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1

Parasites of South African wildlife. XIX. The prevalence of helminths in some common antelopes, warthogs and a bushpig in the Limpopo province, South Africa.  

PubMed

Little work has been conducted on the helminth parasites of artiodactylids in the northern and western parts of the Limpopo province, which is considerably drier than the rest of the province. The aim of this study was to determine the kinds and numbers of helminth that occur in different wildlife hosts in the area as well as whether any zoonotic helminths were present. Ten impalas (Aepyceros melampus), eight kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), four blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), two black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou), three gemsbok (Oryx gazella), one nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), one bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), one waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), six warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) and a single bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) were sampled from various localities in the semi-arid northern and western areas of the Limpopo province. New host-parasite associations included Trichostrongylus deflexus from blue wildebeest, Agriostomum gorgonis from black wildebeest, Stilesia globipunctata from the waterbuck and Fasciola hepatica in a kudu. The mean helminth burden, including extra-gastrointestinal helminths, was 592 in impalas, 407 in kudus and blue wildebeest, 588 in black wildebeest, 184 in gemsbok, and 2150 in the waterbuck. Excluding Probstmayria vivipara, the mean helminth burden in warthogs was 2228 and the total nematode burden in the bushpig was 80. The total burdens and species richness of the helminths in this study were consistently low when compared with similar studies on the same species in areas with higher rainfall. This has practical implications when animals are translocated to areas with higher rainfall and higher prevalence of helminths. PMID:23327219

Van Wyk, Ilana C; Boomker, Joop

2011-01-01

2

A review of the genus Paramoniezia Maplestone et Southwell, 1923 (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae), with a new genus, Phascolocestus, from wombats (Marsupialia) and redescriptions of Moniezia mettami Baylis, 1934 and Moniezia phacochoeri (Baylis, 1927) comb. n. from African warthogs (Artiodactyla).  

PubMed

Paramoniezia suis Maplestone et Southwell, 1923 is redescribed from the type and only specimen, and is considered to be a genus inquirendum and species inquirenda, possibly based on a host misidentification. Paramoniezia phacochoeri Baylis, 1927 is redescribed from new material from Phacochoerus africanus (Gmelin) from South Africa and is transferred to Moniezia Blanchard. 1891 as M. phacochoeri (Baylis, 1927) comb. n. A redescription of M. mettami Baylis, 1934, also from Ph. africanus, establishes the independence of the two congeneric species parasitizing warthogs. A new genus, Phascolocestus, is erected for Paramoniezia johnstoni Beveridge, 1976 from vombatid marsupials as Phascolocestus johnstoni (Beveridge, 1976) comb. n., and additional host and distributional data are provided for this species. PMID:24684050

Beveridge, Ian

2014-02-01

3

African swine fever viruses with two different genotypes, both of which occur in domestic pigs, are associated with ticks and adult warthogs, respectively, at a single geographical site.  

PubMed

The role of the ancestral sylvatic cycle of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) is not well understood in the endemic areas of eastern Africa. We therefore analysed the ASF infection status on samples collected from 51 free-ranging warthogs (Phacocherus africanus) and 1576 Ornithodorus porcinus ticks from 26 independent warthog burrows at a single ranch in Kenya. Abattoir samples from 83 domestic pigs without clinical symptoms, originating from specific locations with no recent reported ASF outbreaks were included in this study. All samples were derived from areas of central Kenya, where ASF outbreaks have been reported in the past. Infection with ASFV was confirmed in 22?% of O. porcinus pools, 3.22?% of adult warthog serum samples and 49?% of domestic pig serum samples by using p72-based PCR. All of the warthog sera were positive for anti-ASFV antibodies, investigated by using ELISA, but none of the domestic pig sera were positive. Twenty O. porcinus-, 12 domestic pig- and three warthog-derived viruses were genotyped at four polymorphic loci. The ASFV isolates from ticks and domestic pigs clustered within p72 genotype X. By contrast, ASF viruses genotyped directly from warthog sera, at same locality as the tick isolates, were within p72 genotype IX and genetically similar to viruses causing recent ASF outbreaks in Kenya and Uganda. This represents the first report of the co-existence of different ASFV genotypes in warthog burrow-associated ticks and adult wild warthogs. The data from this and earlier studies suggest transfer of viruses of at least two different p72 genotypes, from wild to domestic pigs in East Africa. PMID:20965989

Gallardo, Carmina; Okoth, Edward; Pelayo, Virginia; Anchuelo, Raquel; Martín, Elena; Simón, Alicia; Llorente, Alicia; Nieto, Raquel; Soler, Alejandro; Martín, Raquel; Arias, Marisa; Bishop, Richard P

2011-02-01

4

Common Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

5

Common Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents K-12 and college common areas considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

6

Making the Common Good Common  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

Chase, Barbara

2011-01-01

7

Common cold  

PubMed Central

Introduction Each year, children suffer up to 5 colds and adults have 2-3 infections, leading to time off school or work, and considerable discomfort. Most symptoms resolve within a week, but coughs often persist for longer. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for common cold? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to May 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antihistamines, decongestants (norephedrine, oxymetazoline, or pseudoephedrine), decongestants plus antihistamine, echinacea, steam inhalation, vitamin C, and zinc (intranasal gel or lozenges).

2008-01-01

8

Common cold  

PubMed Central

Introduction Each year, children suffer up to 5 colds and adults have two to three infections, leading to time off school or work, and considerable discomfort. Most symptoms resolve within 1 week, but coughs often persist for longer. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for common cold? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 21 systematic reviews and RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antihistamines, decongestants for short-term and for long-term relief, decongestants plus antihistamines, echinacea, steam inhalation, vitamin C, and zinc (intranasal gel or lozenges).

2011-01-01

9

A questionnaire-based evaluation of the veterinary cordon fence separating wildlife and livestock along the boundary of the Kruger National Park, South Africa.  

PubMed

Veterinary cordon fences are used in Southern Africa to separate wildlife from domestic animals in order to prevent transmission of infectious diseases. Such fences are a control method recognized by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) for establishing disease-free zones in beef exporting countries. However, few studies have evaluated the ecological impact of these physical barriers or their effectiveness at a multispecies level. We examined the permeability of one such barrier, along 357 km of the western and southern boundary of the Kruger National Park (KNP) during 2007. Information was gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire implemented among 32 teams of fence maintenance workers. Data were analyzed to identify (a) the main causes of fence damage, (b) the seasonality, location and duration of fence repairs, (c) high permeability areas for elephant (Loxodonta africana), kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), impala (Aepyceros melampus), buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), and (d) the influence of fence electrification, rivers and elephant damage on the frequency of observation of wildlife species outside the KNP estimated during the year. Human and elephant damage were the most common reasons for fence repairs. Elephant and buffalo were the most and least common large mammal species reported observed outside the KNP (1076 and 162 reports/year), respectively. Cattle incursions into the KNP were also reported in 44% of the fence sections. Electrification of the fence was an important factor explaining differences in estimated wildlife species observations outside the KNP during the year. Correlations between estimations of observed species suggested that fence gaps created by elephants might be used by the other wildlife species. Estimated annual counts of kudu, impala and buffalo, but not warthog, were found to correlate with elephant observations. Negative binomial regression models were developed to explore the relationships between observed estimations of different wildlife species outside the KNP the fence, electrification of fence sections and the presence of watercourses, suggesting that kudu, impala and buffalo could use elephant induced fence damage to leave the KNP. The questionnaire was able to evaluate fence integrity and identify sections where integrity was sub-optimal for separating wildlife from domestic livestock species. If combined with more quantitative methods and applied on a routine basis, it could provide an efficient and cost-effective method for monitoring the effectiveness of physical barriers to contain wildlife within protected areas such as is the case with veterinary cordon fences in Southern Africa. PMID:21536336

Jori, F; Brahmbhatt, D; Fosgate, G T; Thompson, P N; Budke, C; Ward, M P; Ferguson, K; Gummow, B

2011-07-01

10

Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

Green, Kimberly

2012-01-01

11

Common Procedures during Childbirth  

MedlinePLUS

... t InteliHealth Medical Content 2011-08-14 Common Procedures During Childbirth Most often labor and delivery proceeds ... needs a helping hand. Here are some common procedures used during childbirth: Continuous fetal monitoring is a ...

12

Common Foot Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... on the toes. Foot infections include warts; the common disease athlete's foot (tinea pedis), which is caused by ... of the skin of the foot. The most common fungal disease in humans, athlete's foot, may be passed to ...

13

Knowledge Representation for Commonality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Domain-specific knowledge necessary for commonality analysis falls into two general classes: commonality constraints and costing information. Notations for encoding such knowledge should be powerful and flexible and should appeal to the domain expert. The...

D. P. Yeager

1990-01-01

14

Common Hair Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... have the inherited tendency to "common baldness." Male pattern baldness is the most common cause of hair ... top of the head. Women may develop female pattern baldness in which the hair becomes thin over ...

15

Canonical Commonality Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor variable. This paper outlines…

Leister, K. Dawn

16

Knowledge representation for commonality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Domain-specific knowledge necessary for commonality analysis falls into two general classes: commonality constraints and costing information. Notations for encoding such knowledge should be powerful and flexible and should appeal to the domain expert. The notations employed by the Commonality Analysis Problem Solver (CAPS) analysis tool are described. Examples are given to illustrate the main concepts.

Yeager, Dorian P.

1990-01-01

17

Unconfounding Common Ground.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes the subsuming theory criterion for experiments on common ground in mutual knowledge (i.e., the design must keep common information constant and only vary whether or not it is common). Demonstrates how doing so makes stronger claims. Illustrates how experiments can be designed to satisfy the criterion by evaluating some earlier studies…

Keysar, Boaz

1997-01-01

18

Common Bayesian models for common cognitive issues.  

PubMed

How can an incomplete and uncertain model of the environment be used to perceive, infer, decide and act efficiently? This is the challenge that both living and artificial cognitive systems have to face. Symbolic logic is, by its nature, unable to deal with this question. The subjectivist approach to probability is an extension to logic that is designed specifically to face this challenge. In this paper, we review a number of frequently encountered cognitive issues and cast them into a common Bayesian formalism. The concepts we review are ambiguities, fusion, multimodality, conflicts, modularity, hierarchies and loops. First, each of these concepts is introduced briefly using some examples from the neuroscience, psychophysics or robotics literature. Then, the concept is formalized using a template Bayesian model. The assumptions and common features of these models, as well as their major differences, are outlined and discussed. PMID:20658175

Colas, Francis; Diard, Julien; Bessière, Pierre

2010-09-01

19

Space Station Commonality Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems a...

1988-01-01

20

NSDL Math Common Core  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NSDL Math Common Core collection provides quick and easy access to high-quality math resources that have been related to one or more standard statements within the Math Common Core. These resources are selected from the larger NSDL collection and other trusted providers, and organized by grade level and domain area.

2010-08-10

21

Common Undiagnosed Appendicular Fractures  

PubMed Central

Family physicians working in the emergency room or assessing acutely injured patients in the office often must assess radiographs of suspected fractures. Many common fractures are difficult to diagnose with plain film radiography. This article focuses on some commonly undiagnosed fractures, with illustrations. ImagesFigures 1-2Figures 3-5Figures 6-7Figures 8-9Figure 10

McLennan, Michael K.; Rubenstein, Joel; Howard, Brian

1992-01-01

22

Conceptualizing an Information Commons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concepts from Strategic Alignment, a technology-management theory, are used to discuss the Information Commons as a new service-delivery model in academic libraries. The Information Commons, as a conceptual, physical, and instructional space, involves an organizational realignment from print to the digital environment. (Author)

Beagle, Donald

1999-01-01

23

Testing for Common Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cointegrated multiple time series share at least one common trend. Two tests are developed for the number of common stochastic trends (i.e., for the order of cointegration) in a multiple time series with and without drift. Both tests involve the roots of the ordinary least squares coefficient matrix obtained by regressing the series onto its first lag. Critical values for

James H. Stock; Mark W. Watson

1988-01-01

24

Communication and common interest.  

PubMed

Explaining the maintenance of communicative behavior in the face of incentives to deceive, conceal information, or exaggerate is an important problem in behavioral biology. When the interests of agents diverge, some form of signal cost is often seen as essential to maintaining honesty. Here, novel computational methods are used to investigate the role of common interest between the sender and receiver of messages in maintaining cost-free informative signaling in a signaling game. Two measures of common interest are defined. These quantify the divergence between sender and receiver in their preference orderings over acts the receiver might perform in each state of the world. Sampling from a large space of signaling games finds that informative signaling is possible at equilibrium with zero common interest in both senses. Games of this kind are rare, however, and the proportion of games that include at least one equilibrium in which informative signals are used increases monotonically with common interest. Common interest as a predictor of informative signaling also interacts with the extent to which agents' preferences vary with the state of the world. Our findings provide a quantitative description of the relation between common interest and informative signaling, employing exact measures of common interest, information use, and contingency of payoff under environmental variation that may be applied to a wide range of models and empirical systems. PMID:24244116

Godfrey-Smith, Peter; Martínez, Manolo

2013-01-01

25

Common variable immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a common primary immunodeficiency characterized by a failure in B-cell differentiation with defective immunoglobulin production. Affected patients are uniquely susceptible to recurrent infection with encapsulated organisms and have an increased propensity for the development of inflammatory and autoimmune manifestations. The diagnosis of CVID is commonly delayed and the underlying cause of the disorder is not understood. Replacement antibody therapy reduces the risk of serious infections. However, optimal treatment regimens for the uncommon manifestations associated with this disease, such as granulomatous lymphocytic interstitial lung disease, require further research.

Tam, Jonathan S.

2013-01-01

26

Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... arch supports into shoes to reduce foot pain. Toe Walking Toe walking is common among toddlers as ... stretch the calf muscles. Continue In-Toeing (Pigeon Toes) In-toeing (medical name: femoral anteversion), or walking ...

27

Metabolism - Common Metabolism Concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explains how solar energy is the energy source for almost all living systems on earth. Photosynthesis, catabolic reactions, and anabolic reactions are briefly discussed. Lastly, common questions are answered about converting food to energy.

28

Common peroneal nerve dysfunction  

MedlinePLUS

Neuropathy - common peroneal nerve; Peroneal nerve injury; Peroneal nerve palsy ... The peroneal nerve is a branch of the sciatic nerve, which supplies movement and sensation to the lower leg, foot and ...

29

Barry Commoner Assails Petrochemicals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Commoner's ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

1973-01-01

30

Common MANET Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This effort researched, developed and demonstrated a Common Mobile Ad-hoc Networking (MANET) framework (CMF) to provide a uniform abstraction for wireless discovery, communication, and routing of network traffic over heterogeneous transmission technologie...

G. Frazier

2008-01-01

31

Commonly Occurring VHL Manifestations  

MedlinePLUS

... Most Common Ages at DX Frequency in Patients CNS Retinal hemangioblastomas 0-68 yrs 12-25 yrs ... Occurring VHL Manifestations Kidney Brain and Spinal Cord / CNS Retina Pancreas Inner Ear Pheochromocytoma / Paraganglioma Reproductive Organs ...

32

Common skin conditions.  

PubMed Central

Four common conditions: acne, psoriasis, eczema and urticaria are considered. Guidance is given on appropriate topical and systematic treatment for the different types and degrees of these conditions, with notes on management in general and criteria for referral to hospital outpatient departments. Where there are different types of the condition, with varying aetiology, for example in urticaria and eczema, management of the common types is outlined.

Ridley, M.; Safranek, M.

1992-01-01

33

The Federal Commons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1999, the Federal Financial Assistance Management Improvement Act was passed in order to force the development of federal electronic grant processing. A result of the legislation, the Federal Commons portal gives "grantees (state and local governments, universities, small businesses, etc.) full service grants processing across all functions in the grant life cycle." While providing only an entrance to various grant institutions and services, the Federal Commons helps to eliminate the maze-like trail that multi-grant projects sometimes must travel to get to grant proposal Web sites. Most physical sciences researchers will find relevant federal departments listed under the Science and Technology link.

34

Common-place  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This promising new quarterly online publication situates itself somewhere between a popular magazine and scholarly journal, offering a common place for a variety of readers "to explore and exchange ideas about American history." Similar in some ways to the UK-based popular history magazine History Today, Common-place offers a mix of articles, short features, and reviews aimed at an interested and informed, but not necessarily academic, audience. A discussion board is planned for the near future, and users may subscribe for email notification of new issues.

35

Common Cause Failure Modes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

2011-01-01

36

Trypanosoma brucei Infection in Asymptomatic Greater Kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a Game Ranch in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Trypomastogotes of Trypanosoma brucei were detected from 4 asymptomatic kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch located approximately 45 km north east of Lusaka, Zambia. Blood smears examined from 14 wildlife species comprising of the impala (Aepyceros melampus), Kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), puku (Kobus vardoni), zebra (Equus burchelli), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), wilderbeest (Connochaetes taurinus), hartebeest (Alcephelus lichtensteini), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) showed that only the kudu had T. brucei. Although game ranching has emerged to be a successful ex-situ conservation strategy aimed at saving the declining wildlife population in the National Parks, our findings suggest that it has the potential of aiding the re-distribution of animal diseases. Hence, there is a need for augmenting wildlife conservation with disease control strategies aimed at reducing the risk of disease transmission between wildlife and domestic animals.

Siamudaala, Victor; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew; Mutoloki, Stephen; Matandiko, Wigganson

2010-01-01

37

Trypanosoma brucei Infection in asymptomatic greater Kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch in Zambia.  

PubMed

Trypomastogotes of Trypanosoma brucei were detected from 4 asymptomatic kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch located approximately 45 km north east of Lusaka, Zambia. Blood smears examined from 14 wildlife species comprising of the impala (Aepyceros melampus), Kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), puku (Kobus vardoni), zebra (Equus burchelli), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), wilderbeest (Connochaetes taurinus), hartebeest (Alcephelus lichtensteini), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) showed that only the kudu had T. brucei. Although game ranching has emerged to be a successful ex-situ conservation strategy aimed at saving the declining wildlife population in the National Parks, our findings suggest that it has the potential of aiding the re-distribution of animal diseases. Hence, there is a need for augmenting wildlife conservation with disease control strategies aimed at reducing the risk of disease transmission between wildlife and domestic animals. PMID:20333288

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew; Mutoloki, Stephen; Matandiko, Wigganson

2010-03-01

38

Common Set of Definitions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A common set of definitions for Title XX services is found in this booklet. The service descriptors were prepared from a study conducted by Boston College Graduate School of Social Work under a grant from HEW. The definitions, program elements, and activi...

1979-01-01

39

COMMON LISP: The language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book describes COMMON LISP,which is becoming the industry and government standard AI language. Topics covered include the following: data types; scope and extent; type specifiers; program structure; predicates; control structure; macros; declarations; symbols; packages; numbers; characters; sequences; lists; hash tables; arrays; strings; structures; the evaluator; streams; input\\/output; file system interface; and errors.

G. L. Steele; G. L. Jr

1984-01-01

40

A Language in Common.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles reprinted from the "London Times Literary Supplement" indicates the flexibility of English as a common literary language in its widespread use outside the United States and England. Major articles present the thesis that English provides an artistic medium which is enriched through colloquial idioms in the West Indies…

1963

41

Space station commonality analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

1988-01-01

42

Solving Common Mathematical Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

Luz, Paul L.

2005-01-01

43

Common Standards for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

Principal, 2010

2010-01-01

44

Discovering Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use pattern blocks to represent fractions with unlike denominators. Students discover that they need to convert all the pattern blocks to the same shape in order to add them. Therefore, they find and use common denominators for the addition of fractions.

Kloper, Adam

2012-07-22

45

Information Commons to Go  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

Bayer, Marc Dewey

2008-01-01

46

Math, Literacy, & Common Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly every state has signed on to use the Common Core State Standards as a framework for teaching English/language arts and mathematics to students. Translating them for the classroom, however, requires schools, teachers, and students to change the way they approach teaching and learning. This report examines the progress some states have made…

Education Week, 2012

2012-01-01

47

Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

Olson, Mark

2013-01-01

48

Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol  

MedlinePLUS

Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:May 29,2014 Cholesterol can be both good and bad, so it's important to learn the facts about ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

49

Human Commonalities and Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educator Ernest Boyer believed that well-educated students should do more than master isolated facts. They should understand the "connectedness of things." He suggested organizing curriculum thematically around eight commonalities shared by people around the world. In the book "The Basic School: A Community for Learning," Boyer recommends that…

Passmore, Kaye

2008-01-01

50

Common Compound Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database, part of a college-level chemistry course, provides information on hundreds of compounds, elements, and substances encountered in introductory chemistry courses and in everyday life. The informaion includes chemical synonyms, molecular weights, structures, equilibrium constants, thermodynamic properties, and common uses, with properties presented in a variety of common units. Structure information includes flat structural formulas, ball and stick models, electron density/electric potential maps, and Chime "live" structures that can be rotated and queried for bond lengths, bond angles, and torsion angles. The site also includes links to the course website, a glossary, a frequently-asked-questions feature, information on sources used in constructing the database, and many other resources.

Senese, Frederick A.

51

Common tester platform concept.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

Hurst, Michael James

2008-05-01

52

Common Anorectal Disorders  

PubMed Central

Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management.

Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

2014-01-01

53

Common Skin Cancers  

PubMed Central

Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common forms of skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. Early detection is the key to successful management. In this article, the salient clinical features and diagnostic clues for these tumors and their precursor lesions are presented. Current management guidelines are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figures 4-6Figures 7-9

Ho, Vincent C.

1992-01-01

54

Six Common Air Pollutants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EPA's site about the six common air pollutants is a great resource for the public, or for anyone studying or teaching about air pollution and other environmental issues. Air pollution trends are outlined on the site and a brief backround shows highlights of air pollutant history including the Clean Air Act and different standards. This site is a great place to find the most recent information about air pollutants and quality in the U.S.

2008-11-25

55

Common penile problems.  

PubMed

A variety of penile problems are commonly seen by primary care physicians. This article reviews the diagnosis, evaluation, and management of congenital conditions such as hypospadias, chordee, webbed and buried penis, duplicated urethra, ambiguous genitalia, and micropenis. Acquired emergent conditions, including minor trauma and paraphimosis, are also discussed, with a particular emphasis on initial evaluation and management. Conditions associated with erectile dysfunction, including priapism and Peyronie disease, are reviewed. PMID:20705203

Wan, Julian; Rew, Karl T

2010-09-01

56

Common drive unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

1987-01-01

57

Addition with Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers can use this interactive tool to help students build a conceptual understanding of adding fractions with common denominators by linking visual models to procedures. Students first add using models, and then progress to using numbers. This page includes a video demonstration of the tool and sample lessons from the Conceptua curriculum. Free registration is required to use the tool. A paid subscription is necessary to access full curriculum and allow full student use.

2011-01-01

58

Ten Common NWP Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Webcast introduces forecasters to ten of the most commonly encountered or significant misconceptions about NWP models. It attempts to dispel these misconceptions with the truth about how NWP is performed and provides advice on how NWP products may be used more effectively with this knowledge. Based on a teletraining session delivery in 2001, the content has been revised and updated, and new examples are drawn from both U.S. and Canadian models.

Spangler, Tim

2002-01-01

59

Boston University Digital Common  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boston University has a range of scholars, from those who research the hospitality field to others who are fascinated by the world of photonics. The University's Digital Common Repository contains thousands of documents and publications that span this wide range, authored or co-authored by BU faculty, students, and staff. The different communities here are divided into sections that include College of Arts and Sciences, Centers & Institutes, and Metropolitan College. Visitors will find religious sermons, pieces of music, working economics papers, and a vast cornucopia of other materials. Also, visitors are encouraged to use the Browse feature to look for documents by title, subject, author, or date.

60

CPL: Common Pipeline Library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules (using programs such as EsoRex).

ESO CPL Development Team

2014-02-01

61

Evidence of helping behavior in a free-ranging population of communally breeding warthogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperative breeding societies are defined by the presence of helpers. Defining helping behavior in cooperatively breeding\\u000a mammals has been difficult because lactation limits the ability of individuals to provision non-genetic young. As a consequence,\\u000a “helping” behavior has frequently included predator and conspecific defense and thermoregulation. However, these behaviors\\u000a are often associated with the benefits of group living and their expression

Angela M. White; Elissa Z. Cameron

62

Common imitators of epilepsy.  

PubMed

Many episodic phenomena involving motor, sensory, autonomic, and behavioral functions may imitate epilepsy. The aim of this article is to focus on the various manifestations and the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of the most common of these disorders, as well as their relationship to emotional aspects. Syncope is caused by reduced global cerebral perfusion. Convulsive movements are sometimes released from subcortical structures, but do not follow the characteristic sequence of tonic-clonic seizures, and postictal symptoms are minimal. Hyperventilation attacks are caused by the metabolic consequences of hypocapnia. Altered blood pH and cerebral vasoconstriction may cause a range of peripheral and central nervous system symptoms. Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are attacks of reduced self-control associated with various behavioral phenomena, usually beyond voluntary control. A detailed clinical history is the most important tool in the differential diagnosis. Various emotional factors may act as immediate triggers in reflex syncope and hyperventilation attacks, whereas in PNES, emotional traumas may be remote and suppressed. Patient education with appropriate explanation of the underlying mechanisms is a fundamental part of the management of these disorders. PMID:23190285

Brodtkorb, E

2013-01-01

63

The Common Land Model.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Common Land Model (CLM) was developed for community use by a grassroots collaboration of scientists who have an interest in making a general land model available for public use and further development. The major model characteristics include enough unevenly spaced layers to adequately represent soil temperature and soil moisture, and a multilayer parameterization of snow processes; an explicit treatment of the mass of liquid water and ice water and their phase change within the snow and soil system; a runoff parameterization following the TOPMODEL concept; a canopy photosynthesis-conductance model that describes the simultaneous transfer of CO2 and water vapor into and out of vegetation; and a tiled treatment of the subgrid fraction of energy and water balance. CLM has been extensively evaluated in offline mode and coupling runs with the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3). The results of two offline runs, presented as examples, are compared with observations and with the simulation of three other land models [the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS), Bonan's Land Surface Model (LSM), and the 1994 version of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Atmospheric Physics LSM (IAP94)].

Dai, Yongjiu; Zeng, Xubin; Dickinson, Robert E.; Baker, Ian; Bonan, Gordon B.; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Denning, A. Scott; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Houser, Paul R.; Niu, Guoyue; Oleson, Keith W.; Schlosser, C. Adam; Yang, Zong-Liang

2003-08-01

64

Rainfall influences on ungulate population abundance in the Mara-Serengeti ecosystem.  

PubMed

1. Rainfall is the prime climatic factor underpinning the dynamics of African savanna ungulates, but no study has analysed its influence on the abundance of these ungulates at monthly to multiannual time scales. 2. We report relationships between rainfall and changes in age- and sex-structured abundances of seven ungulate species monitored monthly for 15 years using vehicle ground counts in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya. 3. Abundance showed strong and curvilinear relationships with current and cumulative rainfall, with older topi, Damaliscus korrigum (Ogilby); warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus (Pallas); waterbuck, Kobus ellipsyprimnus (Ogilby); and impala, Aepyceros melampus (Lichtenstein) responding to longer lags than younger animals, portraying carryover effects of prior habitat conditions. 4. The abundances of newborn calves were best correlated with monthly rainfall averaged over the preceding 5-6 months for topi, waterbuck, warthog, and 2 months for the migratory zebra Equus burchelli (Gray), but with seasonal rainfall averaged over 2-5 years for giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis (L.); impala; and kongoni, Alcelaphus busephalus (Pallas). The cumulative late wet-season rainfall was the best predictor of abundance for quarter- to full-grown animals for most species. Monthly rainfall exerted both negative and positive effects on the abundances of zebra, impala and waterbuck. Ignoring age, both sexes responded similarly to rainfall. 5. Births were strongly seasonal only for warthog and topi, but peaked between August and December for most species. Hence abundance was strongly seasonal for young topi and warthog and the migratory zebra. Pronounced seasonality in births for warthog and topi obliterated otherwise strong relationships between abundance and rainfall when both month and rainfall were included in the same model. Aggregated density produced relationships with rainfall similar to those for fully grown animals, emphasizing the necessity of demographic monitoring to reliably reveal rainfall influences on ungulate abundance in the Mara. 6. Strong relationships between abundance and rainfall suggest that rainfall underpins the dynamics of African savanna ungulates, and that changes in rainfall due to global warming may markedly alter the abundance and diversity of these mammals. Ungulates respond to rainfall fluctuations through movements, reproduction or survival, and the responses appear independent of breeding phenology and synchrony, dietary guild, or degree of water dependence. Newborns and adults have contrasting responses to rainfall. Males and females respond similarly to rainfall when age is ignored. PMID:18422558

Ogutu, J O; Piepho, H-P; Dublin, H T; Bhola, N; Reid, R S

2008-07-01

65

Common sense concepts about motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common sense beliefs of college students about motion and its causes are surveyed and analyzed. A taxonomy of common sense concepts which conflict with Newtonian theory is developed as a guide to instruction.

Halloun, Ibrahim; Hestenes, David

2005-11-02

66

Common Mapping Interface Control (CMIC).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the work conducted under the Common Mapping Interface Control (CNIC) task. The objective of this effort was to provide configuration management, software maintenance, and user support for the software developed under the Common Mapp...

D. A. Kolassa

1995-01-01

67

The Common Geometry Module (CGM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built

Tautges; Timothy James

2004-01-01

68

Culture and the Common School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay addresses the question: given the flattening out of the cultural hierarchy that was the vestige of colonialism and nation-building, is there anything that might be uniquely common about the common school in this postmodern age? By "uniquely common" I do not mean those subjects that all schools might teach, such as reading or arithmetic.…

Feinberg, Walter

2007-01-01

69

Methods of Multivariate Commonality Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advantages of the use of multivariate commonality analysis are discussed and a small data set is used to illustrate the analysis and as a model to enable readers to conduct such an analysis. A noteworthy advantage of commonality analysis is that commonality honors the relationships among variables by determining the degree to which predictors in a…

Campbell, Kathleen T.

70

Leading the Common Core State Standards: From Common Sense to Common Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many educators agree that we already know how to foster student success, so what is keeping common sense from becoming common practice? The author provides step-by-step guidance for overcoming the barriers to adopting the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and achieving equity and excellence for all students. As an experienced teacher and…

Dunkle, Cheryl A.

2012-01-01

71

Constructing the Commons: Practical Projects To Build the Information Commons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several projects aimed at building the Information Commons, including: Knowledge Conservancy plans to create a database of all freely available digitized content; the Universal Library, a project with the long-term goal of providing free, online access to all books; and several projects of the Creative Commons intended to build a robust…

Lee, Daniel R.

2003-01-01

72

Lunar and Martian hardware commonality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of different hardware elements were examined for possible Moon/Mars program commonality. These include manned landers; cargo landers, a trans-Mars injection (TMI) stage, traverse vehicles, unmanned surface rovers, habitation modules, and power supplies. Preliminary analysis indicates that it is possible to build a common two-stage manned lander. A single-stage, reusable lander may be practical for the lunar cast, but much less so for the Martian case, and commonality may therefore exist only at the subsystem level. A modified orbit transfer vehicle was examined as a potential cargo lander. Potential cargoes to various destinations were calculated for a Shuttle external tank sized TMI stage. A nuclear powered, long range traverse vehicle was conceptually designed and commonality is considered feasible. Short range, unmanned rovers can be made common without great effort. A surface habitation module may be difficult to make common due to difficulties in landing certain shapes on the Martian surface with aerobraking landers. Common nuclear power sources appear feasible. High temperature radiators appear easy to make common. Low temperature radiators may be difficult to make common. In most of these cases, Martian requirements determine the design.

Davis, Hubert P.; Johnson, Robert E.; Phillips, Paul G.; Spear, Donald S.; Stump, William R.; Williams, Franklin U.

1986-01-01

73

OSTA commonality analysis, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 13 OSTA disciplines are examined and the applications being performed under each discipline and the parameter requirements associated with the various applications are identified. It contains a variety of printouts from the commonality database built using DRS on the Vax. It also shows commonality of parameter requirements by discipline and by application.

Stolarik, E. G.

1981-01-01

74

Commonalities in the order book  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses data from one of the most important European stock markets and shows that, in line with predictions from theoretical market microstructure, a small number of latent factors captures most of the variation in stock specific order books. We show that these order book commonalities are much stronger than liquidity commonality across stocks. The result that bid and

Helena Beltran-Lopez; Pierre Giot; Joachim Grammig

2006-01-01

75

Common injections in musculoskeletal medicine.  

PubMed

Musculoskeletal injections are a common procedure in primary care and sports medicine but can be intimidating for some clinicians. This article addresses current evidence for corticosteroid injections, and common injection indications and techniques, namely knee, subacromial bursa, glenohumeral joint, lateral epicondyle, de Quervain tenosynovitis, and greater trochanteric bursa injections. Preparation for injections and some evidence for ultrasound guidance are also reviewed. PMID:24209729

Monseau, Aaron J; Nizran, Parminder Singh

2013-12-01

76

2 COMMON COIL MAGNET SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the common coil magnet system for the proposed very large hadron collider (VLHC) (1). In this system, the high energy booster (HEB), the injector to VLHC, is integrated as the iron dominated low field aperture within the coldmass of the common coil magnet design introduced earlier (2). This 4-in-1 magnet concept for a 2-in-1 machine should provide

Ramesh Gupta

77

Genetics of Common, Complex Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Stroke Diabetes The underlying genetic causes of these common diseases were poorly understood. TODAY Complex diseases are now ... diabetes, heart disease, prostate cancer, Crohn’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and a common cause of age-related blindness known as macular ...

78

Remedies for Common Cold Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Individuals suffering from intolerable symptoms of the common cold can now be advised of safe and effective products for symptomatic relief. This article describes and discusses four categories of drugs used to treat the common cold. To simplify the product selection process for family physicians, suggestions are included for possible ingredients for treatments of specific cold symptoms.

Miller, Penny F.

1991-01-01

79

Personal Finance. Common Curriculum Goals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides the common curriculum goals for the state of Oregon in personal finance, an area of study that relates basic economic concepts and practices to the financial concerns of consumers. These goals were designed to define what should be taught in all public school settings. The common curriculum goals in personal finance are…

Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

80

Building on the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards, released in June 2010, offer an opportunity to shift education away from shallow, test-prep instruction and toward a focus on key cognitive skills, writes Conley. Two consortia of states are now developing common assessments to measure these standards--assessments that will be designed to capture deeper, more…

Conley, David T.

2011-01-01

81

Commonality Analysis: A Practical Example.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commonality analysis was used to look for school effects in gains in reading test scores for 877 fourth to sixth grade children in Elementary Secondary Education Act Title I remedial reading programs. The four groups of predictor variables that were investigated were background, mental ability, parental involvement, and school program. Commonality

DeVito, Pasquale J.

82

Understanding Common Core State Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now that the Common Core standards are coming to just about every school, what every school leader needs is a straightforward explanation that lays out the benefits of the Common Core in plain English, provides a succinct overview, and gets everyone thinking about how to transition to this promising new paradigm. This handy, inexpensive booklet…

Kendall, John S.

2011-01-01

83

Researching the Information Commons (RIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper seeks to describe the establishment and progress of an online initiative: RIC – Researching the Information Commons. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Who has really challenged and thought through in a research sense about the issues that surround the commons provision of information; a concept dear to the hearts of many of the world's librarians? This question leads to

Kerry Smith

2011-01-01

84

Learning Words with Common Rimes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An extensive research review by M. Adams (1990) led her to the conclusion that providing instruction and reinforcement in learning common rimes is highly beneficial in fostering growth in learning to read. While substantial amounts of reading, either independent or with partners, is critical in learning words with common rimes, focused study is…

Dwyer, Edward J.

85

Commonality analysis for the NASA Space Station Common Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of commonality to enhance cost savings, as applied to NASA's Space Station Common Module (CM), is explored. The equipment to be included in the CM is organized by subsystems of structure, power, thermal, command and data handling, environmental control and life support, and crew station. The weight, volume, and quantity of each instrument item will be subsequently added to support a cost model. The CM concept, its reference configuration, power distribution and management, and cost sensitivity options are discussed in detail. Some computer programs are outlined, stressing the importance of the existing capabilities of the STS and the optimum commonality case.

Powell, L. E.; Beam, E. E.

1985-01-01

86

Adolescents' theories of the commons.  

PubMed

Drawing from research on civic engagement and environmental commitment, we make a case for the processes inherent in how adolescents' ideas about the commons (those things that bind a polity together) develop. Engagement in the public realm with a plethora of perspectives and a goal of finding common ground is fundamental. Adolescents participate in the public realm through mini-polities (e.g., schools, community organizations). Practices in those settings can reinforce or challenge dominant political narratives. Special attention is given to the natural environment as a commons that transcends generations and to the opportunities in schools and in community partnerships that enable adolescents to realize their interdependence with nature and to author decisions about the commons. PMID:24851345

Flanagan, Constance; Gallay, Erin

2014-01-01

87

Osta Commonality Analysis, Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 13 OSTA disciplines are examined and the applications being performed under each discipline and the parameter requirements associated with the various applications are identified. It contains a variety of printouts from the commonality database built ...

E. G. Stolarik

1981-01-01

88

Common Infant and Newborn Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... health problems in babies include colds, coughs, fevers, and vomiting. Babies also commonly have skin problems, like ... to know how to help your sick baby, and to know the warning signs for more serious ...

89

Common Prostate Cancer Questions Answered  

MedlinePLUS

... with Cancer , Prevention/Early Detection , Prostate Cancer Common Prostate Cancer Questions Answered Article date: August 29, 2009 ... your 50s, should you being getting screened for prostate cancer? Answer: Researchers still don’t know for ...

90

6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... for early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized ...

91

Habitat Suitability Information: Common Shiner.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for the common shiner (Notropis cornutus). The models are scaled to produce indices of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (opt...

J. G. Trial C. S. Wade J. G. Stanley P. C. Nelson

1983-01-01

92

Autoimmunity in Common Variable Immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common clinically significant primary immune defect. Although the hallmark of CVID is hypogammaglobulinemia, the intrinsic dysregulation of the immune system leads to defective T-cell activation and proliferation, as well as dendritic cell and cytokine defects. Although 70% to 80% of patients have had recurrent sinopulmonary infections, auto-immunity and inflammatory complications are also common. The most common autoimmune conditions are immune thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic anemia, but other autoimmune complications arise, including rheumatoid arthritis, pernicious anemia, primary biliary cirrhosis, thyroiditis, sicca syndrome, systemic lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment of autoimmunity includes high-dose immunoglobulins, corticosteroids, selected immunosuppressants, and other immune modulators. This review focuses on autoimmune conditions associated with CVID, potential mechanisms of immune dysregulation, and therapeutic strategies.

Agarwal, Shradha; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

2010-01-01

93

Common pressure vessel battery performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance tests run on two common pressure vessel type nickel hydrogen batteries are described and the results presented. The study included: (1) charge retention tests, (2) synchronous eclipse season cycling tests, and (3) temperature differential tests.

Otzinger, B.

1978-01-01

94

Common Core in Mathematics: Overview  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 13-minute video shows CCSS contributing author David Coleman discussing the background of the Common Core State Standards, their value in the state, the principles of their development, and the changes required of schools during this transition. The video details six important shifts in math instruction that will take place through the Common Core, these include: more focus, coherence, fluency, deeper understanding, flexible application, and dual intensity. Included with this video are resources for teachers and discussion questions.

Engageny

2011-01-01

95

Complications of common carpal injuries.  

PubMed

Interest in the diagnosis and treatment of common disorders of the carpus has intensified in recent years. Although newer nonoperative and surgical procedures have developed to improve outcome, complications and their treatment remain a challenging problem. To address complications of the more common carpal injuries, we have chosen fractures of the scaphoid, scapholunate ligament injuries, carpal fracture dislocations, and fractures of the hook of the hamate for discussion. PMID:8188775

Culp, R W; Lemel, M; Taras, J S

1994-02-01

96

Orbit Evolution in Common Envelopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study how the inclination angle and eccentricity evolve during a common envelope phase. During a common envelope phase, a compact star is swallowed by its giant companion and spirals into a tighter orbit. A close binary results if the compact star releases enough energy to expel the envelope. We investigate possible fossil evidence of the common envelope phase on the inclination angle and the eccentricity. A convective common envelope leads to force component perpendicular to the orbital plane, and thus change the orbital inclination. This makes it harder to uniquely identify the signature of neutron star natal kicks. A common envelope is usually assumed to circularize orbits, but some eccentricity in fact arises both from the spiral-in process itself, and from random forces in the orbital plane. When the envelope is expelled, it might seem that the binary system would preserve whatever eccentricity had been established at the final stage of the inspiral. But tidal dissipation by the residual envelope can reduce the eccentricity. The final eccentricity depends on which of these effects wins or how they balance each other. We discuss applications and observational tests of these predictions.

Luan, Jing; Phinney, E. S.

2011-09-01

97

Surveying the Commons: Current Implementation of Information Commons Web sites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the content of 72 academic library Information Commons (IC) Web sites using content analysis, quantitative assessment and qualitative surveys of site administrators to analyze current implementation by the academic library community. Results show that IC Web sites vary widely in content, design and functionality, with few…

Leeder, Christopher

2009-01-01

98

Creative Commons and Why It Should Be More Commonly Understood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Authors, videographers, musicians, photographers, and almost anyone who creates materials and makes them publicly available has an alternative to standard copyright licensing: Creative Commons (CC). It is a tool that helps the creator display a licensing mark. The creator can assign a variety of rights for others to use his work--rights that are…

Johnson, Doug

2009-01-01

99

Common and rare variants in multifactorial susceptibility to common diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we give a historical overview of the search for genetic variants that influence the susceptibility of an individual to a chronic disease, from RA Fisher's seminal work to the current excitement of whole-genome association studies (WGAS). We then discuss the concepts behind the identification of common variants as disease causal factors and contrast them to the basic ideas that

Walter Bodmer; Carolina Bonilla

2008-01-01

100

Vibrio chromosomes share common history  

PubMed Central

Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II) were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes.

2010-01-01

101

Common misconceptions about professional licensure.  

PubMed

Although most health care professionals know that licensing boards can take disciplinary action against them for professional misconduct or gross negligence in clinical practice, nurses may not appreciate the true extent of authority the nursing boards maintain or the issues they address. This three-part series will discuss nursing disciplinary actions and provide tips for maintaining one's license in good standing. Part 1 discusses misconceptions nurses commonly have about licensure. Part 2 will discuss common reasons boards of nursing conduct investigations and take disciplinary action. Part 3 will be a discussion of strategies for protecting your license. PMID:23013700

Brous, Edie

2012-10-01

102

Common whiplash: psychosomatic or somatopsychic?  

PubMed Central

One hundred and seventeen randomly selected patients were assessed for different psychological variables (personality traits, wellbeing, and cognitive ability) in relation to somatic symptoms after common whiplash. Patients were investigated at an average of 7.4 (SD 4.2) days after trauma and again at three and six months. The course of recovery could not be explained by the patients' disposition. The results indicated that improvement in wellbeing was associated with recovery from somatic symptoms. There was, however, cognitive impairment in patients who suffered from symptoms. These findings support the view that the psychological and cognitive problems of patients with common whiplash are mainly related to somatic symptoms.

Radanov, B P; Di Stefano, G; Schnidrig, A; Sturzenegger, M

1994-01-01

103

Common-Sense Rule Inference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper we show how rule-based inference can be made more flexible by exploiting semantic information associated with the concepts involved in the rules. We introduce flexible forms of common sense reasoning in which whenever no rule applies to a given situation, the inference engine can fire rules that apply to more general or to similar situations. This can be obtained by defining new forms of match between rules and the facts in the working memory and new forms of conflict resolution. We claim that in this way we can overcome some of the brittleness problems that are common in rule-based systems.

Lombardi, Ilaria; Console, Luca

104

Common Lisp Pretty Printing System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

XP provides efficient and flexible support for pretty printing in Common Lisp. Its single greatest advantage is that it allows the full benefits of pretty printing to be obtained when printing data structures, as well as when printing program code. XP is ...

R. C. Waters

1989-01-01

105

Cosmic Commons: Contact and Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we Homo sapiens on planet Earth prepare for possible contact with extraterrestrial life (ET)—especially extraterrestrial intelligent (ETI) life—we need to consider ethics. What will be the ethical posture we adopt as Earth meets space? This article advocates an ethic of praxis based upon the concept of a Cosmic Commons. Intelligent extraterrestrial beings, from their experiences in biotic and abiotic

John Hart

2010-01-01

106

Core Values: Our Common Ground.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests some key distinctions to be made in looking toward a common ground of core values for guidance and meaning in the world of library leadership today. Discusses core values of the importance of words, people, and learning. (Author/LRW)

Rodger, Joey

1998-01-01

107

Common sleep disorders in children.  

PubMed

Up to 50% of children will experience a sleep problem. Early identification of sleep problems may prevent negative consequences, such as daytime sleepiness, irritability, behavioral problems, learning difficulties, motor vehicle crashes in teenagers, and poor academic performance. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs in 1% to 5% of children. Polysomnography is needed to diagnose the condition because it may not be detected through history and physical examination alone. Adenotonsillectomy is the primary treatment for most children with obstructive sleep apnea. Parasomnias are common in childhood; sleepwalking, sleep talking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors tend to occur in the first half of the night, whereas nightmares are more common in the second half of the night. Only 4% of parasomnias will persist past adolescence; thus, the best management is parental reassurance and proper safety measures. Behavioral insomnia of childhood is common and is characterized by a learned inability to fall and/or stay asleep. Management begins with consistent implementation of good sleep hygiene practices, and, in some cases, use of extinction techniques may be appropriate. Delayed sleep phase disorder is most common in adolescence, presenting as difficulty falling asleep and awakening at socially acceptable times. Treatment involves good sleep hygiene and a consistent sleep-wake schedule, with nighttime melatonin and/or morning bright light therapy as needed. Diagnosing restless legs syndrome in children can be difficult; management focuses on trigger avoidance and treatment of iron deficiency, if present. PMID:24695508

Carter, Kevin A; Hathaway, Nathanael E; Lettieri, Christine F

2014-03-01

108

Ten Common Desktop Design Pitfalls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Users of desktop publishing may be distracted from clear communication by the advanced features of the technology. Common problems include irregularly-shaped blocks of copy, angled type, excessive underlining, widows and orphans, unequal spacing, excessive hyphenation, exaggerated tabs and indents, grammatical errors, cramped logos and addresses,…

Parker, Roger C.

1989-01-01

109

Common menstrual concerns of adolescents  

PubMed Central

Symptoms associated with menstruation are among the most common concerns of adolescent women. However, the factual information that adolescent women need is not always available to them. Physicians can do much to correct the myths and misinformation that the teenager may have concerning her menstrual cycle. This paper addresses clinical office concerns about normal menstruation, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea and dysfunctional uterine bleeding.

Sacks, Diane

1998-01-01

110

NIH Roadmap & the Common Fund  

Cancer.gov

The NIH Roadmap for Medical Research is a series of high impact, trans-NIH programs supported by the NIH Common Fund. These programs address challenges that are priorities for the NIH and medical research but are issues that require the cooperation of more than one NIH institute to address.

111

CCF: The Common Communication Format.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the Common Communication Format (CCF) is to provide a detailed and structured method for recording a number of mandatory and optional data elements in a computer-readable bibliographic record for exchange purposes between two or more computer-based systems. However, it can also be useful within non-computerized bibliographic…

Simmons, Peter, Ed.; Hopkinson, Alan, Ed.

112

Does Common Mean "the Same"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards and the attendant assessments being developed by state consortia create a tremendous opportunity and simultaneous challenge for state boards of education. Many of the issues apply to all boards, even those in states that have not adopted the standards or assessments. Boards will need to think carefully about the…

Conley, David

2012-01-01

113

Treatment of the common cold.  

PubMed

The common cold is a viral illness that affects persons of all ages, prompting frequent use of over-the-counter and prescription medications and alternative remedies. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms (e.g., cough, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea). Dextromethorphan may be beneficial in adults with cough, but its effectiveness has not been demonstrated in children and adolescents. Codeine has not been shown to effectively treat cough caused by the common cold. Although hydrocodone is widely used and has been shown to effectively treat cough caused by other conditions, the drug has not been studied in patients with colds. Topical (intranasal) and oral nasal decongestants have been shown to relieve nasal symptoms and can be used in adolescents and adults for up to three days. Antihistamines and combination antihistamine/decongestant therapies can modestly improve symptoms in adults; however, the benefits must be weighed against potential side effects. Newer nonsedating antihistamines are ineffective against cough. Topical ipratropium, a prescription anticholinergic, relieves nasal symptoms in older children and adults. Antibiotics have not been shown to improve symptoms or shorten illness duration. Complementary and alternative therapies (i.e., Echinacea, vitamin C, and zinc) are not recommended for treating common cold symptoms; however, humidified air and fluid intake may be useful without adverse side effects. Vitamin C prophylaxis may modestly reduce the duration and severity of the common cold in the general population and may reduce the incidence of the illness in persons exposed to physical and environmental stresses. PMID:17323712

Simasek, Madeline; Blandino, David A

2007-02-15

114

Common Core: Solve Math Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond…

Strom, Erich

2012-01-01

115

Common Core: Fact vs. Fiction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite students' interest in informational text, it has played second fiddle in literacy instruction for years. Now, though, nonfiction is getting its turn in the spotlight. The Common Core State Standards require that students become thoughtful consumers of complex, informative texts--taking them beyond the realm of dry textbooks and…

Greene, Kim

2012-01-01

116

A Common Core of Readiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The common core state standards, which have now been adopted by 46 states and the District of Columbia, were designed around the goal of ensuring college and career readiness for all students. In this article, Rothman discusses research showing that a large proportion of U.S. high school graduates are ill-prepared to succeed in college or a…

Rothman, Robert

2012-01-01

117

The Common Core Math Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 40 states have now signed onto the Common Core standards in English language arts and math, which have been both celebrated as a tremendous advance and criticized as misguided and for bearing the heavy thumbprint of the federal government. This article presents an interview with Ze'ev Wurman and W. Stephen Wilson. Wurman, who was a U.S.…

Wurman, Ze'ev; Wilson, W. Stephen

2012-01-01

118

Common Core: Rx for Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When David Coleman, one of the authors of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), spoke to New York educators, he stated that over the last forty years 8th grade reading scores have been flat. Despite doubling expenditures on classroom instruction, there has been little growth. Most educators are aware that what worked for the students of the…

Jaeger, Paige

2012-01-01

119

Common Core: Victory Is Yours!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses how to implement the Common Core State Standards in the classroom. She presents examples and activities that will leave teachers feeling "rosy" about tackling the new standards. She breaks down important benchmarks and shows how other teachers are doing the Core--and loving it!

Fink, Jennifer L. W.

2012-01-01

120

Common Issues in Professional Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most conversations about ethics and professional behavior involve case studies and hypothetical situations. This study identifies and examines the most common concerns in professional behavior as reported by 303 student affairs practitioners in the field. Differences by gender, years of experience, organizational level, institutional type, and…

Janosik, Steven M.

2007-01-01

121

Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Common Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Numerous genetic syndromes have had the cognitive and behavioral components of the phenotype delineated, leading to improved\\u000a diagnosis of the condition, as well as to better management and interventional approaches. This article is a review of some\\u000a of what is known about the neurodevelopmental aspects of some of the more common genetic syndromes.

Helga V. Toriello

122

Scientific Communications and Common Sense.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay raises concerns in regard to the present state of national and international information policy and discusses communication of scientific and technical information, common sense and the laws of science information and scientific communications, and formulation of science information policy. Five sources are given. (EJS)

Burger, Robert H.

1984-01-01

123

Common whiplash: psychosomatic or somatopsychic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and seventeen randomly selected patients were assessed for different psychological variables (personality traits, wellbeing, and cognitive ability) in relation to somatic symptoms after common whiplash. Patients were investigated at an average of 7.4 (SD 4.2) days after trauma and again at three and six months. The course of recovery could not be explained by the patients' disposition. The

B P Radanov; G Di Stefano; A Schnidrig; M Sturzenegger

1994-01-01

124

Common Misconceptions concerning Graduate School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses five common misconceptions that graduate students may have about their future graduate school experiences. Two of these misconceptions are that graduate school would be a continuation of undergraduate experiences and that the study of chemical engineering has nothing to do with human values, ethics, and morals. (JN)

Duda, J. L.

1984-01-01

125

Common Rock-Forming Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of images of the common rock-forming minerals. Along with the image, the physical and chemical properties of each mineral are listed. These include: metallic or nonmetallic luster, light or dark color, chemical formula, mineral group, cleavage, general color, hardness, and other characteristics.

Weiland, Tom

126

Common sense and the common morality in theory and practice.  

PubMed

The unfinished nature of Beauchamp and Childress's account of the common morality after 34 years and seven editions raises questions about what is lacking, specifically in the way they carry out their project, more generally in the presuppositions of the classical liberal tradition on which they rely. Their wide-ranging review of ethical theories has not provided a method by which to move beyond a hypothetical approach to justification or, on a practical level regarding values conflict, beyond a questionable appeal to consensus. My major purpose in this paper is to introduce the thought of Bernard Lonergan as offering a way toward such a methodological breakthrough. In the first section, I consider Beauchamp and Childress's defense of their theory of the common morality. In the second, I relate a persisting vacillation in their argument regarding the relative importance of reason and experience to a similar tension in classical liberal theory. In the third, I consider aspects of Lonergan's generalized empirical method as a way to address problems that surface in the first two sections of the paper: (1) the structural relation of reason and experience in human action; and (2) the importance of theory for practice in terms of what Lonergan calls "common sense" and "general bias." PMID:24526573

Daly, Patrick

2014-06-01

127

Transcutaneous immunization using common chemicals.  

PubMed

Transcutaneous immunization, topical application of vaccines on skin, provides several advantages over needle based immunization. However, simple topical application of vaccines does not generate sufficient immune response due to limited transport of vaccines across the stratum corneum of skin. Here we report that chemicals used in common skin products can enhance the immunogenicity of topically applied antigens. Six hundred formulations of commonly used chemicals were screened systematically for their potency (delivery of antigen) in vitro. A selected subset of these formulations was subsequently tested for their adjuvanticity (activation of immune response) in vitro. Lead formulations were tested in vivo for their ability to generate antibody titers against topically applied ovalbumin, a model antigen. Lead formulations were significantly more effective in generating anti-ovalbumin IgG titers. Our results demonstrate that chemical formulations can be successfully used to deliver antigens and that such formulations can be rationally designed by combinatorial screening of individual chemical components. PMID:19426770

Karande, Pankaj; Arora, Anubhav; Pham, Thien Kahn; Stevens, Daniel; Wojicki, Arthur; Mitragotri, Samir

2009-09-01

128

Common hyperspectral image database design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is to introduce Common hyperspectral image database with a demand-oriented Database design method (CHIDB), which comprehensively set ground-based spectra, standardized hyperspectral cube, spectral analysis together to meet some applications. The paper presents an integrated approach to retrieving spectral and spatial patterns from remotely sensed imagery using state-of-the-art data mining and advanced database technologies, some data mining ideas and

Lixun Tian; Ningfang Liao; Ali Chai

2009-01-01

129

Common Rail Injection System Development  

SciTech Connect

The collaborative research program between the Department of energy and Electro-Motive Diesels, Inc. on the development of common rail fuel injection system for locomotive diesel engines that can meet US EPA Tier 2 exhaust emissions has been completed. This final report summarizes the objectives of the program, work scope, key accomplishments and research findings. The major objectives of this project encompassed identification of appropriate injection strategies by using advanced analytical tools, development of required prototype hardware/controls, investigations of fuel spray characteristics including cavitation phenomena, and validation of hareware using a single-cylinder research locomotive diesel engine. Major milestones included: (1) a detailed modeling study using advanced mathematical models - several various injection profiles that show simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulates on a four stroke-cycle locomotive diesel engine were identified; (2) development of new common rail fuel injection hardware capable of providing these injection profiles while meeting EMD engine and injection performance specifications. This hardware was developed together with EMD's current fuel injection component supplier. (3) Analysis of fuel spray characteristics. Fuel spray numerical studies and high speed photographic imaging analyses were performed. (4) Validation of new hardware and fuel injection profiles. EMD's single-cylinder research diesel engine located at Argonne National Laboratory was used to confirm emissions and performacne predictions. These analytical ane experimental investigations resulted in optimized fuel injection profiles and engine operating conditions that yield reductions in NOx emissions from 7.8 g/bhp-hr to 5.0 g/bhp-hr at full (rated) load. Additionally, hydrocarbon and particulate emissions were reduced considerably when compared to baseline Tier I levels. The most significant finding from the injection optimization process was a 2% to 3% improvement in fuel economy over EMD's traditional Tier I engine hardware configuration. the common rail fuel injection system enabled this added benefit by virtue of an inherent capability to provide multiple injections per power stroke at high fuel rail pressures. On the basis of the findings in this study, EMD concludes that the new electronically-controlled high-pressure common rail injection system has the potential to meet locomotive Tier 2 NOx and particulates emission standards without sacrificing the fuel economy. A number of areas to further improve the injection hardware and engine operating characteristics to further exploit the benefits of common rail injection system have also been identified.

Electro-Motive,

2005-12-30

130

STUDIES ON THE COMMON COLD  

PubMed Central

1. Studies of the cultivation of the virus of common cold in tissue medium, and the capacity of the culture virus to induce infection in human volunteers are reported. 2. Detailed descriptions are given of the methods employed to isolate the virus, preserve and cultivate it, and to test its activity in human volunteers. 3. The virus of common cold can easily be isolated from properly selected patients and cultivated in tissue medium. 4. When kept in the original nasopharyngeal washings, the virus will survive at ice box temperature under anaerobic conditions for at least 13 days. 5. If the nasopharyngeal washings are frozen and dried in vacuo, the virus retains its activity for at least 4 months. 6. The virus of common cold has been proven to multiply in medium containing chick embryo tissue. Such cultures retain their capacity to produce typical infections in human beings for many transfers involving a period of several months. Attempts to cultivate the virus have been successful in seven out of eight instances. 7. Prolonged cultivation of the virus in tissue medium eventually leads to a loss of activity. 8. Strains of virus under cultivation maintain their potency best when transfers are made at 2 and 3 day intervals. 9. After removal from the incubator a culture of virus rapidly becomes inactive whether it be kept under seal in the ice box or frozen and dried in vacuo. 10. The destructive action of the medium can be prevented if the culture is mixed with gum acacia before freezing and drying in vacuo.

Dochez, A. R.; Mills, K. C.; Kneeland, Yale

1936-01-01

131

Common mechanisms of PIKK regulation  

PubMed Central

Kinases in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase related kinase (PIKK) family include ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated), ATR (ATM and Rad3-related), DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), and SMG1 (suppressor with morphological effect on genitalia family member). These atypical protein kinases regulate DNA damage responses, nutrient-dependent signaling, and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. This review focuses on the mechanisms regulating the PIKK family with a strong emphasis on the DNA damage regulated kinases. We outline common regulatory themes and suggest how discoveries about the regulation of one PIKK can be informative for the other family members.

Lovejoy, Courtney A.; Cortez, David

2009-01-01

132

Multiple order common path spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

133

Inverse Common-Reflection-Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Common-Reflection-Surface (CRS) stack method is a powerful tool to produce high-quality stacked images of multicoverage seismic data. As a result of the CRS stack, not only a stacked section, but also a number of attributes defined at each point of that section, are produced. In this way, one can think of the CRS stack method as a transformation from data space to attribute space. Being a purely kinematic method, the CRS stack lacks amplitude information that can be useful for many purposes. Here we propose to fill this gap by means of a combined use of a zero-offset section (that could be a short-offset or amplitude-corrected stacked section) and common midpoint gather. We present an algorithm for an inverse CRS transformation, namely one that (approximately) transforms the CRS attributes back to data space. First synthetic tests provide satisfying results for the two simple cases of single dipping-plane and single circular reflectors with a homogeneous overburden, and provide estimates of the range of applicability, in both midpoint and offset directions. We further present an application for interpolating missing traces in a near-surface, high-resolution seismic experiment, conducted in the alluvial plain of the river Gave de Pau, near Assat, southern France, showing its ability to build coherent signals, where recording was not available. A somewhat unexpected good feature of the algorithm, is that it seems capable to reconstruct signals even in muted parts of the section.

Perroud, H.; Tygel, M.; Freitas, L.

2010-12-01

134

DNA/SNLA commonality program  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Commonality program, initiated by DNA in 1978, was to evaluate e-beam material testing procedures and techniques by comparing material stress and spall data from various US and UK e-beam facilities and experimenters. As part of this joint DNA/SNL/UK Commonality effort, Sandia and Ktech used four different electron-beam machines to investigate various aspects of e-beam energy deposition in three materials. The deposition duration and the deposition profiles were varied, and the resulting stresses were measured. The materials studied were: (1) a low-Z material (A1), (2) a high-Z material (Ta), and (3) a typical porous material, a cermet. Aluminium and tantalum were irradiated using the DNA Blackjack 3 accelerator (60 ns pulse width), the DNA Blackjack 3' accelerator (30 ns pulse width), and the SNLA REHYD accelerator (100 ns pulse width). Propagating stresses were measured using x-cut quartz gauges, carbon gauges, and laser interferometry techniques. Data to determine the influence of deposition duration were obtained over a wide range of energy loadings. The cermet material was studied using the SNLA REHYD and HERMES II accelerators. The e-beam from REHYD generated propagating stresses which were monitored with quartz gauges as a function of sample thickness and energy loadings. The HERMES II accelerator was used to uniformly heat the cermet to determine the Grueneisen parameter and identify the incipient spall condition. Results of these experiments are presented.

Keller, D.V.; Watts, A.J.; Rice, D.A.; Powe, J.; Beezhold, W.

1980-01-01

135

Evolution of a common controller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precedent has shown common controllers must strike a balance between the desire for an integrated user interface design by human factors engineers and support of project-specific data requirements. A common user-interface requires the project-specific data to conform to an internal representation, but project-specific customization is impeded by the implicit rules introduced by the internal data representation. Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) developed the latest version of the Multi-robot Operator Control Unit (MOCU) to address interoperability, standardization, and customization issues by using a modular, extensible, and flexible architecture built upon a sharedworld model. MOCU version 3 provides an open and extensible operator-control interface that allows additional functionality to be seamlessly added with software modules while providing the means to fully integrate the information into a layered game-like user interface. MOCU's design allows it to completely decouple the human interface from the core management modules, while still enabling modules to render overlapping regions of the screen without interference or a priori knowledge of other display elements, thus allowing more flexibility in project-specific customization.

Powell, D.; Barbour, D.; Gilbreath, G.

2012-05-01

136

ALMA Common Software - UTFSM Group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ACS-UTFSM Group was created as a distributed systems research team on astronomical and non-astronomical applications on the year 2004. The choice of the ALMA Common Software framework (ACS) as the development platform came from the experience gained during summerjobs at ESO observatories. After three years of informal contributions to ACS development, the team presented a technology exchange initiative to the ALMA-CONICYT Fund 2006, which was granted in 2007. Through the past years, the UTFSM helped the ACS team with "nice-to-have" applications and testing. Currently the ACS-UTFSM is involved in several contributions to ACS, and the development of a flexible telescope control system (gTCS) framework which aims to encapsulate common requirements and will provide a uniform software. In preparation for this challenging objective, several small projects are currently being developed. The other interesting edge of the team work is the technology transfer initiatives. Several inter-universities collaborations are flourishing (PUC, UCN, UV) after the first ACS Workshop held at the UTFSM this year. Today three former team members are working at NRAO's ALMA Test Facility in Socorro, New Mexico. Two other students will have a summer job next year to work in ALMA related development.

Araya, M.; Avarias, J.; Mora, M.; Tobar, R.

137

Management of common sleep disorders.  

PubMed

Sleep disorders are common and affect sleep quality and quantity, leading to increased morbidity. Patients with sleep disorders can be categorized as those who cannot sleep, those who will not sleep, those with excessive daytime sleepiness, and those with increased movements during sleep. Insomnia, defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep that results in daytime impairment, is diagnosed using history findings and treated with cognitive behavior therapy, with or without sleep hypnotics. Restless legs syndrome is characterized by an urge to move the legs that worsens with rest, is relieved by movement, and often occurs in the evening or at night. Restless legs syndrome is treated based on the frequency of symptoms. Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. It is diagnosed using a sleep log or actigraphy, followed by overnight polysomnography and a multiple sleep latency test. Narcolepsy is treated with stimulants, such as modafinil; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; or gamma hydroxybutyric acid (sodium oxybate). Patients with snoring and witnessed apneas may have obstructive sleep apnea, which is diagnosed using overnight polysomnography. Continuous positive airway pressure is the most common and effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is characterized by increased muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep, resulting in the patient acting out dreams with possible harmful consequences. It is diagnosed based on history and polysomnography findings, and treated with environmental safety measures and melatonin or clonazepam. PMID:23944726

Ramar, Kannan; Olson, Eric J

2013-08-15

138

Common sense in nuclear energy  

SciTech Connect

Public concern about energy resource exhaustion is noted to have developed only after the means (nuclear power) for avoiding this disaster became available and the negative implications of a nuclear society became a focus for anxiety. Ironically, collapse of conventional energy supplies could lead to the nuclear confrontation which anti-nuclear forces claim as the inevitable outcome of nuclear power. A review of the risks, environmental impacts, and political implications of the major energy sources concludes that emotion, not common sense, has made nuclear energy an unpopular option. While the problems of proliferation, radiation protection, waste management, and accident prevention are far from trivial, they will respond to technological improvements and responsible control policies. An historical tradition of fearing new, poorly understood technologies is seen in the reaction to railroads during the early 19th Century. (DCK)

Hoyle, F.; Hoyle, G.

1980-01-01

139

The Common Patterns of Nature  

PubMed Central

We typically observe large-scale outcomes that arise from the interactions of many hidden, small-scale processes. Examples include age of disease onset, rates of amino acid substitutions, and composition of ecological communities. The macroscopic patterns in each problem often vary around a characteristic shape that can be generated by neutral processes. A neutral generative model assumes that each microscopic process follows unbiased or random stochastic fluctuations: random connections of network nodes; amino acid substitutions with no effect on fitness; species that arise or disappear from communities randomly. These neutral generative models often match common patterns of nature. In this paper, I present the theoretical background by which we can understand why these neutral generative models are so successful. I show where the classic patterns come from, such as the Poisson pattern, the normal or Gaussian pattern, and many others. Each classic pattern was often discovered by a simple neutral generative model. The neutral patterns share a special characteristic: they describe the patterns of nature that follow from simple constraints on information. For example, any aggregation of processes that preserves information only about the mean and variance attracts to the Gaussian pattern; any aggregation that preserves information only about the mean attracts to the exponential pattern; any aggregation that preserves information only about the geometric mean attracts to the power law pattern. I present a simple and consistent informational framework of the common patterns of nature based on the method of maximum entropy. This framework shows that each neutral generative model is a special case that helps to discover a particular set of informational constraints; those informational constraints define a much wider domain of non-neutral generative processes that attract to the same neutral pattern.

Frank, Steven A.

2010-01-01

140

Work and common psychiatric disorders  

PubMed Central

Psychiatric disorders are now the most common reason for long-term sickness absence. The associated loss in productivity and the payment of disability benefits places a substantial burden on the economies of many developed countries. The occupational dysfunction associated with psychiatric disorders can also lead to poverty and social isolation. As a result the area of work and psychiatric disorders is a high priority for policymakers. There are two main agendas: for many researchers and clinicians the focus is on the need to overcome stigma and ensure people with severe psychiatric disorders have meaningful work; however the public health agenda predominantly relates to the more common disorders such as depression and anxiety, which contribute a greater burden of disability benefits and pensions. In this review we attempt to address this second agenda. The relatively sparse evidence available reveals a complex field with significant interplay between medical, psychological social and cultural factors. Sick leave can be a ‘process’ as well as an ‘event’. In this review we propose a staged model where different risk and protective factors contribute to the onset of psychiatric disorders in the working population, the onset of short-term sickness absence, and the transition from short- to long-term absence. We also examine strategies to manage psychiatric disorder in the workforce with a view towards returning the employee to work. Our aim in this review is to highlight the complexity of the area, to stimulate debate and to identify important gaps in knowledge where further research might benefit both patients and wider society.

Henderson, M; Harvey, SB; ?verland, S; Mykletun, A; Hotopf, M

2011-01-01

141

Common cutaneous disorders in athletes.  

PubMed

Athletic activity may cause or aggravate skin disorders, which in turn may diminish athletic performance. Since many sporting activities necessitate prolonged exposure to the sun, athletes must avoid painful sunburn which will adversely affect their performance. Drugs and chemicals also may cause photoallergic and/or phototoxic reactions, including polymorphous light eruption and athletes should thus avoid photosensitising drugs and chemicals. The effects of chronic ultraviolet exposure include ageing, pigmentation and skin cancers. The most effective protection against excessive exposure to sunlight is the use of sunscreens, although inadequate application and poor protection in the UVA spectrum may diminish their effectiveness and contact allergies may create other problems. Viral, bacterial and fungal infections are common in athletes due to heat, friction and contact with others. Herpes simplex may be treated with any drying agents (e.g. alcohol) as they are as effective as more expensive topical agents such as acyclovir. Molluscum contagiosum may be spread by close contact or water contact and is treated by superficial incision, cryotherapy or standard wart varnishes. Plantar wart infection is transmitted by swimming pool decks, changing rooms and hand-to-hand from weights in gymnasiums. Plantar warts presenting with pain may be aggressively treated, by blunt dissection, but painless ones are best treated conservatively. Impetigo and folliculitis often develop after trauma. Antibiotics are effective against mild infections while abrasions and lacerations should be cleansed and dressed with occlusive dressings. Diphtheroid bacteria in moist footwear may produce pitted keratolysis and erythrasma. Tinea pedis is common in athletes and probably originates in swimming pools, gymnasium floors and locker rooms. Interdigital, dry-moccasin and pustular-midsole forms can be distinguished. The latter two forms respond to topical antifungal agents, while the interdigital form, a mixed fungal/bacterial infection, is treated with debridement, antibiotics and drying routine similar to the therapy of otitis externa. Nail infections by a variety of organisms may appear as onycholysis with or without paronychia and should be treated with the appropriate antibiotics. Tinea versicolor occurs in heat and humidity. Since Pityrosporum orbiculare is part of the normal flora it often recurs, necessitating regular treatment. Acute trauma injuries include contusions, black heel or petichiae of the heel, black toe (bleeding under the nail), 'jogger's nipple' caused by chafing, and foot blisters. Chronic trauma may result in calluses, corns and paronychia. Plantar corns can be disabling and may be caused by overly tight shoes or abnormalities in biomechanics; treatment includes restoring normal foot function and minimal surgical procedures. Paronychia is treated best by wedge resection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2180022

Conklin, R J

1990-02-01

142

On the common envelope efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we try to use the apparent luminosity versus displacement (i.e. LX versus R) correlation of high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) to constrain the common envelope (CE) efficiency ?CE, which is a key parameter affecting the evolution of the binary orbit during the CE phase. The major updates that are crucial for the CE evolution include a variable ? parameter and a new CE criterion for Hertzsprung gap donor stars, both of which are recently developed. We find that, within the framework of the standard energy formula for CE and core definition at mass X = 10 per cent, a high value of ?CE, i.e. around 0.8-1.0, is more preferable, while ?CE < ˜0.4 likely can not reconstruct the observed LX versus R distribution. However, due to an ambiguous definition for the core boundary in the literature, the used ? here still carries almost two order of magnitude uncertainty, which may translate directly to the expected value of ?CE. We present the detailed components of current HMXBs and their spatial offsets from star clusters, which may be further testified by future observations of HMXB populations in nearby star-forming galaxies.

Zuo, Zhao-Yu; Li, Xiang-Dong

2014-08-01

143

Less common upper limb mononeuropathies.  

PubMed

This article will focus on the less commonly injured nerves of the upper extremity. These nerves may be involved when trauma results in fractures, dislocations, or swelling with resultant nerve compression. Tumors and ganglions can also compress nerves, causing pain and, over time, demyelination or axon degeneration with weakness. Other mechanisms for upper limb nerve injury include participation in high-level sports, that is, those that generate torque about the arm and shoulder, abnormal stresses about the joints and muscles, or muscle hypertrophy, which may result in nerve injury. The goals of this review are to discuss the clinical presentation and possible causes of upper extremity nerve entrapments and to formulate an electrodiagnostic plan for evaluation. Descriptions of the appropriate nerve conduction studies or needle electromyographic protocols are included for specific nerves. The purpose of the electrodiagnostic examination is to evaluate the degree of nerve injury, axon loss over time, and later, evidence for reinnervation to assist with prognostication. The latter has implications for management of the neuropathy, including the type of exercises and therapy that may be indicated to help maintain the stability and motion of the involved joint(s) and promote strengthening over time as the nerve regenerates. PMID:23523706

Williams, Faren H; Kumiga, Bryan

2013-05-01

144

Common themes in microbial pathogenicity.  

PubMed Central

A bacterial pathogen is a highly adapted microorganism which has the capacity to cause disease. The mechanisms used by pathogenic bacteria to cause infection and disease usually include an interactive group of virulence determinants, sometimes coregulated, which are suited for the interaction of a particular microorganism with a specific host. Because pathogens must overcome similar host barriers, common themes in microbial pathogenesis have evolved. However, these mechanisms are diverse between species and not necessarily conserved; instead, convergent evolution has developed several different mechanisms to overcome host barriers. The success of a bacterial pathogen can be measured by the degree with which it replicates after entering the host and reaching its specific niche. Successful microbial infection reflects persistence within a host and avoidance or neutralization of the specific and nonspecific defense mechanisms of the host. The degree of success of a pathogen is dependent upon the status of the host. As pathogens pass through a host, they are exposed to new environments. Highly adapted pathogenic organisms have developed biochemical sensors exquisitely designed to measure and respond to such environmental stimuli and accordingly to regulate a cascade of virulence determinants essential for life within the host. The pathogenic state is the product of dynamic selective pressures on microbial populations.

Finlay, B B; Falkow, S

1989-01-01

145

Common mistakes in luminescence analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luminescence techniques are powerful and sensitive probes to study imperfections, impurities and modifications of insulating materials. They are used in a wide range of disciplines from condensed matter physics to archaeology and mineralogy and the methods have developed over nearly a century. Early equipment was often not quantitative and data were collected in formats that were difficult to process and manipulate, and so signals were frequently presented in terms of the initial signals without corrections for equipment spectral sensitivity. Unfortunately not only did this distort the information but often it resulted in incorrect interpretations. Further, the incorrect data handling has persisted into modern usage both by physicists and those in other fields who merely use luminescence as a sensitive technique. Several main types of problem are considered. These include temperature errors in thermoluminescence dosimetry; subtleties in the signal intensity corrections for the responses of both the spectrometer and detectors; grating polarization effects; sample anisotropy; and common errors in spectral deconvolution, especially failure to transform from wavelength to energy plots.

Wang, Y.; Townsend, P. D.

2012-12-01

146

Common hyperspectral image database design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is to introduce Common hyperspectral image database with a demand-oriented Database design method (CHIDB), which comprehensively set ground-based spectra, standardized hyperspectral cube, spectral analysis together to meet some applications. The paper presents an integrated approach to retrieving spectral and spatial patterns from remotely sensed imagery using state-of-the-art data mining and advanced database technologies, some data mining ideas and functions were associated into CHIDB to make it more suitable to serve in agriculture, geological and environmental areas. A broad range of data from multiple regions of the electromagnetic spectrum is supported, including ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, thermal infrared, and fluorescence. CHIDB is based on dotnet framework and designed by MVC architecture including five main functional modules: Data importer/exporter, Image/spectrum Viewer, Data Processor, Parameter Extractor, and On-line Analyzer. The original data were all stored in SQL server2008 for efficient search, query and update, and some advance Spectral image data Processing technology are used such as Parallel processing in C#; Finally an application case is presented in agricultural disease detecting area.

Tian, Lixun; Liao, Ningfang; Chai, Ali

2009-11-01

147

Common Syndromes of Orthostatic Intolerance  

PubMed Central

The autonomic nervous system, adequate blood volume, and intact skeletal and respiratory muscle pumps are essential components for rapid cardiovascular adjustments to upright posture (orthostasis). Patients lacking sufficient blood volume or having defective sympathetic adrenergic vasoconstriction develop orthostatic hypotension (OH), prohibiting effective upright activities. OH is one form of orthostatic intolerance (OI) defined by signs, such as hypotension, and symptoms, such as lightheadedness, that occur when upright and are relieved by recumbence. Mild OI is commonly experienced during intercurrent illnesses and when standing up rapidly. The latter is denoted “initial OH” and represents a normal cardiovascular adjustment to the blood volume shifts during standing. Some people experience episodic acute OI, such as postural vasovagal syncope (fainting), or chronic OI, such as postural tachycardia syndrome, which can significantly reduce quality of life. The lifetime incidence of ?1 fainting episodes is ?40%. For the most part, these episodes are benign and self-limited, although frequent syncope episodes can be debilitating, and injury may occur from sudden falls. In this article, mechanisms for OI having components of adrenergic hypofunction, adrenergic hyperfunction, hyperpnea, and regional blood volume redistribution are discussed. Therapeutic strategies to cope with OI are proposed.

2013-01-01

148

Common Bolted Joint Analysis Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Common Bolted Joint Analysis Tool (comBAT) is an Excel/VB-based bolted joint analysis/optimization program that lays out a systematic foundation for an inexperienced or seasoned analyst to determine fastener size, material, and assembly torque for a given design. Analysts are able to perform numerous what-if scenarios within minutes to arrive at an optimal solution. The program evaluates input design parameters, performs joint assembly checks, and steps through numerous calculations to arrive at several key margins of safety for each member in a joint. It also checks for joint gapping, provides fatigue calculations, and generates joint diagrams for a visual reference. Optimum fastener size and material, as well as correct torque, can then be provided. Analysis methodology, equations, and guidelines are provided throughout the solution sequence so that this program does not become a "black box:" for the analyst. There are built-in databases that reduce the legwork required by the analyst. Each step is clearly identified and results are provided in number format, as well as color-coded spelled-out words to draw user attention. The three key features of the software are robust technical content, innovative and user friendly I/O, and a large database. The program addresses every aspect of bolted joint analysis and proves to be an instructional tool at the same time. It saves analysis time, has intelligent messaging features, and catches operator errors in real time.

Imtiaz, Kauser

2011-01-01

149

Instruction and "The Commons". The College Connection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many academic libraries have embraced the concept of the information commons or the learning commons. These library spaces consist of collections of tools, services and programs intended to enhance the student learning experience. According to Scott Bennett (2008), an information commons supports learning, while the learning commons "enacts" the…

Kasowitz-Scheer, Abby

2009-01-01

150

Coordinating towards a Common Good  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout their life, humans often engage in collective endeavors ranging from family related issues to global warming. In all cases, the tragedy of the commons threatens the possibility of reaching the optimal solution associated with global cooperation, a scenario predicted by theory and demonstrated by many experiments. Using the toolbox of evolutionary game theory, I will address two important aspects of evolutionary dynamics that have been neglected so far in the context of public goods games and evolution of cooperation. On one hand, the fact that often there is a threshold above which a public good is reached [1, 2]. On the other hand, the fact that individuals often participate in several games, related to the their social context and pattern of social ties, defined by a social network [3, 4, 5]. In the first case, the existence of a threshold above which collective action is materialized dictates a rich pattern of evolutionary dynamics where the direction of natural selection can be inverted compared to standard expectations. Scenarios of defector dominance, pure coordination or coexistence may arise simultaneously. Both finite and infinite population models are analyzed. In networked games, cooperation blooms whenever the act of contributing is more important than the effort contributed. In particular, the heterogeneous nature of social networks naturally induces a symmetry breaking of the dilemmas of cooperation, as contributions made by cooperators may become contingent on the social context in which the individual is embedded. This diversity in context provides an advantage to cooperators, which is particularly strong when both wealth and social ties follow a power-law distribution, providing clues on the self-organization of social communities. Finally, in both situations, it can be shown that individuals no longer play a defection dominance dilemma, but effectively engage in a general N-person coordination game. Even if locally defection may seem inescapable, globally there is an emergent new dilemma in which cooperation often prevails, illustrating how collective cooperative action may emerge from myopic individual selfishness.

Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

2010-09-01

151

Antibodies to Neospora caninum in wild animals from Kenya, East Africa.  

PubMed

The prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum was examined in six wild Artiodactyla species, and in five wild Carnivora species from Kenya. Blood sera (104 wild ungulates from Marula Estates (MEs), and 31 wild carnivores from Masai-Mara reserve and from other wildlife areas in northern and Southern Kenya), were screened using a Neospora agglutination test (NAT), with a twofold dilution (1:40-1:320 titres). Presence of NAT antibodies to N. caninun is reported here for the first time in zebra (Equus burchelli), eland (Taurotragus oryx), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), Thompson gazelle (Gazella thompsoni), impala (Aepyceros melampus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) and in free-ranging cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). At 1:80 dilution, prevalence was 61.5% in eland, 58.5% in zebra, 19.2% in Thompson gazelle, 33.3% in warthog, 50% in African buffalo, 30% in lion (Panthera leo), 20% in cheetah, and 33.3% in spotted hyena. Antibodies up to 1:320 titre were detected in eland (38.4%), zebra (19.5%), Thompson gazelle (3.8%) and lion (5%). Amongst herbivores, sero-prevalence was significantly (P<0.05) higher, at all dilutions, in "grazer/digger" species (e.g. eland and zebra) than in non-"grazer/digger" species (e.g. impala and Thompson gazelle). No antibodies to N. caninum were found in two leopards (Panthera pardus) and one serval (Felis serval). Our results indicates a steady presence of N. caninum in wild mammals from Kenya. The hypothesis of a sylvatic cycle of N. caninum could be suggested, but more data are needed to verify the hypothesis, as to evaluate the role of N. caninum infection on the dynamics of wild animals population in the study area. PMID:14651874

Ferroglio, E; Wambwa, E; Castiello, M; Trisciuoglio, A; Prouteau, A; Pradere, E; Ndungu, S; De Meneghi, D

2003-12-01

152

Strategic mating with common preferences.  

PubMed

We present a two-sided search model in which individuals from two groups (males and females, employers and workers) would like to form a long-term relationship with a highly ranked individual of the other group, but are limited to individuals who they randomly encounter and to those who also accept them. This article extends the research program, begun in Alpern and Reyniers [1999. J. Theor. Biol. 198, 71-88], of providing a game theoretic analysis for the Kalick-Hamilton [1986. J. Personality Soc. Psychol. 51, 673-682] mating model in which a cohort of males and females of various 'fitness' or 'attractiveness' levels are randomly paired in successive periods and mate if they accept each other. Their model compared two acceptance rules chosen to represent homotypic (similarity) preferences and common (or 'type') preferences. Our earlier paper modeled the first kind by assuming that if a level x male mates with a level y female, both get utility -|x-y|, whereas this paper models the second kind by giving the male utility y and the female utility x. Our model can also be seen as a continuous generalization of the discrete fitness-level game of Johnstone [1997. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 40, 51-59]. We establish the existence of equilibrium strategy pairs, give examples of multiple equilibria, and conditions guaranteeing uniqueness. In all equilibria individuals become less choosy over time, with high fitness individuals pairing off with each other first, leaving the rest to pair off later. This route to assortative mating was suggested by Parker [1983. Mate Choice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 141-164]. If the initial fitness distributions have atoms, then mixed strategy equilibria may also occur. If these distributions are unknown, there are equilibria in which only individuals in the same fitness band are mated, as in the steady-state model of MacNamara and Collins [1990. J. Appl. Prob. 28, 815-827] for the job search problem. PMID:16171826

Alpern, Steve; Reyniers, Diane

2005-12-21

153

Common Biometric Exchange Formats Framework (CBEFF).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This specification, the Common Biometric Exchange Formats Framework, is an augmented and revised version of the original CBEFF, the Common Biometric Exchange File Format, published in January 2001 as NISTIR 6529. This version, NISTIR 6529-A, was developed...

B. Struif C. J. Tilton F. L. Podio J. S. Dunn L. Reinert

2004-01-01

154

Common Biometric Exchange File Format (CBEFF).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Common Biometric Exchange File Format (CBEFE) describes a set of data elements necessary to support biometric technologies in a common way. These data can be placed in a single file used to exchange biometric information between different system compo...

F. L. Podio J. S. Dunn L. Reinert C. J. Tilton L. O'Gorman M. P. Collier M. Jerde B. Wirtz

2001-01-01

155

Therapeutic Alliance and Common Factors in Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Changes in therapy can result from variables unique to a particular treatment package (i.e., specific factors), as a function\\u000a of variables common to a variety of treatments (i.e., nonspecific\\/common factors), or a combination of both specific and nonspecific\\u000a ingredients (Kazdin,1979). Nonspecific (or common) treatment factors include variables that are common across different treatment\\u000a modalities, which are thought to influence outcomes

Daniella M. Halperin; Meara L. Weitzman; Michael W. Otto

156

Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation presents NASA's Common Badging and Access Control System. NASA began a Smart Card implementation in January 2004. Following site surveys, it was determined that NASA's badging and access control systems required upgrades to common infrastructure in order to provide flexibly, usability, and return on investment prior to a smart card implantation. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS) provides the common infrastructure from which FIPS-201 compliant processes, systems, and credentials can be developed and used.

Dischinger, Portia

2005-01-01

157

Commonality Analysis for Mesh Generating Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a commonality analysis for mesh generating systems with the intention that the commonality analysis can be used to facilitate develop- ment of meshing software as a program family. The document reviews both the methodology of commonality analysis and the details of meshing systems. The report also reviews arguments in favour of development of mesh generators as a

Spencer Smith; Chien-Hsien Chen

158

Rationality, Cooperation, and Common Pool Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial dissatisfaction has emerged with the conceptualization of natural resource prob lems and individual decision making as represented in the tragedy of the commons model by Garret Hardin. A research program devoted to developing a theory of common pool resources that accounts for both successes andfailures ofcooperation among appropriators using common pool resources is reviewed. The theory identifies a set

Edella Schlager

2002-01-01

159

Simplifying the ELA Common Core; Demystifying Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The English Language Arts (ELA) Common Core State Standards ([CCSS], 2010) could have a transformational effect on American education. Though the process seems daunting, one can begin immediately integrating the essence of the ELA Common Core in every subject area. This article shows how one could implement the Common Core and create coherent,…

Schmoker, Mike; Jago, Carol

2013-01-01

160

Academic Engagement in the Library Commons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much has been written about library commons in recent years. For the most part, that literature has dealt with designing information and learning commons that support student learning by giving them the tools and resources they need for their academic work. However, few authors have discussed how a library commons might facilitate collaboration…

Bennett, Charlie; Bodnar, Jon

2010-01-01

161

Formal ontology, common sense and cognitive science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common sense is on the one hand a certain set of processes of natural cognition - of speaking, reasoning, seeing, and so on. On the other hand common sense is a system of beliefs (of folk physics, folk psychology and so on). Over against both of these is the world of common sense, the world of objects to which the

Barry Smith

1995-01-01

162

Scientists Find Many Common Genetic Variations Play a Role in Common Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Many Common Genetic Variations Play a Role in Common Diseases Scientists have long known that genetic variations play ... Nature Genetics suggests that the cause of four common diseases — rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, coronary artery disease, and ...

163

100 consecutive common duct explorations without mortality.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that the incidence of morbidity and mortality after common duct exploration no longer justifies its use in patients with a gallbladder in situ. Therefore endoscopic sphincterotomy has been advocated for removal of common duct stones before cholecystectomy in selected patients. The purpose of this study was to determine our current rate of retained common duct stones and the morbidity and mortality rates associated with common duct exploration. Charts of 100 consecutive patients who underwent cholecystectomy and common duct exploration from January 1982 through December 1986 were reviewed. Indications for duct exploration included jaundice, dilated common bile duct, gallstone pancreatitis, multiple small stones, and abnormal intraoperative cholangiogram. Common duct exploration was done by manual technique or choledochoscopy, as determined by the surgeon's preference. Only two patients required duodenotomy for extraction of difficult stones. There were no deaths in this series of consecutive common duct exploration. The total morbidity rate was 15.7%, which included a 5.3% incidence of retained common duct stones. There was a 7.4% major complication rate, including deep vein thrombosis, bleeding gastric ulcer, and pneumonia. The remaining complications were minor and did not prolong hospitalization. There was one wound infection and no postoperative pancreatitis. None of the complications were directly attributable to choledochotomy or duct exploration. All retained common duct stones were removed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or by angiographic basket and did not require reoperation. It is concluded that operative common duct exploration not requiring duodenotomy is safe and does not appreciably increase the incidence of complications after cholecystectomy. Endoscopic sphincterotomy continues to be the preferable alternative to operative common duct exploration for patients with retained common duct stones. PMID:2310236

Pappas, T N; Slimane, T B; Brooks, D C

1990-03-01

164

Probabilistic common-cause failures analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common-cause failures (CCF) are simultaneous failures of multiple components within a system due to a common-cause or a shared root cause. CCF can contribute significantly to the overall system unreliability. Therefore, it is important to incorporate CCF into the system reliability analysis. Traditional CCF analyses have assumed that the occurrence of a common-cause results in the deterministic\\/guaranteed failure of components

Liudong Xing; Wendai Wang

2008-01-01

165

QE Approach to Common Lyapunov Function Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper introduces an application of the Quantifier Elimination (QE) method,to common,Lyapunov function problem. The common,Lyapunov function problem is a prob- lem that concerns with the existence of a common,Lyapunov function for a set of linear systems. This problem is basic to the system stability problem. In this paper, we present that by applying QE method, a symbolic necessary

Thang Viet Nguyen; Yoshihiro Mori; Takehiro Mori; Yasuaki Kuroe

166

Common Lunar Lander (CLL) Trajectory Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Common Lunar Lander trajectory analysis is presented in viewgraph format. Trajectory requirements, trajectory characteristics, trajectory timeline, and alternate trajectory advantages and disadvantages are given.

L. A. Wagner N. A. Wilks

1991-01-01

167

Common Lunar Lander (CLL) trajectory analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Common Lunar Lander trajectory analysis is presented in viewgraph format. Trajectory requirements, trajectory characteristics, trajectory timeline, and alternate trajectory advantages and disadvantages are given.

Wagner, Lynn A., Jr.; Wilks, Nancy A.

1991-01-01

168

Common Lunar Lander (CLL) trajectory analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common Lunar Lander trajectory analysis is presented in viewgraph format. Trajectory requirements, trajectory characteristics, trajectory timeline, and alternate trajectory advantages and disadvantages are given.

Wagner, Lynn A., Jr.; Wilks, Nancy A.

1991-09-01

169

Gaussian beam migration for sparse common-shot and common-receiver data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We investigate the Gaussian beam migration of common- shot and common-receiver data. The imaging of common- shot data is useful for seismic data where the receiver coordinates are well sampled, but the source coordinates are less well sampled. By reciprocity, this approach can also be applied to common-receiver data, such as from OBS experiments where the source locations are

Robert L. Nowack; Mrinal K. Sen; Paul L. Stoffa

1999-01-01

170

Estimating carnivoran diets using a combination of carcass observations and scats from GPS clusters  

PubMed Central

Scat analysis is one of the most frequently used methods to assess carnivoran diets and Global Positioning System (GPS) cluster methods are increasingly being used to locate feeding sites for large carnivorans. However, both methods have inherent biases that limit their use. GPS methods to locate kill sites are biased towards large carcasses, while scat analysis over-estimates the biomass consumed from smaller prey. We combined carcass observations and scats collected along known movement routes, assessed using GPS data from four African lion (Panthera leo) prides in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, to determine how a combination of these two datasets change diet estimates. As expected, using carcasses alone under-estimated the number of feeding events on small species, primarily impala (Aepyceros melampus) and warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), in our case by more than 50% and thus significantly under-estimated the biomass consumed per pride per day in comparison to when the diet was assessed using carcass observations alone. We show that an approach that supplements carcass observations with scats that enables the identification of potentially missed feeding events increases the estimates of food intake rates for large carnivorans, with possible ramifications for predator-prey interaction studies dealing with biomass intake rate.

Tambling, C.J.; Laurence, S.D.; Bellan, S.E.; Cameron, E.Z.; du Toit, J.T.; Getz, W.M.

2011-01-01

171

The life cycle of Rhipicephalus lunulatus Neumann, 1907 (Acarina:Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions, with notes on its ecology in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

The durations of the developmental periods of Rhipicephalus lunulatus at 25 degrees C and 87% RH were: preoviposition, 2-9 days; oviposition, 29-34 days; minimum incubation, 11-27 days; nymphal premoult period, 11-23 days; and adult premoult period, 19-30 days. The durations of the feeding periods on a rabbit were: 3-7 days for larvae and 4-11 days for nymphs. Adult feeding was completed on a rabbit and a sheep in 10-22 days in January and 14-64 days in September, and only fertilized females completed engorgement. The mean number of eggs laid by engorged females was 4732, with 95% being laid within the first 16 days. In the southeastern lowveld of Zimbabwe adult ticks were most abundant on cattle between November and December, and their preferred sites of attachment were the legs and tail. Other hosts of adult R. lunulatus were impala (Aepyceros melampus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and eland (Taurotragus oryx). PMID:3870962

Colborne, J

1985-12-01

172

Insights into The Commons on Flickr  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Commons on Flickr, comprised of an international community of select libraries, museums, and archives, was a project initially launched in 2008 by the Library of Congress and Flickr. Primary goals of The Commons are to broaden exposure to rich cultural heritage photographs and to observe and participate in the communities of engagement and…

Vaughan, Jason

2010-01-01

173

Instructional Leadership and the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following the 2012-13 administrators welcome back kick-off meeting, superintendent Pat highlighted the district's plan to roll-out of the new Common Core State Standards (CCSS), including integration of learning experiences that would prepare students for the new Common Core assessments from the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC).…

Groth, Karla; Bennett-Schmidt, Sally J.

2013-01-01

174

A common language for computer security incidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the computer security information regularly gathered and disseminated by individuals and organizations cannot currently be combined or compared because a common language has yet to emerge in the field of computer security. A common language consists of terms and taxonomies (principles of classification) which enable the gathering, exchange and comparison of information. This paper presents the results of

John D. Howard; Thomas A Longstaff

1998-01-01

175

Determining Robot Location Using Common Coinic Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new approach to the determination of robot location using the common conic object is proposed. Here, the common conic object includes any object that has a conic cyhdrical portion, such as cylinders or elliptic cylinders etc.. Such objiects are frequently seen in real environment. The solution provided by this approach can be computed analytically. This merit

Jiann-Der Lee; Chin-Hsing Chat; Jau-Yien Lee

1992-01-01

176

Common coil magnet system for VLHC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the common coil magnet system for the proposed Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC). In this system, the high energy booster (HEB), the injector to VLHC, is integrated as the iron dominated low field aperture within the coldmass of the common coil magnet design introduced earlier. This 4-in-1 magnet concept for a 2-in-1 machine should provide a major

Ramesh Gupta; Lawrence Berkeley

1999-01-01

177

Organised Crime and Common Transit Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian Institute of Criminology has produced a diverse range of studies on illicit markets, including those in drugs, diamonds, stolen vehicle parts, abalone, plastic payment cards and antiquities. This paper draws together information on one aspect that these markets have in common— networks of transportation. In view of the common structure of these networks for transporting and distributing illicit

Simon Mackenzie; Adam Graycar

178

Confronting Common Folklore: Catching a Cold  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost every child has experienced the sniffly, stuffy, and achy congestion of the common cold. In addition, many have encountered the "old wives tales" that forge a link between personal actions and coming down with this common respiratory infection. Much of this health folklore has been passed down from generation to generation (e.g., getting a…

Keeley, Page

2012-01-01

179

Primary Choledochorrhaphy after Common Bile Duct Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To prove further the safety of primary closure of the common bile duct. Method: Twenty patients among 99 common bile duct explorations underwent primary closure. Pre- and postoperative liver function test, ultrasound and intraoperative cholangiography data, operation time, postoperative complications and the length of postoperative stay were recorded. Results: Nineteen patients did not suffer any biliary complication. One had

Zhiyuan Tu; Jiadong Li; Hailin Xin; Qin Zhu; Tongnian Cai

1999-01-01

180

Common Standards for Career Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Office of College and Career Readiness has developed the "Common Standards for Career Education Programs." The six common standards are: (1) Program Management and Planning; (2) Curriculum; (3) Instruction; (4) Professional Development; (5) Career and Technical Student Organizations; and (6) Instructional Facilities and Equipment. These…

Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2012

2012-01-01

181

Vitamin C and the common cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of vitamin C on the common cold has been the subject of several studies. These studies do not support a considerable decrease in the incidence of the common cold with supplemental vitamin C. However, vitamin C has consistently decreased the duration of cold episodes and the severity of symptoms. The benefits that have been observed in different studies

Harri Hemilä

1992-01-01

182

Private Schools Opt for Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The common standards are not just for public schools. With all but four states having adopted them since 2010, districts have little choice but to implement the Common Core State Standards. But many private schools are also making the transition. Many Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and other private schools have adopted at least portions of the…

Robelen, Erik W.

2012-01-01

183

Go Figure: Math and the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article about the Common Core State Standards and mathematics, the author wanted to point out what's familiar in these standards and to give teachers clear access to what's different about them. She wanted to emphasize what has made her passionate about the Common Core standards--which is their two-part structure: Standards for…

Burns, Marilyn

2013-01-01

184

Commonality Analysis with Multivariate Data Sets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commonality analysis may be used as an adjunct to general linear methods as a means of determining the degree of predictive ability shared by two or more independent variables. For each independent variable, commonality analysis indicates how much of the variance of the dependent variable is unique to the predictor and how much of the predictor's…

Daniel, Larry G.

185

CASL: the Common Algebraic Specification Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Common Algebraic Specification Language (CASL) is an expressive language for the formal specification of functional requirements and modular design of software. It has been designed by COFI, the international Common Framework Initiative for algebraic specification and development. It is based on a critical selection of features that have already been explored in various contexts, including subsorts, partial functions, first-order

Egidio Astesiano; Michel Bidoit; Hélène Kirchner; Bernd Krieg-brückner; Peter D. Mosses; Donald Sannella; Andrzej Tarlecki

2002-01-01

186

Nuclear power plant common aging terminology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report defines and encourages the use of a set of common terms and definitions that characterize aging and aging management of nuclear power plant systems, structures, and components. Common aging terminology encompasses the areas of degradation causes, degradation\\/aging, life, failure, and maintenance. The terminology should prove useful in plant license renewal, life-cycle management, maintenance, and equipment qualification. The principal

W. S. Grant; E. J. Miller; G. E. Sliter

1992-01-01

187

Commonality and Variability in Software Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes how to perform domain engineering by identifying the commonalities and variabilities within a family of products. Through interesting examples dealing with reuse libraries, design patterns, and programming language design, the authors suggest a systematic scope, commonalities, and variabilities approach to formal analysis. Their SCV analysis has been an integral part of the FAST (Family-oriented Abstraction, Specification, and

James Coplien; Daniel Hoffman; David M. Weiss

1998-01-01

188

Organized Interests and the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the notable aspects of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is the diverse array of interest groups supporting them. These organizations must now apply the strategies they used so effectively in advancing the Common Core to stem mounting opposition to it. This article draws on theories of political and policy learning and interviews with…

McDonnell, Lorraine M.; Weatherford, M. Stephen

2013-01-01

189

Just the Facts: Common Core State Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author talks about the Common Core State Standards and what they mean to teachers and their students. The Common Core State Standards Initiative provides an opportunity for classroom practitioners across the nation to hone their skills, focus on student learning, and ensure that all the students they serve will be working…

Williams, Cheryl Scott

2012-01-01

190

Common Food Allergens in Iranian Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The prevalence of food allergy is different in different parts of the world. Identification of the most common food allergens is a priority in any population to provide effective preventive and curative measures. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the most common food allergens in Iranian children. Methods: One hundred and ninety children with skin, respiratory

M. Mesdaghi

2003-01-01

191

The Common Forces: Conservative or Nonconservative?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of the forces commonly encountered when solving problems in Newtonian mechanics, introductory texts usually limit illustrations of the definitions of conservative and nonconservative forces to gravity, spring forces, kinetic friction and fluid resistance. However, at the expense of very little class time, the question of whether each of the common

Keeports, David

2006-01-01

192

The Information Commons at Solano Community College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Information Commons at Solano Community College in Suisun, California, which was envisioned as a 'one-stop' access to all electronic resources for students to use in support of learning. States that, as the commons is located in the library, students have direct access to printed resources that are not available online, as well as…

Rotenberg, Sandra

2002-01-01

193

Component Commonality with Service Level Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends recent results of Baker et al. (Baker, K. R., M. J. Magazine, H. L. W. Nuttle. 1986. The effect of commonality on safety stocks in a simple inventory model. Management Sci. 32 982--988.) in understanding the impact of component commonality on stocking levels under service level constraints. A model is formulated for an arbitrary number of products

Yigal Gerchak; Michael J. Magazine; A. Bruce Gamble

1988-01-01

194

40 Common Minerals and Their Uses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Of the ninety two elements found in the Earth, forty of them are used in our daily lives. Some of the names are common and well known, and others seem obscure until one sees that it helps create something we cannot live without. This page describes these 40 common minerals.

Gold-Traders (UK) Ltd.

195

Building Common College-Ready Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people in higher education were caught by surprise when the nation's governors and chief state school officers announced their intention to adopt common standards for American high schools that aim at college readiness. In this article, the author explores what this common standards is all about and how it can be helpful in college…

Haycock, Kati

2010-01-01

196

A Common Metric for Integrating Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The choice of a common metric for the meta-analysis (quantitative synthesis) of correlational and experimental research studies is presented and justified. First, a background for the problem of identifying a common metric is presented. Second, the percentage of accounted variance (PAV) is described as the metric of choice, and reasons are given…

Haladyna, Tom

197

Neurotoxicity of commonly used hepatic drugs.  

PubMed

Neurologic complications are common side-effects of immunosuppressive medications used in the prevention of graft rejection after organ transplantation. The medications most commonly encountered include the calcineurin inhibitors and mycophenolate mofetil. Depression is the most commonly encountered neurotoxicity; however, severe but rare adverse neurological effects related to these therapies have been reported. Interferons, ribavirin, and protease inhibitors are therapeutic options commonly encountered in the treatment of hepatitis. Nucleoside analogs such as adefovir dipivoxil and entecavir carry significant risks for the development of lactic acidosis and hepatic dysfunction; however, most common adverse effects to these therapies in general are mild. While the mechanisms of action are poorly elucidated, they are discussed along with treatment strategies. PMID:24365346

Ahrens, Christine L; Manno, Edward M

2014-01-01

198

Governing the Global Commons with Local Institutions  

PubMed Central

Most problems faced by modern human society have two characteristics in common - they are tragedy-of-the-commons type of problems, and they are global problems. Tragedy-of-the-commons type of problems are those where a commonly shared resource is overexploited by free riders at the expense of everyone sharing the resource. The exploitation of global resources such as clean air and water, political stability and peace, etc. underlies many of the most pressing human problems. Punishment of free riding behavior is one of the most frequently used strategies to combat the problem, but the spatial reach of sanctioning institutions is often more limited than the spatial effects of overexploitation. Here, we analyze a general game theoretical model to assess under what circumstances sanctioning institutions with limited reach can maintain the larger commons. We find that the effect of the spatial reach has a strong effect on whether and how the commons can be maintained, and that the transitions between those outcomes are characterized by phase transitions. The latter indicates that a small change in the reach of sanctioning systems can profoundly change the way the global commons can be managed.

Bodnar, Todd; Salathe, Marcel

2012-01-01

199

Governing the global commons with local institutions.  

PubMed

Most problems faced by modern human society have two characteristics in common--they are tragedy-of-the-commons type of problems, and they are global problems. Tragedy-of-the-commons type of problems are those where a commonly shared resource is overexploited by free riders at the expense of everyone sharing the resource. The exploitation of global resources such as clean air and water, political stability and peace, etc. underlies many of the most pressing human problems. Punishment of free riding behavior is one of the most frequently used strategies to combat the problem, but the spatial reach of sanctioning institutions is often more limited than the spatial effects of overexploitation. Here, we analyze a general game theoretical model to assess under what circumstances sanctioning institutions with limited reach can maintain the larger commons. We find that the effect of the spatial reach has a strong effect on whether and how the commons can be maintained, and that the transitions between those outcomes are characterized by phase transitions. The latter indicates that a small change in the reach of sanctioning systems can profoundly change the way the global commons can be managed. PMID:22509269

Bodnar, Todd; Salathé, Marcel

2012-01-01

200

Common and uncommon bilateral adult renal masses  

PubMed Central

Abstract Masses can involve the kidney unilaterally or bilaterally. The purpose of this article is to review common and uncommon adult renal masses that present bilaterally. Clinical and imaging findings are described. Renal masses that present in a bilateral fashion can have particular clinical and imaging characteristics and knowledge of their presentation enables appropriate diagnosis and management, especially in a multidisciplinary care setting. More commonly found bilateral renal masses that are discussed include metastasis, lymphoproliferative disorders, adult polycystic kidney disease, angiomyolipomas, renal infracts and renal abscesses. Less common bilateral renal masses include transitional cell carcinoma, oncocytoma, and hematomas.

Roy, Anjali; Silverman, Paul M.; Kundra, Vikas

2012-01-01

201

Metaphor and Common-Sense Reasoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Inferences based on metaphors appear to play a major role in human common sense reasoning. This paper identifies and analyzes general inference patterns based upon underlying metaphors, in particular the pervasive balance principle. Strategies for metapho...

J. G. Carbonell S. Minton

1983-01-01

202

Traumatic Brain Injury Common Among Homeless Men  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Traumatic Brain Injury Common Among Homeless Men In small Canadian ... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Homeless Health Concerns Traumatic Brain Injury WEDNESDAY, April 30, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Brain ...

203

Common Disorders of the Achilles Tendon  

MedlinePLUS

... to raise the heel off the ground. Achilles Tendonitis and Achilles Tendonosis Two common disorders that occur in the heel cord are Achilles tendonitis and Achilles tendonosis. Achilles tendonitis is an inflammation ...

204

TSPG Common Dataset Standard, Concept of Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

INTRODUCTION: Meeting yesterday, attended by 40 people * Objective to obtain industry input on the TSPG's implementation of the Common Dataset Standard from a programmatic/ business perspective * Majority of time devoted to conduct of a working session * ...

T. DalSasso

2007-01-01

205

Mycorrhiza: A Common Form of Mutualism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mycorrhizae are among the most common examples of mutualism. This article discusses their structure, symbolic relationship, factors affecting formation and applying research. Questions are posed and answers suggested. (MA)

Medve, Richard J.

1978-01-01

206

Commonality Analysis as a Knowledge Acquisition Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Commonality analysis is a systematic attempt to reduce costs in a large scale engineering project by discontinuing development of certain components during the design phase. Each discontinued component is replaced by another component that has sufficient ...

D. P. Yeager

1987-01-01

207

Common Misconceptions about Icebergs and Glaciers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes some common misconceptions that elementary students may have about icebergs and glaciers (including density and buoyancy). It also includes suggestions for formative assessment and teaching for conceptual change.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

208

Common Lunar Lander (CLL) Propulsion System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description of the Common Lunar Lander (CLL) propulsion system is given. Among the topics discussed are the following: system characteristics, system mission requirements, key drivers to subsystem selection, system readiness level, and point design outp...

D. Hyatt

1991-01-01

209

Iodine Deficiency Common in Pregnancy, Pediatricians Warn  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Iodine Deficiency Common in Pregnancy, Pediatricians Warn Processed foods ... pregnant and breast-feeding women are deficient in iodine and should take a daily supplement containing iodide, ...

210

Introduction: The Common Core of Data Surveys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the history, uses, and ongoing development of the Common Core of Data (CCD). Describes the six surveys of the CCD, explores issues in survey and data quality, and discusses recent and ongoing developments. (Author/SLD)

Hoffman, Lee

2000-01-01

211

Space Station Freedom Common Berthing Mechanism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) is a generic device used to join the pressurized elements of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) utilizing the Space Shuttle Orbiter Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) or the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). T...

E. Illi

1992-01-01

212

Get Answers to Common Questions About...  

Cancer.gov

Get Answers to Common Questions About... Biological Specimens Drug Availability, Labeling and Distribution Ethics Indemnity Insurance Planning Clinical Trials and Navigating Regulatory Requirements Protocols Quality Assurance and Monitoring Software

213

A common-view disciplined oscillator  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a common-view disciplined oscillator (CVDO) that locks to a reference time scale through the use of common-view global positioning system (GPS) satellite measurements. The CVDO employs a proportional-integral-derivative controller that obtains near real-time common-view GPS measurements from the internet and provides steering corrections to a local oscillator. A CVDO can be locked to any time scale that makes real-time common-view data available and can serve as a high-accuracy, self-calibrating frequency and time standard. Measurement results are presented where a CVDO is locked to UTC(NIST), the coordinated universal time scale maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado.

Lombardi, Michael A. [Time and Frequency Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Dahlen, Aaron P. [Loran Support Unit, United States Coast Guard (USCG), Wildwood, New Jersey 08260 (United States)

2010-05-15

214

The Information Commons: A Selective Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This selected bibliography contains 63 publications and 21 Web sites that can help librarians learn more about how they can use the metaphor of the information commons to advocate for the public's information assets. (MES)

Kranich, Nancy

2003-01-01

215

Common Cause Failure Modeling: Aerospace Versus Nuclear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aggregate nuclear plant failure data is used to produce generic common-cause factors that are specifically for use in the common-cause failure models of NUREG/CR-5485. Furthermore, the models presented in NUREG/CR-5485 are specifically designed to incorporate two significantly distinct assumptions about the methods of surveillance testing from whence this aggregate failure data came. What are the implications of using these NUREG generic factors to model the common-cause failures of aerospace systems? Herein, the implications of using the NUREG generic factors in the modeling of aerospace systems are investigated in detail and strong recommendations for modeling the common-cause failures of aerospace systems are given.

Stott, James E.; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert W.; Hark, Frank; Hatfield, G. Spencer

2010-01-01

216

Inquiry, New Literacies, and the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For 21st century learning, students need to be well versed in techniques for inquiry using new literacies. Developing these skills also will meet the rigorous expectations of the Common Core State Standards.

Stegman, Bridget

2014-01-01

217

Tragedy of the Commons: Simulation A  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity explores how common usage of a limited, potentially renewable resource invariably leads to its exploitation. In this simulation, students imagine that they are fishermen sharing access to a common fishing pond. Two different stages of the simulation are performed. In this, the first, students are not allowed to communicate, and each fisher has no knowledge of how many fish have been taken before them. In the second, students are allowed to strategize, plan, and learn from their experiences. In this way, the ability (or not) to communicate is the independent variable, and the size of the resource over time is the dependent variable. After completing this activity students should understand the conditions that lead to a "tragedy of the commons", learn strategies that prevent the destruction of a common resource, and apply these strategies to global environmental issues and suggest solutions. The activity is evaluated on the basis of written work.

Haidinger, Tori

218

Tragedy of the Commons: Simulation B  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity explores how common usage of a limited, potentially renewable resource invariably leads to its exploitation. In this simulation, students imagine that they are fishermen sharing access to a common fishing pond. Two different stages of the simulation are performed. In the first, students are not allowed to communicate, and each fisher has no knowledge of how many fish have been taken before them. In this, the second, students are allowed to strategize, plan, and learn from their experiences. In this way, the ability (or not) to communicate is the independent variable, and the size of the resource over time is the dependent variable. After completing this activity students should understand the conditions that lead to a "tragedy of the commons", learn strategies that prevent the destruction of a common resource, and apply these strategies to global environmental issues and suggest solutions. The activity is discussed in progress.

Haidinger, Tori

219

Genetics Home Reference: Common variable immune deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... most commonly seen in people with CVID is immune thrombocytopenia purpura. This condition is characterized by a reduced ... cancer ; cell ; chronic ; deficiency ; enlarged spleen ; gastrointestinal ; gene ; ... sporadic ; stomach ; thrombocytopenia ; white blood cells You may find definitions for ...

220

Common Stochastic Trends, Common Cycles, and Asymmetry in Economic Fluctuations. International Finance Discussion Papers Number 681.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper investigates the nature of business cycle asymmetry using a dynamic factor model of output, investment, and consumption. We first identify a common stochastic trend and a common transitory component by embedding the permanent income hypothesis ...

C. J. Kim J. Piger

2000-01-01

221

Joint Service Common Operating Environment (COE) Common Geographic Information System Functional Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document establishes the functional requirements for the Joint Service Common Operating Environment (COE) Common Geographic Information System (CGIS) subsequently designated as CCGIS. The COE concept provides for an aggregate set of computer-based to...

W. D. Meitzler

1992-01-01

222

Common Metrics for Human-Robot Interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an effort to identify common metrics for task-oriented human-robot interaction (HRI). We begin by discussing the need for a toolkit of HRI metrics. We then describe the framework of our work and identify important biasing factors that must be taken into consideration. Finally, we present suggested common metrics for standardization and a case study. Preparation of a larger, more detailed toolkit is in progress.

Steinfeld, Aaron; Lewis, Michael; Fong, Terrence; Scholtz, Jean; Schultz, Alan; Kaber, David; Goodrich, Michael

2006-01-01

223

Gallbladder cystadenoma and common bile duct obstruction.  

PubMed

Cystadenomas are usually found in the extra-hepatic bile ducts in conjunction with multilocular cysts in the liver. Cystadenoma of the gallbladder itself is a rare finding, cited only once in the literature as the cause of extrinsic obstruction of the common bile duct (5). In this report, we describe the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticographic (ERCP) detection of intrinsic obstruction of the cystic duct and common bile duct by such a tumor in a 47-yr-old woman. PMID:15361650

Spector, Seth A; Fernandez, Vania E; Vernon, Stephen E; Dunkin, Brian; Livingstone, Alan S

2003-01-01

224

Separate versus common -common-cause-type derivations of the Bell inequalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard derivations of the Bell inequalities assume a common-common-cause-system that is a common screener-off for all correlations and some additional assumptions concerning locality\\u000a and no-conspiracy. In a recent paper (Graßhoff et al., The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 56, 663–680 (2005)) Bell inequalities have been derived via separate common causes assuming perfect correlations between the events. In the paper

Gábor Hofer-szabó

2008-01-01

225

A common language for computer security incidents  

SciTech Connect

Much of the computer security information regularly gathered and disseminated by individuals and organizations cannot currently be combined or compared because a common language has yet to emerge in the field of computer security. A common language consists of terms and taxonomies (principles of classification) which enable the gathering, exchange and comparison of information. This paper presents the results of a project to develop such a common language for computer security incidents. This project results from cooperation between the Security and Networking Research Group at the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, and the CERT{reg_sign} Coordination Center at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. This Common Language Project was not an effort to develop a comprehensive dictionary of terms used in the field of computer security. Instead, the authors developed a minimum set of high-level terms, along with a structure indicating their relationship (a taxonomy), which can be used to classify and understand computer security incident information. They hope these high-level terms and their structure will gain wide acceptance, be useful, and most importantly, enable the exchange and comparison of computer security incident information. They anticipate, however, that individuals and organizations will continue to use their own terms, which may be more specific both in meaning and use. They designed the common language to enable these lower-level terms to be classified within the common language structure.

John D. Howard; Thomas A Longstaff

1998-10-01

226

Commonality Analysis: A Method of Analyzing Unique and Common Variance Proportions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the use of commonality analysis as an effective tool for analyzing relationships between variables in multiple regression or canonical correlational analysis (CCA). The merits of commonality analysis are discussed and the procedure for running commonality analysis is summarized as a four-step process. A heuristic example is…

Kroff, Michael W.

227

Something in Common: The Common Core Standards and the Next Chapter in American Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Something in Common" is the first book to provide a detailed look at the groundbreaking Common Core State Standards and their potential to transform American education. This book tells the story of the unfolding political drama around the making of the Common Core State Standards for math and English language arts, which were adopted by 43 states…

Rothman, Robert

2011-01-01

228

Validating common reference intervals in routine laboratories.  

PubMed

Common reference intervals for numerical pathology tests have been proposed for many years as an improvement over the common situation where individual laboratories establish or select and validate their own intervals. However it is important that any intervals that are developed for common use are themselves validated for use in individual laboratories. There are three main aspects to consider, the appropriateness of the interval, methodological factors and population factors. Techniques for assessing method biases are reasonably straightforward with the use of shared samples and appropriate external quality assurance schemes. Validating the local population, which also encompasses the laboratory's method, can be done using a number of healthy subjects, the more the better, or by various "data mining" techniques using the results of tests performed on routine patients. In any of these methods there is the need to consider the selection of subjects, the statistical approach and the acceptance criteria. Only if a proposed common reference interval can be shown to be appropriate in routine laboratories can it become widely adopted and become truly "common". PMID:24144864

Jones, Graham Ross Dallas

2014-05-15

229

Secondary Syphilis: Uncommon Manifestations a Common Disease  

PubMed Central

Reports of cases of primary and secondary syphilis are increasing in the United States, particularly in urban areas and among homosexual men. While primary syphilis poses little diagnostic difficulty, many physicians are unfamiliar with the multisystem nature of secondary lues. Patients who have secondary syphilis commonly present with systemic signs, skin rash, mucous membrane lesions and generalized adenopathy. Less commonly, secondary syphilis may occur as acute meningitis, sensorineural hearing loss, iritis, anterior uveitis, optic neuritis, Bell's palsy, gastropathy, proctitis, hepatitis, pulmonary infiltration, nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, periostitis, tenosynovitis and polyarthritis. The diagnosis of secondary syphilis is easily confirmed. Its various manifestations are readily treated with penicillin and, if treated early, are entirely reversible. Two recent cases of secondary syphilis, one presenting as nephrotic syndrome and one as chorioretinitis and ptosis, illustrate the usual and unusual features of this common infection. Images

McPhee, Stephen J.

1984-01-01

230

Oncologic conditions that simulate common sports injuries.  

PubMed

Primary bone and soft-tissue tumors that mimic common sports injuries are relatively rare and are not often encountered by most orthopaedists. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of these tumors is crucial to maximize the clinical outcome. Many bone and soft-tissue tumors present disproportionately in young and active patients who are often involved in athletic activities. Thus, the clinician may misdiagnose these rare tumors as more common sports injuries. Symptoms that should raise suspicion for a neoplastic process include pain unrelated to activity and a clinical course that does not follow the typically expected recovery for a common sports injury. An awareness of the salient features of several bone and soft-tissue tumors as well as nononcologic processes that may simulate sports injuries can aid clinicians in the prompt diagnosis and clinical decision making of these rare tumors. PMID:24668352

Krych, Aaron; Odland, Andrew; Rose, Peter; Dahm, Diane; Levy, Bruce; Wenger, Doris; Stuart, Michael; Sim, Franklin

2014-04-01

231

Common post-operative complications in children  

PubMed Central

The exact incidence of common post-operative complications in children is not known. Most common one is post-operative nausea and vomiting followed by respiratory complications leading to hypoxia. Cardiac complications are less in children without associated congenital cardiac anomaly. Post-operative shivering, agitation and delirium are seen more often in children anaesthetised with newer inhalational agents like sevoflurane and desflurane. Urinary retention in the post-operative period could be influenced by anaesthetic drugs and regional blocks. The purpose of this article is to review the literature and present to the postgraduate students comprehensive information about the current understanding and practice pattern on various common complications in the post-operative period. Extensive literature was searched with key words of various complications from Pubmed, Google scholar and specific journal, namely paediatric anaesthesia. The relevant articles, review article meta-analysis and editorials were the primary source of information for this article.

Pawar, Dilip

2012-01-01

232

Right heart failure: toward a common language  

PubMed Central

Abstract In this guideline, the International Right Heart Foundation Working Group moves a step forward to develop a common language to describe the development and defects that exemplify the common syndrome of right heart failure. We first propose fundamental definitions of the distinctive components of the right heart circulation and provide consensus on a universal definition of right heart failure. These definitions will form the foundation for describing a uniform nomenclature for right heart circulatory failure with a view to foster collaborative research initiatives and conjoint education in an effort to provide insight into mechanisms of disease unique to the right heart.

2013-01-01

233

Open Educational Resources Commons: Mathematics and Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Open Educational Resources (OER) Commons is an open network of course materials and other educational resources, for all levels, that are freely available online for the use of educators, students, and self-learners. Materials include full courses, course modules, syllabi, lectures, homework assignments, quizzes, lab and classroom activities, pedagogical materials, games, simulations, and many other items. The mathematics and statistics section of OER Commons provides access to thousands of resources in all areas of math and statistics. Each resource is accompanied by metadata, including type, subject, grade level, a rating, and other types of information. Users are also invited to submit resources for others to share.

234

6.NS Factors and Common Factors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: List all the factors of 48. List all the factors of 64. What are the common factors of 48 and 64? What is the greatest common factor of 48 and 64?...

235

Open Educational Resources Commons: Science and Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Open Educational Resources (OER) Commons is an open network of course materials and other educational resources, for all levels, that are freely available online for the use of educators, students, and self-learners. Materials include full courses, course modules, syllabi, lectures, homework assignments, quizzes, lab and classroom activities, pedagogical materials, games, simulations, and many other items. The science and technology section of OER Commons provides access to thousands of resources in all areas of science and technology. Each resource is accompanied by metadata, including type, subject, grade level, a rating, and other kinds of information. Users are also invited to submit resources for others to share.

236

Conquering common breast-feeding problems.  

PubMed

Meeting mothers' personal breast-feeding goals depends on a number of factors, including the timely resolution of any problems she encounters. Nurses are often the first providers who interact with the mother during the perinatal period and are positioned to guide mothers through the prevention and solving of breast-feeding problems. Although many problems may be "common," failure to remedy conditions that cause pain, frustration, and anxiety can lead to premature weaning and avoidance of breast-feeding subsequent children. This article describes strategies and interventions to alleviate common problems that breast-feeding mothers frequently encounter. PMID:19011490

Walker, Marsha

2008-01-01

237

Hansard: House of Commons Daily Debates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In early 2000, access to Hansard (House of Commons, British Parliament) debates (originally reviewed in the November 1, 1996 Scout Report) was improved, with the new edition available each day at 9:00 am UK time. The site contains daily oral questions and debates, written answers to questions, and a table of contents listing column numbers, headings, timelines, and names of members in the Commons Hansard Debates text for each day. The debates are browseable and searchable by keyword, name of member, question number, dates, and document type. Past sessions to 1993-94 are also available at the site.

238

Ky. Road-Tests Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results from new state tests in Kentucky--the first in the nation explicitly tied to the Common Core State Standards--show that the share of students scoring "proficient" or better in reading and math dropped by roughly a third or more in both elementary and middle school the first year the tests were given. Kentucky in 2010 was the first state to…

Ujifusa, Andrew

2012-01-01

239

Handle With Care: 10 Common School Accidents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accidents, mishaps, injuries can happen in any classroom, cafeteria, gym, hallway, playground and the teacher is probably the first adult to arrive on the scene. These guidelines on how to respond to 10 common school accidents explain what steps to take. (Author/RK)

Bryer, Judith E.

1978-01-01

240

Is there a common factor for vision?  

PubMed

IN COGNITION, COMMON FACTORS PLAY A CRUCIAL ROLE FOR EXAMPLE, DIFFERENT TYPES OF INTELLIGENCE ARE HIGHLY CORRELATED, POINTING TO A COMMON FACTOR, WHICH IS OFTEN CALLED G ONE MIGHT EXPECT THAT A SIMILAR COMMON FACTOR WOULD ALSO EXIST FOR VISION SURPRISINGLY, NO ONE IN THE FIELD HAS ADDRESSED THIS ISSUE HERE, WE PROVIDE THE FIRST EVIDENCE THAT THERE IS NO COMMON FACTOR FOR VISION WE TESTED 40 HEALTHY STUDENTS' PERFORMANCE IN SIX BASIC VISUAL PARADIGMS VISUAL ACUITY, VERNIER DISCRIMINATION, TWO VISUAL BACKWARD MASKING PARADIGMS, GABOR DETECTION, AND BISECTION DISCRIMINATION ONE MIGHT EXPECT THAT PERFORMANCE LEVELS ON THESE TASKS WOULD BE HIGHLY CORRELATED BECAUSE SOME INDIVIDUALS GENERALLY HAVE BETTER VISION THAN OTHERS DUE TO SUPERIOR OPTICS, BETTER RETINAL OR CORTICAL PROCESSING, OR ENRICHED VISUAL EXPERIENCE HOWEVER, ONLY FOUR OUT OF 15 CORRELATIONS WERE SIGNIFICANT, TWO OF WHICH WERE NONTRIVIAL THESE RESULTS CANNOT BE EXPLAINED BY HIGH INTRAOBSERVER VARIABILITY OR CEILING EFFECTS BECAUSE TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY WAS HIGH AND THE VARIANCE IN OUR STUDENT POPULATION IS COMMENSURATE WITH THAT FROM OTHER STUDIES WITH WELL-SIGHTED POPULATIONS USING A VARIETY OF TESTS EG, PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS, BAYES THEOREM, TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY, WE SHOW THE ROBUSTNESS OF OUR NULL RESULTS WE SUGGEST THAT NEUROPLASTICITY OPERATES DURING EVERYDAY EXPERIENCE TO GENERATE MARKED INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES OUR RESULTS APPLY ONLY TO THE NORMALLY SIGHTED POPULATION IE, RESTRICTED RANGE SAMPLING FOR THE ENTIRE POPULATION, INCLUDING THOSE WITH DEGENERATE VISION, WE EXPECT DIFFERENT RESULTS: PMID:24993018

Cappe, Céline; Clarke, Aaron; Mohr, Christine; Herzog, Michael H

2014-01-01

241

A Sense of Place: Conservation's Common Ground.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a brief taxonomy of the different forms conservation has assumed. Current definitions of conservation examined include preservationism and "wise-use" resourcist conservation. The author presents an alternative definition based on a sense of place and a common sense of connection with the nonhuman. (LZ)

Russell, Constance L.

1994-01-01

242

Tool commonality analysis for yield enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

ULSI semiconductor processing today involves hundreds of process steps through various semiconductor processing tools. Any tool excursion could lead to serious and costly yield problems. Tool commonality among bad lots is a proven technique to identify the root cause of the problem. As the complexity of process and the number of process steps increase, it is a very challenging task

George Kong

2002-01-01

243

Common expression analysis in database applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent optimization of database requests overlooks potential savings which can be achieved when they are optimized collectively. An intuitive model for queries called the query graph supports common expression detection for optimization of a stream of requests. We describe how ad hoc query processing can be improved using intermediate results and answers produced from earlier queries, without significantly impacting processing

Sheldon J. Finkelstein

1982-01-01

244

Variation and Commonality in Phenomenographic Research Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the data analysis stage of phenomenographic research, elucidating what is involved in terms of both commonality and variation in accepted practice. The analysis stage of phenomenographic research is often not well understood. This paper helps to clarify the process, initially by collecting together in one location the more…

Akerlind, Gerlese S.

2005-01-01

245

Science To Serve the Common Good.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews "Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest", a report produced by a committee of the National Research Council that offers a model of a new and better approach to addressing environmental problems that could enable science to serve the common good. Demonstrates a successful approach to doing science and contributing to society.…

Brewer, Garry D.

1997-01-01

246

Laying a Common Foundation for Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For decades, the American elementary and secondary education system has operated somewhat as the railroads did before Lincoln's day, with each state setting its own expectations for what students should know and be able to do. To address that problem, nearly every state, with little fanfare, has adopted the Common Core State Standards for student…

Rothman, Robert

2012-01-01

247

Canada, Copyright, and the Common Good  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocacy on public policy issues such as copyright is a common concern of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and the Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL). Duane Webster has been instrumental in facilitating a collaborative approach to such advocacy. Part of this involves concerted efforts to ensure that fair use (United…

Haslett, K. Mark

2009-01-01

248

Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) in English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) is a large-scale, high-stakes, English language proficiency/placement test administered in the United Arab Emirates to Emirati nationals in their final year of secondary education or Grade 12. The purpose of the CEPA is to place students into English classes at the appropriate government…

Coombe, Christine; Davidson, Peter

2014-01-01

249

Common cold - how to treat at home  

MedlinePLUS

... get enough sleep, and stay away from secondhand smoke. Wheezing can be a common symptom of a cold if you have asthma. Use rescue inhaler as prescribed if you are wheezing. See your doctor immediately if it becomes hard to breathe.

250

Common HIV Drug May Boost Suicide Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Study: Common HIV Drug May Boost Suicide Risk Patients taking efavirenz should be assessed for ... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Depression HIV/AIDS Medicines Suicide MONDAY, June 30, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A medication ...

251

Variation and Commonality in Phenomenographic Research Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the data analysis stage of phenomenographic research, elucidating what is involved in terms of both commonality and variation in accepted practice. The analysis stage of phenomenographic research is often not well understood. This paper helps to clarify the process, initially by collecting together in one location the more…

Akerlind, Gerlese S.

2012-01-01

252

THE COMMON CORE OF DATA (CCD)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Common Core of Data (CCD), a program of the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics, is a comprehensive, annual, national statistical databaseof information concerning allpublic elementary and secondary schools (approximately 95,000) and school...

253

Assay of Brines for Common Radiolysis Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Brines are assayed for four common products of radiolytic reaction. Free chlorine is determined spectrophotometrically after reaction with o-tolidine. The test is specific for chlorine, and quantities of chlorine from 0.1 to 6 mu g in the test aliquot are...

C. S. MacDougall

1981-01-01

254

Thematic Relations Affect Similarity via Commonalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thematic relations are an important source of perceived similarity. For instance, the "rowing" theme of boats and oars increases their perceived similarity. The mechanism of this effect, however, has not been specified previously. The authors investigated whether thematic relations affect similarity by increasing commonalities or by decreasing…

Golonka, Sabrina; Estes, Zachary

2009-01-01

255

The Common Goals of Michigan Education, Tentative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The common goals of Michigan education are grouped into four areas. The goals in the first area, citizenship and morality, deal with morality, citizenship and social responsibility, and rights and responsibilities of students. The goals in the second area, democracy and equal opportunity, deal with equality of educational opportunity, education of…

Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

256

A common pathway toward women's health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper calls for an alternate approach to studying the aetiology of women's health conditions. Instead of the long-established disease-specific, compartmentalized approach, it recommends focusing on risk exposures that allows for the identification of multiple disease conditions that stem from the same risk factors. Identifying common risk factors and the related pathways to adverse health outcomes can lead to the

K. S. Chibber; R. L. Kaplan; N. S. Padian; S. J. Anderson; P. M. Ling; N. Acharya; C. Van Dyke; S. Krishnan

2008-01-01

257

Coalition Network Defence Common Operational Picture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Coalition Network Defence Common Operational Picture (CNet-D COP) has been identified as a future capability to support cyber defence in coalitions. A CNet-D COP is composed of two aspects of information assurance: secure communications for the sharing ...

E. Luiijf J. Lefebvre L. Beaudoin M. Gregoire P. Lagadec

2010-01-01

258

Common Nursing Terminology for Clinical Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of professional agreement upon chosen terminology in nursing detracts from the role of Clinical Information Systems (CIS) as central repositories of patient health records. The purposes of this paper are: (1) Identification of common terminology for clinical nursing information in CHS according to the following stages: patient history of health and illnesses; nursing assessment; nursing interventions and outcomes.

Yardena Kol; Patricia Zimmerman; Zipora Sadeh

259

Thematic Relations Affect Similarity Via Commonalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thematic relations are an important source of perceived similarity. For instance, the rowing theme of boats and oars increases their perceived similarity. The mechanism of this effect, however, has not been specified previously. The authors investigated whether thematic relations affect similarity by increasing commonalities or by decreasing differences. In Experiment 1, thematic relations affected similarity more than difference, thereby producing

Sabrina Golonka; Zachary Estes

2009-01-01

260

Restrained Teaching: the common core of Didaktik  

Microsoft Academic Search

Didaktik is at the centre of most school teaching and teacher education in Continental Europe, but at the same time almost unknown in the English speaking world. The article gives a brief outline of the history and the common core of Didaktik, of its current situation, and of the basic differences compared to the Anglo-American concept of 'curriculum and instruction'

STEFAN HOPMANN

2007-01-01

261

STANDPOINTS: A Model for Common Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

STANDPOINTS, a model for general education which focuses on the common learning experiences crucial to the quality of personal and corporate life, was developed at Central YMCA Community College. When developing the model, time, faculty development, student involvement, and leadership constraints were recognized, and a three-phase process was…

Moline, Lorraine G.; And Others

262

Nuclear power plant common aging terminology  

SciTech Connect

This report defines and encourages the use of a set of common terms and definitions that characterize aging and aging management of nuclear power plant systems, structures, and components. Common aging terminology encompasses the areas of degradation causes, degradation/aging, life, failure, and maintenance. The terminology should prove useful in plant license renewal, life-cycle management, maintenance, and equipment qualification. The principal intended benefits are improved reporting and interpretation of plant experience data (especially failure data) and improved interpretation and compliance with codes, standards, and regulations related to aging of nuclear power plants. The terminology was developed using a sound, systematic technical and lexicographical approach, as well as input from a committee with members from electric utilities, the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and national research laboratories. Draft definitions received an extensive industry review. Formal comments were received from 19 organizations worldwide. The report presents the results of this effort and contains definitions, figures, examples of usage, dictionary definitions, and discussions describing the relationships among the 85 terms and 27 synonyms of the common aging terminology. The terms and definitions are generally consistent with similar terminology used by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). The common aging terminology has been reviewed by NUMARC and the NRC and is recommended for use throughout the nuclear power industry.

Grant, W.S.; Miller, E.J. (MPR Associates, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)); Sliter, G.E. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1992-11-01

263

Are You Ready for Common Core Math?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With new Common Core State Standards assessments in K12 mathematics due to be in use by the start of the 2014-2015 school year, many district administrators and teachers do not know what they should know about them now and are not taking steps they should be taking to prepare for them. While they are aware that the assessments are being developed,…

Dessoff, Alan

2012-01-01

264

Making It Happen: Common Core Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This one-of-a-kind guide identifies and highlights the ways in which NCTM (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics) resources can support teachers as they implement and supplement the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in their states. The guide and accompanying charts are tools to help educators as they continue to make…

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2011

2011-01-01

265

Defense Planning Paradigms and the Global Commons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the last several years, examination of U.S. national security interests within the context of the global commons has emerged as a major policy issue in the defense community. At the highest levels of the Department of Defense (DOD), there is now an a...

M. E. Redden M. P. Hughes

2011-01-01

266

Common cold symptomatology and Vitamin C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence and severity of nine symptoms of the common cold were recorded daily for 35 weeks by girls and boys in four Dublin boarding schools. Half the children in each school received placebo or 200 mg tablets, or 200 mg or 500 mg tablets, of Vitamin C daily on a double blind basis. Diets or environmental conditions did not

C. W. M. Wilson; H. S. Loh; F. G. Foster

1973-01-01

267

Vitamin C metabolism and the common cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male and female university students at the commencement of common cold symptoms were given a single dose of 500 mg of vitamin C. Plasma and leucocyte ascorbic acid concentrations were then measured for six hours. Symptom severity was recorded. The test was repeated twenty-three days after the last symptom had disappeared. The ascorbic acid blood response curve had then returned

C. W. M. Wilson; H. S. Loh

1974-01-01

268

Most common errors in company valuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains a collection and a classification of the 12 most common errors seen in company valuations performed by financial analysts, investment banks and financial consultants. The author had access to most of the valuations referred to in this paper when consulting in company acquisitions, sales and mergers, and in arbitrage processes. Some of the errors are from public

Pablo Fernandez

2004-01-01

269

The Common Core Challenge for ELLs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new Common Core State Standards (CCSS) currently being rolled out in 46 states give little specific acknowledgement of the challenges for English language learners (ELLs). The introduction to the CCSS states that identifying the supports needed to help ELLs (or any other population of students) is "beyond the scope of the Standards". The…

Coleman, Rhoda; Goldenberg, Claude

2012-01-01

270

Principal Prep for Common Core Gaining Traction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A year ago, top officials in the school leadership world were worried. It seemed to them that principals were being overlooked in national conversations about how to get educators ready for the Common Core State Standards. But that is changing. The past six months have seen a surge of activity to acquaint principals with the new standards and…

Gewertz, Catherine

2012-01-01

271

Mathematical Rigor in the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A whirlwind of activity surrounds the topic of teaching and learning mathematics. The driving forces are a combination of changes in assessment and advances in technology that are being spurred on by the introduction of content in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practice. Although the issues are certainly complex, the same forces…

Hull, Ted H.; Balka, Don S.; Miles, Ruth Harbin

2013-01-01

272

CTE and the Common Core State Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When the National Governors Association (NGA) and the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) released the Common Core State Standards in June 2010, it was the culmination of a yearlong process. It resulted in what the two organizations stated was the establishment of clear and consistent goals for learning that would prepare America's…

Reese, Susan

2011-01-01

273

Common Core State Standards for Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For over a decade, research studies of mathematics education in high-performing countries have pointed to the conclusion that the mathematics curriculum in the United States must become substantially more focused and coherent in order to improve mathematics achievement in this country. To deliver on the promise of common standards, the standards…

Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2011

2011-01-01

274

Translating the Common Core State Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the authors describe in Chapter 7 of their new book, "The School Reform Landscape: Fraud, Myth, and Lies," the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative continues to ramble on, without evidence to support its efficacy. That is because education reform in the United States is being driven largely by ideology, rhetoric, and dogma instead of…

Tienken, Christopher H.; Orlich, Donald C.

2013-01-01

275

The Common Core and Inverse Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The widespread adoption of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) shows a commitment to changing mathematics teaching and learning in pursuit of increasing student achievement. CCSSM should not be viewed as just another list of content standards for publishers and assessment groups to design their products around. Many…

Edenfield, Kelly W.

2012-01-01

276

GAISEing into the Common Core of Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In education, it is common to set aside older curriculum documents when newer ones are released. In fact, some instructional leaders have encouraged the "out with the old, in with the new" process by asking teachers to turn in all copies of the older document. Doing so makes sense when the old curriculum document is incompatible with the new.…

Groth, Randall E.; Bargagliotti, Anna E.

2012-01-01

277

A Multivariate Method of Commonality Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods of regression commonality analysis are generalized for use in canonical correlation analysis. An actual data set (involving educators' attitudes toward death and age, locus of control, religion, and occupational role in working with terminally ill children) is employed to illustrate the extension. The method can be applied with respect to…

Thompson, Bruce; Miller, James H.

278

A Computer Program to Accomplish Commonality Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Fortran IV computer program is presented which will unambiguously partition the explained variance of a dependent variable into those parts due uniquely to each independent variable and to all possible combinations of independent variables through commonality analysis. Tests of significance and documentation are provided. (Author/JKS)

Morris, John D.

1976-01-01

279

CASL: The Common Algebraic Specification Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Casl is an expressive language for the formal specification of functional requirementsand modular design of software. It has been designed by CoFI, the international Common Framework Initiative for algebraic specification and development. Itis based on a critical selection of features that have already been explored in variouscontexts, including subsorts, partial functions, first-order logic, and structured andarchitectural specifications. Casl should facilitate

Egidio Astesiano; Michel Bidoit; Bernd Krieg-brückner; Hélène Kirchner; Peter D. Mosses; Donald Sannella; Andrzej Tarlecki

1999-01-01

280

Common Pediatric and Adolescent Skin Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin lesions are encountered in all areas of medicine, and it is therefore important for physicians to understand the fundamentals of explaining and diagnosing common skin conditions. This article begins with a discus- sion of description and documentation of skin lesions based on color, size, morphology, and distribution. Pigmentation disorders such as vitiligo are depicted. Cutaneous growths that are found

Angela M. Sanfilippo; Victoria Barrio; Carol Kulp-Shorten; Jeffrey P. Callen

2003-01-01

281

How serious are common childhood fears?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: the present study examined the clinical status of common childhood fears. Method: fears of the 290 children aged 8 to 13 years were assessed and then their severity was explored by means of a structured diagnostic interview measuring anxiety disorders according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Results: childhood fears reflect significant

Peter Muris; Harald Merckelbach; Birgit Mayer; Elske Prins

2000-01-01

282

Chromosome Connections: Compelling Clues to Common Ancestry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students compare banding patterns on hominid chromosomes and see striking evidence of their common ancestry. To test this, human chromosome no. 2 is matched with two shorter chimpanzee chromosomes, leading to the hypothesis that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of the two shorter chromosomes. Students test that hypothesis by looking for…

Flammer, Larry

2013-01-01

283

Common Terms in Second Language Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This glossary defines terms commonly used in second language education, including the subfields of foreign language education, bilingual education, and English as a second language. Its purpose is to minimize confusion about the use of the terms. The terms include: language/linguistic majority student; language/linguistic minority student; limited…

Snow, Marguerite Ann

284

Common Lunar Lander (CLL) propulsion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description of the Common Lunar Lander (CLL) propulsion system is given. Among the topics discussed are the following: system characteristics, system mission requirements, key drivers to subsystem selection, system readiness level, and point design output. Additionally, a schematic of the system is provided.

Hyatt, Don

1991-01-01

285

Common Lunar Lander (CLL) Engineering Study Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information is given in viewgraph form on the Common Lunar Lander (CLL) engineering study results. The mission is to provide a delivery system to soft-land a 200 kg payload set at any given lunar latitude and longitude. Topics covered include the study sc...

J. Stecklein

1991-01-01

286

Common Lunar Lander (CLL) engineering study results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is given in viewgraph form on the Common Lunar Lander (CLL) engineering study results. The mission is to provide a delivery system to soft-land a 200 kg payload set at any given lunar latitude and longitude. Topics covered include the study schedule, mission goals and requirements, the CLL reference mission, costs, CLL options, and two stage performance analysis.

Stecklein, Jonette

1991-01-01

287

How ASCD Supports the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the Common Core State Standards Initiative moved from the development and adoption of the standards to their implementation, ASCD embarked on a multifaceted program to help educators understand and implement the new standards. With support from a $3 million grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, ASCD has enacted a three-pronged…

Mercado, Efrain; Britt, Sherida

2013-01-01

288

Common Selection Problems Can Be Overcome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After listing the 12 most common problems in employee selection, the author offers four principles for improving the selection interview process. The principles focus on using job-related selection targets, using past behavior as an indicator of future behavior, organizing selection elements into a system, and involving several managers.…

Byham, William C.

1978-01-01

289

Common?core Curriculum: a Piagetian conceptualisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piaget's account of formal operational thinking and Further Education Unit proposals for a common?core curriculum share twin assumptions: there are general abilities and such abilities are transferable. Piaget's account is reviewed and the commitment to both assumptions is shown. The family of six general abilities which underlie formal operational thinking is reviewed as well as six types of cognitive constraint

Leslie Smith

1986-01-01

290

The Tragedy of the Common School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Horace Mann's vision of a common school to educate American children has not been realized. Instead, our country is experimenting with many different kinds of schools: charters, independents, parochials, and magnets, to name a few. These schools fill a particular niche for families, with the potential to focus education to the needs of each child.…

Copeland, Mo

2009-01-01

291

Common Factors of High Performance Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilization of work teams is now wide spread in all types of organizations throughout the world. However, an understanding of the important factors common to high performance teams is rare. The purpose of this content analysis is to explore the literature and propose findings related to high performance teams. These include definition and types,…

Jackson, Bruce; Madsen, Susan R.

2005-01-01

292

Common causes of male dog infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete breeding soundness evaluation is essential for assessment of the infertile male dog. Cryptorchidism, a sex-limited autosomal recessive trait, is more common as a unilateral condition. Azoospermia is an ejaculate consisting of seminal plasma but lacking sperm; repeated semen collections in the presence of an estrual bitch will rule out inadequate experience and lack of sexual stimulation. Both carnitine

M. A. Memon

2007-01-01

293

Code Generation for Expressions with Common Subexpressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows the problem of generating optimal code for expressions containing common subexpressions is computationally difficult, even for simple expressions and simple machines. Some heuristics for code generation are given and their worst-case behavior is analyzed. For one register machines, an optimal code generation algorithm is given whose time complexity is linear in the size of an expression and

Alfred V. Aho; Stephen C. Johnson; Jeffrey D. Ullman

1977-01-01

294

Common postoperative findings unique to laparoscopic surgery.  

PubMed

The interpretation of images obtained in patients who have recently undergone abdominal or pelvic surgery is challenging, in part because procedures that were previously performed with open surgical techniques are increasingly being performed with minimally invasive (laparoscopic) techniques. Thus, it is important to be familiar with the normal approach used for laparoscopic surgeries. The authors describe the indications for various laparoscopic surgical procedures (eg, cholecystectomy, appendectomy, hernia repair) as well as normal postoperative findings. For example, port site hernias are more commonly encountered in patients with trocar sites greater than 10 mm and occur at classic entry sites (eg, the periumbilical region). Similarly, preperitoneal air can be encountered postoperatively, often secondary to trocar dislodgement during difficult entry or positioning. In addition, intraperitoneal placement of mesh during commonly performed ventral or incisional hernia repairs typically leads to postoperative seroma formation. Familiarity with normal findings after commonly performed laparoscopic surgical procedures in the abdomen and pelvis allows accurate diagnosis of common complications and avoidance of diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:24428286

Hindman, Nicole M; Kang, Stella; Parikh, Manish S

2014-01-01

295

Common Criteria Set for Federal Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an effort to improve the quality of educational research and make it less balkanized, the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) have introduced a common set of evidence standards for federally funded work. The criteria will guide all new research at the IES, the U.S. Department of Education's…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2013-01-01

296

Laptop Use in University Common Spaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anecdotal evidence existed about the many students who use their laptops and the wireless network in university common spaces, but little was known about how, where, and why students use laptops on campus, and less was known about students' awareness of university wireless network policies and security. This article discusses the results of a…

Wolff, Bill

2006-01-01

297

The Common Core: Far from Home  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this opinion piece, Michael Toscano writes that his criticism of the Common Core State Standards ultimately has very little to do with their innate quality, but rather that their relation to other social spheres is disordered. He refers to the full reordering of American education away from families and local communities--which he states are…

Toscano, Michael

2013-01-01

298

Engaging Educators: Common Core State Standards Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, 44 states and the District of Columbia have adopted the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Achieve has prepared this planning document to help all states in the American Diploma Project Network (ADP) and the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) consortium engage educators in the essential work of…

Achieve, Inc., 2011

2011-01-01

299

A Common Core: Thais and Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thais and U.S. citizens have a number of striking cultural similarities. Both prize the freedoms they enjoy, both are quite pragmatic and individualistic, and both disdain pomposity and arrogance. These traits form a kind of common core that helps Thais and U.S. citizens connect in cross-cultural interactions. Nevertheless, there are also…

Fieg, John Paul; Mortlock, Elizabeth

300

Access to the Common Core for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too often under the various state-developed standards and assessments, accommodations for students with disabilities--a heterogeneous group with varied characteristics and needs--have not been adequately addressed or have been ignored. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative provides an historic opportunity to improve access to rigorous…

McLaughlin, Margaret J.

2012-01-01

301

The Asymptotic Distribution of Commonality Components.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commonality components have been defined as a method of partitioning squared multiple correlations. The asymptotic joint distribution of all possible squared multiple correlations is derived. The asymptotic joint distribution of linear combinations of squared multiple correlations is obtained as a corollary. (Author/JKS)

Hedges, Larry V.; Olkin, Ingram

1981-01-01

302

Mineral Compositions of Eight Common Spices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight common spices have been studied for their mineral compositions using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after acid digestion. The seeds of the following spices were used for analysis: coriander, cumin, anise, nigella, mustard, carum, black pepper, and fenugreek. Average elemental compositions of spices seeds were reported using robust Z-score statistic. Fourteen elements were considered, which include heavy

K. K. Gupta; S. Bhattacharjee; S. Kar; S. Chakrabarty; P. Thakur; G. Bhattacharyya; S. C. Srivastava

2003-01-01

303

ILLUSTRATED HANDBOOK OF SOME COMMON MOLDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS DOCUMENT IS A PICTURE GUIDE FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF TEN COMMON MOLDS. IT IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH THE ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT "MICROGARDENING" AND IS SUGGESTED FOR UPPER ELEMENTARY GRADES. INCLUDED FOR EACH MOLD ARE COLOR PHOTOGRAPHS AND PHOTOMICROGRAPHS OF THE INTACT MOLD MASS AND OF THE MOLD'S SPORE PRODUCING STRUCTURES. ALSO…

CHANDLER, MARION N.

304

The Common Application: When Competitors Collaborate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American colleges and universities compete with each other for undergraduate and graduate students, faculty and staff, research funding, and external contributions, as well as on athletic fields. This competition is often alleged to be a zero-sum game; what one institution wins, another must lose. However, as the authors show here, the Common

Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Liu, Albert Yung-Hsu

2009-01-01

305

Gates, Pearson Partner on Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As states and school districts grapple with how to teach the skills outlined in the new common standards, two foundations have announced a partnership aimed at crafting complete, online curricula for those standards in mathematics and English/language arts that span nearly every year of a child's precollegiate education. The announcement last…

Gewertz, Catherine

2011-01-01

306

A Cognitive Core for Common State Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate cognitive challenges introduced by Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (2010) with regard to conceptualizing fractions. We focus on a strand of standards that appear across grades three through five, which is best represented in grade four, by standard 4.NF.4a: "[Students should] understand a…

Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven

2013-01-01

307

Sneak Circuit Analysis for the Common Man.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the process known as sneak circuit analysis in a simple, easy to follow format. A listing of common design mistakes which led to sneak failures is given. This listing coupled with examples and descriptions of the design flaws, allow t...

J. Miller

1989-01-01

308

Sneak circuit analysis for the common man  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the process known as sneak circuit analysis in a simple, easy to follow format. A listing of common design mistakes which led to sneak failures is given. This listing coupled with examples and descriptions of the design flaws, allow this document to be used not only to check an existing system, but more importantly, to correct a

Jeff Miller

1989-01-01

309

At the Center of the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the 2011-2012 school year offered educators a sketch of the Common Core State Standards and how they would impact teaching and learning, this year that painting takes shape. Many states and districts are well on the way to implementing the standards--but the process is complex, especially for the school leaders who shoulder the task of…

Principal, 2012

2012-01-01

310

The design of a common lunar lander  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Austin Cynthesis Corporation was formed to respond to a Request for Proposal for the design of a Common Lunar Lander (CLL) capable of carrying lightweight (less than 500 kg), unspecified payload to the moon. This Final Design Report Document includes information on the requirements for the design project; the ideas proposed as solutions to the design problem; the work

Dan Driggers; Sean Hearrell; Kevin Key; Brian Le; Glen Love; Rob McMullen; Scott Messec; Jim Ruhnke

1991-01-01

311

Information Commons Help Desk Transactions Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the purpose of designing a training program for a new team serving at a technology service point, the author analyzed the transactions log using a new, multi-faceted, taxonomy. The resulting list of competencies and the methodology would be useful for managers of information or learning commons. (Contains 5 tables.)

Wong, Gabrielle K. W.

2010-01-01

312

Staking a Claim in the Information Commons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the key role of the school library as an information commons that prepares tomorrow's citizens to recognize their rights and responsibilities in the information age. An action agenda for school librarians aimed at ensuring that young people will continue to have opportunities to participate in a digital age democracy is suggested. (MES)

Kranich, Nancy

2003-01-01

313

The Common Core: New Standards, New Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The good news about the Common Core State Standards: They emphasize writing convincing arguments about issues that matter, clear and comprehensive informational texts that can do meaningful work in the world, and compelling narratives. The bad news: Traditional approaches to teaching writing aren't enough to meet these new standards. The…

Smith, Michael W.; Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.; Fredricksen, James

2013-01-01

314

Two Versions of "Common" Test Eyed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An unprecedented assessment project involving half the states is planning a significant shift: Instead of designing one test for all of them, it will offer a choice of a longer and a shorter version. The pivot came in response to some states' resistance to spending more time and money on testing for the common standards. The plan under discussion…

Gewertz, Catherine

2012-01-01

315

The Common Good in Classical Political Philosophy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "common good" names the end (or final cause) of political and social life in the tradition of moral thought that owes its main substance to Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas. It names a genuine good ("bonum honestum") and not merely an instrumental or secondary good defeasible in the face of particular goods. However, at the same time, it…

Lewis, V. Bradley

2006-01-01

316

Model Checking IBM's Common Cryptographic Architecture API  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results from the application of a model checker to the analysis of the API used by a number of security modules in Automated Teller Machine networks — IBM's Common Cryptographic Architecture API. We show that it is capable of rediscovering all known attacks on the API, using models containing a greater set of API commands. We also analyse

Gavin Keighren

2006-01-01

317

Less Commonly Taught Languages: Resources and Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers from a conference on languages less commonly taught in Britain is concerned with administrative and material problems of teaching these languages. Contents of the publication are: an introduction by G. E. Perren; "Practical Needs" by Anthony Crane; "Problems of Producing Printed Materials" by Rosemary Davidson;…

Centre for Information on Language Teaching, London (England).

318

Correlation as Probability of Common Descent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One interpretation of the Pearson product-moment correlation ("r"), correlation as the probability of originating from common descent, important to the genetic measurement of inbreeding, is examined. The conditions under which "r" can be interpreted as the probability of "identity by descent" are specified, and the possibility of generalizing this…

Falk, Ruma; Well, Arnold D.

1996-01-01

319

Badges: A Common Currency for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital Badges--icons that can represent skills and achievements at a more fine-grained level than a degree--give colleges and universities a new way to document learning outcomes and to map the pathways students follow to earn a degree. They also provide a common currency to denote learning outcomes and give employers a visual representation and…

Bowen, Kyle; Thomas, Andrea

2014-01-01

320

Science, values, and common ground1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I argue that there may be common ground shared by animal science and its critics insofar as animal scientists seek improvement in their field in four areas: the quality of their products, the quality of life for those who make their livelihood in food production, the fair treatment of human work- ers, and the humane treatment of

Chris Cuomo

2010-01-01

321

Idaho Commons at the University of Idaho.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the architectural design, costs, general description, and square footage data for the Idaho Commons at the University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. A floor plan and photos are included along with a list of manufacturers and suppliers used for the project. (GR)

Design Cost Data, 2001

2001-01-01

322

Gaussian Beam Migration for Sparse Common-Shot and Common-Receiver Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the application of Gaussian beam migration for common-shot and common-receiver seismic data. The inversion of common-shot data is useful for seismic data where the receiver coordinates are well sampled, but the source coordinates are less well sampled. Since Gaussian beam migration uses smoothed, localized windowing of the data, it can provide more stable results for the inversion of

R. L. Nowack; M. K. Sen; P. L. Stoffa; H. Ge

2002-01-01

323

Common structure of soluble amyloid oligomers implies common mechanism of pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Soluble oligomers are common to most amyloids and may represent the primary toxic species of amyloids, like the Abeta peptide in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we show that all of the soluble oligomers tested display a common conformation-dependent structure that is unique to soluble oligomers regardless of sequence. The in vitro toxicity of soluble oligomers is inhibited by oligomer-specific antibody. Soluble oligomers have a unique distribution in human AD brain that is distinct from fibrillar amyloid. These results indicate that different types of soluble amyloid oligomers have a common structure and suggest they share a common mechanism of toxicity. PMID:12702875

Kayed, Rakez; Head, Elizabeth; Thompson, Jennifer L; McIntire, Theresa M; Milton, Saskia C; Cotman, Carl W; Glabe, Charles G

2003-04-18

324

Common cycling injuries. Management and prevention.  

PubMed

The increasing participation in the athletic forms of bicycling warrants expanded physician attention to the traumatic and overuse injuries experienced by cyclists. The modern bicycle consists of a frame with various components, including handlebars, brakes, wheels, pedals, and gears, in various configurations for the various modes of cycling. For high performance cycling the proper fit of the bicycle is critical. The most efficient method to provide an accurate fit is the Fitkit, but proper frame selection and adjustment can be made by following simple guidelines for frame size, seat height, fore and aft saddle position, saddle angle, reach and handlebar height. The human body functions most effectively in a narrow range of pedal resistance to effort. Riding at too much pedal resistance is a major cause of overuse problems in cyclists. Overuse injuries are lower using lower gear ratios at a higher cadence. Cycling injuries account for 500,000 visits per year to emergency rooms in the US. Over half the accidents involve motor vehicles, and road surface and mechanical problems with the bicycle are also common causes of accidents. Head injuries are common in cyclists and account for most of the fatal accidents. Despite good evidence of their effectiveness, victims with head injuries have rarely worn helmets. Contusions, sprains and fractures may occur throughout the body, most commonly to the hand, wrist, lower arm, shoulder, ankle and lower leg. The handlebar and seat have been implicated in a wide variety of abdominal and genital injuries. Abrasions, lacerations and bruises of the skin are the most common traumatic injuries. Trauma may be prevented or reduced by proper protective safety equipment and keeping the bike in top mechanical condition. Anticipation of the errors of others and practising and adopting specific riding strategies also help to prevent traumatic injuries. Management of overuse injuries in cycling generally involves mechanical adjustment as well as medical management. Neck and back pain are extremely common in cyclists, occurring in up to 60% of riders. Ulnar neuropathy, characterised by tingling, numbness and weakness in the hands is common in serious cyclists after several days of riding. Managing saddle-related injuries or irritations may also involve adjusting seat height, angle and fore and aft position in addition to changing the saddle. Padding in the saddle and shorts play an important part in saddle problems. Saddle-related problems include chafing, perineal folliculitis and furuncles, subcutaneous perineal nodules, pudendal neuropathy, male impotence, traumatic urethritis and a variety of vulva trauma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2011683

Mellion, M B

1991-01-01

325

Comparing the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics and the NAEP Framework. Achieving the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Initiative, states and territories have collaborated in the development of a common core of standards in English Language Arts and mathematics for grades kindergarten through twelve that are now being adopted by states. Designed not only for the purpose of providing strong, shared expectations, the…

Achieve, Inc., 2010

2010-01-01

326

Comparing the Common Core State Standards and Singapore's Mathematics Syllabus. Achieving the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Initiative, states and territories have collaborated in the development of a common core of standards in English Language Arts and mathematics for grades kindergarten through twelve that are now being adopted by states. Designed not only for the purpose of providing strong, shared expectations, the…

Achieve, Inc., 2010

2010-01-01

327

G130V, a common FRDA point mutation, appears to have arisen from a common founder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is the most common inherited ataxia. About 98% of mutant alleles have an expansion of a GAA trinucleotide repeat in intron 1 of the affected gene, FRDA. The other 2% are point mutations. Of the 17 point mutations so far described, three appear to be more common. One of these is the G130V mutation in exon 4

Martin B. Delatycki; Melanie Knight; Michel Koenig; Mireille Cossée; Robert Williamson; Susan M. Forrest

1999-01-01

328

Information Commons Redux: Concept, Evolution, and Transcending the Tragedy of the Commons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews "information commons" concepts and describes administrative and functional integration in an academic library information commons. The roles of inclusive planning structures and careful integration through an enhanced information desk are delineated, emphasizing team building that results from this implementation. The article…

Bailey, Russell; Tierney, Barbara

2002-01-01

329

On Highest Common Factor and Least Common Multiple in the Secondary School Mathematics Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention is drawn to an ancient Greek method for finding the least common multiple (LCM) of two numbers. A link is established between this method and a well-known method of obtaining the highest common factor (HCF) numbers. This leads to consideration of some relationships between HCF and LCM. (Author/MK)

Davies, H. B.

1980-01-01

330

Common cold outbreaks: A network theory approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, at first we evaluated the network structure in social encounters by which respiratory diseases can spread. We considered common-cold and recorded a sample of human population and actual encounters between them. Our results show that the database structure presents a great value of clustering. In the second step, we evaluated dynamics of disease spread with SIR model by assigning a function to each node of the structural network. The rate of disease spread in networks was observed to be inversely correlated with characteristic path length. Therefore, the shortcuts have a significant role in increasing spread rate. We conclude that the dynamics of social encounters' network stands between the random and the lattice in network spectrum. Although in this study we considered the period of common-cold disease for network dynamics, it seems that similar approaches may be useful for other airborne diseases such as SARS.

Vishkaie, Faranak Rajabi; Bakouie, Fatemeh; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar

2014-11-01

331

Differential diagnosis of common tremor syndromes  

PubMed Central

Tremor is one of the most common involuntary movement disorders seen in clinical practice. In addition to the detailed history, the differential diagnosis is mainly clinical based on the distinction at rest, postural and intention, activation condition, frequency, and topographical distribution. The causes of tremor are heterogeneous and it can present alone (for example, essential tremor) or as a part of a neurological syndrome (for example, multiple sclerosis). Essential tremor and the tremor of Parkinson's disease are the most common tremors encountered in clinical practice. This article focuses on a practical approach to these different forms of tremor and how to distinguish them clinically. Evidence supporting various strategies used in the differentiation is then presented, followed by a review of formal guidelines or recommendations when they exist.

Bhidayasiri, R

2005-01-01

332

Viscosity of Common Seed and Vegetable Oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viscosity experiments using Ostwald-type gravity flow viscometers are not new to the physical chemistry laboratory. Several physical chemistry laboratory texts (1 - 3) contain at least one experiment studying polymer solutions or other well-defined systems. Several recently published articles (4 - 8) indicated the continued interest in using viscosity measurements in the teaching lab to illustrate molecular interpretation of bulk phenomena. Most of these discussions and teaching experiments are designed around an extensive theory of viscous flow and models of molecular shape that allow a full data interpretation to be attempted. This approach to viscosity experiments may not be appropriate for all teaching situations (e.g., high schools, general chemistry labs, and nonmajor physical chemistry labs). A viscosity experiment is presented here that is designed around common seed and vegetable oils. With the importance of viscosity to foodstuffs (9) and the importance of fatty acids to nutrition (10), an experiment using these common, recognizable oils has broad appeal.

Wes Fountain, C.; Jennings, Jeanne; McKie, Cheryl K.; Oakman, Patrice; Fetterolf, Monty L.

1997-02-01

333

House of Commons Library Research Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The UK House of Commons has recently created a site that offers access to the full text of Research Papers (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only) which are compiled for the benefit of British Members of Parliament by the staff of the House of Commons Library. An occasional series focusing on topics of current parliamentary interest, the papers, "aim to be politically impartial and contain factual information as well as a range of opinions on each subject covered." Recently released titles include: "EU Enlargement: The Political Process," "EU Enlargement: The Financial Consequences," "Northern Ireland: political developments since 1972," "The local elections of 7 May 1998 and the London Referendum," and "Unemployment by Constituency: Welfare-to-work groups - April 1998."

Library., Great B.

1998-01-01

334

Common structures in simplicial quantum gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical properties of dynamically triangulated manifolds (DT mfds) in terms of the geodesic distance are studied numerically. The string susceptibility exponents for the boundary surfaces in three-dimensional DT mfds are measured numerically. For spherical boundary surfaces, we obtain a result consistent with the case of a two-dimensional spherical DT surface described by the matrix model. This gives a correct method to reconstruct two-dimensional random surfaces from three-dimensional DT mfds. Furthermore, a scaling property of the volume distribution of minimum neck baby universes is investigated numerically in the case of three and four dimensions, and we obtain a common scaling structure near to the critical points belonging to the strong coupling phase in both dimensions. We have evidence for the existence of a common fractal structure in three- and four-dimensional simplicial quantum gravity.

Egawa, H. S.; Tsuda, N.; Yukawa, T.

1999-07-01

335

Circular common-path point diffraction interferometer.  

PubMed

A simple and compact point-diffraction interferometer with circular common-path geometry configuration is developed. The interferometer is constructed by a beam-splitter, two reflection mirrors, and a telescope system composed by two lenses. The signal and reference waves travel along the same path. Furthermore, an opaque mask containing a reference pinhole and a test object holder or test window is positioned in the common focal plane of the telescope system. The object wave is divided into two beams that take opposite paths along the interferometer. The reference wave is filtered by the reference pinhole, while the signal wave is transmitted through the object holder. The reference and signal waves are combined again in the beam-splitter and their interference is imaged in the CCD. The new design is compact, vibration insensitive, and suitable for the measurement of moving objects or dynamic processes. PMID:23027234

Du, Yongzhao; Feng, Guoying; Li, Hongru; Vargas, J; Zhou, Shouhuan

2012-10-01

336

Human resources: a common-sense discipline.  

PubMed

Being able to hire the right team members, keeping them engaged ina professional and productive environment, and avoiding litigation help keep the team functioning and meeting the everyday goals of providing quality patient care. Although these topics may seem complex, medical providers and professionals have resources available to them, such as the Human Resources department, the Medical Director, senior management,and legal counsel. Hiring the right people, creating a positive work environment, and avoiding litigation are all common sense principals that are relevant regardless of profession, industry, or company. Understanding how to apply the principles and concepts of Human Resources and personnel management can seem overwhelming: however, asking for help from the resources mentioned previously and applying the common sense information found in this article will help one to be a successful leader and practitioner. PMID:15062502

Courtney, Lisa R

2004-02-01

337

Common themes in centriole and centrosome movements.  

PubMed

Centrioles are found in nearly all eukaryotic cells and are required for growth and maintenance of the radial array of microtubules, the mitotic spindle, and cilia and flagella. Different types of microtubule structures are often required at different places in a given cell; centrioles must move around to nucleate these varied structures. Here, we draw together recent data on diverse centriole movements to decipher common themes in how centrioles move. Par proteins establish and maintain the required cellular asymmetry. The actin cytoskeleton facilitates movement of multiple basal bodies. Microtubule forces acting on the cell cortex, and nuclear-cytoskeletal links, are important for positioning individual centrosomes, and during cell division. Knowledge of these common mechanisms can inform the study of centriole movements across biology. PMID:20961761

Vaughan, Sue; Dawe, Helen R

2011-01-01

338

Asymptotic Theory for Common Principal Component Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the common principal component model $k$ covariance matrices $\\\\mathbf{\\\\Sigma}_1,\\\\cdots,\\\\mathbf{\\\\Sigma}_k$ are simultaneously diagonalizable, i.e., there exists an orthogonal matrix $\\\\mathbf{\\\\beta}$ such that $\\\\mathbf{\\\\beta'\\\\Sigma_i\\\\beta = \\\\Lambda_i}$ is diagonal for $i = 1,\\\\cdots, k$. In this article we give the asymptotic distribution of the maximum likelihood estimates of $\\\\mathbf{\\\\beta}$ and $\\\\mathbf{\\\\Lambda}_i$. Using these results, we derive tests for (a) equality of eigenvectors

Bernard N. Flury

1986-01-01

339

Economics and the Tragedy of the Commons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In both macroeconomics and microeconomics principles courses, economists teach the virtue of markets as an allocative mechanism. But markets sometimes fail. This example allows students to simulate the market failure associated with a common property resource, a salmon fishery, and evaluate ways to control fishing. The simulation also shows the distributional results of different allocative mechanisms. The simulation was developed by Paul Romer at Stanford University and is available on the Aplia web site.

Blecha, Betty

340

Kindergarten Common Core State Standards Flip Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 42-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the Kindergarten level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades 1-5.

2012-06-01

341

Apoptotic responses common to cancer and inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The pathobiology of chronic inflammation and of cancer share many common attributes. Both can be considered “nonhealing wounds”\\u000a due to the loss of normal tissue integrity. Both show evidence of dysregulated proliferation of particular cell types and\\u000a consequently both are associated with hyperplasias. In addition, both chronic inflammation and cancer are also dependent on\\u000a subverting the process of programmed cell

Barbara Fingleton; Howard C. Crawford

342

Common muscle synergies for balance and walking  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the integration of neural mechanisms for balance and locomotion. Muscle synergies have been studied independently in standing balance and walking, but not compared. Here, we hypothesized that reactive balance and walking are mediated by a common set of lower-limb muscle synergies. In humans, we examined muscle activity during multidirectional support-surface perturbations during standing and walking, as well as unperturbed walking at two speeds. We show that most muscle synergies used in perturbations responses during standing were also used in perturbation responses during walking, suggesting common neural mechanisms for reactive balance across different contexts. We also show that most muscle synergies using in reactive balance were also used during unperturbed walking, suggesting that neural circuits mediating locomotion and reactive balance recruit a common set of muscle synergies to achieve task-level goals. Differences in muscle synergies across conditions reflected differences in the biomechanical demands of the tasks. For example, muscle synergies specific to walking perturbations may reflect biomechanical challenges associated with single limb stance, and muscle synergies used during sagittal balance recovery in standing but not walking were consistent with maintaining the different desired center of mass motions in standing vs. walking. Thus, muscle synergies specifying spatial organization of muscle activation patterns may define a repertoire of biomechanical subtasks available to different neural circuits governing walking and reactive balance and may be recruited based on task-level goals. Muscle synergy analysis may aid in dissociating deficits in spatial vs. temporal organization of muscle activity in motor deficits. Muscle synergy analysis may also provide a more generalizable assessment of motor function by identifying whether common modular mechanisms are impaired across the performance of multiple motor tasks.

Chvatal, Stacie A.; Ting, Lena H.

2013-01-01

343

Consortia Provide Preview of Common Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As teachers begin shaping lessons for the common standards, many are wondering how to prepare their students for tests that won't be ready for at least two years. Sample items being drafted for those exams offer early ideas of what lies ahead. Two large groups of states are using federal Race to the Top money to create new suites of exams for the…

Gewertz, Catherine

2012-01-01

344

The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) project will provide a core satellite carrying the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and will use microwave observations from a constellation of other satellites. Each partner with a satellite in the constellation will have a calibration that meets their own requirements and will decide on the format to archive their brightness temperature (Tb) record in GPM. However, GPM multi-sensor precipitation algorithms need to input intercalibrated Tb's in order to avoid differences among sensors introducing artifacts into the longer term climate record of precipitation. The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product is intended to address this problem by providing intercalibrated Tb data, called "Tc" data, where the "c" stands for common. The precipitation algorithms require a Tc file format that is both generic and flexible enough to accommodate the different passive microwave instruments. The format will provide detailed information on the processing history in order to allow future researchers to have a record of what was done. The format will be simple, including the main items of scan time, latitude, longitude, and Tc. It will also provide spacecraft orientation, spacecraft location, orbit, and instrument scan type (cross-track or conical). Another simplification is to store data in real numbers, avoiding the ambiguity of scaled data. Finally, units and descriptions will be provided in the product. The format is built on the concept of a swath, which is a series of scans that have common geolocation and common scan geometry. Scan geometry includes pixels per scan, sensor orientation, scan type, and incidence angles. The Tc algorithm and data format are being tested using the pre-GPM Precipitation Processing System (PPS) software to generate formats and 1/0 routines. In the test, data from SSM/I, TMI, AMSR-E, and WindSat are being processed and written as Tc products.

Stout, John; Berg, Wesley; Huffman, George; Kummerow, Chris; Stocker, Erich

2005-01-01

345

New Literacies and the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It makes sense that an emphasis on new ways of reading and writing fits easily within the Common Core umbrella. After all, a primary thrust of the new standards is college and career readiness. How can young people be prepared to thrive in today's society--in which people are connected 24 hours a day by media and coworkers may well live in…

Kist, William

2013-01-01

346

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Common Carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie

1982-01-01

347

Hematometrocolpos associated with common cloacal anomaly.  

PubMed

A rare case of hematometrocolpos is presented in a 14 years old female with known common cloacal malformation. It presented as a slowly growing tender pelvic mass. Ultrasound and CT scan of the pelvis revealed vagina and uterus filled with blood. A diagnosis of hematometrocolpos was made. Per-operatively multiple adhesions were found in the pelvis necessitating the removal of blood-filled uterus. PMID:17785135

Amin, Muhammad Umar; Mahmood, Rabia; Shafique, Mobeen; Tahir, Amjad; Rehman, Ateeq-Ur-; Khan, Muhammad Younis

2007-08-01

348

Sneak circuit analysis for the common man  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents the process known as sneak circuit analysis in a simple, easy to follow format. A listing of common design mistakes which led to sneak failures is given. This listing coupled with examples and descriptions of the design flaws, allow this document to be used not only to check an existing system, but more importantly, to correct a system in the design phase. This will save the expense of correcting a mistake discovered later in the development of a system.

Miller, Jeff

1989-10-01

349

Noncaseating granulomatous disease in common variable immunodeficiency.  

PubMed

Patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) are occasionally recognized to have a concurrent noncaseating granulomatous disease. The granulomatous disease (GD) associated with CVID shares many clinical properties typical of sarcoidosis. Some investigators speculate that the GD-CVID is actually sarcoidosis that is expressed atypically because of the patient's immunodeficiency. Clinical differences, however, have led other investigators to speculate that the GD-CVID is a distinct "sarcoid-like" granulomatous process. PMID:10881789

Kanathur, N; Byrd, R P; Fields, C L; Roy, T M

2000-06-01

350

Accurately diagnosing commonly misdiagnosed circular rashes.  

PubMed

Rashes are common in the pediatric population yet can be quite problematic for nurse practitioners to diagnose. A thorough history and physical examination, along with some simple procedures, will aid in identifying these skin conditions. Four cases are presented, which may initially prove challenging to diagnose, and symptoms are categorically examined to arrive at the accurate diagnoses. Treatment guidelines, options, and the role of parental education and involvement also are discussed. PMID:17907732

Popovich, Debbie; McAlhany, Allison

2007-01-01

351

Cross-section Regression with Common Shocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers regression models for cross-section data that exhibit cross-section dependence due to common shocks, such as macroeconomic shocks. The paper analyzes the properties of least squares (LS) and instrumental variables (IV) estimators in this context. The results of the paper allow for any form of cross-section dependence and heterogeneity across population units. The probability limits of the LS

Donald W. K. Andrews

2004-01-01

352

Cross-section Regression with Common Shocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers regression models for cross-section data that exhibit cross-section dependence due to common shocks, such as macroeconomic shocks. The paper analyzes the properties of least squares (LS) and instrumental variables (IV) estimators in this context. The results of the paper allow for any form of cross-section dependence and heterogeneity across population units. The probability limits of the LS

Donald W. K. Andrews

2003-01-01

353

Plutonium uptake by common soil aerobes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclide contamination in soils and groundwater poses a risk to both human and environmental health. The DOE has identified 12 sites with significant U contamination in the soils and ground water, and 10 sites with Pu contamination.1 It is important to study the interactions of common soil microbes with these radionuclides both to understand the environmental fate of these contaminants and to evaluate the potential of biological techniques to remediate contaminated soils and water. .

John, Seth; Rugglero, Christy; Hersman, Larry; Neu, Mary

2000-07-01

354

Remedies for common user-agent problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

User agents---that is browsers and other programs that deal with the Web---can fail the user in many ways. This article, by three people deeply involved with the development of the Web, documents some typical common user agent problems, and suggests correct ways of working.The authors use several Web-specific technical terms, so let me list the important ones here:• Fragment identifier:

Karl Dubost; Hugo Haas; Ian Jacobs

2002-01-01

355

Commonness and rarity in the marine biosphere  

PubMed Central

Explaining patterns of commonness and rarity is fundamental for understanding and managing biodiversity. Consequently, a key test of biodiversity theory has been how well ecological models reproduce empirical distributions of species abundances. However, ecological models with very different assumptions can predict similar species abundance distributions, whereas models with similar assumptions may generate very different predictions. This complicates inferring processes driving community structure from model fits to data. Here, we use an approximation that captures common features of “neutral” biodiversity models—which assume ecological equivalence of species—to test whether neutrality is consistent with patterns of commonness and rarity in the marine biosphere. We do this by analyzing 1,185 species abundance distributions from 14 marine ecosystems ranging from intertidal habitats to abyssal depths, and from the tropics to polar regions. Neutrality performs substantially worse than a classical nonneutral alternative: empirical data consistently show greater heterogeneity of species abundances than expected under neutrality. Poor performance of neutral theory is driven by its consistent inability to capture the dominance of the communities’ most-abundant species. Previous tests showing poor performance of a neutral model for a particular system often have been followed by controversy about whether an alternative formulation of neutral theory could explain the data after all. However, our approach focuses on common features of neutral models, revealing discrepancies with a broad range of empirical abundance distributions. These findings highlight the need for biodiversity theory in which ecological differences among species, such as niche differences and demographic trade-offs, play a central role.

Connolly, Sean R.; MacNeil, M. Aaron; Caley, M. Julian; Knowlton, Nancy; Cripps, Ed; Hisano, Mizue; Thibaut, Loic M.; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar D.; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Brainard, Russell E.; Brandt, Angelika; Bulleri, Fabio; Ellingsen, Kari E.; Kaiser, Stefanie; Kroncke, Ingrid; Linse, Katrin; Maggi, Elena; O'Hara, Timothy D.; Plaisance, Laetitia; Poore, Gary C. B.; Sarkar, Santosh K.; Satpathy, Kamala K.; Schuckel, Ulrike; Williams, Alan; Wilson, Robin S.

2014-01-01

356

Commonness and rarity in the marine biosphere.  

PubMed

Explaining patterns of commonness and rarity is fundamental for understanding and managing biodiversity. Consequently, a key test of biodiversity theory has been how well ecological models reproduce empirical distributions of species abundances. However, ecological models with very different assumptions can predict similar species abundance distributions, whereas models with similar assumptions may generate very different predictions. This complicates inferring processes driving community structure from model fits to data. Here, we use an approximation that captures common features of "neutral" biodiversity models-which assume ecological equivalence of species-to test whether neutrality is consistent with patterns of commonness and rarity in the marine biosphere. We do this by analyzing 1,185 species abundance distributions from 14 marine ecosystems ranging from intertidal habitats to abyssal depths, and from the tropics to polar regions. Neutrality performs substantially worse than a classical nonneutral alternative: empirical data consistently show greater heterogeneity of species abundances than expected under neutrality. Poor performance of neutral theory is driven by its consistent inability to capture the dominance of the communities' most-abundant species. Previous tests showing poor performance of a neutral model for a particular system often have been followed by controversy about whether an alternative formulation of neutral theory could explain the data after all. However, our approach focuses on common features of neutral models, revealing discrepancies with a broad range of empirical abundance distributions. These findings highlight the need for biodiversity theory in which ecological differences among species, such as niche differences and demographic trade-offs, play a central role. PMID:24912168

Connolly, Sean R; MacNeil, M Aaron; Caley, M Julian; Knowlton, Nancy; Cripps, Ed; Hisano, Mizue; Thibaut, Loïc M; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar D; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Brainard, Russell E; Brandt, Angelika; Bulleri, Fabio; Ellingsen, Kari E; Kaiser, Stefanie; Kröncke, Ingrid; Linse, Katrin; Maggi, Elena; O'Hara, Timothy D; Plaisance, Laetitia; Poore, Gary C B; Sarkar, Santosh K; Satpathy, Kamala K; Schückel, Ulrike; Williams, Alan; Wilson, Robin S

2014-06-10

357

Common themes in microbial pathogenicity revisited.  

PubMed Central

Bacterial pathogens employ a number of genetic strategies to cause infection and, occasionally, disease in their hosts. Many of these virulence factors and their regulatory elements can be divided into a smaller number of groups based on the conservation of similar mechanisms. These common themes are found throughout bacterial virulence factors. For example, there are only a few general types of toxins, despite a large number of host targets. Similarly, there are only a few conserved ways to build the bacterial pilus and nonpilus adhesins used by pathogens to adhere to host substrates. Bacterial entry into host cells (invasion) is a complex mechanism. However, several common invasion themes exist in diverse microorganisms. Similarly, once inside a host cell, pathogens have a limited number of ways to ensure their survival, whether remaining within a host vacuole or by escaping into the cytoplasm. Avoidance of the host immune defenses is key to the success of a pathogen. Several common themes again are employed, including antigenic variation, camouflage by binding host molecules, and enzymatic degradation of host immune components. Most virulence factors are found on the bacterial surface or secreted into their immediate environment, yet virulence factors operate through a relatively small number of microbial secretion systems. The expression of bacterial pathogenicity is dependent upon complex regulatory circuits. However, pathogens use only a small number of biochemical families to express distinct functional factors at the appropriate time that causes infection. Finally, virulence factors maintained on mobile genetic elements and pathogenicity islands ensure that new strains of pathogens evolve constantly. Comprehension of these common themes in microbial pathogenicity is critical to the understanding and study of bacterial virulence mechanisms and to the development of new "anti-virulence" agents, which are so desperately needed to replace antibiotics.

Finlay, B B; Falkow, S

1997-01-01

358

Investigations on common bile duct stones.  

PubMed

Common bile duct stones from 59 consecutive patients who underwent cholecystectomy more than 1 year before radiological detection of choledocholithiasis (group I) and from 31 consecutive patients with choledocholithiasis and gallbladder in situ (group II) were subjected to chemical analysis and compared with the composition of gallbladder stones from the same population (two consecutive biopsy and autopsy series, n = 343). In contrast to cholecystolithiasis, inorganic calcium salts were infrequent in choledocholithiasis while calcium bilirubinate and fatty acid calcium salts played an important role in the composition of common bile duct stones. This is of particular importance in terms of litholysis. With respect to stone pathogenesis, clinical and radiological data were analyzed, as was hepatic bile lipid composition. There was no significant difference in the lithogenic index (percent cholesterol saturation) in cholecystectomized and in non-cholecystectomized patients with choledocholithiasis. The most important cause of stone recurrence in the common duct after surgery was incrustation of unabsorbed suture material, which was the case in 30.5% of group-I patients. PMID:6840404

Wosiewitz, U; Schenk, J; Sabinski, F; Schmack, B

1983-01-01

359

How I treat common variable immune deficiency  

PubMed Central

Common variable immunodeficiency is a rare immune deficiency, characterized by low levels of serum immunoglobulin G, A, and/or M with loss of antibody production. The diagnosis is most commonly made in adults between the ages of 20 and 40 years, but both children and older adults can be found to have this immune defect. The range of clinical manifestations is broad, including acute and chronic infections, inflammatory and autoimmune disease, and an increased incidence of cancer and lymphoma. For all these reasons, the disease phenotype is both heterogeneous and complex. Contributing to the complexity is that patient cohorts are generally small, criteria used for diagnosis vary, and the doses of replacement immune globulin differ. In addition, routines for monitoring patients over the years and protocols for the use of other biologic agents for complications have not been clarified or standardized. In the past few years, data from large patient registries have revealed that both selected laboratory markers and clinical phenotyping may aid in dissecting groups of subjects into biologically relevant categories. This review presents my approach to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with common variable immunodeficiency, with suggestions for the use of laboratory biomarkers and means of monitoring patients.

2010-01-01

360

The common premise for uncommon conclusions.  

PubMed

Recent controversy over philosophical advocacy of infanticide (or the comically-styled euphemism 'postnatal abortion') reveals a surprisingly common premise uniting many of the opponents and supporters of the practice. This is the belief that the moral status of the early fetus or embryo with respect to a right to life is identical to that of a newly born or even very young baby. From this premise, infanticidists and strong anti-abortionists draw opposite conclusions, the former that the healthy newly born have no inherent right to life and the latter that minute embryos and the very early fetus have the same right to life as young babies. (Indeed strong anti-abortionists tend to regard this right to life as identical to that possessed by adult humans.) This paper argues that these opposed conclusions are both deeply implausible and that the implausibility resides in the common premise. The argument requires some attention to the structure of the philosophical case underpinning the supposed vice of speciesism that has been given intellectual currency by many philosophers, most notably Peter Singer, and also to the reasoning behind the strong anti-abortionist adoption of the common premise. PMID:23637428

Coady, C A J

2013-05-01

361

Genes and (Common) Pathways Underlying Drug Addiction  

PubMed Central

Drug addiction is a serious worldwide problem with strong genetic and environmental influences. Different technologies have revealed a variety of genes and pathways underlying addiction; however, each individual technology can be biased and incomplete. We integrated 2,343 items of evidence from peer-reviewed publications between 1976 and 2006 linking genes and chromosome regions to addiction by single-gene strategies, microrray, proteomics, or genetic studies. We identified 1,500 human addiction-related genes and developed KARG (http://karg.cbi.pku.edu.cn), the first molecular database for addiction-related genes with extensive annotations and a friendly Web interface. We then performed a meta-analysis of 396 genes that were supported by two or more independent items of evidence to identify 18 molecular pathways that were statistically significantly enriched, covering both upstream signaling events and downstream effects. Five molecular pathways significantly enriched for all four different types of addictive drugs were identified as common pathways which may underlie shared rewarding and addictive actions, including two new ones, GnRH signaling pathway and gap junction. We connected the common pathways into a hypothetical common molecular network for addiction. We observed that fast and slow positive feedback loops were interlinked through CAMKII, which may provide clues to explain some of the irreversible features of addiction.

Li, Chuan-Yun; Mao, Xizeng; Wei, Liping

2008-01-01

362

Common structure and toxic function of amyloid oligomers implies a common mechanism of pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Recent findings indicate that soluble amyloid oligomers may represent the primary pathologic species in degenerative diseases. These amyloid oligomers share common structural features and the ability to permeabilize membranes, suggesting that they also share a common primary mechanism of pathogenesis. Membrane permeabilization by amyloid oligomers may initiate a common group of downstream pathologic processes, including intracellular calcium dyshomeostasis, production of reactive oxygen species, altered signaling pathways, and mitochondrial dysfunction that represent key effectors of cellular dysfunction and cell death in amyloid-associated degenerative disease, such as sporadic inclusion-body myositis. PMID:16432151

Glabe, Charles G; Kayed, Rakez

2006-01-24

363

Autoimmune Cytopenias In Common Variable Immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a humoral immunodeficiency whose primary diagnostic features include hypogammaglobulinemia involving two or more immunoglobulin isotypes and impaired functional antibody responses in the majority of patients. While increased susceptibility to respiratory and other infections is a common thread that binds a large cross-section of CVID patients, the presence of autoimmune complications in this immunologically and clinically heterogeneous disorder is recognized in up to two-thirds of patients. Among the autoimmune manifestations reported in CVID (20–50%; Chapel et al., 2008; Cunningham-Rundles, 2008), autoimmune cytopenias are by far the most common occurring variably in 4–20% (Michel et al., 2004; Chapel et al., 2008) of these patients who have some form of autoimmunity. Association of autoimmune cytopenias with granulomatous disease and splenomegaly has been reported. The spectrum of autoimmune cytopenias includes thrombocytopenia, anemia, and neutropenia. While it may seem paradoxical “prima facie” that autoimmunity is present in patients with primary immune deficiencies, in reality, it could be considered two sides of the same coin, each reflecting a different but inter-connected facet of immune dysregulation. The expansion of CD21 low B cells in CVID patients with autoimmune cytopenias and other autoimmune features has also been previously reported. It has been demonstrated that this unique subset of B cells is enriched for autoreactive germline antibodies. Further, a correlation has been observed between various B cell subsets, such as class-switched memory B cells and plasmablasts, and autoimmunity in CVID. This review attempts to explore the most recent concepts and highlights, along with treatment of autoimmune hematological manifestations of CVID.

Podjasek, Jenna C.; Abraham, Roshini S.

2012-01-01

364

Freeing data through The Polar Information Commons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polar regions are changing rapidly with dramatic global effect. Wise management of resources, improved decision support, and effective international cooperation on resource and geopolitical issues require deeper understanding and better prediction of these changes. Unfortunately, polar data and information remain scattered, scarce, and sporadic. Inspired by the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 that established the Antarctic as a global commons to be used only for peaceful purposes and scientific research, we assert that data and information about the polar regions are themselves “public goods” that should be shared ethically and with minimal constraint. We therefore envision the Polar Information Commons (PIC) as an open, virtual repository for vital scientific data and information that would provide a shared, community-based cyber-infrastructure fostering innovation, improving scientific efficiency, and encouraging participation in polar research, education, planning, and management. The PIC will build on the legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY), providing a long-term framework for access to and preservation of both existing and future data and information about the polar regions. Rapid change demands rapid data access. The PIC system will enable scientists to quickly expose their data to the world and share them through open protocols on the Internet. A PIC digital label will alert users and data centers to new polar data and ensure that usage rights are clear. The PIC will utilize the Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data, which promotes open data access through the public domain coupled with community norms of practice to ensure use of data in a fair and equitable manner. A set of PIC norms is currently being developed in consultation with key polar data organizations and other stakeholders. We welcome inputs from the broad science community as we further develop and refine the PIC approach and move ahead with implementation.

de Bruin, T.; Chen, R. S.; Parsons, M. A.; Carlson, D. J.

2009-12-01

365

Freeing data through The Polar Information Commons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polar regions are changing rapidly with dramatic global effect. Wise management of resources, improved decision support, and effective international cooperation on resource and geopolitical issues require deeper understanding and better prediction of these changes. Unfortunately, polar data and information remain scattered, scarce, and sporadic. Inspired by the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 that established the Antarctic as a global commons to be used only for peaceful purposes and scientific research, we assert that data and information about the polar regions are themselves “public goods” that should be shared ethically and with minimal constraint. ICSU’s Committee on Data (CODATA) therefore started the Polar Information Commons (PIC) as an open, virtual repository for vital scientific data and information. The PIC provides a shared, community-based cyber-infrastructure fostering innovation, improving scientific efficiency, and encouraging participation in polar research, education, planning, and management. The PIC builds on the legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY), providing a long-term framework for access to and preservation of both existing and future data and information about the polar regions. Rapid change demands rapid data access. The PIC system enables scientists to quickly expose their data to the world and share them through open protocols on the Internet. A PIC digital label will alert users and data centers to new polar data and ensure that usage rights are clear. The PIC utilizes the Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data, which promotes open data access through the public domain coupled with community norms of practice to ensure use of data in a fair and equitable manner. A set of PIC norms has been developed in consultation with key polar data organizations and other stakeholders. We welcome inputs from the broad science community as we further develop and refine the PIC approach and move ahead with implementation.

de Bruin, T.; Chen, R. S.; Parsons, M. A.; Carlson, D. J.; Cass, K.; Finney, K.; Wilbanks, J.; Jochum, K.

2010-12-01

366

Freeing data through The Polar Information Commons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polar regions are changing rapidly with dramatic global effect. Wise management of resources, improved decision support, and effective international cooperation on resource and geopolitical issues require deeper understanding and better prediction of these changes. Unfortunately, polar data and information remain scattered, scarce, and sporadic. Inspired by the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 that established the Antarctic as a global commons to be used only for peaceful purposes and scientific research, we assert that data and information about the polar regions are themselves "public goods" that should be shared ethically and with minimal constraint. We therefore envision the Polar Information Commons (PIC) as an open, virtual repository for vital scientific data and information that would provide a shared, community-based cyber-infrastructure fostering innovation, improving scientific efficiency, and encouraging participation in polar research, education, planning, and management. The PIC will build on the legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY), providing a long-term framework for access to and preservation of both existing and future data and information about the polar regions. Rapid change demands rapid data access. The PIC system will enable scientists to quickly expose their data to the world and share them through open protocols on the Internet. A PIC digital label will alert users and data centers to new polar data and ensure that usage rights are clear. The PIC will utilize the Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data, which promotes open data access through the public domain coupled with community norms of practice to ensure use of data in a fair and equitable manner. A set of PIC norms is currently being developed in consultation with key polar data organizations and other stakeholders. We welcome inputs from the broad science community as we further develop and refine the PIC approach and move ahead with implementation.

de Bruin, Taco; Chen, Robert; Parsons, Mark; Carlson, David

2010-05-01

367

Commonality in Down and Fetal Alcohol Syndromes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Down syndrome (DS) and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) are two leading causes of birth defects with phenotypes ranging from craniofacial abnormalities to cognitive impairment. Despite different origins, we report that in addition to sharing many phenotypes, DS and FAS may have common underlying mechanisms of development. METHODS Literature was surveyed for DS and FAS as well as mouse models. Gene expression and apoptosis were compared in embryonic mouse models of DS and FAS by qPCR, immunohistochemical and immunoflurorescence analyses. The craniometry was examined using MicroCT at postnatal day 21. RESULTS A literature survey revealed over 20 comparable craniofacial and structural deficits in both humans with DS and FAS and corresponding mouse models. Similar phenotypes were experimentally found in pre- and postnatal craniofacial and neurological tissues of DS and FAS mice. Dysregulation of two genes, Dyrk1a and Rcan1, key to craniofacial and neurological precursors of DS, was shared in craniofacial precursors of DS and FAS embryos. Increased cleaved caspase 3 expression was also discovered in comparable regions of the craniofacial and brain precursors of DS and FAS embryos. Further mechanistic studies suggested overexpression of trisomic Ttc3 in DS embyros may influence nuclear pAkt localization and cell survival. CONCLUSIONS This first and initial study indicates that DS and FAS share common dysmorphologies in humans and animal models. This work also suggests common mechanisms at cellular and molecular levels that are disrupted by trisomy or alcohol consumption during pregnancy and lead to craniofacial and neurological phenotypes associated with DS or FAS.

Solzak, Jeffrey P.; Liang, Yun; Zhou, Feng C.; Roper, Randall J.

2014-01-01

368

Common problems and pitfalls in gear design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are several pitfalls and problems associated with the successful design of a new gear transmission. A new design will require the knowledge and experience of several technical areas of engineering. Most of the pitfalls and problems associated with a new design are related to an inadequate evaluation of several areas, such as, the lubrication and cooling requirements, complete static and dynamic load analysis, evaluation of materials and heat treatment and the latest manufacturing technology. Some of the common problems of the gear design process are discussed with recommendations made for avoiding these conditions.

Townsend, Dennis P.

1986-01-01

369

Older Adults' Common Sense Models of Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objective Investigate the importance of viewing belief systems about health maintenance holistically. Methods Qualitative (N=74) and quantitative data (N=95) were obtained from multi-ethnic rural-dwelling older adults with diabetes to characterize their Common Sense Models (CSMs) of diabetes. Results There is a discrete number of CSMs held by older adults, each characterized by unique clusters of diabetes-related knowledge and beliefs. Individuals whose CSM was shaped by biomedical knowledge were better able to achieve glycemic control. Conclusions Viewing individuals’ health beliefs incrementally or in a piece-meal strategy may be less effective for health behavior change than focusing on beliefs holistically.

Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Ip, Edward H.; Chapman, Christine; Kirk, Julienne K.; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.

2010-01-01

370

Diabetic Myonecrosis: Uncommon Complications in Common Diseases  

PubMed Central

We report a case of sudden thigh pain from spontaneous quadriceps necrosis, also known as diabetic myonecrosis, in a 28-year-old patient with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Diabetic muscle infarction is a rare end-organ complication seen in patients with poor glycemic control and advanced chronic microvascular complications. Proposed mechanisms involve atherosclerotic microvascular occlusion, ischemia-reperfusion related injury, vasculitis with microthrombi formation, and an acquired antiphospholipid syndrome. Diabetic myonecrosis most commonly presents as sudden thigh pain with swelling and should be considered in any patient who has poorly controlled diabetes mellitus.

Sran, Manpreet; Ferguson, Nicole

2014-01-01

371

Common Criteria Based Security Scenario Verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Software is required to comply with the laws and standards of software security. However, stakeholders with less concern regarding security can neither describe the behaviour of the system with regard to security nor validate the system’s behaviour when the security function conflicts with usability. Scenarios or use-case specifications are common in requirements elicitation and are useful to analyze the usability of the system from a behavioural point of view. In this paper, the authors propose both (1) a scenario language based on a simple case grammar and (2) a method to verify a scenario with rules based on security evaluation criteria.

Ohnishi, Atsushi

372

6.NS Multiples and Common Multiples  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: List all the multiples of 8 that are less than or equal to 100. List all the multiples of 12 that are less than or equal to 100. What are the common mu...

373

G 112-29 (=NLTT 18149): A VERY WIDE COMPANION TO GJ 282 AB WITH A COMMON PROPER MOTION, COMMON PARALLAX, COMMON RADIAL VELOCITY, AND COMMON AGE  

SciTech Connect

We have made a search for common proper motion (CPM) companions to the wide binaries in the solar vicinity. We found that the binary GJ 282AB has a very distant CPM companion (NLTT 18149) at a separation s = 1.{sup 0}09. Improved spectral types and radial velocities are obtained, and ages determined for the three components. The Hipparcos trigonometric parallaxes and the new radial velocities and ages turn out to be very similar for the three stars, and provide strong evidence that they form a physical system. At a projected separation of 55,733 AU from GJ 282AB, NLTT 18149 ranks among the widest physical companions known.

Poveda, A.; Allen, Christine; Costero, R.; EchevarrIa, J.; Hernandez-Alcantara, A., E-mail: chris@astroscu.unam.m [Instituto de AstronomIa, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, 04510, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

2009-11-20

374

Neuromuscular ultrasound in common entrapment neuropathies.  

PubMed

Neuromuscular ultrasound involves the use of high-resolution ultrasound to image the peripheral nervous system of patients with suspected neuromuscular diseases. It complements electrodiagnostic studies well by providing anatomic information regarding nerves, muscles, vessels, tendons, ligaments, bones, and other structures that cannot be obtained with nerve conduction studies and electromyography. Neuromuscular ultrasound has been studied extensively over the past 10 years and has been used most often in the assessment of entrapment neuropathies. This review focuses on the use of neuromuscular ultrasound in 4 of the most common entrapment neuropathies: carpal tunnel syndrome, ulnar neuropathy at the elbow and wrist, and fibular neuropathy at the knee. PMID:23681885

Cartwright, Michael S; Walker, Francis O

2013-11-01

375

Prenatal diagnosis of the common haemoglobin disorders.  

PubMed Central

New techniques of DNA analysis have been applied to the prenatal diagnosis of the common haemoglobin disorders. Currently, it is possible to provide a comprehensive programme for the prevention of these conditions, although this entails the use of several different techniques including globin chain synthesis analysis, direct identification of mutations with restriction enzymes, linkage analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and the use of oligonucleotide probes. At present, the best combination of these approaches has to be worked out for individual populations, but as the techniques of chorion villus sampling and DNA analysis improve it should be possible to rationalise these prenatal diagnosis programmes and thus make them simpler and less expensive. Images

Weatherall, D J; Old, J M; Thein, S L; Wainscoat, J S; Clegg, J B

1985-01-01

376

Space Station Freedom common berthing mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) is a generic device used to join the pressurized elements of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) utilizing the Space Shuttle Orbiter Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) or the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). The two berthing halves, the active, and the passive, maintain a pressurized atmosphere to allow astronaut passage, as well as to provide a structural linkage between elements. The generic design of the CBM allows any Passive Berthing Mechanism to berth with any Active Berthing Mechanism, permitting a variety of pressurized module patterns to be built.

Illi, Erik

1992-01-01

377

Python Bindings for the Common Pipeline Library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Common Pipeline Library is a set of routines written by ESO to provide a standard interface for VLT instrument data reduction tasks (“pipelines”). To control these pipelines from Python, we developed a wrapper called PYTHON-CPL that allows one to conveniently work interactively and to process data as part of an automated data reduction system. The package will be used to implement the MUSE pipeline in the AstroWISE data management system. We describe the features and design of the package.

Streicher, O.; Weilbacher, P. M.

2012-09-01

378

A common symptom of an uncommon disease.  

PubMed

Cancer of the colon is the second most common visceral cancer in the United States (lung cancer is the first). It is usually diagnosed in patients older than 40 years, with a peak incidence at 70 years of age. Rarely, are cases seen in the pediatric population. In this study, we report a case of a 13-year-old girl with an 11-month history of intermittent abdominal pain whose diagnosis was delayed due to vague symptoms and a low index of suspicion for this condition. PMID:21552148

Sia, Valerie May; Sia, Dominic C; Yamashiro, Darrell J; Middlesworth, William; Syed, Muhammad; Paudel, Govinda; Kirk, Russell; Kigongo-Mwesezi, Samuel; Rivlin, Kenneth; Leggiadro, Robert J

2011-07-01

379

Audits reveal ten common environmental problems  

SciTech Connect

The old saying that [open quotes]an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure[close quotes] rings particularly true in environmental matters in the 1990s. Environmental problems can potentially lead to expensive fines, costly cleanups, negative public relations, and even criminal sanctions against members of the corporation. A recurring pattern of problems has been noted during the performance of environmental disposition, acquisition, and compliance assessments of many different operators in most of the producing states. The ten most common problems found in oilfield audits are discussed here in an effort to enhance the awareness of operators.

Buys, M.W. (Buys and Associates Inc., Littleton, CO (United States))

1992-12-01

380

Concurrence of the tortuosity of bilateral common and left internal carotid arteries in a case with common origin of the innominate trunk and left common carotid artery.  

PubMed

Anatomical variations of carotid arterial system, which are not infrequently encountered, have great impact on the surgical approaches of the neck. Although few reports on common carotid artery tortuosity have been published, no case of symptomatic concurrent common carotid and internal carotid artery tortuosity has been reported. Herein, we report the first case with concurrent common origin of the innominate trunk and left common carotid artery and common and internal carotid artery tortuosity presenting with an oropharyngeal mass. PMID:20407773

Yildiz, Sema; Cece, Hasan; Karayol, Sibel; Ziylan, Zeki

2010-10-01

381

Immunological analysis in familial common variable immunodeficiency.  

PubMed Central

Immunological and genetic studies were performed in nine members from three generations of the family of a patient with common variable immunodeficiency (CVI). Two additional symptomatic members (mother and grandmother) had CVI. Among other six asymptomatic members, two had CVI and one had selective IgA deficiency. The proportions of monoclonal antibody defined total T cells (Leu 1+), helper phenotype (Leu 3+) suppressor phenotype (Leu 2+) T cells, natural killer cells (Leu 7+) and surface Ig+ B cells and proliferative response to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A), pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) were comparable to controls. Addition of purified interleukin-2 (IL-2) resulted in augmentation of PHA-induced proliferation of T lymphocytes similar to that seen in the controls, however with IL-2 freshly isolated T cells in the absence of PHA demonstrated markedly increased proliferative response, suggesting the presence of in vivo activated T cells. Study of HLA phenotype did not reveal any linkage. This study demonstrates the genetic nature, possibly autosomal dominant inheritance, of common variable immunodeficiency; however the immunodeficiency is not linked to any specific HLA antigen.

Fuchs, H B; Slater, L; Novey, H; Ong, K; Gupta, S

1984-01-01

382

Epigenetic Mechanisms in Commonly Occurring Cancers  

PubMed Central

Cancer is a collection of very complex diseases that share many traits while differing in many ways as well. This makes a universal cure difficult to attain, and it highlights the importance of understanding each type of cancer at a molecular level. Although many strides have been made in identifying the genetic causes for some cancers, we now understand that simple changes in the primary DNA sequence cannot explain the many steps that are necessary to turn a normal cell into a rouge cancer cell. In recent years, some research has shifted to focusing on detailing epigenetic contributions to the development and progression of cancer. These changes occur apart from primary genomic sequences and include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and miRNA expression. Since these epigenetic modifications are reversible, drugs targeting epigenetic changes are becoming more common in clinical settings. Daily discoveries elucidating these complex epigenetic processes are leading to advances in the field of cancer research. These advances, however, come at a rapid and often overwhelming pace. This review specifically summarizes the main epigenetic mechanisms currently documented in solid tumors common in the United States and Europe.

2012-01-01

383

Common world model for unmanned systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Robotic Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA) seeks to provide adaptive robot capabilities which move beyond traditional metric algorithms to include cognitive capabilities. Key to this effort is the Common World Model, which moves beyond the state-of-the-art by representing the world using metric, semantic, and symbolic information. It joins these layers of information to define objects in the world. These objects may be reasoned upon jointly using traditional geometric, symbolic cognitive algorithms and new computational nodes formed by the combination of these disciplines. The Common World Model must understand how these objects relate to each other. Our world model includes the concept of Self-Information about the robot. By encoding current capability, component status, task execution state, and histories we track information which enables the robot to reason and adapt its performance using Meta-Cognition and Machine Learning principles. The world model includes models of how aspects of the environment behave, which enable prediction of future world states. To manage complexity, we adopted a phased implementation approach to the world model. We discuss the design of "Phase 1" of this world model, and interfaces by tracing perception data through the system from the source to the meta-cognitive layers provided by ACT-R and SS-RICS. We close with lessons learned from implementation and how the design relates to Open Architecture.

Dean, Robert Michael S.

2013-05-01

384

Provoked and reflex seizures: surprising or common?  

PubMed

Most patients with epilepsy report that seizures are sometimes, or exclusively, provoked by general internal precipitants (such as stress, fatigue, fever, sleep, and menstrual cycle) and by external precipitants (such as excess alcohol, heat, bathing, eating, reading, and flashing lights). Some patients describe very exotic and precise triggers, like tooth brushing or listening to a particular melody. Nevertheless, the most commonly noticed seizure increasers by far are stress, lack of sleep, and fatigue. Recognized reflex seizure triggers are usually sensory and visual, such as television, discotheques, and video games. Visually evoked seizures comprise 5% of the total of 6% reflex seizures. The distinction between provocative and reflex factors and seizures seems artificial, and in many patients, maybe all, there is a combination of these. It seems plausible that all of the above-mentioned factors can misbalance the actual brain network; at times, accumulation of factors leads then to primary generalized, partial, or secondarily generalized seizures. If the provoking factors are too exotic, patients may be sent to the psychiatrist. Conversely, if the seizure-provoking fluctuating mechanisms include common habits and environmental factors, these may hardly be considered as provocative factors. Awareness of precipitating factors and its possible interactions might help us to unravel the pathophysiology of epilepsy and to change the notion that seizure occurrence is unpredictable. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, classification, diagnosis, treatment, and especially similarities in the variety of provocative and reflex factors with resulting general hypotheses. PMID:22946728

Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothée G A

2012-09-01

385

Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Etiological and Treatment Issues  

PubMed Central

One of the great advances in clinical medicine was the recognition of the pleomorphism of the immune response and the multiple afferent and efferent limbs of antigen processing and responsiveness. A significant contribution to this understanding was derived from studies of human immunodeficiency states, including both inherited and acquired syndromes. Amongst these syndromes, one of the most common, and least understood, is common variable immune deficiency (CVID). CVID is a syndrome that leads to a reduction in serum immunoglobulins and complications including recurrent infections. Management includes immunoglobulin replacement therapy; however, patients with CVID are at risk for complications of exogenous immunoglobulin administration as well as CVID-associated diseases such as autoimmune processes and malignancies. To assess the current state of knowledge in the field, we performed a literature review of a total of 753 publications covering the period of 1968 until 2008. From this list, 189 publications were selected for discussion. In this review, we demonstrate that while the molecular basis of CVID in many cases remains incompletely understood, significant strides have been made and it is now clear that there is involvement of several pathways of immune activation, with contributions from both T and B cells. Furthermore, despite the current gaps in our knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of the syndrome, there have been dramatic advances in management that have led to improved survival and significantly reduced morbidity in affected patients.

Deane, Sean; Selmi, Carlo; Naguwa, Stanley M.; Teuber, Suzanne S.; Gershwin, M. Eric

2009-01-01

386

Evaluation of hydroperoxides in common pharmaceutical excipients.  

PubMed

While the physical properties of pharmaceutical excipients have been well characterized, impurities that may influence the chemical stability of formulated drug product have not been well studied. In this work, the hydroperoxide (HPO) impurity levels of common pharmaceutical excipients are measured and presented for both soluble and insoluble excipients. Povidone, polysorbate 80 (PS80), polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400, and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were found to contain substantial concentrations of HPOs with significant lot-to-lot and manufacturer-to-manufacturer variation. Much lower HPO levels were found in the common fillers, like microcrystalline cellulose and lactose, and in high molecular weight PEG, medium chain glyceride (MCG), and poloxamer. The findings are discussed within the context of HPO-mediated oxidation and formulating drug substance sensitive to oxidation. Of the four excipients with substantial HPO levels, povidone, PEG 400, and HPC contain a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and organic HPOs while PS80 contains predominantly organic HPOs. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to the known manufacturing processes and chemistry of HPO reactivity and degradation kinetics. Defining critical HPO limits for excipients should be driven by the chemistry of a specific drug substance or product and can only be defined within this context. PMID:16917844

Wasylaschuk, Walter R; Harmon, Paul A; Wagner, Gabriella; Harman, Amy B; Templeton, Allen C; Xu, Hui; Reed, Robert A

2007-01-01

387

The many faces of common variable immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a rare immune deficiency characterized by low levels of serum IgG, IgA, and/or IgM, with a loss of Ab production. The diagnosis is most commonly made in adults between the ages of 20 and 40 years, but both children and much older adults can be found to have this immune defect. The range of clinical manifestations is broad, including acute and chronic infections, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, and an increased incidence of cancer and lymphoma. For all of these reasons, the disease phenotype is both heterogeneous and complex. In the past few years, data from large patient registries have revealed that both selected laboratory markers and clinical phenotyping may aid in separating groups of subjects into biologically relevant categories. CVID consists of 2 phenotypes, 1 in which infections are the characteristic and another in which impressive inflammatory and/or hematologic complications also develop, including lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, autoimmune cytopenias, enteropathy, and/or and granulomatous disease. These phenotypes appear to be stable, are related to immunologic and inflammatory markers, and are predictive of outcomes. This review outlines current understanding about this syndrome based on studies of large cohorts, highlighting the evaluation and treatment of complications and, in particular, the autoimmune and inflammatory conditions that affect these patients.

Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

2014-01-01

388

48 CFR 302.7000 - Common HHSAR acronyms and abbreviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Common HHSAR acronyms and abbreviations...DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Common HHSAR Acronyms and Abbreviations 302.7000 Common HHSAR acronyms and abbreviations...3). CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

2013-10-01

389

Task Knowledges Commonality Analysis Method (TKCAM) User's Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is a step by step guide to Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) commonality analysis using the Task Knowledges Commonality Analysis Method (TKCAM). TKCAM is an analytical method that can be used to determine the commonality between MOSs in ...

A. Akman

1998-01-01

390

Pilomatricoma in children: common but often misdiagnosed.  

PubMed

A pilomatricoma, also known as pilomatrixoma or calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe, is a benign skin tumor arising from the hair follicle matrix. This tumor is common in children and young adults, especially in the head and neck region. However, pilomatricomas are frequently misdiagnosed or not recognized. The history is typical of a slowly enlarging mass, irregularly contoured, it is fixed to the skin but slides freely over the, underlying tissues, often with a discolouration which varies from red to purple-bluish. Ultrasound examination, MRI-scan and fine-needle aspiration can be helpful if the diagnosis is uncertain. Spontaneous regression has never been observed and malignant degeneration is very rare. Surgical excision with clear margins is the treatment of choice, otherwise recurrence may occur due to incomplete resection. PMID:20514848

Roche, N A; Monstrey, S J; Matton, G E

2010-01-01

391

The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) project will provide a core satellite carrying the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and will use microwave observations from a constellation of other satellites. Each partner with a satellite in the constellation will have a calibration that meets their own requirements and will decide on the format to archive their brightness temperature (Tb) record in GPM. However, GPM multi-sensor precipitation algorithms need to input intercalibrated Tb's in order to avoid differences among sensors introducing artifacts into the longer term climate record of precipitation. The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product is intended to address this problem by providing intercalibrated Tb data, called "Tc" data, where the "c" stands for common. The precipitation algorithms require a Tc file format that is both generic and flexible enough to accommodate the different passive microwave instruments. The format provides detailed information on the processing history in order to allow future researchers to have a record of what was done. The format is simple, including the main items of scan time, latitude, longitude, incidence angle, sun glint angle, and Tc. It also provides a quality flag, spacecraft orientation, spacecraft location, orbit, and instrument scan type (cross-track or conical). Another simplification is to store data in real numbers, avoiding the ambiguity of scaled data. Finally, units and descriptions will be provided in the product. The format is built on the concept of a swath, which is a series of scans that have common geolocation and common scan geometry. Scan geometry includes pixels per scan, sensor orientation, scan type, and incidence angles. The format includes 3 space saving methods: first rounding variables written as floats to their needed accuracy to achieve good compression, second writing sun glint angle as a one byte variable, and third storing only unique incidence angles but allowing access via a mapping array. Two programs are used to create a Tc product. Program One reads the input data which may be antenna temperature (Ta) or Tb and could be an orbit with an arbitrary starting point or a half orbit. Program One then writes a "base" file which is a standard orbit and written in a base format which preserves all the information from the input. Program Two reads the base file, calibrates the radiance information, and outputs Tc in the standard format. The use of two programs allows researchers to insert experimental calibrations in Program Two without having to read the input to Program One or orbitize the data. The Tc algorithms and data formats are being tested using the pre-GPM Precipitation Processing System (PPS) software to generate formats and I/O routines. In the test, data from SSM/I, SSMI/S, TMI, AMSR-E, and WindSat are being processed and written as Tc products.

Stout, J.; Chou, J.

2010-12-01

392

Drought Tolerance Indices Study in Common Bean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study Drought tolerance indices, 10 common bean varieties were evaluated in a split plot experiment in the form of complete block design with three replications. The main plots were three environmental conditions namely: non stress (normal), drought stress at vegetative stage and drought stress at reproductive stage. On the basis of seed yield, five indices, mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP), tolerance (TOL), stress susceptibility index (SSI) and stress tolerance index (STI) were evaluated. Stress intensity was equal to 0.12 and 0.55 for stress at vegetative and reproductive stages, respectively. The indices STI, MP and GMP were highly correlated with seed yield of normal (Yp) and stress (Ys) conditions. Using a 3-D plot, cultivars were grouped into 4 groups (A-D) acording to the value of Yp, Ys and STI.

Aminian, Roghayeh; Khodambashi, Mahmood; Yadegari, Mehrab

2008-01-01

393

Matrix compression by common subexpression elimination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report a method for common subexpression elimination in matrices is explored. The method is applied to several types of matrices occurring in numerical simulations. In all cases, the cost of a matrix-vector multiplication is reduced by a significant amount. The amount of storage required for the eliminated matrices is also less than that required for the original matrices. When the proposed method is applied to the Fourier transform matrix, the output is equivalent to the fast Fourier transform. For some matrices used in the fast multipole method for dislocation dynamics, the cost of a matrix-vector multiplication is reduced from O(p6) to O(p4.5), where p is the expansion order. Using an expansion order of 5, one can expect a factor of four speedup of the fast multipole part of a dislocation dynamics code.

Oppelstrup, Tomas

2013-08-01

394

Fermionic Light in Common Optical Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experiments have proved that the response to short laser pulses of common optical media, such as air or oxygen, can be described by focusing Kerr and higher order nonlinearities of alternating signs. Such media support the propagation of steady solitary waves. We argue by both numerical and analytical computations that the low-power fundamental bright solitons satisfy an equation of state which is similar to that of a degenerate gas of fermions at zero temperature. Considering, in particular, the propagation in both O2 and air, we also find that the high-power solutions behave like droplets of ordinary liquids. We then show how a grid of the fermionic light bubbles can be generated and forced to merge in a liquid droplet. This leads us to propose a set of experiments aimed at the production of both the fermionic and liquid phases of light, and at the demonstration of the transition from the former to the latter.

Novoa, David; Michinel, Humberto; Tommasini, Daniele

2010-11-01

395

Assay of brines for common radiolysis products  

SciTech Connect

Brines are assayed for four common products of radiolytic reaction. Free chlorine is determined spectrophotometrically after reaction with o-tolidine. The test is specific for chlorine, and quantities of chlorine from 0.1 to 6 ..mu..g in the test aliquot are determined with a precision of about +- 5%. Hydrogen peroxide is reacted with xylenol orange and determined spectrophotometrically with a precision of +- 5% on 2-..mu..g quantities of peroxide. A spectrophotometric method using thiocyanate is employed in the chlorate assay. After subtracting the bias caused by any H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ or Cl/sub 2/, 1-..mu..g quantities of chlorate can be determined with a precision of +- 10%. Perchlorate ion quantities of 1 ppM can be determined directly in brines by ion chromatography with a precision of about +- 15%.

MacDougall, C.S.

1981-01-01

396

The design of a common lunar lander  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Austin Cynthesis Corporation was formed to respond to a Request for Proposal for the design of a Common Lunar Lander (CLL) capable of carrying lightweight (less than 500 kg), unspecified payload to the moon. This Final Design Report Document includes information on the requirements for the design project; the ideas proposed as solutions to the design problem; the work which has been completed in support of the design effort; justifications, validations, and verifications of decisions made during the project; and suggestions for future work to be done in support of the project. A project schedule, including current status of the items included on the schedule, as well as cost and management summaries is also included.

Driggers, Dan; Hearrell, Sean; Key, Kevin; Le, Brian; Love, Glen; McMullen, Rob; Messec, Scott; Ruhnke, Jim

1991-12-01

397

Common contaminants found at Superfund sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) created this booklet to help you understand more about some of the most common contaminants found at Superfund sites. This booklet consists of contaminant fact sheets and public health statements prepared by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and are based on information in ATSDR`s technical toxicological profiles. The fact sheets discuss the contaminants` known effects on human health, while acknowledging that in some instances only limited information exists about long-term health effects. For those chemicals for which fact sheets are not available at the time of this document`s publication, ATSDR`s public health statements are included. The fact sheets summarize potential adverse health effects associated with exposure to hazardous substances. The fact sheets are derived from the first chapter of the ATSDR toxicological profiles, the public health statement, and are written in an easy-to-read format.

NONE

1998-03-01

398

Five common mistakes in fluvial morphodynamic modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have seen a marked increase in the availability of morphodynamic models and a proliferation of new morphodynamic codes. As a consequence, morphodynamic models are increasingly developed, used and evaluated by non-experts, sometimes leading to mistakes. This presentation draws attention to five types of common mistakes. First, new morphodynamic codes are developed as extensions of existing hydrodynamic codes without including all essential physical processes. Second, model inputs are specified in a way that imposes morphodynamic patterns beforehand rather than letting them be computed freely. Third, detailed processes are parameterized inadequately for application to larger spatial and temporal scales. Fourth, physical and numerical phenomena are confused when interpreting model results. Fifth, the selection of modelling approaches is driven by the belief that complete data are a prerequisite for modelling and that the application of 2D and 3D models requires more data than the application of 1D models. Examples from fluvial morphodynamics are presented to illustrate these mistakes.

Mosselman, Erik

2014-05-01

399

A syndromic approach to common parasitic diseases  

PubMed Central

Standard textbooks discuss parasitic disease according to specific organisms. In contrast, patients with parasitic infections present to physicians with a variety of clinical manifestations that may involve any of several organ systems and that often mimic nonparasitic diseases. A syndromic approach to the clinical situation may help the physician in considering the most important parasitic agents. Many parasitic infections can be acquired in temperate climates. While often considered tropical or exotic, other parasitic diseases are now seen more frequently in developed countries because of immigration and increased world travel. In this review the clinical syndromes associated with common parasitic diseases in North America are discussed, with an emphasis on risk factors and diagnosis of specific infections.

Shafran, Stephen D.; Chow, Anthony W.

1985-01-01

400

Common athletic injuries in adolescent girls.  

PubMed

Teenaged girls constitute the fastest growing segment of children and adolescents participating in organized athletics. Adolescent girls appear to have similar injury rates as boys in comparable activities but different injury patterns. To properly diagnose and manage athletic injuries in adolescent girls, pediatric health care providers must be aware of these differences, especially as the literature and their knowledge base may be skewed to the traditional predominance of males in sport. This review identifies athletic injuries that are unique to or especially common in adolescent girls, including apophyseal injuries; breast and pelvic injuries; scoliosis and spondylolysis; multidirectional shoulder instability and "gymnast's wrist"; anterior cruciate ligament injuries and patellofemoral pain syndrome; chronic exertional lower-leg compartment syndrome, ankle sprains, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy; and stress fractures. It also briefly discusses possible risk factors for these injuries, emphasizing the female athlete triad. PMID:11717555

Loud, K J; Micheli, L J

2001-08-01

401

CMLOG: A common message logging system  

SciTech Connect

The Common Message Logging (CMLOG) system is an object-oriented and distributed system that not only allows applications and systems to log data (messages) of any type into a centralized database but also lets applications view incoming messages in real-time or retrieve stored data from the database according to selection rules. It consists of a concurrent Unix server that handles incoming logging or searching messages, a Motif browser that can view incoming messages in real-time or display stored data in the database, a client daemon that buffers and sends logging messages to the server, and libraries that can be used by applications to send data to or retrieve data from the database via the server. This paper presents the design and implementation of the CMLOG system meanwhile it will also address the issue of integration of CMLOG into existing control systems.

Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Bickley, M.; Wu, D.; Watson, W. III [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States). Control Software Group

1997-12-01

402

Hemochromatosis. More common than you think.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge of the genetics, presentation, diagnosis, and management of hereditary hemochromatosis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to June 2002, and references of relevant papers were reviewed. Most articles were reviews, practice guidelines, or observational studies. Several randomized controlled trials were identified but none studied primary therapy for hemochromatosis. MAIN MESSAGE: Hemochromatosis, the most common genetic disease in white populations, has a prevalence of one in 200, yet is still underrecognized. This disease of unregulated iron absorption leads to generalized iron overload that can eventually impair organ systems and lead to cirrhosis, diabetes, and cardiomyopathy. Symptoms are often nonspecific and patients are identified by mild abnormalities in routine laboratory testing. Transferrin saturation, ferritin levels, and genotyping can often establish the diagnosis. Iron depletion therapy with phlebotomy is helpful if initiated before organ damage occurs. CONCLUSION: Family physicians should be aware that hemochromatosis can be treated effectively if diagnosed early.

Borgaonkar, Mark Ram

2003-01-01

403

Common Data Format (CDF) to store images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The original goal of this study was to allow free interchange of images between the HGS and other analytical tools available to NASA. Originally conceived as a collection of individual computer programs that could individually convert any format image to any other format and transfer images via several routes, NASA elected to adopt a Common Data Format (CDF) to store images. This allowed the storage of all images in one format on the NASA EADS. Most of the individual programs were then combined and placed in a user friendly menu-driven system that allows free interchange of image formats within EADS (Sun Workstation), HGS, and Omnicon systems. Additional software and hardware was supplied that allows physical transfer of the formatted images throughout these systems and to external systems.

Shreve, Loy W., II

1988-01-01

404

Proteases: common culprits in human skin disorders.  

PubMed

Recent findings from the clinic and the laboratory have transformed the way proteases and their inhibitors are perceived in the outermost layer of the skin, the epidermis. It now appears that an integrated proteolytic network operates within the epidermis, comprising more than 30 enzymes that carry out a growing list of essential functions. Equally, defective regulation or execution of protease-mediated processes is emerging as a key contributor to diverse human skin pathologies, and in recent years the number of diseases attributable to aberrant proteolytic activity has more than doubled. Here, we survey the different roles of proteases in epidermal homeostasis (from processing enzymes to signalling molecules) and explore the spectrum of rare and common human skin disorders where proteolytic pathways are dysregulated. PMID:24380647

de Veer, Simon J; Furio, Laetitia; Harris, Jonathan M; Hovnanian, Alain

2014-03-01

405

The design of a common lunar lander  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Austin Cynthesis Corporation was formed to respond to a Request for Proposal for the design of a Common Lunar Lander (CLL) capable of carrying lightweight (less than 500 kg), unspecified payload to the moon. This Final Design Report Document includes information on the requirements for the design project; the ideas proposed as solutions to the design problem; the work which has been completed in support of the design effort; justifications, validations, and verifications of decisions made during the project; and suggestions for future work to be done in support of the project. A project schedule, including current status of the items included on the schedule, as well as cost and management summaries is also included.

Driggers, Dan; Hearrell, Sean; Key, Kevin; Le, Brian; Love, Glen; Mcmullen, Rob; Messec, Scott; Ruhnke, Jim

1991-01-01

406

Electrophilic properties of common MALDI matrix molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The negative ion photoelectron spectra of the following MALDI matrix molecules have been measured: 3-carboxypyridine (nicotinic acid), 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (sinapinic acid), 2,6-dihydroxyacetophenone (DHAP), 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid (ferulic acid), 3-hydroxy-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid (3HPA), and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (dipicolinic acid). Adiabatic electron affinities and vertical detachment energies were extracted from these spectra and reported. In addition, electron affinities were calculated for DHAP, ferulic acid, dipicolinic acid and sinapinic acid. Photoelectron spectra were also measured for the dimer anions of DHB and nicotinic acid and for the fragment anion in which alpha-cyano-cinnamic acid had lost a CO2 unit. Together, these results augment the database of presently available electrophilic data on common matrix molecules along with some of their dimers and fragments.

Lippa, T. P.; Eustis, S. N.; Wang, D.; Bowen, K. H.

2007-11-01

407

Common modeling system for digital simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Joint Modeling and Simulation System is a tri-service investigation into a common modeling framework for the development digital models. The basis for the success of this framework is an X-window-based, open systems architecture, object-based/oriented methodology, standard interface approach to digital model construction, configuration, execution, and post processing. For years Department of Defense (DOD) agencies have produced various weapon systems/technologies and typically digital representations of the systems/technologies. These digital representations (models) have also been developed for other reasons such as studies and analysis, Cost Effectiveness Analysis (COEA) tradeoffs, etc. Unfortunately, there have been no Modeling and Simulation (M&S) standards, guidelines, or efforts towards commonality in DOD M&S. The typical scenario is an organization hires a contractor to build hardware and in doing so an digital model may be constructed. Until recently, this model was not even obtained by the organization. Even if it was procured, it was on a unique platform, in a unique language, with unique interfaces, and, with the result being UNIQUE maintenance required. Additionally, the constructors of the model expended more effort in writing the 'infrastructure' of the model/simulation (e.g. user interface, database/database management system, data journalizing/archiving, graphical presentations, environment characteristics, other components in the simulation, etc.) than in producing the model of the desired system. Other side effects include: duplication of efforts; varying assumptions; lack of credibility/validation; and decentralization in policy and execution. J-MASS provides the infrastructure, standards, toolset, and architecture to permit M&S developers and analysts to concentrate on the their area of interest.

Painter, Rick

1994-01-01

408

Common Visual Pattern Discovery via Directed Graph.  

PubMed

A directed graph (or digraph) approach is proposed in this paper for identifying all the visual objects commonly presented in the two images under comparison. As a model, the directed graph is superior to the undirected graph, since there are two link weights with opposite orientations associated with each link of the graph. However, it inevitably draws two main challenges: 1) how to compute the two link weights for each link and 2) how to extract the subgraph from the digraph. For 1), a novel n-ranking process for computing the generalized median and the Gaussian link-weight mapping function are developed that basically map the established undirected graph to the digraph. To achieve this graph mapping, the proposed process and function are applied to each vertex independently for computing its directed link weight by not only considering the influences inserted from its immediately adjacent neighboring vertices (in terms of their link-weight values), but also offering other desirable merits-i.e., link-weight enhancement and computational complexity reduction. For 2), an evolutionary iterative process for solving the non-cooperative game theory is exploited to handle the non-symmetric weighted adjacency matrix. The abovementioned two stages of processes will be conducted for each assumed scale-change factor, experimented over a range of possible values, one factor at a time. If there is a match on the scale-change factor under experiment, the common visual patterns with the same scale-change factor will be extracted. If more than one pattern are extracted, the proposed topological splitting method is able to further differentiate among them provided that the visual objects are sufficiently far apart from each other. Extensive simulation results have clearly demonstrated the superior performance accomplished by the proposed digraph approach, compared with those of using the undirected graph approach. PMID:24723536

Wang, Chen; Ma, Kai-Kuang

2014-03-01

409

Optical Reflectance Measurements for Commonly Used Reflectors  

SciTech Connect

When simulating light collection in scintillators, modeling the angular distribution of optical light reflectance from surfaces is very important. Since light reflectance is poorly understood, either purely specular or purely diffuse reflectance is generally assumed. In this paper we measure the optical reflectance distribution for eleven commonly used reflectors. A 440 nm, output power stabilized, un-polarized laser is shone onto a reflector at a fixed angle of incidence. The reflected light's angular distribution is measured by an array of silicon photodiodes. The photodiodes are movable to cover 2 pi of solid angle. The light-induced current is, through a multiplexer, read out with a digital multimeter. A LabVIEW program controls the motion of the laser and the photodiode array, the multiplexer, and the data collection. The laser can be positioned at any angle with a position accuracy of 10 arc minutes. Each photodiode subtends 6.3o, and the photodiode array can be positioned at any angle with up to 10 arc minute angular resolution. The dynamic range for the current measurements is 105:1. The measured light reflectance distribution was measured to be specular for several ESR films as well as for aluminum foil, mostly diffuse for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tape and titanium dioxide paint, and neither specular nor diffuse for Lumirror(R), Melinex(R) and Tyvek(R). Instead, a more complicated light distribution was measured for these three materials.

Janecek, Petr Martin; Moses, William

2008-06-11

410

Common tongue conditions in primary care.  

PubMed

Although easily examined, abnormalities of the tongue can present a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for physicians. Recognition and diagnosis require a thorough history, including onset and duration, antecedent symptoms, and tobacco and alcohol use. Examination of tongue morphology and a careful assessment for lymphadenopathy are also important. Geographic tongue, fissured tongue, and hairy tongue are the most common tongue problems and do not require treatment. Median rhomboid glossitis is usually associated with a candidal infection and responds to topical antifungals. Atrophic glossitis is often linked to an underlying nutritional deficiency of iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, riboflavin, or niacin and resolves with correction of the underlying condition. Oral hairy leukoplakia, which can be a marker for underlying immunodeficiency, is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and is treated with oral antivirals. Tongue growths usually require biopsy to differentiate benign lesions (e.g., granular cell tumors, fibromas, lymphoepithelial cysts) from premalignant leukoplakia or squamous cell carcinoma. Burning mouth syndrome often involves the tongue and has responded to treatment with alpha-lipoic acid, clonazepam, and cognitive behavior therapy in controlled trials. Several trials have also confirmed the effectiveness of surgical division of tongue-tie (ankyloglossia), in the context of optimizing the success of breastfeeding compared with education alone. Tongue lesions of unclear etiology may require biopsy or referral to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, head and neck surgeon, or a dentist experienced in oral pathology. PMID:20187599

Reamy, Brian V; Derby, Richard; Bunt, Christopher W

2010-03-01

411

MUS81 promotes common fragile site expression.  

PubMed

Fragile sites are chromosomal loci with a propensity to form gaps or breaks during early mitosis, and their instability is implicated as being causative in certain neurological disorders and cancers. Recent work has demonstrated that the so-called common fragile sites (CFSs) often impair the faithful disjunction of sister chromatids in mitosis. However, the mechanisms by which CFSs express their fragility, and the cellular factors required to suppress CFS instability, remain largely undefined. Here, we report that the DNA structure-specific nuclease MUS81-EME1 localizes to CFS loci in early mitotic cells, and promotes the cytological appearance of characteristic gaps or breaks observed at CFSs in metaphase chromosomes. These data indicate that CFS breakage is an active, MUS81-EME1-dependent process, and not a result of inadvertent chromatid rupturing during chromosome condensation. Moreover, CFS cleavage by MUS81-EME1 promotes faithful sister chromatid disjunction. Our findings challenge the prevailing view that CFS breakage is a nonspecific process that is detrimental to cells, and indicate that CFS cleavage actually promotes genome stability. PMID:23811685

Ying, Songmin; Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Chan, Kok Lung; Palmai-Pallag, Timea; Chu, Wai Kit; Wass, Theresa; Mankouri, Hocine W; Liu, Ying; Hickson, Ian D

2013-08-01

412

Motor assessment of developing common marmosets.  

PubMed

Motor development has been extensively studied in human infants and children, with several established scales for the evaluation of motor functions. However, the study of the neuronal mechanisms underlying human motor development is hampered by the lack of good animal models. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small New World monkey, has recently attracted much attention as a potential nonhuman primate model for understanding human physiology and diseases. However, little is known about its gross motor development. In the present study, we found that marmosets have a critical period for motor development in postnatal weeks 2 to 5, and acquire most of their motor skills by 8 weeks of age. We also developed methods to assess their motor functions, which will be useful for the evaluation of motor performance in marmoset models of human diseases. In addition, we found that marmosets exhibit a "head-to-tail" sequence of motor development similar to that found in humans, further supporting the notion that they provide a good animal model for studying the neuronal mechanisms underlying human motor development. PMID:24395453

Wang, Yiwen; Fang, Qin; Gong, Neng

2014-06-01

413

Common Data Input/Retrieval System  

SciTech Connect

The Common Data Input/Retrieval System (CDIRS) is a generalized software system developed at Sandia National Laboratories which is incorporated into an application system to perform application data input and/or retrieval processing. The system operates in the on-line mode in the Transaction-Processing (TIP) environment, and in batch mode. The system may be used for retrieval and/or updating of both the transaction database and the application database. Features provided include data input/retrieval screens which are tailored to designer's specifications, access to transactions via six retrieval paths, backup and recoverability of transactions, and periodic archival of processed transactions. The system consists of 40 programs, of which 36 are written in Cobol and 4 are written in Assembler. Forty-three action codes are provided to accomplish various combinations of DMS activities. Security is available at three levels: datasystem-level, user-level, and transaction-level. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the CDIRS environment from a user perspective. For this reason, some generalizations will be made, and some detail will be omitted. The system is complex, however; it will be necessary to provide enough detail to define the various entities, and attempt to explain how they interface.

Pate, J.E.; Muntz, J.E.

1984-04-01

414

Common Attentional Constraints in Visual Foraging  

PubMed Central

Predators are known to select food of the same type in non-random sequences or “runs” that are longer than would be expected by chance. If prey are conspicuous, predators will switch between available sources, interleaving runs of different prey types. However, when prey are cryptic, predators tend to focus on one food type at a time, effectively ignoring equally available sources. This latter finding is regarded as a key indicator that animal foraging is strongly constrained by attention. It is unknown whether human foraging is equally constrained. Here, using a novel iPad task, we demonstrate for the first time that it is. Participants were required to locate and touch 40 targets from 2 different categories embedded within a dense field of distractors. When individual target items “popped-out” search was organized into multiple runs, with frequent switching between target categories. In contrast, as soon as focused attention was required to identify individual targets, participants typically exhausted one entire category before beginning to search for the other. This commonality in animal and human foraging is compelling given the additional cognitive tools available to humans, and suggests that attention constrains search behavior in a similar way across a broad range of species.

Kristjansson, Arni; Johannesson, Omar I.; Thornton, Ian M.

2014-01-01

415

Interactive form recognition for common use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rather than follow the trend in form recognition procedures toward more and more sophisticated analysis suitable for archival or enhancement of the form, I have chosen to address the most common use of forms: filling them out immediately. My efforts have focuses on permitting the use of the form electronically as early in the recognition process as possible. The interactive procedure described here yields no delay at all, even on older office and home computers. To achieve this, no preprocessing is performed - all computations are made at the instant an area of the form is selected for use. Furthermore, only the addition of new data is permitted, to be aligned with pre-existing markings, precluding the complex analysis needed to replace the image with a symbolic reproduction. Interactivity is the key to the success of this approach. Performing analyses only on demand eliminates the time the human must wait before he is allowed to use the form, and takes advantage of the human element by dividing the tasks. The human locates the areas of interest - task suited to his pattern-recognizing biological brain - and the computer determines precise alignment within each area - a task more suited to rule- based logical algorithms.

Gugler, Sean

1997-03-01

416

Gasses evolved from the common cold cathode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the contributing factors to rf pulse shortening in long-pulse high-power microwave sources is gas evolution from the cathode surface during the explosive emission process. Theory of ecton formation, models of expanding are plasmas, and high-speed diagnostics are leading to a better understanding of the contributing factors to the cold- cathode emission processes. While technological leaps often result from applications of new materials, it is worthwhile to characterize and understand the effects of existing cathode materials commonly used in pulsed power systems. This paper describes the use of a residual gas analyzer to measure the atomic mass spectrum and total pressure of the background gas evolved from the cathode surface in a repetitively-pulsed electron beam vacuum chamber. Cathode materials studied include carbon fiber, velvet, copper, and stainless steel. The increase in the background pressure and the constituents of the background pressure are catalogued for the four cathode material samples. The simultaneous narrowing of voltage-pulse width with increase in background pressure is also measured. The carbon fiber cathode contributes least to the background pressure, and maintains the most stable and repeatable diode impedance.

Litz, Marc S.; Judy, Daniel C.; Huttlin, George A.; Lazard, Carl J.

1996-10-01

417

Finding lowest common ancestors in parallel  

SciTech Connect

Two parallel algorithms for finding the lowest common ancestors of a set of vertex pairs Q (the query set) in a directed tree are presented. With all the overheads taken into account, these algorithms take O(((n + absolute value of Q)/p) log/sub 2/n) and O(n/sup 2//p + log/sub 2/n) time, respectively, with p(>0) processors (n is the size of the tree). These results are better than the best known result in that the first achieves the O(log/sub 2/n) time bound with only n + absolute value of Q processors which the second reduces the number of processors used by a factor of log/sub 2/n which is optimal for large query sets when 0 < p less than or equal to n/sup 2//log/sub 2/n. The computer model the authors use here is the PRAM which is an SIMD model allowing read but not write conflicts. The results also imply the following improvements: the processor bound for finding a set of fundamental cycles in an undirected graph is improved by a factor of log/sub 2/n and the result is optimal for dense graphs; the implementations of some other sequential and parallel algorithms are also simplified.

Tsin, Y.H.

1986-08-01

418

Common Musculoskeletal Tumors of Childhood and Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma are the most common malignant musculoskeletal tumors in children and adolescents. Today, most patients can be cured. Numerous factors have contributed to improved outcome for these patients over the past several decades. These include multidisciplinary care involving oncologists, radiation oncologists, surgeons, pathologists, and radiologists and enrollment of patients in clinical trials. Better understanding of molecular mechanisms of disease have resulted in studies using molecular targets in addition to standard chemotherapeutic agents, which hopefully will lead to better outcomes in the future. Moreover, new orthopedic techniques and devices as well as new technologies in radiation oncology hold promise for better local control of primary tumors and the potential for fewer late adverse effects. Despite this progress, patients must undergo lifelong follow-up for possible late effects of intense chemotherapy and radiation therapy. We review the diagnosis, prognosis, staging, multidisciplinary therapy, new directions in therapy, and long-term complications of treatment for these tumors. For this review, we searched MEDLINE using the terms rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, biology, and humans and limited the search to articles from 2000 to September 2011. Additional references found in these articles were utilized as appropriate, as well as references from the background information in current therapeutic studies of the Children's Oncology Group. The same database and time frame were searched for articles written by leading authorities in the field.

Arndt, Carola A.S.; Rose, Peter S.; Folpe, Andrew L.; Laack, Nadia N.

2012-01-01

419

Toxicity of trihalomethanes to common carp embryos  

SciTech Connect

Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal concentrations (LC50) ranged from 161 mg/liter for chloroform to 53 mg/liter for dibromochloromethane. Decay studies conducted under conditions similar to those used for the toxicity studies, but in distilled water, indicated that (1) half-lives of the trihalomethanes ranged from 4.4 to 6.9 hours; (2) decay was due primarily to volatilization; (3) higher relative toxicity of dibromochloromethane probably was due to formation of a degradation product (likely Br/sub 2/). Correction of the nominal LC50 values to time-weighted mean concentrations over the period between toxicant changes gave weighted LC50 values of 97.2, 67.4, 33.5, and 52.3 mg/liter for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, respectively. In addition, the period of water-hardening of fertilized eggs was not critical for expression of toxicity of dibromochloromethane. Comparison of these and other published data on effluent and toxic concentrations, persistence, and bioaccumulation of water-chlorination products suggests that trihalomethanes are not as environmentally critical as other chlorinated organic compounds or residual chlorine.

Mattice, J.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Tsai, S.C.; Burch, M.B.; Beauchamp, J.J.

1981-03-01

420

Common Periodicities of Gle's and Solar Corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using different techniques of Wavelet Analysis, particularly, cross-wavelet coherence and the Global Wavelet Spectrum, we analyze data of intensity of 70 GLE's of the solar cycles 17 -23 vs data of the solar corona. We have found common periodicities of short period (2.8, 5.2 and 27 days), medium period (0.5, 1.2, 1.8, 3.2) as well as a the 4.6 and 11 yrs. periodicities. The two later are continuous over all the time interval, with a high synchronization and linear phase. In contrast, the short and medium periodicities are rather concentrated around the maximums of solar cycles, with some few cases in the minimums of solar activity, and present in general a complex phase. Results are discussed in terms of the works of others authors related to periodicities of the solar dynamo, solar atmosphere, interplanetary space and cosmic rays. We also evaluated the power anomalies of solar activity by means of sunspots, and have found that anomalies are positives when the GLE 's are of high intensity (higher than 100

Perez-Peraza, Jorge Alberto; Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel; Miroshnichenko, Leonty I.; Vashenyuk, Eduard V.

421

Common Carotid Artery Occlusion: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Subjects and Methods. We analysed 5000 cerebrovascular ultrasound records. A total of 0.4% of the patients had common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO). Results. The mean age was 59.8 ± 14.2 years, and the male/female ratio was 2.33. The most frequent risk factors were hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. Right-sided and left-sided CCAO occurred in 65% and 30% of the cases, respectively, and bilateral occlusion was detected in one case (5%). Patent bifurcation was observed in 10 cases of CCAO in which the anterograde flow in the ICA was maintained from the external carotid artery with reversed flow. In two of the cases, the occluded CCA was hypoplastic. The aetiology of CCAO in the majority of cases was the atherosclerosis (15 cases). The male/female ratio was higher in the patients with occluded distal vessels, and the short-term outcome was poorer. Only two cases from this series underwent revascularisation surgery. Spontaneous recanalisation was observed in one case. Conclusions. The most frequent cause of CCAO was atherosclerosis. The outcome is improved in the cases with patent distal vessels, and spontaneous recanalisation is possible. Treatment methods have not been standardised. Surgical revascularisation is possible in cases of patent distal vessels, but the indications are debatable.

Bajko, Zoltan; Balasa, Rodica; Motataianu, Anca; Maier, Smaranda; Chebut, Octavia Claudia; Szatmari, Szabolcs

2013-01-01

422

Differential gene detection incorporating common expression patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In detection of differentially expressed (DE) genes between different groups of samples based on a high-throughput expression measurement system, we often use a classical statistical testing based on a simple assumption that the expression of a certain DE gene in one group is higher or lower in average than that in the other group. Based on this simple assumption, the theory of optimal discovery procedure (ODP) (Storey, 2005) provided an optimal thresholding function for DE gene detection. However, expression patterns of DE genes over samples may have such a structure that is not exactly consistent with group labels assigned to the samples. Appropriate treatment of such a structure can increase the detection ability. Namely, genes showing similar expression patterns to other biologically meaningful genes can be regarded as statistically more significant than those showing expression patterns independent of other genes, even if differences in mean expression levels are comparable. In this study, we propose a new statistical thresholding function based on a latent variable model incorporating expression patterns together with the ODP theory. The latent variable model assumes hidden common signals behind expression patterns over samples and the ODP theory is extended to involve the latent variables. When applied to several gene expression data matrices which include cluster structures or 'cancer outlier' structures, the newly-proposed thresholding functions showed prominently better detection performance of DE genes than the original ODP thresholding function did. We also demonstrate how the proposed methods behave through analyses of real breast cancer and lymphoma datasets.

Oba, Shigeyuki; Ishii, Shin

2009-12-01

423

Chronic cough. Three most common causes.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe an approach to diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic cough. QUALIITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was search for reports of studies comducted between 1970 and 2000 on chronic cough and its epidemiology, natural history, diagnois, and theraphy. Articles were further selected based on clinical relevance and design. Most articles reviewed were epidemiology cohort and case studies and reviews. MAIN MESSAGE: Chronic cough, a commom ailment amoung adults, is often a diagnostic challenge. Most cases of chronic cough are associated with postnasal drip syndrome (PNDS), asthma, gastroesphageal reflux disease (GERD), or some combination of these. Initial investigation should include chest radiography to ruke out more ominous causes of chronic cough. Examinations and trials of treatment can diagnose PNDS, asthma, and GERD. Combination treatments are often necessary for managing chronic cough. CONCLUSION: The most common causes of chronic cough are PNDS, asthma, GERD, or some combination of these. A systematic approach to diagnosis and treatment is effective for most cases of chronic. cough.

D'Urzo, Anthony; Jugovic, Pieter

2002-01-01

424

Common Mechanistic Features among Metallo-?-lactamases  

PubMed Central

Metallo-?-lactamases (M?Ls) constitute an increasingly serious clinical threat by giving rise to ?-lactam antibiotic resistance. They accommodate in their catalytic pocket one or two zinc ions, which are responsible for the hydrolysis of ?-lactams. Recent x-ray studies on a member of the mono-zinc B2 M?Ls, CphA from Aeromonas hydrophila, have paved the way to mechanistic studies of this important subclass, which is selective for carbapenems. Here we have used hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical methods to investigate the enzymatic hydrolysis by CphA of the antibiotic biapenem. Our calculations describe the entire reaction and point to a new mechanistic description, which is in agreement with the available experimental evidence. Within our proposal, the zinc ion properly orients the antibiotic while directly activating a second catalytic water molecule for the completion of the hydrolytic cycle. This mechanism provides an explanation for a variety of mutagenesis experiments and points to common functional facets across B2 and B1 M?Ls.

Simona, Fabio; Magistrato, Alessandra; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Cavalli, Andrea; Vila, Alejandro J.; Carloni, Paolo

2009-01-01

425

Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling: a common theme in mechanotransduction.  

PubMed

Cells sense their mechanical and physical environment through diverse mechanisms, and these interactions specify a wide range of responses including growth, survival, migration and differentiation. Although much work has focused on dissecting the adhesive and structural components of the cell responsible for transducing external mechanical forces into biochemical signalling cascades, only recently have studies begun to examine how mechanical signals are transmitted to the nucleus and activate specific gene expression programmes. One necessary step in these processes is the transport of signalling molecules from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The SRF (serum-response factor) and YAP (Yes-associated protein)/TAZ (transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif) pathways are known mediators of this process in multiple cell types, including mesenchymal stem cells, keratinocytes, mammary epithelial cells and smooth muscle cells. In addition, recent evidence suggests a potential role for ?-catenin and Smad signalling in mechanotransduction, but further mechanistic studies are needed to prove this hypothesis. As a model system, the epidermis of the skin is one tissue in which nucleocytoplasmic shuttling mediates cellular mechanosensing and is essential for tissue development, homoeostasis and repair. We propose that nuclear translocation is a common element of mechanotransduction conserved across multiple cell types and tissues. PMID:24849232

Sharili, Amir S; Connelly, John T

2014-06-01

426

Common IED exploitation target set ontology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Common IED Exploitation Target Set (CIEDETS) ontology provides a comprehensive semantic data model for capturing knowledge about sensors, platforms, missions, environments, and other aspects of systems under test. The ontology also includes representative IEDs; modeled as explosives, camouflage, concealment objects, and other background objects, which comprise an overall threat scene. The ontology is represented using the Web Ontology Language and the SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language, which ensures portability of the acquired knowledge base across applications. The resulting knowledge base is a component of the CIEDETS application, which is intended to support the end user sensor test and evaluation community. CIEDETS associates a system under test to a subset of cataloged threats based on the probability that the system will detect the threat. The associations between systems under test, threats, and the detection probabilities are established based on a hybrid reasoning strategy, which applies a combination of heuristics and simplified modeling techniques. Besides supporting the CIEDETS application, which is focused on efficient and consistent system testing, the ontology can be leveraged in a myriad of other applications, including serving as a knowledge source for mission planning tools.

Russomanno, David J.; Qualls, Joseph; Wowczuk, Zenovy; Franken, Paul; Robinson, William

2010-04-01

427

Psychosocial effect of common skin diseases.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To increase awareness of the psychosocial effect of acne, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A literature review was based on a MEDLINE search (1966 to 2000). Selected articles from the dermatologic and psychiatric literature, as well as other relevant medical journals, were reviewed and used as the basis for discussion of how skin disease affects patients' lives and of appropriate management. Studies in the medical literature provide mainly level III evidence predominantly based on descriptive studies and expert opinion. MAIN MESSAGE: Dermatologic problems can result in psychosocial effects that seriously affect patients' lives. More than a cosmetic nuisance, skin disease can produce anxiety, depression, and other psychological problems that affect patients' lives in ways comparable to arthritis or other disabling illnesses. An appreciation for the effects of sex, age, and location of lesions is important, as well as the bidirectional relationship between skin disease and psychological distress. This review focuses on the effects of three common skin diseases seen by family physicians: acne, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. CONCLUSION: How skin disease affects psychosocial well-being is underappreciated. Increased understanding of the psychiatric comorbidity associated with skin disease and a biopsychosocial approach to management will ultimately improve patients' lives.

Barankin, Benjamin; DeKoven, Joel

2002-01-01

428

Towards an Eclectic Theory of the Internet Commons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in communications technologies and, in particular, the advent of the Internet and its widespread applications in all spheres of human activity, have posed a serious challenge to the mainstream neo-institutional theory of the commons (common goods) and, especially, common pool resources theory (CPR). Although the term ' new commons' has been coined to describe a new area of

Justyna Hofmokl

429

Stock returns in emerging markets: a common trend analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical investigation is offered of the number of common trends in stock returns in seven Asian emerging markets. There is evidence of a single common trend. Following Kasa (Kasa, K., 1992, Common stochastic trends in international stock markets, Journal of Monetary Economics, 29, 95–124) a measure is obtained of common trend and graphic evidence is provided in favour of

Kausik Chaudhuri

1997-01-01

430

Media Commons and the Sad Decline of Vancouver Indymedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author argues that the concept commons is a productive way of thinking about and practicing democratic and participatory media. He begins by defining media commons in such a way as to emphasize the relational and regulated nature of commons. Such a definition critiques the idea that commons are resources available to a public without limits as well as the

Scott Uzelman

2011-01-01

431

The Split Common Fixed Point Problem for Directed Operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the split common fixed point problem that requires to find a common fixed point of a family of operators in one space whose image under a linear transformation is a common fixed point of another family of operators in the image space. We formulate and analyze a parallel algorithm for solving this split common fixed point problem for

Yair Censor; Alexander Segal

2008-01-01

432

Staffing the Commons: job analysis in the context of an Information Commons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to apply principles from the field of industrial and organizational psychology on organizational analysis and job analysis to better identify successful candidates for employment in an Information Commons. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Review of professional research, research from both library literature and industrial and organizational psychology, review of professional association surveys. Findings – Library

Robert Boyd

2008-01-01

433

From Common Struggles to Common Dreams: Neoliberalism and Multicultural Education in a Globalized Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major troubling contours of neoliberalism and high-stakes education have common features. Consequently, the author discusses how multicultural education can serve as praxis for collective empowerment in a globalized context. The author asserts that equitable representation and localized multicultural knowledge production are the foundation of a…

Lee, Pei-Lun

2012-01-01

434

What Is Common about Common Schooling? Rational Autonomy and Moral Agency in Liberal Democratic Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay I critique two influential accounts of rational autonomy in common schooling that conceive liberalism as an ideal form of life, and I offer an alternative approach to democratic education that views liberal theory as concerned with coexistence among rival ways of living. This view places moral agency, not rational autonomy, at the…

Alexander, Hanan

2007-01-01

435

Functional implications of component commonality in operational systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of commonality in a system represents an attempt to reduce costs by reducing the number of unique components. Research in this area has primarily addressed a significant benefit of commonality, the reduction of parts inventories in assemble-to-order manufacturing systems. Likewise, in an operational system subject to component failures, spares inventories are reduced through the increased commonality of components. However, commonality tends to degrade system performance parameters, a degradation that can preclude commonality in resource-constrained systems such as spacecraft. The functional impacts of component commonality on a system is addressed in a manner that allows inclusion in a commonality analysis.

Thomas, Lawrence D.

1992-01-01

436

EPR Correlations, Bell Inequalities and Common Cause Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard common causal explanations of the EPR situation assume a so-called joint common cause system that is a common cause for all correlations. However, the assumption of a joint common cause system together with some other physically motivated assumptions concerning locality and no-conspiracy results in various Bell inequalities. Since Bell inequalities are violated for appropriate measurement settings, a local, non-conspiratorial joint common causal explanation of the EPR situation is ruled out. But why do we assume that a common causal explanation of a set of correlation consists in finding a joint common cause system for all correlations and not just in finding separate common cause systems for the different correlations? What are the perspectives of a local, non-conspiratorial separate common causal explanation for the EPR scenario? And finally, how do Bell inequalities relate to the weaker assumption of separate common cause systems?

Hofer-Szabó, Gábor

2014-03-01

437

Common Origin of Two Major Sungrazing Comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our extensive orbital calculations show that the motion of comet C/1965 S1 (Ikeya-Seki), a major member of the Kreutz sungrazing system, can be derived from the motion of its ``sister'' comet C/1882 R1 (Great September Comet) on the assumption that the two objects are fragments of a common parent that split in the year 1106, at the time when a very bright comet appeared near the Sun according to a number of historical records. Specifically, the orbit of Ikeya-Seki derived from astrometric positions in 1965-1966 is matched with remarkably high accuracy, well within the errors of observation, by (1) integrating the motion of comet C/1882 R1 back to 1106; (2) launching from the parent a fragment some 18 days after perihelion, 0.75 AU from the Sun, with a relative velocity of about 7 m s-1 nearly in the antisolar direction; and (3) integrating the fragment's motion forward to 1965. We find that having the break-up closer to the Sun or before perihelion yields grossly inferior solutions. We conclude that the fragmentation event itself was not tidal in nature, but appears to have been due to rotational, and possibly other, forces acting on the parent comet, afflicted with cracks and fissures caused by the Sun's tidal forces a few weeks earlier. We note that the derived separation velocity is in the range established for nontidal fragmentation of minor sungrazers at large heliocentric distances and that there are obvious similarities with the behavior of comet D/1993 F2 (Shoemaker-Levy 9) following its close encounter with Jupiter in 1992 July.

Sekanina, Zdenek; Chodas, Paul W.

2002-12-01

438

The common pipeline library: standardizing pipeline processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Southern Observatory (ESO) develops and maintains a large number of instrument-specific data processing pipelines. These pipelines must produce standard-format output and meet the need for data archiving and the computation and logging of quality assurance parameters. As the number, complexity and data-output-rate of instrument increases, so does the challenge to develop and maintain the associated processing software. ESO has developed the Common Pipeline Library (CPL) in order to unify the pipeline production effort and to minimise code duplication. The CPL is a self-contained ISO-C library, designed for use in a C/C++ environment. It is designed to work with FITS data, extensions and meta-data, and provides a template for standard algorithms, thus unifying the look-and-feel of pipelines. It has been written in such a way to make it extremely robust, fast and generic, in order to cope with the operation-critical online data reduction requirements of modern observatories. The CPL has now been successfully incorporated into several new and existing instrument systems. In order to achieve such success, it is essential to go beyond simply making the code publicly available, but also engage in training, support and promotion. There must be a commitment to maintenance, development, standards-compliance, optimisation, consistency and testing. This paper describes in detail the experiences of the CPL in all these areas. It covers the general principles applicable to any such software project and the specific challenges and solutions, that make the CPL unique.

McKay, Derek J.; Ballester, Pascal; Banse, Klaus; Izzo, Carlo; Jung, Yves; Kiesgen, Michael; Kornweibel, Nick; Lundin, Lars K.; Modigliani, Andrea; Palsa, Ralf M.; Sabet, Cyrus

2004-09-01

439

Six Common Mistakes in Conservation Priority Setting  

PubMed Central

Abstract A vast number of prioritization schemes have been developed to help conservation navigate tough decisions about the allocation of finite resources. However, the application of quantitative approaches to setting priorities in conservation frequently includes mistakes that can undermine their authors’ intention to be more rigorous and scientific in the way priorities are established and resources allocated. Drawing on well-established principles of decision science, we highlight 6 mistakes commonly associated with setting priorities for conservation: not acknowledging conservation plans are prioritizations; trying to solve an ill-defined problem; not prioritizing actions; arbitrariness; hidden value judgments; and not acknowledging risk of failure. We explain these mistakes and offer a path to help conservation planners avoid making the same mistakes in future prioritizations. Seis Errores Comunes en la Definición de Prioridades de Conservación Resumen Se ha desarrollado un vasto número de esquemas de priorización para ayudar a que la conservación navegue entre decisiones difíciles en cuanto a la asignación de recursos finitos. Sin embargo, la aplicación de métodos cuantitativos para la definición de prioridades en la conservación frecuentemente incluye errores que pueden socavar la intención de sus autores de ser más rigurosos y científicos en la manera en que se establecen las prioridades y se asignan los recursos. Con base en los bien establecidos principios de la ciencia de la decisión, resaltamos seis errores comúnmente asociados con la definición de prioridades para la conservación: no reconocer que los planes de conservación son priorizaciones; tratar de resolver un problema mal definido; no priorizar acciones; arbitrariedad; juicios de valor ocultos y no reconocer el riesgo de fracasar. Explicamos estos errores y ofrecemos un camino para que planificadores de la conservación no cometan los mismos errores en priorizaciones futuras.

Game, Edward T; Kareiva, Peter; Possingham, Hugh P

2013-01-01

440

Acceptable workloads for three common mining materials.  

PubMed

A series of psychophysical lifting studies was conducted to establish maximum acceptable weights of lift (MAWL) for three supply items commonly handled in underground coal mines (rock dust bags, ventilation stopping blocks, and crib blocks). Each study utilized 12 subjects, all of whom had considerable experience working in underground coal mines. Effects of lifting in four postures (standing, stooping under a 1.5 m ceiling, stooping under a 1.2 m ceiling, and kneeling) were investigated together with four lifting conditions (combinations of lifting symmetry and lifting height). The frequency of lifting was set at four per min, and the task duration was 15 min. Posture significantly affected the MAWL for the rock dust bag (standing MAWL was 7% greater than restricted postures and kneeling MAWL was 6.4% less than stopped); however, posture interacted with lifting conditions for both of the other materials. Physiological costs were found to be significantly greater in the stooped postures compared with kneeling for all materials. Other contrasts (standing versus restricted postures, stooping under 1.5 m ceiling versus stopping under 1.2 m ceiling) did not exhibit significantly different levels of energy expenditure. Energy expenditure was significantly affected by vertical lifting height; however, the plane of lifting had little influence on metabolic cost. Recommended acceptable workloads for the three materials are 20.0 kg for the rock dust bag, 16.5 kg for the ventilation stopping block, and 14.7 kg for the crib block. These results suggest that miners are often required to lift supplies that are substantially heavier than psychophysically acceptable lifting limits. PMID:1387078

Gallagher, S; Hamrick, C A

1992-09-01

441

Common Avian Infection Plagued the Tyrant Dinosaurs  

PubMed Central

Background Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name ‘Sue’) has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. Conclusions/Significance This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation.

Wolff, Ewan D. S.; Salisbury, Steven W.; Horner, John R.; Varricchio, David J.

2009-01-01

442

Polarization Signals of Common Spacecraft Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final report documenting the results of the polarization testing of near-planar objects with various reflectance properties. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the portion of the reflected signal which is polarized for materials commonly used in space applications. Tests were conducted on several samples, with surface characteristics ranging from highly reflective to relatively dark. The measurements were obtained by suspending the test object in a beam of collimated light. The amount of light falling on the sample was controlled by a circular aperture placed in the light field. The polarized reflectance at various phase angles was then measured. A nonlinear least squares fitting program was used for analysis. For the specular test objects, the reflected signals were measured in one degree increments near the specular point. Otherwise, measurements were taken every five degrees in phase angle. Generally, the more diffuse surfaces had lower polarized reflectances than their more specular counterparts. The reflected signals for the more diffuse surfaces were spread over a larger phase angle range, while the signals from the more specular samples were reflected almost entirely within five degrees of angular deviation from the specular point. The method used to test all the surfaces is presented. The results of this study will be used to support the NASA Orbital Debris Optical Signature Tests. These tests are intended to help better understand the reflectance properties of materials often used in space applications. This data will then be used to improve the capabilities for identification and tracking of space debris.

Gravseth, Ian; Culp, Robert D.; King, Nicole

1996-01-01

443

Learning, entropy, free energy, an underlying commonality?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical Mechanics, which is due primarily to Maxwell, Gibbs, and Boltzmann in the ninetieth century, has proven to be useful model for drawing inferences about the collective behavior of individual objects that interact according to a known force law (which for more general usage is referred to as interacting units.). Collective behavior is determined not by computing F = ma for each interacting unit because the problem is mathematically intractable. Instead, one computes the partition function for the collection of interacting units and predicts statistical behavior from the partition function. Statistical mechanics was united with Bayesian inference by Jaynes [4]. As a continuation, Shannon [7] demonstrated that the partition function assignment of probabilities via the interaction Hamiltonian is the solution to Bayesian assignment of probabilities (based on the maximum entropy method with known means and standard deviations). Once this technique has been applied to a variety of problems and obtained a solution, one can, of course, solve the inverse problem of to determine the solution to an inverse problem to determine what interaction model gives rise to a given probability assignment [1] and [8]. The usage of statistical mechanics allows one can draw general inferences about any complex system including networks [5] by defining "energy", "heat capacity", "temperature", and other thermodynamic characteristics of most complex systems based on the common standard of the Helmholtz free energy. Principle has noted that the aspect of entropy used in reasoning with uncertainty may not be the most appropriate entropy for learning mechanisms [6]. Instead he has explored using Renyi entropy and derived a form of information learning dynamics that has some promising features [2]. To fully realize the potential of the usage of a more generalized entropy to the three aspects of survival, we suggest some connections to the free energy and learning. We also connect some aspects of sensing to probability distributions that suggest why certain search strategies perform better than others. In making these connections, we suggest a fundamental connection waits to be discovered between inference, learning, and related to the manner in which sensing mechanisms perform.

Gray, John E.; Szu, Harold H.

2007-04-01

444

Concurrence of the tortuosity of bilateral common and left internal carotid arteries in a case with common origin of the innominate trunk and left common carotid artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anatomical variations of carotid arterial system, which are not infrequently encountered, have great impact on the surgical\\u000a approaches of the neck. Although few reports on common carotid artery tortuosity have been published, no case of symptomatic\\u000a concurrent common carotid and internal carotid artery tortuosity has been reported. Herein, we report the first case with\\u000a concurrent common origin of the innominate

Sema Yildiz; Hasan Cece; Sibel Karayol; Zeki Ziylan

2010-01-01

445

47 CFR 11.42 - Participation by communications common carriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...common carriers. 11.42 Section 11.42 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.42 Participation by communications common carriers. (a) During...

2010-10-01

446

47 CFR 11.42 - Participation by communications common carriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...common carriers. 11.42 Section 11.42 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.42 Participation by communications common carriers. (a) During...

2011-10-01

447

46 CFR 113.10-5 - Common return.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-5 Common return. A conductor must not be used as a common return from more...

2013-10-01

448

Common Infections May Increase Risk for Memory Decline  

MedlinePLUS

Common infections may increase risk for memory decline American Stroke Association Meeting Report: Abstract: 107 (Room Ballroom 20D) February 13, 2014 Study highlights: Exposure to common infections is linked ...

449

Common Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis Reduces Risk of Death  

MedlinePLUS

... Common Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis Reduces Risk of Death Taking methotrexate—a commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory medication—may reduce the risk of death among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), according to ...

450

Common Carrier Land Mobile Base Stations Cumulative Staff Study Listing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contains fiche copies of Common Carrier 'Cumulative Staff Study Listing-Base Station' only. The Cumulative Staff Study Listing is a report of base station transmitters from the Common Carrier Land Mobile Base Station data base listed by frequency, longitu...

1992-01-01

451

Common Carrier Land Mobile Base Stations Cumulative Staff Study Listing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contains fiche copies of Common Carrier 'Cumulative Staff Study Listing-Base Station' only. The Cumulative Staff Study Listing is a report of base station transmitters from the Common Carrier Land Mobile Base Station data base listed by frequency, longitu...

1989-01-01

452

Common Carrier Land Mobile Base Station Cumulative Staff Study Listing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contains fiche copies of Common Carrier 'Cumulative Staff Study Listing--Base Station' only. The Cumulative Staff Study Listing is a report of base station transmitters from the Common Carrier Land Mobile Base Station data base listed by frequency, longit...

1986-01-01

453

Common Carrier Land Mobile Base Stations Cumulative Staff Study Listing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contains fiche copies of Common Carrier 'Cumulative Staff Study Listing-Base Station' only. The Cumulative Staff Study Listing is a report of base station transmitters from the Common Carrier Land Mobile Base Station data base listed by frequency, longitu...

1990-01-01

454

Common Carrier Land Mobile Base Station Cumulative Staff Study Listing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contains fiche copies of Common Carrier 'Cumulative Staff Study Listing -- Base Station' only. The Cumulative Staff Study Listing is a report of base station transmitters from the Common Carrier Land Mobile Base Station data base listed by frequency longi...

1988-01-01

455

Common Carrier Land Mobile Base Stations Cumulative Staff Study Listing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contains fiche copies of Common Carrier 'Cumulative Staff Study Listing-Base Station' only. The Cumulative Staff Study Listing is a report of base station transmitters from the Common Carrier Land Mobile Base Station data base listed by frequency, longitu...

1991-01-01

456

A Common Law Mortgage on a Common Law Lease on a Space Resource is Legally Available  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space Objects are subject to the law of the launching states under the Outer Space Treaty, but space resources, those natural resources already located in space, are not subject to any law other than the treaty laws applicable thereto. In this case of "creditor's rights," there is a void in the treaty regime, except for the proposition that all space resources are public property, (thus inferring that private ownership is not legally possible). However, the law of public property clearly allows possessory estates on common grounds that are not official monuments. The common law development for 750 years has maintained possessory estates as readily available: these are the trust, the lease, the easement, and the mortgage. These estates exists as legal superstructures independent from the underlying physical property. Thus, we could have a 99- year lease of the Apollo 17 landing site on iron ore on the Moon that is mortgaged for a trillion dollars or so, subsequently defaulted, and foreclosed in any Court of General Jurisdiction in favor of the creditor as the new owner. The creditor ends up with the remaining term on the lease, but not with any ownership of the site, the iron ore, and not with ownership of any part of the Moon: It is still public property. This is not only legally available today, it is the exact history of common law estates, (none of which impair legal title by definition and precedent). This model will be discussed as a likely way for astro law to evolve. Association; President of United Societies in Space, Inc., and of its Regency of United Societies in Space, Inc. (ROUSIS); Board of Directors, Mars Society; Board of Directors, Lunar Economic Development Authority, Inc.; Board of Directors, Space Orbital Development Authority; Publisher, Space Governance Journal; and member, AIAA Subcommittee on Space Colonization.

O'Donnell, D. J.

2002-01-01

457

The Split Common Fixed Point Problem for Directed Operators  

PubMed Central

We propose the split common fixed point problem that requires to find a common fixed point of a family of operators in one space whose image under a linear transformation is a common fixed point of another family of operators in the image space. We formulate and analyze a parallel algorithm for solving this split common fixed point problem for the class of directed operators and note how it unifies and generalizes previously discussed problems and algorithms.

Censor, Yair; Segal, Alexander

2010-01-01

458

DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF COMMON COMPONENTS FOR PRODUCT FAMILY: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses product variety design and the optimal design methodology of common components for a class of products. After the form of product variety design problems is reviewed, the necessity and role of the optimal design paradigm in this direction are generally investigated as a background for the discussion of common components. Following them, the design problem of common

Kikuo Fujita; Yusuke Kounoe

459

The Dangers and Opportunities of the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

So much has changed in the last 30 years. Diversity is on the verge of extinction--diversity of curriculum, instructional practices, and assessment. The nation is moving into an era that will link Common Core standards with a Common Core curriculum taught by teachers who will assess student learning through a slate of Common Core exams and be…

Brooks, Jacqueline Grennon; Dietz, Mary E.

2013-01-01

460

Powerful Alignment: Building Consensus around the Common Core State Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines a sampling of arguments for and against the Common Core State Standards from the period surrounding their adoption. While supporters of the standards have articulated common goals such as economic security, equity, and alignment, opposing voices have failed to coalesce around a unified set of principles or a common language. An…

Doyle, Keridan

2012-01-01

461

Product platform commonization: platform construction and platform elements capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platform-based product family design is an effective means for mass customization. Platform commonization is one of the key problems in developing product platforms. Through discussion on the relevant problems of platform commonization, this article presents a framework of layered constructing platform architecture to improve commonality of platforms. Subsequently, an approach to capturing platform elements, viz. Graph theory-based clustering analysis (GTBCA),

Hongbin Qin; Yifang Zhong; Renbin Xiao; Weiguo Zhang

2005-01-01

462

Relationship between common duct stones and Helicobacter pylori infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the rate of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection in patients with common duct stones and analyze the relationship between common duct stones and H pylori infection. METHODS: One hundred and five patients with common duct stones (experiment group) and 132 control subjects (control group) were in- cluded in the study. All the patients underwent electronic gastroscopy, rapid

Min Song; Jie Wu; Ping Wang; Xiao-Dong Huang; Heng Zhang; Dan Zheng; Yan Su Min Song; Song M; Wu J; Wang P; Huang XD; Zheng D

463

Using Digital Video Production to Meet the Common Core Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The implementation of the Common Core Standards has just begun and these standards will impact a generation that communicates with technology more than anything else. Texting, cell phones, Facebook, YouTube, Skype, etc. are the ways they speak with their friends and the world. The Common Core Standards recognize this. According to the Common Core…

Nichols, Maura

2012-01-01

464

The Purpose of Commonality Analysis: Description and Prediction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The uses and restrictions of commonality analysis are described. Commonality analysis has been increasingly used as a method to examine the relative importance of independent variables, through the partitioning of variance among the variables of the regression equation into unique and common components. The effects of all other independent…

Korfhage, Mary Margaretha

465

Advocacy: Emphasizing the Uncommon about the Common Core State Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes key issues and uncommon concerns about the Common Core State Standards that fit within two categories: philosophical and pedagogical. Philosophically, Common Core State K-12 Standards should not be expected to be mastered at a specific grade level but based on developmental readiness. Pedagogically, Common Core State Standards…

Kaplan, Sandra N.

2014-01-01

466

Preparing Now for Common Core: A State and Local View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-four states, the District of Columbia and U.S. Virgin Islands have formally adopted the Common Core State Standards (Common Core), and implementation is scheduled to begin in 2014--not that far away when one thinks about all that needs to be put in place. It's important for local educators and administrators to actively engage in the Common

DeWitt, Stephen

2011-01-01

467

The Common Core: Insights into the K-5 Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of the Common Core English Language Arts Standards in grades K-5 literacy instruction is the focus of the article. The authors begin by raising four questions: (1) What is the essential philosophy of the Common Core State Standards?; (2) What do educators need to know to use the College and Career Readiness Standards and Common Core State…

McLaughlin, Maureen; Overturf, Brenda J.

2012-01-01

468

20 CFR 222.13 - Common-law marriage relationship.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true Common-law marriage relationship. 222.13 Section...er) § 222.13 Common-law marriage relationship. Under the laws of some States, a common-law marriage is one which is not solemnized...

2013-04-01

469

47 CFR 74.22 - Use of common antenna structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Use of common antenna structure. 74.22 Section 74.22...Services in Part 74 § 74.22 Use of common antenna structure. The simultaneous use of a common antenna structure by more than one station...

2013-10-01

470

Common Worlds: Reconceptualising Inclusion in Early Childhood Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Common worlds" is a conceptual framework developed to reconceptualise inclusion in early childhood communities. Common worlds take account of children's relations with all the others in their worlds--including the more-than-human others. The ethics and politics of living together in these common worlds is the central concern of this article. The…

Taylor, Affrica; Giugni, Miriam

2012-01-01

471

Expert system development for commonality analysis in space programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is a combination of foundational mathematics and software design. A mathematical model of the Commonality Analysis problem was developed and some important properties discovered. The complexity of the problem is described herein and techniques, both deterministic and heuristic, for reducing that complexity are presented. Weaknesses are pointed out in the existing software (System Commonality Analysis Tool) and several improvements are recommended. It is recommended that: (1) an expert system for guiding the design of new databases be developed; (2) a distributed knowledge base be created and maintained for the purpose of encoding the commonality relationships between design items in commonality databases; (3) a software module be produced which automatically generates commonality alternative sets from commonality databases using the knowledge associated with those databases; and (4) a more complete commonality analysis module be written which is capable of generating any type of feasible solution.

Yeager, Dorian P.

1987-01-01

472

Development of candidate gene markers associated to common bacterial blight resistance in common bean.  

PubMed

Common bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap), is a major yield-limiting factor of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production around the world. Two major CBB-resistant quantitative trait loci (QTL), linked to the sequence characterized amplified region markers BC420 and SU91, are located at chromosomes 6 and 8, respectively. Using map-based cloning approach, four bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the BC420-QTL locus and one BAC clone containing SU91 were sequenced by Roche 454 technique and subsequently assembled using merged assemblies from three different programs. Based on the quality of the assembly, only the sequences of BAC 32H6 and 4K7 were used for candidate gene marker (CGM) development and candidate gene (CG) selection. For the BC420-QTL locus, 21 novel genes were predicted in silico by FGENESH using Medicago gene model, whereas 16 genes were identified in the SU91-QTL locus. For each putative gene, one or more primer pairs were designed and tested in the contrasting near isogenic lines. Overall, six and nine polymorphic markers were found in the SU91- and BC420-QTL loci, respectively. Afterwards, association mapping was conducted in a breeding population of 395 dry bean lines to discover marker-trait associations. Two CGMs per each locus showed better association with CBB resistance than the BC420 and SU91 markers, which include BC420-CG10B and BC420-CG14 for BC420_QTL locus, and SU91-CG10 and SU91-CG11 for SU91_QTL locus. The strong associations between CBB resistance and the CGs 10 and 14 from BC420_QTL locus and the CGs 10 and 11 from SU91_QTL locus indicate that the genes 10 and 14 from the BC420 locus are potential CGs underlying the BC420_QTL locus, whereas the genes 10 and 11 from the SU91 locus are potential CGs underlying the SU91_QTL locus. The superiority of SU91-CG11 was further validated in a recombinant inbred line population Sanilac × OAC 09-3. Thus, co-dominant CGMs, BC420-CG14 and SU91-CG11, are recommended to replace BC420 and SU91 for marker-assisted selection of common bean with resistance to CBB. PMID:22798059

Shi, Chun; Yu, Kangfu; Xie, Weilong; Perry, Gregory; Navabi, Alireza; Pauls, K Peter; Miklas, Phillip N; Fourie, Deidré

2012-11-01

473

Some avian and mammalian hosts of Amblyomma hebraeum and Amblyomma marmoreum (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

Large numbers of birds, wild mammals and domestic stock from a variety of localities within the Republic of South Africa were examined for infestation with the ixodid ticks Amblyomma hebraeum and Amblyomma marmoreum. Every warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), Burchell's zebra (Equus burchelli), impala (Aepyceros melampus) and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) from the Kruger National Park in the north-eastern Transvaal Lowveld was infested with A. hebraeum. In the eastern Cape Province every helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), scrub hare (Lepus saxatilis) and kudu from the Andries Vosloo Kudu Reserve; all but 1 of the 22 domestic cattle examined on the farm "Bucklands"; and all Angora goats plus nearly all Boer goats examined on the farm "Brakhill" were infested with this tick. Most animals examined appeared to be good hosts of the immature stages, and the larger the host species the greater the chances of it harbouring large numbers of adult ticks. The largest animals examined, such as eland, buffalo, giraffe and rhinoceros, harboured very large numbers of adult A. hebraeum. No adult A. marmoreum was recovered from any host. However, 50% or more of helmeted guinea fowl and kudu from the Andries Vosloo Kudu Reserve; helmeted guinea fowl, scrub hares and eland (Taurotragus oryx) from the Mountain Zebra National Park; helmeted guinea fowl, kudu, domestic sheep, goats and cattle on the farm "Bucklands", and caracal (Felis caracal) from the Cradock and Southwell areas of the eastern Cape Province were infested with immature A. marmoreum. In the Bontebok National Park in the south-western Cape Province more than 35% of scrub hares, vaal ribbok (Pelea capreolus) and bontebok (Damaliscus dorcas dorcas) were infested with immature ticks. PMID:3329327

Horak, I G; MacIvor, K M; Petney, T N; De Vos, V

1987-09-01

474

Comparing G matrices: are common principal components informative?  

PubMed Central

Common principal components (CPC) analysis is a technique for assessing whether variance-covariance matrices from different populations have similar structure. One potential application is to compare additive genetic variance-covariance matrices, G. In this article, the conditions under which G matrices are expected to have common PCs are derived for a two-locus, two-allele model and the model of constrained pleiotropy. The theory demonstrates that whether G matrices are expected to have common PCs is largely determined by whether pleiotropic effects have a modular organization. If two (or more) populations have modules and these modules have the same direction, the G matrices have a common PC, regardless of allele frequencies. In the absence of modules, common PCs exist only for very restricted combinations of allele frequencies. Together, these two results imply that, when populations are evolving, common PCs are expected only when the populations have modules in common. These results have two implications: (1) In general, G matrices will not have common PCs, and (2) when they do, these PCs indicate common modular organization. The interpretation of common PCs identified for estimates of G matrices is discussed in light of these results.

Mezey, Jason G; Houle, David

2003-01-01

475

Forests as Commons – Changing Traditions and Governance in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Commons are complex institutions and exist across the world in a wide range of situations regarding locally developed governance\\u000a and management systems of many different natural resources. For many people commons remain associated with Hardin’s theory\\u000a concerning the “Tragedy of the Commons” (1968), in which he assumed that local users of a natural resource are unable to formulate\\u000a governance and

Christopher Short

476

66. CORBELS, BLIND ARCHES & SHIELDS, COMMONS EAST WALL, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

66. CORBELS, BLIND ARCHES & SHIELDS, COMMONS EAST WALL, LOOKING EAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

477

Common uses of nonradioactive drugs in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

A variety of nonradioactive pharmaceuticals commonly used in patients who receive nuclear medicine diagnostic tests are described. Nonradioactive drugs used in thyroid, brain, hepatobiliary, cardiac, renal, Meckel's diverticulum, gallium, adrenal, and hematological studies are described. Pharmaceutical necessities used as disinfectants, diluents, and anticoagulants are also described. Hospital pharmacists should be familiar with the uses of commonly prescribed nonradioactive drugs in nuclear medicine studies.

Ponto, J.A.; Hladik, W.B.

1984-06-01

478

Component Analysis Versus Common Factor Analysis: A Monte Carlo Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compares component and common factor analysis using 3 levels of population factor pattern loadings (.40,.60,.80) for each of the 3 levels of variables (9, 18, 36). Common factor analysis was significantly more accurate than components in reproducing the population pattern in each of the conditions examined. The differences decreased as the number of variables and the size of the population

Steven C. Snook; Richard L. Gorsuch

1989-01-01

479

Common physical processes in natural and artificially triggered lightning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common physical processes are identified in various types of natural and artificially triggered lightning flashes, both in summer and winter storms. By applying an electrostatic model of bidirectional, uncharged and monopolar, charged leaders, the main physical principles are defined for interpretation of common lightning processes. These principles focus on lightning initiation, charger on the leader, the leader's electrical potential, the

Vladislav Mazur; Lothar H. Ruhnke

1993-01-01

480

How Will the Common Core Initiative Impact the Testing Industry?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers have sponsored the development of common K-12 education standards in math and English/language arts--a project known as the Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI)--in an effort to improve college readiness for the nation's students and replace the patchwork…

Toch, Thomas; Tyre, Peg

2010-01-01

481

Transradial endovascular treatment of severe common femoral artery stenosis.  

PubMed

Endovascular treatment of peripheral artery disease is challenged by limited access options when the disease involves the common femoral artery. We described a case of transradial intervention of severe common femoral artery stenosis with orbital atherectomy and discuss the technique, advantages, and limitations. PMID:24184898

Sanghvi, Kintur; Nachtigall, Jonathan; Luft, Ulrich

2013-11-01

482

On the impact of a common currency on bilateral trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a gravity model à la Rose [Economic Policy 30 (2000) 7], I found that the link between a common currency and bilateral trade flows is significantly stronger for common currency pairs comprising unilaterally dollarized countries than for members of a multilateral currency union.

Eduardo Levy Yeyati

2003-01-01

483

An overview of the ALMA Common Software (ACS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is an application framework designed to provide a common and homogeneous software architecture and infrastructure, spanning the end to end needs of an Astronomical observatory, from the Telescope Control system to high-level data flow management. ACS offers, at the lower level, several basic services needed for object-oriented distributed computing like transparent remote object invocation, object

P. Di Marcantonio; R. Cirami; A. Caproni; G. Chiozzi; B. Jeram; H. Sommer; S. Harrington; K. Zagar; M. Plesko; M. Sekoranja

2007-01-01

484

Service-Oriented Commonality Analysis Across Existing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an extractive approach to building-up a product line based on existing systems. Thereby, we focus on the analysis of common functionali- ties across different systems. Our commonality analysis is performed on the functional level which offers the highest reuse potential. We use the service diagram, a formally founded specification technique, for the functional specifi- cation. This allows

Alexander Harhurin; Judith Hartmann

2008-01-01

485

Creating a Sustainable University and Community through a Common Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article aims to provide an overview of Texas State University's Common Experience, an innovative initiative that engaged tens of thousands of people in shared consideration of sustainability as a single topic during academic year 2010-2011. Design/methodology/approach: The discourse begins with an overview of the Common

Lopez, Omar S.

2013-01-01

486

PUBLIC SECTOR SCIENCE AND THE STRATEGY OF THE COMMONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We model the conditions under which incumbent firms may purposefully create an intellectual property (IP) commons such that no firm has the incentive to invest in new product development, despite the potential profitability of a public sector invention. The strategy of spoiling incentives to innovate by eliminating exclusive IP rights - the strategy of the commons - is motivated by

AJAY K. AGRAWALa

487

Public Sector Science And The Strategy Of The Commons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We model the conditions under which incumbent firms may purposefully create an intellectual property (IP) commons such that no firm has the incentive to invest in new product development, despite the potential profitability of a public sector invention. The strategy of spoiling incentives to innovate by eliminating exclusive IP rights—the strategy of the commons—is motivated by a fear of cannibalization

Ajay K. Agrawal; Lorenzo Garlappi

2007-01-01

488

A Common Service for Mental and Neurological Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common in- and out-patient service for all patients with diseases of the nervous system was organized within the framework of a common hospital and polyclinic unit of a rural district. The co-operative work in this system seemed to be very useful for both neurologic and psychiatric patients. But it caused overwork to physicians and nurses, and did harm to

I. Kappeter

1980-01-01

489

General Music and the Common Core: A Brief Discussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core Standards and the wide-spread state adoption have implications for music teachers. Alignment with English language arts Common Core Standards is discussed, with examples provided for elementary general music experiences. The author notes the challenge of retaining focus on the music domain while meeting the expectations of the…

Cardany, Audrey Berger

2013-01-01

490

An integrated epigenetic and genetic approach to common human disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epigenetic information is heritable during cell division but is not contained within the DNA sequence itself. Despite increasing evidence for and interest in the role of epigenetics in human disease, particularly in cancer, virtually no epigenetic information is routinely or systematically measured at the genome level. The current population-based approach to common disease relates common DNA sequence variants to either

Hans T Bjornsson; M Daniele Fallin; Andrew P Feinberg

2004-01-01

491

Episodic memory and common sense: how far apart?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has revealed facts about human memory in general and episodic memory in particular that deviate from both common sense and previously accepted ideas. This paper discusses some of these deviations in light of the proceedings of The Royal Society's Discussion Meeting on episodic memory. Retrieval processes play a more critical role in memory than commonly assumed; people can remember

Endel Tulving

2001-01-01

492

When Do Speakers Take into Account Common Ground?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the role of common ground between speakers in production of utterances. Outlines two models, and compares them by contrasting the use of common ground between speakers and listeners as evidenced by physical copresence. Results suggest speakers do not employ audience design in the initial planning of utterances, but do monitor initial…

Horton, William S.; Keysar, Boaz

1996-01-01

493

Coset Codes for Compound Multiple Access Channels With Common Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Code construction is considered for arbitrary dis- crete memoryless compound multiple access channels (MACs) with common information. This class of channels includes MACs with\\/without common messages or with partially cooperating encoders. A construction method of code ensembles based on coset codes is proposed for these channels. Assuming joint maximum likelihood decoding, the performance of the proposed code en- semble is

Hideki Yagi; H. Vincent Poor

2011-01-01

494

Creating the Academic Commons: Guidelines for Learning, Teaching, and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's library is still at the heart of all university activities, helping students and faculty become better learners, teachers, and researchers. In recent years there has emerged the formalizing of one or more of these activities into an Academic Commons. These centers of information have been labeled variously but they all share a commonality:…

Gould, Thomas H.P.

2011-01-01

495

Vitamin C intake and susceptibility to the common cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the role of vitamin C in common cold incidence had been studied extensively, the level of vitamin C intake has not been unequivocally shown to affect the incidence of colds. In the present study the six largest vitamin C supplementation (ï 1 g\\/d) studies, including over 5000 episodes in all, have been analysed, and it is shown that common

Harri Hemilä

1997-01-01

496

SEAL: Common Core Libraries and Services for LHC Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CERN LHC experiments have begun the LHC Computing Grid project in 2001. One of the project's aims is to develop common software infrastructure based on a development vision shared by the participating experiments. The SEAL project will provide common foundation libraries, services and utilities identified by the project's architecture blueprint report. This requires a broad range of functionality that

J. Generowicz; P. Mato; L. Moneta; S. Roiser; M. Marino; L A Tuura

2003-01-01

497

Implementing the Common Core State Standards: State Spotlights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As of the 2012-2013 school year, over 20 states have formally moved to the Common Core State Standards being used as the learning expectations for all students across the state, and the remainder will be doing so in the 2014-2015 school year. This document highlights state initiatives that are supporting Common Core implementation in the following…

Council of Chief State School Officers, 2013

2013-01-01

498

Next-Generation Assessments Aligned to the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through the Common Core State Standards and the development of new assessments aligned to the standards, the public education system is undergoing a transformation--and administrators can help make this vision a reality. Today, more than 45 states and the District of Columbia have adopted the Common Core State Standards. The standards, however,…

Willhoft, Joseph L.

2012-01-01

499

Common Core Standards: The New U.S. Intended Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Common Core standards released in 2010 for English language arts and mathematics have already been adopted by dozens of states. Just how much change do these new standards represent, and what is the nature of that change? In this article, the Common Core standards are compared with current state standards and assessments and with standards in top-performing countries, as

Andrew Porter; Jennifer McMaken; Jun Hwang; Rui Yang

2011-01-01

500

How the Common Core Boosts Quality and Equality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The adoption of the Common Core State Standards by 46 states and the District of Columbia represents a dramatic departure in U.S. education. In the past, national efforts to improve education have been directed by the federal government and have emphasized resources or organizational structure. In contrast, the Common Core State Standards in math…

Schmidt, William H.; Burroughs, Nathan A.

2013-01-01