts Corp., De Pere, WI (United States); Pearson, E. [Environmental Science Services, Providence, RI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    During the past decade, the Permanent Total Enclosure (PTE) has been gaining acceptance among flexographic printers and coaters, as a viable, cost effective means of demonstrating compliance with overall Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) control efficiency regulations. Throughout this period, industry has voiced a number of concerns regarding the implementation of PTE solutions. Many of these concerns, including control device upsizing requirements, operator safety and health issues, work area interference and onerous expense, have proven to be overstated and in some cases unwarranted. The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first objective is to address some of the practical design considerations associated with the use of PTE technology. Secondly, the authors will review some of the more common misconceptions concerning PTE implementation. This paper will cover the following topics: a brief discussion of the EPA approved alternative methods for capture efficiency testing, a summary of the EPA criteria for achieving PTE status, a presentation of some of the misconceptions associated with PTE implementation, a discussion of practical PTE design issues, the presentation of a case study highlighting a typical application, and finally, a summary of the benefits of using a PTE. Finally, it should be noted that the scope of this paper will be limited to the discussion of walk in type PTE`s versus uninhabited PTE designs.

  18. A Critique of "The Common Core Is a Change for the Better"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Adam

    2015-01-01

    In their article, "The Common Core is a Change for the Better," Gardner and Powell (2013) make an argument in support of implementing the Common Core to improve teaching and student learning. They opine the Common Core will enable students to become more college and career ready and state the Common Core standards will provide…

  19. College students' conceptualizations of deficits involved in mild intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Musso, Mandi W; Barker, Alyse A; Proto, Daniel A; Gouvier, Wm Drew

    2012-01-01

    Precedential rulings in recent capital murder trials may, in some cases, leave it up to a jury to determine whether or not an individual meets criteria for an intellectual disability (ID) and should be spared from the death penalty. Despite the potential for misconceptions about ID to bias decisions, few empirical studies have examined the public's conceptualizations of individuals with ID. This study sought to examine 890 college students' conceptualizations of the deficits involved in mild ID. Students were asked to respond to two online surveys about the cognitive and adaptive behavior deficits that people with mild ID may experience. While most students were correct about basic facts, such as ID is not contagious and not curable, there was no clear consensus regarding beliefs about individuals with ID getting married, having children, or engaging in other mainstream activities of adult living. Students' responses are examined in light of results of studies that identify and examine bona fide deficits and areas of successful mainstreaming among persons with ID. Implications of misconceptions are discussed. PMID:22093668

  20. Social and Academic Correlates of Reading a Common Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Timothy K.; Hayes, Mathew W.

    2012-01-01

    Many universities have Common Book programs, but few of them are driven by clear goals and little research about the effectiveness of programs exists. The current study examined social and academic correlates of self-reported common book readership. As expected, upper-level students who read their entire common book as freshmen reported a stronger…