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1

Omani Twelfth Grade Students' Most Common Misconceptions in Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study, undertaken in the Sultanate of Oman, explored twelfth grade students' common misconceptions in seven chemistry conceptual areas. The sample included 786 twelfth grade students in Oman while the instrument was a two-tier test called Chemistry Misconceptions Diagnostic Test (CMDT), consisting of 25 items with 12 items…

Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah K.; Al-Shuaili, Ali H.; Taylor, Neil

2012-01-01

2

Common Student Misconceptions in Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study represents a preliminary investigation designed to identify common misconceptions in students' understanding of physiological and biochemical topics within the academic domain of sport and exercise sciences. A specifically designed misconception inventory (consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions) was administered to a cohort…

Morton, James P.; Doran, Dominic A.; MacLaren, Don P. M.

2008-01-01

3

Common student misconceptions in exercise physiology and biochemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The present study represents a preliminary investigationdesigned to identify common misconceptions in students' understanding of physiological and biochemical topics within the academic domain of sport and exercise sciences. A specifically designed misconception inventory (consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions) was administered to a cohort of level 1, 2, and 3 undergraduate students enrolled in physiology and biochemistry-related modules of the BSc Sport Science degree at the authors' institute. Of the 10 misconceptions proposed by the authors, 9 misconceptions were confirmed. Of these nine misconceptions, only one misconception appeared to have been alleviated by the current teaching strategy employed during the progression from level 1 to 3 study. The remaining eight misconceptions prevailed throughout the course of the degree program, suggesting that students enter and leave university with the same misconceptions in certain areas of exercise physiology and biochemistry. The possible origins of these misconceptions are discussed, as are potential teaching strategies to prevent and/or remediate them for future years.

James P. Morton (Liverpool John Moores University Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences)

2008-01-28

4

Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol  

MedlinePLUS

Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:May 29,2014 Cholesterol can be both good and bad, so it's important to learn the facts about ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

5

Common Misconceptions about Biomes and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes some common misconceptions that elementary students may have about biomes and ecosystems. It also includes suggestions for formative assessment and teaching for conceptual change.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

6

Common Misconceptions about Heat and Insulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes some common misconceptions that elementary students may have about energy, heat, and insulation. It also includes suggestions for formative assessment and teaching for conceptual change.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

7

Common Misconceptions about Icebergs and Glaciers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes some common misconceptions that elementary students may have about icebergs and glaciers (including density and buoyancy). It also includes suggestions for formative assessment and teaching for conceptual change.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

8

Common Misconceptions about Day and Night, Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes common misconceptions held by elementary students about the cause of day and night and seasons. The article provides ideas for formative assessment, teaching strategies, and the National Science Education Standards.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

9

Common Misconceptions about Software Architecture  

E-print Network

Common Misconceptions about Software Architecture by Philippe Kruchten Rational Fellow Rational Software Canada References to architecture are everywhere: in every article, in every ad. And we take definition of software architecture. Are we all understanding the same thing? We gladly accept that software

van der Hoek, André

10

Student Misconceptions in Introductory Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defining a "misconception" as an error of translation (transformation, correspondence, interpolation, interpretation) between two different kinds of information which causes students to have incorrect expectations, a Taxonomy of Errors has been developed to examine student misconceptions in an introductory biology course for science majors. Two…

Fisher, Kathleen M.; Lipson, Joseph I.

11

Science Sampler: Correcting student misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Before learning any formal science, children try to make sense of natural phenomena on their own. However, several studies have shown that it can be difficult to convince a student to give up a long-held misconception in favor of an accurate scientific explanation. Misconceptions can be confronted through hands-on and minds-on activities. The strategies outlined in this article will foster a climate of inquiry within the classroom.

S. Wali Abdi

2006-01-01

12

Common Errors and Misconceptions in Mathematical Proving by Education Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ninety-seven education students majoring or minoring in mathematics had their math homework examined in a Number Theory or Abstract Algebra course. Each student's homework was observed for the purpose of identifying common errors and misconceptions when writing mathematical proofs. The results showed that students collectively made four…

Stavrou, Stavros Georgios

2014-01-01

13

Diagnosing Portuguese Students' Misconceptions about the Mineral Concept  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational researchers and teachers are well aware that misconceptions--erroneous ideas that differ from the scientifically accepted ones--are very common amongst students. Daily experiences, creative and perceptive thinking and science textbooks give rise to students' misconceptions which lead them to draw erroneous conclusions that become…

Monteiro, Antonio; Nobrega, Clevio; Abrantes, Isabel; Gomes, Celeste

2012-01-01

14

Students' Misconceptions in Psychology: How You Ask Matters...Sometimes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions about psychology are prevalent among introductory students. Just how prevalent and what can be done to change these misconceptions depends on valid methods of assessment. The most common method of assessment, the true/false questionnaire, is problematic. The present study compared true/false with forced choice formats to determine…

Taylor, Annette Kujawski; Kowalski, Patricia

2012-01-01

15

Diagnosing and Dealing with Student Misconceptions: Floating and Sinking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Misconceptions broadly exist in a variety of subject areas, such as physics, biology, geography, and other sciences. Among them, bringing students to an understanding of why things sink and float has proved to be one of the most challenging topics for student conceptual change. To address this issue, the authors designed ten multiple-choice items to help teachers diagnose common misconceptions related to sinking and floating, which are described in this article.

Miki K. Tomita

2008-04-01

16

Misconceptions about Sound among Engineering Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our first objective was to detect misconceptions about the microscopic nature of sound among senior university students enrolled in different engineering programmes (from chemistry to telecommunications). We sought to determine how these misconceptions are expressed (qualitative aspect) and, only very secondarily, to gain a general idea of the…

Pejuan, Arcadi; Bohigas, Xavier; Jaen, Xavier; Periago, Cristina

2012-01-01

17

Cervical pedicles: correcting a common misconception.  

PubMed

To bring to the attention of Australian radiologists in training, directors of training and radiologists in general, a commonly held erroneous misconception, specifically that of the plain radiographic appearance of the cervical spine pedicle and the transverse process in oblique projections. A human C5 vertebra was appropriately marked and radiographed in the oblique projection to demonstrate key anatomical structures and their relations. The rounded cortical contour overlying the vertebral body is commonly misinterpreted as a cervical transverse process but is the plain radiographic outline of the end-on ipsilateral pedicle. Because of the right-angle relationship of the transverse process long axis and the end-on pedicle long axis, the ipsilateral transverse process appears as a faint elongated corticated structure projecting beyond the vertebral body contour. It may also be obscured because of small size, relative osteopaenia and overlying soft tissue bulk. The end-on pedicle has been unequivocally demonstrated, as has the ipsilateral transverse process. The two lie at right angles to each other. The common misconception (amplified by an error in an earlier edition of a popular atlas) should be debunked by radiologists and should not be promulgated to Australian radiology trainees. PMID:21696564

Pitman, Alexander G

2011-06-01

18

Common Earth Science Misconceptions in Science Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of the Earth science content of science textbooks found a wide range of misconceptions. These are discussed in this article with reference to the published literature on Earth science misconceptions. Most misconceptions occurred in the "sedimentary rocks and processes" and "Earth's structure and plate tectonics" categories; the most…

King, Chris

2012-01-01

19

Identifying and Reconstructing Common Cold Misconceptions among Developing K-12 Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Common cold misconceptions may contribute to ill-informed decisions and recommendations made by K-12 educators who often encounter infected students. Understanding the structure of educators' misconceptions can be used to improve health instruction in teacher professional preparation programs. Purpose: The purposes of this project were…

Johnson, Marcus Lee; Bungum, Timothy

2013-01-01

20

Common Misconceptions About Fossils and the History of the Polar Regions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes common misconceptions held by elementary students about the history of the polar regions, fossils, and geologic time. The article provides ideas for formative assessment, teaching strategies, and the National Science Education Standards.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

21

Students' Misconceptions about Random Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes some misconceptions about random variables and related counter-examples, and makes suggestions about teaching initial topics on random variables in general form instead of doing it separately for discrete and continuous cases. The focus is on post-calculus probability courses. (Contains 2 figures.)

Kachapova, Farida; Kachapov, Ilias

2012-01-01

22

Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Photosynthesis and Plant Respiration: Preliminary Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated the common misconceptions of lower secondary school students regarding the concepts of photosynthesis and plant respiration. These are abstract concepts which are difficult to comprehend for adults let alone for lower secondary school students. Research of the students misconceptions are conducted worldwide. The researches…

Svandova, Katerina

2014-01-01

23

Applying Scientific Principles to Resolve Student Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions about sinking and floating phenomena are some of the most challenging to overcome (Yin 2005), possibly because explaining sinking and floating requires students to understand challenging topics such as density, force, and motion. Two scientific principles are typically used in U.S. science curricula to explain sinking and floating:…

Yin, Yue

2012-01-01

24

Breaking Down Barriers: Addressing student misconceptions in the K-12 classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A typical astronomy question an educator may ask their students is "What is a black hole?" Many times, students' responses sound more like an episode of Star Trek than an understanding about the universe and how it works: responses such as "Black holes are worm holes in space" or "A black hole is a huge vacuum in space, sucking everything in". These are all common astronomy misconceptions about black holes. A misconception is defined as a preconceived notion of how the world, or in the case of astronomy - the universe, works. Misconceptions may originate for a variety of reasons, from miscommunication, to oversimplification, to misrepresentation via the media or pop culture. Students who latch on to an astronomy misconception may have difficulty learning new information that is built upon the existing misconception. Additionally, educators who are not able to identify and address misconceptions can create learning barriers that may resonate throughout a students' life. This poster will introduce some of the extensive research that has gone into determining typical student misconceptions about astronomy, ways to identify them, and how students develop them. The poster will also explain why teachers need to be aware of ideas and concepts students may harbor as well as how misconceptions can be remedied.

Eisenhamer, B.; McCallister, J. D.; Knisely, L.

2004-05-01

25

Review Article Sixteen common misconceptions about the evolution of cooperation  

E-print Network

interpretation of Darwin's theory of natural selection (Section 2), the evolutionary classification of socialReview Article Sixteen common misconceptions about the evolution of cooperation in humans Stuart A of interaction. This has led to a number of misunderstandings with regard to how natural selection operates

Gardner, Andy

26

Addressing Students' Misconceptions about Gases, Mass, and Composition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much research has been published that describes the misconceptions students have about gases; however, not much research has been published that suggests how to change these misconceptions. The action research presented in this article examined how using laboratories to contradict students' preconceived ideas would affect their learning. High…

Mayer, Kristin

2011-01-01

27

Misconceptions of students and teachers in chemical equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A written test was developed and administered to diagnose misconceptions in different areas of chemical equilibrium among 162 undergraduate chemistry students and 69 school?teachers of chemistry. Analysis of the responses reveal widespread misconceptions among both students and teachers in areas related to the prediction of equilibrium conditions, rate and equilibrium, applying equilibrium principles to daily life, and to acid?base and

Anil C. Banerjee

1991-01-01

28

Cognitive Processes and Students' Misconceptions in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several categories of misconceptions which appear to be emerging across studies are discussed. They include: mis-perceptions; stunted conceptions; mis-translations; confused conceptions; lost conceptions; and true misconceptions. True misconceptions are metaphors and analogies which represent truly complete systems of explanation but are…

Smith, Deborah C.

29

Identifying Student Misconceptions in Introductory Materials Engineering Classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous student misconceptions in an introductory materials engineering class have been identified in order to create a Materials Concept Inventory (MCI) to test for the level of conceptual knowledge of the subject matter before and after the course. The misconceptions have been utilized as question responses, or \\

Stephen Krause; J. Chris Decker; Justin Niska; Terry Alford; Richard Griffin

30

Students' Misconceptions about Heat Transfer Mechanisms and Elementary Kinetic Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heat and thermodynamics is a conceptually rich area of undergraduate physics. In the Indian context in particular there has been little work done in this area from the point of view of misconceptions. This prompted us to undertake a study in this area. We present a study of students' misconceptions about heat transfer mechanisms, i.e. conduction,…

Pathare, S. R.; Pradhan, H. C.

2010-01-01

31

Science Sampler: Why we have seasons and other common misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The video, A Private Universe , engages students in the ideas regarding alternative conceptions. This video is effective in capturing preservice teachers' attention and altering their own beliefs regarding alternative conceptions, especially as they relate to "the reason for the seasons." The video makes clear how prevalent alternative conceptions are, how resistant to change such notions can be, and the tenacity with which learners hold these conceptions. This article describes how the author, an assistant professor, utilized this film to address preservice teachers' misconceptions as well as those of their future students.

Joan Lindgren

2003-01-01

32

Growing Pebbles and Conceptual Prisms: Understanding the Source of Student Misconceptions About Rock Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study analyzing narrative essays, stories of rock formation, written by pre-service elementary school teachers. Most of these students had completed a college-level course in earth science, yet they expressed startling misconceptions about how rocks form. These misconceptions arise from deeply held but largely unexamined beliefs (conceptual prisms) that result from the interaction of the student's world view and personal experiences. The study addressed three basic research questions: how do students describe the process of rock formation in narrative essays?, are there common patterns in students' naive conceptions about geology?, and can these patterns be explained by a few underlying beliefs that shape student ideas?

Judi Kusnick

2002-01-01

33

Students' Misconceptions in Electrochemistry: Current Flow in Electrolyte Solutions and the Salt Bridge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines students' misconceptions and proposed mechanisms related to current flow in electrolyte solutions and the salt bridge. Confirms reported misconceptions and identifies several new ones. Discusses probable sources of misconceptions and some methods for preventing them. Contains 27 references. (JRH)

Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

1997-01-01

34

Common misconceptions in molecular ecology: echoes of the modern synthesis.  

PubMed

The field of molecular ecology has burgeoned into a large discipline spurred on by technical innovations that facilitate the rapid acquisition of large amounts of genotypic data, by the continuing development of theory to interpret results, and by the availability of computer programs to analyse data sets. As the discipline grows, however, misconceptions have become enshrined in the literature and are perpetuated by routine citations to other articles in molecular ecology. These misconceptions hamper a better understanding of the processes that influence genetic variation in natural populations and sometimes lead to erroneous conclusions. Here, we consider eight misconceptions commonly appearing in the literature: (i) some molecular markers are inherently better than other markers; (ii) mtDNA produces higher F(ST) values than nDNA; (iii) estimated population coalescences are real; (iv) more data are always better; (v) one needs to do a Bayesian analysis; (vi) selective sweeps influence mtDNA data; (vii) equilibrium conditions are critical for estimating population parameters; and (viii) having better technology makes us smarter than our predecessors. This is clearly not an exhaustive list and many others can be added. It is, however, sufficient to illustrate why we all need to be more critical of our own understanding of molecular ecology and to be suspicious of self-evident truths. PMID:22574714

Karl, Stephen A; Toonen, R J; Grant, W S; Bowen, B W

2012-09-01

35

COMPUTER SCIENCE: MISCONCEPTIONS, CAREER PATHS  

E-print Network

COMPUTER SCIENCE: MISCONCEPTIONS, CAREER PATHS AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES School of Computing Undergraduate Student) #12;Computer Science Misconceptions Intro to Computer Science - Florida International University 2 Some preconceived ideas & stereotypes about Computer Science (CS) are quite common

Hristidis, Vagelis

36

Misconceptions about Traumatic Brain Injury among Students Preparing to Be Special Education Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The researchers performed a survey study to determine the effectiveness of collegiate programmes in dispelling common misconceptions about traumatic brain injury (TBI) while preparing undergraduate and graduate students for special education (SpEd) careers. Respondents included 136 undergraduate and 147 graduate SpEd students in their final…

Hux, Karen; Bush, Erin; Evans, Kelli; Simanek, Gina

2013-01-01

37

Interpreting Students' Writings: Misconception or Misrepresentation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article demonstrates one particular difficulty of interpreting students' use of language in science classrooms: determining whether a student's writing indicates a misconception or a misrepresentation. Students' written assignments from a case study are used to illustrate instances where multiple interpretations are possible.…

Seah, Lay Hoon

2013-01-01

38

Students' Misconceptions about Medium-Scale Integrated Circuits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To improve instruction in computer engineering and computer science, instructors must better understand how their students learn. Unfortunately, little is known about how students learn the fundamental concepts in computing. To investigate student conceptions and misconceptions about digital logic concepts, the authors conducted a qualitative…

Herman, G. L.; Loui, M. C.; Zilles, C.

2011-01-01

39

Secondary & College Biology Students' Misconceptions About Diffusion & Osmosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests on diffusion and osmosis given to (n=116) secondary biology students, (n=123) nonbiology majors, and (n=117) biology majors found that, even after instruction, students continue to have misconceptions about these ideas. Appendix includes diffusion and osmosis test. (MKR)

Odom, Arthur Louis

1995-01-01

40

Common Origins of Diverse Misconceptions: Cognitive Principles and the Development of Biology Thinking  

PubMed Central

Many ideas in the biological sciences seem especially difficult to understand, learn, and teach successfully. Our goal in this feature is to explore how these difficulties may stem not from the complexity or opacity of the concepts themselves, but from the fact that they may clash with informal, intuitive, and deeply held ways of understanding the world that have been studied for decades by psychologists. We give a brief overview of the field of developmental cognitive psychology. Then, in each of the following sections, we present a number of common challenges faced by students in the biological sciences. These may be in the form of misconceptions, biases, or simply concepts that are difficult to learn and teach, and they occur at all levels of biological analysis (molecular, cellular, organismal, population, and ecosystem). We then introduce the notion of a cognitive construal and discuss specific examples of how these cognitive principles may explain what makes some misconceptions so alluring and some biological concepts so challenging for undergraduates. We will argue that seemingly unrelated misconceptions may have common origins in a single underlying cognitive construal. These ideas emerge from our own ongoing cross-disciplinary conversation, and we think that expanding this conversation to include other biological scientists and educators, as well as other cognitive scientists, could have significant utility in improving biology teaching and learning. PMID:22949417

Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

2012-01-01

41

An inventory of student recollections of their past misconceptions as a tool for improved classroom astronomy instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My Ph.D. research is about examining the persistence of 215 common misconceptions in astronomy. Each misconception is based on an often commonly-held incorrect belief by college students taking introductory astronomy. At the University of Maine, the course is taught in alternating semesters by Prof. Neil F. Comins and Prof. David J. Batuski. In this dissertation, I examine the persistence of common astronomy misconceptions by the administration of a retrospective survey. The survey is a new instrument in that it permits the student to indicate either endorsement or rejection of each misconception at various stages in the student's life. I analyze data from a total of 639 students over six semesters. I compare the survey data to the results of exams taken by the students and additional instruments that assess students' misconceptions prior to instruction. I show that the consistency of the students' recollection of their own misconceptions is on par with the consistency of responses between prelims and the final exam. I also find that students who report higher increased childhood interest in astronomy are more likely to have accurate recalls of their own past recollections. I then discuss the use of principal components analysis as a technique for describing the extent to which misconceptions are correlated with each other. The analysis yields logical groupings of subtopics from which to teach. I then present a brief overview of item response theory, the methodology of which calculates relative difficulties of the items. My analysis reveals orders to teach the associated topics in ways that are most effective at dispelling misconceptions during instruction. I also find that the best order to teach the associated concepts is often different for high school and college level courses.

Favia, Andrej

42

A Comparative Cross-Cultural Study of the Prevalence and Nature of Misconceptions in Physics amongst English and Chinese Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Despite the large body of literature regarding student misconceptions, there has been relatively little cross-cultural research to directly compare the prevalence of common scientific misconceptions amongst students from different cultural backgrounds. Whilst previous research does suggest the international nature of many…

Abrahams, Ian; Homer, Matt; Sharpe, Rachael; Zhou, Mengyuan

2015-01-01

43

Grade-12 Students' Misconceptions Relating to Fundamental Characteristics of Atoms and Molecules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies misconceptions related to the fundamental characteristics of atoms and molecules held by twelfth-grade students. Data were obtained by administration of semistructured interviews to a stratified, random sample of 30 students. Fifty-two misconceptions were observed and reported. Some of the misconceptions identified parallel the…

Griffiths, Alan K.; Preston, Kirk R.

1992-01-01

44

Misconceptions highlighted among medical students in the annual International Intermedical School Physiology Quiz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

THE ANNUAL Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe, as previously described in this journal (4). We report here some illuminating insights gleaned from this international physiology quiz event. This report also highlights some common misconceptions among students of physiology, as has been previously described in definite studies by others (5, 8, 10, 13, 14).

Hwee-Ming Cheng (Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya Physiology)

2012-09-01

45

Differences in Brain Activation between Novices and Experts in Science during a Task Involving a Common Misconception in Electricity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science education studies have revealed that students often have misconceptions about how nature works, but what happens to misconceptions after a conceptual change remains poorly understood. Are misconceptions rejected and replaced by scientific conceptions, or are they still present in students' minds, coexisting with newly acquired…

Masson, Steve; Potvin, Patrice; Riopel, Martin; Foisy, Lorie-Marlène Brault

2014-01-01

46

Scientific Methods: Using the movie "Awakenings" to dispel common misconceptions about the scientific method.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is to dispel the misconception that there is one single structured scientific method used by all scientists, and tackle some ethical issues raised in life. This is accomplished using the popular movie "Awakenings" and student observations and reflections.

Lauris Grundmanis, Hill-Murray School, Maplewood, MN 55109

47

Students' Misconceptions--Looking for a Pattern.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes four chemical terms that students with well-considered reasons use in a way that is not accepted in chemistry. From 4300-7500 senior high school students completed a series of multiple choice tests while other groups of students participated in discussions about the problem situations. Contains 34 references. (DDR)

Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

1997-01-01

48

Students' Misconceptions and Errors in Transformation Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyses the students' performances in two-dimensional transformation geometry and explores the mistakes made by the students taking the analytic geometry course given by researchers. An examination was given to students of Education Faculties who have taken the analytic geometry course at Eskisehir Osmangazi University in Turkey. The…

Ada, Tuba; Kurtulus, Aytac

2010-01-01

49

A guided enquiry approach to introduce basic concepts concerning magnetic hysteresis to minimize student misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic concepts concerning magnetic hysteresis are of vital importance in understanding magnetic materials. However, these concepts are often misinterpreted by many students and even textbooks. We summarize the most common misconceptions and present a new approach to help clarify these misconceptions and enhance students’ understanding of the hysteresis loop. In this approach, students are required to perform an experiment and plot the measured magnetization values and thereby calculated demagnetizing field, internal field, and magnetic induction as functions of the applied field point by point on the same graph. The concepts of the various coercivity, remanence, saturation magnetization, and saturation induction will not be introduced until this stage. By plotting this graph, students are able to interlink all the preceding concepts and intuitively visualize the underlying physical relations between them.

Wei, Yajun; Zhai, Zhaohui; Gunnarsson, Klas; Svedlindh, Peter

2014-11-01

50

Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

Hocking, M. B.

1980-01-01

51

Students' Understandings and Misconceptions of Algebraic Inequalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM] requires students in grades nine through 12 to be able to explain inequalities using mathematical relational symbols and be able to understand the meaning of inequalities and their solutions (NCTM, 2000). Studies have shown that not only middle and high school students have difficulties with…

Rowntree, Rebecca V.

2009-01-01

52

Exploring lecturers' views of first-year health science students' misconceptions in biomedical domains.  

PubMed

Research has indicated that misconceptions hamper the process of knowledge construction. Misconceptions are defined as persistent ideas not supported by current scientific views. Few studies have explored how misconceptions develop when first year health students conceptually move between anatomy and physiology to construct coherent knowledge about the human body. This explorative study analysed lecturers' perceptions of first-year health science students' misconceptions in anatomy and physiology to gain a deeper understanding of how and why misconceptions could potentially arise, by attempting to link sources of misconceptions with four schools of thought, namely theories on concept formation, complexity, constructivism and conceptual change. This was a qualitative study where ten lecturers involved in teaching anatomy and physiology in the health science curricula at the University of Cape Town were interviewed to explore perceptions of students' misconceptions. Analytical induction was used to uncover categories within the interview data by using a coding system. A deeper analysis was done to identify emerging themes that begins to explore a theoretical understanding of why and how misconceptions arise. Nine sources of misconceptions were identified, including misconceptions related to language, perception, three dimensional thinking, causal reasoning, curricula design, learning styles and moving between macro and micro levels. The sources of misconceptions were then grouped together to assist educators with finding educational interventions to overcome potential misconceptions. This explorative study is an attempt in theory building to understand what is at the core of biomedical misconceptions. Misconceptions identified in this study hold implications for educators as not all students have the required building blocks and cognitive skills to successfully navigate their way through biomedical courses. Theoretical insight into the sources of misconceptions can assist educators in addressing potential hampering factors in the construction of coherent scientific knowledge. PMID:25099944

Badenhorst, Elmi; Mamede, Sílvia; Hartman, Nadia; Schmidt, Henk G

2015-05-01

53

Analysis of Students' Misconceptions of Research Methods in Relations to Thinking Style  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores college studentsmisconceptions about scientific research methods and their predisposition for rational-analytic thinking or experiential-intuitive thinking. The measures used in assessing misconceptions and thinking style were a seven-item version of Students’ Conceptions of Research Methods Inventory (SCoRI), specifically the misconceptions of research methods subscale (Meyer et al.(2005), and Epstein’s Rational-Experiential Inventory (REI) Scale (1996), respectively. The REI

Tonya Tavares

2008-01-01

54

Studentsmisconceptions about Newton's second law in outer space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studentsmisconceptions about Newton's second law in frictionless outer space were investigated. The research was formed according to an epistemic game theoretical framework. The term ‘epistemic’ refers to students’ participation in problem-solving activities as a means of constructing new knowledge. The term ‘game’ refers to a coherent activity that consists of moves and rules. A set of questions in which students are asked to solve two similar Newton's second law problems, one of which is on the Earth and the other in outer space, was administered to 116 undergraduate students. The findings indicate that there is a significant difference between students’ epistemic game preferences and race-type (outer space or frictional surface) question. So students who used Newton's second law on the ground did not apply this law and used primitive reasoning when it came to space. Among these students, voluntary interviews were conducted with 18 students. Analysis of interview transcripts showed that: (1) the term ‘space’ causes spontaneity among students that prevents the use of the law; (2) students hesitate to apply Newton's second law in space due to the lack of a condition—the friction; (3) students feel that Newton's second law is not valid in space for a variety of reasons, but mostly for the fact that the body in space is not in contact with a surface.

Temiz, B. K.; Yavuz, A.

2014-07-01

55

Zeroing in on Number and Operations, Grades 7-8: Key Ideas and Common Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Zeroing in on Number and Operations" series, which aligns with the Common Core State Standards and the NCTM Standards and Focal Points, features easy-to-use tools for teaching key concepts in number and operations and for addressing common misconceptions. Sharing the insights they've gained in decades of mathematics teaching and research,…

Collins, Anne; Dacey, Linda

2010-01-01

56

Zeroing in on Number and Operations, Grades 5-6: Key Ideas and Common Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Zeroing in on Number and Operations" series, which aligns with the Common Core State Standards and the NCTM Sandards and Focal Points, features easy-to-use tools for teaching key concepts in number and operations and for addressing common misconceptions. Sharing the insights they've gained through decades of mathematics teaching and research,…

Collins, Anne; Dacey, Linda

2010-01-01

57

Zeroing in on Number and Operations, Grades 1-2: Key Ideas and Common Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Zeroing in on Number and Operations" series, which aligns with the Common Core State Standards and the NCTM Standards on Focal Points, features easy-to-use tools for teaching key concepts in number and operations and for addressing common misconceptions. Sharing the insights they've gained through decades of mathematics teaching and research,…

Dacey, Linda; Collins, Anne

2010-01-01

58

Zeroing in on Number and Operations, Pre-K-K: Key Ideas and Common Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Zeroing in on Number and Operations" series, which aligns with the Common Core State Standards and the NCTM Standards on Focal Points, features easy-to-use tools for teaching key concepts in number and operations and for addressing common misconceptions. Sharing the insights they've gained through decades of mathematics teaching and research,…

Dacey, Linda; Collins, Anne

2011-01-01

59

Zeroing in on Number and Operations, Grades 3-4: Key Ideas and Common Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Zeroing in on Number and Operations" series, which aligns with the Common Core State Standards and the NCTM Standards and Focal Points, features easy-to-use tools for teaching key concepts in number and operations and for addressing common misconceptions. Sharing the insights they've gained in decades of mathematics teaching and research,…

Dacey, Linda; Collins, Anne

2010-01-01

60

Identifying Students' Misconceptions about Nuclear Chemistry: A Study of Turkish High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study represents the first attempt to elucidate and detail the types of misconceptions high school students hold relating to basic concepts and topics of nuclear chemistry. A diagnostic multiple-choice test was administered to 157 tenth-grade students (15-16 years old) and the data were analyzed. The results show that high school students

Nakiboglu, Canan; Tekin, Berna Bulbul

2006-01-01

61

An Analysis of Students' Misconceptions Concerning Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study were to diagnose students' misconceptions concerning photosynthesis and respiration in plants, and to investigate reasons behind these misconceptions. The subjects were 45 ninth grade high school students and 11 high school teachers. Data were collected by interview technique. All of the interviews were audiotaped and…

Capa, Yesim; Yildirim, Ali; Ozden, M. Yasar

62

"Holes" in Student Understanding: Addressing Prevalent Misconceptions regarding Atmospheric Environmental Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a misconception among undergraduate students that global warming is caused by holes in the ozone layer. In this study, we evaluated the presence of this and other misconceptions surrounding atmospheric chemistry that are responsible for the entanglement of the greenhouse effect and the ozone hole in students' conceptual frameworks. We…

Kerr, Sara C.; Walz, Kenneth A.

2007-01-01

63

Thai High-School Students' Misconceptions about and Models of Light Refraction through a Planar Surface  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the optics misconceptions of 220 year 11 Thai high-school students. These misconceptions became apparent when the students attempted to explain how an object submerged in a water tank is "seen" by an observer looking into the tank from above and at an angle. The two diagnostic questions used in the study probe the…

Kaewkhong, Kreetha; Mazzolini, Alex; Emarat, Narumon; Arayathanitkul, Kwan

2010-01-01

64

What Are They Thinking? The Development and Use of an Instrument that Identifies Common Science Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the rationale for, and development of, an online instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. Science Beliefs is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. It utilizes a true or false, along with a written-explanation, format. The true or…

Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles R.; Larrabee, Timothy

2007-01-01

65

An Investigation of Grade 12 Students' Misconceptions Relating to Fundamental Characteristics of Molecules and Atoms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An understanding of the concepts of atoms and molecules is fundamental to the learning of chemistry. Any misconceptions and alternative conceptions related to these concepts which students harbor will impede much further learning. This paper identifies misconceptions related to the fundamental characteristics of atoms and molecules which Grade 12…

Griffiths, Alan Keith; Preston, Kirk R.

66

Observations on Student Misconceptions--A Case Study of the Build-Heap Algorithm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data structures and algorithms are core issues in computer programming. However, learning them is challenging for most students and many of them have various types of misconceptions on how algorithms work. In this study, we discuss the problem of identifying misconceptions on the principles of how algorithms work. Our context is algorithm…

Seppala, Otto; Malmi, Lauri; Korhonen, Ari

2006-01-01

67

Highly Prevalent but Not Always Persistent: Undergraduate and Graduate Student's Misconceptions about Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although past research has documented the prevalence of misconceptions in introductory psychology classes, few studies have assessed how readily upper-level undergraduate and graduate students endorse erroneous beliefs about the discipline. In Study 1, we administered a 30-item misconception test to an international sample of 670 undergraduate,…

Hughes, Sean; Lyddy, Fiona; Kaplan, Robin; Nichols, Austin Lee; Miller, Haylie; Saad, Carmel Gabriel; Dukes, Kristin; Lynch, Amy-Jo

2015-01-01

68

Myths and Misconceptions in Popular Psychology: Comparing Psychology Students and the General Public  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the prevalence of psychological myths and misconceptions among psychology students and within the general population. In total, 829 participants completed a 249-item questionnaire designed to measure a broad range of psychological myths. Results revealed that psychological myths and misconceptions are numerous and widely held.…

Furnham, Adrian; Hughes, David J.

2014-01-01

69

Black Boxes in Analytical Chemistry: University Students' Misconceptions of Instrumental Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions of chemistry and chemical engineering university students concerning instrumental analysis have been established from coordinated tests, tutorial interviews and laboratory lessons. Misconceptions can be divided into: (1) formal, involving specific concepts and formulations within the general frame of chemistry; (2)…

Carbo, Antonio Domenech; Adelantado, Jose Vicente Gimeno; Reig, Francisco Bosch

2010-01-01

70

A Study on Student Teachers' Misconceptions and Scientifically Acceptable Conceptions about Mass and Gravity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study were considered under three headings. The first was to elicit misconception that science and physics student teachers (pre-service teachers) had about the terms, "inertial mass", "gravitational mass", "gravity", "gravitational force" and "weight". The second was to understand how prior learning affected their misconceptions,…

Gonen, Selahattin

2008-01-01

71

Using a Force Plate to Correct Student Misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each year during the unit on collisions I ask my physics students this conceptual question: If you want to close a door but you have too much inertia at the moment to get up and do it yourself, should you throw a ball that rebounds well, like a basketball, or a ball that rebounds poorly, like a ball of modeling dough, at the door? I also impose the condition that the two balls must have the same momenta when they strike the door. I give my students some time to discuss the problem in small groups and then make a prediction. I find that most students predict incorrectly that the dough ball will be more effective at closing the door because it is solid throughout and denser than the hollow, air-filled basketball. The students do not focus on the better-rebounding basketball and the greater change in velocity that it experiences than the modeling dough ball when they strike a solid object like a door. To correct this misconception I use a Vernier2 force plate to measure the impulse of a size 3 basketball and a ball of modeling dough of equal mass (0.3213 ± 0.0002 kg) dropped from the same height of 0.200 ± 0.002 m, to ensure equal velocities, onto the force plate. While I realize that a collision between a ball and a force plate is not exactly the same as a collision between a ball and a door, a more complex system, I believe it offers some very useful insights into the problem. I also include in this paper an extension on validating the impulse-momentum theorem.

Wyrembeck, Edward P.

2005-09-01

72

Addressing Undergraduate Student Misconceptions about Natural Selection with an Interactive Simulated Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although evolutionary theory is considered to be a unifying foundation for biological education, misconceptions about basic\\u000a evolutionary processes such as natural selection inhibit student understanding. Even after instruction, students harbor misconceptions\\u000a about natural selection, suggesting that traditional teaching methods are insufficient for correcting these confusions. This\\u000a has spurred an effort to develop new teaching methods and tools that effectively confront

Joel K. Abraham; Eli Meir; Judy Perry; Jon C. Herron; Susan Maruca; Derek Stal

2009-01-01

73

Student Acquisition of Biological Evolution-Related Misconceptions: The Role of Public High School Introductory Biology Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to eliminate student misconceptions concerning biological evolution, it is important to identify their sources. The purposes of this study were to: (a) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma public high school Biology I teachers; (b) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma…

Yates, Tony Brett

2011-01-01

74

Developing Simulation-Based Computer Assisted Learning to Correct Students' Statistical Misconceptions Based on Cognitive Conflict Theory, Using "Correlation" as an Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding and applying statistical concepts is essential in modern life. However, common statistical misconceptions limit the ability of students to understand statistical concepts. Although simulation-based computer assisted learning (CAL) is promising for use in students learning statistics, substantial improvement is still needed. For…

Liu, Tzu-Chien

2010-01-01

75

Development and Application of an Instrument to Identify Students Misconceptions: Diffusion and Osmosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large number of undergraduate students have naive understandings about the processes of Diffusion and Osmosis. Some students overcome these misconceptions, but others do not. The study involved nineteen undergraduate movement science students at a Midwest University. Participants' were asked to complete a short answer (fill-in the blank) test,…

Misischia, Cynthia M.

2010-01-01

76

Student Misconceptions in Writing Balanced Equations for Dissolving Ionic Compounds in Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to identify student misconceptions and difficulties in writing symbolic-level balanced equations for dissolving ionic compounds in water. A sample of 105 college students were asked to provide balanced equations for dissolving four ionic compounds in water. Another 37 college students participated in semi-structured…

Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

2012-01-01

77

"But What about the Oneths?" A Year 7 Student's Misconception about Decimal Place Value  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The key to understanding the development of student misconceptions is to ask students to explain their thinking. Time constraints of classroom teaching make it difficult to consult with each and every individual student about their thought processes. However, when a particular error keeps surfacing, simply marking the response as incorrect will…

MacDonald, Amy

2008-01-01

78

Earth Science Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a list of over 50 commonly held misconceptions based on a literature review found in students and adults. The list covers earth science topics such as space, the lithosphere, the biosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the cryosphere. (KR)

Philips, William C.

1991-01-01

79

Diagnosing Secondary Students' Misconceptions of Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plants Using a Two-Tier Multiple Choice Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a multiple-choice instrument that reliably and validly diagnoses secondary students' understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plants. Highlights the consistency of students' misconceptions across secondary levels and indicates a high percentage of students have misconceptions regarding plant physiology. (CW)

Haslam, Filocha; Treagust, David F.

1987-01-01

80

Learning Difficulties Experienced by Students and their Misconceptions of the Inverse Function Concept  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to determine students' learning difficulties and misconceptions related to the "inverse function". The study group was composed of 137 first-grade students enrolled in the elementary mathematics teaching program of an Eastern Anatolia University in Turkey during the fall term of the academic year 2010-2011.…

Okur, Muzaffer

2013-01-01

81

The Persistence of Misconceptions about the Human Blood Circulatory System among Students in Different Grade Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the persistence of misconceptions in the topic of the human blood circulatory system among students in different grade levels. For this reason, after discussions with biology educators, two tests consisting of open-ended questions were developed by the researcher and administered to students in four…

Ozgur, Sami

2013-01-01

82

University and Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about the Concept of "Aromaticity" in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aromaticity concept is given incorrect or incomplete to the student in secondary education and knowledge based on this basic concept has been caused to another misconception in future. How are the achievement levels relating to the comprehension of various characteristics of aromatic compounds for the first and third grade students attending…

Topal, Giray; Oral, Behcet; Ozden. Mustafa

2007-01-01

83

Improving Algebra Preparation: Implications from Research on Student Misconceptions and Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through historical and contemporary research, educators have identified widespread misconceptions and difficulties faced by students in learning algebra. Many of these universal issues stem from content addressed long before students take their first algebra course. Yet elementary and middle school teachers may not understand how the subtleties of…

Welder, Rachael M.

2012-01-01

84

Student's Mistakes and Misconceptions on Teaching of Trigonometry Nevin ORHUN(1)  

E-print Network

208 Student's Mistakes and Misconceptions on Teaching of Trigonometry Nevin ORHUN(1) Abstract:Trigonometry relationships. For most of the students in higher education,it is necessary the analytical part of trigonometry.Namely,the trigonometry of the numbers is more important than the other subjects.Creativeness and understanding of its

Spagnolo, Filippo

85

Identifying and Addressing Student Difficulties and Misconceptions: Examples from Physics and from Materials Science and Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Here I present my work identifying and addressing student difficulties with several materials science and physics topics. In the first part of this thesis, I present my work identifying student difficulties and misconceptions about the directional relationships between net force, velocity, and acceleration in one dimension. This is accomplished…

Rosenblatt, Rebecca

2012-01-01

86

High School 9th Grade Students' Understanding Level and Misconceptions about Temperature and Factors Affecting It  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to explore students' understanding levels and misconceptions about temperature and factors affecting it. The concept of the study was chosen from Geography National Curriculum. In this study, a questionnaire was developed after a pilot study with an aim to ascertain the students' understanding levels of temperature and…

Akbas, Yavuz

2012-01-01

87

Student Misconceptions, Declarative Knowledge, Stimulus Conditions, and Problem Solving in Basic Electricity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of students' misconceptions, declarative knowledge, and stimulus conditions on students' solutions to a problem in basic electricity were studied for 80 undergraduates at Iowa State University (Ames). The implications of the findings of influence by knowledge and stimulus conditions are discussed. (SLD)

Andre, Thomas; Ding, Pin

1991-01-01

88

Biology Undergraduates' Misconceptions about Genetic Drift  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores biology undergraduates' misconceptions about genetic drift. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to describe students' definitions, identify common misconceptions, and examine differences before and after instruction on genetic drift. We identify and describe five overarching categories that include 16 distinct…

Andrews, T. M.; Price, R. M.; Mead, L. S.; McElhinny, T. L.; Thanukos, A.; Perez, K. E.; Herreid, C. F.; Terry, D. R.; Lemons, P. P.

2012-01-01

89

Misconceptions and Conceptual Changes Concerning Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics among Portuguese Students Aged 16-17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates student misconceptions in the areas of continent, ocean, permanence of ocean basins, continental drift, Earth's magnetic field, and plates and plate motions. A teaching-learning model was designed based on a constructivist approach. Results show that students held a substantial number of misconceptions. (Author/DKM)

Marques, Luis; Thompson, David

1997-01-01

90

Preservice Chemistry Teachers in Action: An Evaluation of Attempts for Changing High School Students' Chemistry Misconceptions into More Scientific Conceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has revealed that students may hold several misconceptions regarding fundamental topics of chemistry. With the idea that teachers play a critical role in diagnosis and remediation of students' misconceptions, a "course" for preservice chemistry teachers was designed. The purpose of this study was to describe the views and…

Yakmaci-Guzel, Buket

2013-01-01

91

Common misconceptions about 5-aminosalicylates and thiopurines in inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

Misconceptions are common in the care of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this paper, we state the most commonly found misconceptions in clinical practice and deal with the use of 5-aminosalicylates and thiopurines, to review the related scientific evidence, and make appropriate recommendations. Prevention of errors needs knowledge to avoid making such errors through ignorance. However, the amount of knowledge is increasing so quickly that one new danger is an overabundance of information. IBD is a model of a very complex disease and our goal with this review is to summarize the key evidence for the most common daily clinical problems. With regard to the use of 5-aminosalicylates, the best practice may to be consider abandoning the use of these drugs in patients with small bowel Crohn’ s disease. The combined approach with oral plus topical 5-aminosalicylates should be the first-line therapy in patients with active ulcerative colitis; once-daily treatment should be offered as a first choice regimen due to its better compliance and higher efficacy. With regard to thiopurines, they seem to be as effective in ulcerative colitis as in Crohn’ s disease. Underdosing of thiopurines is a form of undertreatment. Thiopurines should probably be continued indefinitely because their withdrawal is associated with a high risk of relapse. Mercaptopurine is a safe alternative in patients with digestive intolerance or hepatotoxicity due to azathioprine. Finally, thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) screening cannot substitute for regular monitoring because the majority of cases of myelotoxicity are not TPMT-related. PMID:21941413

Gisbert, Javier P; Chaparro, María; Gomollón, Fernando

2011-01-01

92

The Effects of Computer-Assisted Material on Students' Cognitive Levels, Misconceptions and Attitudes Towards Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Computer-Assisted Instruction Material (CAIM) related to "photosynthesis" topic on student cognitive development, misconceptions and attitudes. The study conducted in 2002-2003 academic year and was carried out in two different classes taught by the same teacher, in which there were…

Cepni, Salih; Tas, Erol; Kose, Sacit

2006-01-01

93

Development and Use of Diagnostic Tests to Evaluate Students' Misconceptions in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 10 steps for developing a diagnostic test of students' misconceptions and the use of two tests in chemistry (covalent bonding and structure) and in biology (photosynthesis and respiration in plants). Discusses the results and some implications for teaching science. (YP)

Treagust, David F.

1988-01-01

94

Growing Pebbles and Conceptual Prisms - Understanding the Source of Student Misconceptions about Rock Formation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes narrative essays--stories of rock formation--written by pre-service elementary school teachers. Reports startling misconceptions among preservice teachers on pebbles that grow, human involvement in rock formation, and sedimentary rocks forming as puddles as dry up, even though these students had completed a college level course on Earth…

Kusnick, Judi

2002-01-01

95

Development of the Bonding Representations Inventory to Identify Student Misconceptions about Covalent and Ionic Bonding Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers use multiple representations to communicate the concepts of bonding, including Lewis structures, formulas, space-filling models, and 3D manipulatives. As students learn to interpret these multiple representations, they may develop misconceptions that can create problems in further learning of chemistry. Interviews were conducted with 28…

Luxford, Cynthia J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

2014-01-01

96

Factors Mediating the Effect of Gender on Ninth-Grade Turkish Students' Misconceptions Concerning Electric Circuits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to identify and analyze possible factors that mediate the effect of gender on ninth-grade Turkish students' misconceptions concerning electric circuits. A Simple Electric Circuit Concept Test (SECCT), including items with both practical and theoretical contexts, and an Interest-Experience Questionnaire about Electricity…

Sencar, Selen; Eryilmaz, Ali

2004-01-01

97

The Investigation of 6th Grade Student Misconceptions Originated from Didactic about the "Digestive System" Subject  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the misconceptions emerged as a result of instruction were examined from the viewpoint of the Didactic Transposition Theory. To this end, two randomly selected sample groups (n = 33 and n = 31) from the students of two nearby schools in downtown Balikesir were included in the study. It was observed that different knowledge…

Ozgur, Sami; Pelitoglu, Fatma Cildir

2008-01-01

98

Misconceptions of Students Related with the Turkish Lesson: The Grammar Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grammar concepts are among the fundamental concepts of Turkish teaching. Improper teaching of them may cause the rise of certain problems in the teaching of high-level lingual concepts. What is intended herein is to identify if 6th Grade students do encounter misconceptions while learning grammar concepts. Data of the study have been obtained via…

Batur, Zekerya

2013-01-01

99

Student Misconceptions about Newtonian Mechanics: Origins and Solutions through Changes to Instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order for Physics Education Research (PER) to achieve its goals of significant learning gains with efficient methods, it is necessary to figure out what are the sorts of preexisting issues that students have prior to instruction and then to create teaching methods that are best able to overcome those problems. This makes it necessary to figure out what is the nature of student physics misconceptions---prior beliefs that are both at variance to Newtonian mechanics and also prevent a student from properly cognizing Newtonian concepts. To understand the prior beliefs of students, it is necessary to uncover their origins, which may allow instructors to take into account the sources for ideas of physics that are contrary to Newtonian mechanics understanding. That form of instruction must also induce the sorts of metacognitive processes that allow students to transition from their previous conceptions to Newtonian ones, let alone towards those of modern physics. In this paper, the notions of basic dynamics that are common among first-year college students are studied and compared with previous literature. In particular, an analysis of historical documents from antiquity up to the early modern period shows that these conceptions were rather widespread and consistent over thousands of years and in numerous cultural contexts. This is one of the only analyses in PER that considers the original languages of some of these texts, along with appropriate historical scholarship. Based on the consistent appearance of these misconceptions, a test and interview module was devised to help elucidate the feelings students have that may relate to fictitious forces. The test looked at one-dimensional motion and forces. The first part of the interview asked each student about their answers to the test questions, while the second part asked how students felt when undergoing three cases of constant acceleration in a car. We determined that students confabulated relative motion with the experience of force; students claim to feel a force in the direction of relative motion even when the actual force is in the opposite direction. The interview process also showed how students had both their intuitive sense of physics as well as Newtonian concepts from instruction, and how each model was activated could be influenced by questions from the interviewer. In order to investigate how changes to instructional method and pedagogy may affect students' ability to overcome their non-Newtonian intuitions, an experimental lecturing series was devised that used individual voting machines ("clickers") to increase class participation and dialog in a fashion that was more student-centered. The experimental section also had video recordings of the lectures as well as concept-based video homework solutions. The initial availability of the videos hindered early use, and overall students rarely used these additions. The clicker system also had technical issues due to the volume of students and an interface that was not streamlined. Nonetheless, the results showed the experimental section to have significantly greater learning gains (d > 0.5, p ˜ 0.01), and we determined that this was most likely due to the clicker system.

Adair, Aaron Michael

100

Identifying Robust Student Misconceptions in Thermal Science using Model-Eliciting Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The conceptual change literature indicates the presence of robust, strongly-held misconceptions in thermal science (e.g., heat transfer, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics) even after many years of formal and informal learning. For example, data collected using the Thermal and Transport concept inventory suggests that a significant number of seniors in chemical and mechanical engineering confuse the rate of energy transfer vs. the amount transferred, do not understand how temperature and energy are related, and believe that the thermal efficiency of a heat engine can be increased to 100% if all heat losses and mechanical efficiencies are eliminated. While concept inventories are one method for identifying student misconceptions, we are now exploring the development and use of a new pedagogical technique called model-eliciting activities (MEAs). MEAs were first developed to elicit problem-solving strategies from students in mathematics classes, but have now been expanded to other disciplines including ethics and engineering science2,3. Through a collaborative, large-scale National Science Foundation project, MEAs are now being developed to elicit student misconceptions about important but poorly understood concepts in thermal science. For example, misconceptions about the second law of thermodynamics and its effect on energy quality are being explored in an MEA where students estimate the overall thermal efficiency of electric vs. hybrid vs. gasoline cars. Student teams must use a systems approach and include all relevant energy conversion steps in their problem solving process. In this paper, we will describe MEAs and how they are being used for misconception identification. Potential MEA topics and a sample MEA are provided and discussed in detail.

101

Overcoming Students' Misconceptions Concerning Thermal Physics with the Aid of Hints and Peer Interaction during a Lecture Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As has been shown by previous research, students may possess various misconceptions in the area of thermal physics. In order to help them overcome misconceptions observed prior to instruction, we implemented a one-hour lecture-based intervention in their introductory thermal physics course. The intervention was held after the conventional lectures…

Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

2013-01-01

102

Some Misconceptions in Meiosis Shown by Students Responding to an Advanced Level Practical Examination Question in Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are problems revealed in student responses to a practical task which formed part of an advanced level examination. The frequencies with which some misconceptions about cell reproduction and genetics occurred are presented. The nature of these misconceptions is analyzed and their implications discussed. (CW)

Brown, C. R.

1990-01-01

103

Factors mediating the effect of gender on ninth-grade Turkish students' misconceptions concerning electric circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to identify and analyze possible factors that mediate the effect of gender on ninth-grade Turkish students' misconceptions concerning electric circuits. A Simple Electric Circuit Concept Test (SECCT), including items with both practical and theoretical contexts, and an Interest-Experience Questionnaire about Electricity (IEQ) were administered to 1,678 ninth-grade students (764 male, 914 female) after the completion of a unit on electricity to assess students' misconceptions and interests-experiences about electricity. Results of the concept test indicated that general performances of the students were relatively low and that many students had misconceptions in interpreting electric circuits. When the data were analyzed using MANOVA and follow-up ANOVAs, a gender difference for males was observed on the dependent variable of total scores on the 10 practical items; however, there was no significant gender difference on the dependent variable of total scores on the six theoretical items. Moreover, when the same data were analyzed using MANCOVA and follow-up ANCOVAs, controlling students' age and interest-experience related to electricity, the observed gender difference was mediated on the total scores on the practical items.

Sencar, Selen; Eryilmaz, Ali

2004-08-01

104

An Astronomical Misconceptions Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions that students bring with them to the introductory science classroom plague every area of science and are especially prevalent in astronomy. One way to identify and possibly dispel some of these misconceptions is through the use of a misconceptions survey. The following is a report on the development, implementation, and some early…

LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.

2011-01-01

105

Research and Teaching: Two-Dimensional, Implicit Confidence Tests as a Tool for Recognizing Student Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The misconceptions that students bring with them, or that arise during instruction, are a critical barrier to learning. Implicit-confidence tests, a simple modification of the multiple-choice test, can be used as a strategy for recognizing student misconceptions. An important issue, however, is whether such tests are gender-neutral. We analyzed the results of exams administered to students (both majors and nonmajors) in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology (MCDB) 1111: Biofundamentals at the University of Colorado at Boulder. At a statistically significant level ( 95%), there was no difference between women and men regardless of whether their answers were confidently correct or incorrect, suggesting that such two-dimensional tests are a gender-neutral tool.

Linda B. Taylor

2006-11-01

106

Essay Contest Reveals Misconceptions of High School Students in Genetics Content  

PubMed Central

National educational organizations have called upon scientists to become involved in K–12 education reform. From sporadic interaction with students to more sustained partnerships with teachers, the engagement of scientists takes many forms. In this case, scientists from the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), the Genetics Society of America (GSA), and the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) have partnered to organize an essay contest for high school students as part of the activities surrounding National DNA Day. We describe a systematic analysis of 500 of 2443 total essays submitted in response to this contest over 2 years. Our analysis reveals the nature of student misconceptions in genetics, the possible sources of these misconceptions, and potential ways to galvanize genetics education. PMID:18245328

Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Van Horne, Katie; Zhang, Hubert; Boughman, Joann

2008-01-01

107

Towards Intelligent Tutoring with Erroneous Examples: A Taxonomy of Decimal Misconceptions  

E-print Network

346 Towards Intelligent Tutoring with Erroneous Examples: A Taxonomy of Decimal Misconceptions.altman@vanderbilt.edu Abstract. In the mathematics domain of decimals, students have common and persistent misconceptions an initial taxonomy of decimal misconceptions, summarizing the results of past work. We also discuss

McLaren, Bruce Martin

108

Advanced Undergraduate and Early Graduate Physics Students' Misconception about Solar Wind Flow: Evidence of Students' Difficulties in Distinguishing Paradigms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anecdotal evidence has suggested that advanced undergraduate students confuse the spiral structure of the interplanetary magnetic field with the flow of the solar wind. Though it is a small study, this paper documents this misconception and begins to investigate the underlying issues behind it. We present evidence that the traditional presentation…

Gross, Nicholas A.; Lopez, Ramon E.

2009-01-01

109

Absolute Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…

Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva

2012-01-01

110

Invisible Misconceptions: Student Understanding of Ultraviolet and Infrared Radiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of nonvisible wavelengths for the study of astronomy suggests that student understanding of nonvisible light is an important consideration in astronomy classrooms. Questionnaires, interviews, and panel discussions were used to investigate 6-12 student and teacher conceptions of ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR). Alternative…

Libarkin, Julie C.; Asghar, Anila; Crockett, C.; Sadler, Philip

2011-01-01

111

The Relationship between Biology Classes and Biological Reasoning and Common Heath Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the relationship among (1) college major, (2) knowledge used in reasoning about common health beliefs, and (3) judgment about the accuracy of those beliefs. Seventy-four college students, advanced biology and non-science majors, indicated their agreement or disagreement with commonly believed, but often inaccurate,…

Keselman, Alla; Hundal, Savreen; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia; Bibi, Raquel; Edelman, Jay A.

2015-01-01

112

Atheist Students on Campus: From Misconceptions to Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People who follow trends in higher education are aware of a renewed emphasis on religious plurality and spirituality on college campuses. But all the articles, conferences, and campus activities surrounding religion and spirituality rarely, if at all, acknowledge one group: students who are atheists. If colleges are to be truly inclusive, they…

Goodman, Kathleen M.; Mueller, John A.

2009-01-01

113

Misconceptions of chemical equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Those propositions deemed necessary for an understanding of chemical equilibrium and Le Chatelier's Principle were defined by the investigators and validated.Thirty, Year 12 Western Australian chemistry students (17 years of age) who had studied chemical equilibrium were interviewed and students’ responses were coded into various categories of misconception that had been identified. The most significant misconceptions revealed by the study

Mark W. Hackling; Patrick J. Garnett

1985-01-01

114

Evaluating Secondary Students' Misconceptions of Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plants Using a Two-Tier Diagnostic Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the premise that multiple choice tests can be used as diagnostic tools for teachers in identifying and remedying student misconceptions, this study focused on the development of an instrument for diagnosing secondary students' understanding of photosynthesis and respiration. Information is presented on: (1) procedures of development of…

Treagust, David F.; Haslam, Filocha

115

Addressing Student Misconceptions Concerning Electron Flow in Aqueous Solutions with Instruction Including Computer Animations and Conceptual Change Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effects of both computer animations of microscopic chemical processes occurring in a galvanic cell and conceptual-change instruction based on chemical demonstrations on students' conceptions of current flow in electrolyte solutions. Finds that conceptual change instruction was effective at dispelling student misconceptions but…

Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

2000-01-01

116

The Effect of Conceptual Change Approach to Eliminate 9th Grade High School Students' Misconceptions about Air Pressure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of teaching based on conceptual change overcome misconceptions of 9th grade high school students about the subject of air pressure. The sampling of the study was formed with two classes of 9th grade students from a general high school in the city-center of Trabzon. A quasi-experimental…

Akbas, Yavuz; Gencturk, Ebru

2011-01-01

117

Overcoming Junior High School Students' Misconceptions about Microscopic Views of Phase Change: A Study of an Analogy Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effectiveness of an analogy activity designed to overcome junior high school students' misconceptions about the microscopic views of phase change. Uses an analogy activity presented in the form of role playing in which students act as particles. Contains 32 references. (DDR)

Tsai, Chin-Chung

1999-01-01

118

Fundamental Research in Engineering Education. Identifying and Repairing Student Misconceptions in Thermal and Transport Science: Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes progress on two related lines of chemical engineering education research: 1) identifying persistent student misconceptions in thermal and transport science (fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and thermodynamics); and, 2) developing a method to help students repair these misconceptions. Progress on developing the Thermal and…

Miller, Ronald L.; Streveler, Ruth A.; Yang, Dazhi; Roman, Aidsa I. Santiago

2011-01-01

119

The Earthquake Information Test: Validating an Instrument for Determining Student Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some pre-instructional misconceptions held by children can persist through scientific instruction and resist changes. Identifying these misconceptions would be beneficial for science instruction. In this preliminary study, scores on a 60-item true-false test of knowledge and misconceptions about earthquakes were compared with previous interview…

Ross, Katharyn E. K.; Shuell, Thomas J.

120

Misconceptions of Astronomical Distances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous empirical studies using multiple-choice procedures have suggested that there are misconceptions about the scale of astronomical distances. The present study provides a quantitative estimate of the nature of this misconception among US university students by asking them, in an open-ended response format, to make estimates of the distances…

Miller, Brian W.; Brewer, William F.

2010-01-01

121

Formative Assessment Pre-Test to Identify College Students' Prior Knowledge, Misconceptions and Learning Difficulties in Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A formative assessment pretest was administered to undergraduate students at the beginning of a science course in order to find out their prior knowledge, misconceptions and learning difficulties on the topic of the human respiratory system and energy issues. Those findings could provide their instructors with the valuable information required in…

Lazarowitz, Reuven; Lieb, Carl

2006-01-01

122

Comparing the Impacts of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students' Achievements, Misconceptions, and Attitudes towards Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment design of instructional software programs related to the "cell division" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the cell division achievement test (CAT), the cell division concept test (CCT) and…

Kara, Yilmaz; Yesilyurt, Selami

2008-01-01

123

Electromagnetic Scattering by a Morphologically Complex Object: Fundamental Concepts and Common Misconceptions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following Keller(Proc Symp Appl Math 1962;13:227:46), we classify all theoretical treatments of electromagnetic scattering by a morphologically complex object into first- principle (or "honest" in Keller s terminology) and phenomenological (or "dishonest") categories. This helps us identify, analyze, and dispel several profound misconceptions widespread in the discipline of electromagnetic scattering by solitary particles and discrete random media. Our goal is not to call for a complete renunciation of phenomenological approaches but rather to encourage a critical and careful evaluation of their actual origin, virtues, and limitations. In other words, we do not intend to deter creative thinking in terms of phenomenological short-cuts, but we do want to raise awareness when we stray (often for practical reasons) from the fundamentals. The main results and conclusions are illustrated by numerically-exact data based on direct numerical solutions of the macroscopic Maxwell equations.

Mischenko, Michael I.; Travis, Larry D.; Cairns, Brian; Tishkovets, Victor P.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Rosenbush, Vera K.; Kiselev, Nikolai N.

2011-01-01

124

Misconceptions Are “So Yesterday!”  

PubMed Central

At the close of the Society for the Advancement of Biology Education Research conference in July 2012, one of the organizers made the comment: “Misconceptions are so yesterday.” Within the community of learning sciences, misconceptions are yesterday's news, because the term has been aligned with eradication and/or replacement of conceptions, and our knowledge about how people learn has progressed past this idea. This essay provides an overview of the discussion within the learning sciences community surrounding the term “misconceptions” and how the education community's thinking has evolved with respect to students’ conceptions. Using examples of students’ incorrect ideas about evolution and ecology, we show that students’ naïve ideas can provide the resources from which to build scientific understanding. We conclude by advocating that biology education researchers use one or more appropriate alternatives in place of the term misconception whenever possible. PMID:24006383

Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

2013-01-01

125

Misconceptions are "so yesterday!".  

PubMed

At the close of the Society for the Advancement of Biology Education Research conference in July 2012, one of the organizers made the comment: "Misconceptions are so yesterday." Within the community of learning sciences, misconceptions are yesterday's news, because the term has been aligned with eradication and/or replacement of conceptions, and our knowledge about how people learn has progressed past this idea. This essay provides an overview of the discussion within the learning sciences community surrounding the term "misconceptions" and how the education community's thinking has evolved with respect to students' conceptions. Using examples of students' incorrect ideas about evolution and ecology, we show that students' naïve ideas can provide the resources from which to build scientific understanding. We conclude by advocating that biology education researchers use one or more appropriate alternatives in place of the term misconception whenever possible. PMID:24006383

Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

2013-01-01

126

Comparing the Impacts of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students' Achievements, Misconceptions, and Attitudes towards Biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment design of instructional software programs related to the "cell division" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the cell division achievement test (CAT), the cell division concept test (CCT) and biology attitude scale (BAS) was applied at the beginning and at the end of the research. After the treatment, general achievement in CAT increased in favor of experimental groups. Instructional software programs also had the positive effect to the awareness of students' understandings to the general functions of mitosis and meiosis. However, the current study revealed that there were still some misconceptions in the experimental groups even after the treatment. It was also noticed that only using edutainment software program significantly changed students' attitudes towards biology.

Kara, Y?lmaz; Ye?ilyurt, Selami

2008-02-01

127

The Impact of Language and Response Format on Student Endorsement of Psychological Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the possibility that the language and response format used in self-report questionnaires influences how readily people endorse misconceptions. Four versions of a 40-item misconception test were administered to European ("n" = 281) and North American ("n" = 123) psychology and nonpsychology…

Hughes, Sean; Lyddy, Fiona; Kaplan, Robin

2013-01-01

128

N-Squad Episode 1. Students learn misconceptions about alcohol, medical examination, the role of the digestive system in processing alcohol, and liver histology.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In N-Squad Episode 1 students work with forensic scientists to solve an alcohol related crime. Along the way, they will learn about alcohol's interaction with the digestive system, misconceptions about alcohol, medical examination, and liver histology.

Center for Technology in Teaching and Learning

2011-09-28

129

Overcoming Misconceptions in Neurophysiology Learning: An Approach Using Color-Coded Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anyone who has taught neurophysiology would be aware of recurring concepts that students find difficult to understand. However, a greater problem is the development of misconceptions that may be difficult to change. For example, one common misconception is that action potentials pass directly across chemical synapses. Difficulties may be…

Guy, Richard

2012-01-01

130

Mathematics, Thermodynamics, and Modeling to Address Ten Common Misconceptions about Protein Structure, Folding, and Stability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To fully understand the roles proteins play in cellular processes, students need to grasp complex ideas about protein structure, folding, and stability. Our current understanding of these topics is based on mathematical models and experimental data. However, protein structure, folding, and stability are often introduced as descriptive, qualitative…

Robic, Srebrenka

2010-01-01

131

The Xs and Whys of Algebra: Key Ideas and Common Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many ways, algebra can be as challenging for teachers as it is for students. With so much emphasis placed on procedural knowledge and the manipulations of variables and symbols, it can be easy to lose sight of the key ideas that underlie algebraic thinking and the relevance algebra has to the real world. In the The Xs and Whys of Algebra: Key…

Collins, Anne; Dacey, Linda

2011-01-01

132

Misconceptions of Emergent Semiconductor Phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The semiconductor field of Photovoltaics (PV) has experienced tremendous growth, requiring curricula to consider ways to promote student success. One major barrier to success students may face when learning PV is the development of misconceptions. The purpose of this work was to determine the presence and prevalence of misconceptions students may have for three PV semiconductor phenomena; Diffusion, Drift and Excitation. These phenomena are emergent, a class of phenomena that have certain characteristics. In emergent phenomena, the individual entities in the phenomena interact and aggregate to form a self-organizing pattern that can be observed at a higher level. Learners develop a different type of misconception for these phenomena, an emergent misconception. Participants (N=41) completed a written protocol. The pilot study utilized half of these protocols (n = 20) to determine the presence of both general and emergent misconceptions for the three phenomena. Once the presence of both general and emergent misconceptions was confirmed, all protocols (N=41) were analyzed to determine the presence and prevalence of general and emergent misconceptions, and to note any relationships among these misconceptions (full study). Through written protocol analysis of participants' responses, numerous codes emerged from the data for both general and emergent misconceptions. General and emergent misconceptions were found in 80% and 55% of participants' responses, respectively. General misconceptions indicated limited understandings of chemical bonding, electricity and magnetism, energy, and the nature of science. Participants also described the phenomena using teleological, predictable, and causal traits, indicating participants had misconceptions regarding the emergent aspects of the phenomena. For both general and emergent misconceptions, relationships were observed between similar misconceptions within and across the three phenomena, and differences in misconceptions were observed across the phenomena. Overall, the presence and prevalence of both general and emergent misconceptions indicates that learners have limited understandings of the physical and emergent mechanisms for the phenomena. Even though additional work is required, the identification of specific misconceptions can be utilized to enhance semiconductor and PV course content. Specifically, changes can be made to curriculum in order to limit the formation of misconceptions as well as promote conceptual change.

Nelson, Katherine G.

133

Understanding the Common Elements of Evidence-Based Practice: Misconceptions and Clinical Examples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors proposed a distillation and matching model (DMM) that describes how evidence-based treatment operations can be conceptualized at a lower order level of analysis than simply by their manuals. Also referred to as the "common elements" approach, this model demonstrates the feasibility of coding and identifying the…

Chorpita, Bruce F.; Becker, Kimberly D.; Daleiden, Eric L.

2007-01-01

134

Research and Teaching: Persisting Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A content-based test instrument administered to a large class of general biology students as pre- and post-tests revealed that knowledge was gained after the semester. A misconception index calculated from these data served to identify specific misconcept

Gladys M. Nazario

2002-02-01

135

Glucose as the sole metabolic fuel- a study on the possible influence of teachers knowledge on the establishment of a misconception among Brazilian high school students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the present work, I investigated the origin of the misconception that glucose is the sole metabolic fuel previously described among Brazilian high school students. The results of a multiple-choice test composed of 24 questions about a broad range of biology subjects were analyzed. The test was part of a contest and was answered by a sample composed of undergraduate students as well as biologists and practicing biology teachers. The majority of the responders had difficulties in recognizing the existence of gluconeogenesis and the possibility of ATP production using other fuels other than carbohydrates. Biology teachers and biologists seemed to either lack the knowledge or present the misconception regarding energy-yielding metabolism found among students. I argue that in both cases, biology teachers are likely to teach metabolism-related subjects in a manner that may contribute to the appearance of the misconception among high school students.

Mauricio Roberto Motta Pinto da Luz (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Fundação Oswaldo Cruz)

2008-06-25

136

The Effects and Side-Effects of Statistics Education: Psychology Students' (Mis-)Conceptions of Probability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In three studies we looked at two typical misconceptions of probability: the representativeness heuristic, and the equiprobability bias. The literature on statistics education predicts that some typical errors and biases (e.g., the equiprobability bias) increase with education, whereas others decrease. This is in contrast with reasoning theorists'…

Morsanyi, Kinga; Primi, Caterina; Chiesi, Francesca; Handley, Simon

2009-01-01

137

Genius is not immune to persistent misconceptions: conceptual difficulties impeding Isaac Newton and contemporary physics students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has shown that serious misconceptions frequently survive high school and university instruction in mechanics. It is interesting to inquire whether Newton himself encountered conceptual difficulties before he wrote the Principia: (a) Did he have serious difficulties? (b) If so, were they difficult to overcome? We shall present evidence from Newton's writings of affirmative answers to both questions.Newton's development

Melvin S. Steinberg; David E. Brown; John Clement

1990-01-01

138

Genius Is Not Immune to Persistent Misconceptions: Conceptual Difficulties Impeding Isaac Newton and Contemporary Physics Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has shown that serious misconceptions frequently survive high school and university instruction in mechanics. It is interesting to inquire whether Newton himself encountered conceptual difficulties before he wrote the "Principia." This paper compares Newton's pre-"Principia" beliefs, based upon his writings, with those of…

Steinberg, Melvin S.; And Others

139

The Effects of Readers' Misconceptions on Comprehension of Scientific Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of readers' misconceptions on text comprehension. College students with misconceptions in science were asked to read and recall a text that contradicted their misconceptions. Students with no misconceptions served as the control group. Both online (think-aloud, reading times) and offline (recall) measures were obtained. The results suggest that readers'

Panayiota Kendeou; Paul van den Broek

2005-01-01

140

Student Learning Commons Questions & Answers for Faculty  

E-print Network

Student Learning Commons Questions & Answers for Faculty What is the SFU Student Learning Commons? The Student Learning Commons (SLC), is an academic learning centre which provides peer-based assistance with library reference, computer assistance, and other student academic support services. SLC programs

141

STUDENT LEARNING COMMONS PLANNING 2007-2010  

E-print Network

STUDENT LEARNING COMMONS PLANNING 2007-2010 Elaine Fairey, Director, Student Learning Commons Lynn delivery 4. Space 5. Internal relations 6. External relations Introduction The Student Learning Commons (SLC) was created in response to the report on Student Learning Support Services (October 2004

142

Lunar Phases: Addressing Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise was designed to address student misconceptions about why the Moon exhibits phases. Using a sketchbook, digital camera, or flex cam, a student sits at the center of a darkened room illuminated by a single light source in a stationary position. Stools are set up surrounding the student in the center and other students take those positions, always keeping their faces toward the center. The center student sketches or take pictures of the faces at each of the positions. Substituting a sphere (such as a ball) for the students' faces provides an even more vivid illustration of the shadowing of the sphere and connects directly to the rationale for lunar phases.

Philip Childs

143

Astronomical Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do you think that the Moon does not rotate? Do you think that the phases of the Moon are created by the Earth's shadow? Do you think that the seasons are a result of the Earth's distance from the Sun? If you answered "yes" to any of these, then you are one of many who possess misconceptions about astronomy.

Barrier, Regina M.

2010-01-01

144

Idea Bank: Changing Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During student-centered learning activities, students actively engage in their own learning based on individual prior understandings. It can be difficult for a teacher to know if students fully understand the concepts being presented, especially if they do not comment or ask questions because they are shy or afraid of getting something wrong. Teachers may not know students' true ideas until they express themselves on a written summative exam, and then it is often too late to correct them before rushing off to the next topic. Therefore, the author uses pretests, daily learning logs, and posttests to assess student learning and change misconceptions. She shares her strategy in this month's Idea Bank.

Tara Holzmiller

2008-12-01

145

What Research Says: The Cardiovascular System: Children's Conceptions and Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports findings of a study on children's perceptions and alternate conceptions about the human circulatory system. Summarizes the responses of fifth and eighth grade students on questions dealing with the heart and blood. Offers examples of hands-on activities and confrontation strategies that address common misconceptions on circulation. (ML)

Arnaudin, Mary W.; Mintzes, Joel J.

1986-01-01

146

Examining the impact of the Guided Constructivist teaching method on students' misconceptions about concepts of Newtonian physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of Guided Constructivism (Interactivity-Based Learning Environment) and Traditional Expository instructional methods on students' misconceptions about concepts of Newtonian Physics was investigated. Four groups of 79 of University of Central Florida students enrolled in Physics 2048 participated in the study. A quasi-experimental design of nonrandomized, nonequivalent control and experimental groups was employed. The experimental group was exposed to the Guided Constructivist teaching method, while the control group was taught using the Traditional Expository teaching approach. The data collection instruments included the Force Concept Inventory Test (FCI), the Mechanics Baseline Test (MBT), and the Maryland Physics Expectation Survey (MPEX). The Guided Constructivist group had significantly higher means than the Traditional Expository group on the criterion variables of: (1) conceptions of Newtonian Physics, (2) achievement in Newtonian Physics, and (3) beliefs about the content of Physics knowledge, beliefs about the role of Mathematics in learning Physics, and overall beliefs about learning/teaching/appropriate roles of learners and teachers/nature of Physics. Further, significant relationships were found between (1) achievement, conceptual structures, beliefs about the content of Physics knowledge, and beliefs about the role of Mathematics in learning Physics; (2) changes in misconceptions about the physical phenomena, and changes in beliefs about the content of Physics knowledge. No statistically significant difference was found between the two teaching methods on achievement of males and females. These findings suggest that differences in conceptual learning due to the nature of the teaching method used exist. Furthermore, greater conceptual learning is fostered when teachers use interactivity-based teaching strategies to train students to link everyday experience in the real physical world to formal school concepts. The moderate effect size and power of the study suggest that the effect may not be subtle, but reliable. Physics teachers can use these results to inform their decisions about structuring learning environment when conceptual learning is important.

Ibrahim, Hyatt Abdelhaleem

147

Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel: A Study on the Possible Influence of Teachers' Knowledge on the Establishment of a Misconception among Brazilian High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present work, I investigated the origin of the misconception that glucose is the sole metabolic fuel previously described among Brazilian high school students. The results of a multiple-choice test composed of 24 questions about a broad range of biology subjects were analyzed. The test was part of a contest and was answered by a sample…

da Luz, Mauricio Roberto Motta Pinto

2008-01-01

148

Persisting Misconceptions: Using Pre- and Post-Tests to Identify Biological Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a research project conducted at the University of Puerto Rico among students taking biology to develop and test a constructivist learning environment and identify students' misconceptions in biology. Lists the questions on which students showed misconceptions during the pre- and post-tests. (Contains 27 references.) (YDS)

Nazario, Gladys M.; Burrowes, Patricia A.; Rodriguez, Julio

2002-01-01

149

Undergraduate Chemistry Students' Perceptions of and Misconceptions about Buffers and Buffer Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both upper- and lower-level chemistry students struggle with understanding the concept of buffers and with solving corresponding buffer problems. While it might be reasonable to expect general chemistry students to struggle with this abstract concept, it is surprising that upper-level students in analytical chemistry and biochemistry continue to…

Orgill, MaryKay; Sutherland, Aynsley

2008-01-01

150

Evaluation of a model for confronting science content misconceptions: A case study report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Professional development for practicing science teachers often emphasizes specific instructional strategies. However, these strategies are of questionable benefit to students of teachers who share content misconceptions relative to the topics being addressed in their science classes. This descriptive multiple embedded case study assessed the efficacy of employing a specific learning cycle strategy to help elementary teachers uncover and address their own science content misconceptions. The project involved a group of teachers from an urban school district. All but one of the teachers shared a common misconception and moved toward a more scientifically accepted model by the end of the seminar sessions. This professional development strategy, the Coupled-Inquiry Cycle for Conceptual Change, could conceivably be utilized to increase science teacher content knowledge and to help teachers become more attuned to the tenacity of the misconceptions their students bring to the science classroom.

Anderson, Phyllis Elaine

151

Exothermic Bond Breaking: A Persistent Misconception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The misconceptions regarding the nature of ATP hydrolysis and bond breaking are discussed. The students' knowledge in this area is quantitatively measured by a survey of over 600 biochemistry and physiology students.

Galley, William C.

2004-01-01

152

Misconceptions Highlighted among Medical Students in the Annual International Intermedical School Physiology Quiz  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The annual Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe. The 8th IMSPQ, in 2010, hosted by the Department of Physiology, University of Malaya, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, had 200 students representing 41…

Cheng, Hwee-Ming; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

2012-01-01

153

Mathematical misconceptions in graphing and central tendency among sixth grade and undergraduate students  

E-print Network

. Seventy-nine 6th grade students were assessed in the spring semester of 2001 with a question, referred to as Vet Club, which asked the students to construct a graph from a given set of data and then analyze the data in terms of central tendencies...

Hammer, Mary Elizabeth

2002-01-01

154

An Analysis of Undergraduate General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions of the Submicroscopic Level of Precipitation Reactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how 21 college-level general chemistry students, who had received instruction that emphasized the symbolic level of ionic equations, explained their submicroscopic-level understanding of precipitation reactions. Students' explanations expressed through drawings and semistructured interviews revealed the nature of the…

Kelly, Resa M.; Barrera, Juliet H.; Mohamed, Saheed C.

2010-01-01

155

Remediating High School Students' Misconceptions Concerning Diffusion and Osmosis through Concept Mapping and Conceptual Change Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effectiveness of combining conceptual change text and concept mapping strategies on students' understanding of diffusion and osmosis. Results indicate that while the average percentage of students in the experimental group holding a scientifically correct view rose, the percentage of correct responses in the control group…

Tekkaya, Ceren

2003-01-01

156

The Negative Sign and Exponential Expressions: Unveiling Students' Persistent Errors and Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not certain errors made when simplifying exponential expressions persist as students progress through their mathematical studies. College students enrolled in college algebra, pre-calculus, and first- and second-semester calculus mathematics courses were asked to simplify exponential…

Cangelosi, Richard; Madrid, Silvia; Cooper, Sandra; Olson, Jo; Hartter, Beverly

2013-01-01

157

Free Fall Misconceptions: Results of a Graph Based Pre-Test of Sophomore Civil Engineering Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A partially unusual behaviour was found among 14 sophomore students of civil engineering who took a pre test for a free fall laboratory session, in the context of a general mechanics course. An analysis contemplating mathematics models and physics models consistency was made. In all cases, the students presented evidence favoring a correct free…

Montecinos, Alicia M.

2014-01-01

158

Misconceptions on the Biological Concept of Food: Results of a Survey of High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explains the results of a survey of students' ideas about food as a scientific concept. The survey found that high school students in Singapore (n=66) displayed an anthropocentric view of food that was not generally applied across living organisms in heterotrophs (animals) or autotrophs (plants) as a whole. It is also noted that…

Lee, Y. J.; Diong, C. H.

159

Correcting Students' Misconceptions about Automobile Braking Distances and Video Analysis Using Interactive Program Tracker  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper informs about an analysis of students' conceptions about car braking distances and also presents one of the novel methods of learning: an interactive computer program Tracker that we used to analyse the process of braking of a car. The analysis of the students' conceptions about car braking distances consisted in…

Hockicko, Peter; Trpišová, Beáta; Ondruš, Ján

2014-01-01

160

Correcting Students' Misconceptions about Automobile Braking Distances and Video Analysis Using Interactive Program Tracker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper informs about an analysis of students' conceptions about car braking distances and also presents one of the novel methods of learning: an interactive computer program Tracker that we used to analyse the process of braking of a car. The analysis of the students' conceptions about car braking distances consisted in obtaining their estimates of these quantities before and after watching a video recording of a car braking from various initial speeds to a complete stop and subsequent application of mathematical statistics to the obtained sets of students' answers. The results revealed that the difference between the value of the car braking distance estimated before watching the video and the real value of this distance was not caused by a random error but by a systematic error which was due to the incorrect students' conceptions about the car braking process. Watching the video significantly improved the students' estimates of the car braking distance, and we show that in this case, the difference between the estimated value and the real value of the car braking distance was due only to a random error, i.e. the students' conceptions about the car braking process were corrected. Some of the students subsequently performed video analysis of the braking processes of cars of various brands and under various conditions by means of Tracker that gave them exact knowledge of the physical quantities, which characterize a motor vehicle braking. Interviewing some of these students brought very positive reactions to this novel method of learning.

Hockicko, Peter; Trpišová, Beáta; Ondruš, Ján

2014-12-01

161

Pre-Service Teachers' and Students' (Mis)Conceptions About the Equal Sign  

E-print Network

-service teacher agreed the students? work illustrated they had read the problem and performed the actions described in the problem. Each participant was also in agreement that the student understood when to add or subtract the apples or oranges... steps, finding the total number of apples, the total number of oranges, and then adding both of these totals together to find the total number of fruit, or labeling their work as either apples, oranges, or total. Only 5 of the 18 participants...

Vela, Katherine

2012-02-14

162

StudentsÂ? Misconception About Energy-Yielding Metabolism: Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Energy-yielding metabolism is a subject that is particularly important, because energy production is a fundamental requirement for cells even though they execute many other processes simultaneously. An integrated view of metabolism is essential for understanding how the whole organism functions, including activities of studentsÂ? daily life, such as eating, dieting, and physical exercise. In fact, the media constantly exert pressure on young people, stimulating students to undergo countless diet and exercise programs. Additionally, diabetes mellitus and obesity, which are diseases with close ties to metabolism, have been increasing among adolescents.

Dr. Gabriel A. Oliveira (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Departamento de Bioquímica Médica)

2003-09-01

163

Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors  

PubMed Central

Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems—teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking—that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that seemingly unrelated biological misconceptions may have common origins in these intuitive ways of knowing, termed cognitive construals. We presented 137 undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors with six biological misconceptions. They indicated their agreement with each statement, and explained their rationale for their response. Results indicate frequent agreement with misconceptions, and frequent use of construal-based reasoning among both biology majors and nonmajors in their written explanations. Moreover, results also show associations between specific construals and the misconceptions hypothesized to arise from those construals. Strikingly, such associations were stronger among biology majors than nonmajors. These results demonstrate important linkages between intuitive ways of thinking and misconceptions in discipline-based reasoning, and raise questions about the origins, persistence, and generality of relations between intuitive reasoning and biological misconceptions. PMID:25713093

Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

2015-01-01

164

Relations between intuitive biological thinking and biological misconceptions in biology majors and nonmajors.  

PubMed

Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems--teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking--that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that seemingly unrelated biological misconceptions may have common origins in these intuitive ways of knowing, termed cognitive construals. We presented 137 undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors with six biological misconceptions. They indicated their agreement with each statement, and explained their rationale for their response. Results indicate frequent agreement with misconceptions, and frequent use of construal-based reasoning among both biology majors and nonmajors in their written explanations. Moreover, results also show associations between specific construals and the misconceptions hypothesized to arise from those construals. Strikingly, such associations were stronger among biology majors than nonmajors. These results demonstrate important linkages between intuitive ways of thinking and misconceptions in discipline-based reasoning, and raise questions about the origins, persistence, and generality of relations between intuitive reasoning and biological misconceptions. PMID:25713093

Coley, John D; Tanner, Kimberly

2015-03-01

165

Students' Levels of Explanations, Models, and Misconceptions in Basic Quantum Chemistry: A Phenomenographic Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated students' knowledge constructions of basic quantum chemistry concepts, namely atomic orbitals, the Schrodinger equation, molecular orbitals, hybridization, and chemical bonding. Ausubel's theory of meaningful learning provided the theoretical framework and phenomenography the method of analysis. The semi-structured interview with…

Stefani, Christina; Tsaparlis, Georgios

2009-01-01

166

Overcoming Student Misconceptions about Photosynthesis: A Model- and Inquiry-Based Approach Using Aquatic Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though photosynthesis is an obligatory part of the science curriculum, research has shown that students often have a poor understanding of it. The authors advocate that classroom coverage of the topic of photosynthesis should include not only its biochemical properties but also the role of photosynthesis or photosynthetic organisms in matter…

Ray, Andrew M.; Beardsley, Paul M.

2008-01-01

167

Using Writing to Confront Student Misconceptions in Physics Teresa L. Hein  

E-print Network

-science majors suggests that it can be an effective vehicle to allow students to develop their critical thinking for non- science majors. The development of higher order critical thinking skills is a key objective of . Tobias (1990) has been critical of introductory college science courses and has argued that typical

Larkin, Teresa L.

168

Investigating Knowledge Acquisition and Developing Misconceptions of High School Students Enrolled in an Invasion Games Unit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grounded within constructivist theory, the purpose of this investigation was to investigate knowledge acquisition and developing conceptions of high school-aged students during a unit of instruction in badminton. Six different qualitative methods were utilized: (a) observations, (b) formal interviews, (c) informal interviews, (d) think aloud…

Hare, Molly K.; Graber, Kim C.

2007-01-01

169

A Testing System for Diagnosing Misconceptions in DC Electric Circuits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a test-based diagnosis system for misconceptions in DC electric circuits and its three parts: problem library, problem selector and diagnoser. Discusses misconception discrimination and diagnosis theories, and reports the system supports satisfactory diagnosis. Includes an analysis of nine student misconceptions about electrical circuits…

Chang, Kuo-En; Liu, Sei-Hua; Chen, Sei-Wang

1998-01-01

170

Students' Misconceptions About the Correspondences Between a Map and the Terrain Represented by the Map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skillful use of maps is a prerequisite for success in many fields of geoscience. Geoscience instructors find that many high school and undergraduate students are not skilled at using maps and other spatial representations to obtain or convey information. In an attempt to understand why so many students come to their study of geoscience with such poor map skills, we are studying map comprehension and map curricula in elementary schools. An analysis of published K-5 map skills curriculum materials shows that students are rarely explicitly instructed on the crucial skill of translating from map to reality and vice versa. Instead they are asked questions that can be answered entirely within the frame of reference of the map without thinking about the terrain represented by the map. We have developed a field-based test of map skills that requires students to transfer information from a map into the real world and from the real world onto a map. In the world-to-map task, students place stickers on a map to show where colored flags are located in the real world, just as a field geologist places colored pencil marks on a map to show where specific rock units are located. In the map-to-world test, students use a map to go to locations specified by stickers on a map and place markers on the ground at each location. This is the same skill required by an environmental scientist who follows a map to go to specific sampling locations. Approximately a fifth of 4th graders produce deeply-flawed answers on these tasks, showing a lack of understanding of the basic correspondences between features on the map and the represented terrain. Flaws include placing round stickers arbitrarily on round map symbols, and placing a sticker on a built object that should have been on a natural feature or vice versa. Another category of mistake is to reverse west/east and/or north/south; this mistake tends to be associated with poor performance on a standard psychometric test of mental rotations ability.

Kastens, K. A.; Griffith, J.; Liben, L.; Pistolesi, L.

2003-12-01

171

Misconceptions Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent essay in "CBE-Life Sciences Education" criticized biology education researchers' use of the term "misconceptions" and recommended that, in order to be up-to-date with education research, biology education researchers should use alternative terms for students' incorrect ideas in science. We counter that…

Leonard, Mary J.; Kalinowski, Steven T.; Andrews, Tessa C.

2014-01-01

172

Addressing Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The law of conservation of mass can be counterintuitive for most students because they often think the mass of a substance is related to its physical state. As a result, students may hold a number of alternative conceptions related to this concept, including, for example, the believe that gas has no mass, that solids have greater mass than fluids,…

Dial, Katrina; Riddley, Diana; Williams, Kiesha; Sampson, Victor

2009-01-01

173

Idea Bank: Melting a Misconception  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following lab was originally designed to teach the importance of manipulating a single variable in an experiment. However, the lab also dispels a common misconception, teaches the value of following lab instructions, and provides a good working definition of the term variable.

Jill Merolla

2004-03-01

174

Unweaving Misconceptions: Guided Learning, Simulations, and Misconceptions in Learning Principles of Natural Selection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students often come to the study of evolutionary biology with many misconceptions of how the processes of natural selection and speciation occur. How to relinquish these misconceptions with learners is a question that many educators face in introductory biology courses. Constructivism as a theoretical framework has become an accepted and…

Weeks, Brian E.

2013-01-01

175

Using Just in Time Teaching in a Global Climate Change Course to Address Misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just in Time Teaching (JiTT) is employed in an introductory Global Climate Change college course with the intention of addressing common misconceptions and climate myths. Students enter the course with a variety of prior knowledge and opinions on global warming, and JiTT can be used as a constructivist pedagogical approach to make use of this prior knowledge. Students are asked to watch a short video or do a reading, sometimes screen capture videos created by the professor as review of material from the previous class, a video available on the web from NASA or NOAA, for example, or a reading from an online article or their textbook. After the video or reading, students answer a question carefully designed to pry at a common misconception, or simply are asked for the 'muddiest point' that remains on the concept. This assignment is done the night before class using a web program. The program aggregates the answers in an organized way so the professor can use the answers to design the day's lesson to address common misconceptions or concerns students displayed in their answers, as well as quickly assign participation credit to students who completed the assignment. On the other hand, if students display that they have already mastered the material, the professor can confidently move on to the next concept. The JiTT pedagogical method personalizes each lecture period to the students in that particular class for maximum efficiency while catching and fixing misconceptions in a timely manner. This technique requires students to spend time with the material outside of class, acts as review of important concepts, and increases engagement in class due to the personalization of the course. Evaluation results from use of this technique will be presented. Examples of successful JiTT videos, questions, student answers, and techniques for addressing misconceptions during lecture will also be presented with the intention that instructors can easily apply this technique to their next course.

Schuenemann, K. C.

2013-12-01

176

Arguments for the Sake of Endophenotypes: Examining Common Misconceptions About the Use of Endophenotypes In Psychiatric Genetics  

PubMed Central

Endophenotypes are measurable biomarkers that are correlated with an illness, at least in part, because of shared underlying genetic influences. Endophenotypes may improve our power to detect genes influencing risk of illness by being genetically simpler, closer to the level of gene action, and with larger genetic effect sizes or by providing added statistical power through their ability to quantitatively rank people within diagnostic categories. Furthermore, they also provide insight into the mechanisms underlying illness and will be valuable in developing biologically-based nosologies, through efforts such as RDoC, that seek to explain both the heterogeneity within current diagnostic categories and the overlapping clinical features between them. While neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and cognitive measures are currently most used in psychiatric genetic studies, researchers currently are attempting to identify candidate endophenotypes that are less genetically complex and potentially closer to the level of gene action, such as transcriptomic and proteomic phenotypes. Sifting through tens of thousands of such measures requires automated, high-throughput ways of assessing and ranking potential endophenotypes, such as the Endophenotype Ranking Value. However, despite the potential utility of endophenotypes for gene characterization and discovery, there is considerable resistance to endophenotypic approaches in psychiatry. In this review, we address and clarify some of the common issues associated with the usage of endophenotypes in the psychiatric genetics community. PMID:24464604

Glahn, David C; Knowles, Emma E; McKay, D Reese; Sprooten, Emma; Raventós, Henriette; Blangero, John; Gottesman, Irving; Almasy, Laura

2014-01-01

177

Arguments for the sake of endophenotypes: examining common misconceptions about the use of endophenotypes in psychiatric genetics.  

PubMed

Endophenotypes are measurable biomarkers that are correlated with an illness, at least in part, because of shared underlying genetic influences. Endophenotypes may improve our power to detect genes influencing risk of illness by being genetically simpler, closer to the level of gene action, and with larger genetic effect sizes or by providing added statistical power through their ability to quantitatively rank people within diagnostic categories. Furthermore, they also provide insight into the mechanisms underlying illness and will be valuable in developing biologically-based nosologies, through efforts such as RDoC, that seek to explain both the heterogeneity within current diagnostic categories and the overlapping clinical features between them. While neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and cognitive measures are currently most used in psychiatric genetic studies, researchers currently are attempting to identify candidate endophenotypes that are less genetically complex and potentially closer to the level of gene action, such as transcriptomic and proteomic phenotypes. Sifting through tens of thousands of such measures requires automated, high-throughput ways of assessing, and ranking potential endophenotypes, such as the Endophenotype Ranking Value. However, despite the potential utility of endophenotypes for gene characterization and discovery, there is considerable resistance to endophenotypic approaches in psychiatry. In this review, we address and clarify some of the common issues associated with the usage of endophenotypes in the psychiatric genetics community. PMID:24464604

Glahn, David C; Knowles, Emma E M; McKay, D Reese; Sprooten, Emma; Raventós, Henriette; Blangero, John; Gottesman, Irving I; Almasy, Laura

2014-03-01

178

Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel: The Possible Influence of Formal Teaching on the Establishment of a Misconception about Energy-Yielding Metabolism among Students from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy-yielding metabolism is an important biochemistry subject that is related to many daily experiences and health issues of students. An adequate knowledge of the general features of EYM is therefore important, both from an academic and social point of view. In a previous study, we have shown that high-school students present the misconception

Luz, Mauricio R. M. P.; de Oliveira, Gabriel Aguiar; de Sousa, Cristiane Ribeiro; Da Poian, Andrea T.

2008-01-01

179

Misconceptions Surrounding Climate Change: A Review of the Literature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Misconceptions about climate change abound in every corner of society. The result manifests itself ranging from apprehension to total disregard for climate change conditions. According to several sources, however, a large percentage of the U. S. population do, indeed indicate some concern over global warming and climate change in general. These climate change misconceptions are numerous and include, to name a few; confusion between weather and climate, how greenhouse gases are affecting the earth, the effects of ozone depletion, earth's natural cycles, volcanic activity, nuclear waste and a host of other anthropogenic influences. This paper is a review of the current research literature relating to climate change misconceptions. These errant views will be addressed, cataloged, enumerated, and ranked to get a grasp on where the general population, politicians, scientists, and educators as well as students stand on informed climate change information. The categories where misconceptions arise have been identified in this literature review study and include the following: Natural cycles of the earth, ecological which include deforestation, urban development and any human intervention on the environment, educational - including teacher strategies, student understanding and textbook updates, emotional, ozone layer and its interactions, polar ice, political regulations, mandates and laws, pollution from human sources as well as from nature, religious beliefs and dogma and social beliefs. We suggest appropriate solutions for addressing these misconceptions, especially in the classroom setting, and broadly include available funding sources for work in climate change education. Some solutions include need for compilation of appropriate education resources and materials for public use, need for the development of educational materials that appropriately address the variety of publics, and need for programs that are conducting climate change education research and EPO work to communicate and share resources in a common community. Many organizations are addressing these critical needs and we will compile these efforts in our analysis as well.

Templeton, C. M.; McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.

2011-12-01

180

Common Sense Concepts of Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common sense (CS) misconceptions are not arbitrary or trivial. Indeed, every one of the misconceptions about motion common among students today was seriously advocated by leading intellectuals in pre-Newtonian times. If the evaluation of CS was so difficult for the intellectual giants from Aristotle to Galileo, we should not be surprised it is a problem for ordinary students today. Accordingly, common sense beliefs should be treated with genuine respect by instructors and regarded as serious alternative hypotheses to be evaluated by scientific procedures. A taxonomy of common sense concepts which conflict with Newton s laws is presented. Elementary teachers who are aware of these CS beliefs can teach deliberately to avoid contributing to student development of misconceptions.

Ibrahim Abou Halloun

1985-01-01

181

Understandings and Misconceptions of Biology Concepts Held by Students Attending Small High Schools and Students Attending Large High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the relationship of school size to understanding of scientific concepts. Results indicated that students in small high schools had fewer instances of understanding and more instances of misunderstanding of the concepts of diffusion and homeostasis. No difference was observed for concepts related to food production in plants and…

Simpson, William D.; Marek, Edmund A.

1988-01-01

182

Common misconceptions of critical thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the ® rst of two, we analyse three widely-held conceptions of critical thinking: as one or more skills, as mental processes, and as sets of procedures. Each viewis, wecontend, wrong-headed, misleadingor, atbest, unhelpful. Somewhowrite about critical thinking seemtomuddle all three views in an unenlightening me lange. Apartfromtheerrorsorinadequaciesof the conceptionsthemselves, theypromote or abet misconceived practices for teaching critical

SHARON BAILIN; ROLAND CASE; JERROLD R. COOMBS; LEROI B. DANIELS

1999-01-01

183

STUDENT LEARNING COMMONS Annual Report 2007/08  

E-print Network

STUDENT LEARNING COMMONS Annual Report 2007/08 Elaine Fairey, Director, Student Learning Commons ______________________________________________________________________________________ Introduction The Student Learning Commons (SLC) is an academic learning centre with the mandate to assist and support students in their academic pursuits, with a focus on providing writing and learning support

184

STUDENT LEARNING COMMONS Annual Report 2006/07  

E-print Network

STUDENT LEARNING COMMONS Annual Report 2006/07 Elaine Fairey, Director, Student Learning Commons ______________________________________________________________________________________ Introduction Officially launched in Fall 2006, the Student Learning Commons (SLC) is an academic learning centre with the mandate to assist and support students in their academic pursuits, with a focus

185

Persistence of Decimal Misconceptions and Readiness to Move to Expertise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes features of a group of misconceptions about decimal notation that lead to students selecting as larger, decimals that look smaller. A longitudinal study identified approximately 900 students from a variety of schools who exhibited these misconceptions and whose subsequent progress could be traced. The data demonstrates that…

Steinle, Vicki; Stacey, Kaye

2004-01-01

186

Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

Olson, Mark

2013-01-01

187

Three Misconceptions About Radiation — And What We Teachers Can Do to Confront Them  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last few years teaching physics, I have noticed that my students are becoming more and more interested in the topic of radiation. Mobile phones, modern game consoles, and WiFi—all of these devices involving some kind of radiation are part of our students' everyday lives. Students are also frequently confronted in the media with debates relating to different types of radiation: What are the effects of nuclear contamination going to be after the Fukushima accident? Can radiation from mobile phones really cause cancer? Should the use of tanning booths be forbidden for teenagers? Although students seem to be very motivated to learn about the topic of radiation, I have encountered several misconceptions about this topic that my students bring into the physics classroom. Some of these misconceptions might be caused by biased media reports, while others can be attributed to a different usage of the word radiation in everyday language (when compared to the scientific usage of this term). In this paper, I would like to present the most common misconceptions about radiation that I have encountered in my physics courses and I would like to give some ideas how to confront these ideas in teaching. A detailed description of these misconceptions discovered through empirical research can be found in one of my research articles.1

Neumann, Susanne

2014-09-01

188

Photosynthesis and "Inverse Respiration" in Plants: An Inevitable Misconception?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflects on the origin of the misconception of inverse respiration in green plants. Proposes a series of conceptual schemes that could form the basis for teaching the subject of green plants in a way that prevents or substantially reduces the appearance of this misconception in primary- and secondary-school students. Contains 33 references.…

Canal, Pedro

1999-01-01

189

Overcoming Misconceptions in Quantum Mechanics with the Time Evolution Operator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, there have been many efforts to use the research techniques developed in the field of physics education research to improve the teaching and learning of quantum mechanics. In particular, part of this research is focusing on misconceptions held by students. For instance, a set of misconceptions is associated with the concept of stationary…

Quijas, P. C. Garcia; Aguilar, L. M. Arevalo

2007-01-01

190

Addressing Misconceptions in Geometry through Written Error Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the improvement of students' comprehension of geometric concepts through analytical writing about their own misconceptions using a reflective tool called an ERNIe (acronym for ERror aNalyIsis). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ERNIe process could be used to correct geometric misconceptions, as well as how…

Kembitzky, Kimberle A.

2009-01-01

191

Teachers' Misconceptions about the Effects of Addition of More Reactants or Products on Chemical Equilibrium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of research on misconceptions about chemical equilibrium is well recognized by educators, but in the past, researchers' interest has centered on student misconceptions and has neglected teacher misconceptions. Focusing on the effects of adding more reactants or products on chemical equilibrium, this article discusses the various…

Cheung, Derek; Ma, Hong-jia; Yang, Jie

2009-01-01

192

A Cognitive Analysis of Developmental Mathematics Students' Errors and Misconceptions in Real Number Computations and Evaluating Algebraic Expressions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty percent of college-bound students graduate from high school underprepared for mathematics at the post-secondary level. As a result, thirty-five percent of college students take developmental mathematics courses. What is even more shocking is the high failure rate (ranging from 35 to 42 percent) of students enrolled in developmental…

Titus, Freddie

2010-01-01

193

The Effect of Online Collaboration on Middle School Student Science Misconceptions as an Aspect of Science Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative, quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design examined the effects of online collaborative learning on middle school students' science literacy. For a 9-week period, students in the control group participated in collaborative face-to-face activities whereas students in the experimental group participated in…

Wendt, Jillian L.; Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda

2014-01-01

194

The Effect of Multiple Scaffolding Tools on Students' Understanding, Consideration of Different Perspectives, and Misconceptions of a Complex Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of multiple scaffolding tools in helping students understand a complex problem. In order to support students with this task, a multimedia learning environment was developed based on the cognitive flexibility theory (CFT) and scaffolding through computer-based tools. Seventy-nine 10th-grade students in an…

Zydney, Janet Mannheimer

2010-01-01

195

Using PCR to Target Misconceptions about Gene Expression †  

PubMed Central

We present a PCR-based laboratory exercise that can be used with first- or second-year biology students to help overcome common misconceptions about gene expression. Biology students typically do not have a clear understanding of the difference between genes (DNA) and gene expression (mRNA/protein) and often believe that genes exist in an organism or cell only when they are expressed. This laboratory exercise allows students to carry out a PCR-based experiment designed to challenge their misunderstanding of the difference between genes and gene expression. Students first transform E. coli with an inducible GFP gene containing plasmid and observe induced and un-induced colonies. The following exercise creates cognitive dissonance when actual PCR results contradict their initial (incorrect) predictions of the presence of the GFP gene in transformed cells. Field testing of this laboratory exercise resulted in learning gains on both knowledge and application questions on concepts related to genes and gene expression. PMID:23858358

Wright, Leslie K.; Newman, Dina L.

2013-01-01

196

Using PCR to Target Misconceptions about Gene Expression.  

PubMed

We present a PCR-based laboratory exercise that can be used with first- or second-year biology students to help overcome common misconceptions about gene expression. Biology students typically do not have a clear understanding of the difference between genes (DNA) and gene expression (mRNA/protein) and often believe that genes exist in an organism or cell only when they are expressed. This laboratory exercise allows students to carry out a PCR-based experiment designed to challenge their misunderstanding of the difference between genes and gene expression. Students first transform E. coli with an inducible GFP gene containing plasmid and observe induced and un-induced colonies. The following exercise creates cognitive dissonance when actual PCR results contradict their initial (incorrect) predictions of the presence of the GFP gene in transformed cells. Field testing of this laboratory exercise resulted in learning gains on both knowledge and application questions on concepts related to genes and gene expression. PMID:23858358

Wright, Leslie K; Newman, Dina L

2013-01-01

197

Student Learning Commons Annual Report 2008/09  

E-print Network

Student Learning Commons Annual Report 2008/09 Elaine Fairey Introduction · The Student students in their academic pursuits, with a focus on providing writing and learning support services, Student Services, and many other campus groups. · SLC programs are provided using a highly effective

198

Technology Rich Biology Labs: Effects of Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a study conducted on the lab sections of the general biology course for non-science majors at the University of New England, and reports findings of student misconceptions about photosynthesis and the mass/carbon uptake during plant growth. The current study placed high technology analytic tools in the hands of introductory…

Kuech, Robert; Zogg, Gregory; Zeeman, Stephan; Johnson, Mark

199

The Retention of Geologic Misconceptions: Alternative Ideas That Persist After Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a 30 item multiple-choice instrument called the geoscience concept test (GCT) to study learning in introductory college-level science courses. The GCT uses common misconceptions as wrong answers, and allows us to pre- and post-test individual courses to gauge the effectiveness of instruction. The GCT was given at the beginning of the semester to 2215 college students in 42

J. H. Wandersee; R. M. Clary; S. W. Anderson; J. Libarkin

2003-01-01

200

Overcoming misconceptions in neurophysiology learning: an approach using color-coded animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online self-directed e-learning module was developed, using best-practice approaches (1), to engage students and help them overcome some common neurophysiology misconceptions. The essential features of the module were: the use of well-designed (9) and simple (low cognitive load) (12, 13) animations intended to promote good learning outcomes (5) and the use of multiple-choice questions linked with the animations to provide immediate feedback.

Richard Guy (RMIT University)

2012-09-01

201

A Probabilistic Model for Students' Errors and Misconceptions on the Structure of Matter in Relation to Three Cognitive Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the effect of 3 cognitive variables such as logical thinking, field dependence/field independence, and convergent/divergent thinking on some specific students' answers related to the particulate nature of matter was investigated by means of probabilistic models. Besides recording and tabulating the students' responses, a combination…

Tsitsipis, Georgios; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Papageorgiou, George

2012-01-01

202

Subsidence misconceptions and myths  

SciTech Connect

Subsidence due to coal mining is poorly understood by non-specialists. This has led to numerous misconceptions and myths based on limited observations and lack of knowledge. The three most common are: (1) Mine maps are inaccurate, (2) Deep mines are not a problem, and (3) If no subsidence has occurred for many years after mining, there is no risk of future subsidence. Maps are important during mining and most are carefully prepared. Future use to evaluate conditions at mine level often includes drilling to confirm what the map shows. The idea of a safe depth from subsidence is often based on the false premise that mining results in sufficient breakup of the overlying rock strata that bulking compensates for the coal extracted. The safe depth idea first appeared in the literature about 1880 and remained prevalent well into this century. Sadly, it is still encountered. The modem understanding of fragmentation of the immediate mine roof with the overlying beds sagging down on the broken roof rock was first described in 1900. With full extraction mining, either longwall or retreat room and pillar, surface subsidence occurs regardless of the depth of the mine. Subsidence over longwall mines at depths of 2000 feet can be 90 percent of the mined seam thickness. Numerous studies of undermined sites conclude that mining occurred many years ago and since no subsidence has occurred, there is no risk of future movement. This is true if sufficient coal pillars have been left to support the overlying strate. However, every year subsidence occurs over mines that have been closed for 100 years or more. In a study of subsidera incidents over the Pittsburgh Coal, the senior authors found that 50 percent of the incidents occurred above mines that had been closed for at least 50 years and 10 percent over mines, closed for at least 80 years.

Gray, R.E.; Bruhn, R.W.; Knott, D.L. [GAI Consultants, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

1996-12-01

203

Patient Empowerment: Myths and Misconceptions  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this article is to clarify the concept of empowerment and to correct common misconceptions about its use in diabetes care and education. Methods The patient empowerment approach is well suited to helping patients make self-selected changes related to weight, nutrition, and physical activity. Although the concept of patient empowerment has become an integral part of diabetes education, an accurate understanding and authentic application of empowerment has not occurred as readily. The empowerment approach is clarified and common misconceptions have been corrected. Results Embracing empowerment means making a paradigm shift that is often difficult because the traditional approach to care is embedded in the training and socialization of most health care professionals (HCP). Conclusion Unlike the traditional approach, empowerment is not something one does to patients. Rather, empowerment begins when HCPs acknowledge that patient are in control of their daily diabetes care. Empowerment occurs when the HCPs goal is to increase the capacity of patients to think critically and make autonomous, informed decisions. Empowerment also occurs when patients are actually making autonomous, informed decisions about their diabetes self-management. Practice Implications Clarity about all aspects of the empowerment approach is essential if it is to be used effectively. PMID:19682830

Anderson, Robert M.; Funnell, Martha M.

2009-01-01

204

Teaching Students to Dig Deeper: The Common Core in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This important new book identifies the skills and qualities students need, based on the Common Core State Standards, to be "really" ready for college and careers. Go beyond content knowledge...the deep thinking and learning skills detailed in this book will equip students for success! Prepare your students for their futures by helping them become:…

Johnson, Ben

2013-01-01

205

Six persistent research misconceptions.  

PubMed

Scientific knowledge changes rapidly, but the concepts and methods of the conduct of research change more slowly. To stimulate discussion of outmoded thinking regarding the conduct of research, I list six misconceptions about research that persist long after their flaws have become apparent. The misconceptions are: 1) There is a hierarchy of study designs; randomized trials provide the greatest validity, followed by cohort studies, with case-control studies being least reliable. 2) An essential element for valid generalization is that the study subjects constitute a representative sample of a target population. 3) If a term that denotes the product of two factors in a regression model is not statistically significant, then there is no biologic interaction between those factors. 4) When categorizing a continuous variable, a reasonable scheme for choosing category cut-points is to use percentile-defined boundaries, such as quartiles or quintiles of the distribution. 5) One should always report P values or confidence intervals that have been adjusted for multiple comparisons. 6) Significance testing is useful and important for the interpretation of data. These misconceptions have been perpetuated in journals, classrooms and textbooks. They persist because they represent intellectual shortcuts that avoid more thoughtful approaches to research problems. I hope that calling attention to these misconceptions will spark the debates needed to shelve these outmoded ideas for good. PMID:24452418

Rothman, Kenneth J

2014-07-01

206

Transforming Misconceptions: Using Transformative Experience to Promote Positive Affect and Conceptual Change in Students Learning about Biological Evolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching and learning about complex scientific content, such as biological evolution, is challenging in part because students have a difficult time seeing the relevance of evolution in their everyday lives. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of the Teaching for Transformative Experiences in Science (TTES) model (Pugh, 2002)…

Heddy, Benjamin C.; Sinatra, Gale M.

2013-01-01

207

Student Teacher Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the results of a survey designed to ascertain details of student teachers' knowledge and misconceptions about the greenhouse effect, acid rain, and ozone layer depletion. Results indicate familiarity with the issues but little understanding of the concepts involved and many commonly held misconceptions. (JRH)

Dove, Jane

1996-01-01

208

Chemistry misconceptions associated with understanding calcium and phosphate homeostasis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration when calcium ions were added to a saturated calcium phosphate solution. Fifty-two percent of the students correctly predicted that the phosphate concentration would decrease in accord with the common ion effect. Forty-two percent of the students predicted that the phosphate concentration would not change. Written explanations showed that most students failed to evoke the idea of competing chemical equilibria. A second question assessed the predicted change in calcium concentration after solid calcium phosphate was added to a saturated solution. Only 11% of the students correctly predicted no change in calcium concentration; 86% of the students predicted an increase, and many based their prediction on a mistaken application of Le Chatelier's principle to heterogeneous equilibria. These results indicate that many students possess misconceptions about chemical equilibrium that may hamper understanding of the processes of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Instructors can help students gain greater understanding of these physiochemical phenomena by adopting strategies that enable students achieve more accurate conceptions of chemical equilibria.

William H. Cliff (Niagara University Biology)

2009-12-01

209

Relationship of beliefs, epistemology, and alternate conceptions to college student understanding of evolution and common descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were combined to explore the relationships between an understanding of evolution and 4 epistemology factors: (a) control of learning, (b) speed of learning , (c) stability of knowledge, and (d) belief in evolution/creationism. A 17-item instrument was developed that reliably measured a belief in creationism and subtle differences between this belief and an acceptance of evolution. The subjects were 45 students enrolled in a biology course at a 2-year community college. Evolution was taught in a traditional format, and common descent was taught in an inquiry-based laboratory session consisting of: (a) a comparison of hemoglobin DNA sequences of the human, chimpanzee, and gorilla; and (b) a comparison of 8 primate skull casts, including the modern human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and five prehistoric fossils. Prior to instruction the students completed an epistemology questionnaire and a knowledge test about evolution. Five weeks after instruction, the students completed a posttest. A t-test revealed no differences between the pretest and the posttest. However, the group of students that scored higher on the posttest than on the pretest was found to have a stronger belief in the uncertainty of knowledge. Pearson r was computed to check for relationships between the 4 epistemological factors and the understanding of evolution. There was a significant relationship between a belief in creationism and a lessor understanding of evolution as measured on both the pretest and the posttest (ps < .05). The relationship between gender and test scores was also examined with men demonstrating statistically significantly higher scores on the common descent component than women did. Narrative data included interviews and branching/grouping activities. Four alternate conceptions about common descent were identified. Even after instruction, 16 out of 39 students thought humans evolved from the chimpanzee. Additionally, students grouped the 8 primate skulls into just 2 categories: human and animals. Other misconceptions included a nonevolutionary use of the term, related, and the use of naive organizers leading to incorrect conclusions about the relatedness of certain organisms, such as a connection between fish and whales. These organizers included: (a) similarity of traits, (b) environment, (c) relative size, (d) function, and (e) complexity.

Miller, Joyce Catherine

210

Dispositional Statements on Student Teacher Evaluation Instruments: Commonalities across Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate summative student teacher evaluation instruments to determine the most common dispositions evaluated by teacher preparatory programs. Thirty-two (32) final student teaching instruments were purposely selected from across the United States and examined. Thirteen disposition categories emerged from the…

Young, Alice; Wilkins, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

211

Horizontal Transitions: A Commonly Overlooked Opportunity for Student Empowerment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although typical transitions are from one vertical level of schooling to another, it is becoming increasingly common for transitions to also include moving between regular and alternative placements. Many high schools rely on alternate placements as a means of dealing with disruptive students. There is also a subcategory of placements for students

Young, Anne

2007-01-01

212

Goguadze, G., Sosnovsky, S., Isotani, S. & McLaren, B.M. (2011). Evaluating a bayesian student model of decimal misconceptions. In the Proceedings of the 4th  

E-print Network

model of decimal misconceptions. In the Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Educational University, Germany, S. SOSNOVSKY DFKI GmbH, Germany, S. ISOTANI Carnegie Mellon University, U.S., AND B. M. MCLAREN Carnegie Mellon University, U.S

McLaren, Bruce Martin

2011-01-01

213

Using psychotherapy techniques to reveal misconceptions and improve learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. When students are aware that they do not understand a concept, the main impediment to developing an understanding is their willingness to ask questions of the instructor or of fellow students. When students think that they understand a concept, but really have some significant misconception lodged in their mental picture of the concept, they may not

P. M. Santi; M. M. Santi

2003-01-01

214

The Retention of Geologic Misconceptions: Alternative Ideas That Persist After Instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used a 30 item multiple-choice instrument called the geoscience concept test (GCT) to study learning in introductory college-level science courses. The GCT uses common misconceptions as wrong answers, and allows us to pre- and post-test individual courses to gauge the effectiveness of instruction. The GCT was given at the beginning of the semester to 2215 college students in 42 classes at 32 different institutions in 19 different states (21 public and 6 private four-year institutions, 4 community colleges, and one tribal college). The pilot was also given to 1907 students as a semester-end post-test in 30 different classes. We were able to match pre- and post-test results for 967 students through an analysis of volunteered personal and demographic data. Although statistical analysis shows that learning occurred in all classes, closer inspection of the data show that the student population retained a number of misconceptions. Students retained several incorrect ideas relating to geologic time despite instruction. For example, 71% of post-tested students believe that the study of fossils, rock layers, or carbon is the most accurate means for calculating the age of the Earth. Nearly 25% of students believed that dinosaurs only existed on Earth for 500,000 years, and 40% believe dinosaurs came into existence about halfway through the geologic time scale. Many alternative ideas about plate tectonics and the formation of rocks also existed after instruction. Nearly half of the post-tested students (47%) believed that tectonic plates do not extend all way to the surface of the Earth, and 65% did not believe that animals could form oceanic rocks. Identification of strongly held misconceptions in a post-tested student population provides instructors with information that could impact the way they present material to their introductory classes.

Wandersee, J. H.; Clary, R. M.; Anderson, S. W.; Libarkin, J.

2003-12-01

215

Case Study Analysis and the Remediation of Misconceptions about Respiratory Physiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most students enter the physiology classroom with one or more fundamental misconceptions about respiratory physiology. This study examined the prevalence of four respiratory misconceptions and determined the role of case analysis in the remediation of one of them. A case study was used to help students learn about oxygen transport in the blood and…

Cliff, William H.

2006-01-01

216

Sleep Disturbances and Common Mental Disorders in College Students  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs) and examine the association of sleep disorders with presence of CMDs. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to ascertain demographic information and behavioral characteristics among 2,645 undergraduate students in Ethiopia. Standard questionnaires were used to assess CMDs, evening chronotype, sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. Results A total of 716 students (26.6%) were characterized as having CMDs. Female students had higher prevalence of CMDs (30.6%) compared to male students (25.4%). After adjusting for potential confounders, daytime sleepiness (OR=2.02; 95% CI 1.64-2.49) and poor sleep quality (OR=2.36; 95% CI 1.91-2.93) were associated with increased odds of CMDs. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of CMDs comorbid with sleep disorders among college students. PMID:25309939

Byrd, Kia; Gelaye, Bizu; Tadessea, Mahlet G.; Williams, Michelle A.; Lemma, Seblewengel; Berhanec, Yemane

2014-01-01

217

Depression and College Students What do these students have in common?  

E-print Network

did was cry, sleep, and feel waves of panic. - Marta, freshman year They are college students who gotF646 Depression and College Students What do these students have in common? When I took a part of symptoms that interfere with your ability to work, sleep, eat, and enjoy once pleasurable activities

Jacobs, Lucia

218

Remediating Misconceptions Concerning Chemical Bonding through Conceptual Change Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of conceptual change texts oriented instruction on 9th grade students' understanding of chemical bonding concepts. In this study, the main aim of the preparation of conceptual change texts was to activate students' prior knowledge and misconceptions and to help them to understand the chemical…

Pabuccu, Aybuke; Geban, Omer

2006-01-01

219

Turkish Undergraduates' Misconceptions of Evaporation, Evaporation Rate, and Vapour Pressure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on students' misconceptions related to evaporation, evaporation rate, and vapour pressure. Open-ended diagnostic questions were used with 107 undergraduates in the Primary Science Teacher Training Department in a state university in Turkey. In addition, 14 students from that sample were interviewed to clarify their written…

Canpolat, Nurtac

2006-01-01

220

Misconceptions in Optics: Their Persistence at University Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study on misconceptions in optics with the objective of checking their persistence over time in spite of the continued academic instruction of students. Involves (n=4000) students of all levels of the Spanish educational system as well as with those at a Spanish university with degrees in medicine, chemical sciences, technical…

Gil Llinas, J.; Suero Lopez, M. I.; Perez Rodriguez, A. L.; Solano Macias, F.

2003-01-01

221

Internet as a Source of Misconception: "Radiation and Radioactivity"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine students' usage styles of the Internet for seeking information and to investigate whether information obtained from the Internet is a source of misconceptions. For this reason, a two-stage study was conducted. At the first stage, a questionnaire was developed to get information about students' Internet usage…

Acar Sesen, Burcin; Ince, Elif

2010-01-01

222

Common Standards Ignite Debate over Student "Prereading" Exercises  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sparked by the Common Core State Standards, teachers and literacy experts are arguing about the role of a time-honored pillar of English/language arts instruction: classroom activities designed to help students understand what they are about to read. The attacks on--and defenses of--"prereading" are unfolding largely in cyberspace, through online…

Gewertz, Catherine

2012-01-01

223

Seven Common Mistakes Found in Student-Produced Video Productions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines seven common mistakes in student-produced videos; suggests ways to avoid them. Mistakes include too much open screen space; unnatural, abrupt transitions between camera shots; odd juxtapositions of performers with background objects; endless talk without shot changes; no space between the subject's head and top of the video screen;…

Ekhaml, Leticia

1998-01-01

224

Common Core Science Standards: Implications for Students with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core Science Standards represent a new effort to increase science learning for all students. These standards include a focus on English and language arts aspects of science learning, and three dimensions of science standards, including practices of science, crosscutting concepts of science, and disciplinary core ideas in the various…

Scruggs, Thomas E.; Brigham, Frederick J.; Mastropieri, Margo A.

2013-01-01

225

Text and Truth: Reading, Student Experience, and the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the rumors making the rounds of K-12 educators goes something like this: The Common Core State Standards do not allow "prereading"--the pedagogical practice meant to help students better understand a text they are about to read--or for that matter any classroom activities that contextualize a text through outside sources. The interesting…

Sandler, Susan; Hammond, Zaretta

2012-01-01

226

Spore: Spawning Evolutionary Misconceptions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of computer simulations as educational tools may afford the means to develop understanding of evolution as a natural, emergent, and decentralized process. However, special consideration of developmental constraints on learning may be necessary when using these technologies. Specifically, the essentialist (biological forms possess an immutable essence), teleological (assignment of purpose to living things and/or parts of living things that may not be purposeful), and intentionality (assumption that events are caused by an intelligent agent) biases may be reinforced through the use of computer simulations, rather than addressed with instruction. We examine the video game Spore for its depiction of evolutionary content and its potential to reinforce these cognitive biases. In particular, we discuss three pedagogical strategies to mitigate weaknesses of Spore and other computer simulations: directly targeting misconceptions through refutational approaches, targeting specific principles of scientific inquiry, and directly addressing issues related to models as cognitive tools.

Bean, Thomas E.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Schrader, P. G.

2010-10-01

227

Proposed Changes to USS Myths, Misconceptions and Misunderstandings Many of the comments and claims that have been made against the case for  

E-print Network

Proposed Changes to USS ­ Myths, Misconceptions and Misunderstandings Many of the comments or misinterpretation of the facts. Here we address some of the more common myths, misconceptions and misunderstandings

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

228

Utility of Concept Cartoons in Diagnosing and Overcoming Misconceptions Related to Photosynthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the effectiveness of concept cartoons in diagnosing and overcoming students' misconceptions related to photosynthesis subject was examined. Firstly, the literature has been thoroughly examined and misconceptions about photosynthesis subject have been listed and then grouped. Concept cartoons related to these groups have been…

Ekici, Fatma; Ekici, Erhan; Aydin, Fatih

2007-01-01

229

Misconceptions of Turkish Pre-Service Teachers about Force and Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to diagnose the misconceptions held by pre-service physics teachers about force and motion. The secondary aim of the study was to detect whether misconceptions vary according to gender, educational level, and culture. The study was conducted with 79 student-teachers attending to one of the largest faculties of…

Bayraktar, Sule

2009-01-01

230

Common misconceptions about data analysis and statistics.  

PubMed

Ideally, any experienced investigator with the right tools should be able to reproduce a finding published in a peer-reviewed biomedical science journal. In fact, the reproducibility of a large percentage of published findings has been questioned. Undoubtedly, there are many reasons for this, but one reason maybe that investigators fool themselves due to a poor understanding of statistical concepts. In particular, investigators often make these mistakes: 1. P-Hacking. This is when you reanalyze a data set in many different ways, or perhaps reanalyze with additional replicates, until you get the result you want. 2. Overemphasis on P values rather than on the actual size of the observed effect. 3. Overuse of statistical hypothesis testing, and being seduced by the word "significant". 4. Overreliance on standard errors, which are often misunderstood. PMID:25213136

Motulsky, Harvey J

2014-11-01

231

Common misconceptions about data analysis and statistics.  

PubMed

Ideally, any experienced investigator with the right tools should be able to reproduce a finding published in a peer-reviewed biomedical science journal. In fact, the reproducibility of a large percentage of published findings has been questioned. Undoubtedly, there are many reasons for this, but one reason may be that investigators fool themselves due to a poor understanding of statistical concepts. In particular, investigators often make these mistakes: (1) P-Hacking. This is when you reanalyze a data set in many different ways, or perhaps reanalyze with additional replicates, until you get the result you want. (2) Overemphasis on P values rather than on the actual size of the observed effect. (3) Overuse of statistical hypothesis testing, and being seduced by the word "significant". (4) Overreliance on standard errors, which are often misunderstood. PMID:25692012

Motulsky, Harvey J

2015-02-01

232

Common misconceptions about data analysis and statistics.  

PubMed

Ideally, any experienced investigator with the right tools should be able to reproduce a finding published in a peer-reviewed biomedical science journal. In fact, however, the reproducibility of a large percentage of published findings has been questioned. Undoubtedly, there are many reasons for this, but one reason may be that investigators fool themselves due to a poor understanding of statistical concepts. In particular, investigators often make these mistakes: 1) P-hacking, which is when you reanalyze a data set in many different ways, or perhaps reanalyze with additional replicates, until you get the result you want; 2) overemphasis on P values rather than on the actual size of the observed effect; 3) overuse of statistical hypothesis testing, and being seduced by the word "significant"; and 4) over-reliance on standard errors, which are often misunderstood. PMID:25204545

Motulsky, Harvey J

2014-10-01

233

Revisiting Science Misconceptions: How are we doing?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Misconceptions in science continue in K-12 settings. Although "A Nation at Risk" helped spearheaded the development of creative instructional strategies, concept maps, and a multitude of other reforms, many basic science concepts remain misunderstood by students. Recent research conducted by the author and colleagues finds it difficult to determine if a student knows and understands a scientific concept when the student cannot find the language necessary to explain what s/he thinks they know. In fact, student explanations for understandings are often confusing and include mixed conceptual ideas. This session discusses the findings, instructional tools, and the use of academic language as a tool for conceptual development. In my research, I found it difficult to determine if students know and understand scientific concepts. A majority of students surveyed were unable to use language to explain what they think they know, and explanations were often confusing, containing mixed concepts. This demonstrates the importance of teacher content, academic language, and active engagement in learning through doing science. We will focus on how to identify whether or not students have the language necessary to explicitly explain their scientific understandings, and how we can help them to develop their skills through the consistent use of academic language to mitigate scientific misconceptions. Embedded will be the importance of content knowledge and active engagement in teaching and learning. This interactive dialogue and activity is designed to provoke thinking about strong content background, engagement of students in learning, and related clusters of vocabulary to express content (i.e. acid vs base, or fault vs earthquakes). Total number of students who either agreed or disagreed with a statement. Comparing the correctness of the agree or disagree statements with written explanations.

Millham, R. A.

2013-12-01

234

Better Categorizing Misconceptions Using a Contemporary Cognitive Science Lens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of the last three decades of discipline-based education research in the geosciences has focused on the important work of identifying the range and domain of misconceptions students bring into undergraduate science survey courses. Pinpointing students' prior knowledge is a cornerstone for developing constructivist approaches and learning environments for effective teaching. At the same time, the development of a robust a priori formula for professors to use in mitigating students' misconceptions remains elusive. An analysis of the literature and our own research has persuaded researchers at the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research to put forth a model that will allow professors to operate on students' various learning difficulties in a more productive manner. Previously, much of the field's work binned erroneous student thinking into a single construct, and from that basis, curriculum developers and instructors addressed student misconceptions with a single instructional strategy. In contrast, we propose a model based on the notion that 'misconceptions' are a mixture of at least four learning barriers: incorrect factual information, inappropriately applied mental algorithms (phenomenological primitives), insufficient cognitive structures (e.g. spatial reasoning), and affective/emotional difficulties (e.g. students' spiritual commitments). In this sense, each of these different types of learning barriers would be more effectively addressed with an instructional strategy purposefully targeting these different attributes. Initial applications of this model to learning problems in geosciences have been fruitful, suggesting that an effort towards categorizing persistent learning difficulties in the geosciences beyond the single generalized category of 'misconceptions' might allow our community to more effectively design learning experiences for our students and the general public

Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

2013-12-01

235

Some Misconceptions and Misunderstandings Perpetuated by Teachers and Textbooks of Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists 15 commonly encountered misconceptions/misunderstandings in biology, together with specific suggestions to help teachers and textbook authors clarify each misconception. Included are problems related to understanding differences between acellular and multicellular, respiration and photosynthesis, egestion and excretion, and homeostasis and…

Barrass, Robert

1984-01-01

236

Myths and Misconceptions about Traumatic Brain Injury: Endorsements by School Psychologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of school psychologists regarding myths and misconceptions pertaining to traumatic brain injury (TBI). A sample of 304 school psychologists in the state of North Carolina was surveyed on 11 common myths and misconceptions about TBI. Results indicated that this group performed significantly better…

Hooper, Stephen R.

2006-01-01

237

Naive Psychological Science: The Prevalence, Strength, and Sources of Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies show that misconceptions about psychology are pervasive. This study examined how the strength of prior beliefs and the sources of misinformation relate to conceptual change following an introductory psychology course. Ninety introductory psychology students completed a 36-item "Psychological Information" questionnaire. Testing during the…

Taylor, Annette Kujawski; Kowalski, Patricia

2004-01-01

238

Prevalence of Blood Circulation Misconceptions Among Prospective Elementary Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study sought to to investigate the prevalence and persistence of blood circulation misconceptions among prospective elementary teachers and 2) to evaluate the effectiveness of learning activities for discovering what students know and can explain about blood circulation and lung function

PhD Nancy J. Pelaez (California State University Fullerton Department of Biological Science, MH282)

2005-09-01

239

A Misconception in Biology: Amino Acids and Translation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated a persistent error among introductory college biology and genetics students, namely, that amino acids are produced by genetic translation (protein synthesis). Contributors to this misconception were revealed through multiple-choice items and interviews. Implications for education are discussed with specific steps suggested to correct…

Fisher, Kathleen M.

1985-01-01

240

Using Analogies to Prevent Misconceptions about Chemical Equilibrium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to find the effectiveness of using analogies to prevent misconceptions about chemical equilibrium. Nineteen analogies, which were based on dynamic aspects of chemical equilibrium and application of Le Chatelier's principle, were developed. The participations of this study consisted of 11th grade students (n: 151)…

Sahin Pekmez, Esin

2010-01-01

241

Misconception in Physical Science at the Middle School Grades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presentation will focus on the physical science content and pedagogy workshops addressing student's misconceptions at the middle school level. These workshops were conducted at Springfield College during summer 2010 for in- service teachers from Springfield MA Public Schools. A partnership among Springfield MA Public Schools, Springfield College, and the City of Springfield Science Museum was developed to implement an

Zenobia Lojewska; Robert Barkman; Peter Polito; Julianne Smist; Richard Konicek-Moran

2011-01-01

242

Using Analogy to Overcome Misconceptions about Conservation of Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study (n=192) examined the use of analogical instruction to overcome misconceptions about conservation of matter. Students who understood the concept conservation of matter when iodine was evaporated were able to transfer their understanding to the evaporation of acetone. This indicates that teaching by analogy can be an effective tool in…

Stavy, Ruth

1991-01-01

243

Teaching to the Misconception: Critical Thinking and Pre-Service Elementary Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few decades, numerous studies have demonstrated that pre-service and in-service teachers fall victim to the same misconceptions as the students they are or will be teaching. At the same time, research has shown that addressing the misconceptions head-on and leading students to a deep, personal understanding of why their previous conceptions were erroneous aids in replacement of misconceptions with an accurate understanding of the natural world. This paper demonstrates how this was accomplished in a required university-level Earth/space/physical science course for pre-service elementary school teachers, with an emphasis on examples from the Sun-Earth-Moon system.

Larsen, K.

2014-07-01

244

A Test of Contemporary Misconceptions in Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to construct and evaluate a contemporary misconception test based on popular myths in psychology. Misconceptions in psychology are commonplace, strongly held, and can be problematic for teaching accurate information. This study examined several predictors of misconceptions in eleven psychological topic areas. We also…

Gardner, Rick M.; Brown, Dana L.

2013-01-01

245

The Science Teacher4646464646 MISCONCEPTIONS  

E-print Network

' inability to grasp certain chemistry concepts. Over time I recognized that I was not adequately ad- dressing scientific disciplines, particularly chemistry. I made a list of chemistry misconceptions by topics not understand the dif- ference between an element, compound, and mixture; be- lieve that gases do not have any

Talanquer, Vicente A.

246

Air Pollution: The Knowledge and Attitudes of Secondary School Students in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the knowledge and understanding of Hong Kong secondary school students about the composition of unpolluted and polluted air, and the nature and effects of air pollutants. A number of misconceptions are highlighted, including the common belief amongst younger students that oxygen was more common in unpolluted air than nitrogen.…

Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin; Yeung, Stephen Pui-ming

2004-01-01

247

Addressing climate and energy misconceptions - teaching tools offered by the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite a prevalence of peer-reviewed scientific research and high-level reports by intergovernmental agencies (e.g., IPCC) that document changes in our climate and consequences for human societies, the public discourse regards these topics as controversial and sensitive. The chasm between scientific-based understanding of climate systems and public understanding can most easily be addressed via high quality, science-based education on these topics. Well-trained and confident educators are required to provide this education. However, climate science and energy awareness are complex topics that are rapidly evolving and have a great potential for controversy. Furthermore, the interdisciplinary nature of climate science further increases the difficulty for teachers to stay abreast of the science and the policy. Research has shown that students and educators alike hold misconceptions about the climate system in general and the causes and effects of climate change in particular. The NSF-funded CLEAN Pathway (http://cleanet.org) as part of the National Science Digital Library (http://www.nsdl.org) strives to address these needs and help educators address misconceptions by providing high quality learning resources and professional development opportunities to support educators of grade levels 6 through 16. The materials focus on teaching climate science and energy use. The scope and framework of the CLEAN Pathway is defined by the Essential Principles of Climate Science (CCSP, 2009) and the Energy Literacy Principles recently developed by the Department of Energy. Following this literacy-based approach, CLEAN helps with developing mental models to address misconceptions around climate science and energy awareness through a number of different avenues. These are: 1) Professional development opportunities for educators - interactive webinars for secondary teachers and virtual workshops for college faculty, 2) A collection of scientifically and pedagogically reviewed, high-quality learning resources on climate and energy topics, 3) Detailed information on effective approaches for teaching climate and energy science for a range of grade levels, and 4) A community support forum (http://iceeonline.org, coordinated by a partner project - Inspiring Climate Education Excellence, ICEE), where educators can exchange information and share advice regarding climate and energy education. In this presentation we focus on our experience coordinating professional development opportunities as well as the "Teaching about Climate and Energy" web pages that are offered through the CLEAN Pathway to show-case how misconceptions can be addressed by educators when teaching or learning about climate and energy topics. Providing educators with a robust foundation of topical knowledge, guiding them through common misconceptions and providing them with a collection of well-vetted learning resources is the approach offered by CLEAN to address student misconceptions of climate and energy topics.

Gold, A. U.; Ledley, T. S.; Kirk, K. B.; Grogan, M.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Manduca, C. A.; Fox, S.; Niepold, F.; Howell, C.; Lynds, S. E.

2011-12-01

248

The Gauss and Ampere Laws: Different Laws but Similar Difficulties for Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to analyse university students' reasoning regarding two laws of electromagnetism: Gauss's law and Ampere's law. It has been supposed that the problems seen in understanding and applying both laws do not spring from students' misconceptions. Students habitually use reasoning known in the literature as 'common sense' methodology that…

Guisasola, Jenaro; Almudi, Jose M.; Salinas, Julia; Zuza, Kristina; Ceberio, Mikel

2008-01-01

249

Junior High School Students' Ideas about the Shape and Size of the Atom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of the atom is one of the building blocks of science education. Although the concept is a foundation for students' subsequent learning experiences, it is difficult for students to comprehend because of common misconceptions and its abstractness. The purpose of this study is to examine junior high school students' (ages 12-13) ideas…

Cokelez, Aytekin

2012-01-01

250

Kindergarten Common Core State Standards Flip Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 42-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the Kindergarten level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades 1-5.

251

A Study on Identifying the Misconceptions of Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers about Basic Astronomy Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nowadays, the importance given to astronomy teaching in science and physics education has been gradually increasing. At the same time, teachers play an important role in remediating the misconceptions about astronomy concepts held by students. The present study aims to determine the misconceptions of pre-service physics teachers (n = 117),…

Kanli, Uygar

2014-01-01

252

Student Misinterpretations and Misconceptions Based on Their Explanations of Two Computer Animations of Varying Complexity Depicting the Same Oxidation-Reduction Reaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of 55 students were shown unnarrated versions of two different particulate-level computer animations of varying complexity depicting the oxidation-reduction reaction of aqueous silver nitrate and solid copper metal. These students were asked to explain their understanding of the chemical reaction based on their interpretations of these…

Rosenthal, Deborah P.; Sanger, Michael J.

2012-01-01

253

Affidavit of Common Law Marriage Student Name (please print) CSUID  

E-print Network

as a common law divorce. A common law spouse may be entitled to distribution of property, support, and that has not been legally terminated by death or divorce. We understand that this agreement can be terminated only through death or legal divorce proceedings. Signature Common Law Wife Date Signature Common

254

Changing Misconceptions in Newton's Laws of Motion Through Playing Computer Games and Peer Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to acquire information about students' misconceptions on Newton's laws of motion. Three major hypotheses were examined: (1) students' performance on the posttest after playing the games set in the context of a Newtonian microworld will be significantly better than their performance on the pretest; (2) performance of the students playing the games in a peer cooperative

Hyejoo Back

1996-01-01

255

"In Fourteen Hundred and Ninety-Two, Columbus Sailed the Ocean Blue": Effects of Multiple Document Readings on Student Attitudes and Misconceptions. Reading Research Report No. 82.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the effects of students reading multiple documents on their perceptions of a historical event, in this case the "discovery" of America by Christopher Columbus, 85 high school freshmen read 3 of 4 different texts (or sets of texts) dealing with Columbus. One text was an encyclopedia article, one a set of articles from "Newsweek" and…

Stahl, Steven A.; And Others

256

Five popular misconceptions about osmosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Osmosis is the flow of solvent across a semipermeable membrane from a region of lower to higher solute concentration. It is of central importance in plant and animal physiology and finds many uses in industry. A survey of published papers, web resources, and current textbooks reveals that numerous misconceptions about osmosis continue to be cited and taught. To clarify these issues, we re-derive the thermodynamics of osmosis using the canonical formalism of statistical mechanics and go on to discuss the main points that continue to lead to misunderstandings.

Kramer, Eric M.; Myers, David R.

2012-08-01

257

Affidavit of Common Law Marriage Student Name (please print) CSUID  

E-print Network

that there is no such thing as a common law divorce. A common law spouse may be entitled to distribution of property, support of either party that has not been legally terminated by death or divorce. We understand that this agreement can be terminated only through death or legal divorce proceedings. Signature Common Law Wife Date

258

Affidavit of Common Law Marriage Student Name (please print) CSUID  

E-print Network

there is no such thing as a common law divorce. A common law spouse may be entitled to distribution of property, support that has not been legally terminated by death or divorce. We understand that this agreement can be terminated only through death or legal divorce proceedings. Signature Common Law Spouse 1 Date Signature

Rutledge, Steven

259

Myths and Misconceptions in Fall Protection  

SciTech Connect

Since 1973, when OSHA CFRs 1910 and 1926 began to influence the workplace, confusion about the interpretation of the standards has been a problem and fall protection issues are among them. This confusion is verified by the issuance of 351 (as of 11/25/05) Standard Interpretations issued by OSHA in response to formally submitted questions asking for clarification. Over the years, many workers and too many ES&H Professionals have become 'self-interpreters', reaching conclusions that do not conform to either the Standards or the published Interpretations. One conclusion that has been reached by the author is that many ES&H Professionals are either not aware of, or do not pay attention to the Standard Interpretations issued by OSHA, or the State OSHA interpretation mechanism, whoever has jurisdiction. If you fall in this category, you are doing your organization or clients a disservice and are not providing them with the best information available. Several myths and/or misconceptions have been promulgated to the point that they become accepted fact, until an incident occurs and OSHA becomes involved. For example, one very pervasive myth is that you are in compliance as long as you maintain a distance of 6 feet from the edge. No such carte blanche rule exists. In this presentation, this myth and several other common myths/misconceptions will be discussed. This presentation is focused only on Federal OSHA CFR1910 Subpart D--Walking-Working Surfaces, CFR1926 Subpart M--Fall Protection and the Fall Protection Standard Interpretation Letters. This presentation does not cover steel erection, aerial lifts and other fall protection issues. Your regulations will probably be different than those presented if you are operating under a State plan.

Epp, R J

2006-02-23

260

Textbook Errors & Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Metabolism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea that errors and misconceptions in biology textbooks are often slow to be discovered and corrected is discussed. Selected errors, misconceptions, and topics of confusion about cell metabolism are described. Fermentation, respiration, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, uniformity of catabolism, and metabolic pathways as models are…

Storey, Richard D.

1991-01-01

261

Assessment of student conceptions of evolutionary trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biologists use evolutionary trees to depict hypotheses about the relationships among taxa. Trees possess lines that represent lineages, internal nodes that represent where lineages become evolutionarily isolated from one another and terminal nodes that represent the taxa under consideration. Interpreting a tree (i.e., "tree-thinking") is an important skill for biologists yet many students struggle when reading evolutionary trees. Common documented misconceptions include using morphological similarity, internal node counting or terminal node proximity, instead of identifying the internal node that represents a most recent common ancestor (MRCA), to determine relationships among taxa. I developed an instrument to assess whether students were using common ancestry or another, non-scientific, strategy to determine relationships among taxa. The study is the first to explicitly test hypotheses about how students approach reading evolutionary trees. To test the hypotheses an instrument was developed. The instrument is the first reliable and valid assessment testing student understanding of how to use most recent common ancestor to interpret evolutionary relationships in tree diagrams. Instructors can use the instrument as a diagnostic tool enabling them to help students learn this challenging concept. This study shows that, contrary to the assertion that students hold misconceptions about evolutionary trees made in the literature, students do not consistently use erroneous strategies when interpreting trees. This study suggests that a constructivist perspective of cognitive structure describes students' conception of evolutionary trees more closely than a misconception perspective.

Blacquiere, Luke

262

Investigating Climate Science Misconceptions Using a Teacher Professional Development Workshop Registration Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EarthLabs Climate project, an NSF-Discovery Research K12 program, has developed a suite of three online classroom-ready modules: Climate and the Cryosphere; Climate and the Carbon Cycle; and Climate and the Biosphere. The EarthLabs Climate project included week-long professional development workshops during June of 2012 and 2013 in Texas and Mississippi. Evaluation of the 2012 and 2013 workshops included participant self-reported learning levels in many areas of climate science. Teachers' answers indicated they had increased their understanding of the topics addressed in the workshops. However, the project team was interested in refining the evaluation process to determine exactly those areas of climate science in which participants increased content knowledge and ameliorated misconceptions. Therefore, to enhance the investigation into what teachers got out of the workshop, a pre-test/post-test design was implemented for 2013. In particular, the evaluation team was interested in discovering the degree to which participants held misconceptions and whether those beliefs were modified by attendance at the workshops. For the 2013 workshops, a registration survey was implemented that included the Climate Concept Inventory (a climate content knowledge quiz developed by the education research team for the project). The multiple-choice questions are also part of the pre/post student quiz used in classrooms in which the EarthLabs Climate curriculum was implemented. Many of the questions in this instrument assess common misconceptions by using them as distractors in the multiple choice options. The registration survey also asked respondents to indicate their confidence in their answer to each question, because, in addition to knowledge limitations, lack of confidence also can be a barrier to effective teaching. Data from the registration survey informed workshop managers of the topic content knowledge of participants, allowing fine-tuning of the professional development to address attendee's knowledge levels. In addition, the pre-test/post-test design allowed evaluators to investigate changes in participant understanding in a way more robust than self-reported learning. In this presentation, we will address the findings from these analyses and discuss implications for addressing misconceptions in teacher professional development.

Lynds, S. E.; Gold, A. U.; McNeal, K.; Libarkin, J. C.; Buhr Sullivan, S. M.; Ledley, T. S.; Haddad, N.; Ellins, K. K.

2013-12-01

263

Reaching the Mountaintop: Addressing the Common Core Standards in Mathematics for Students with Mathematics Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards provide teachers with a framework of necessary mathematics skills across grades K-12, which vary considerably from previous mathematics standards. In this article, we discuss concerns about the implications of the Common Core for students with mathematics difficulties (MD), given that students with MD, by…

Powell, Sarah R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Doug

2013-01-01

264

Primary-Grade Students' Knowledge and Thinking about Food Production and the Origins of Common Foods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual interviews were conducted with 96 K-3 students, stratified according to grade level, achievement level, and gender. The students were asked to explain land-to-hand progressions involved in bringing several common foods to our tables, identify products derived from common farm animals, explain why a pound of cereal costs more than a…

Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet; O'Mahony, Carolyn

2003-01-01

265

Student Success Best Practices, Common Metrics, and UNLV in the National Context  

E-print Network

Student Success Best Practices, Common Metrics, and UNLV in the National Context Lew Sanborne, Ph learning and success; · Discovery through research, scholarship, and creative activity; · Nurturing equity 9:00 a.m. Opening: setting the stage: presentation on student success best practices, common metrics

Hemmers, Oliver

266

Science misconceptions and working memory capacity among Saudi adolescents: A neo-Piagetian investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to investigate the relationships between science misconceptions and working memory capacity in Saudi adolescent students. The participants in this study were from eleventh and twelfth grades; both male and female students and natural and social science Saudi comprised the sample. Also investigated in this study were the conceptions and misconceptions of gravity in a non-European culture, that is Saudi culture, and the variables that differentiated those individuals who could overcome their misconceptions from those who could not and the gender differences in science misconceptions in the context of Saudi culture. Another important focus of this study was to investigate the participants' responses and explanations on the science misconceptions tasks (WLT and EGT). As would be expected, there was a strong correlation between WLT and EGT in the responses of students and their explanations. The most successful students on the WLT and EGT were natural science students rather than social science students, and there were no gender differences between male and female participants. Also investigated were the correlations between the dependent variables (i.e., the WLT and EGT; the measures of science misconceptions) and the independent variables, which were the visual working memory capacity tasks (i.e., FIT and VPS), the field independence/dependence (FASP), students' grade point average (GPA), age, academic major, gender, and grade level. It was found that both of the dependent variables (i.e., the WLT and EGT) correlated significantly with the same independent variables, the FIT, VPS, FASP, academic major, and students' grade point average (GPA).

Al-Jubaili, Ahmad Yahya

267

Common Data Set 2012-2013 F. STUDENT LIFE  

E-print Network

orchestra International Student Organization Opera Television station Jazz band Pep band Yearbook F3. ROTC (program offered in cooperation with Reserve Officers' Training Corps) Army ROTC is offered: On campus At cooperating institution (name): __________________________________________________ Naval ROTC is offered

Kunkle, Tom

268

Meeting the Common Core State Standards for Students with Autism: The Challenge for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can we ensure that students with autism spectrum disorders are provided access to the curriculum that is provided to all students? This article discusses the specific challenges presented by students with autism spectrum disorders that can impact their access to the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts. Specific evidence-based…

Constable, Susan; Grossi, Barrie; Moniz, Alexis; Ryan, Lynne

2013-01-01

269

Creationism as a Misconception: Socio-Cognitive Conflict in the Teaching of Evolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This position paper argues that students' understanding and acceptance of evolution may be supported, rather than hindered, by classroom discussion of creationism. Parallels are drawn between creationism and other scientific misconceptions, both of the scientific community in the past and of students in the present. Science teachers frequently…

Foster, Colin

2012-01-01

270

Conceptual versus Algorithmic Learning in High School Chemistry: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts--Part 2. Students' Common Errors, Misconceptions and Difficulties in Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part 2 of the findings are presented of a quantitative study (n = 125) on basic quantum chemical concepts taught at twelfth grade (age 17-18 years) in Greece. A paper-and-pencil test of fourteen questions was used that were of two kinds: five questions that tested recall of knowledge or application of algorithmic procedures (type-A questions);…

Papaphotis, Georgios; Tsaparlis, Georgios

2008-01-01

271

5th Grade Common Core State Standards Flip Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 68-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the grade 5 level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades K-4.

2012-01-01

272

4th Grade Common Core State Standards Flip Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 75-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the grade 4 level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades K-3 and 5.

273

3rd Grade Common Core State Standards Flip Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 60-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the grade 3 level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades K-2 and 4-5.

274

Common Fractions. [Student Worksheets for Vocational Agricultural Courses].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning module provides students with practice in applying mathematical operations to vocational agriculture. The module consists of unit objectives, definitions, information, problems to solve, worksheets suitable for various levels of vocational agriculture instruction, and answer keys for the problems and worksheets. This module, which…

Jewell, Larry R.

275

Misconceptions about Evolution and the Mechanisms of Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource will help teachers deal with common misconceptions about evolution, those that are simple misunderstandings and others that may stem from purposeful attempts to interfere with the teaching of evolution. First, five common misunderstandings about evolution and how it works are examined. They include the origin of life, ladder of progress, randomness of evolution, trying to adapt, and satisfying needs. The next section indicates that evolution explains the history of life and has no other implications. This site also debunks the alleged incompatibility of religion and evolution.

276

A 'Common Practice' Approach to Attract and Retain Engineering Students  

E-print Network

-connect devices. This allowed younger students to create their own systems with little instruction or physical assistance. The backplane is the fundamental element and is the support structure and connection system for the breadboard. Each backplane... configured for direct attachment to the backplane for fluid flow control. The valves selected represent smaller versions of components typically found in full-scale process systems. Each size and type of valve has unique characteristics, so selection...

Mountain, J. R.; Hibbeler, L. C.

2006-01-01

277

Common respiratory and gastrointestinal illness in paediatric student nurses and medical technology students.  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to establish the risk of acquiring common respiratory and gastrointestinal illness for paediatric nurses. Using self-administered questionnaires, student nurses at two children's hospitals and students at one school of medical technology reported biweekly the number of minor illnesses, symptoms, and indicators of severity of infection over a 3-year period (1975-8). Although a systematic bias was evident with some symptoms, others appeared to be quite reliable. The following four syndromes were defined to estimate the risk: upper respiratory syndrome (URS), lower respiratory syndrome (LRS), respiratory and gastrointestinal syndrome (RGS), and gastrointestinal syndrome (GS). Surveillance days were allocated to groups with high- or low-intensity contact with children. The incidence of all illnesses was 2.9 per person-year in the low-intensity contact group and 4.4 per person-year in the high-intensity contact group. The reported incidence of LRS and RGS in the high-intensity contact group was 1.55 times higher than in the low-intensity group (P less than 0.001). LRS and RGS incidence was similar in nurses at both schools. During low contact periods it corresponded to that of the medical technologists. PMID:3556436

Gerth, H. J.; Grüner, C.; Müller, R.; Dietz, K.

1987-01-01

278

Textbook Misconceptions: The Climax Concept of Succession.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the development of the climax concept of succession, illustrates the misconceptions in current textbooks, and provides a conceptual model for an updated view of succession useful in teaching at the introductory level. Contains 38 references. (JRH)

Gibson, David J.

1996-01-01

279

Textbook Errors & Misconceptions in Biology: Photosynthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Glaring and basic textbook errors and misconceptions about photosynthesis are discussed. The Calvin Cycle, photosynthetic products, alternative cycles, and plants as producers are considered. Included are observations of both college and secondary textbooks. (CW)

Storey, Richard D.

1989-01-01

280

Library Jargon: Student Recognition of Terms and Concepts Commonly Used by Librarians in the Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the results of a study that used a pair of fifteen-item multiple-choice surveys to measure first- and second-year university student recognition of a select group of commonly used library terms. A total of 297 students responded. The results from the surveys indicate that commonly used terms such as plagiarism, reference services, re- search, copyright, and synonyms have

Norman B. Hutcherson

281

Reliability and Validity Issues for Two Common Measures of Medical Students' Attitudes toward Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results are reported from 2 common measures of medical student attitudes toward older adults: Maxwell-Sullivan Attitude Survey (MSAS); and UCLA Geriatrics Attitude Survey (GAS), with students entering the University of South Carolina School of Medicine (USCSM) in the period 2000--2005. A reliability analysis incorporating item means, Cronbach's…

Stewart, T. J.; Roberts, E.; Eleazer, P.; Boland, R.; Wieland, D.

2006-01-01

282

Student Reading Growth Illuminates the Common Core Text-Complexity Standard: Raising Both Bars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) establish a challenging text-complexity standard for all high school graduates to read at college and workplace text-complexity levels. We argue that implementation of the CCSS standard requires concurrent examination of historical student reading-growth trends. An example of a historical student average…

Williamson, Gary L.; Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, Jackson A.

2014-01-01

283

Daytime Sleepiness, Poor Sleep Quality, Eveningness Chronotype, and Common Mental Disorders among Chilean College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To evaluate whether daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, and morningness and eveningness preferences are associated with common mental disorders (CMDs) among college students. Methods: A total of 963 college students completed self-administered questionnaires that collected information about sociodemographic characteristics, sleep…

Concepcion, Tessa; Barbosa, Clarita; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Pepper, Micah; Andrade, Asterio; Gelaye, Bizu; Yanez, David; Williams, Michelle A.

2014-01-01

284

The Common Core State Standards and Reading: Interpretations and Implications for Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The K-5 reading standards within the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards provide guidance to teachers about grade level expectations for students. Though the authors of the standards acknowledge that some students may experience difficulty reaching the rigorous expectations, they explain that the standards outline a pathway to…

Haager, Diane; Vaughn, Sharon

2013-01-01

285

Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault: A Common Problem among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This article summarizes research on the role of alcohol in college students' sexual assault experiences. Sexual assault is extremely common among college students. At least half of these sexual assaults involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, the vic- tim or both. Method: Two research literatures were reviewed: the sexual assault literature and the literature that examines alcohol's effects on

ANTONIA ABBEY

2002-01-01

286

Prejudice and misconceptions about tuberculosis and HIV in rural and urban communities in Ethiopia: a challenge for the TB\\/HIV control program  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, where HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are very common, little is known about the prejudice and misconceptions of rural communities towards People living with HIV\\/AIDS (PLHA) and TB. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study in Gilgel Gibe Field Research area (GGFRA) in southwest Ethiopia to assess the prejudice and misconceptions of rural and urban communities towards PLHA

Amare Deribew; Gemeda Abebe; Ludwig Apers; Chali Jira; Markos Tesfaye; Jafar Shifa; Alemseged Abdisa; Kifle Woldemichael; Fetene Deribie; Mesele Bezabih; Abraham Aseffa; Robert Colebunders

2010-01-01

287

Genesis & the Human Ribcage: An Opportunity to Correct a Misconception & Introduce an Evolution Lesson into the Anatomy Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many anatomy students begin the course with a misconception that human males and females do not have the same number of ribs. At the root of that misconception is Genesis 2:21-22, in which God removes a rib from Adam to make Eve. Removal of a body part is a surgical procedure, and one does not pass on the results of surgery to one's offspring. The…

Senter, Phil

2013-01-01

288

Physical Activity and the Common Cold in Undergraduate University Students: Implications for Health Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The common cold, known as upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), is the world's most prevalent illness. The purpose of this study was to determine if physical activity is linked to the incidence and/or duration of the common cold. Method: Undergraduate university students (n=200) were asked to complete two questionnaires. The…

Vossen, Deborah P.; McArel, Heather; Vossen, Jeffery F.; Thompson, Angela M.

2004-01-01

289

Link Data to Learning Goals: Common District Assessments Connect Teaching Effectiveness to Student Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2010, district leaders of Douglas County Public Schools, Douglasville, Georgia, launched an ambitious initiative to ensure that teachers set goals that focus on increasing their effectiveness and show student growth. To achieve this goal, the district leadership team focused on common district assessments to establish common learning…

Psencik, Kay; Baldwin, Rhonda

2012-01-01

290

Turkish Students' Force Meanings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are Turkish pre, elementary, middle, and high school students' force ideas? And, how do Turkish students' non-normative force ideas differ or be similar to the well-known force misconceptions reported in the literature? Students have false and persistent beliefs about the physical world and they struggle with challenging misconceptions based…

Menekse, Muhsin; Clark, Douglas B.; Ozdemir, Gokhan; D'angelo, Cynthia; Scheligh, Sharon

2009-01-01

291

An Analogy-Based Computer Tutor for Remediating Physics Misconceptions. Draft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper evaluates the strengths and limitations of a computer tutor designed to help students understand physics concepts. The tutor uses a teaching strategy called "bridging analogies" that previous research has demonstrated to be successful in one-to-one tutoring. The strategy is designed to remedy misconceptions by appealing to existing…

Murray, Tom; And Others

292

Using Structured Examples and Prompting Reflective Questions to Correct Misconceptions about Thermodynamic Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the effectiveness of using "structured examples in concert with prompting reflective questions" to address misconceptions held by mechanical engineering students about thermodynamic principles by employing pre-test and post-test design, a structured questionnaire, lecture room observation, and participants'…

Olakanmi, E. O.; Doyoyo, M.

2014-01-01

293

How prepared are medical students to diagnose and manage common ocular conditions  

PubMed Central

It is essential that primary care physicians have a solid fund of knowledge of the diagnosis and management of common eye conditions as well as ocular emergencies, as management of these diseases commonly involves appropriate referral to an ophthalmologist. Thus, it is crucial to receive comprehensive clinical knowledge of ophthalmic disease in the primary care setting during medical school. This study investigated how well prepared medical students are to diagnose and manage common ocular conditions. The study used scores from a standardized 12-question quiz administered to fourth-year medical students (N = 97; 88% response rate) and second-year medical students (N = 97; 97% response rate). The quiz comprising diagnosis and referral management questions covered the most frequently tested ophthalmology topics on board exams and assessed students’ ability to recognize when referral to an ophthalmologist is appropriate. Fourth-year medical students had quiz scores ranging from 0%-94.5% with an average score of 68.7%. Second-year students had quiz scores ranging from 27.2%–86.4%, with an average score of 63.8%. Passing rate was 70%. Student’s t-test showed fourth-year students had a significantly higher quiz average (P = 0.003). In general, both classes performed better on diagnostic questions (fourth-year, 73.7%; second year, 65.8%) rather than on management questions (fourth-year, 64.8%; second year, 61.8%). Both second-year and fourth-year students on average fell short on passing the ophthalmology proficiency quiz, and in general students were more adept at diagnosing rather than managing ocular conditions and emergencies. PMID:25417863

Esparaz, Elizabeth Shanika; Binder, S. Bruce; Borges, Nicole J.

2014-01-01

294

Teaching Simple Experimental Design to Undergraduates: Do Your Students Understand the Basics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides instructors with guidelines for teaching simple experimental design for the comparison of two treatment groups. Two designs with specific examples are discussed along with common misconceptions that undergraduate students typically bring to the experiment design process. Features of experiment design that maximize power and…

Hiebert, Sara M.

2007-01-01

295

Ecotoxicology in Wonderland: Myths and misconceptions  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of science and policy in ecotoxicology has given rise to several major myths and misconceptions. Three important ones are discussed here in terms of their influence on regulatory and scientific uncertainty. (1) Chronic toxicity data are ``better`` than acute data. It is commonly asserted that chronic data better reflect ``realistic`` responses than mortality and are more amenable to use in regulatory driven extrapolations. Problematic aspects, however, remain. Chronic data are time dependent, more difficult to interpret ecologically and are as difficult to extrapolate. Combined these imply less certainty about the implications of chronic toxicity-based regulations than might otherwise be believed. (2) Toxicity data obtained in controlled laboratory testing can be successfully extrapolated to field situations with appropriate models. A basic incompatibility between attempts to control variability in experimental situations (e.g. reducing abiotic and biotic influences) and the requirement to understand the causes of variability observed in the field exists. Large uncertainties in model predictions result from this incompatibility and call into question the premise of applying lab data to field situations. (3) A ``most sensitive`` species can be readily determined and effectively used. Sensitivity can only be defined with any accuracy in the context of a specific stressor and community. The possible combinations and permutations of stressors and communities is so large that the notion that a single measurement can accurately reflect complex spatial and temporal dynamics is clearly absurd. Incomplete ecological knowledge and inappropriate adjustment for body size and metabolic modifying factors raise obvious questions about the certainty with which sentinel species based regulations can adequately achieved stated objectives.

McCarty, L.S. [L.S. McCarty Scientific Research and Consulting, Oakville, Ontario (Canada); Power, M. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural Economics

1995-12-31

296

How prepared are medical students to diagnose and manage common ocular conditions.  

PubMed

It is essential that primary care physicians have a solid fund of knowledge of the diagnosis and management of common eye conditions as well as ocular emergencies, as management of these diseases commonly involves appropriate referral to an ophthalmologist. Thus, it is crucial to receive comprehensive clinical knowledge of ophthalmic disease in the primary care setting during medical school. This study investigated how well prepared medical students are to diagnose and manage common ocular conditions. The study used scores from a standardized 12-question quiz administered to fourth-year medical students (N = 97; 88% response rate) and second-year medical students (N = 97; 97% response rate). The quiz comprising diagnosis and referral management questions covered the most frequently tested ophthalmology topics on board exams and assessed students' ability to recognize when referral to an ophthalmologist is appropriate. Fourth-year medical students had quiz scores ranging from 0%-94.5% with an average score of 68.7%. Second-year students had quiz scores ranging from 27.2%-86.4%, with an average score of 63.8%. Passing rate was 70%. Student's t-test showed fourth-year students had a significantly higher quiz average (P = 0.003). In general, both classes performed better on diagnostic questions (fourth-year, 73.7%; second year, 65.8%) rather than on management questions (fourth-year, 64.8%; second year, 61.8%). Both second-year and fourth-year students on average fell short on passing the ophthalmology proficiency quiz, and in general students were more adept at diagnosing rather than managing ocular conditions and emergencies. PMID:25417863

Esparaz, Elizabeth Shanika; Binder, S Bruce; Borges, Nicole J

2014-01-01

297

Challenges posed by some misconceptions in mathematical physics: A case study of work done and potential energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is focused on the concept and formalism of work done and potential energy on the very fundamental level. A detailed analysis of the incomplete presentations of the topics found a major misconception that precluded acknowledgement of existence of certain nonradial effects caused by classical radial/center-bound gravitational force fields is offered. Certain consequences of this and some related misconceptions are also discussed as well the adverse impact of these misconceptions on research on education, teaching and learning of these topics, and on the future development of physical and mathematical theories related to, or relying on, these topics. The most noticeable conclusion of this study is that a more complete and transparent mathematical approach to physics is needed in order to prevent generating similar misconception in the future theories of physics and mathematical sciences in general. A conclusion of importance to educators is that they cannot rely on research scientists anymore, but should evaluate the contents of topics presented to undergraduate and graduate students in order to recognize possible misconceptions and reformulate presentations of topics whose mathematical incompleteness might lead to cognitive conflicts. These conclusions, when generalized, provide specific guidelines for educators, and especially for academic teachers, curriculum designers and researchers on issues pertinent to education. This study is not dealing with misconceptions created by students.

Yah, Jake K.

2011-12-01

298

A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part IV. Common Difficulties Students Experience with Cosmology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is our fourth paper in our five paper series describing our national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. While previous papers in this series focused on the processes by which we collected and quantitatively analyzed our data, this paper presents the most common pre-instruction…

Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

2012-01-01

299

Misconceptions in Rational Numbers, Probability, Algebra, and Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the author examined the relationship of probability misconceptions to algebra, geometry, and rational number misconceptions and investigated the potential of probability instruction as an intervention to address misconceptions in all 4 content areas. Through a review of literature, 5 fundamental concepts were identified that, if…

Rakes, Christopher R.

2010-01-01

300

Investigating Prospective Science Teachers' Misconceptions of Sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to describe prospective science teachers' (PST) misconceptions about basic sound phenomena and concepts. The study was conducted with 56 PSTs. The questionnaire that is used as data collection instrument consists of 6 open-ended questions regarding sound properties, the propagation and nature of sound. Findings of the study indicated that PSTs were not able to

Asuman KÜÇÜKÖZER

301

Recycling misconceptions of perceived self-efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This commentary addresses misconceptions concerning perceived self-efficacy contained in the article by Eastman and Marzillier. People who regard themselves as highly efficacious act, think, and feel differently from those who perceive themselves as inefficacious. Self-percepts of efficacy thus contribute significantly to performance accomplishments rather than residing in the host organism simply as inert predictors of behaviors to come. A substantial

Albert Bandura

1984-01-01

302

Perception and Landscape: Conceptions and Misconceptions1  

E-print Network

241 Perception and Landscape: Conceptions and Misconceptions1 Stephen Kaplan 2/ 1/ Submitted intuitively meaningful. INTRODUCTION It would seem that the psychology of perception should have something- tions about the nature of perception. While certain of these favorite assumptions are probably false

Standiford, Richard B.

303

Opening the Common Core: How to Bring ALL Students to College and Career Readiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do you wish you could leverage the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) to equip all students--not just high achievers--with the higher-level thinking skills they need? You can, and this book will show you how. The authors helped lead their district--Rockville Centre in Long Island, New York--in closing achievement gaps and increasing the number of…

Burris, Carol Corbett; Garrity, Delia T.

2012-01-01

304

Common Core State Standards and Diverse Urban Students: Using Multi-Tiered Systems of Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As America's Great City Schools implement the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), they have a unique opportunity to integrate strategies for teaching, intervening, and supporting the nation's urban students in a way that will ensure they have the literacy, numeracy, behavioral, and engagement skills necessary to be successful in college and…

Gamm, Sue; Elliott, Judy; Halbert, Julie Wright; Price-Baugh, Ricki; Hall, Robin; Walston, Denise; Uro, Gabriela; Casserly, Michael

2012-01-01

305

Alternate Assessments of Students with Significant Disabilities: Alternative Approaches, Common Technical Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines three typical approaches to alternate assessment for students with significant cognitive disabilities--portfolios, performance assessments, and rating scales. A detailed analysis of common and unique design features of these approaches is provided, including features of each approach that influence the psychometric quality of…

Elliott, Stephen N.; Roach, Andrew T.

2007-01-01

306

The Common Good: The Inclusion of Non-Catholic Students in Catholic Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers that liberal and communitarian concepts of the common good are exemplified in the Catholic school's policy of the inclusion of non-Catholic students. In particular, the liberal concepts of personal autonomy, individual rights and freedoms, and the principles of fairness, justice, equality and respect for diversity--as democratic…

Donlevy, J. Kent

2008-01-01

307

Factors that Affect the Physical Science Career Interest of Female Students: Testing Five Common Hypotheses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using multivariate matching methods on national data drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project ("n" = 7505), we test the following five commonly held beliefs regarding what…

Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

2013-01-01

308

Spork & Beans: Addressing Evolutionary Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

They are found at picnics and family outings, apparently attracted by the food provided at these events. Large populations in fast food establishments further support their association with food. Yet little is known about the biology of "Utensilus plastica" (common name: plastic eating utensil). The authors have conducted an in-depth study of this…

Burton, Stephen R.; Dobson, Christopher

2009-01-01

309

Common misconceptions about data analysis and statistics1  

PubMed Central

Ideally, any experienced investigator with the right tools should be able to reproduce a finding published in a peer-reviewed biomedical science journal. In fact, the reproducibility of a large percentage of published findings has been questioned. Undoubtedly, there are many reasons for this, but one reason may be that investigators fool themselves due to a poor understanding of statistical concepts. In particular, investigators often make these mistakes: (1) P-Hacking. This is when you reanalyze a data set in many different ways, or perhaps reanalyze with additional replicates, until you get the result you want. (2) Overemphasis on P values rather than on the actual size of the observed effect. (3) Overuse of statistical hypothesis testing, and being seduced by the word “significant”. (4) Overreliance on standard errors, which are often misunderstood. PMID:25692012

Motulsky, Harvey J

2015-01-01

310

A Study of Common Beliefs and Misconceptions in Physical Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Science Belief Test is an online instrument comprised of 47 statements that require true or false responses and request written explanations to accompany these responses. It targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy and was initially designed to assess preservice elementary teachers' beliefs about general…

Stein, Mary; Larrabee, Timothy G.; Barman, Charles R.

2008-01-01

311

Airside Economizer- Comparing Different Control Strategies and Common Misconceptions  

E-print Network

that enables or disables the dry-bulb temperature based economizer operation. The “best” activation temperatures that maximize the energy savings can be calculated based on weather data and are different from location to location. The activation temperatures...

Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.

312

Airside Economizer – Comparing Different Control Strategies and Common Misconceptions  

E-print Network

cooling", and, in some cases, could even cause significant energy waste. This paper first introduces the fundamentals of the air- side economizer and typical control sequences. It goes on to discuss the determination of the activation temperature... that enables or disables the dry-bulb temperature based economizer operation. The ?best? activation temperatures that maximize the energy savings can be calculated based on weather data and are different from location to location. Activation temperatures...

Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.

313

African Migration to Europe:Obscured Responsibilities and Common Misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of migrants from conflict regions in Africa has been increasing dramatically. The European Union shares dual responsibility for the continuing migration pressure: First, because they fostered over decades corrupt and autocratic regimes with dire disregard to principles of ‘good governance’. The aftermath of these regimes is still to be felt today, and constitutes one of the underlying factors

Dirk Kohnert

2007-01-01

314

African Migration to Europe: Obscured Responsibilities and Common Misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of migrants from conflict regions in Africa has been increasing dramatically. The European Union shares dual responsibility for the continuing migration pressure: First, because it fostered over decades corrupt and autocratic regimes with dire disregard to principles of ‘good governance’. The aftermath of these regimes is still felt today and constitutes one of the underlying factors for politically

Dirk Kohnert

2007-01-01

315

Design Guide for Earth System Science Education: Common Student Learning Objectives and Special Pedagogical Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the NASA-supported undergraduate Earth System Science Education (ESSE) program, fifty-seven institutions have developed and implemented a wide range of Earth system science (ESS) courses, pedagogies, and evaluation tools. The Teaching, Learning, and Evaluation section of USRA's online ESSE Design Guide showcases these ESS learning environments. This Design Guide section also provides resources for faculty who wish to develop ESS courses. It addresses important course design issues including prior student knowledge and interests, student learning objectives, learning resources, pedagogical approaches, and assessments tied to student learning objectives. The ESSE Design Guide provides links to over 130 ESS course syllabi at introductory, senior, and graduate levels. ESS courses over the past 15 years exhibit common student learning objectives and unique pedagogical approaches. From analysis of ESS course syllabi, seven common student learning objectives emerged: 1) demonstrate systems thinking, 2) develop an ESS knowledge base, 3) apply ESS to the human dimension, 4) expand and apply analytical skills, 5) improve critical thinking skills, 6) build professional/career skills, and 7) acquire an enjoyment and appreciation for science. To meet these objectives, ESSE often requires different ways of teaching than in traditional scientific disciplines. This presentation will highlight some especially successful pedagogical approaches for creating positive and engaging ESS learning environments.

Baker, D.

2006-12-01

316

Reef talus: A popular misconception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reef fronts have traditionally been regarded as comprising debris derived by contemporaneous erosion of 'the reef'. However, evidence from wave transport indicates that on present-day reefs the bulk of the debris generated in this way accumulates in the back-reef area, with only finer-grained sediment carried off-reef by retreating flows or by overwash. Nevertheless, in contrast to this observation, 'fore-reef' debris slopes are commonly considered "characteristic" of Phanerozoic reefs. This apparent error reflects the conflation of processes defining contemporary growth and accretion of the reef, and the corresponding long-term accretion of the carbonate platform on which it rests. Present-day reefs are commonly (although not exclusively) additions to long-lived carbonate platforms. Growth of the latter is intermittent and has been moderated by changes in sea-level that, for recent reefs, have been on time scales of less than 100 ka. During low sea-level stands, growth ceases or is translated downslope and earlier deposits are subject to lithification and subaerial erosion. Similar changes are applied on a larger scale to the aggrading growth of carbonate platforms, but the bulk accretion of these includes quite different processes and reflects far longer timescales. During low sea-level stands, the margins of platforms commonly become unstable, with instability reflected in slope failure and in the shedding of blocks, ranging from metres to kilometres in diameter, associated with the generation of debris flows and turbidites. It is argued that these are the materials that are commonly described as 'reef talus' in ancient structures, although their formation is largely independent of any contemporary reef growth. Difficulties arise where 'the reef' and 'the platform' are treated as a single functional entity. It is important to recognize the conceptual distinction between them, 'reef talus' is a misleading description of the debris predominantly generated by platform erosion and slope failure.

Braithwaite, Colin J. R.

2014-01-01

317

Investigating Common Descent: Formulating Explanations and Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students formulate explanations and models that simulate structural and biochemical data as they investigate the misconception that humans evolved from apes. Students should recognize that present-day species evolved from earlier species and the relatedness of organisms is the result of common ancestry. They will also discover that similarities among existing organisms provide evidence for evolution, anatomical similarities of living things reflect common ancestry, and all life forms use the same basic DNA building blocks. Basic concepts also include the fact that scientists pose, test, and revise multiple hypotheses to explain what they observe, our understanding of life through time is based upon multiple lines of evidence, the similarity of DNA nucleotide sequences can be used to infer the degree of kinship between species, and anatomical evidence is also used to infer lines of descent. This site includes a list of materials and all information required for this activity.

318

Scientific and Cultural Knowledge in Intercultural Science Education: Student Perceptions of Common Ground  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no consensus in the science education research community on the meanings and representations of western science and indigenous knowledge or the relationships between them. How students interpret these relationships and their perceptions of any connections has rarely been studied. This study reports student perceptions of the meaning and relationship between scientific and cultural knowledge. Personal meaning maps adapted for small groups were conducted in seven culturally diverse schools, school years 7-9 (with students aged 12-15 years) ( n = 190), with six schools in Western Australia and one school in Malawi, Africa. Of the six Australian school groups, two comprised Australian Aboriginal students in an after-school homework programme and the other four schools had a multicultural mix of students. Students in this study identified connections between scientific and cultural knowledge and constructed connections from particular thematic areas—mainly factual content knowledge as opposed to ideas related to values, attitudes, beliefs and identity. Australian Aboriginal students made fewer connections between the two knowledge domains than Malawian students whose previous science teacher had made explicit connections in her science class. Examples from Aboriginal culture were the most dominant illustrations of cultural knowledge in Australian schools, even in school groups with students from other cultures. In light of our findings, we discuss the construction of common ground between scientific knowledge and cultural knowledge and the role of teachers as cultural brokers and travel agents. We conclude with recommendations on creating learning environments that embrace different cultural knowledges and that promote explicit and enquiring discussions of values, attitudes, beliefs and identity associated with both knowledge domains.

Gondwe, Mzamose; Longnecker, Nancy

2015-02-01

319

Portuguese Students' Understanding at Ages 10-11 and 14-15 of the Origin and Nature of the Earth and the Development of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses interviews and a written questionnaire to probe students' ideas on the origin of earth and life on earth. A significant number of commonly held misconceptions were prevalent in the sample (N=493). Provides guidelines to assist learners in challenging existing views. Contains 64 references. (DDR)

Marques, Luis; Thompson, David

1997-01-01

320

Using Lecture Tutorials to Increase Student Learning in Introductory Geoscience Courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students often leave introductory geoscience courses with their misconceptions still intact, and we developed Lecture Tutorials (LTs) to help alleviate this problem. LTs are 10-15 minute interactive worksheets that students complete in small groups in class, after a short introductory lecture. Topics for the LTs (e.g., climate change, the rock cycle, etc.) were chosen because they are commonly taught in introductory classes and include recognized misconceptions. The LTs typically follow a sequence beginning with factual-based questions that progressively become more difficult and culminating in application-type questions designed to provoke both discussion and critical thinking. Often, one of the latter questions is presented in the form of a debate between two students, where one student expresses the scientifically held view and the other espouses a view based on a common misconception. Students in the class must determine with which student in the LT they agree and explain why. These hypothetical debates allow students to confront their own misconceptions and replace them with the accepted scientific views. Lecture Tutorials increase student learning more than lectures alone. After a short lecture, students correctly answered 58% of multiple-choice questions (including embedded Geoscience Concept Inventory questions), and that value increased by 18% after they completed the LT. To determine if the increase resulted from extra time spent on the topic rather than the unique approach of LTs, we also tested how an extended lecture, in lieu of LTs, affected student scores. After an extended lecture, student scores increased by only 5% on multiple-choice questions. Therefore, we conclude that LTs are more effective than lecture alone in increasing student knowledge. LTs have been written to be relatively easy to implement in classrooms without a large time commitment or dramatic course redesign. Thirteen LTs have currently been tested, and more are being developed. They are available for instructor use by visiting the webpage: http://faculty.ccri.edu/kkortz/lt.shtml.

Kortz, K. M.; Smay, J. J.; Murray, D. P.

2007-12-01

321

Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.  

PubMed

It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(?); (?)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented. PMID:25053101

Lee, Jungmin

2015-01-01

322

Re-Examining the Similarities between Teacher and Student Conceptions about Physical Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a large body of research that has explored students' misconceptions about science phenomena. Less research, however, has been devoted to identifying teachers' misconceptions, but the results of the few existing studies demonstrate that teachers and students possess similar misconceptions. This study explored the physical science…

Burgoon, Jacob N.; Heddle, Mandy L.; Duran, Emilio

2010-01-01

323

The Common Core Curriculum is a new requirement for undergraduate students at HKU, one of the world's leading  

E-print Network

The Common Core Curriculum is a new requirement for undergraduate students at HKU, one of the world on HKU's Common Core Curriculum, please visit http://commoncore.hku.hk * HKU is ranked 21st in the Times will you study? The Common Core Curriculum aims to help you see the interconnectedness and interdependent

Tam, Vincent W. L.

324

Describing and Analyzing Learning in Action: An Empirical Study of the Importance of Misconceptions in Learning Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although misconceptions in science have been established in interview studies, their role during the learning process is poorly examined. In this paper, we use results from a classroom study to analyze to what extent nonscientific ideas in electrochemistry that students report in interviews enter into their learning in a more authentic setting. We…

Hamza, Karim M.; Wickman, Per-Olof

2008-01-01

325

Will Writing Awareness Transfer to Writing Performance? Response to Douglas Downs and Elizabeth Wardle, "Teaching about Writing, Righting Misconceptions"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author offers his critiques on Downs and Wardle's course, Introduction to Writing Studies. Downs and Wardle use their course to alert students to the very misconceptions that prompt the shift from "teaching writing" to "teaching about writing"--namely the inability of first-year composition courses to make good on the pledge…

Kutney, Joshua P.

2007-01-01

326

Clarifying the misconception about the principle of floatation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims to clarify the misconception about the violation of the principle of floatation. Improper understanding of the definition of ‘displaced fluid’ by a floating body leads to the misconception. With the help of simple experiments, this article shows that there is no violation of the principle of floatation.

Yadav, Manoj K.

2014-09-01

327

Prevalence of Blood Circulation Misconceptions among Prospective Elementary Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that misconceptions about human blood circulation and gas exchange persist across grade levels. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to investigate the prevalence and persistence of blood circulation misconceptions among prospective elementary teachers; and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of learning activities for…

Pelaez, Nancy J.; Boyd, Denise D.; Rojas, Jacqueline B.; Hoover, Mildred A.

2005-01-01

328

AITA : Limitations and Misconceptions of AI John A. Bullinaria, 2003  

E-print Network

AITA : Limitations and Misconceptions of AI © John A. Bullinaria, 2003 1. Limitations In this lecture you will discuss (rather than be lectured about) two related aspects of AI: 1. Limitations ­ What intelligent things are there that AI can never do? 2. Misconceptions ­ What can AI actually do, that some

Bullinaria, John

329

Resolution of Misconceptions of Latency and Adolescent Sicklers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions regarding sickle cell disease are qualitatively different among latency age patients as compared to adolescents. The evolution and resolution of these misconceptions determine the effectiveness of self-help programs for sickle cell patients. The Mount Sinai Hospital Sickle Cell Counseling Service is a coordinated center for sickle…

Christy-Levine, Diane

330

Misconceptions about Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…

Syed, Khalida Tanvir

2008-01-01

331

More Misconceptions to Avoid When Teaching about Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As follow-up to a previous article "Avoid Misconceptions When Teaching about Plants," the author identifies fifty additional misconceptions. Undergeneralizations are added to the list of oversimplifications, obsolete concepts, terms, misidentifications, and flawed research. A glossary at the end of the article compares words used in botany with…

Hershey, David R.

2005-01-01

332

Clarifying the Misconception about the Principle of Floatation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to clarify the misconception about the violation of the principle of floatation. Improper understanding of the definition of "displaced fluid" by a floating body leads to the misconception. With the help of simple experiments, this article shows that there is no violation of the principle of floatation.

Yadav, Manoj K.

2014-01-01

333

Misconceptions about triangle in Elementary school Palmina Cutugno1  

E-print Network

89 Misconceptions about triangle in Elementary school Palmina Cutugno1 & Filippo Spagnolo2 1. Introduction The intent of studying the misconceptions on the triangle was suggested by the direct contact the relations intervening when examining triangle sides. In the course of observation it was possible to notice

Spagnolo, Filippo

334

Palestinian Physicians’ Misconceptions About and Approval of Wife Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents the results of a study that examined Palestinian physicians’ misconceptions about abused wives and abusive husbands and the extent to which Palestinian physicians approve of wife abuse. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 396 physicians. The results revealed that between 10% and 49% of the Palestinian physicians held misconceptions about abused wives and between 15% and 63% held

Muhammad M. Haj-Yahia

2010-01-01

335

The preventive misconception: experiences from CAPRISA 004.  

PubMed

Overestimating personal protection afforded by participation in a preventive trial, e.g. harboring a "preventive misconception" (PM), raises theoretical ethical concerns about the adequacy of the informed consent process, behavioral disinhibition, and adherence to prevention interventions. Data from the CAPRISA 004 1 % tenofovir gel trial were utilized to empirically evaluate these concerns. We found it necessary to re-think the current definition of PM during evaluation to distinguish between true misconception and reasonable inferences of protection based on increased access to evidence-based prevention interventions and/or clinical care. There was a significant association between PM and decreased condom use (p < 0.0001) and between PM and likelihood to present with an STI symptom (p = 0.023). There was, however, limited evidence in support of PM representing a lack of meaningful informed consent, or to suggest that it impacts adherence. Moreover, considering current insufficiencies in female-initiated HIV prevention interventions, PM is perhaps of limited concern in microbicide trials. PMID:24715227

Dellar, Rachael C; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Mansoor, Leila E; Grobler, Anneke; Humphries, Hilton; Werner, Lise; Ntombela, Fanelesibonge; Luthuli, Londiwe; Abdool Karim, Salim S

2014-09-01

336

An Intervention Using Concept Sketching for Addressing Dislocation-Related Misconceptions In Introductory Materials Classes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In materials science and engineering (MSE) a major goal of the discipline is to effectively teach learners from other engineering disciplines about engineering a material's macroscale properties based on the knowledge and understanding of its atomic-scale structure. This goal is a significant intellectual challenge because learners must develop a conceptual framework to understand and solve materials-related problems in their own discipline. There are significant difficulties in addressing materials-related problems in a discipline because robust misconceptions are used by students attempting to understand and correlate the concrete "macroworld" of everyday objects, properties, and phenomena to the abstract "atomic and micro-scale world" of atoms, molecules and microstructure, which are types of features of a material that actually control its properties. These misconceptions, which are scientifically-inaccurate interpretations about materials, can neither explain nor predict materials' phenomena or properties. In this study, different teaching methods were used to address the question, "What is the effect of pedagogy on student conceptual understanding of deformation and thermal processing and associated property changes of metals in an introductory materials class?" For classes in 2002, 2003, and 2007, content delivered by lectures, pair-based discussions, and team-based concept sketching, respectively, were compared in teaching the effect of deformation or annealing on a metal's properties by invoking the atomic-level structural feature of dislocations to understand macroscopic-level property changes in strength, ductility, and fracture toughness. The effect of the pedagogy was assessed from responses to dislocation-related questions on the Materials Concept Inventory (MCI). Results showed that a team-based concept sketching pedagogy was most effective in achieving conceptual change of faulty mental models about deformation-related misconceptions. This indicates that concept sketching may be an effective pedagogy both for revealing misconceptions and achieving conceptual change about other physical phenomena in materials engineering, as well as diverse physical phenomena in other engineering disciplines.

Krause, Stephen

337

Access to the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics through Early Numeracy Skill Building for Students with Significant Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of systematic early numeracy skill instruction on grade-aligned 4th and 5th grade Common Core math skill acquisition for three 4th and 5th grade students with a significant intellectual disability. Students were taught early numeracy skills (e.g., number identification, making sets to five items, simple addition)…

Jimenez, Bree A.; Staples, Kelli

2015-01-01

338

Evaluating Scientific Misconceptions and Scientific Literacy in a General Science Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data used in this study were collected as part of the course assignments for General Education Science (GSci) 101: “Physics, Chemistry, and the Human Experience” at James Madison University. The course covers the basic principles of physics, chemistry, and astronomy. The primary goals of this study were to analyze student responses to general scientific questions, to identify scientific misconceptions, and to evaluate scientific literacy by comparing responses collected from different groups of students and from questions given during the course versus at the end of the course. While this project is focused on general scientific concepts, the misconceptions and patterns identified are particularly relevant for improving pedagogy in the geosciences as this field relies on multidisciplinary knowledge of fundamental physics, chemistry, and astronomy. We discuss differences in the results between the disciplines of physics, chemistry, and astronomy and their implications for general geology education and literacy, emphasizing the following questions: (a) What do students typically get wrong? (b) Did the overall scientific literacy of the students increase throughout the semester? Are the concepts discussed in answers provided at the end of class more accurate than those provided during class? (c) How do the before- and after- class responses change with respect to language and terminology? Did the students use more scientific terminology? Did the students use scientific terminology correctly?

Courtier, A. M.; Scott, T. J.

2009-12-01

339

Campus Library 2.0: The Information Commons Is a Scalable, One-Stop Shopping Experience for Students and Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 2003, Mt. Holyoke, an elite, largely undergraduate liberal arts college with a student population of roughly 2000, unveiled its take on the information commons. Located in an area known as Miles-Smith 4, the commons functions as a conduit between the main library and Dwight Hall, which houses the library offices, state-of-the-art media…

Albanese, Andrew Richard

2004-01-01

340

Why is therapeutic misconception so prevalent?  

PubMed

Therapeutic misconception (TM)-when clinical research participants fail to adequately grasp the difference between participating in a clinical trial and receiving ordinary clinical care-has long been recognized as a significant problem in consent to clinical trials. We suggest that TM does not primarily reflect inadequate disclosure or participants' incompetence. Instead, TM arises from divergent primary cognitive frames. The researchers' frame places the clinical trial in the context of scientific designs for assessing intervention efficacy. In contrast, most participants have a cognitive frame that is personal and focused primarily on their medical problems. To illustrate this, we draw on interview material from both clinical researchers and participants in clinical trials. We suggest that reducing TM requires encouraging subjects to adjust their frame, not just add information to their existing frame. What is necessary is a scientific reframing of participation in a clinical trial. PMID:25719358

Lidz, Charles W; Albert, Karen; Appelbaum, Paul; Dunn, Laura B; Overton, Eve; Pivovarova, Ekaterina

2015-04-01

341

Factors that affect the physical science career interest of female students: Testing five common hypotheses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using multivariate matching methods on national data drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project (n=7505), we test the following five commonly held beliefs regarding what factors might impact females’ physical science career interest: (i) having a single-sex physics class, (ii) having a female physics teacher, (iii) having female scientist guest speakers in physics class, (iv) discussing the work of female scientists in physics class, and (v) discussing the underrepresentation of women in physics class. The effect of these experiences on physical science career interest is compared for female students who are matched on several factors, including prior science interests, prior mathematics interests, grades in science, grades in mathematics, and years of enrollment in high school physics. No significant effects are found for single-sex classes, female teachers, female scientist guest speakers, and discussing the work of female scientists. However, discussions about women’s underrepresentation have a significant positive effect.

Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

2013-12-01

342

Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The…

Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

2013-01-01

343

Using the Big Ideas in Cosmology to Teach College Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in our understanding of the Universe have revolutionized our view of its structure, composition and evolution. However, these new ideas have not necessarily been used to improve the teaching of introductory astronomy students. In this project, we have conducted research into student understanding of cosmological ideas so as to develop effective web-based tools to teach basic concepts important to modern cosmology. The tools are intended for use at the introductory college level. Our research uses several instruments, including open-ended and multiple choice surveys conducted at multiple institutions, as well as interviews and course artifacts at one institution, to ascertain what students know regarding modern cosmological ideas, what common misunderstandings and misconceptions they entertain, and what sorts of materials can most effectively overcome students' difficulty in learning this material. These data are being used to create a suite of interactive, web-based tutorials that address the major ideas in cosmology. One common misconception that students in our introductory courses possess is that scientific explanations are “made up,” and not supported by observational data. Having students engage with real data is a powerful means to help students overcome this misconception. For this reason, the tutorials we are developing include authentic student interaction with actual data where possible. Students master the scientific concepts and reasoning processes that lead to our current understanding of the Universe through interactive tasks, prediction, reflection, experimentation, and model building. This workshop will demonstrate the use of some of the modules we have created and will allow participants to test the modules for themselves.

McLin, K. M.; Coble, K.; Metevier, A. J.; Bailey, J. M.; Cominsky, L. R.

2013-04-01

344

Savant syndrome: realities, myths and misconceptions.  

PubMed

It was 126 years ago that Down first described savant syndrome as a specific condition and 70 years ago that Kanner first described Early Infantile Autism. While as many as one in ten autistic persons have savant abilities, such special skills occur in other CNS conditions as well such that approximately 50 % of cases of savant syndrome have autism as the underlying developmental disability and 50 % are associated with other disabilities. This paper sorts out realities from myths and misconceptions about both savant syndrome and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that have developed through the years. The reality is that low IQ is not necessarily an accompaniment of savant syndrome; in some cases IQ can be superior. Also, savants can be creative, rather than just duplicative, and the skills increase over time on a continuum from duplication, to improvisation to creation, rather than diminishing or suddenly disappearing. Genius and prodigy exist separate from savant syndrome and not all such highly gifted persons have Asperger's Disorder. This paper also emphasizes the critical importance of separating 'autistic-like' symptoms from ASD especially in children when the savant ability presents as hyperlexia (children who read early) or as Einstein syndrome (children who speak late), or have impaired vision (Blindisms) because prognosis and outcome are very different when that careful distinction is made. In those cases the term 'outgrowing autism' might be mistakenly applied when in fact the child did not have ASD in the first place. PMID:23918440

Treffert, Darold A

2014-03-01

345

A New Direction: How a Compass Pointed the Way to Clearing Up an Attractive Misconception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ask a typical high school student to draw a picture of how a bar magnet works and most of the drawings produced will show a "+" and "-" sign at the two ends. Some students will write "N" and "S." If you then ask some follow-up questions, they will often resort to talking about "charges" being responsible for the magnetism. For several years, I have tried to tackle this prevalent misconception and guide students toward a more sophisticated model of domains, with at least one unexpected outcome along the way. This year, my AP Physics B class helped me develop a simple demonstration that may convince some students that charges are not in charge of magnetism.

Hood, Tracy

2012-10-01

346

Misconceptions about high-fructose corn syrup: is it uniquely responsible for obesity, reactive dicarbonyl compounds, and advanced glycation endproducts?  

PubMed

Misconceptions about high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) abound in the scientific literature, the advice of health professionals to their patients, media reporting, product advertising, and the irrational behavior of consumers. Foremost among these is the misconception that HFCS has a unique and substantive responsibility for the current obesity crisis. Inaccurate information from ostensibly reliable sources and selective presentation of research data gathered under extreme experimental conditions, representing neither the human diet nor HFCS, have misled the uninformed and created an atmosphere of distrust and avoidance for what, by all rights, should be considered a safe and innocuous sweetener. In the first part of this article, common misconceptions about the composition, functionality, metabolism, and use of HFCS and its purported link to obesity are identified and corrected. In the second part, an emerging misconception, that HFCS in carbonated soft drinks contributes materially to physiological levels of reactive dicarbonyl compounds and advanced glycation endproducts, is addressed in detail, and evidence is presented that HFCS does not pose a unique dietary risk in healthy individuals or diabetics. PMID:19386820

White, John S

2009-06-01

347

DISPELLING MYTHS AND MISCONCEPTIONS TO IMPLEMENT A SAFETY CULTURE  

SciTech Connect

Industrial accidents are typically reported in terms of technological malfunctions, ignoring the human element in accident causation. However, over two-thirds of all accidents are attributable to human and organizational factors (e.g., planning, written procedures, job factors, training, communication, and teamwork), thereby affecting risk perception, behavior and attitudes. This paper reviews the development of WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Program that addresses human and organizational factors from a top-down, bottom-up approach. This approach is derived from the Department of Energy's Integrated Safety Management System. As a result, dispelling common myths and misconceptions about safety, while empowering employees to ''STOP work'' if necessary, have contributed to reducing an unusually high number of vehicle, ergonomic and slip/trip/fall incidents successfully. Furthermore, the safety culture that has developed within WESKEM, LLC's workforce consists of three common characteristics: (1) all employees hold safety as a value; (2) each individual feels responsible for the safety of their co-workers as well as themselves; and (3) each individual is willing and able to ''go beyond the call of duty'' on behalf of the safety of others. WESKEM, LLC as a company, upholds the safety culture and continues to enhance its existing ES&H program by incorporating employee feedback and lessons learned collected from other high-stress industries, thereby protecting its most vital resource - the employees. The success of this program is evident by reduced accident and injury rates, as well as the number of safe work hours accrued while performing hands-on field activities. WESKEM, LLC (Paducah + Oak Ridge) achieved over 800,000 safe work hours through August 2002. WESKEM-Paducah has achieved over 665,000 safe work hours without a recordable injury or lost workday case since it started operations on February 28, 2000.

Potts, T. Todd; Smith, Ken; Hylko, James M.

2003-02-27

348

Knowledge Sharing among University Students Facilitated with a Creative Commons Licensing Mechanism: A Case Study in a Programming Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creative Commons (CC) mechanism has been suggested as a potential means to foster a reliable environment for online knowledge sharing activity. This study investigates the role of the CC mechanism in supporting knowledge sharing among a group of university students studying programming from the perspectives of social cognitive and social capital…

Liu, Chen-Chung; Lin, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yi; Chao, Po-Yao

2014-01-01

349

Open up the Ceiling on the Common Core State Standards: Preparing Students for 21st-Century Literacy--Now  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards Initiative is the latest effort to reform education through standards. This article examines how the Standards promise to prepare students for the changing world of the 21st century, yet do not consider the changing nature of literacy--especially the centrality of the Internet as a 21st century text, and online…

Drew, Sally Valentino

2013-01-01

350

Still at Risk: What Students Don't Know, Even Now--A Report from Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report from Common Core finds that many of America's high school students do not possess the basic knowledge they need to succeed in the world. The report shows that, twenty-five years after the publication of the landmark study, "A Nation at Risk," America's children continue to demonstrate a stunning ignorance about basic facts of America's…

Hess, Frederick M.

2009-01-01

351

The Common Core State Standards: Implications for Community Colleges and Student Preparedness for College. An NCPR Working Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English and math were finalized in 2010 and, as of July 2012, have been adopted in full by 45 states. These standards provide a framework that is intended to ensure that all students who graduate from high school in the United States have attained the knowledge and competencies that prepare them well for…

Barnett, Elisabeth A.; Fay, Maggie P.

2013-01-01

352

Common Literacy Struggles with College Students: Using the Reciprocal Teaching Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many college students struggle with the literacy skills needed to be successful in higher education (Bettinger & Long, 2009; Snyder, Tan, & Hoffman, 2004). The difficulties emerge within students' capabilities in reading and writing. Students must be taught the skills needed to be successful to complete the tasks assigned in college classes and in…

Gruenbaum, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

353

Hints of a Fundamental Misconception in Cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the frequency and range of student ideas regarding the Big Bang, nearly 1,000 students from middle school, secondary school, and college were surveyed and asked if they had heard of the Big Bang and, if so, to describe it. In analyzing their responses, we uncovered an unexpected result that more than half of the students who stated that

Edward E. Prather; Timothy F. Slater; Erika G. Offerdahl

2002-01-01

354

Prospective Teachers' Misconceptions about the Atomic Structure in the Context of Electrification by Friction and an Activity in Order to Remedy Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science educators have generally agreed that understanding the atom concept is the basis of science education. However, the numerous research studies have shown that many students at all educational levels have difficulties understanding this concept. This study was developed under three headings. The first was to identify misconceptions that…

Sarikaya, Mustafa

2007-01-01

355

WWC Review of the Report "Conceptualizing Astronomical Scale: Virtual Simulations on Handheld Tablet Computers Reverse Misconceptions." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2014 study, "Conceptualizing Astronomical Scale: Virtual Simulations on Handheld Tablet Computers Reverse Misconceptions," examined the effects of using the true-to-scale (TTS) display mode versus the orrery display mode in the iPad's Solar Walk software application on students' knowledge of the Earth's place in the…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

2014-01-01

356

Perspectives: Assessing and Addressing Student Science Ideas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our students are not blank slates. They come to school with a wide range of experiences that have shaped their science understandings--reading books, watching TV, and playing video games. From many years of research about student science ideas, it is evident that student science misconceptions are prevalent, strongly held, and highly resistant to change. Here the authors describe some research-based strategies that science teachers can use to assess and address students' misconceptions.

S. Ren? Smith

2008-03-01

357

Palestinian physicians' misconceptions about and approval of wife abuse.  

PubMed

The article presents the results of a study that examined Palestinian physicians' misconceptions about abused wives and abusive husbands and the extent to which Palestinian physicians approve of wife abuse. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 396 physicians. The results revealed that between 10% and 49% of the Palestinian physicians held misconceptions about abused wives and between 15% and 63% held misconceptions about abusive husbands. The findings also revealed that substantial percentages of physicians tended to approve of moderate and severe violence against wives. Significant amounts of the variance in the physicians' approval of moderate and severe wife abuse can be attributed to their exposure to family violence and to their patriarchal ideology-variance over and above that which can be explained by the physicians' sociodemographic characteristics. The limitations of the study are discussed, as are the implications of the results for future research and theory development on the approaches of professionals toward wife abuse. PMID:19531634

Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M

2010-03-01

358

Scientific and Cultural Knowledge in Intercultural Science Education: Student Perceptions of Common Ground  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is no consensus in the science education research community on the meanings and representations of western science and indigenous knowledge or the relationships between them. How students interpret these relationships and their perceptions of any connections has rarely been studied. This study reports student perceptions of the meaning and…

Gondwe, Mzamose; Longnecker, Nancy

2015-01-01

359

Commonalities and Differences among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual College Students: Considerations for Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the appropriateness of collapsing lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students into a single category in quantitative research designs as well as the nature of their engagement with the collegiate environment. Data were collected as part of a national study and represent a total of 980 LGB self-identified college students

Dugan, John P.; Yurman, Lauren

2011-01-01

360

Misconceptions of a School Construction Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just as technology has changed the way teachers teach and students learn, so too has technology transformed the way our industry manages school construction programs. Gone are the days when a school construction project had to be planned around the limitations of the contractor rather than the needs of students. Also different are the ways schools…

Rosenberg, David

2004-01-01

361

Understanding Direct Lending: Dispelling Misconceptions and Myths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is argued that direct lending by the federal government to the student, characterized by direct financing, delivery, and communication, is a form of financial aid more cost effective than current programs such as the federal Guaranteed Student Loans. Direct loans can be better administered by the federal government, and protection against fraud…

Hicks, Elizabeth M.

1993-01-01

362

Misconceptions about Teaching English-Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

English language learners (ELLs) are the fastest growing group of K-12 students in the United States. Most ELLs spend the entire school day in mainstream classrooms where instruction is in English. It is therefore important for all teachers to have the knowledge and skills needed to facilitate these students' academic language development and…

Harper, Candace; de Jong, Ester

2004-01-01

363

Assessing Middle School and College Students' Conceptions About Wind, Fog, and Tornadoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological content is presented in K-12 educational standards and in university general education courses, yet little research has been done to explore how students conceptualize weather phenomena. This investigation probes the understanding of students at three cognitive levels-6th grade earth science students, university non-meteorology majors, and meteorology major students-of three meteorological phenomena-wind, fog, and tornadoes. All students were enrolled in schools in San Francisco, CA. The meteorological content chosen for this project-wind, fog, and tornadoes-was deliberate. Wind is a fundamental process on our planet, and has the potential to cause great damage. Students have direct experience with wind on a daily basis. Fog is a dominant feature of San Francisco climatology, and a familiar phenomenon to students living in our region. Tornadoes are associated with devastating winds and represent a destructive weather phenomenon that students only experience indirectly through movies representations and other media outlets. The phases consisted of (a) a fifteen-question survey, (b) written essay assessments, and (c) videotaped interviews. Phase I, a weather survey, was given to the entire population (65 middle school students, 50 university non-meteorology majors, and 10 university meteorology majors) and consisted of 10-15 challenge statements. Challenge statements assert a common misconception or truism and ask the students to rank their level of agreement on a 4-point Likert scale (strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree). Phase II presented the students a subset of statements and questions, and they were given 5 minutes to explain why they chose their response. To quantify the resulting qualitative data, the written essay assessments were scored using a developed conceptual rubric by multiple observers, using inter-observer reliability to measure agreement in scoring. The results from this phase helped to structure the interview protocol utilized in Phase III. A subset of the population was interviewed, allowing us to probe deeper into students' conceptions about weather. This three-phase approach allowed us to identify and explore misconceptions concerning wind, fog, and tornadoes. Preliminary results from phase I and II probing student conceptions of wind show that over 54% of 6th grade students do not see any connection between the sun and wind, offering instead that the moon, clouds, and the ocean are key contributors to wind development. 13% of students observe that because there is wind at night, and conclude from this that the sun could not play a role in creating wind. By identifying students' misconceptions about wind, fog, and tornadoes, scientists and educators can create more effective learning experiences that address student misconceptions, promote conceptual change, and move students toward a more scientific viewpoint.

Polito, E.; Monteverdi, J. P.; Garcia, O.; Tanner, K. D.

2008-12-01

364

A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test…

Arslan, Harika Ozge; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

2012-01-01

365

100 Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics is the art and science of gathering, analyzing, and making conclusions from data. However, many people do not fully understand how to interpret statistical results and conclusions. Placing students in a collaborative environment involving project-based learning may enable them to overcome misconceptions of probability and enhance the…

Riskowski, Jody L.; Olbricht, Gayla; Wilson, Jennifer

2010-01-01

366

Subjective Theories of Indonesian Agronomy and Biology Teacher Students on Environmental Commons Dilemmas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fostering the cognitive skills to analyse environmental "commons dilemmas" is an urgent task of environmental education globally. Commons dilemmas are characterised by structural incentives to overexploit a natural resource; their solution is particularly pressing in threatened biodiversity "hotspot" areas. Solutions to these dilemmas require…

Koch, Sebastian; Barkmann, Jan; Sundawati, Leti; Bogeholz, Susanne

2013-01-01

367

Modern Physics for Engineers Summary of Topics, Methods, and Common Student Difficulties  

E-print Network

to photoelectric effect. 2. Photoelectric Effect Sim: Photoelectric Effect · This is a much harder topic for students than professors think. For details, see: http://jilawww.colorado.edu/~mckagan/papers/photoelectric

Colorado at Boulder, University of

368

Prospective Primary School Teachers' Misconceptions about States of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify prospective primary school teachers' misconceptions about the states of matter. The sample of the study was 227 fourth-year prospective primary school teachers in a Department of Primary Education in Turkey. Researcher asked from every participant to write a response to an open ended question about…

Tatar, Erdal

2011-01-01

369

A Compilation and Review of over 500 Geoscience Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper organizes and analyses over 500 geoscience misconceptions relating to earthquakes, earth structure, geologic resources, glaciers, historical geology, karst (limestone terrains), plate tectonics, rivers, rocks and minerals, soils, volcanoes, and weathering and erosion. Journal and reliable web resources were reviewed to discover (1) the…

Francek, Mark

2013-01-01

370

Myths and misconceptions: the origin and evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much effort has been spent trying to work out the origin and history of tuberculosis. Understanding these concepts could have important consequences for the development of vaccines and therapies that are effective against all strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We discuss a series of misconceptions about the origin of both M. tuberculosis and the disease it causes that have arisen over

R. Glyn Hewinson; Kristin Kremer; Roland Brosch; Stephen V. Gordon; Noel H. Smith

2009-01-01

371

Palestinian Physicians' Misconceptions about and Approval of Wife Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents the results of a study that examined Palestinian physicians' misconceptions about abused wives and abusive husbands and the extent to which Palestinian physicians approve of wife abuse. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 396 physicians. The results revealed that between 10% and 49% of the Palestinian physicians…

Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.

2010-01-01

372

Implementing Japanese Lesson Study in Foreign Countries: Misconceptions Revealed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based on data gathered during visits to Uganda and Malawi, conducted by the International Math-teacher Professionalization Using Lesson Study (IMPULS) project and the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The author's observations and experiences highlighted misconceptions about lesson study. The paper concludes that…

Fujii, Toshiakira

2014-01-01

373

Textbook Errors and Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Energetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses misconceptions and outdated models appearing in biology textbooks for concepts involving bioenergetics and chemical reactions; adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as the energy currency of cells; the myth of high energy phosphate bonds; structural properties of ATP; ATP production from respiration and fermentation; ATP as an energy storage…

Storey, Richard D.

1992-01-01

374

Wrestling with Misconceptions: Is the Gifted Label Good or Bad?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the popular misconceptions about giftedness is that the gifted label is a benefit. It is probably a fixed blessing at best and can bring unexpected problems to children, their families, and their teachers. Children who are labeled gifted often have uncertain feelings about the designation and the whole "gifted" experience, if not…

Matthews, Dona J.; Foster, Joanne F.

2008-01-01

375

Experimenter Confirmation Bias and the Correction of Science Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a randomised educational experiment (n = 47) that examined two different teaching methods and compared their effectiveness at correcting one science misconception using a sample of trainee primary school teachers. The treatment was designed to promote engagement with the scientific concept by eliciting emotional responses from…

Allen, Michael; Coole, Hilary

2012-01-01

376

Training Evaluation in the Military: Misconceptions, Opportunities, and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to a number of misconceptions about training evaluation in the military, these evaluations are rarely done. In this article, we review recent findings that identify ob- stacles to training evaluation in the military and offer some alternatives for dealing with these problems. Further, we discuss the use of theoretically driven evaluation outcomes to provide evaluators with information that can

Eduardo Salas; Laura M. Milham; Clint A. Bowers

2003-01-01

377

Open Access to Field Research: Engaging the General Public and Dispelling Misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general public holds many misconceptions about the geosciences. Often, people confuse geologists with archaeologists, or believe geoscience careers are limited to petroleum and/or mineral exploration. People in resource-rich areas may have had only negative experiences with geoscientists, where resource extraction has come at the expense of quality of life and property. These misconceptions and negative perceptions are serious threats that can result in uninformed and biased teaching of the geosciences. To address these threats, the true nature and relevance of the geosciences need to be communicated to students and the general public whenever possible. Field work, an essential component of geoscience research and education, offers an ideal opportunity for such communication by bringing researchers and students in direct contact with private citizens and local agencies. By providing open access to field research, a meaningful outreach opportunity can be seamlessly integrated into a research program. Encouraging all students and the general public to participate in field-based research activities can promote understanding of the scientific process, the nature of the geosciences, and the importance of scientific research to a wide variety of audiences, dispelling misconceptions. For a field project conducted in the Warner Range of northeastern California, we initially had two goals: to corroborate an NSF-funded seismic experiment with surface geologic mapping, and to offer a research opportunity for undergraduates. The nature of a seismic experiment necessitates extensive communication with local citizens and agencies. This logistical communication soon led us to add more goals to the project: to conduct outreach activities in the small, rural communities in and around the field area and to collaborate with the many researchers from multiple institutions and government agencies with projects in the region. These outreach and collaboration efforts have now become essential components of the field work and have led us to continue and expand the research goals of the project as well. Throughout the project, we took steps to ensure that misconceptions were minimized. These included school presentations, public presentation of data from the seismic experiment, and sharing of mapping and data with local agencies and other researchers. In addition, we invited local landowners, reporters, and representatives from local agencies to spend time in the field with us - and many did. The Warner Range lies in a volcanically and seismically active region with numerous hot springs and geothermal energy resources under development. We found that locals wanted to know more about their surroundings, and in addition to providing specific information about our research in the region, we were very successful in educating many people about the nature of scientific research and the geosciences in general. Field work provides an unequaled opportunity for outreach. A minimal investment of time reaps huge rewards in public perception of scientific research and the nature of geoscientists, and begins to mitigate the damage caused by misconceptions and negative experiences. Additionally, outreach can feed back into the research goals of the project and expand opportunities for collaboration and cross-disciplinary studies. This synergy between research and education must be highlighted and encouraged if we wish to reduce threats to the teaching of the geosciences.

Egger, A. E.

2005-12-01

378

Students' Argumentative Writing Skills in Science and First-Language Education: Commonalities and Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to build arguments is a crucial skill and a central educational goal in all school subjects including science as it enables students to formulate reasoned opinions and thus to cope with the increasing complexity of knowledge. In the present cross-sectional study, we examined the domain-specificity of argumentative writing in science by…

Heitmann, Patricia; Hecht, Martin; Schwanewedel, Julia; Schipolowski, Stefan

2014-01-01

379

The Use of Teacher-Created Common Assessments and Student Achievement in Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, public school districts in the United States are working toward improving the achievement of their students on state standardized tests of accountability. Through the use of a quantitative methodological approach, the purpose of this study was to better understand the relationship, if any,…

Murfield, Elisabeth K. S.

2012-01-01

380

Common WISC-III Examiner Errors: Evidence from Graduate Students in Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined 60 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Education (WISC-III) protocols administered by graduate students in training to obtain preliminary data on the frequency and types of administration and scoring errors that examiners commit. The five most frequent errors included failure to query, failure to record response verbatim,…

Alfonso, Vincent C.; Johnson, Annemarie; Patinella, Lilia; Rader, Damon E.

1998-01-01

381

Collaborative Strategies for Teaching Common Acid-Base Disorders to Medical Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to recognize and diagnose acid-base disorders is of the utmost importance in the clinical setting. However, it has been the experience of the authors that medical students often have difficulties learning the basic principles of acid-base physiology in the respiratory physiology curriculum, particularly when applying this knowledge to…

Petersen, Marie Warrer; Toksvang, Linea Natalie; Plovsing, Ronni R.; Berg, Ronan M. G.

2014-01-01

382

Characteristics of Learning Computer-Controlled Mechanisms by Teachers and Students in a Common Laboratory Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing popularity of robotics education motivates developing its didactics and studying it in teacher training programs. This paper presents a study conducted in the Department of Education in Technology and Science, Technion, in which university students and school pupils cope with robotics challenges of designing, building and operating…

Korchnoy, Evgeny; Verner, Igor M.

2010-01-01

383

Including Students with Disabilities in Common Non-Summative Assessments. NCEO Brief. Number 6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusive large-scale assessments have become the norm in states across the U.S. Participation rates of students with disabilities in these assessments have increased dramatically since the mid-1990s. As consortia of states move toward the development and implementation of assessment systems that include both non-summative assessments and…

National Center on Educational Outcomes, 2012

2012-01-01

384

Most Common Teacher Characteristics Related to Intentionality in Student Spiritual Formation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers have the important commission of guiding students in their spiritual formation, which is the process through which an individual accepts Jesus Christ as Savior and continually becomes more like Him. Given this task, Christian teachers are able to be intentional within classroom management, through instruction, and by modeling. Teachers…

Moore, Deborah

2014-01-01

385

The Common Core and the Future of Student Assessment in Ohio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ohio adopted the Common Core standards in English language arts (ELA) and math last year, but now stands at a crossroad in making sure statewide assessments are aligned to those standards. Ohio is a participating member in two federally funded assessment consortia--the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) and the Partnership for the…

Porter-Magee, Kathleen

2011-01-01

386

Reasoning about Evolutionary History: Post-Secondary Students' Knowledge of Most Recent Common Ancestry and Homoplasy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evolution curricula are replete with information about Darwin's theory of evolution as well as microevolutionary mechanisms underlying this process of change. However, other fundamental facets of evolutionary theory, particularly those related to macroevolution are often missing. One crucial idea typically overlooked is that of most recent common

Morabito, Nancy P.; Catley, Kefyn M.; Novick, Laura R.

2010-01-01

387

The Graduate Student Commons Located right above Joe's Pizza and Subs in Quarry  

E-print Network

at The Commons ­ Hang out and unwind with fellow grads on the 1st Friday of each month. Snacks & assorted beverages provided. April 6th, May 4th, June 1st, 5:00-7:00pm Spring Fling Party - Dress to impress! Snacks & assorted beverages provided. Friday, April 27th, 5:00-8:00pm Mural Unveiling & UCSC Art Showcase - Snacks

California at Santa Cruz, University of

388

Uncovering Misconceptions About the Resting Membrane Potential  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Resting membrane potential is one of the most difficult physiological concepts that students must master. Although the upper-division undergraduates in my physiology course have completed a semester of neurophysiology in which they worked problems using the Nernst and Goldman equations, they often fail to retain conceptual understanding of the underlying phenomena. I developed the following question to show them (and myself) what they donÂ?t understand.

PhD Dee U. Silverthorn (University of Texas at Austin Section of Neurobiology)

2002-06-01

389

Assessing Climate Misconceptions of Middle School Learners and Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Middle School students and their teachers are among the many populations in the U.S. with misconceptions regarding the science or even reality of climate change. Teaching climate change science in schools is of paramount importance since all school-age children will eventually assume responsibility for the management and policy-making decisions of our planet. The recently published Framework for K-12 Science Education (National Research Council, 2012) emphasizes the importance of students understanding global climate change and its impacts on society. A preliminary assessment of over a thousand urban middles school students found the following from pretests prior to a climate literacy curriculum: - Do not understand that climate occurs on a time scale of decades (most think it is weeks or months) -Do not know the main atmospheric contributors to global warming -Do not understand the role of greenhouse gases as major contributors to increasing Earth's surface temperature -Do not understand the role of water vapor to trap heat and add to the greenhouse effect -Cannot identify some of the human activities that increase the amount of CO2 -Cannot identify sources of carbon emissions produced by US citizens -Cannot describe human activities that are causing the long-term increase of carbon -dioxide levels over the last 100 years -Cannot describe carbon reduction strategies that are feasible for lowering the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere To address the lack of a well-designed middle school science climate change curriculum that can be used to help teachers promote the teaching and learning of important climate change concepts, we developed a 20-day Environmental Literacy and Inquiry (ELI): Climate Change curriculum in partnership with a local school district. Comprehension increased significantly from pre- to post-test after enactment of the ELI curriculum in the classrooms. This work is part of an ongoing systemic curriculum reform initiative to promote (1) environmental literacy and inquiry and (2) foster the development of geospatial thinking and reasoning using geospatial technologies as an essential component of the middle school science curriculum. The curriculum is designed to align instructional materials and assessments with learning goals. The following frameworks were used to provide guidelines for the climate change science content in addition to the science inquiry upon which schools must focus: Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences (U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2009) and the AAAS Project 2061 Communicating and Learning About Global Climate Change (AAAS, 2007). The curriculum is a coherent sequence of learning activities that include climate change investigations with Google Earth, Web-based interactivities that include an online carbon emissions calculator and a Web-based geologic time-line, and inquiry-based ("hands-on") laboratories. The climate change science topics include the atmosphere, Earth system energy balance, weather, greenhouse gases, paleoclimatology, and "humans and climate". It is hoped that with a solid foundation of climate science in the classroom, middle school learners will be in a position to evaluate new scientific discoveries, emerging data sets, and reasonably assess information and misinformation by which they are surrounded on a daily basis.

Sahagian, D. L.; Anastasio, D. J.; Bodzin, A.; Cirucci, L.; Bressler, D.; Dempsey, C.; Peffer, T.

2012-12-01

390

Conceptions of evolution among urban middle school students in Los Angeles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To uncover student ideas regarding evolution, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 eighth grade students at a Los Angeles urban public charter school. This study was designed to learn about student understandings regarding speciation, the mechanisms and purposes of trait development, and differences in how students explain human versus non-human examples. Hybridization and adaption to the environment emerged as major themes for non-human speciation. Other than a basic recognition that trait development is related to genetics and some understanding of mutation, students' understanding of genetic diversity and natural selection was limited, and they thought traits mainly developed because species must purposely adapt to their environment. When explaining evolutionary processes in humans, students did not discuss hybridization or predator-prey interactions, and they thought that humans could consciously affect their trait development. Overall, these students appear to represent transitional reasoning, incorporating common misconceptions with ideas from initial instruction.

Diaz, Michael A.

391

Using Models to Address Misconceptions in Size and Scale Related to the Earth, Moon, Solar System, and Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many children and adults have misconceptions about space-related concepts such as size and distance: Earth-Moon size and distance, distances between the planets, distances to the stars (including the Sun), etc. Unfortunately, when images are used to illustrate common phenomena, such as Moon phases and seasons, they may do a good job of explaining the phenomenon, but may reinforce other misconceptions. For topics such as phases and seasons, scale (size and distance) can easily lead to confusion and reinforce misconceptions. For example, when showing Moon phases, the Moon is usually represented as large relative to the Earth and the true relative distance cannot be easily shown. Similarly, when showing the tilt of the Earth’s axis as the reason for the seasons, the Earth is usually almost as large as the Sun and the distance between them is usually only a few times Earth’s diameter.What lessons have we learned? It is critical with any model to engage the participants: if at all possible, everyone should participate. A critical part of any modeling needs to be a discussion, involving the participants, of the limitations of the model: what is modeled accurately and what is not? This helps to identify and rectify misconceptions and helps to avoid creating new ones. The activities highlighted on our poster represent programs and collaborations that date back more than two decades: The University of Arizona, Tucson Unified School District, Science Center of Inquiry, Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona, and the Planetary Science Institute. Examples of activities that we will present on our poster include: •Earth/Moon size and distance •Macramé model of the Solar System •Human orrery and tabletop orrery •3-D nature of the constellations •Comparing our Solar System to other planetary systems •Origin of the Universe: scale of time and distance

Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Salthouse, K.; Canizo, T. L.

2012-10-01

392

Students' Concept of Force: The Importance of Understanding Newton's Third Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the misconceptions high school students have about force and suggests that the misunderstanding of Newton's third law is the key to these misconceptions. Clinical interview and diagnostic test data (N=104) indicates that many students have a naive view of force as an acquired or innate property of single objects rather than…

Brown, David E.

393

Using Simple Manipulatives to Improve Student Comprehension of a Complex Biological Process: Protein Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biological systems and living processes involve a complex interplay of biochemicals and macromolecular structures that can be challenging for undergraduate students to comprehend and, thus, misconceptions abound. Protein synthesis, or translation, is an example of a biological process for which students often hold many misconceptions. This article…

Guzman, Karen; Bartlett, John

2012-01-01

394

Misconceptions of Depression in African Americans  

PubMed Central

Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues. PMID:24999332

Sohail, Zohaib; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy; Richie, William D.

2014-01-01

395

Core Knowledge Confusions Among University Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have demonstrated that university students hold several paranormal beliefs and that paranormal beliefs can be best explained with core knowledge confusions. The aim of this study was to explore to what extent university students confuse the core ontological attributes of lifeless material objects (e.g. a house, a stone), living organisms (e.g. plants), and mental states (e.g., thoughts); whether some core knowledge confusions are more common than others; whether the confusions differ between students from different fields of study, and to replicate the finding that paranormal beliefs increase together with core knowledge confusions. The results showed that half of the participants considered at least four, and one quarter of the participants considered 8-30 confusion statements to be literally true and that the confusions were strongly and positively associated with the amount of paranormal beliefs. The findings indicate that university education does not abolish the misconceptions that characterize children's thinking.

Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm, Annika M.; Takada, Mikito; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Verkasalo, Markku

2011-05-01

396

Predictors of mental illness stigma and attitudes among college students: using vignettes from a campus common reading program.  

PubMed

Research has demonstrated that stigmatizing mentally ill individuals is prevalent and often results in lack of adherence to or avoidance of treatment. The present study sought to examine attitudes of college students regarding mental illness as part of a campus-wide "common readings" program. The book selected was a non-fiction account of a young girl with mental illness and the program was developed to initiate dialogue about young people with mental problems. Faculty from multiple disciplines collaborated on the project. A sample of 309 students completed a web-based survey after reading a vignette about an adolescent girl with mental illness. The vignette description was based on a character in the book selected in the program. The instruments measured attribution of stigma, social distance, and familiarity with people who have mental illness. Results demonstrated that younger students and those who are less familiar with mental illness were more likely to stigmatize and maintain social distance from those who are mentally ill. Awareness of the study findings can assist health professionals and mental health workers to identify interventions that can decrease stigma. Psychiatric mental health nurses are well positioned to lead the education effort aimed at reducing stigmatizing attitudes among the public. PMID:25162192

Feeg, Veronica D; Prager, Laura S; Moylan, Lois B; Smith, Kathleen Maurer; Cullinan, Meritta

2014-09-01

397

STUDENTS' UNDERSTANDING OF LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION ...  

E-print Network

this dual nature of notation that separates the less able math student from the ... functions, because until this point in their learning of functions, students have .... Perhaps the students' misconceptions came from insufficient explicit teaching of this ... in math to make their solution match what they remember from previous ...

Rachael Kenney

2013-03-27

398

WHAT DO KOALAS AND FUNGI HAVE IN COMMON IN PRETORIA? Prepared by: Happy Maleme (MSc student whose project is entitled: "Survey of native  

E-print Network

WHAT DO KOALAS AND FUNGI HAVE IN COMMON IN PRETORIA? Prepared by: Happy Maleme (MSc student whose project is entitled: "Survey of native Botryosphaeria species in Eucalyptus) Koalas and certain tree pathogens have in common the fact that they both choose to consume Eucalyptus trees or tree parts. Koalas

399

Alleged health effects of electromagnetic fields: the misconceptions continue.  

PubMed

Exposures to electric or magnetic fields (including microwaves), in residential or occupational settings, have been reported to be associated with health problems, particularly cancer and reproductive mishaps. Misconceptions about these alleged effects continue to be published in the medical and scientific literature, as well as in popular press reports. This paper is the third in a series of papers challenging invalid statements relating to these alleged effects. Reports dealing with epidemiologic studies (including exposure assessment, consistency, and public policy implications), the use of biomarkers, and risk assessment are analyzed. PMID:7472919

Jauchem, J R

1995-01-01

400

What can biochemistry students learn about protein translation? Using variation theory to explore the space of learning created by some common external representations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochemistry education relies heavily on students' ability to visualize abstract cellular and molecular processes, mechanisms, and components. As such, biochemistry educators often turn to external representations to provide tangible, working models from which students' internal representations (mental models) can be constructed, evaluated, and revised. However, prior research has shown that, while potentially beneficial, external representations can also lead to alternative student conceptions. Considering the breadth of biochemical phenomena, protein translation has been identified as an essential biochemical process and can subsequently be considered a fundamental concept for biochemistry students to learn. External representations of translation range from static diagrams to dynamic animations, from simplistic, stylized illustrations to more complex, realistic presentations. In order to explore the potential for student learning about protein translation from some common external representations of translation, I used variation theory. Variation theory offers a theoretical framework from which to explore what is intended for students to learn, what is possible for students to learn, and what students actually learn about an object of learning, e.g., protein translation. The goals of this project were threefold. First, I wanted to identify instructors' intentions for student learning about protein translation. From a phenomenographic analysis of instructor interviews, I was able to determine the critical features instructors felt their students should be learning. Second, I wanted to determine which features of protein translation were possible for students to learn from some common external representations of the process. From a variation analysis of the three representations shown to students, I was able to describe the possible combinations of features enacted by the sequential viewing of pairs of representations. Third, I wanted to identify what students actually learned about protein translation by viewing these external representations. From a phenomenographic analysis of student interviews, I was able to describe changes between students prior lived object of learning and their post lived object of learning. Based on the findings from this project, I can conclude that variation can be used to cue students to notice particular features of an external representation. Additionally, students' prior knowledge and, potentially, the intended objects of learning from previous instructors can also affect what students can learn from a representation. Finally, further study is needed to identify the extent to which mode and level of abstraction of an external representation affect student learning outcomes.

Bussey, Thomas J.

401

School Students' Ideas about Air Pollution: Hindrance or Help for Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a free-form questionnaire to explore 10- and 11-year-old students' ideas about the nature of air pollution and its biological and physical effects. Suggests that students hold misconceptions in this area. (DDR)

Thornber, Jillian; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

1999-01-01

402

Detailed Analysis of Misconceptions as a Basis for Developing Remedial Instruction: The Case of Photosynthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great number of misconceptions in diverse subject areas as well as across age levels have been documented and described. Photosynthesis is one of the more intensively studied areas in biology. The purpose of this research was to carefully select and define misconceptions about photosynthesis needing remedial efforts. To achieve this, a specially…

Amir, Ruth; Tamir, Pinchas

403

Factors Associated with Misconceptions about HIV Transmission among Ever-Married Women in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic continues to be associated with misconceptions and misinformed opinions, which increase the risk of HIV transmission. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify the determinant factors among different socioeconomic and demographic factors affecting misconceptions about HIV transmission among ever-married women in Bangladesh. Data and necessary information of 9,272 ever-married women were extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Three types of misconceptions were considered. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were used as the statistical tools to determine the factors affecting misconceptions about HIV transmission. The results revealed that misconceptions are more prevalent among women who are older, less educated, have husbands who are less educated, live in rural areas, have poor economic conditions, and have less access to mass media. The respondent's age, education, husband's education, place of residence, wealth index, and exposure to mass media are significantly associated with the misconceptions. Finally, logistic regression analysis identified age, education, place of residence, wealth index, and exposure to mass media as significant predictors. Because socioeconomic factors are the key determinants of misconceptions about HIV transmission, intervention programs should be aimed at HIV prevention via education and awareness programs to reduce misconceptions as important parts of the prevention strategy. PMID:25420661

Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Hoque, Nazrul; Chowdhury, Md Rocky Khan; Hossain, Md Sabbir

2015-01-26

404

Playing with Science: An Investigation of Young Children's Science Conceptions and Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to investigate the conceptions and misconceptions of young children (ages 3-8) related to science concepts, skills, and phenomena. These conceptions and misconceptions were investigated within the framework of the Pennsylvania Early Learning Standards for Pre-Kindergarten and the Pennsylvania Standards for…

Smolleck, Lori; Hershberger, Vanessa

2011-01-01

405

Misconceptions about Density of Decimals: Insights from Indonesian Pre-Service Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extensive studies have documented various difficulties with, and misconceptions about, decimal numeration across different levels of education. This paper reports on pre-service teachers' misconceptions about the density of decimals. Written test data from 140 Indonesian pre-service teachers, observation of group and classroom discussions provided…

Widjaja, Wanty; Stacey, Kaye; Steinle, Vicki

2008-01-01

406

Patterns of thinking about phylogenetic trees: A study of student learning and the potential of tree thinking to improve comprehension of biological concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolution education is a critical yet challenging component of teaching and learning biology. There is frequently an emphasis on natural selection when teaching about evolution and conducting educational research. A full understanding of evolution, however, integrates evolutionary processes, such as natural selection, with the resulting evolutionary patterns, such as species divergence. Phylogenetic trees are models of evolutionary patterns. The perspective gained from understanding biology through phylogenetic analyses is referred to as tree thinking. Due to the increasing prevalence of tree thinking in biology, understanding how to read phylogenetic trees is an important skill for students to learn. Interpreting graphics is not an intuitive process, as graphical representations are semiotic objects. This is certainly true concerning phylogenetic tree interpretation. Previous research and anecdotal evidence report that students struggle to correctly interpret trees. The objective of this research was to describe and investigate the rationale underpinning the prior knowledge of introductory biology students' tree thinking Understanding prior knowledge is valuable as prior knowledge influences future learning. In Chapter 1, qualitative methods such as semi-structured interviews were used to explore patterns of student rationale in regard to tree thinking. Seven common tree thinking misconceptions are described: (1) Equating the degree of trait similarity with the extent of relatedness, (2) Environmental change is a necessary prerequisite to evolution, (3) Essentialism of species, (4) Evolution is inherently progressive, (5) Evolution is a linear process, (6) Not all species are related, and (7) Trees portray evolution through the hybridization of species. These misconceptions are based in students' incomplete or incorrect understanding of evolution. These misconceptions are often reinforced by the misapplication of cultural conventions to make sense of trees. Chapter 2 explores the construction, validity, and reliability of a tree thinking concept inventory. Concept inventories are research based instruments that diagnose faulty reasoning among students. Such inventories are tools for improving teaching and learning of concepts. Test scores indicate that tree thinking misconceptions are held by novice and intermediate biology students. Finally, Chapter 3 presents a tree thinking rubric. The rubric aids teachers in selecting and improving introductory tree thinking learning exercises that address students' tree thinking misconceptions.

Naegle, Erin

407

Transfer Student COMMON APPLICATION  

E-print Network

or BS) Religion Studies Science, Technology and Society Sociology and Anthropology Sociology / Social Psychology Spanish and Hispanic Studies Statistics Theatre Women, Gender and Sexuality Studies College

Napier, Terrence

408

Development and Application of a Two-Tier Diagnostic Test for High School Students’ Understanding of Flowering Plant Growth and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test measuring students’ understanding of flowering plant growth and development. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on studentsmisconceptions, and instrument development. Misconception data were collected from interviews and multiple-choice questions with open response answers. The data were

Sheau-Wen Lin

2004-01-01

409

Common correlates of suicidal ideation and physical assault among male and female university students in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

This study examined prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation and dating partner violence in a cohort of 651 university students in social sciences classes at three universities in Hong Kong. A standard questionnaire was completed within one class period to examine the rates of occurrence of physical assault perpetration and suicidal ideation. Separate rates are presented for male and female perpetrators and for severe and overall levels of violence. The differences between subjects having suicidal ideation are compared using t tests. Logistic regression is used to predict the presence or absence of physical assault in the preceding year of reporting and suicidal ideation based on the variables such as Personal Relationship Profile, age, relationship length, and socioeconomic status. Results showed that 55% of suicidal persons had a history of violence, whereas 39% of violent people had a history of suicidal ideation. Logistic regression showed that physical assault shared a total of seven associated factors with suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation seems to have no direct relation to physical and sexual assault, but they do share some common associated factors that are essential for the development of suicide prevention. PMID:17619635

Chan, Ko Ling; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, W C; Ho, Hesta W Y; Cerulli, Catherine

2007-01-01

410

The Bottom Line: An Exercise to Help Students Understand How Social Inequality Is Actively Constructed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the important misconceptions in the American view of poverty is that people are poor because they do not work. This article presents an exercise, the "bottom line," which helps dispel students' misconceptions about the working poor. Through extensive primary-data collection and assembling a budget for low-skilled workers, the exercise: (1)…

Abelev, Melissa; Vincent, M. Bess; Haney, Timothy J.

2008-01-01

411

Common Issues and Collaborative Solutions: A Comparison of Student Alcohol Use Behaviors at the Community College and 4-Year Institutional Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature exploring commonalities between four-year and community college student alcohol use is relatively scarce. A possible reason for this discrepancy is the heavy focus on alcohol issues at university colleges. Coll (1999) presented one of the first brief assessments comparing community and four-year colleges on alcohol use and related…

Blowers, Jerimy

2009-01-01

412

Consent to Release Education Records -for the "Common Application" The University of Oregon shall obtain written consent from students before disclosing any personally identifiable  

E-print Network

Consent to Release Education Records - for the "Common Application" The University of Oregon shall obtain written consent from students before disclosing any personally identifiable information from their education record. Such written consent for disclosure must: (a) specify the record(s) to be released; (b

Oregon, University of

413

Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment and Staff Counts from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2008-09. First Look. NCES 2010-347  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings on the numbers of public school students and staff in the United States and other jurisdictions in school year 2008-09, using data from the State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that are reported by state…

Sable, Jennifer; Plotts, Chris

2010-01-01

414

Common Ground: Education & the Military Meeting the Needs of Students. The Report of the NASBE Study Group on Education and the Military  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community, higher education, and business partnerships are often touted as critical links to helping students graduate from high school and making sure that they are college- and career-ready when they do. Now a panel of state board of education members from across the country has found common ground for partnerships with the country's single…

National Association of State Boards of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

415

Experimenter Confirmation Bias and the Correction of Science Misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a randomised educational experiment ( n = 47) that examined two different teaching methods and compared their effectiveness at correcting one science misconception using a sample of trainee primary school teachers. The treatment was designed to promote engagement with the scientific concept by eliciting emotional responses from learners that were triggered by their own confirmation biases. The treatment group showed superior learning gains to control at post-test immediately after the lesson, although benefits had dissipated after 6 weeks. Findings are discussed with reference to the conceptual change paradigm and to the importance of feeling emotion during a learning experience, having implications for the teaching of pedagogies to adults that have been previously shown to be successful with children.

Allen, Michael; Coole, Hilary

2012-06-01

416

History of pancreaticoduodenectomy: early misconceptions, initial milestones and the pioneers  

PubMed Central

Pancreaticoduodenectomy is one of the most challenging surgical procedures which requires the highest level of surgical expertise. This procedure has constantly evolved over the years through the meticulous efforts of a number of surgeons before reaching its current state. This review navigates through some of the early limitations and misconceptions and highlights the initial milestones which laid the foundation of this procedure. The current review also provides a few excerpts from the lives and illuminates on some of the seminal contributions of the three great surgeons: William Stewart Halsted, Walther Carl Eduard Kausch and Allen Oldfather Whipple. These surgeons pioneered the nascent stages of this procedure and paved the way for the modern day pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:21609369

Are, Chandrakanth; Dhir, Mashaal; Ravipati, Lavanya

2011-01-01

417

First Year Chemical Engineering Students' Conceptions of Energy in Solution Processes: Phenomenographic Categories for Common Knowledge Construction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines first-year chemical engineering students' conceptions of the energy changes taking place in dissolution. Students were individually interviewed and transcripts (n=17) were analyzed using a phenomenographic methodology. The phenomenographic category explanations given by students were used as the basis for developing an approach to…

Ebenezer, Jazlin V.; Fraser, Duncan M.

2001-01-01

418

"I Think a Lot of It Is Common Sense. ..." Early Years Students, Professionalism and the Development of a "Vocational Habitus"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on research from a small-scale project investigating the vocational training of students in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in England. We draw on data from interviews with 42 students and five tutors in order to explore the students' understandings of professionalism in early years. In the paper, we discuss first, the…

Vincent, Carol; Braun, Annette

2011-01-01

419

Energy drink consumption and associated health behaviors among university students in an urban setting.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to describe energy drink consumption and health behaviors among college students attending a predominantly minority university. Undergraduate and graduate students attending a private, minority-serving university were invited to participate in an online survey between September 2009 and August 2010. Out of 2,500 students, 407 participated yielding a response of 16 %. Analysis assessed energy drink consumption as well as participation in sport activities and high-risk behaviors. Energy drink consumption is significantly related with drinking alcohol to inebriation and driving (r = .14, p < .05) and to riding with a drunk driver (r = .15, p < .05). Athletes were more likely to engage in drinking alcohol to inebriation and driving F (1, 186) = 6.12, p < .02. Energy drink consumption is a common practice among racial minority university students. Tailored health promotion strategies and interventions are needed to address misconceptions of energy drink and alcohol mixing. PMID:23959655

Spierer, David K; Blanding, Nineequa; Santella, Anthony

2014-02-01

420

How Thermodynamics Drives Wet-out in Adhesive Bonding: Correcting Common Misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional maxim that one should keep the adhesive surface energy below that of the substrate to ensure wet-out is shown to be a false and often counter-productive constraint in designing superior adhesive bonds. The confusion stems from the failure to carefully distinguish the one-substrate problem (coating) from the two-substrate problem (adhesive bonding). When two substrates are bonded the adhesive

Charles W. Paul

2008-01-01

421

85The Space Shuttle Fly me to the moon? A common misconception shared by  

E-print Network

speed change to reach lunar orbit? Problem 2 ­ When the Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS Orbital Speed : 17,500 miles / hr Maximum cargo mass : 55,000 pounds Astrodynamicists are physicists and engineers who calculate the trajectories and orbits for spacecraft throughout the solar system. Near Earth

422

Urban High School Students' Critical Science Agency: Conceptual Understandings and Environmental Actions Around Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates how the enactment of a climate change curriculum supports students' development of critical science agency, which includes students developing deep understandings of science concepts and the ability to take action at the individual and community levels. We examined the impact of a four to six week urban ecology curriculum on students from three different urban high schools in the USA. Data collection included pre and posttest written assessments from all students ( n = 75) and pre and post interviews from focal students ( n = 22) to examine how students' conceptual understandings, beliefs and environmental actions changed. Our analyses showed that at the beginning of the curriculum, the majority of students believed that climate change was occurring; yet, they had limited conceptual understandings about climate change and were engaged in limited environmental actions. By the end of the curriculum, students had a significant increase in their understanding of climate change and the majority of students reported they were now engaged in actions to limit their personal impact on climate change. These findings suggest that believing a scientific theory (e.g. climate change) is not sufficient for critical science agency; rather, conceptual understandings and understandings of personal actions impact students' choices. We recommend that future climate change curriculum focus on supporting students' development of critical science agency by addressing common student misconceptions and by focusing on how students' actions can have significant impacts on the environment.

McNeill, Katherine L.; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

2012-04-01

423

Birthday and birthmate problems: misconceptions of probability among psychology undergraduates and casino visitors and personnel.  

PubMed

Subjective estimates and associated confidence ratings for the solutions of some classic occupancy problems were studied in samples of 721 psychology undergraduates, 39 casino visitors, and 34 casino employees. On tasks varying the classic birthday problem, i.e., the probability P for any coincidence among N individuals sharing the same birthday, clear majorities of respondents markedly overestimated N, given P, and markedly underestimated P, given N. Respondents did notedly better on tasks varying the birthmate problem, i.e., P for the specific coincidence among N individuals of having a birthday today. Psychology students and women did better on both task types, but were less confident about their estimates than casino visitors or per sonnel and men. Several further person variables, such as indicators of topical knowledge and familiarity, were associated with better and more confident performance on birthday problems, but not on birthmate problems. Likewise, higher confidence ratings were related to subjective estimates that were closer to the solutions of birthday problems, but not of birthmate problems. Implications of and possible explanations for these findings, study limitations, directions for further inquiry, and the real-world relevance of ameliorating misconceptions of probability are discussed. PMID:18459359

Voracek, Martin; Tran, Ulrich S; Formann, Anton K

2008-02-01

424

Undergraduate Students' Preferences of Knowledge to Solve Particle Mechanics Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the nature of undergraduate students' errors and misconceptions in particle mechanics. This paper provides in-depth descriptions of the errors presented by students and accounts for them in terms of students' procedural or conceptual knowledge. Specifically, this study analyses students' written responses to questions on…

Luneta, Kakoma; Makonye, Judah P.

2011-01-01

425

Students' Knowledge of "Things That Go Bump in the Night."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questionnaires designed to tap misconceptions of the content of psychology courses can serve as pedagogical devices useful for introducing students to topics and for evaluating student learning. The topic of sleep and dreams is of particular interest to students. To develop a useful introductory tool and to evaluate students' knowledge of sleep,…

Palladino, Joseph J.; Carducci, Bernardo J.

426

Myths, Misconceptions, and Misunderstanding: A different spin on Coriolis--Applying frame of reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article addresses misconceptions surrounding the Coriolis force and describes how it should be presented as a function within inertial and noninertial frames of reference. Not only does this demonstrate the nature of science as it strives to best in

Michael A. DiSpezio

2011-01-01

427

The Earth's Mantle Is Solid: Teachers' Misconceptions About the Earth and Plate Tectonics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the misconceptions revealed by the teachers' answers and outlines more accurate answers and explanations based on established evidence and uses these to provide a more complete understanding of plate tectonic process and the structure of Earth. (Author/YDS)

King, Chris

2000-01-01

428

Renewable Energy, Nuclear Power and Galileo: Do Scientists Have a Duty to Expose Popular Misconceptions?  

E-print Network

1 OPINION Renewable Energy, Nuclear Power and Galileo: Do Scientists Have a Duty to Expose Popular misconception discussed below concerns the fallacy that renewable energy is rapidly supplanting conventional energy. Total non-hydro renewables today offset o

Hansen, James E.

429

TASER® conducted electrical weapons: misconceptions in the scientific/medical and other literature.  

PubMed

TASER(®) conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) have become an important law-enforcement tool. Controversial questions are often raised during discussion of some incidents in which the devices have been used. The main purpose of this paper is to point out some misconceptions about CEWs that have been published in the scientific/medical and other literature. This is a narrative review, using a multidisciplinary approach of analyzing reports from scientific/medical and other literature sources. In previous reports, durations of incapacitating effects and possible associations of CEWs with deaths-in-custody have often been overstated or exaggerated. Comparisons of CEW effects with "electrocution" are misleading. Clarification of these misconceptions may be important during policymaker decisions, practitioner operations, expert witness testimonies, and court proceedings. Despite misconceptions in the literature, CEWs can still be a valuable tool for law enforcement activities. Scientists, medical professionals, legal advisors, and investigators of police tactics should be aware of these misconceptions. PMID:25549958

Jauchem, James R

2015-03-01

430

Students Better Be on Their Best Behavior: How to Prepare for the Most Common Job Interviewing Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly every student will go through the selection interview process to obtain a job in his or her future vocation. Regardless of the major of the student or the profession which they will pursue, the selection interview remains a constant. There has been some attention paid to the validity of the selection interview, and personality constructs…

Browning, Blair W.; Cunningham, John R.

2012-01-01

431

The Student Experience of Criterion-Referenced Assessment (Through the Introduction of a Common Criteria Assessment Grid).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines student experience of criterion-referenced assessment and, in particular, a criteria assessment grid developed for the Business School at Oxford Brookes University (UK). Findings revealed that students desired more reliable marking processes and clearer guidelines on assessment requirements and criteria. The criterion-referenced grid,…

O'Donovan, Berry; Price, Margaret; Rust, Chris

2001-01-01

432

Using Classroom Assessment to Improve Student Learning: Math Problems Aligned with NCTM and Common Core State Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linking assessment to everyday classroom instruction requires a shift in both thinking and practice. For many, the term "assessment" simply means "grade". "Using Classroom Assessment to Improve Student Learning" shows how teachers can move away from using tests, letter or numerical grades, or passing or failing as evidence of student learning to…

Collins, Anne

2011-01-01

433

Systolic Heart Failure: Knowledge Gaps, Misconceptions, and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

Background Systolic heart failure is the final manifestation of several cardiovascular conditions. The 2001 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines depicting the progression of heart failure (HF) from stage A through stage D are aimed at the early treatment of risk factors. However, treatment is often delayed until stage C, and as a result HF continues to impose a major burden on our healthcare industry. Methods We conducted an extensive literature review of the MEDLINE/PubMed database with the purpose of elucidating knowledge gaps and misconceptions regarding systolic HF. Results Long-term beta adrenergic blocking is the only pharmacologic intervention that reverses left ventricular remodeling. Whether beta adrenergic blocking prevents or delays left ventricular remodeling in patients at risk of HF is presently unknown. A knowledge gap also exists regarding the phenotype of patients that derives a mortality benefit from implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy. Acute decompensated HF is a misnomer because patients with chronic HF are known to be deteriorating in the weeks preceding hospitalization. Functional class and ejection fraction are not closely correlated. Advanced HF therapies such as heart transplantation and mechanical circulatory support are available to an extremely small fraction of patients with systolic HF. Conclusion Concentrating efforts on the early stages of the disease process with optimal management of risk factors for HF is critical to having a significant impact on this ongoing pandemic. PMID:25598722

Samson, Rohan; Ramachandran, Rohit; Le Jemtel, Thierry H.

2014-01-01

434

Addressing secondary students' naïve ideas about freshwater springs in order to develop an instructional tool to promote conceptual reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Water knowledge" has now become a socio-political and future-orientated necessity. Erroneous notions or preconceptions of hydrology can have a deleterious effect on our understanding of the scientific facts and their interrelations that are of relevance to sustainable water management. This explorative pilot study shows that erroneous and naïve ideas about the origin of freshwater springs are common at the lower secondary level. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to investigate the nature of misconceptions about freshwater springs among 13-year-old students, and (2) to develop an efficient instructional tool that promotes conceptual reconstruction in the learners' minds. To assess students' naïve ideas we conducted interviews, examined student work, and asked students to fill in a questionnaire. The identified naïve ideas were used to construct an instructional tool based on the findings of learning psychology aiming at promoting deep learning, thus facilitating a lasting conceptual reconstruction of the concept of freshwater springs.

Reinfried, S.; Tempelmann, S.; Aeschbacher, U.

2012-02-01

435

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report The carbon sequestration potential of three common turfgrasses  

E-print Network

sequestration potential of three common turfgrasses: Lolium perenne; Fescue rubra; and Poa pratensis Yihan Wu; Fescue rubra; and Poa pratensis BIOL 448 ­ DIRECTED STUDIES IN BIOLOGY YIHAN WU August 30, 2013 Research

436

Students' Concepts of Force: The Importance of Understanding Newton's Third Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports various misconceptions of Newton's third law obtained from interviews and written tests of high school students. Suggests putting emphasis on the third law in physics teaching. Ten references are listed. (YP)

Brown, David E.

1989-01-01

437

Uncovering Student Ideas in Science, Volume 2: 25 More Formative Assessment Probes (e-Book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If Hollywood filmed this sequel, the studio would call it "Probes II: More Battles Against Misunderstandings." Like the blockbuster before it, Volume 2 will reveal the surprising misconceptions students bring to the classroom--so you can adjust your teachi

Francis Eberle

2009-06-23

438

Using Hollywood Movies to Teach Basic Geological Concepts: A Comparison of Student Outcomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the history of cinema, events based in Earth Science have been the focus of many an action- disaster plot. From the most recent 2008 remake of Journey to the Center of the Earth, to 1965's Crack in the World, and all the way back to the 1925 silent film rendition of The Lost World, Hollywood's obsession with the geological sciences has been clear. These particular sub-genres of disaster films and science fiction present science that, from a Hollywood viewpoint, looks exciting and seems realistic. However, from a scientific viewpoint, the presentations of science are often shockingly incorrect and unfortunately serve to perpetuate common misconceptions. In 2003, Western Kentucky University began offering an elective non-majors science course, Geology and Cinema, to combat these misconceptions while using the framework of Hollywood films as a tool to appeal and connect to a broad student population. To see if this method is truly working, this study performs a student outcome comparison for basic geologic knowledge and general course perception between several sections of standard, lecture-based Introductory Geology courses and concurrent semester sections of Geology and Cinema. Preliminary results indicate that while performance data is similar between the courses, students have a more positive perception of the Cinema sections.

Crowder, M. E.

2008-12-01

439

Students' preconceptions in introductory mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from written tests and videotaped problem-solving interviews show that many physics students have a stable, alternative view of the relationship between force and acceleration. This ''conceptual primitive'' is misunderstood at the qualitative level in addition to any difficulties that might occur with mathematical formulation. The misconception is highly resistant to change and is remarkably similar to one discussed by

John Clement

1982-01-01

440

Students' perceptions of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the potential significance of global warming to society, education about this issue is important. However, little is known of the preconceptions and misconceptions of young adults in this area. In this study the ideas of a group of first year undergraduate students about the “Greenhouse Effect” have been studied by questionnaire. The results show that although some

Edward Boyes; Martin Stanisstreet

1992-01-01

441

Drawing rocks at primary school: a tool for emerging misconceptions and promoting conceptual change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drawing rocks at primary school: a tool for emerging misconceptions and promoting conceptual change Luca Benciolini Dipartimento di Fisica, Chimica e Ambiente, Università di Udine (Italy) and Giuseppe Muscio Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale (Udine, Italy) In order to investigate spontaneous ideas of children about rock samples, the Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale in collaboration with the Università di Udine submitted six classrooms of fifth and fourth grade-students to a specific test. One hundred thirty-three students without a specific background in Earth Sciences were asked to give a) a written description of a rock sample; b) a drawing of the sample; c) a written short story about the sample. The selected thirty-five samples in the opinion of the researchers contain 255 geologically relevant self-evident characters such as fossils, clastic textures, planar discontinuities and so on. Childs spontaneously described 209 geological characters. Forty-seven fifth-grade students (group A) have been previously followed specific training in multisensory description of objects and observed the 90% of the geologically relevant characters. Group B (forty-three fifth-grade) and group C (forty-three fourth-grade) on the contrary, without any previous instructions discovered the 77%. In order to follow childs building their knowledge through experience we found that the main problem was the lack of consistency between written and drawing description. Heterogeneities as evident as a magmatic contact have been correctly represented by the drawing but it has not been worth of any attention in the written description. On the contrary, written description may sometimes contain careful description of the clastic sedimentary process but these criteria are applied for example to a travertine, without any relations with observed characters. Descriptions and drawing of rock outcrops performed by university students demonstrate the persistence of this attitude. Thus, groups B and C were then asked to describe their drawings. We found encouraging progress stimulated by thinking on their own work. We suggest that drawing activities and laboratory book notes could represent useful strategies in order to stimulate specific skill in observing reality, and to understand complex and heterogeneous natural objects. Conceptual change is promoted by comparing children experiences with their previous ideas.

Benciolini, L.; Muscio, G.

2012-04-01

442

Neuromyths in Education: Prevalence and Predictors of Misconceptions among Teachers  

PubMed Central

The OECD’s Brain and Learning project (2002) emphasized that many misconceptions about the brain exist among professionals in the field of education. Though these so-called “neuromyths” are loosely based on scientific facts, they may have adverse effects on educational practice. The present study investigated the prevalence and predictors of neuromyths among teachers in selected regions in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. A large observational survey design was used to assess general knowledge of the brain and neuromyths. The sample comprised 242 primary and secondary school teachers who were interested in the neuroscience of learning. It would be of concern if neuromyths were found in this sample, as these teachers may want to use these incorrect interpretations of neuroscience findings in their teaching practice. Participants completed an online survey containing 32 statements about the brain and its influence on learning, of which 15 were neuromyths. Additional data was collected regarding background variables (e.g., age, sex, school type). Results showed that on average, teachers believed 49% of the neuromyths, particularly myths related to commercialized educational programs. Around 70% of the general knowledge statements were answered correctly. Teachers who read popular science magazines achieved higher scores on general knowledge questions. More general knowledge also predicted an increased belief in neuromyths. These findings suggest that teachers who are enthusiastic about the possible application of neuroscience findings in the classroom find it difficult to distinguish pseudoscience from scientific facts. Possessing greater general knowledge about the brain does not appear to protect teachers from believing in neuromyths. This demonstrates the need for enhanced interdisciplinary communication to reduce such misunderstandings in the future and establish a successful collaboration between neuroscience and education. PMID:23087664

Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki C.; Howard-Jones, Paul; Jolles, Jelle

2012-01-01

443

Common Characteristics of School Administrators Who Are Perceived as Effective in Meeting the Needs of Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study was conducted in 3 school systems in East Tennessee by interviewing special education directors, school principals, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to identify administrators who are successful in meeting the needs of special education students and determine characteristics they possess that facilitate success.…

Mitchell, Carissa Gail

2011-01-01

444

Secondary Students' Interpretations of Photosynthesis and Plant Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies misconceptions held by grade 9 students (14-15-years old) in Turkey about photosynthesis and plant nutrition. Uses a questionnaire to test students' conceptions and reports conflicting and often incorrect ideas about photosynthesis, respiration, and energy flow in plants. Suggests that there are difficulties in changing students' prior…

Ozay, Esra; Oztas, Haydar

2003-01-01

445

Science Sampler: Enhancing student understanding of physical and chemical changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students within the Findlay, Ohio, City School District, as well as students across the country, struggle with understanding physical and chemical changes. Therefore, in this article, the authors suggest some standards-based activities to clarify misconceptions and provide formative assessments to measure your students’ progress as they determine the difference between chemical and physical changes.

Julie McIntosh

2010-10-01

446

Science Sampler: Enhancing Student Understanding of Physical and Chemical Changes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students within the Findlay, Ohio, City School District, as well as students across the country, struggle with understanding physical and chemical changes. Therefore, in this article, the authors suggest some standards-based activities to clarify misconceptions and provide formative assessments to measure your students' progress as they determine…

McIntosh, Julie; White, Sandra; Suter, Robert

2009-01-01

447

Springing into Inquiry: Using Student Ideas to Investigate Seasons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although inquiry is more engaging and results in more meaningful learning (Minner, Levy, and Century 2010) than traditional science classroom instruction, actually involving students in the process is difficult. Furthermore, many students have misconceptions about Earth's seasons, which are supported by students' prior knowledge of heat sources.…

Wilcox, Jesse; Kruse, Jerrid

2012-01-01

448

A Sociocognitive Perspective on Assessing EL Students in the Age of Common Core and Next Generation Science Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subject-area standards such as Common Core State Standards for Language Arts and Mathematics and Next Generation Science Standards offer deeper, richer views of subject-area proficiency. In science, they underscore doing things with facts and concepts, such as explaining, planning, and investigating--activities that are intertwined with language,…

Mislevy, Robert J.; Durán, Richard P.

2014-01-01

449

The New Common School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Horace Mann's goal of creating a common school that brings our society's children together in mutual respect and common learning need not be frustrated by residential segregation and geographical separation of the haves and have-nots. Massachusetts' new common school vision boasts a Metro Program for minority students, 80 magnet schools, and…

Glenn, Charles L.

1987-01-01

450

Freshman Biology Majors' Misconceptions about Diffusion and Osmosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The data for this study were obtained from a sample of 117 biology majors enrolled in an introductory biology course. The Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test, composed of 12 two-tier items, was administered to the students. Among the major findings are: (1) there was no significant difference in scores of male and female students; (2) math…

Odom, A. Louis; Barrow, Lloyd H.

451

Misconceptions about High-Fructose Corn Syrup: Is It Uniquely Responsible for Obesity, Reactive Dicarbonyl Compounds, and Advanced Glycation Endproducts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Misconceptions about high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) abound in the scientific literature, the advice of health professionals to their patients, media reporting, product advertising, and the irrational behavior of consumers. Foremost among these is the misconception that HFCS has a unique and substantive responsibility for the current obesity crisis. Inaccurate information from ostensibly reliable sources and selective presentation of research data

John S. White

2009-01-01

452

Helping Students Make Sense of Graphs: An Experimental Trial of SmartGraphs Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphs are commonly used in science, mathematics, and social sciences to convey important concepts; yet students at all ages demonstrate difficulties interpreting graphs. This paper reports on an experimental study of free, Web-based software called SmartGraphs that is specifically designed to help students overcome their misconceptions regarding graphs. SmartGraphs allows students to interact with graphs and provides hints and scaffolding to help students, if they need help. SmartGraphs activities can be authored to be useful in teaching and learning a variety of topics that use graphs (such as slope, velocity, half-life, and global warming). A 2-year experimental study in physical science classrooms was conducted with dozens of teachers and thousands of students. In the first year, teachers were randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions. Data show that students of teachers who use SmartGraphs as a supplement to normal instruction make greater gains understanding graphs than control students studying the same content using the same textbooks, but without SmartGraphs. Additionally, teachers believe that the SmartGraphs activities help students meet learning goals in the physical science course, and a great majority reported they would use the activities with students again. In the second year of the study, several specific variations of SmartGraphs were researched to help determine what makes SmartGraphs effective.

Zucker, Andrew; Kay, Rachel; Staudt, Carolyn

2014-06-01

453

Problem-based learning: Using students' questions to drive knowledge construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study employed problem-based learning for project work in a year 9 biology class. The purpose of the study was to investigate (a) students' inspirations for their self-generated problems and questions, (b) the kinds of questions that students asked individually and collaboratively, and (c) how students' questions guided them in knowledge construction. Data sources included observation and field notes, students' written documents, audiotapes and videotapes of students working in groups, and student interviews. Sources of inspiration for students' problems and questions included cultural beliefs and folklore; wonderment about information propagated by advertisements and the media; curiosity arising from personal encounters, family members' concerns, or observations of others; and issues arising from previous lessons in the school curriculum. Questions asked individually pertained to validation of common beliefs and misconceptions, basic information, explanations, and imagined scenarios. The findings regarding questions asked collaboratively are presented as two assertions. Assertion 1 maintained that students' course of learning were driven by their questions. Assertion 2 was that the ability to ask the right'' questions and the extent to which these could be answered, were important in sustaining students' interest in the project. Implications of the findings for instructional practice are discussed.

Chin, Christine; Chia, Li-Gek

2004-09-01

454

Mental Models and other Misconceptions in Children's Understanding of the Earth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive ''mental models'' of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous.…

Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

2009-01-01

455

Alleged health effects of electromagnetic fields: misconceptions in the scientific literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational or residential exposures to electromagnetic fields or microwaves have been alleged to result in health problems, including leukemia, other cancers, and reproductive mishaps. Several recent articles and editorials in the medical and scientific literature have presented misconceptions regarding the alleged effects. Some misleading or illogical statements were challenged in letters-to-the-editor. Additional unsubstantiated or invalid assertions contained in subsequent responses

Jauchem

1991-01-01

456

Primary Science Assessment Item Setters' Misconceptions Concerning the State Changes of Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment is an integral and vital part of teaching and learning, providing feedback on progress through the assessment period to both learners and teachers. However, if test items are flawed because of misconceptions held by the questions setter, then such test items are invalid as assessment tools. Moreover, such flawed items are also likely to…

Boo, Hong Kwen

2006-01-01

457

An Analysis of Misconceptions in Science Textbooks: Earth Science in England and Wales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys of the earth science content of all secondary (high school) science textbooks and related publications used in England and Wales have revealed high levels of error/misconception. The 29 science textbooks or textbook series surveyed (51 texts in all) showed poor coverage of National Curriculum earth science and contained a mean level of one…

King, Chris John Henry

2010-01-01

458

Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Misconceptions about Colligative Properties: Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed at identifying prospective chemistry teachers' misconceptions of colligative properties. In order to fulfill this aim, a diagnostic test composed of four open-ended questions was used. The test was administered to seventy-eight prospective chemistry teachers just before qualifying to teaching in secondary schools. Nine different…

Pinarbasi, Tacettin; Sozbilir, Mustafa; Canpolat, Nurtac

2009-01-01

459

Coherent Backscattering: Conceptions and Misconceptions (Reply to Comments by Bruce W. Hapke and Robert M. Nelson)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the note by Hapke and Nelson has virtually no relevance to our original publication, it contains a number of statements that are misleading and/or wrong. We, therefore, use this opportunity to dispel several profound misconceptions that continue to hinder the progress in remote sensing of planetary surfaces.

Tishkovets, Victor P.; Mishchenko, Michael

2010-01-01

460

Seafarers, Great Circles, and a Tad of Rhumb: Understanding the Mercator Misconception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being flat, Mercator maps inherently misrepresent some aspects of Earth's geography. That's because there is absolutely no way to simultaneously conserve all of the elements of three-dimensional space in a two-dimensional model. To dispel misconceptions, check out the Activity Worksheet and the website resources included in this article. Along…

DiSpezio, Michael A.

2010-01-01

461

Issues in Sexuality for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: Myths, Misconceptions, and Mistreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The myths and misconceptions surrounding the topic of sexuality and people with developmental disabilities were examined to better understand the detrimental effects they were having on the sexual health of individuals with developmental disabilities. Persons with developmental disabilities are often infantilised and viewed as asexual. This…

Irvine, Angela

2005-01-01

462

Deriving Common Model Characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students confront several different models - from the DNA helix Watson and Crick constructed in their laboratory to a map of McDonalds density in the US - and work in small groups to derive their commonalities.

Jennifer Momsen

463

Discovering Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use pattern blocks to represent fractions with unlike denominators. Students discover that they need to convert all the pattern blocks to the same shape in order to add them. Therefore, they find and use common denominators for the addition of fractions.

Adam Kloper

2012-07-22

464

Math, Literacy, & Common Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly every state has signed on to use the Common Core State Standards as a framework for teaching English/language arts and mathematics to students. Translating them for the classroom, however, requires schools, teachers, and students to change the way they approach teaching and learning. This report examines the progress some states have made…

Education Week, 2012

2012-01-01

465

Environmental Science Misconceptions--Resolution of an Anomaly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on research on the ability of a short-term intervention to substantially increase elementary pre-service teacher knowledge of major environmental science issues. The study was conducted each semester over seven years. Student understanding of such issues as global warming, ozone depletion, and local groundwater problems was…

Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

466

Chemistry Misconceptions Associated with Understanding Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration…

Cliff, William H.

2009-01-01

467

Task Templates Based on Misconception Research. CSE Report 646.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers spend much time and effort developing measures, including measures of students? conceptual knowledge. In an effort to make such assessments easier to design, the Principled Assessment Designs for Inquiry (PADI) project has developed a framework for designing tasks and to illustrate that its use has ?reverse engineered? several …

Cromley, Jennifer G.; Mislevy, Robert J.

2004-01-01

468

Students' Conceptions of Scale Regarding Groundwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study involved surveying three groups of students regarding their ideas about the structure, scale, and percieved importance of groundwater. The survey results show that many participants selected sizes of groundwater structures that mirrored surface analogs; however, some students applied scales on the order of houses and skyscrapers to typical pore and crack structures. The authors' research indicates that students bring to the classroom many misconceptions that are well-positioned to interfere with their understanding of hydrogeologic principles.

Daniel Dickerson

469

The Conceptual Understanding of Sound by Students with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The purpose of the study presented here was to understand and describe the misconceptions of students with visual impairments about sound and instructional techniques that may help them to develop a scientific understanding. Methods: Semistructured interview-centered pre-and posttests were used to identify the students' conceptual…

Wild, Tiffany A.; Hilson, Margilee P.; Hobson, Sally M.

2013-01-01

470

Generating Cognitive Dissonance in Student Interviews through Multiple Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores what students understand about enzyme-substrate interactions, using multiple representations of the phenomenon. In this paper we describe our use of the 3 Phase-Single Interview Technique with multiple representations to generate cognitive dissonance within students in order to uncover misconceptions of enzyme-substrate…

Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

2012-01-01

471

Students' Conceptions as Dynamically Emergent Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is wide consensus that learning in science must be considered a process of conceptual change rather than simply information accrual. There are three perspectives on students' conceptions and conceptual change in science that have significant presence in the science education literature: students' ideas as misconceptions, as…

Brown, David E.

2014-01-01

472

Are You Teaching Your Students about Stem Cells?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity targets students' misconceptions about embryonic and adult stem cells while also addressing an important grades 9-12 science content standard. The authors designed the activity to provide students an opportunity to explore differences between embryonic and adult stem cells prior to formal explanation. The overarching goal of this…

Concannon, James; Brown, Patrick L.; Brandt, Trisha

2009-01-01

473

Tuminaro and Redish 1 of 25 Students' Use of Mathematics  

E-print Network

mathematical rea- soning in favor of incorrect intuitive reasoning; · students using incorrect qualitative (p-prim) argu- ments to rebut a qualitative argument even when they know the correct formal argument; · students, these behaviors look like what one might crudely de- scribe as "misconceptions of expectations" about to how

Maryland at College Park, University of

474

A Mathematical Microworld for Students to Learn Introductory Probability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Microworld Chance, a simulation-oriented computer environment that allows students to explore probability concepts in five subenvironments: coins, dice, spinners, thumbtacks, and marbles. Results of a teaching experiment to examine the effectiveness of the microworld in changing students' misconceptions about probability are…

Jiang, Zhonghong; Potter, Walter D.

1993-01-01

475

Responding when Students Don't Get It  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When students make mistakes, have misconceptions, or are simply wrong, how their teachers respond either builds new skills and understanding or reinforces errors. An intentional approach to responding when students don't get it includes questions to check for understanding, prompts for cognitive and metacognitive work, cues to divert attention,…

Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy; Lapp, Diane

2010-01-01

476

Students' Perceptions and Designs of Simple Control Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a framework characterizing cognitive models generated by sixth-grade students for simple opening/closing control mechanisms, like the elevator door. The students' conceptions, missing conceptions, and misconceptions are analyzed at three levels: device knowledge; perception of the control process; and perceptions of information flow. (LAM)

Mioduser, David; And Others

1996-01-01

477

The Persuasion Model of conceptual change and its application to misconceptions in evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work has attempted to account for the factors involved in conceptual change (e.g. Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982; Pintrich, Marx & Boyle, 1993). While progress has been made, cognitive restructuring remains to be positioned within a unifying theory of change. Here, a new model of conceptual change is put forward. The Persuasion Model of conceptual change builds on previous frameworks (Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982; Pintrich, Marx & Boyle, 1993; Vosniadou, 1994) including the psychology of persuasion (Heuristic-Systematic Model, Chaiken, 1980; Elaboration Likelihood Model, Petty & Cacioppo, 1986; Social Judgement Theory, Sherif & Hovland, 1953) and cognitive and motivational theories of learning (Johnson-Laird, 1983; Mayer & Moreno, 1988; Wittrock, 1974b). High quality, elaborative processing of a persuasive message leads to change. Mental models are positioned as the mechanism by which meaning is created, manipulated, inspected and evaluated. These processes result in a continuum of cognitive restructuring. A study of conceptual change in Evolutionary Biology examined the viability of the Persuasion Model. It was predicted that knowledge, beliefs, interest and cognitive style would predict elaborative processing. Processing was hypothesized to influence information comprehensibility, plausibility, fruitfulness and compatibility with prior knowledge. Judgments were hypothesized to influence learning outcomes. Evolutionary knowledge and beliefs were assessed at pre- and posttest in 375 college students using multiple choice, likert-scale and extended response items. Need for Cognition, Need for Cognitive Closure, Epistemological Beliefs, Religiosity, Dogmatism, Moral Values and Argument Evaluation Ability were measured using paper-and-pencil questionnaires. Participants read a text and indicated elaborative processing and information evaluation. Ninety percent of participants held at least one misconception at pre-test. Significant gains on outcome measures were found. More sophisticated responses were found for items pertaining to non-human than human topics. Elaborative processing was predicted by individual differences in knowledge, beliefs, interest and Need for Cognition. Elaborative processing influenced favorability ratings of the information, and these contributed to learning outcomes. The results show support for hypotheses derived from the Persuasion Model, as conceptual change could not be predicted without reference to multiple factors that have not previously been measured in concert.

Garner, Joanna Kate

478

The Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When winter rolls around and we begin to spend more time indoors, the common cold becomes an unfortunate reality for many of us. But for something as common as the cold, misconceptions about it are remarkably common as well. The following collection of Web sites provides an in-depth look at the cold and the cold virus.The first site (1) comes from the Common Cold Care Center of Cardiff University in Wales, and offers a thorough and highly readable introduction to the common cold, including sections on conventional and alternative cold medications. Readers can brush up on their basic virology with the next Web site from HowStuffWorks to get a clear, general idea of how the cold virus infects the body (2). This site also explains why antibiotics have no effect on a virus, and includes numerous hypertext links to related HowStuffWorks Web pages. KidsHealth for Parents, a service of the Nemours Foundation, provides a straightforward guide to the symptoms of cold vs. flu, while also offering information on flu treatment options (3). The next Web site, from University of Guelph, contains an easy-to-understand comparison of bacteria and viruses (4). Readers can learn more about rhinoviruses, the family of viruses which account for about one-third of all colds, in the following Web site from the University of South Carolina's Microbiology and Immunology Online (5). The next Web site offers visitors a close-up look at human rhinovirus 14 with over a dozen 3-D images and movies from the University of Wisconsin-Madison Bock Laboratory (6). The following site describes the findings, as detailed in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, of a Purdue University research team that has analyzed on an atomic scale the structure of the cellular receptor that binds cold-causing viruses (7). And finally, find out about common cold clinical trials with ClinicalTrial.gov, a service of the National Institutes of Health (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

479

Making Mathematics Relevant for Students in Bali  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reactions of students towards mathematics in Bali (in the NW Province of Cameroon) are appalling. This is due to a misconception regarding its uses. The author thinks that these problems derive partly from the influence that the Western curriculum has had in Bali--mathematical contexts are based around train times in Liverpool instead of from…

Sema, Pryde Nubea

2008-01-01

480

Student Illustrations and Writing About the Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity used to identify students' initial ideas and potential scientific misconceptions about the Sun. Learners will draw and label the Sun and write a supplemental paragraph containing what they know about the Sun. This is Activity 1 of a larger resource entitled Eye on the Sky.

481

Turkish Students' Ideas about Global Warming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global warming in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global warming were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this study.…

Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

2008-01-01

482

Our Students Speak: An Analysis of Survey Data Provided by ECSU Certification Candidates Concerning Their Professional Preparation and Connecticut's Common Core of Teaching. Research Brief, Winter 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To better understand how teacher candidates (student teachers) from Eastern Connecticut State University (ECSU) grow and develop from the start to the end of their student teaching semester, data provided through the Student Teacher Growth Record were analyzed. Student Teacher Growth Records, along with narrative reports provided by student

Sakofs, Mitchell

483

Student Attitudes Towards Public Funding Of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research in astronomy is strongly dependent on public (taxpayer) dollars. In this study we examine the attitudes of college students toward funding of astronomy projects. A survey was given to 269 college students prior to taking an introductory astronomy course. Students were given a short test designed to examine misconceptions about astronomy. They were then asked about their willingness to support public funding for astronomy projects. Students with fundamental misconceptions about mundane topics such as the cause of the seasons and phases of the moon were less than half as likely to support public funding of astronomy projects. Results are also reported showing the relationship between a willingness to fund projects and whether the students had experiences including reading books or magazines on astronomy, exposure to astronomy in high school, and using a telescope.

Stine, Peter

2009-01-01

484

Assessing 16-Year-Old Students' Understanding of Aqueous Solution at Submicroscopic Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Submicrorepresentations (SMR) could be an important element, not only for explaining the experimental observations to students, but also in the process of evaluating students' knowledge and identifying their chemical misconceptions. This study investigated the level of students' understanding of the solution concentration and the process of…

Devetak, Iztok; Vogrinc, Janez; Glazar, Sasa Aleksij

2009-01-01

485

Near-Native Speakers in the Foreign-Language Classroom: The Case of Haitian Immigrant Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study examined Haitian immigrant students' experiences in the French language classrooms. It is based on surveys conducted with students and their classmates and personal observations, discussing and explaining some of the misconceptions about Haitian immigrants and describing the Haitian students' experiences learning French in the…

Katz, Stacey

486

A Cross-Age Study of Student Understanding of the Concept of Diffusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines seventh grade life science students, tenth grade biology students, and college zoology students for understanding of the concept of diffusion. Describes the differences among the grade levels in sound or partial understanding, misconceptions, and no understanding. Discusses the effect of developmental level on understanding. (KR)

Westbrook, Susan L.; Marek, Edmund A.

1991-01-01

487

Primary Student-Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect: A mixed method study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greenhouse effect is a reasonably complex scientific phenomenon which can be used as a model to examine students' conceptual understanding in science. Primary student-teachers' understanding of global environmental problems, such as climate change and ozone depletion, indicates that they have many misconceptions. The present mixed method study examines Finnish primary student-teachers' understanding of the greenhouse effect based on the

Ilkka Johannes Ratinen

2011-01-01

488

Student Understanding of Function Composition and the Effect of Dynamic Visualization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine (1) strategies students use when solving composition problems and the difficulties they encounter; (2) conceptions and/or misconceptions students have with respect to composition of functions; and (3) the effect of using dynamic visualization during instruction on students' understanding of composition of…

Ratliff, Bobby Kevin

2009-01-01

489

Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Students' Understanding of Concepts in Electrochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was conducted to investigate the degree of effectiveness of cooperative learning instruction over a traditional approach on 11th grade students' understanding of electrochemistry. The study involved forty-one 11th grade students from two science classes with the same teacher. To determine students' misconceptions concerning…

Acar, Burcin; Tarhan, Leman

2007-01-01

490

The Ideas of Greek High School Students about the "Ozone Layer."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study of Greek high school students' (n=116) perceptions of the ozone layer. Finds that students have a good understanding of the position and purpose of the ozone layer in terms of protection from ultraviolet rays, but students also hold misconceptions linking the ozone layer to the greenhouse effect and other forms of local…

Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin; Papantoniou, Vasso Spiliotopoulou

1999-01-01

491

Six Classroom Exercises to Teach Natural Selection to Undergraduate Biology Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in introductory biology courses frequently have misconceptions regarding natural selection. In this paper, we describe six activities that biology instructors can use to teach undergraduate students in introductory biology courses how natural selection causes evolution. These activities begin with a lesson introducing students to natural…

Kalinowski, Steven T.; Leonard, Mary J.; Andrews, Tessa M.; Litt, Andrea R.

2013-01-01

492

Are College Students Prepared for a Technology-Rich Learning Environment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of today's college students have grown up in a world immersed in technology - computers, electronic media, cell phones and more. Due to this, educators often expect students to have the technology skills needed to perform in an academic environment. Unfortunately, this is often a misconception. This article reviews the technology readiness of students at a rural community

Victoria Ratliff

2009-01-01

493

Concept Development of Decimals in Chinese Elementary Students: A Conceptual Change Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine the concept development of decimal numbers in 244 Chinese elementary students in grades 4-6. Three grades of students differed in their intuitive sense of decimals and conceptual understanding of decimals, with more strategic approaches used by older students. Misconceptions regarding the density nature of…

Liu, Ru-De; Ding, Yi; Zong, Min; Zhang, Dake

2014-01-01

494

Effects of the use of thematic organizers in conjunction with concept mapping on learning, misconceptions, and retention in middle school science class  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was devised to determine effects of the use of interactive thematic organizers and concept maps in middle school science classes during a unit study on minerals. The design, a pretest-posttest control group, consisted of matched groups (three experimental groups and one comparison group). It also included a student survey assessing qualitative aspects of the investigation. The 67 6th-grade students and one science teacher who participated in the study were from an independent K-12 school. Students represented a normal, well-distributed range of abilities. Group I (control) proceeded with their usual method of studying a unit---reading aloud the text and answering workbook questions. Group II worked with interactive thematic organizers, designed to activate prior knowledge and help students make inferences about target concepts in three treatments. Group III created three interactive concept maps, which represented both understandings and misconceptions. Concept maps were reviewed and repaired as students completed each treatment. Group IV participated in both thematic organizer and concept map treatments. Statistical analyses were determined through a pretest and a delayed recall posttest essay for all four groups. Two scores were assigned---one quantitative raw score of correct explicit answers and one rubric score based on the quality of interpretive responses. Group II also received scores for thematic organizer responses. Group III received rubric scores for concept maps. Group IV received all possible scores. Paired t-tests reported comparisons of scores across the treatment groups. A linear regression indicated whether or not concept map misconceptions affected posttest scores. Finally, an ANCOVA reported statistical significance across the four treatment groups. Findings of data analysis indicated statistically significant improvement in posttest scores among students in the three experimental groups. Students who participated in both treatments represented the highest scores among the four groups. Results of the ANCOVA indicated there was statistically significant difference in scores among the four treatments. Recommendations were made to further investigate development of interactive thematic organizers with student-chosen hyperlinks to concepts, as well as a recommendation that researchers investigate teacher understandings of interpretive purpose and form in the creation of thematic organizers.

Keown, Sandra L.

495

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

496

Investigating students' understandings of the symbolic, macroscopic, and particulate domains of oxidation-reduction and the development of the redox concept inventory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous literature regarding students' understandings about oxidation-reduction reactions has focused primarily on students' understandings at the symbolic domain, while literature regarding students' understandings about electrochemical cells has focused primarily on the particulate domain. This study attempts to explore the gap in the literature between students' symbolic oxidation-reduction understandings and particulate electrochemistry understandings by investigating students' understandings of multiple representations of oxidation-reduction reactions using sequential exploratory mixed-methods study. In the first phase of this study, students' misconceptions about oxidation-reduction at the symbolic, macroscopic, and particulate domains were elicited through qualitative research methods, and the results of this phase were used to create a concept inventory to measure students' understandings on a large scale in a quick and efficient manner. Six major misconceptions themes emerged during the students' interviews including 1) oxidation numbers, 2) surface features of the chemical representations, 3) electron transfer processes, 4) the role of the spectator ion, 5) the particulate and dynamic reaction process, and 6) charges & bonding. Using these themes, the Redox Concept Inventory (ROXCI) was developed and each item response choice was created based upon students' responses from the interviews. Therefore, the ROXCI is inherently designed to measure students' understandings. The ROXCI went through several rounds of revisions and evidence for the content validity, response process validity, test-criterion validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability are presented. The ROXCI was answered by more than 2000 students throughout the course of this study, and in the final round of implementations, the ROXCI was administered to over 1000 students in a national study. While previous studies have identified students' oxidation-reduction misconceptions in qualitative studies, the ROXCI study is the first to present students' misconceptions on a national scale. The students' results provide evidence that the ROXCI can be used as a formative assessment of students' understandings about oxidation-reduction misconceptions. Future studies should develop pedagogy to target students' misconceptions in the classroom.

Brandriet, Alexandra R.

497

LaplaceÂ?s Law and the Alveolus: A Misconception of Anatomy and a Misapplication of Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Both the anatomy and the mechanics of inflation of the alveoli, as presented in most textbooks of physiology, have been misunderstood and misrepresented. The typical representation of the acinus as a Â?bunch of grapesÂ? bears no resemblance to its real anatomy; the alveoli are not independent little balloons. Because of the prevalence of this misconception, LaplaceÂ?s law, as it applies to spheres, has been invoked as a mechanical model for the forces of alveolar inflation and as an explanation for the necessity of pulmonary surfactant in the alveolus. Alveoli are prismatic or polygonal in shape, i.e., their walls are flat, and Laplace law considerations in their inflation apply only to the very small curved region in the fluid where these walls intersect. Alveoli do not readily collapse into one another because they are suspended in a matrix of connective tissue Â?cablesÂ? and share common, often perforated walls, so there can be no pressure differential across them. Surfactant has important functions along planar surfaces of the alveolar wall and in mitigating the forces that tend to close the small airways. LaplaceÂ?s law as it applies to cylinders is an important feature of the mechanics of airway collapse, but the law as it applies to spheres is not relevant to the individual alveolus.

PhD Henry D. Prange (Indiana University Medical Sciences Program)

2003-03-01

498

HIV misconceptions associated with condom use among black South Africans: an exploratory study  

PubMed Central

In South Africa, approximately 20% of 15–49-year-olds are infected with HIV. Among black South Africans, high levels of HIV/AIDS misconceptions (e.g. HIV is manufactured by whites to reduce the black African population; AIDS is caused by supernatural forces or witchcraft) may be barriers to HIV prevention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 150 young, black adults (aged 18–26; 56% males) visiting a public clinic for sexually transmitted infections, to investigate whether HIV/AIDS misconceptions were related to low condom use in main partner relationships. We assessed agreement with HIV/AIDS misconceptions relating to the supernatural (e.g. witchcraft as a cause of HIV) and to genocide (e.g. the withholding of a cure). In multivariate models, agreement that ‘Witchcraft plays a role in HIV transmission’ was significantly related to less positive attitudes about condoms, less belief in condom effectiveness for HIV prevention, and lower intentions to use condoms among men. The belief that ‘Vitamins and fresh fruits and vegetables can cure AIDS’ was associated with lower intentions among men to use condoms. Women who endorsed the belief linking HIV to witchcraft had a higher likelihood of unprotected sex with a main partner, whereas women who endorsed the belief that a cure for AIDS was being withheld had a lower likelihood of having had unprotected sex. Knowledge about distinct types of HIV/AIDS misconceptions and their correlates can help in the design of culturally appropriate HIV-prevention messages that address such beliefs. PMID:21804784

Bogart, Laura M; Skinner, Donald; Weinhardt, Lance S; Glasman, Laura; Sitzler, Cheryl; Toefy, Yoesrie; Kalichman, Seth C

2011-01-01

499

Biogeochemistry Science and Education Part One: Using Non-Traditional Stable Isotopes as Environmental Tracers Part Two: Identifying and Measuring Undergraduate Misconceptions in Biogeochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation is presented in two sections. First, I explore two methods of using stable isotope analysis to trace environmental and biogeochemical processes. Second, I present two related studies investigating student understanding of the biogeochemical concepts that underlie part one. Fe and Hg are each biogeochemically important elements in their own way. Fe is a critical nutrient for phytoplankton, while Hg is detrimental to nearly all forms of life. Fe is often a limiting factor in marine phytoplankton growth. The largest source, by mass, of Fe to the open ocean is windblown mineral dust, but other more soluble sources are more bioavailable. To look for evidence of these non-soil dust sources of Fe to the open ocean, I measured the isotopic composition of aerosol samples collected on Bermuda. I found clear evidence in the fine size fraction of a non-soil dust Fe source, which I conclude is most likely from biomass burning. Widespread adoption of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) has increased their importance as a source of environmental Hg. Isotope analysis would be a useful tool in quantifying this impact if the isotopic composition of Hg from CFL were known. My measurements show that CFL-Hg is isotopically fractionated, in a unique pattern, during normal operation. This fractionation is large and has a distinctive, mass-independent signature, such that CFL Hg can be uniquely identified from other sources. Misconceptions research in geology has been a very active area of research, but student thinking regarding the related field of biogeochemistry has not yet been studied in detail. From interviews with 40 undergraduates, I identified over 150 specific misconceptions. I also designed a multiple-choice survey (concept inventory) to measure understanding of these same biogeochemistry concepts. I present statistical evidence, based on the Rasch model, for the reliability and validity of this instrument. This instrument will allow teachers and researchers to easily quantify learning outcomes in biogeochemistry and will complement existing concept inventories in geology, chemistry, and biology.

Mead, Chris

500

Crafting an International Study of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large international investigations into the learning of science, such as the TIMSS and PISA studies, have been enlightening with regard to effective instructional practices. Data from these studies revealed weaknesses and promising practices within nations' educational systems, with evidence to suggest that these studies have led to international reforms in science education. However, these reforms have focused on the general characteristics of teaching and learning across all sciences. While extraordinarily useful, these studies have provided limited insight for any given content domain. To date, there has been no systematic effort to measure individual's conceptual astronomy understanding across the globe. This paper describes our motivations for a coordinated, multinational study of astronomy understanding. First, reformed education is based upon knowing the preexisting knowledge state of our students. The data from this study will be used to assist international astronomy education and public outreach (EPO) professionals in their efforts to improve practices across global settings. Second, while the US astronomy EPO community has a long history of activity, research has established that many practices are ineffective in the face of robust misconceptions (e.g.: seasons). Within an international sample we hope to find subpopulations that do not conform to our existing knowledge of student misconceptions, leading us to cultural or educational practices that hint at alternative, effective means of instruction. Finally, it is our hope that this first venture into large-scale disciplinary collaboration will help us to craft a set of common languages and practices, building capacity and leading toward long-term cooperation across the international EPO community. This project is sponsored and managed by the Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research (CAPER), in collaboration with members of the International Astronomical Union-Commission 46. We are actively welcoming and seeking partners in this work.

Slater, Stephanie; Bretones, P. S.; McKinnon, D.; Schleigh, S.; Slater, T. F.; Astronomy, Center; Education Research, Physics

2013-01-01