Science.gov

Sample records for common warthog phacochoerus

  1. ANTEMORTEM DIAGNOSIS OF CYSTIC ENDOMETRIAL HYPERPLASIA AND SUCCESSFUL OVARIOHYSTERECTOMY IN AN AFRICAN WARTHOG (PHACOCHOERUS AFRICANUS).

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kimberly A; Niehaus, Andrew; Shellabarger, Wynona; Depenbrock, Sarah; Agnew, Dalen

    2015-12-01

    During a routine geriatric examination on a 9-yr-old, nulliparous female African warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), a severely enlarged, mixed echogenicity uterus was discovered during transabdominal ultrasound. Ovariohysterectomy (OVH) was elected and performed due to concern for a potential neoplastic condition. Postoperatively, the warthog was treated prophylactically with metoclopramide and ranitidine to promote gastrointestinal motility and prevent postoperative ileus. The gross appearance and histopathology confirmed the presence of extensive widely disseminated cystic changes consistent with cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) and multiple para-ovarian cysts. Uterine pathology, including CEH, is a common condition in domestic potbellied pigs (Sus scrofa), and as a result, it is recommended to perform an OVH at an early age. The advanced uterine changes may have accounted for this animal's history of infertility. This case provides evidence that nulliparity may be associated with the development of uterine pathology in warthogs. Increased knowledge of reproductive pathology will aid in improved management strategies for breeding nondomestic suids. PMID:26667548

  2. Application of Rapid Serologic Tests for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Free-Ranging Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus)-Implications for Antemortem Disease Screening.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele; Buss, Peter; de Klerk-Lorist, Lin-Mari; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Hausler, Guy; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Lane, Emily P; Botha, Louise; Parsons, Sven; van Helden, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) have been implicated as potential maintenance hosts of Mycobacterium bovis. Our preliminary investigation of bovine tuberculosis in three warthogs describes pathologic findings and associated positive serologic results in two infected animals. This demonstrates the potential use of serodiagnostic tests for M. bovis infection in this species. PMID:26555104

  3. Comparative analyses of the chemical and sensory parameters and consumer preference of a semi-dried smoked meat product (cabanossi) produced with warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) and domestic pork meat.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, Monlee; Leslie, Alison J; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2016-04-01

    The study compared the chemical and sensory characteristics and consumer preference of a semi-dried, cured meat product, cabanossi, produced with warthog meat and with domestic pork. The warthog and pork cabanossi had similar total moisture (59.0%±2.07 and 54.3%±1.26) and protein (26.3%±2.20 and 24.2%±2.15) contents, while the warthog cabanossi was lower in total fat content (6.9%±1.01) compared to pork cabanossi (13.7%±1.77, P=0.007). Descriptive sensory analysis found that the warthog cabanossi appeared darker red (P=0.001) and less fatty (P=0.001), while the pork cabanossi had a higher overall pork flavour (P=0.001). There were no differences in consumer preference of the appearance and taste between the two types of cabanossi, while the majority of consumers (91%) supported the use of game meat in meat products. The study concluded that warthog meat can be used in processed products without compromising the associated technical or organoleptic properties. PMID:26771142

  4. Artificial Warthog Burrows Used to Sample Adult and Immature Tsetse (Glossina spp) in the Zambezi Valley of Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Hargrove, John W.; Muzari, M. Odwell

    2015-01-01

    Background The biology of adult tsetse (Glossina spp), vectors of trypanosomiasis in Africa, has been extensively studied but little is known about larviposition in the field. Methodology/Principal Findings In September-November 1998, in the hot-dry season in Zimbabwes Zambezi Valley, we used artificial warthog burrows to capture adult females as they deposited larvae. Females were subjected to ovarian dissection and were defined as perinatal flies, assumed to have entered burrows to larviposit, if oocyte sizes indicated >95% pregnancy completion. Perinatal flies were defined as full-term pregnant if there was a late third instar larva in utero, or postpartum if the uterus was empty. All other females were defined as pre-full-term pregnant (pre-FT). Of 845 G. m. morsitans captured, 91% (765) were female and 295/724 (41%) of females dissected were perinatal flies. By contrast, of 2805 G. pallidipes captured only 71% (2003) were female and only 33% (596/1825) of females were perinatal. Among all perinatal females 67% (596/891) were G. pallidipes. Conversely, in burrows not fitted with traps such that flies were free to come and go 1834 (59%) of pupae deposited were G. m. morsitans and only 1297 (41%) were G. pallidipes. Thus, while more full-term pregnant G. pallidipes enter burrows, greater proportions of G. m. morsitans larviposit in them, reflecting a greater discrimination among G. pallidipes in choosing larviposition sites. Catches of males and pre-FT females increased strongly with temperatures above 32C, indicating that these flies used burrows as refuges from high ambient temperatures. Conversely, catches of perinatal females changed little with maximum temperature but declined from late September through November: females may anticipate that burrows will be inundated during the forthcoming wet season. Ovarian age distributions of perinatal and pre-FT females were similar, consistent with all ages of females larvipositing in burrows with similar probability. Conclusions/Significance Artificial warthog burrows provide a novel method for collecting tsetse pupae, studying tsetse behaviour at larviposition, assessing the physiological status of female tsetse and their larvae, and of improving understanding of the physiological dynamics of terminal pregnancy, and population dynamics generally, with a view to improving methods of trypanosomiasis control. PMID:25786253

  5. Common Space, Common Time, Common Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Melody J.

    2005-01-01

    The most valued means of support and learning cited by new teachers at Poland Regional High School in rural Maine are the collegial interactions that common workspace, common planning time, and common tasks make possible. The school has used these everyday structures to enable new and veteran teachers to converse about curricular and pedagogical

  6. Common Cold

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  7. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  8. Commons Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, William E.; Tyler, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    Explains how a commons area can serve both the school and community by becoming a cost-effective, space-saving asset to the school building. Examines the commons area as a place for interaction; discusses subdividing it into smaller functional units, locating it, and related lighting and heating issues. (GR)

  9. Common cold

    MedlinePLUS

    The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. You may also have a sore throat, ... It is called the common cold for good reason. There are over one billion colds in the United States each year. You and your children will ...

  10. Common Chuckwalla

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Common Chuckwalla is primarily found across the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the United States and Mexico, at elevations ranging from sea level to 1,370 m. This large (125–180 mm) lizard is dorsoventrally flattened and has wrinkles on its belly and neck. Chuckwallas are strongly associa...

  11. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any

  12. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.

  13. Migraine and Common Morbidities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... headaches . Home > Migraine and Common Morbidities Print Email Migraine and Common Morbidities ACHE Newsletter Sign up for ... newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Migraine and Common Morbidities For many patients, migraine is ...

  14. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  15. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,

  16. How Common Is the Common Core?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,

  17. Knowledge representation for commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, Dorian P.

    1990-01-01

    Domain-specific knowledge necessary for commonality analysis falls into two general classes: commonality constraints and costing information. Notations for encoding such knowledge should be powerful and flexible and should appeal to the domain expert. The notations employed by the Commonality Analysis Problem Solver (CAPS) analysis tool are described. Examples are given to illustrate the main concepts.

  18. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    MedlinePLUS

    ← Close All breastfeeding topics Breastfeeding benefits: Why breastfeeding is important Learning to breastfeed: Learning to breastfeed Making breastmilk Finding breastfeeding support and information Breastfeeding challenges: Common ...

  19. Conceptualizing an Information Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Concepts from Strategic Alignment, a technology-management theory, are used to discuss the Information Commons as a new service-delivery model in academic libraries. The Information Commons, as a conceptual, physical, and instructional space, involves an organizational realignment from print to the digital environment. (Author)

  20. Campus Common Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Gordon Morris

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the legal principle of common law as it applies to the personnel policies of colleges and universities in an attempt to define the parameters of campus common law and to clarify its relationship to written university policies and relevant state laws. (JG)

  1. Radiomarked Common Loon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A juvenile common loon wearing a satellite transmitter antenna follows an adult. USGS scientists and partners captured and radiomarked juvenile common loons on lakes scattered across Minnesota and Wisconsin during the last two weeks of August 2014 to track their movements and wintering ground...

  2. Scientist Releases Common Loon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    As part of a cooperative project, scientists with the USGS and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources tagged common loons in north central Wisconsin to study the distribution and migration movements, as well as foraging patterns and depth profiles of common loons equipped with archiv...

  3. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  4. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:May 29,2014 Cholesterol can be both ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  5. Common Conditions in Newborns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Common ...

  6. Common Cancer Types

    Cancer.gov

    This list of common cancer types includes cancers that are diagnosed with the greatest frequency in the United States; provides most recent incidence and mortality statistics for these cancers. A brief description of page content that should include keywo

  7. Frontotemporal Disorders: Common Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 23 MB) Order Share this: ​ Table of Contents Introduction The Basics of Frontotemporal Disorders Types of Frontotemporal Disorders Causes Diagnosis Common Symptoms Treatment and Management Caring for a Person with a Frontotemporal Disorder ...

  8. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,

  9. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 5 Ways to Prepare for an Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions ... might be linked to other conditions, such as cerebral palsy, muscle weakness disorders, autism, or other nervous system ...

  10. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  11. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  12. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening criteria (availability, environmental compatibility, mass competitiveness of energy storage, safety, and practicality for the application) were used to define concept applicability for each lunar and Mars application. A screening study resulted in 13 power systems for lunar applications and 15 for Mars applications. A commonality analysis showed several power systems with potentially high commonality (across both lunar and Mars applications). These high commonality systems include d PVA/RFC, dynamic isotope (1033 K Stirling, 1133 K Brayton, and 1300 K Brayton PCU's), SP-100 TE and dynamic derivatives (Mars systems required vacuum enclosure), in-core thermionic reactor, and liquid metal cooled reactor/Stirling cycle (1033 K). The generic commonality results were used to synthesize 3 high commonality power system architectures: (1) predominantly PV (limited nuclear and isotope), (2) predominantly in-core thermionic reactor/DIPS, and (3) predominantly SP-100 reactor/DIPS. The in-core thermionic reactor/DIPS power system architecture had the lowest total mass. Specific outputs from this study included lists of power system requirements, power system candidates, a power system application matrix, power system characteristics (mass), power system commonality ratings, example high commonality power system architectures, architecture masses, and issues/design solutions for lunar/Mars commonality.

  13. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  14. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  15. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  16. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  17. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current

  18. Information Commons to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Marc Dewey

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the

  19. Common Standards for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

  20. COMMON LISP: The language

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, G.L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This book describes COMMON LISP,which is becoming the industry and government standard AI language. Topics covered include the following: data types; scope and extent; type specifiers; program structure; predicates; control structure; macros; declarations; symbols; packages; numbers; characters; sequences; lists; hash tables; arrays; strings; structures; the evaluator; streams; input/output; file system interface; and errors.

  1. Finding the Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Dawn

    1980-01-01

    Describes an attempt to combine secondary English instruction emphasizing United States literature with science and history by finding "common ground" between these disciplines in (1) the separation of truth from falsehood and (2) logical thinking. Biographies combined history and literature, and science fiction combined science and English;

  2. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  3. Information Commons to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Marc Dewey

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

  4. Math, Literacy, & Common Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Nearly every state has signed on to use the Common Core State Standards as a framework for teaching English/language arts and mathematics to students. Translating them for the classroom, however, requires schools, teachers, and students to change the way they approach teaching and learning. This report examines the progress some states have made

  5. Common anorectal problems.

    PubMed

    Stites, Thomas; Lund, Dennis P

    2007-02-01

    Children, just as adults, have a variety of common anorectal problems that can be quite bothersome. The presentation of these problems may be age-specific. Abscesses, fistulas, and fissures appear more commonly in infants and young children, whereas hemorrhoids and pilonidal disease are more common in teens and young adults. Fissures often can be treated medically but may require surgical treatment with lateral internal sphincterotomy. Abscesses and fistulas are common in infant males, especially robust infants who are breastfed. They may resolve with medical therapy but anal fistulotomy is not infrequently required. Hemorrhoids are rare in young children but may be an issue for teenagers. Acute symptomatic lesions may require excision if local measures cannot control the symptoms. Finally, pilonidal disease is a difficult problem for the patient and the surgeon. Persistently symptomatic lesions demand some type of surgical treatment but wound healing is poor in the intergluteal cleft region. More extensive procedures requiring the transfer of fasciocutaneous flaps may be necessary to provide definitive relief. Anorectal problems in infants and children are frequent and bothersome. Although most are not associated with tremendous morbidity, they can lead to much patient and parent anxiety as well as frequent medical consultation until the problem is successfully treated or resolves. PMID:17210486

  6. The Common Denominator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Nikki

    2005-01-01

    An author and a poet Nikki Grimes uses her art to reach across differences such as race and culture, and show the commonality of human experience. She uses the power of her poetry to break down racial barriers, shatter cultural stereotypes, and forge community.

  7. Pleasure: the common currency.

    PubMed

    Cabanac, M

    1992-03-21

    At present as physiologists studying various homeostatic behaviors, such as thermoregulatory behavior and food and fluid intake, we have no common currency that allows us to equate the strength of the motivational drive that accompanies each regulatory need, in terms of how an animal or a person will choose to satisfy his needs when there is a conflict between two or more of them. Yet the behaving organism must rank his priorities and needs a common currency to achieve the ranking (McFarland & Sibly, 1975, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 270 Biol 265-293). A theory is proposed here according to which pleasure is this common currency. The perception of pleasure, as measured operationally and quantitatively by choice behavior (in the case of animals), or by the rating of the intensity of pleasure or displeasure (in the case of humans) can serve as such a common currency. The tradeoffs between various motivations would thus be accomplished by simple maximization of pleasure. In what follows, the scientific work arising recently on this subject, with be reviewed briefly and our recent experimental findings will be presented. This will serve as the support for the theoretical position formulated in this essay. PMID:12240693

  8. Common Standards for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the

  9. Navagating the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a debate over the Common Core State Standards Initiative as it has rocketed to the forefront of education policy discussions around the country. The author contends that there is value in having clear cross state standards that will clarify the new online and blended learning that the growing use of technology has provided

  10. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  11. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational

  12. A Language in Common.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1963

    This collection of articles reprinted from the "London Times Literary Supplement" indicates the flexibility of English as a common literary language in its widespread use outside the United States and England. Major articles present the thesis that English provides an artistic medium which is enriched through colloquial idioms in the West Indies

  13. Common Privacy Myths

    MedlinePLUS

    + - START A PHR HEALTH LITERACY TOOLS + RESOURCES BLOG FAQ Accessing Your Health Records Common Privacy Myths Your Privacy Rights What is a PHR? Information ... Create a PHR Choose a PHR What is Health Literacy? Understanding Your Medical Record Glossary of Terms Health ...

  14. Common medical pains

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Pain in infancy and childhood is extremely common. Sources of pain include illness, injury, and medical and dental procedures. Over the past two decades, tremendous progress has been made in the assessment, prevention and treatment of pain. It is important for the paediatric health care provider to be aware of the implications and consequences of pain in childhood. A multitude of interventions are available to reduce or alleviate pain in children of all ages, including neonates. These include behavioural and psychological methods, as well as a host of pharmacological preparations, which are safe and effective when used as indicated. Many complementary and alternative treatments appear to be promising in treating and relieving pain, although further research is required. The present article reviews the most common sources of pain in childhood and infancy, as well as current treatment strategies and options. PMID:19030348

  15. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Mark

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational contexts. This leads students, in my experience, to frequently and erroneously attribute magnetic poles based on geometric associations rather than actual observed behavior. This polarity discrepancy can provide teachers the opportunity to engage students in authentic inquiry about objects in their daily experiences. I've found that investigation of the magnetic polarities of common magnets provides a productive context for students in which to develop valuable and authentic scientific inquiry practices.

  16. Common tester platform concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  17. Common drive unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

  18. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  19. Common Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  20. Common Geometry Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-01-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and onmore » top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also indudes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.« less

  1. 'Historicising common sense'.

    PubMed

    Millstone, Noah

    2012-12-01

    This essay is an expanded set of comments on the social psychology papers written for the special issue on History and Social Psychology. It considers what social psychology, and particularly the theory of social representations, might offer historians working on similar problems, and what historical methods might offer social psychology. The social history of thinking has been a major theme in twentieth and twenty-first century historical writing, represented most recently by the genre of 'cultural history'. Cultural history and the theory of social representations have common ancestors in early twentieth-century social science. Nevertheless, the two lines of research have developed in different ways and are better seen as complementary than similar. The theory of social representations usefully foregrounds issues, like social division and change over time, that cultural history relegates to the background. But for historians, the theory of social representations seems oddly fixated on comparing the thought styles associated with positivist science and 'common sense'. Using historical analysis, this essay tries to dissect the core opposition 'science : common sense' and argues for a more flexible approach to comparing modes of thought. PMID:23135802

  2. Common HEP UNIX Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddei, Arnaud

    After it had been decided to design a common user environment for UNIX platforms among HEP laboratories, a joint project between DESY and CERN had been started. The project consists in 2 phases: 1. Provide a common user environment at shell level, 2. Provide a common user environment at graphical level (X11). Phase 1 is in production at DESY and at CERN as well as at PISA and RAL. It has been developed around the scripts originally designed at DESY Zeuthen improved and extended with a 2 months project at CERN with a contribution from DESY Hamburg. It consists of a set of files which are customizing the environment for the 6 main shells (sh, csh, ksh, bash, tcsh, zsh) on the main platforms (AIX, HP-UX, IRIX, SunOS, Solaris 2, OSF/1, ULTRIX, etc.) and it is divided at several "sociological" levels: HEP, site, machine, cluster, group of users and user with some levels which are optional. The second phase is under design and a first proposal has been published. A first version of the phase 2 exists already for AIX and Solaris, and it should be available for all other platforms, by the time of the conference. This is a major collective work between several HEP laboratories involved in the HEPiX-scripts and HEPiX-X11 working-groups.

  3. Common pediatric foot dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Guenst, B J

    1999-01-01

    The pediatric foot dermatoses known as tinea pedis, shoe dermatitis, and juvenile plantar dermatosis are seen commonly in clinical practice. A knowledge of the clinical presentations and causes of these disorders can help pediatric and family nurse practitioners identify, diagnose, and treat childhood rashes of the feet. The conventional view in pediatrics is that small children rarely have tinea pedis. However, a 1992 study disputes this claim. Any child who has an atypical or persistent foot rash will need a referral or consultation. PMID:10382467

  4. Conservation challenge: human-herbivore conflict in Chebera Churchura National Park, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Datiko, Demeke; Bekele, Afework

    2013-12-01

    An investigation on human-herbivore conflict was carried out in CCNP between 2011 and 2012 in seven randomly selected villages (Chebera, Serri, Yora, Shita, Delba, Chuchra, Chewda) around the Park. A total of 312 household samples were identified for interview. Group discussion and field observation were also carried out. Among the respondents, the majority (83.9%) faced crop damage. African elephant (Loxodonta africana), Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibious), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), Desert warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), Wild pig (Sus scrofa), Porcupine (Hystrix cristata), Vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) and Anubis baboon (Papio anubis) were identified as the most problematic animals in the area. However, buffalo, monkey and warthog were considered as the notorious pest. Crop damage and threats to human safety were the major problems encountered resulting in conflict between human and wildlife. Most respondents had a negative attitude towards the problem-posing animals. This will lead to a change in public attitude from one that supports wildlife conservation to sees wild herbivores as a threat and a potential negative consequence for wildlife conservation. Active measures have to be implemented to solve the problems and safeguard the future of the wildlife management in the park. PMID:24506044

  5. Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Biman; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency of young adolescents and adults which also affects the children. The disease remains largely under-diagnosed in India and Southeast Asian countries. Although in majority of cases it is sporadic, disease may be inherited in a autosomal recessive pattern and rarely, in autosomal dominant pattern. Patients, in addition to frequent sino-pulmonary infections, are also susceptible to various autoimmune diseases and malignancy, predominantly lymphoma and leukemia. Other characteristic lesions include lymphocytic and granulomatous interstitial lung disease, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of gut. Diagnosis requires reduced levels of atleast two immunoglobulin isotypes: IgG with IgA and/or IgM and impaired specific antibody response to vaccines. A number of gene mutations have been described in CVID; however, these genetic alterations account for less than 20 % of cases of CVID. Flow cytometry aptly demonstrates a disturbed B cell homeostasis with reduced or absent memory B cells and increased CD21(low) B cells and transitional B cell populations. Approximately one-third of patients with CVID also display T cell functional defects. Immunoglobulin therapy remains the mainstay of treatment. Immunologists and other clinicians in India and other South East Asian countries need to be aware of CVID so that early diagnosis can be made, as currently, majority of these patients still go undiagnosed. PMID:26868026

  6. Common Polymorphisms in Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Michael S.; DAmato, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of diseases have a significant genetic component, including major causes of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Many of these diseases are also angiogenesis dependent. In humans, common polymorphisms, although more subtle in effect than rare mutations that cause Mendelian disease, are expected to have greater overall effects on human disease. Thus, common polymorphisms in angiogenesis-regulating genes may affect the response to an angiogenic stimulus and thereby affect susceptibility to or progression of such diseases. Candidate gene studies have identified several associations between angiogenesis gene polymorphisms and disease. Similarly, emerging pharmacogenomic evidence indicates that several angiogenesis-regulating polymorphisms may predict response to therapy. In contrast, genome-wide association studies have identified only a few risk alleles in obvious angiogenesis genes. As in other traits, regulatory polymorphisms appear to dominate the landscape of angiogenic responsiveness. Rodent assays, including the mouse corneal micropocket assay, tumor models, and a macular degeneration model have allowed the identification and comparison of loci that directly affect the trait. Complementarity between human and animal approaches will allow increased understanding of the genetic basis for angiogenesis-dependent disease. PMID:23125197

  7. Common pediatric epilepsy syndromes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun T; Shahid, Asim M; Jammoul, Adham

    2015-02-01

    Benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE), childhood idiopathic occipital epilepsy (CIOE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are some of the common epilepsy syndromes in the pediatric age group. Among the four, BRE is the most commonly encountered. BRE remits by age 16 years with many children requiring no treatment. Seizures in CAE also remit at the rate of approximately 80%; whereas, JME is considered a lifelong condition even with the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Neonates and infants may also present with seizures that are self-limited with no associated psychomotor disturbances. Benign familial neonatal convulsions caused by a channelopathy, and inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, have a favorable outcome with spontaneous resolution. Benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, also referred to as "fifth-day fits," are an example of another epilepsy syndrome in infants that carries a good prognosis. BRE, CIOE, benign familial neonatal convulsions, benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, and benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy are characterized as "benign" idiopathic age-related epilepsies as they have favorable implications, no structural brain abnormality, are sensitive to AEDs, have a high remission rate, and have no associated psychomotor disturbances. However, sometimes selected patients may have associated comorbidities such as cognitive and language delay for which the term "benign" may not be appropriate. PMID:25658216

  8. Mapping Common Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Carlos; Krueger, Robert F.; Hasin, Deborah S.; Liu, Shang-Min; Wang, Shuai; Kerridge, Bradley T.; Saha, Tulshi; Olfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Context Clinical experience and factor analytic studies suggest that some psychiatric disorders may be more closely related to one another, as indicated by the frequency of their co-occurrence, which may have etiologic and treatment implications. Objective To construct a virtual space of common psychiatric disorders, spanned by factors reflecting major psychopathologic dimensions, and locate psychiatric disorders in that space, as well as to examine whether the location of disorders at baseline predicts the prevalence and incidence of disorders at 3-year follow-up. Design, Setting, and Patients A total of 34 653 individuals participated in waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Main Outcome Measures The distance between disorders at wave 1, calculated using the loadings of the factors spanning the space of disorders as coordinates. This distance was correlated with the adjusted odds ratios for age, sex, and race/ethnicity of the prevalence and incidence of Axis I disorders in wave 2, with the aim of determining whether smaller distances between disorders at wave 1 predicts higher disorder prevalence and incidence at wave 2. Results A model with 3 correlated factors provided an excellent fit (Comparative Fit Index = 0.99, Tucker-Lewis Index=0.98, root mean square error of approximation=0.008) for the structure of common psychiatric disorders and was used to span the space of disorders. Distances ranged from 0.070 (between drug abuse and dysthymia) to 1.032 (between drug abuse and avoidant personality disorder). The correlation of distance between disorders in wave 1 with adjusted odds ratios of prevalence in wave 2 was ?0.56. The correlation of distance in wave 1 with adjusted odds ratios of incidence in wave 2 was ?0.57. Conclusions Mapping psychiatric disorders can be used to quantify the distances among disorders. Proximity in turn can be used to predict prospectively the incidence and prevalence of Axis I disorders. PMID:23266570

  9. System Safety Common Cause Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-03-10

    The COMCAN fault tree analysis codes are designed to analyze complex systems such as nuclear plants for common causes of failure. A common cause event, or common mode failure, is a secondary cause that could contribute to the failure of more than one component and violates the assumption of independence. Analysis of such events is an integral part of system reliability and safety analysis. A significant common cause event is a secondary cause common tomore » all basic events in one or more minimal cut sets. Minimal cut sets containing events from components sharing a common location or a common link are called common cause candidates. Components share a common location if no barrier insulates any one of them from the secondary cause. A common link is a dependency among components which cannot be removed by a physical barrier (e.g.,a common energy source or common maintenance instructions).« less

  10. Common Control System Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the control system processes and functions. With the detailed knowledge of how the control data functions, as well as what computers and devices communicate using this data, the attacker can use a well known Man-in-the-Middle attack to perform malicious operations virtually undetected. The control systems assessment teams have used this method to gather enough information about the system to craft an attack that intercepts and changes the information flow between the end devices (controllers) and the human machine interface (HMI and/or workstation). Using this attack, the cyber assessment team has been able to demonstrate complete manipulation of devices in control systems while simultaneously modifying the data flowing back to the operator's console to give false information of the state of the system (known as ''spoofing''). This is a very effective technique for a control system attack because it allows the attacker to manipulate the system and the operator's situational awareness of the perceived system status. The three main elements of this attack technique are: (1) network reconnaissance and data gathering, (2) reverse engineering, and (3) the Man-in-the-Middle attack. The details of this attack technique and the mitigation techniques are discussed.

  11. Common surgery, uncommon complication

    PubMed Central

    Akdeniz, Hande; Ozer, Kadri; Dikmen, Adile; Kocer, Uger

    2015-01-01

    Ingrown nail surgery is the one of the most common surgeries in outpatient clinics that are generally perfomed in response to patient complaints. Still, making simple observations, taking patient histories and conducting further tests are often neglected by outpatient clinics. Consequently, it is important to be aware if ingrown nail is associated with any underlying diseases that can lead to major complications. In this article, we report on two cases ending in amputation that were performed with Winograd’s partial matrix excision procedure for ingrown nails. Such a complication is rare, unexpected, and most unwanted in forefoot surgery. After a detailed analysis of the situation, we discovered that both patients were smokers, and one of them had Buerger’s disease. These conditions led to the ingrown nails in addition to poor wound healing. This case report emphasizes the fact that even when performing minor procedures, obtaining a detailed history and conducting an examination are of paramount importance. Patient selection is also a considerable factor, especially for patients who are smokers, who may experience a worst case surgical scenario. PMID:26693080

  12. Common gastrointestinal symptoms: dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Fashner, Julia; Gitu, Alfred Chege

    2013-10-01

    Swallowing occurs in 3 phases: oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal. Oropharyngeal dysphagia typically is a result of neuromuscular disorders, such as stroke and parkinsonism, or of mucosal dryness caused by drugs or radiation therapy. Esophageal dysphagia is commonly caused by anatomic defects of the esophagus, such as reflux disease; motility disorders, such as achalasia; or eosinophilic esophagitis. If oropharyngeal dysphagia is suspected, the patient should undergo initial testing with a water or semisolid bolus swallow test. If results are positive, the diagnosis can be confirmed with a videofluoroscopic swallowing study. If esophageal dysphagia is suspected, patients typically undergo endoscopic esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Management of confirmed oropharyngeal dysphagia involves short-term compensation strategies, such as postural changes or food thickening, to minimize the risk of aspiration. This is followed by rehabilitation that may involve swallowing exercises with biofeedback or electrical stimulation of the swallowing muscles. Some patients may need enteral feeding. For esophageal dysphagia, choice of management depends on the etiology; it may include endoscopic dilation, myotomy, injection of onabotulinumtoxinA (formerly called botulinum toxin type A) for structural abnormalities, or topical steroid therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:24124702

  13. Common surgery, uncommon complication.

    PubMed

    Akdeniz, Hande; Ozer, Kadri; Dikmen, Adile; Kocer, Uger

    2015-10-01

    Ingrown nail surgery is the one of the most common surgeries in outpatient clinics that are generally perfomed in response to patient complaints. Still, making simple observations, taking patient histories and conducting further tests are often neglected by outpatient clinics. Consequently, it is important to be aware if ingrown nail is associated with any underlying diseases that can lead to major complications. In this article, we report on two cases ending in amputation that were performed with Winograd's partial matrix excision procedure for ingrown nails. Such a complication is rare, unexpected, and most unwanted in forefoot surgery. After a detailed analysis of the situation, we discovered that both patients were smokers, and one of them had Buerger's disease. These conditions led to the ingrown nails in addition to poor wound healing. This case report emphasizes the fact that even when performing minor procedures, obtaining a detailed history and conducting an examination are of paramount importance. Patient selection is also a considerable factor, especially for patients who are smokers, who may experience a worst case surgical scenario. PMID:26693080

  14. COMMON ENVELOPE: ENTHALPY CONSIDERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, N.; Chaichenets, S.

    2011-04-20

    In this Letter, we discuss a modification to the criterion for the common envelope (CE) event to result in envelope dispersion. We emphasize that the current energy criterion for the CE phase is not sufficient for an instability of the CE, nor for an ejection. However, in some cases, stellar envelopes undergo stationary mass outflows, which are likely to occur during the slow spiral-in stage of the CE event. We propose the condition for such outflows, in a manner similar to the currently standard {alpha}{sub CE}{lambda}-prescription but with an addition of P/{rho} term in the energy balance equation, accounting therefore for the enthalpy of the envelope rather than merely the gas internal energy. This produces a significant correction, which might help to dispense with an unphysically high value of energy efficiency parameter during the CE phase, currently required in the binary population synthesis studies to make the production of low-mass X-ray binaries with a black hole companion to match the observations.

  15. Cofunctional Subpathways Were Regulated by Transcription Factor with Common Motif, Common Family, or Common Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Shang, Desi; Xu, Yanjun; Feng, Li; Yang, Haixiu; Liu, Baoquan; Su, Shengyang; Chen, Lina; Li, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Dissecting the characteristics of the transcription factor (TF) regulatory subpathway is helpful for understanding the TF underlying regulatory function in complex biological systems. To gain insight into the influence of TFs on their regulatory subpathways, we constructed a global TF-subpathways network (TSN) to analyze systematically the regulatory effect of common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs on subpathways. We performed cluster analysis to show that the common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs that regulated the same pathway classes tended to cluster together and contribute to the same biological function that led to disease initiation and progression. We analyzed the Jaccard coefficient to show that the functional consistency of subpathways regulated by the TF pairs with common motif, common family, or common tissue was significantly greater than the random TF pairs at the subpathway level, pathway level, and pathway class level. For example, HNF4A (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha) and NR1I3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3) were a pair of TFs with common motif, common family, and common tissue. They were involved in drug metabolism pathways and were liver-specific factors required for physiological transcription. In short, we inferred that the cofunctional subpathways were regulated by common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs. PMID:26688819

  16. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  17. Analyzing Commonality In A System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacheco, Alfred; Pool, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    Cost decreased by use of fewer types of parts. System Commonality Analysis Tool (SCAT) computer program designed to aid managers and engineers in identifying common, potentially common, and unique components of system. Incorporates three major functions: program for creation and maintenance of data base, analysis of commonality, and such system utilities as host-operating-system commands and loading and unloading of data base. Produces reports tabulating maintenance, initial configurations, and expected total costs. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  18. Common Core State Standards 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) represent the first time that nearly every state has set common expectations for what students should know and be able to do. In the past, each state set its own standards, and the results varied widely. And while states collectively developed these common standards, decisions about the curriculum and

  19. Leading the Common Core State Standards: From Common Sense to Common Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkle, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    Many educators agree that we already know how to foster student success, so what is keeping common sense from becoming common practice? The author provides step-by-step guidance for overcoming the barriers to adopting the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and achieving equity and excellence for all students. As an experienced teacher and

  20. Breeding Common Bean for resistance to Common Blight: A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common blight {caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli Smith (Dye) is a major bacterial disease causing >40% seed yield and quality losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. Use of resistant cultivars is crucial for its effective, economical, and environment friendly integarated...

  1. Constructing the Commons: Practical Projects To Build the Information Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Daniel R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes several projects aimed at building the Information Commons, including: Knowledge Conservancy plans to create a database of all freely available digitized content; the Universal Library, a project with the long-term goal of providing free, online access to all books; and several projects of the Creative Commons intended to build a robust

  2. How Common is Common Use Facilities at Airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbeau, Addison D.

    This study looked at common use airports across the country and at the implementation of common use facailities at airports. Common use consists of several elements that maybe installed at an airport. One of the elements is the self-service kiosks that allow passengers to have a faster check-in process, therefore moving them more quickly within the airport. Another element is signage and the incorporation of each airline's logo. Another aspect of common useis an airport regaining control of terminal gates by reducing the number of gates that are exclusively leased to a specific air carrier. This research focused on the current state of the common use facilities across the United States and examines the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. The research entailed interviews with personnel at a wide range of airports and found that each airport is in a different stage of implementation; some have fully implemented the common use concept while others are in the beginning stages of implementation. The questions were tailored to determine what the advantages and disadvantages are of a common use facility. The most common advantages reported included flexibility and cost. In the commom use system the airport reserves the right to move any airline to a different gate at any time for any reason. In turn, this helps reduce gates delays at that facility. For the airports that were interviewed no major disadvantages were reported. One down side of common use facilities for the airport involved is the major capital cost that is required to move to a common use system.

  3. Common Pyraloidea species of Dominica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-six adult crambid moths of the superfamily Pyraloidea from Dominica are illustrated and identified. These images are a tool for the identification of large, common species in the Caribbean. The Caribbean is a common entry and pathway of invasive species to southeastern United States....

  4. The Common Denominator of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feder, Hubert C.

    1976-01-01

    The common denominator of learning is conceived as a guideline in organizing the learning material in support of learning continuity. As to its effect, the common denominator is thought of as a habit-forming element in realizing learning as a (continuous) sequence of relative rather than absolute experiences. (Author/HB)

  5. The Common Core Takes Hold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A survey administered in the spring of 2013 by the Center on Education Policy (CEP) inquired into the implementation of Common Core State Standards at that time. Based on self-reports by state officials, the survey found that curricula aligned to the common core were already being taught in at least some districts or grade levels. All states

  6. Common Infant and Newborn Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    It is hard when your baby is sick. Common health problems in babies include colds, coughs, fevers, and vomiting. Babies also commonly have skin problems, like diaper rash or cradle cap. Many of these problems are ... are worried about your baby, call your health care provider right away.

  7. OSTA commonality analysis, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarik, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The 13 OSTA disciplines are examined and the applications being performed under each discipline and the parameter requirements associated with the various applications are identified. It contains a variety of printouts from the commonality database built using DRS on the Vax. It also shows commonality of parameter requirements by discipline and by application.

  8. The Common Core Takes Hold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A survey administered in the spring of 2013 by the Center on Education Policy (CEP) inquired into the implementation of Common Core State Standards at that time. Based on self-reports by state officials, the survey found that curricula aligned to the common core were already being taught in at least some districts or grade levels. All states…

  9. Common injections in musculoskeletal medicine.

    PubMed

    Monseau, Aaron J; Nizran, Parminder Singh

    2013-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injections are a common procedure in primary care and sports medicine but can be intimidating for some clinicians. This article addresses current evidence for corticosteroid injections, and common injection indications and techniques, namely knee, subacromial bursa, glenohumeral joint, lateral epicondyle, de Quervain tenosynovitis, and greater trochanteric bursa injections. Preparation for injections and some evidence for ultrasound guidance are also reviewed. PMID:24209729

  10. Understanding Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Now that the Common Core standards are coming to just about every school, what every school leader needs is a straightforward explanation that lays out the benefits of the Common Core in plain English, provides a succinct overview, and gets everyone thinking about how to transition to this promising new paradigm. This handy, inexpensive booklet

  11. Uncovering common bacterial skin infections.

    PubMed

    Napierkowski, Daria

    2013-03-10

    The four most common bacterial skin infections are impetigo, erysipelas, cellulitis, and folliculitis. This article summarizes current information about the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and implications for primary care practice needed to effectively diagnose and treat common bacterial skin infections. PMID:23361375

  12. Common Disorders of the Pancreas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the Pancreas test Common Disorders of the Pancreas There are a variety of disorders of the ... the NPF Shop at our eStore The National Pancreas Foundation 3 Bethesda Metro Center Suite 700 Bethesda, ...

  13. Muscle Cramp - A Common Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment Becoming a DO Video Library Muscle Cramp – A Common Pain Page Content Has a ... body’s natural tendency toward self-healing. Causes of Muscle Cramps Unfortunately, cramps can occur anywhere, anytime to ...

  14. Common finger fractures and dislocations.

    PubMed

    Borchers, James R; Best, Thomas M

    2012-04-15

    Finger fractures and dislocations are common injuries that are often managed by family physicians. A systematic physical examination is imperative to avoid complications and poor outcomes following these injuries. Radiography (commonly anteroposterior, true lateral, and oblique views) is required in the evaluation of finger fractures and dislocations. Dorsal dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint is the most common type of finger dislocation. Finger dislocations should be reduced as quickly as possible and concurrent soft tissue injuries treated appropriately. Referral to a hand specialist is needed if a dislocation cannot be reduced; is unstable following reduction; or involves significant ligament, tendon, or soft tissue injury. Some common finger fractures can be treated conservatively with appropriate reduction and immobilization. Referral to a hand specialist is required if a fracture is unstable, involves a large portion (greater than 30 percent) of the intra-articular surface, or has significant rotation. PMID:22534390

  15. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  16. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  17. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  19. Common pressure vessel battery performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otzinger, B.

    1978-01-01

    Performance tests run on two common pressure vessel type nickel hydrogen batteries are described and the results presented. The study included: (1) charge retention tests, (2) synchronous eclipse season cycling tests, and (3) temperature differential tests.

  20. Forest commons and local enforcement.

    PubMed

    Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

    2008-09-01

    This article examines the relationship between local enforcement and forests used as commons. It uses a unique multicountry dataset, created over the past 15 years by the International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Program. Drawing on original enforcement and forest commons data from 9 countries, we find that higher levels of local enforcement have a strong and positive but complex relationship to the probability of forest regeneration. This relationship holds even when the influence of a number of other factors such as user group size, subsistence, and commercial importance of forests, size of forest, and collective action for forest improvement activities is taken into account. Although several of the above factors have a statistically significant relationship to changes in the condition of forest commons, differences in levels of local enforcement strongly moderate their link with forest commons outcomes. The research, using data from diverse political, social, and ecological contexts, shows both the importance of enforcement to forest commons and some of the limits of forest governance through commons arrangements. PMID:18768821

  1. Casuistry as common law morality.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    This article elaborates on the relation between ethical casuistry and common law reasoning. Despite the frequent talk of casuistry as common law morality, remarks on this issue largely remain at the purely metaphorical level. The article outlines and scrutinizes Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin's version of casuistry and its basic elements. Drawing lessons for casuistry from common law reasoning, it is argued that one generally has to be faithful to ethical paradigms. There are, however, limitations for the binding force of paradigms. The most important limitations-the possibilities of overruling and distinguishing paradigm norms-are similar in common law and in casuistry, or so it is argued. These limitations explain why casuistry is not necessarily overly conservative and conventional, which is one line of criticism to which casuists can now better respond. Another line of criticism has it that the very reasoning from case to case is extremely unclear in casuistry. I suggest a certain model of analogical reasoning to address this critique. All my suggestions to understand and to enhance casuistry make use of common law reasoning whilst remaining faithful to Jonsen and Toulmin's main ideas and commitments. Further developed along these lines, casuistry can appropriately be called "common law morality." PMID:26576963

  2. Garlic for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions There is insufficient clinical trial evidence regarding the effects of garlic in preventing or treating the common cold. A single trial suggested that garlic may prevent occurrences of the common cold but more studies are needed to validate this finding. Claims of effectiveness appear to rely largely on poor-quality evidence. PMID:25386977

  3. Common Ground: Finding Commonalities in Diverse Musical Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gault, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on teaching commonalities in diverse musical genres. Teachers need to relate the musical activities performed in class to music that students experience in the world around them since they understand music in relation to history and culture. A key to selecting high-quality musical examples is to find music pieces that contain

  4. Surveying the Commons: Current Implementation of Information Commons Web sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeder, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the content of 72 academic library Information Commons (IC) Web sites using content analysis, quantitative assessment and qualitative surveys of site administrators to analyze current implementation by the academic library community. Results show that IC Web sites vary widely in content, design and functionality, with few…

  5. Surveying the Commons: Current Implementation of Information Commons Web sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeder, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the content of 72 academic library Information Commons (IC) Web sites using content analysis, quantitative assessment and qualitative surveys of site administrators to analyze current implementation by the academic library community. Results show that IC Web sites vary widely in content, design and functionality, with few

  6. Creative Commons and Why It Should Be More Commonly Understood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Doug

    2009-01-01

    Authors, videographers, musicians, photographers, and almost anyone who creates materials and makes them publicly available has an alternative to standard copyright licensing: Creative Commons (CC). It is a tool that helps the creator display a licensing mark. The creator can assign a variety of rights for others to use his work--rights that are

  7. Common principles of couple therapy.

    PubMed

    Benson, Lisa A; McGinn, Meghan M; Christensen, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    The similarity in efficacy of evidence-based couple therapies suggests that it may be useful to identify those treatment principles they hold in common. Expanding on the previous description of a unified protocol for couple therapy (Christensen, 2010), this article outlines five common principles: (a) altering the couple's view of the presenting problem to be more objective, contextualized, and dyadic; (b) decreasing emotion-driven, dysfunctional behavior; (c) eliciting emotion-based, avoided, private behavior; (d) increasing constructive communication patterns; and (e) emphasizing strengths and reinforcing gains. For each of these five elements of the unified protocol, the paper addresses how and to what extent the most common forms of evidence-based couple therapy carry out this principle. Implications for clinical practice, treatment research, and basic research on intimate relationships are discussed. PMID:22304876

  8. Governing for the Common Good.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-12-01

    The proper object of global health governance (GHG) should be the common good, ensuring that all people have the opportunity to flourish. A well-organized global society that promotes the common good is to everyone's advantage. Enabling people to flourish includes enabling their ability to be healthy. Thus, we must assess health governance by its effectiveness in enhancing health capabilities. Current GHG fails to support human flourishing, diminishes health capabilities and thus does not serve the common good. The provincial globalism theory of health governance proposes a Global Health Constitution and an accompanying Global Institute of Health and Medicine that together propose to transform health governance. Multiple lines of empirical research suggest that these institutions would be effective, offering the most promising path to a healthier, more just world. PMID:26122555

  9. The last common bilaterian ancestor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, Douglas H.; Davidson, Eric H.

    2002-01-01

    Many regulatory genes appear to be utilized in at least superficially similar ways in the development of particular body parts in Drosophila and in chordates. These similarities have been widely interpreted as functional homologies, producing the conventional view of the last common protostome-deuterostome ancestor (PDA) as a complex organism that possessed some of the same body parts as modern bilaterians. Here we discuss an alternative view, in which the last common PDA had a less complex body plan than is frequently conceived. This reconstruction alters expectations for Neoproterozoic fossil remains that could illustrate the pathways of bilaterian evolution.

  10. The Common Core Math Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurman, Ze'ev; Wilson, W. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    More than 40 states have now signed onto the Common Core standards in English language arts and math, which have been both celebrated as a tremendous advance and criticized as misguided and for bearing the heavy thumbprint of the federal government. This article presents an interview with Ze'ev Wurman and W. Stephen Wilson. Wurman, who was a U.S.…

  11. Technology: Technology and Common Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2004-01-01

    The absence of common sense in the world of technology continues to amaze the author. Things that seem so logical to just aren nott for many people. The installation of Voice-over IP (VoIP, with IP standing for Internet Protocol) in many school districts is a good example. Schools have always had trouble with telephones. Many districts don't even

  12. Common problems in gastrointestinal radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers approximately 70 common diagnostic problems in gastro-intestinal radiology. Each problem, includes a short illustrated case history, a discussion of the radiologic findings, a general discussion of the case, the differential diagnosis, a description of the management of the problem or procedure used, and, where appropriate, the results of the therapy suggested.

  13. Common Core: Victory Is Yours!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Jennifer L. W.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to implement the Common Core State Standards in the classroom. She presents examples and activities that will leave teachers feeling "rosy" about tackling the new standards. She breaks down important benchmarks and shows how other teachers are doing the Core--and loving it!

  14. The Common Core Math Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurman, Ze'ev; Wilson, W. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    More than 40 states have now signed onto the Common Core standards in English language arts and math, which have been both celebrated as a tremendous advance and criticized as misguided and for bearing the heavy thumbprint of the federal government. This article presents an interview with Ze'ev Wurman and W. Stephen Wilson. Wurman, who was a U.S.

  15. Developing the Common Communication Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkinson, Alan

    1986-01-01

    Outlines history of the development of the Unesco Common Communication Format, which is designed to enable exchange of records (monographs, serials, journal articles, contributions in proceedings) between different agencies throughout the world. Highlights include definition of "exchange format," major technical features, and examples of current

  16. Common Practices in Adventure Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, Karl M., Ed.

    The goals of this manual are to raise the level of safety, environmental awareness, and quality in outdoor adventure education, and to encourage the development of skilled, knowledgeable outdoor leaders through the compilation and dissemination of common practices and information. Other goals are to provide information for programs to use as a…

  17. Common Core: Rx for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paige

    2012-01-01

    When David Coleman, one of the authors of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), spoke to New York educators, he stated that over the last forty years 8th grade reading scores have been flat. Despite doubling expenditures on classroom instruction, there has been little growth. Most educators are aware that what worked for the students of the

  18. Common Core: Fact vs. Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Despite students' interest in informational text, it has played second fiddle in literacy instruction for years. Now, though, nonfiction is getting its turn in the spotlight. The Common Core State Standards require that students become thoughtful consumers of complex, informative texts--taking them beyond the realm of dry textbooks and

  19. Leadership in Education: Five Commonalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Marc A.

    2001-01-01

    Reflecting on 43 interviews with eminent educational leaders from all backgrounds and political stripes, the author isolates five common characteristics: a bedrock belief in their work's usefulness, courage to swim upstream on behalf of their beliefs, possession of a social conscience, seriousness of purpose, and situational mastery. (MLH)

  20. Common sleep disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Carter, Kevin A; Hathaway, Nathanael E; Lettieri, Christine F

    2014-03-01

    Up to 50% of children will experience a sleep problem. Early identification of sleep problems may prevent negative consequences, such as daytime sleepiness, irritability, behavioral problems, learning difficulties, motor vehicle crashes in teenagers, and poor academic performance. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs in 1% to 5% of children. Polysomnography is needed to diagnose the condition because it may not be detected through history and physical examination alone. Adenotonsillectomy is the primary treatment for most children with obstructive sleep apnea. Parasomnias are common in childhood; sleepwalking, sleep talking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors tend to occur in the first half of the night, whereas nightmares are more common in the second half of the night. Only 4% of parasomnias will persist past adolescence; thus, the best management is parental reassurance and proper safety measures. Behavioral insomnia of childhood is common and is characterized by a learned inability to fall and/or stay asleep. Management begins with consistent implementation of good sleep hygiene practices, and, in some cases, use of extinction techniques may be appropriate. Delayed sleep phase disorder is most common in adolescence, presenting as difficulty falling asleep and awakening at socially acceptable times. Treatment involves good sleep hygiene and a consistent sleep-wake schedule, with nighttime melatonin and/or morning bright light therapy as needed. Diagnosing restless legs syndrome in children can be difficult; management focuses on trigger avoidance and treatment of iron deficiency, if present. PMID:24695508

  1. The Common Vision. Reviews: Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Marshak's book describing the work of educators Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Aurobindo Ghose, and Inayat Khan. Maintains that the book gives clear, concise information on each educator and presents a common vision for children and their education; also maintains that it gives theoretical and practical information and discusses…

  2. Objectification in Common Sense Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markova, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    In epistemologies of both scientific and common sense thinking "objectification" characterizes the formation of knowledge and concepts, yet in each case its meaning is different. In the former, objectification in acquiring knowledge refers to the individual's rationalistic reification of an object or of another person and to disengagement or

  3. Common Core: Solve Math Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Erich

    2012-01-01

    The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond

  4. Community Commons Program Development Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Kieta Osteen

    Community Commons (CC) is a collaborative partnership among Brevard Community College (BCC) (Florida) and over 40 social service organizations and agencies in Florida dedicated to providing education, job training, social services, recreation, and a drug free environment to communities of low income families. The project specifically seeks to

  5. Common Issues in Professional Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janosik, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    Most conversations about ethics and professional behavior involve case studies and hypothetical situations. This study identifies and examines the most common concerns in professional behavior as reported by 303 student affairs practitioners in the field. Differences by gender, years of experience, organizational level, institutional type, and

  6. Treatment of the common cold.

    PubMed

    Simasek, Madeline; Blandino, David A

    2007-02-15

    The common cold is a viral illness that affects persons of all ages, prompting frequent use of over-the-counter and prescription medications and alternative remedies. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms (e.g., cough, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea). Dextromethorphan may be beneficial in adults with cough, but its effectiveness has not been demonstrated in children and adolescents. Codeine has not been shown to effectively treat cough caused by the common cold. Although hydrocodone is widely used and has been shown to effectively treat cough caused by other conditions, the drug has not been studied in patients with colds. Topical (intranasal) and oral nasal decongestants have been shown to relieve nasal symptoms and can be used in adolescents and adults for up to three days. Antihistamines and combination antihistamine/decongestant therapies can modestly improve symptoms in adults; however, the benefits must be weighed against potential side effects. Newer nonsedating antihistamines are ineffective against cough. Topical ipratropium, a prescription anticholinergic, relieves nasal symptoms in older children and adults. Antibiotics have not been shown to improve symptoms or shorten illness duration. Complementary and alternative therapies (i.e., Echinacea, vitamin C, and zinc) are not recommended for treating common cold symptoms; however, humidified air and fluid intake may be useful without adverse side effects. Vitamin C prophylaxis may modestly reduce the duration and severity of the common cold in the general population and may reduce the incidence of the illness in persons exposed to physical and environmental stresses. PMID:17323712

  7. Common sense and the common morality in theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Daly, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The unfinished nature of Beauchamp and Childress's account of the common morality after 34 years and seven editions raises questions about what is lacking, specifically in the way they carry out their project, more generally in the presuppositions of the classical liberal tradition on which they rely. Their wide-ranging review of ethical theories has not provided a method by which to move beyond a hypothetical approach to justification or, on a practical level regarding values conflict, beyond a questionable appeal to consensus. My major purpose in this paper is to introduce the thought of Bernard Lonergan as offering a way toward such a methodological breakthrough. In the first section, I consider Beauchamp and Childress's defense of their theory of the common morality. In the second, I relate a persisting vacillation in their argument regarding the relative importance of reason and experience to a similar tension in classical liberal theory. In the third, I consider aspects of Lonergan's generalized empirical method as a way to address problems that surface in the first two sections of the paper: (1) the structural relation of reason and experience in human action; and (2) the importance of theory for practice in terms of what Lonergan calls "common sense" and "general bias." PMID:24526573

  8. George Combe and common sense.

    PubMed

    Dyde, Sean

    2015-06-01

    This article examines the history of two fields of enquiry in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Scotland: the rise and fall of the common sense school of philosophy and phrenology as presented in the works of George Combe. Although many previous historians have construed these histories as separate, indeed sometimes incommensurate, I propose that their paths were intertwined to a greater extent than has previously been given credit. The philosophy of common sense was a response to problems raised by Enlightenment thinkers, particularly David Hume, and spurred a theory of the mind and its mode of study. In order to succeed, or even to be considered a rival of these established understandings, phrenologists adapted their arguments for the sake of engaging in philosophical dispute. I argue that this debate contributed to the relative success of these groups: phrenology as a well-known historical subject, common sense now largely forgotten. Moreover, this history seeks to question the place of phrenology within the sciences of mind in nineteenth-century Britain. PMID:25921681

  9. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-10-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

  10. The Common Geometry Module (CGM).

    SciTech Connect

    Tautges, Timothy James

    2004-12-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also includes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  11. More Common Than You Think: Common Variable Immune Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Resar, Danielle F.; Resar, Linda M. S.

    2013-01-01

    We report a challenging case of a 16-year-old male who presented with thrombocytopenia and eluded a definitive diagnosis for over 2 years. He was initially diagnosed with a viral illness, although he later developed adenopathy and splenomegaly. An evaluation by an oncologist was unrevealing. He worked on a farm with livestock exposure and was later diagnosed with an atypical, zoonotic infection. Despite appropriate antibiotic therapy, the thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly persisted. Further evaluation revealed that he has a relatively common immunologic disorder. He is currently doing well on appropriate therapy for this disorder. PMID:24381771

  12. Common Rail Injection System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Electro-Motive,

    2005-12-30

    The collaborative research program between the Department of energy and Electro-Motive Diesels, Inc. on the development of common rail fuel injection system for locomotive diesel engines that can meet US EPA Tier 2 exhaust emissions has been completed. This final report summarizes the objectives of the program, work scope, key accomplishments and research findings. The major objectives of this project encompassed identification of appropriate injection strategies by using advanced analytical tools, development of required prototype hardware/controls, investigations of fuel spray characteristics including cavitation phenomena, and validation of hareware using a single-cylinder research locomotive diesel engine. Major milestones included: (1) a detailed modeling study using advanced mathematical models - several various injection profiles that show simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulates on a four stroke-cycle locomotive diesel engine were identified; (2) development of new common rail fuel injection hardware capable of providing these injection profiles while meeting EMD engine and injection performance specifications. This hardware was developed together with EMD's current fuel injection component supplier. (3) Analysis of fuel spray characteristics. Fuel spray numerical studies and high speed photographic imaging analyses were performed. (4) Validation of new hardware and fuel injection profiles. EMD's single-cylinder research diesel engine located at Argonne National Laboratory was used to confirm emissions and performacne predictions. These analytical ane experimental investigations resulted in optimized fuel injection profiles and engine operating conditions that yield reductions in NOx emissions from 7.8 g/bhp-hr to 5.0 g/bhp-hr at full (rated) load. Additionally, hydrocarbon and particulate emissions were reduced considerably when compared to baseline Tier I levels. The most significant finding from the injection optimization process was a 2% to 3% improvement in fuel economy over EMD's traditional Tier I engine hardware configuration. the common rail fuel injection system enabled this added benefit by virtue of an inherent capability to provide multiple injections per power stroke at high fuel rail pressures. On the basis of the findings in this study, EMD concludes that the new electronically-controlled high-pressure common rail injection system has the potential to meet locomotive Tier 2 NOx and particulates emission standards without sacrificing the fuel economy. A number of areas to further improve the injection hardware and engine operating characteristics to further exploit the benefits of common rail injection system have also been identified.

  13. Common genetic and epigenetic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Adams, Darius J; Clark, David A

    2015-04-01

    Cytogenetic anomalies should be considered in individuals with multiple congenital anomalies. DNA methylation analysis is the most sensitive initial test in evaluating for Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. The timely identification of cytogenetic anomalies allows for prompt initiation of early intervention services to maximize the potential of every individual as they grow older. Although many of these conditions are rare, keeping them in mind can have a profound impact on the clinical course of affected individuals. This article reviews some of the more common genetic syndromes. PMID:25836705

  14. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  15. Common hematological disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Deepak; Totadri, Sidharth

    2014-01-01

    It is common for primary care physicians to be faced with children with hematological disorders in everyday practice. The article seeks to provide realistic information for the first-contact physician in handling common hematological diseases in children. Practical step-wise approach to understanding and investigating anemia and bleeding disorders is illustrated. Requirement of iron in normal children and management of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and thalassemia is explained. The gold standard for IDA continues to be ferrous sulphate which has good bioavailability and is inexpensive. There is emerging concept of delayed clamping of umbilical cord at birth, particularly in regions with widespread IDA, to augment iron stores in infancy. Typical case scenarios of children with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and hemophilia are provided to facilitate the understanding of management in day to day practice. The vital role of the medical practitioner in shared care of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and febrile neutropenia is emphasized. A risk based treatment algorithm for febrile neutropenia is provided. PMID:23934100

  16. Common Skin Rashes in Children.

    PubMed

    Allmon, Amanda; Deane, Kristen; Martin, Kari L

    2015-08-01

    Because childhood rashes may be difficult to differentiate by appearance alone, it is important to consider the entire clinical presentation to help make the appropriate diagnosis. Considerations include the appearance and location of the rash; the clinical course; and associated symptoms, such as pruritus or fever. A fever is likely to occur with roseola, erythema infectiosum (fifth disease), and scarlet fever. Pruritus sometimes occurs with atopic dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, erythema infectiosum, molluscum contagiosum, and tinea infection. The key feature of roseola is a rash presenting after resolution of a high fever, whereas the distinguishing features in pityriasis rosea are a herald patch and a bilateral and symmetric rash in a Christmas tree pattern. The rash associated with scarlet fever usually develops on the upper trunk, then spreads throughout the body, sparing the palms and soles. Impetigo is a superficial bacterial infection that most commonly affects the face and extremities of children. Erythema infectiosum is characterized by a viral prodrome followed by the "slapped cheek" facial rash. Flesh-colored or pearly white papules with central umbilication occur with molluscum contagiosum, a highly contagious viral infection that usually resolves without intervention. Tinea is a common fungal skin infection in children that affects the scalp, body, groin, feet, hands, or nails. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin condition that may present with a variety of skin changes. PMID:26280141

  17. Common questions about infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Womack, Jason; Jimenez, Marissa

    2015-03-15

    Epstein-Barr is a ubiquitous virus that infects 95% of the world population at some point in life. Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections are often asymptomatic, some patients present with the clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis (IM). The syndrome most commonly occurs between 15 and 24 years of age. It should be suspected in patients presenting with sore throat, fever, tonsillar enlargement, fatigue, lymphadenopathy, pharyngeal inflammation, and palatal petechiae. A heterophile antibody test is the best initial test for diagnosis of EBV infection, with 71% to 90% accuracy for diagnosing IM. However, the test has a 25% false-negative rate in the first week of illness. IM is unlikely if the lymphocyte count is less than 4,000 mm3. The presence of EBV-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies confirms infection, but the test is more costly and results take longer than the heterophile antibody test. Symptomatic relief is the mainstay of treatment. Glucocorticoids and antivirals do not reduce the length or severity of illness. Splenic rupture is an uncommon complication of IM. Because physical activity within the first three weeks of illness may increase the risk of splenic rupture, athletic participation is not recommended during this time. Children are at the highest risk of airway obstruction, which is the most common cause of hospitalization from IM. Patients with immunosuppression are more likely to have fulminant EBV infection. PMID:25822555

  18. Management of common sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramar, Kannan; Olson, Eric J

    2013-08-15

    Sleep disorders are common and affect sleep quality and quantity, leading to increased morbidity. Patients with sleep disorders can be categorized as those who cannot sleep, those who will not sleep, those with excessive daytime sleepiness, and those with increased movements during sleep. Insomnia, defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep that results in daytime impairment, is diagnosed using history findings and treated with cognitive behavior therapy, with or without sleep hypnotics. Restless legs syndrome is characterized by an urge to move the legs that worsens with rest, is relieved by movement, and often occurs in the evening or at night. Restless legs syndrome is treated based on the frequency of symptoms. Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. It is diagnosed using a sleep log or actigraphy, followed by overnight polysomnography and a multiple sleep latency test. Narcolepsy is treated with stimulants, such as modafinil; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; or gamma hydroxybutyric acid (sodium oxybate). Patients with snoring and witnessed apneas may have obstructive sleep apnea, which is diagnosed using overnight polysomnography. Continuous positive airway pressure is the most common and effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is characterized by increased muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep, resulting in the patient acting out dreams with possible harmful consequences. It is diagnosed based on history and polysomnography findings, and treated with environmental safety measures and melatonin or clonazepam. PMID:23944726

  19. Common ecology quantifies human insurgency.

    PubMed

    Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Gourley, Sean; Dixon, Alexander R; Spagat, Michael; Johnson, Neil F

    2009-12-17

    Many collective human activities, including violence, have been shown to exhibit universal patterns. The size distributions of casualties both in whole wars from 1816 to 1980 and terrorist attacks have separately been shown to follow approximate power-law distributions. However, the possibility of universal patterns ranging across wars in the size distribution or timing of within-conflict events has barely been explored. Here we show that the sizes and timing of violent events within different insurgent conflicts exhibit remarkable similarities. We propose a unified model of human insurgency that reproduces these commonalities, and explains conflict-specific variations quantitatively in terms of underlying rules of engagement. Our model treats each insurgent population as an ecology of dynamically evolving, self-organized groups following common decision-making processes. Our model is consistent with several recent hypotheses about modern insurgency, is robust to many generalizations, and establishes a quantitative connection between human insurgency, global terrorism and ecology. Its similarity to financial market models provides a surprising link between violent and non-violent forms of human behaviour. PMID:20016600

  20. DNA/SNLA commonality program

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, D.V.; Watts, A.J.; Rice, D.A.; Powe, J.; Beezhold, W.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the Commonality program, initiated by DNA in 1978, was to evaluate e-beam material testing procedures and techniques by comparing material stress and spall data from various US and UK e-beam facilities and experimenters. As part of this joint DNA/SNL/UK Commonality effort, Sandia and Ktech used four different electron-beam machines to investigate various aspects of e-beam energy deposition in three materials. The deposition duration and the deposition profiles were varied, and the resulting stresses were measured. The materials studied were: (1) a low-Z material (A1), (2) a high-Z material (Ta), and (3) a typical porous material, a cermet. Aluminium and tantalum were irradiated using the DNA Blackjack 3 accelerator (60 ns pulse width), the DNA Blackjack 3' accelerator (30 ns pulse width), and the SNLA REHYD accelerator (100 ns pulse width). Propagating stresses were measured using x-cut quartz gauges, carbon gauges, and laser interferometry techniques. Data to determine the influence of deposition duration were obtained over a wide range of energy loadings. The cermet material was studied using the SNLA REHYD and HERMES II accelerators. The e-beam from REHYD generated propagating stresses which were monitored with quartz gauges as a function of sample thickness and energy loadings. The HERMES II accelerator was used to uniformly heat the cermet to determine the Grueneisen parameter and identify the incipient spall condition. Results of these experiments are presented.

  1. Common sense in nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyle, F.; Hoyle, G.

    1980-01-01

    Public concern about energy resource exhaustion is noted to have developed only after the means (nuclear power) for avoiding this disaster became available and the negative implications of a nuclear society became a focus for anxiety. Ironically, collapse of conventional energy supplies could lead to the nuclear confrontation which anti-nuclear forces claim as the inevitable outcome of nuclear power. A review of the risks, environmental impacts, and political implications of the major energy sources concludes that emotion, not common sense, has made nuclear energy an unpopular option. While the problems of proliferation, radiation protection, waste management, and accident prevention are far from trivial, they will respond to technological improvements and responsible control policies. An historical tradition of fearing new, poorly understood technologies is seen in the reaction to railroads during the early 19th Century. (DCK)

  2. Common questions in veterinary toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bates, N; Rawson-Harris, P; Edwards, N

    2015-05-01

    Toxicology is a vast subject. Animals are exposed to numerous drugs, household products, plants, chemicals, pesticides and venomous animals. In addition to the individual toxicity of the various potential poisons, there is also the question of individual response and, more importantly, of species differences in toxicity. This review serves to address some of the common questions asked when dealing with animals with possible poisoning, providing evidence where available. The role of emetics, activated charcoal and lipid infusion in the management of poisoning in animals, the toxic dose of chocolate, grapes and dried fruit in dogs, the use of antidotes in paracetamol poisoning, timing of antidotal therapy in ethylene glycol toxicosis and whether lilies are toxic to dogs are discussed. PMID:25728477

  3. Work and common psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Henderson, M; Harvey, S B; Overland, S; Mykletun, A; Hotopf, M

    2011-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders are now the most common reason for long-term sickness absence. The associated loss in productivity and the payment of disability benefits places a substantial burden on the economies of many developed countries. The occupational dysfunction associated with psychiatric disorders can also lead to poverty and social isolation. As a result the area of work and psychiatric disorders is a high priority for policymakers. There are two main agendas: for many researchers and clinicians the focus is on the need to overcome stigma and ensure people with severe psychiatric disorders have meaningful work; however the public health agenda predominantly relates to the more common disorders such as depression and anxiety, which contribute a greater burden of disability benefits and pensions. In this review we attempt to address this second agenda. The relatively sparse evidence available reveals a complex field with significant interplay between medical, psychological social and cultural factors. Sick leave can be a 'process' as well as an 'event'. In this review we propose a staged model where different risk and protective factors contribute to the onset of psychiatric disorders in the working population, the onset of short-term sickness absence, and the transition from short- to long-term absence. We also examine strategies to manage psychiatric disorder in the workforce with a view towards returning the employee to work. Our aim in this review is to highlight the complexity of the area, to stimulate debate and to identify important gaps in knowledge where further research might benefit both patients and wider society. PMID:21558098

  4. Common Syndromes of Orthostatic Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system, adequate blood volume, and intact skeletal and respiratory muscle pumps are essential components for rapid cardiovascular adjustments to upright posture (orthostasis). Patients lacking sufficient blood volume or having defective sympathetic adrenergic vasoconstriction develop orthostatic hypotension (OH), prohibiting effective upright activities. OH is one form of orthostatic intolerance (OI) defined by signs, such as hypotension, and symptoms, such as lightheadedness, that occur when upright and are relieved by recumbence. Mild OI is commonly experienced during intercurrent illnesses and when standing up rapidly. The latter is denoted initial OH and represents a normal cardiovascular adjustment to the blood volume shifts during standing. Some people experience episodic acute OI, such as postural vasovagal syncope (fainting), or chronic OI, such as postural tachycardia syndrome, which can significantly reduce quality of life. The lifetime incidence of ?1 fainting episodes is ?40%. For the most part, these episodes are benign and self-limited, although frequent syncope episodes can be debilitating, and injury may occur from sudden falls. In this article, mechanisms for OI having components of adrenergic hypofunction, adrenergic hyperfunction, hyperpnea, and regional blood volume redistribution are discussed. Therapeutic strategies to cope with OI are proposed. PMID:23569093

  5. Common questions about wound care.

    PubMed

    Worster, Brooke; Zawora, Michelle Q; Hsieh, Christine

    2015-01-15

    Lacerations, abrasions, burns, and puncture wounds are common in the outpatient setting. Because wounds can quickly become infected, the most important aspect of treating a minor wound is irrigation and cleaning. There is no evidence that antiseptic irrigation is superior to sterile saline or tap water. Occlusion of the wound is key to preventing contamination. Suturing, if required, can be completed up to 24 hours after the trauma occurs, depending on the wound site. Tissue adhesives are equally effective for low-tension wounds with linear edges that can be evenly approximated. Although patients are often instructed to keep their wounds covered and dry after suturing, they can get wet within the first 24 to 48 hours without increasing the risk of infection. There is no evidence that prophylactic antibiotics improve outcomes for most simple wounds. Tetanus toxoid should be administered as soon as possible to patients who have not received a booster in the past 10 years. Superficial mild wound infections can be treated with topical agents, whereas deeper mild and moderate infections should be treated with oral antibiotics. Most severe infections, and moderate infections in high-risk patients, require initial parenteral antibiotics. Severe burns and wounds that cover large areas of the body or involve the face, joints, bone, tendons, or nerves should generally be referred to wound care specialists. PMID:25591209

  6. Diagnosing Common Benign Skin Tumors.

    PubMed

    Higgins, James C; Maher, Michael H; Douglas, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    Patients will experience a wide range of skin growths and changes over their lifetime. Family physicians should be able to distinguish potentially malignant from benign skin tumors. Most lesions can be diagnosed on the basis of history and clinical examination. Lesions that are suspicious for malignancy, those with changing characteristics, symptomatic lesions, and those that cause cosmetic problems may warrant medical therapy, a simple office procedure (e.g., excision, cryosurgery, laser ablation), or referral. Acrochordons are extremely common, small, and typically pedunculated benign neoplasms. Simple scissor or shave excision, electrodesiccation, or cryosurgery can be used for treatment. Sebaceous hyperplasia presents as asymptomatic, discrete, soft, pale yellow, shiny bumps on the forehead or cheeks, or near hair follicles. Except for cosmesis, they have no clinical significance. Lipomas are soft, flesh-colored nodules that are easily moveable under the overlying skin. Keratoacanthomas are rapidly growing, squamoproliferative benign tumors that resemble squamous cell carcinomas. Early simple excision is recommended. Pyogenic granuloma is a rapidly growing nodule that bleeds easily. Treatment includes laser ablation or shave excision with electrodesiccation of the base. Dermatofibromas are an idiopathic benign proliferation of fibroblasts. No treatment is required unless there is a change in size or color, bleeding, or irritation from trauma. Epidermal inclusion cysts can be treated by simple excision with removal of the cyst and cyst wall. Seborrheic keratoses and cherry angiomas generally do not require treatment. PMID:26447443

  7. Common Bolted Joint Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imtiaz, Kauser

    2011-01-01

    Common Bolted Joint Analysis Tool (comBAT) is an Excel/VB-based bolted joint analysis/optimization program that lays out a systematic foundation for an inexperienced or seasoned analyst to determine fastener size, material, and assembly torque for a given design. Analysts are able to perform numerous what-if scenarios within minutes to arrive at an optimal solution. The program evaluates input design parameters, performs joint assembly checks, and steps through numerous calculations to arrive at several key margins of safety for each member in a joint. It also checks for joint gapping, provides fatigue calculations, and generates joint diagrams for a visual reference. Optimum fastener size and material, as well as correct torque, can then be provided. Analysis methodology, equations, and guidelines are provided throughout the solution sequence so that this program does not become a "black box:" for the analyst. There are built-in databases that reduce the legwork required by the analyst. Each step is clearly identified and results are provided in number format, as well as color-coded spelled-out words to draw user attention. The three key features of the software are robust technical content, innovative and user friendly I/O, and a large database. The program addresses every aspect of bolted joint analysis and proves to be an instructional tool at the same time. It saves analysis time, has intelligent messaging features, and catches operator errors in real time.

  8. Common themes in microbial pathogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, B B; Falkow, S

    1989-01-01

    A bacterial pathogen is a highly adapted microorganism which has the capacity to cause disease. The mechanisms used by pathogenic bacteria to cause infection and disease usually include an interactive group of virulence determinants, sometimes coregulated, which are suited for the interaction of a particular microorganism with a specific host. Because pathogens must overcome similar host barriers, common themes in microbial pathogenesis have evolved. However, these mechanisms are diverse between species and not necessarily conserved; instead, convergent evolution has developed several different mechanisms to overcome host barriers. The success of a bacterial pathogen can be measured by the degree with which it replicates after entering the host and reaching its specific niche. Successful microbial infection reflects persistence within a host and avoidance or neutralization of the specific and nonspecific defense mechanisms of the host. The degree of success of a pathogen is dependent upon the status of the host. As pathogens pass through a host, they are exposed to new environments. Highly adapted pathogenic organisms have developed biochemical sensors exquisitely designed to measure and respond to such environmental stimuli and accordingly to regulate a cascade of virulence determinants essential for life within the host. The pathogenic state is the product of dynamic selective pressures on microbial populations. PMID:2569162

  9. Managing the wildlife tourism commons.

    PubMed

    Pirotta, Enrico; Lusseau, David

    2015-04-01

    The nonlethal effects of wildlife tourism can threaten the conservation status of targeted animal populations. In turn, such resource depletion can compromise the economic viability of the industry. Therefore, wildlife tourism exploits resources that can become common pool and that should be managed accordingly. We used a simulation approach to test whether different management regimes (tax, tax and subsidy, cap, cap and trade) could provide socioecologically sustainable solutions. Such schemes are sensitive to errors in estimated management targets. We determined the sensitivity of each scenario to various realistic uncertainties in management implementation and in our knowledge of the population. Scenarios where time quotas were enforced using a tax and subsidy approach, or they were traded between operators were more likely to be sustainable. Importantly, sustainability could be achieved even when operators were assumed to make simple rational economic decisions. We suggest that a combination of the two regimes might offer a robust solution, especially on a small spatial scale and under the control of a self-organized, operator-level institution. Our simulation platform could be parameterized to mimic local conditions and provide a test bed for experimenting different governance solutions in specific case studies. PMID:26214918

  10. Common hyperspectral image database design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lixun; Liao, Ningfang; Chai, Ali

    2009-11-01

    This paper is to introduce Common hyperspectral image database with a demand-oriented Database design method (CHIDB), which comprehensively set ground-based spectra, standardized hyperspectral cube, spectral analysis together to meet some applications. The paper presents an integrated approach to retrieving spectral and spatial patterns from remotely sensed imagery using state-of-the-art data mining and advanced database technologies, some data mining ideas and functions were associated into CHIDB to make it more suitable to serve in agriculture, geological and environmental areas. A broad range of data from multiple regions of the electromagnetic spectrum is supported, including ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, thermal infrared, and fluorescence. CHIDB is based on dotnet framework and designed by MVC architecture including five main functional modules: Data importer/exporter, Image/spectrum Viewer, Data Processor, Parameter Extractor, and On-line Analyzer. The original data were all stored in SQL server2008 for efficient search, query and update, and some advance Spectral image data Processing technology are used such as Parallel processing in C#; Finally an application case is presented in agricultural disease detecting area.

  11. Common Questions About Chronic Prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Holt, James D; Garrett, W Allan; McCurry, Tyler K; Teichman, Joel M H

    2016-02-15

    Chronic prostatitis is relatively common, with a lifetime prevalence of 1.8% to 8.2%. Risk factors include conditions that facilitate introduction of bacteria into the urethra and prostate (which also predispose the patient to urinary tract infections) and conditions that can lead to chronic neuropathic pain. Chronic prostatitis must be differentiated from other causes of chronic pelvic pain, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and pelvic floor dysfunction; prostate and bladder cancers; benign prostatic hyperplasia; urolithiasis; and other causes of dysuria, urinary frequency, and nocturia. The National Institutes of Health divides prostatitis into four syndromes: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP)/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS), and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. CBP and CNP/CPPS both lead to pelvic pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. CBP presents as recurrent urinary tract infections with the same organism identified on repeated cultures; it responds to a prolonged course of an antibiotic that adequately penetrates the prostate, if the urine culture suggests sensitivity. If four to six weeks of antibiotic therapy is effective but symptoms recur, another course may be prescribed, perhaps in combination with alpha blockers or nonopioid analgesics. CNP/CPPS, accounting for more than 90% of chronic prostatitis cases, presents as prostatic pain lasting at least three months without consistent culture results. Weak evidence supports the use of alpha blockers, pain medications, and a four- to six-week course of antibiotics for the treatment of CNP/CPPS. Patients may also be referred to a psychologist experienced in managing chronic pain. Experts on this condition recommend a combination of treatments tailored to the patient's phenotypic presentation. Urology referral should be considered when appropriate treatment is ineffective. Additional treatments include pelvic floor physical therapy, phytotherapy, and pain management techniques. The UPOINT (urinary, psychosocial, organ-specific, infection, neurologic/systemic, tenderness) approach summarizes the various factors that may contribute to presentation and can guide treatment. PMID:26926816

  12. Common aspirations of world women.

    PubMed

    Huang, B

    1996-02-01

    The comments of the Director of Foreign Affairs for the China State Family Planning Commission reflect satisfaction with the achievements at the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing. It is posited that the historic documents from the conference reflect the common aspirations of all women in the world for equality, development, and peace. The conference's focus on social development for women has been translated in China into a "vigorous" IEC campaign. China is developing integrated approaches to family planning in rural areas. The approach aims to help rural women to become economically independent before achieving equality within the family and society. A National Conference on Integrated Programs was held in Sichuan province. Examples of integrated programs in Sichuan, Jilin, and Jiangsu were described for conference participants. The example is given of how poor rural women in Deyang Prefecture, Sichuan province, have received credit for income generation and access to skill development and literacy classes. Continuous economic and social development are important for achieving "poverty eradication and the liberation of women." Sustainable development involves use of resources, environmental protection, the reasonable change in consumption patterns, and transitional changes in modes of production. The concept of reproductive health means Chinese family planning workers must meet higher standards. Future plans include intensifying the IEC program in meeting the comprehensive biological, psychological, and social reproductive health needs of women. Respect must be given to the fertility intentions and reproductive rights of wives and husbands. "In China, voluntary choice of childbearing should be guided by the fertility policy formulated by the government." Training of family planning workers should be intensified to include training in public health, reproductive theory, contraception, and the techniques of interpersonal communication. Some provinces have already begun to establish reproductive health centers as community demonstration projects. PMID:12291333

  13. Coordinating towards a Common Good

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2010-09-01

    Throughout their life, humans often engage in collective endeavors ranging from family related issues to global warming. In all cases, the tragedy of the commons threatens the possibility of reaching the optimal solution associated with global cooperation, a scenario predicted by theory and demonstrated by many experiments. Using the toolbox of evolutionary game theory, I will address two important aspects of evolutionary dynamics that have been neglected so far in the context of public goods games and evolution of cooperation. On one hand, the fact that often there is a threshold above which a public good is reached [1, 2]. On the other hand, the fact that individuals often participate in several games, related to the their social context and pattern of social ties, defined by a social network [3, 4, 5]. In the first case, the existence of a threshold above which collective action is materialized dictates a rich pattern of evolutionary dynamics where the direction of natural selection can be inverted compared to standard expectations. Scenarios of defector dominance, pure coordination or coexistence may arise simultaneously. Both finite and infinite population models are analyzed. In networked games, cooperation blooms whenever the act of contributing is more important than the effort contributed. In particular, the heterogeneous nature of social networks naturally induces a symmetry breaking of the dilemmas of cooperation, as contributions made by cooperators may become contingent on the social context in which the individual is embedded. This diversity in context provides an advantage to cooperators, which is particularly strong when both wealth and social ties follow a power-law distribution, providing clues on the self-organization of social communities. Finally, in both situations, it can be shown that individuals no longer play a defection dominance dilemma, but effectively engage in a general N-person coordination game. Even if locally defection may seem inescapable, globally there is an emergent new dilemma in which cooperation often prevails, illustrating how collective cooperative action may emerge from myopic individual selfishness.

  14. Designing the Microbial Research Commons

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlir, Paul F

    2011-10-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an ever-increasing range and volume of digital data. All elements of the pillars of science--whether observation, experiment, or theory and modeling--are being transformed by the continuous cycle of generation, dissemination, and use of factual information. This is even more so in terms of the re-using and re-purposing of digital scientific data beyond the original intent of the data collectors, often with dramatic results. We all know about the potential benefits and impacts of digital data, but we are also aware of the barriers, the challenges in maximizing the access, and use of such data. There is thus a need to think about how a data infrastructure can enhance capabilities for finding, using, and integrating information to accelerate discovery and innovation. How can we best implement an accessible, interoperable digital environment so that the data can be repeatedly used by a wide variety of users in different settings and with different applications? With this objective: to use the microbial communities and microbial data, literature, and the research materials themselves as a test case, the Board on Research Data and Information held an International Symposium on Designing the Microbial Research Commons at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC on 8-9 October 2009. The symposium addressed topics such as models to lower the transaction costs and support access to and use of microbiological materials and digital resources from the perspective of publicly funded research, public-private interactions, and developing country concerns. The overall goal of the symposium was to stimulate more research and implementation of improved legal and institutional models for publicly funded research in microbiology.

  15. Returning common sense to regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.R.

    1995-10-01

    While these sessions of the November 1995 meeting of the American Nuclear Society are being devoted to the Linear Theory of harm from radiation, it must be realized that the low-level radiation issue, as important as it may be, is but a subset of an entire body of environmental issues running afoul of common sense. Cellular phones, electromagnetic fields, asbestos, dioxin, acid rain, and others especially in their public portrayals, some in their regulatory treatment, are based upon exaggerated or misunderstood risks. One must recognize that what lies ahead is an immense effort to revisit the underlying science of the existing regulations of radiation exposures. New evidence has been published, and most importantly, it is now recognized that many of these regulations--promulgated with the best of intentions--have been extraordinarily harmful to the public. In many cases, the harm has been exaggerated, and has created in the public policy arena the notion that the public is at great risk from the smallest sources of radiation. The national cost of compliance with these regulations has been enormous. To the extent that existing environmental regulations are not being moderated, they pose major economic threats to present and future industries involving nuclear materials and technology. These would include the pharmaceutical industries as well as those seeking U.S. isotope markets in separations, purification, labeling, and manufacturing of new radiopharmaceuticals for cancer therapy, diagnosis, pain mitigation, treatment of arthritis, and other new applications. For those who are not aware of the results of recent advances in radiopharmaceuticals, clinical trials have demonstrated an 80% remission rate in the treatment of b-cell lymphoma and leukemia. New isotopes and new isotope technology promise greater effectiveness in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. The regulatory problems and their enormous costs exist at all stages in nuclear medicine, from the manufacture of the radiopharmaceuticals to the disposal of low-level wastes in Ward Valley, California, for example. Access to these promising new technologies will be severely limited under the existing regulatory environment.

  16. What Are Some Commonly Abused Prescription Drugs?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... some of the commonly abused prescription drugs? Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter What are some of the ... 2014 Contents From the Director What is prescription drug abuse? What are some of the commonly abused prescription ...

  17. Health Conditions Common in African American Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Minority Women's Health > African-Americans Minority Women's Health African-Americans Health conditions common in African-American women Of ... health. Return to top Health conditions common in African-American women Asthma Breast cancer Cancer Cervical cancer Diabetes ...

  18. Common Shoulder Injury Heals Well without Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155299.html Common Shoulder Injury Heals Well Without Surgery: Study Nonsurgical treatment ... THURSDAY, Oct. 22, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A common shoulder injury that is usually repaired with surgery can ...

  19. Common Tests for Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Common Tests for Congenital Heart Defects Updated:Oct 21,2015 To ensure you ... whether future care is needed. Common tests for heart function include: Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) An electrocardiogram ( ...

  20. Common cold - how to treat at home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Antibiotics are almost never needed to treat a common cold. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) help lower ... Many home remedies are popular treatments for the common cold. These include vitamin C, zinc supplements, and echinacea. ...

  1. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dischinger, Portia

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation presents NASA's Common Badging and Access Control System. NASA began a Smart Card implementation in January 2004. Following site surveys, it was determined that NASA's badging and access control systems required upgrades to common infrastructure in order to provide flexibly, usability, and return on investment prior to a smart card implantation. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS) provides the common infrastructure from which FIPS-201 compliant processes, systems, and credentials can be developed and used.

  2. Estimating carnivoran diets using a combination of carcass observations and scats from GPS clusters

    PubMed Central

    Tambling, C.J.; Laurence, S.D.; Bellan, S.E.; Cameron, E.Z.; du Toit, J.T.; Getz, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Scat analysis is one of the most frequently used methods to assess carnivoran diets and Global Positioning System (GPS) cluster methods are increasingly being used to locate feeding sites for large carnivorans. However, both methods have inherent biases that limit their use. GPS methods to locate kill sites are biased towards large carcasses, while scat analysis over-estimates the biomass consumed from smaller prey. We combined carcass observations and scats collected along known movement routes, assessed using GPS data from four African lion (Panthera leo) prides in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, to determine how a combination of these two datasets change diet estimates. As expected, using carcasses alone under-estimated the number of feeding events on small species, primarily impala (Aepyceros melampus) and warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), in our case by more than 50% and thus significantly under-estimated the biomass consumed per pride per day in comparison to when the diet was assessed using carcass observations alone. We show that an approach that supplements carcass observations with scats that enables the identification of potentially missed feeding events increases the estimates of food intake rates for large carnivorans, with possible ramifications for predator-prey interaction studies dealing with biomass intake rate. PMID:22408290

  3. REGISTRATION OF 'EMGOPA 201-OURO' COMMON BEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean cultivar EMGOPA 201- Ouro is among the first common bean cultivars developed by breeding, with resistance to multiple diseases. EMGOPA 201- Ouro has the I gene for resistance to the Bean common mosaic virus. It is also moderately resistant to angular leaf spot (caused by Phaeoisariopsis ...

  4. Simplifying the ELA Common Core; Demystifying Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmoker, Mike; Jago, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The English Language Arts (ELA) Common Core State Standards ([CCSS], 2010) could have a transformational effect on American education. Though the process seems daunting, one can begin immediately integrating the essence of the ELA Common Core in every subject area. This article shows how one could implement the Common Core and create coherent,

  5. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Common control. 1185.5 Section 1185.5... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS 1185.5 Common control. It shall not be... carriers if such carriers are operated under common control or management either: (a) Pursuant to...

  6. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Common control. 1185.5 Section 1185.5... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS 1185.5 Common control. It shall not be... carriers if such carriers are operated under common control or management either: (a) Pursuant to...

  7. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Common control. 1185.5 Section 1185.5... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS 1185.5 Common control. It shall not be... carriers if such carriers are operated under common control or management either: (a) Pursuant to...

  8. 49 CFR 1242.02 - Common expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Common expenses. 1242.02 Section 1242.02... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS SEPARATION OF COMMON OPERATING EXPENSES BETWEEN FREIGHT SERVICE AND PASSENGER SERVICE FOR RAILROADS 1 General 1242.02 Common expenses....

  9. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Common control. 1185.5 Section 1185.5... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS 1185.5 Common control. It shall not be... carriers if such carriers are operated under common control or management either: (a) Pursuant to...

  10. Academic Engagement in the Library Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Charlie; Bodnar, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written about library commons in recent years. For the most part, that literature has dealt with designing information and learning commons that support student learning by giving them the tools and resources they need for their academic work. However, few authors have discussed how a library commons might facilitate collaboration

  11. 49 CFR 1242.02 - Common expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common expenses. 1242.02 Section 1242.02... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS SEPARATION OF COMMON OPERATING EXPENSES BETWEEN FREIGHT SERVICE AND PASSENGER SERVICE FOR RAILROADS 1 General 1242.02 Common expenses....

  12. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common control. 1185.5 Section 1185.5... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS 1185.5 Common control. It shall not be... carriers if such carriers are operated under common control or management either: (a) Pursuant to...

  13. 47 CFR 1.9080 - Private commons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private commons. 1.9080 Section 1.9080 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures 1.9080 Private commons. (a) Overview. A private commons arrangement is...

  14. THE COMMON COLDFACT AND FANCY

    PubMed Central

    Jawetz, E.; Talbot, J. C.

    1950-01-01

    A great deal of folklore, superstition and emotional reaction is attached to the common cold, but established objective information is quite limited. The evidence concerning etiology, epidemiology, physiology, prevention and treatment of the common cold is briefly summarized and critically evaluated. There is disappointing lack of real progress in any of these aspects of the common cold problem. PMID:14778003

  15. Common Core: Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Moore, Roxane Kushner

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core has become a household term and yet many educators do not understand what it means. This article explains the historical perspectives of the Common Core and gives guidance to teachers in application of Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE) necessary for full implementation of the Common Core State Standards. An effective…

  16. Simplifying the ELA Common Core; Demystifying Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmoker, Mike; Jago, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The English Language Arts (ELA) Common Core State Standards ([CCSS], 2010) could have a transformational effect on American education. Though the process seems daunting, one can begin immediately integrating the essence of the ELA Common Core in every subject area. This article shows how one could implement the Common Core and create coherent,…

  17. Emergence Prediction of Common Groundsel (Senecio vulgaris)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common groundsel is an important weed of strawberry and other horticultural crops. There are few herbicides registered for common groundsel control in such crops, and understanding and predicting the timing and extent of common groundsel emergence may facilitate its management. We developed simple e...

  18. 18 CFR 357.1 - Common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Common carriers. 357.1... OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT ANNUAL SPECIAL OR PERIODIC REPORTS: CARRIERS SUBJECT TO PART I OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT 357.1 Common carriers. All common carriers by...

  19. 49 CFR 1241.1 - Common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Common carriers. 1241.1 Section 1241.1...-CARRIERS SUBJECT TO PART I OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT 1241.1 Common carriers. All common carriers... for in the annual reports required by the Board of said carriers and owners of railroads....

  20. 49 CFR 1241.1 - Common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common carriers. 1241.1 Section 1241.1...-CARRIERS SUBJECT TO PART I OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT 1241.1 Common carriers. All common carriers... for in the annual reports required by the Board of said carriers and owners of railroads....

  1. 18 CFR 357.1 - Common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Common carriers. 357.1... OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT ANNUAL SPECIAL OR PERIODIC REPORTS: CARRIERS SUBJECT TO PART I OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT 357.1 Common carriers. All common carriers by...

  2. What Are Common Treatments for Turner Syndrome?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for donations Email Page Print Page Overview Condition Information What are common symptoms? How many people are affected? What causes it? How is it diagnosed? What are common treatments? Other FAQs NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What are common ...

  3. Two Circles and Their Common Tangents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2002-01-01

    Given two circles C 1 and C 2 in a plane such that neither one of the two circles is contained in the other, there are either four common tangents when the circles do not intersect at all or the circles have three common tangents when they touch each other externally or only two common tangents when the circles intersect exactly at two points. The…

  4. Trifurcation of the Left Common Carotid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Altinbas, Namik Kemal; Unal, Sena; Peker, Ahmet; Uzun, Caglar; Akkaya, Zehra; Peker, Elif

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Trifurcation of the common carotid artery is an unusual variation. Case Report We report a case of left common carotid artery trifurcation in a 74-year-old man. The left common carotid artery divided into the internal carotid, external carotid and facial arteries. Herein, the anatomy of the carotid arteries and the Doppler sonography and CT angiography findings of the left common carotid artery trifurcation were described with images. Conclusions The variations of the carotid arteries should be known to avoid and reduce the complications during the invasive procedures. PMID:26300999

  5. The structure of common-envelope remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Philip D.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the structure and evolution of the remnants of common-envelope evolution in binary star systems. In a common-envelope phase, two stars become engulfed in a gaseous envelope and, under the influence of drag forces, spiral to smaller separations. They may merge to form a single star or the envelope may be ejected to leave the stars in a shorter period orbit. This process explains the short orbital periods of many observed binary systems, such as cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binary systems. Despite the importance of these systems, and of common-envelope evolution to their formation, it remains poorly understood. Specifically, we are unable to confidently predict the outcome of a common-envelope phase from the properties at its onset. After presenting a review of work on stellar evolution, binary systems, common-envelope evolution and the computer programs used, we describe the results of three computational projects on common-envelope evolution. Our work specifically relates to the methods and prescriptions which are used for predicting the outcome. We use the Cambridge stellar-evolution code STARS to produce detailed models of the structure and evolution of remnants of common-envelope evolution. We compare different assumptions about the uncertain end-of-common envelope structure and envelope mass of remnants which successfully eject their common envelopes. In the first project, we use detailed remnant models to investigate whether planetary nebulae are predicted after common-envelope phases initiated by low-mass red giants. We focus on the requirement that a remnant evolves rapidly enough to photoionize the nebula and compare the predictions for different ideas about the structure at the end of a common-envelope phase. We find that planetary nebulae are possible for some prescriptions for the end-of-common envelope structure. In our second contribution, we compute a large set of single-star models and fit new formulae to the core radii of evolved stars. These formulae can be used to better compute the outcome of common-envelope evolution with rapid evolution codes. We find that the new formulae are necessary for accurate predictions of the properties of post-common envelope systems. Finally, we use detailed remnant models of massive stars to investigate whether hydrogen may be retained after a common-envelope phase to the point of core-collapse and so be observable in supernovae. We find that this is possible and thus common-envelope evolution may contribute to the formation of Type IIb supernovae.

  6. The Dimensions of Common Factors in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibert, Todd W.

    2011-01-01

    Common factors is a concept that offers an explanation as to what makes counseling effective. Evidence from outcome studies has implications for training and practice. The particular purpose of this paper is to review the components of a popular model of common factors, the evidence supporting them, and subsequent implications for counselor

  7. Organized Interests and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lorraine M.; Weatherford, M. Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Among the notable aspects of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is the diverse array of interest groups supporting them. These organizations must now apply the strategies they used so effectively in advancing the Common Core to stem mounting opposition to it. This article draws on theories of political and policy learning and interviews with

  8. Common complications of pediatric neuromuscular disorders.

    PubMed

    Skalsky, Andrew J; Dalal, Pritha B

    2015-02-01

    Children with pediatric neuromuscular disorders experience common complications, primarily due to immobility and weakness. Musculoskeletal complications include hip dysplasia with associated hip subluxation or dislocation, neuromuscular scoliosis, and osteoporosis and resulting fractures. Constipation, gastroesophageal reflux, and obesity and malnutrition are commonly experienced gastrointestinal complications. Disordered sleep also is frequently observed, which affects both patients and caregivers. PMID:25479776

  9. Common Core in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.; McShane, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    There are at least four key places where the Common Core intersects with current efforts to improve education in the United States--testing, professional development, expectations, and accountability. Understanding them can help educators, parents, and policymakers maximize the chance that the Common Core is helpful to these efforts and, perhaps

  10. 10 CFR 50.40 - Common standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... safety of the public. (d) Any applicable requirements of subpart A of 10 CFR part 51 have been satisfied. ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Common standards. 50.40 Section 50.40 Energy NUCLEAR..., Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals 50.40 Common standards. In determining that a construction permit...

  11. 10 CFR 50.40 - Common standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... safety of the public. (d) Any applicable requirements of subpart A of 10 CFR part 51 have been satisfied. ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Common standards. 50.40 Section 50.40 Energy NUCLEAR..., Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals 50.40 Common standards. In determining that a construction permit...

  12. Looking Forward from "A Common Faith"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2009-01-01

    "A Common Faith," according to this author, is arguably one of John Dewey's least effective books. In it, he tries to persuade readers that the best of two epistemologically different worlds can be reconciled in a common faith--one that employs the methods of science with a generously religious attitude. Possibly most people today believe this…

  13. Organized Interests and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lorraine M.; Weatherford, M. Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Among the notable aspects of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is the diverse array of interest groups supporting them. These organizations must now apply the strategies they used so effectively in advancing the Common Core to stem mounting opposition to it. This article draws on theories of political and policy learning and interviews with…

  14. Go Figure: Math and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    In this article about the Common Core State Standards and mathematics, the author wanted to point out what's familiar in these standards and to give teachers clear access to what's different about them. She wanted to emphasize what has made her passionate about the Common Core standards--which is their two-part structure: Standards for

  15. Common Standards for Career Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Office of College and Career Readiness has developed the "Common Standards for Career Education Programs." The six common standards are: (1) Program Management and Planning; (2) Curriculum; (3) Instruction; (4) Professional Development; (5) Career and Technical Student Organizations; and (6) Instructional Facilities and Equipment. These

  16. Private Schools Opt for Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    The common standards are not just for public schools. With all but four states having adopted them since 2010, districts have little choice but to implement the Common Core State Standards. But many private schools are also making the transition. Many Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and other private schools have adopted at least portions of the

  17. Confronting Common Folklore: Catching a Cold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2012-01-01

    Almost every child has experienced the sniffly, stuffy, and achy congestion of the common cold. In addition, many have encountered the "old wives tales" that forge a link between personal actions and coming down with this common respiratory infection. Much of this health folklore has been passed down from generation to generation (e.g., getting a

  18. The Common Forces: Conservative or Nonconservative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeports, David

    2006-01-01

    Of the forces commonly encountered when solving problems in Newtonian mechanics, introductory texts usually limit illustrations of the definitions of conservative and nonconservative forces to gravity, spring forces, kinetic friction and fluid resistance. However, at the expense of very little class time, the question of whether each of the common

  19. The Info Commons Concept: Assessing User Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldo, Tara Tobin; Freund, LeiLani; Ocha, Marilyn N.; Salcedo, Marina

    2006-01-01

    The University of Florida Libraries took the opportunity of remodeling its Humanities and Social Sciences library to conceptualize the design of an info commons area for the new building. An Info Commons Concept Team was formed and charged with this task. The team used site visits, surveys, focus groups, and interviews to determine the needs of

  20. A Learning Commons on a Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailin, Deb; Bouchey, Heather; Nelson, Garet; Sherriff, Graham

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the creation of a Lyndon Learning Commons at Lyndon State College. The Commons model emphasizes the integration of a variety of academic support services, increasing both their proximity to one another and cross-unit collaboration, in order to make these services more visible, more accessible, and easier for students to

  1. Common hardware-in-the-loop development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hajin J.; Moss, Stephen G.

    2010-04-01

    An approach to streamline the Hardware-In-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation development process is under evaluation. This Common HWIL technique will attempt to provide a more flexible, scalable system. The overall goal of the Common HWIL system will be to reduce cost by minimizing redundant development, operational labor and equipment expense. This paper will present current results and future plans of the development.

  2. Confronting Common Folklore: Catching a Cold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2012-01-01

    Almost every child has experienced the sniffly, stuffy, and achy congestion of the common cold. In addition, many have encountered the "old wives tales" that forge a link between personal actions and coming down with this common respiratory infection. Much of this health folklore has been passed down from generation to generation (e.g., getting a…

  3. Just the Facts: Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Cheryl Scott

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the Common Core State Standards and what they mean to teachers and their students. The Common Core State Standards Initiative provides an opportunity for classroom practitioners across the nation to hone their skills, focus on student learning, and ensure that all the students they serve will be working…

  4. Common Threads: Women, Mathematics, and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary

    Common Threads was the name of an exhibition that drew together a number of views on mathematics and displayed them operating in the activity deemed most devoid of them. It demonstrated and challenged both gender stereotypes with its evidence that needlework is full of mathematics. This book tries to place Common Threads and its influence within

  5. 47 CFR 1.9080 - Private commons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures 1.9080 Private commons. (a) Overview. A private commons arrangement is an arrangement, distinct from a spectrum leasing arrangement but permitted in the same services for which spectrum leasing arrangements are allowed, in which a licensee or spectrum lessee...

  6. 47 CFR 1.9080 - Private commons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures 1.9080 Private commons. (a) Overview. A private commons arrangement is an arrangement, distinct from a spectrum leasing arrangement but permitted in the same services for which spectrum leasing arrangements are allowed, in which a licensee or spectrum lessee...

  7. 47 CFR 1.9080 - Private commons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures 1.9080 Private commons. (a) Overview. A private commons arrangement is an arrangement, distinct from a spectrum leasing arrangement but permitted in the same services for which spectrum leasing arrangements are allowed, in which a licensee or spectrum lessee...

  8. Investigating nitrogen deficiency in common beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) and soybean diverged from a common ancestor approximately 19 million years ago. The genome of P. vulgaris is approximately half the size of soybean, making it an excellent model for soybean genetics. Nitrogen (N) is often a growth-limiting nutrient, and N deficiency ...

  9. A Learning Commons on a Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailin, Deb; Bouchey, Heather; Nelson, Garet; Sherriff, Graham

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the creation of a Lyndon Learning Commons at Lyndon State College. The Commons model emphasizes the integration of a variety of academic support services, increasing both their proximity to one another and cross-unit collaboration, in order to make these services more visible, more accessible, and easier for students to…

  10. Looking Forward from "A Common Faith"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2009-01-01

    "A Common Faith," according to this author, is arguably one of John Dewey's least effective books. In it, he tries to persuade readers that the best of two epistemologically different worlds can be reconciled in a common faith--one that employs the methods of science with a generously religious attitude. Possibly most people today believe this

  11. Go Figure: Math and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    In this article about the Common Core State Standards and mathematics, the author wanted to point out what's familiar in these standards and to give teachers clear access to what's different about them. She wanted to emphasize what has made her passionate about the Common Core standards--which is their two-part structure: Standards for…

  12. What Are Common Symptoms of Pheochromocytoma?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for donations Email Page Print Page Overview Condition Information What are common symptoms? How many people are affected/at risk? ... What are the treatments? Other FAQs NICHD Research ... Resources and Publications What are common symptoms of pheochromocytoma? Skip sharing on social media ...

  13. Student Voice and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Common Core proponents and detractors debate its merits, but students have voiced their opinion for years. Using a decade's worth of data gathered through design-research on youth voice, this article discusses what high school students have long described as more ideal learning environments for themselves--and how remarkably similar the Common

  14. Insights into The Commons on Flickr

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The Commons on Flickr, comprised of an international community of select libraries, museums, and archives, was a project initially launched in 2008 by the Library of Congress and Flickr. Primary goals of The Commons are to broaden exposure to rich cultural heritage photographs and to observe and participate in the communities of engagement and

  15. Commonality of Ground Systems in Launch Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Shawn M.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is examining the utility of requiring a certain degree of commonality in both flight and ground systems in the Constellation Program. While the benefits of commonality seem obvious in terms of minimizing upfront development and long-term operations and maintenance costs, success in real, large-scale engineering systems used to support launch operations is relatively unknown. A broad literature review conducted for this paper did not yield a single paper specifically addressing the application of commonality for ground systems at any launch site in the United States or abroad. This paper provides a broad overview of the ground systems, captures historical and current application of commonality at the launch site, and offers suggestions for additional research to further develop commonality approaches.

  16. Governing the global commons with local institutions.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Todd; Salath, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Most problems faced by modern human society have two characteristics in common--they are tragedy-of-the-commons type of problems, and they are global problems. Tragedy-of-the-commons type of problems are those where a commonly shared resource is overexploited by free riders at the expense of everyone sharing the resource. The exploitation of global resources such as clean air and water, political stability and peace, etc. underlies many of the most pressing human problems. Punishment of free riding behavior is one of the most frequently used strategies to combat the problem, but the spatial reach of sanctioning institutions is often more limited than the spatial effects of overexploitation. Here, we analyze a general game theoretical model to assess under what circumstances sanctioning institutions with limited reach can maintain the larger commons. We find that the effect of the spatial reach has a strong effect on whether and how the commons can be maintained, and that the transitions between those outcomes are characterized by phase transitions. The latter indicates that a small change in the reach of sanctioning systems can profoundly change the way the global commons can be managed. PMID:22509269

  17. Common hardware-in-the-loop development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hajin J.; Moss, Stephen G.

    2009-05-01

    An approach to streamline the Hardware-In-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation development process is under evaluation. With increased microprocessor speed, FPGA capacity and increased bus bandwidth over the last decade, a common interface design may be able to support a large number of HWIL interfaces that were previously custom designed interfaces. The Common HWIL approach will attempt to provide a more flexible, scalable system. The overall goal of the Common HWIL system will be to reduce cost by minimizing redundant development and operational labor and equipment expenses. This paper will present current results and future plans of the development.

  18. Common and uncommon bilateral adult renal masses

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Anjali; Silverman, Paul M.; Kundra, Vikas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Masses can involve the kidney unilaterally or bilaterally. The purpose of this article is to review common and uncommon adult renal masses that present bilaterally. Clinical and imaging findings are described. Renal masses that present in a bilateral fashion can have particular clinical and imaging characteristics and knowledge of their presentation enables appropriate diagnosis and management, especially in a multidisciplinary care setting. More commonly found bilateral renal masses that are discussed include metastasis, lymphoproliferative disorders, adult polycystic kidney disease, angiomyolipomas, renal infracts and renal abscesses. Less common bilateral renal masses include transitional cell carcinoma, oncocytoma, and hematomas. PMID:22750134

  19. Common soccer injuries. Diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Tucker, A M

    1997-01-01

    Soccer is a game with worldwide appeal. Increasing numbers of participants are members of all age groups and skill levels. The game presents to the sports medicine practitioner a wide variety of musculoskeletal and medical problems. Soccer injuries increase in frequency as the age of participant increases, with a low incidence of injury in preadolescent players. Musculoskeletal injuries most commonly affect the lower extremities and include contusions, acute and chronic musculotendinous strains, and ligamentous injuries to the knee and ankle. Most injuries are minor and respond to analgesics, therapy modalities and exercise therapy. Groin pain is a common problem and particularly prevalent among soccer players owing to the game's specific stresses. Other less common but important injuries include facial trauma, mild brain injury (concussion) and heat-related injury. Team physicians, athletic trainers and physical therapists need to possess a basic understanding of the most common injuries and problems in order to maximise safe participation for their athletes. PMID:9017857

  20. What Are Common Symptoms of Phenylketonuria (PKU)?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources and Publications What are common symptoms of phenylketonuria (PKU)? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... a person's coloring 1 Genetics Home Reference. (2012). Phenylketonuria . Retrieved June 22, 2012, from http://ghr.nlm. ...

  1. Inquiry, New Literacies, and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegman, Bridget

    2014-01-01

    For 21st century learning, students need to be well versed in techniques for inquiry using new literacies. Developing these skills also will meet the rigorous expectations of the Common Core State Standards.

  2. Answers to Common Questions about Scars

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ideas Vehicle Donation Volunteer Efforts Answers to Common Questions About Scars skip to submenu Parents & Individuals Information ... 9044, Fax: (919) 933-9604 [Email] Have a question? Ask us! Thank you! We have received your ...

  3. Common Problems That Can Affect Your Voice

    MedlinePLUS

    ... antibiotics are not effective. Bacterial infections of the larynx are much rarer and often are associated with ... nerves and muscles within the voice box or larynx. The most common neurological condition that affects the ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Common variable immune deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... which can cause diarrhea and weight loss. Abnormal accumulation of immune cells causes enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy) ... in the Handbook. What if I still have specific questions about common variable immune deficiency? Ask the ...

  5. Common Cause Failure Modeling: Aerospace Versus Nuclear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stott, James E.; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert W.; Hark, Frank; Hatfield, G. Spencer

    2010-01-01

    Aggregate nuclear plant failure data is used to produce generic common-cause factors that are specifically for use in the common-cause failure models of NUREG/CR-5485. Furthermore, the models presented in NUREG/CR-5485 are specifically designed to incorporate two significantly distinct assumptions about the methods of surveillance testing from whence this aggregate failure data came. What are the implications of using these NUREG generic factors to model the common-cause failures of aerospace systems? Herein, the implications of using the NUREG generic factors in the modeling of aerospace systems are investigated in detail and strong recommendations for modeling the common-cause failures of aerospace systems are given.

  6. Vaccinating Your Preteen: Addressing Common Concerns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Vaccinating Your Preteen: Addressing Common Concerns Page Content Article Body ​As ... HPV, parents should have their children vaccinated. All preteen vaccines Do adolescent vaccines have serious side effects? ...

  7. A common-view disciplined oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, Michael A.; Dahlen, Aaron P.

    2010-05-15

    This paper describes a common-view disciplined oscillator (CVDO) that locks to a reference time scale through the use of common-view global positioning system (GPS) satellite measurements. The CVDO employs a proportional-integral-derivative controller that obtains near real-time common-view GPS measurements from the internet and provides steering corrections to a local oscillator. A CVDO can be locked to any time scale that makes real-time common-view data available and can serve as a high-accuracy, self-calibrating frequency and time standard. Measurement results are presented where a CVDO is locked to UTC(NIST), the coordinated universal time scale maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado.

  8. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  9. GenomicDataCommonsNewsNote

    Cancer.gov

    NCI is establishing the Genomic Data Commons to store, analyze and distribute cancer genomics data generated by NCI and other research organizations. The GDC will provide an interactive system for researchers to access data, with the goal of advancing the

  10. Common hematologic problems in the newborn nursery.

    PubMed

    Watchko, Jon F

    2015-04-01

    "Common red blood cell disorders encountered in the normal newborn nursery include hemolytic disease of the newborn and resultant hyperbilirubinemia, anemia, and polycythemia. A less frequent clinically relevant hematologic issue in newborns to be covered herein is thrombocytopenia." PMID:25836711

  11. New Wide Common Proper Motion Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, Rafael, Francisco Rica, Esteban Reina, Julio Castellanos, Ramn Naves, Luis Lahuerta, Salvador Lahuerta

    2010-01-01

    In this work we report the discovery of 150 new double stars of which 142 are wide common proper motion stellar systems. In addition to this, we report the study of 23 recently catalogued wide common proper motion binaries discovered by other observers. Spectral types, photometric distances, kinematics and ages were determined from data obtained consulting the literature. Several criteria were used to determine the nature of each double star. Orbital periods and the semimajor axes were calculated.

  12. Common Metrics for Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinfeld, Aaron; Lewis, Michael; Fong, Terrence; Scholtz, Jean; Schultz, Alan; Kaber, David; Goodrich, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to identify common metrics for task-oriented human-robot interaction (HRI). We begin by discussing the need for a toolkit of HRI metrics. We then describe the framework of our work and identify important biasing factors that must be taken into consideration. Finally, we present suggested common metrics for standardization and a case study. Preparation of a larger, more detailed toolkit is in progress.

  13. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldridge, Tim

    2005-01-01

    The goals of the project are: Achieve high business value through a common badging and access control system that integrates with smart cards. Provide physical (versus logical) deployment of smart cards initially. Provides a common consistent and reliable environment into which to release the smart card. Gives opportunity to develop agency-wide consistent processes, practices and policies. Enables enterprise data capture and management. Promotes data validation prior to SC issuance.

  14. A common language for computer security incidents

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Howard; Thomas A Longstaff

    1998-10-01

    Much of the computer security information regularly gathered and disseminated by individuals and organizations cannot currently be combined or compared because a common language has yet to emerge in the field of computer security. A common language consists of terms and taxonomies (principles of classification) which enable the gathering, exchange and comparison of information. This paper presents the results of a project to develop such a common language for computer security incidents. This project results from cooperation between the Security and Networking Research Group at the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, and the CERT{reg_sign} Coordination Center at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. This Common Language Project was not an effort to develop a comprehensive dictionary of terms used in the field of computer security. Instead, the authors developed a minimum set of high-level terms, along with a structure indicating their relationship (a taxonomy), which can be used to classify and understand computer security incident information. They hope these high-level terms and their structure will gain wide acceptance, be useful, and most importantly, enable the exchange and comparison of computer security incident information. They anticipate, however, that individuals and organizations will continue to use their own terms, which may be more specific both in meaning and use. They designed the common language to enable these lower-level terms to be classified within the common language structure.

  15. 29 CFR 779.219 - Unified operation may be achieved without common control or common ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unified operation may be achieved without common control or common ownership. 779.219 Section 779.219 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control 779.219 Unified operation...

  16. 29 CFR 779.219 - Unified operation may be achieved without common control or common ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unified operation may be achieved without common control or common ownership. 779.219 Section 779.219 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control 779.219 Unified operation...

  17. Something in Common: The Common Core Standards and the Next Chapter in American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    "Something in Common" is the first book to provide a detailed look at the groundbreaking Common Core State Standards and their potential to transform American education. This book tells the story of the unfolding political drama around the making of the Common Core State Standards for math and English language arts, which were adopted by 43 states

  18. Common morality: comment on Beauchamp and Childress.

    PubMed

    Rauprich, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The notion of common morality plays a prominent role in some of the most influential theories of biomedical ethics. Here, I focus on Beauchamp and Childress's models in the fourth and fifth edition of Principles of Biomedical Ethics as well as on a revision that Beauchamp proposed in a recent article. Although there are significant differences in these works that require separate analysis, all include a role for common morality as starting point and normative framework for theory construction in combination with a coherence theory of moral justification. I defend to some extent the existence and empirical significance of common morality, as delineated by Beauchamp and Childress in different versions, but criticize its normative role. It is neither convincing as a moral foundation nor well compatible with a standard coherentist justification. I suggest that the authors should give up the foundational account for a more modest account of common morality as resource of well-established moral insights and experiences, which have proved generally valid but neither sufficient nor infallible. Beauchamp's latest proposal appears as a step in this direction; indeed, it may be the beginning of the end of his common-morality theory. PMID:18392947

  19. Cutaneous Manifestations of Common Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Sunil; Jindal, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Skin functions as a window to our overall health and a number of systemic diseases result in various cutaneous changes. Knowledge of these manifestations helps in suspecting an underlying systemic illness. Cutaneous abnormalities are quite common in patients with liver diseases and this article aims to focus on these dermatoses. Cutaneous manifestations seen in patients with liver disease though common are nonspecific. They can also be seen in patients without liver diseases and generally do not indicate about a specific underlying hepatic disorder. The presence of a constellation of signs and symptoms is more useful in pointing toward an underlying hepatobiliary condition. The commonest symptom in patients with liver disease is pruritus which is often protracted and disabling. Other common features include spider angiomas, palmar erythema, paper money skin, xanthelasmas, pigmentary changes, and nutritional deficiencies. In this article, first the common cutaneous manifestations that may be associated with liver disorders are discussed and then common liver diseases with their specific cutaneous findings are discussed. Cutaneous abnormalities may be the first clue to the underlying liver disease. Identifying them is crucial for early diagnosis and better management. PMID:25755383

  20. Common post-operative complications in children

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Dilip

    2012-01-01

    The exact incidence of common post-operative complications in children is not known. Most common one is post-operative nausea and vomiting followed by respiratory complications leading to hypoxia. Cardiac complications are less in children without associated congenital cardiac anomaly. Post-operative shivering, agitation and delirium are seen more often in children anaesthetised with newer inhalational agents like sevoflurane and desflurane. Urinary retention in the post-operative period could be influenced by anaesthetic drugs and regional blocks. The purpose of this article is to review the literature and present to the postgraduate students comprehensive information about the current understanding and practice pattern on various common complications in the post-operative period. Extensive literature was searched with key words of various complications from Pubmed, Google scholar and specific journal, namely paediatric anaesthesia. The relevant articles, review article meta-analysis and editorials were the primary source of information for this article. PMID:23293390

  1. Economic Analysis of Social Common Capital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzawa, Hirofumi

    2005-06-01

    Social common capital provides members of society with those services and institutional arrangements that are crucial in maintaining human and cultural life. The term æsocial common capital' is comprised of three categories: natural capital, social infrastructure, and institutional capital. Natural capital consists of all natural environment and natural resources including the earth's atmosphere. Social infrastructure consists of roads, bridges, public transportation systems, electricity, and other public utilities. Institutional capital includes hospitals, educational institutions, judicial and police systems, public administrative services, financial and monetary institutions, and cultural capital. This book attempts to modify and extend the theoretical premises of orthodox economic theory to make them broad enough to analyze the economic implications of social common capital. It further aims to find the institutional arrangements and policy measures that will bring about the optimal state of affairs.

  2. GPS common-view time transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, W.

    1994-01-01

    The introduction of the GPS common-view method at the beginning of the 1980's led to an immediate and dramatic improvement of international time comparisons. Since then, further progress brought the precision and accuracy of GPS common-view intercontinental time transfer from tens of nanoseconds to a few nanoseconds, even with SA activated. This achievement was made possible by the use of the following: ultra-precise ground antenna coordinates, post-processed precise ephemerides, double-frequency measurements of ionosphere, and appropriate international coordination and standardization. This paper reviews developments and applications of the GPS common-view method during the last decade and comments on possible future improvements whose objective is to attain sub-nanosecond uncertainty.

  3. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Common Shiner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trial, Joan G.; Wade, Charles S.; Stanley, Jon G.; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for common shiner (Notropis cornutus). The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for the northeastern range of the common shiner in North America. Habitat suitability indexes (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Also included are discussions of Suitability Index (SI) curves as used in the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) and SI curves available for an IFIM analysis of smallmouth bass habitat.

  4. Revisiting the commons: local lessons, global challenges.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, E; Burger, J; Field, C B; Norgaard, R B; Policansky, D

    1999-04-01

    In a seminal paper, Garrett Hardin argued in 1968 that users of a commons are caught in an inevitable process that leads to the destruction of the resources on which they depend. This article discusses new insights about such problems and the conditions most likely to favor sustainable uses of common-pool resources. Some of the most difficult challenges concern the management of large-scale resources that depend on international cooperation, such as fresh water in international basins or large marine ecosystems. Institutional diversity may be as important as biological diversity for our long-term survival. PMID:10195886

  5. Right heart failure: toward a common language

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this guideline, the International Right Heart Foundation Working Group moves a step forward to develop a common language to describe the development and defects that exemplify the common syndrome of right heart failure. We first propose fundamental definitions of the distinctive components of the right heart circulation and provide consensus on a universal definition of right heart failure. These definitions will form the foundation for describing a uniform nomenclature for right heart circulatory failure with a view to foster collaborative research initiatives and conjoint education in an effort to provide insight into mechanisms of disease unique to the right heart. PMID:25006413

  6. Right heart failure: toward a common language.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Mandeep R; Park, Myung H; Landzberg, Michael J; Lala, Anuradha; Waxman, Aaron B

    2013-12-01

    In this guideline, the International Right Heart Foundation Working Group moves a step forward to develop a common language to describe the development and defects that exemplify the common syndrome of right heart failure. We first propose fundamental definitions of the distinctive components of the right heart circulation and provide consensus on a universal definition of right heart failure. These definitions will form the foundation for describing a uniform nomenclature for right heart circulatory failure with a view to foster collaborative research initiatives and conjoint education in an effort to provide insight into mechanisms of disease unique to the right heart. PMID:25006413

  7. Simulating futures in extended common LISP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtsheim, Philip R.

    1988-01-01

    Stack-groups comprise the mechanism underlying implementation of multiprocessing in Extended Common LISP, i.e., running multiple quasi-simultaneous processes within a single LISP address space. On the other hand, the future construct of MULTILISP, an extension of the LISP dialect scheme, deals with parallel execution. The source of concurrency that future exploits is the overlap between computation of a value and use of the value. Described is a simulation of the future construct by an interpreter utilizing stack-group extensions to common LISP.

  8. Macros help solve common petroleum engineering calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Muchmore, D.

    1995-11-06

    A toolkit consisting of macros provides petroleum engineers an easy method for incorporating petroleum fluid properties into spreadsheets. Published correlations were used to write the macros, defined as Microsoft Excel functions. Engineers can call these functions when constructing spreadsheets and eliminate having to access external sources for many common fluid property correlations. The Excel functions also allow the correlations to be easily incorporated into existing spreadsheets. A collection of spreadsheets is included with the toolkit that use these functions for the solution of common petroleum engineering problems. Functions, terms, spreadsheets are listed in the accompany box. The article also explains how to obtain a diskette containing the macros.

  9. Common anorectal conditions: evaluation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Phillip K; Cash, Brooks D

    2014-10-01

    Anorectal conditions are frequently encountered clinical entities but are often misunderstood and misdiagnosed. Although the most common anorectal disorders are not considered life threatening, they can negatively impact patients' activities of daily living and quality of life. Comprehensive anorectal examination, including the use of anoscopy, has become a "lost art," and graduate medical education programs should utilize more formal training in this area. This review discusses the comprehensive anorectal exam and the diagnosis and management of three common anorectal disorders: hemorrhoids, anal fissure, and pruritus ani. PMID:25189660

  10. Right heart failure: toward a common language.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Mandeep R; Park, Myung H; Landzberg, Michael J; Lala, Anuradha; Waxman, Aaron B

    2014-02-01

    In this perspective, the International Right Heart Foundation Working Group moves a step forward to develop a common language to describe the development and defects that exemplify the common syndrome of right heart failure. We first propose fundamental definitions of the distinctive components of the right heart circulation and provide consensus on a universal definition of right heart failure. These definitions will form the foundation for describing a uniform nomenclature for right heart circulatory failure with a view to foster collaborative research initiatives and conjoint education in an effort to provide insight into echanisms of disease unique to the right heart. PMID:24268184

  11. English Learners, Writing, and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carol Booth; Scarcella, Robin; Matuchniak, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Adopted by 46 states, the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) present a vision of what it means to be literate in the twenty-first century and call for all students, including English learners, to develop critical reading skills necessary for a deep understanding of complex texts, and critical writing skills to write about those texts. This article…

  12. At the Center of the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2012

    2012-01-01

    While the 2011-2012 school year offered educators a sketch of the Common Core State Standards and how they would impact teaching and learning, this year that painting takes shape. Many states and districts are well on the way to implementing the standards--but the process is complex, especially for the school leaders who shoulder the task of

  13. Lift-off to the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Sue; Kaiser, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Hands-on science activities help to make science more interesting for children and create that sense of wonder and excitement. But hands-on science and teacher lectures do not offer the full course meal. The textbook is often missing. As stated in the Common Core State Standards, students must have multiple opportunities to become independent in

  14. Some Sri Lankan common pot-herbs.

    PubMed

    Liyanaratne, Jinadas

    2003-10-01

    As a follow-up of the articles of R. Brindha and S. Parvathy, ASL, XXII, 2003, 166-168, fifteen edible plants of South Asian ecosystem, commonly used in Sri Lankan cuisine, are dealt with in view of their ethnobotanical and ehtonomedical value. Their vernacular names (Sanskrit, Sinhala, and Tamil given here) often reveal different botanical features and medicinal properties. PMID:22557115

  15. Why the Common Core Changes Math Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Valerie N.

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core math standards promote several important differences in how math concepts are taught and should be talked about. These changes will make it easier for younger students to comprehend and adapt to more complex concepts in the later grades. This guide should help elementary teachers make changes and adaptations that are in line the

  16. Common factors in effective HIV prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Flannery, Diane; Rice, Eric; Adamson, David M; Ingram, Barbara

    2009-06-01

    We propose a set of common factors in evidence-based interventions (EBI) for HIV prevention, which cut across theoretical models of behavior change. Three existing literatures support this agenda: (1) Common factors in psychotherapy; (2) core elements from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention EBIs; and (3) component analyses of EBI. To stimulate discussion among prevention researchers, we propose a set of common factors at the highest level of abstraction that describe what all effective programs do: (1) establish a framework to understand behavior change; (2) convey issue-specific and population-specific information necessary for healthy actions; (3) build cognitive, affective, and behavioral self-management skills; (4) address environmental barriers to implementing health behaviors; and (5) provide tools to develop ongoing social and community support for healthy actions. A focus on common factors will enhance research on new HIV prevention interventions, encourage collaboration among researchers, provide guidelines for adapting EBI, and simplify and speed the adoption of EBI for providers. PMID:18830813

  17. Thematic Relations Affect Similarity via Commonalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golonka, Sabrina; Estes, Zachary

    2009-01-01

    Thematic relations are an important source of perceived similarity. For instance, the "rowing" theme of boats and oars increases their perceived similarity. The mechanism of this effect, however, has not been specified previously. The authors investigated whether thematic relations affect similarity by increasing commonalities or by decreasing

  18. Laying a Common Foundation for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    For decades, the American elementary and secondary education system has operated somewhat as the railroads did before Lincoln's day, with each state setting its own expectations for what students should know and be able to do. To address that problem, nearly every state, with little fanfare, has adopted the Common Core State Standards for student

  19. Canada, Copyright, and the Common Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslett, K. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Advocacy on public policy issues such as copyright is a common concern of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and the Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL). Duane Webster has been instrumental in facilitating a collaborative approach to such advocacy. Part of this involves concerted efforts to ensure that fair use (United…

  20. Chromosome Connections: Compelling Clues to Common Ancestry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Students compare banding patterns on hominid chromosomes and see striking evidence of their common ancestry. To test this, human chromosome no. 2 is matched with two shorter chimpanzee chromosomes, leading to the hypothesis that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of the two shorter chromosomes. Students test that hypothesis by looking for…

  1. Exploring Function Transformations Using the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Becky; Giacin, Rich

    2013-01-01

    When examining transformations of the plane in geometry, teachers typically have students experiment with transformations of polygons. Students are usually quick to notice patterns with ordered pairs. The Common Core State Standard, Geometry, Congruence 2 (G-CO.2), requires students to describe transformations as functions that take points in the…

  2. THE COMMON CORE OF DATA (CCD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Common Core of Data (CCD), a program of the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics, is a comprehensive, annual, national statistical databaseof information concerning allpublic elementary and secondary schools (approximately 95,000) and school...

  3. Are You Ready for Common Core Math?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2012-01-01

    With new Common Core State Standards assessments in K12 mathematics due to be in use by the start of the 2014-2015 school year, many district administrators and teachers do not know what they should know about them now and are not taking steps they should be taking to prepare for them. While they are aware that the assessments are being developed,

  4. Commonalities between Adolescents' Work Values and Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rottinghaus, Patrick J.; Zytowski, Donald G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the chief work values, assessed by Super's Work Values Inventory--Revised (D. G. Zytowski, 2004b), across interest groups organized by the 6 Holland theme scales of the Kuder Career Search (D. G. Zytowski, 2004a). Results strengthen vocational theory through clarification of gender differences and conceptual commonalities

  5. Common emergencies in cancer medicine: metabolic syndromes.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C. R.; Dodhia, N.

    1991-01-01

    Metabolic derangements are fairly common occurrences in cancer medicine. In many instances, they require deft recognition and prompt institution of emergency therapeutic intervention. These syndromes may result from a primary tumor, metastatic disease, or anti-tumor therapy. This article discusses the management of such patients. PMID:1942115

  6. Idaho Commons at the University of Idaho.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes the architectural design, costs, general description, and square footage data for the Idaho Commons at the University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. A floor plan and photos are included along with a list of manufacturers and suppliers used for the project. (GR)

  7. 6 Common Mistakes that Undermine Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kristy

    2014-01-01

    Telling students to study simply because they must or making narrow pitches to a subject's future utility typically fail to generate student interest. Six common mistakes that undermine student motivation can be easily avoided--among them are telling students they need to learn the content now because they will need it when they grow up or

  8. A programmer's guide to COMMON LISP

    SciTech Connect

    Tatar, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents basic and advanced material on COMMON LISP. Topics covered are as follows: introduction to LISP; data types and evaluation; writing procedures; variables; recursion, iteration, and ''PROGN-TYPE'' forms; interactions with the outside world; manipulating data; using procedures as data; advanced concepts; compilation; macros; and extended example: a toy expert system.

  9. Translating the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Orlich, Donald C.

    2013-01-01

    As the authors describe in Chapter 7 of their new book, "The School Reform Landscape: Fraud, Myth, and Lies," the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative continues to ramble on, without evidence to support its efficacy. That is because education reform in the United States is being driven largely by ideology, rhetoric, and dogma instead of…

  10. Translating the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Orlich, Donald C.

    2013-01-01

    As the authors describe in Chapter 7 of their new book, "The School Reform Landscape: Fraud, Myth, and Lies," the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative continues to ramble on, without evidence to support its efficacy. That is because education reform in the United States is being driven largely by ideology, rhetoric, and dogma instead of

  11. "Lookism", Common Schools, Respect and Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The Common School should promote a sense of the distinctive worth of all human beings. How is the respect thus owed to every individual to be properly understood? This familiar question is explored by discussing "lookism", a form of discrimination on the grounds of appearance. The treatment is located within a wider analysis of stereotyping.…

  12. Revisiting the Common Myths about Homeschooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanowski, Michael H.

    2006-01-01

    The author examines four common myths that still influence individuals regarding their perspective and understanding of the role homeschooling plays in the education of American children. Myth 1 is that homeschooling produces social misfits, stemming from the belief that homeschooled students lack the socialization skills necessary for normal

  13. Orchestras: Music Education Is a 'Common Cause'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Debbie Galante

    2007-01-01

    In a show of support for music teachers, the League of American Orchestras has issued a call to action for the betterment of K-12 music education in public schools. The League's Statement of Common Cause: Orchestras Support In-School Music Education is consistent with its prior work with MENC on advocacy initiatives. According to League

  14. The Tragedy of the Common School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Mo

    2009-01-01

    Horace Mann's vision of a common school to educate American children has not been realized. Instead, our country is experimenting with many different kinds of schools: charters, independents, parochials, and magnets, to name a few. These schools fill a particular niche for families, with the potential to focus education to the needs of each child.

  15. Systemic Sclerosis: Commonly Asked Questions by Rheumatologists

    PubMed Central

    Young, Amber; Khanna, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a rare autoimmune disorder with significant morbidity and mortality due to multi-organ system involvement. Early diagnosis and screening for organ involvement is critical as earlier treatment appears to improve function and may impact mortality. The purpose of this article is to address some of the commonly asked questions by rheumatologists on systemic sclerosis. PMID:25807095

  16. Catholic Schools and the Common Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFiore, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    There are at least two ways to think about the Common Good. One is the intentional, direct attempt to provide benefits to those beyond oneself and those connected to oneself. The second consists of those unintended consequences of the pursuit of some other benefit, usually private but not necessarily so. Probably the best-known example is that of…

  17. Gates, Pearson Partner on Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    As states and school districts grapple with how to teach the skills outlined in the new common standards, two foundations have announced a partnership aimed at crafting complete, online curricula for those standards in mathematics and English/language arts that span nearly every year of a child's precollegiate education. The announcement last

  18. Communication: common challenging scenarios in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Owen, Ray; Jeffrey, David

    2008-05-01

    Good communication is at the heart of effective cancer care. Certain situations which occur commonly in cancer care present particular challenges to the communication skills of healthcare professionals. This paper explores some of the reasons why these situations are difficult and provides frameworks for responding, to stimulate thought and discussion. PMID:18364252

  19. The Common Good in Classical Political Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, V. Bradley

    2006-01-01

    The term "common good" names the end (or final cause) of political and social life in the tradition of moral thought that owes its main substance to Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas. It names a genuine good ("bonum honestum") and not merely an instrumental or secondary good defeasible in the face of particular goods. However, at the same time, it

  20. How ASCD Supports the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercado, Efrain; Britt, Sherida

    2013-01-01

    As the Common Core State Standards Initiative moved from the development and adoption of the standards to their implementation, ASCD embarked on a multifaceted program to help educators understand and implement the new standards. With support from a $3 million grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, ASCD has enacted a three-pronged…

  1. Common Core State Standards: I Wonder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2010-01-01

    On June 1, 2009, the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (NGA Center) and the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) issued a press release stating that 49 states and territories had joined the Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSS). That initiative proposed that all states voluntarily adopt the same set of…

  2. English Learners, Writing, and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carol Booth; Scarcella, Robin; Matuchniak, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Adopted by 46 states, the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) present a vision of what it means to be literate in the twenty-first century and call for all students, including English learners, to develop critical reading skills necessary for a deep understanding of complex texts, and critical writing skills to write about those texts. This article

  3. Chromosome Connections: Compelling Clues to Common Ancestry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Students compare banding patterns on hominid chromosomes and see striking evidence of their common ancestry. To test this, human chromosome no. 2 is matched with two shorter chimpanzee chromosomes, leading to the hypothesis that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of the two shorter chromosomes. Students test that hypothesis by looking for

  4. The Common Core's First Casualty: Playful Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowdon, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Although the Common Core standards do not prescribe pedagogy or forbid playful learning, kindergarten teachers will find it challenging to maintain a playful classroom under this reform. Kindergarten teachers have to cover a more rigorous and accelerated curriculum now, and they are doing so in a context that rewards procedural teaching.

  5. Access to the Common Core for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    Too often under the various state-developed standards and assessments, accommodations for students with disabilities--a heterogeneous group with varied characteristics and needs--have not been adequately addressed or have been ignored. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative provides an historic opportunity to improve access to rigorous

  6. Solving the 10 Most Common Carpet Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Identifies the 10 most common carpet problems in school facilities and offers solutions. These include: transition areas, moisture, spot removal, recurring spots, cleaning agents, allergens, wicking, biological contamination, equipment selection, and cleaning methods. Ensuring a successful maintenance program results in satisfactory appearance,…

  7. Principal Prep for Common Core Gaining Traction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    A year ago, top officials in the school leadership world were worried. It seemed to them that principals were being overlooked in national conversations about how to get educators ready for the Common Core State Standards. But that is changing. The past six months have seen a surge of activity to acquaint principals with the new standards and

  8. Identification of commonly encountered Pratylenchus in Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pratylenchus species are commonly encountered in soil samples collected from a diversity of economically important crops in Oregon, including potato and small fruits. Proper identification is critical to the selection of an appropriate management strategy since, in many cases, populations are an as...

  9. Common Threads: Quilt-Making and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Phoebe M.

    A teacher educator and artist explores alternate ways to think of teaching as a creative endeavor. This paper brings together the voices of Appalachian craftswomen and the wisdom of educator and philosopher John Dewey to create a patchwork that celebrates the common threads of quiltmaking and teaching. Interviews with West Virginia craftswomen and

  10. Exploring Function Transformations Using the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Becky; Giacin, Rich

    2013-01-01

    When examining transformations of the plane in geometry, teachers typically have students experiment with transformations of polygons. Students are usually quick to notice patterns with ordered pairs. The Common Core State Standard, Geometry, Congruence 2 (G-CO.2), requires students to describe transformations as functions that take points in the

  11. Hardware compression using common portions of data

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jichuan; Viswanathan, Krishnamurthy

    2015-03-24

    Methods and devices are provided for data compression. Data compression can include receiving a plurality of data chunks, sampling at least some of the plurality of data chunks extracting a common portion from a number of the plurality of data chunks based on the sampling, and storing a remainder of the plurality of data chunks in memory.

  12. Communication Is Key to Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunsell, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    States, districts, and schools must work to develop effective implementation and communications plans around the Common Core State Standards and aligned assessments. The Education Trust commissioned research on the communication of changes to state assessments in the recent past and lessons learned from that effort identify key elements of an…

  13. Laptop Use in University Common Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Bill

    2006-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence existed about the many students who use their laptops and the wireless network in university common spaces, but little was known about how, where, and why students use laptops on campus, and less was known about students' awareness of university wireless network policies and security. This article discusses the results of a

  14. The Common Core: Far from Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toscano, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this opinion piece, Michael Toscano writes that his criticism of the Common Core State Standards ultimately has very little to do with their innate quality, but rather that their relation to other social spheres is disordered. He refers to the full reordering of American education away from families and local communities--which he states are

  15. Automatisms in non common law countries.

    PubMed

    Falk-Pedersen, J K

    1997-01-01

    The distinction made in the common law tradition between sane and insane automatisms, and in particular the labelling of epileptic automatisms as insane, are legal concepts which surprise and even astonish lawyers of other traditions, whether they work within a civil law system or one with elements both from civil law and common law. It could be useful to those lawyers, doctors and patients struggling for a change in the common law countries to receive comparative material from other countries. Thus, the way automatisms are dealt with in non-common law countries will be discussed with an emphasis on the Norwegian criminal law system. In Norway no distinction is made between sane and insane automatisms and the plea Not Guilty by virtue of epileptic automatism is both available and valid assuming certain conditions are met. No. 44 of the Penal Code states that acts committed while the perpetrator is unconscious are not punishable. Automatisms are regarded as "relative unconsciousness", and thus included under No. 44. Exceptions may be made if the automatism is a result of self-inflicted intoxication following the consumption of alcohol or (illegal) drugs. Also, the role and relevance of experts as well as the law of some other European countries will be briefly discussed. PMID:9212627

  16. Virginia Standards Predated the Common Core Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowledge Quest, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Virginia Board of Education is committed to the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL) program and opposed to adoption of the newly developed Common Core State Standards as a prerequisite for participation in federal competitive grant and entitlement programs. The Standards of Learning are clear and rigorous and have won the acceptance and trust…

  17. Common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers

    PubMed Central

    Daneshpour, Shima; Bahadoran, Mehran; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Eskandarian, Abas Ali; Mahmoudzadeh, Mehdi; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Different research groups reported a negative correlation between cancers and parasitical infections. As an example, the prevalence of a hydatid cyst among patients with cancer was significantly lower than its prevalence among normal population. Tn antigens exist both in cancer and hydatid cyst. This common antigen may be involved in the effect of parasite on cancer growth. So in this work, common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers have been investigated. Materials and Methods: Different hydatid cyst antigens including hydatid fluid, laminated and germinal layer antigens, and excretory secretory antigens of protoscolices were run in SDS PAGE and transferred to NCP paper. In western immunoblotting, those antigens were probed with sera of patients with different cancer and also sera of non-cancer patients. Also, cross reaction among excretory secretory products of cancer cells and antisera raised against different hydatid cyst antigen was investigated. Results: In western immunoblotting, antisera raised against laminated and germinal layers of hydatid cyst reacted with excretory secretory products of cancer cells. Also, a reaction was detected between hydatid cyst antigens and sera of patients with some cancers. Conclusion: Results of this work emphasize existence of common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers. More investigation about these common antigens is recommended. PMID:26962511

  18. US Academic Libraries: Today's Learning Commons Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the author examined existing academic libraries in the United States to determine best practices for the design, implementation and service of learning commons facilities. A primary objective of this study was to discover how to create a higher education learning environment that sustains scholarship, encourages collaboration and empowers…

  19. The Common Core: New Standards, New Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael W.; Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.; Fredricksen, James

    2013-01-01

    The good news about the Common Core State Standards: They emphasize writing convincing arguments about issues that matter, clear and comprehensive informational texts that can do meaningful work in the world, and compelling narratives. The bad news: Traditional approaches to teaching writing aren't enough to meet these new standards. The

  20. Canada, Copyright, and the Common Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslett, K. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Advocacy on public policy issues such as copyright is a common concern of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and the Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL). Duane Webster has been instrumental in facilitating a collaborative approach to such advocacy. Part of this involves concerted efforts to ensure that fair use (United

  1. Common Criteria Set for Federal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2013-01-01

    As part of an effort to improve the quality of educational research and make it less balkanized, the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) have introduced a common set of evidence standards for federally funded work. The criteria will guide all new research at the IES, the U.S. Department of Education's…

  2. No Antibiotics for Common Respiratory Infections: Experts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... slow and/or prevent the continued rise in antibiotic resistance," he added. According to the guidelines: Doctors should ... HealthDay . All rights reserved. More Health News on: Antibiotic Resistance Common Cold Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health ...

  3. Silence and the Notion of the Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Ursula

    1994-01-01

    Stresses the value of silence, the right to have silence, and how technology has manipulated the sound environment and therefore taken silence out of common availability. Discusses noise pollution and the manipulative use of sound for private gain. Suggests taking action to restore the right to silence. (LP)

  4. Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Christine; Davidson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) is a large-scale, high-stakes, English language proficiency/placement test administered in the United Arab Emirates to Emirati nationals in their final year of secondary education or Grade 12. The purpose of the CEPA is to place students into English classes at the appropriate government

  5. Variation and Commonality in Phenomenographic Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerlind, Gerlese S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the data analysis stage of phenomenographic research, elucidating what is involved in terms of both commonality and variation in accepted practice. The analysis stage of phenomenographic research is often not well understood. This paper helps to clarify the process, initially by collecting together in one location the more…

  6. Voter Perceptions: Common Core State Standards & Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    Since June 2010, 46 states and Washington DC have adopted the Common Core State Standards (CCSS)--K-12 standards in mathematics and English language arts/literacy developed through a multi-state initiative led by the National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers. Implementation of the standards is underway in all of

  7. Common beans, diseases: ecology and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is one of the most important edible legume crops worldwide, nutritionally and economically. Diseases caused by pathogens that affect beans can have catastrophic effects, destroying entire crops in some instances. There are more than 200 pathogens (bacterial, fungal,...

  8. Common obstacles to making quality hay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many obstacles are known to limit the production of high-quality hays. Among these, advanced plant maturity, rain damage during field wilting, and spontaneous heating during bale storage are most common. Rain damage reduces forage quality by leaching cell solubles (mostly sugars) from the forage, th...

  9. Common Criteria Set for Federal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2013-01-01

    As part of an effort to improve the quality of educational research and make it less balkanized, the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) have introduced a common set of evidence standards for federally funded work. The criteria will guide all new research at the IES, the U.S. Department of Education's

  10. Ky. Road-Tests Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ujifusa, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Results from new state tests in Kentucky--the first in the nation explicitly tied to the Common Core State Standards--show that the share of students scoring "proficient" or better in reading and math dropped by roughly a third or more in both elementary and middle school the first year the tests were given. Kentucky in 2010 was the first state to

  11. Common Topics and Commonplaces of Environmental Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Derek G.

    2013-01-01

    Common topics are words or phrases used to develop argument, and commonplaces aid memory or catalyze frames of understanding. When used in argumentation, each may help interested parties more effectively communicate valuable scientific and environment-related information. This article describes 12 modern topics of environmental rhetoric,

  12. Science To Serve the Common Good.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Garry D.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews "Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest", a report produced by a committee of the National Research Council that offers a model of a new and better approach to addressing environmental problems that could enable science to serve the common good. Demonstrates a successful approach to doing science and contributing to society.

  13. Communication Is Key to Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunsell, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    States, districts, and schools must work to develop effective implementation and communications plans around the Common Core State Standards and aligned assessments. The Education Trust commissioned research on the communication of changes to state assessments in the recent past and lessons learned from that effort identify key elements of an

  14. Common Cold - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... List of All Topics All Common Cold - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Hmong (Hmoob) Khmer (Khmer) Portuguese (português) Spanish ( ...

  15. Common topics in adolescent critical care medicine.

    PubMed

    Skaletzky, Sharon; Totapally, Balagangadhar R

    2013-04-01

    This article reviews some common conditions in adolescents that require critical care. Topics that are covered include severe sepsis and shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, status asthmaticus, diabetic ketoacidosis, poisoning (acetaminophen, decongestants, prescription medications, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), and trauma. Comments about bariatric surgery are also included. PMID:23705524

  16. The Common Application: When Competitors Collaborate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Liu, Albert Yung-Hsu

    2009-01-01

    American colleges and universities compete with each other for undergraduate and graduate students, faculty and staff, research funding, and external contributions, as well as on athletic fields. This competition is often alleged to be a zero-sum game; what one institution wins, another must lose. However, as the authors show here, the Common

  17. Genetic divergence of common bean cultivars.

    PubMed

    Veloso, J S; Silva, W; Pinheiro, L R; Dos Santos, J B; Fonseca, N S; Euzebio, M P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic divergence in the 'Carioca' (beige with brown stripes) common bean cultivar used by different institutions and in 16 other common bean cultivars used in the Rede Cooperativa de Pesquisa de Feijo (Cooperative Network of Common Bean Research), by using simple sequence repeats associated with agronomic traits that are highly distributed in the common bean genome. We evaluated 22 polymorphic loci using bulks containing DNA from 30 plants. There was genetic divergence among the Carioca cultivar provided by the institutions. Nevertheless, there was lower divergence among them than among the other cultivars. The cultivar used by Instituto Agronmico do Paran was the most divergent in relation to the Carioca samples. The least divergence was observed among the samples used by Universidade Federal de Lavras and by Embrapa Arroz e Feijo. Of all the cultivars, 'CNFP 10104' and 'BRSMG Realce' showed the greatest dissimilarity. The cultivars were separated in two groups of greatest similarity using the Structure software. Genetic variation among cultivars was greater than the variation within or between the groups formed. This fact, together with the high estimate of heterozygosity observed and the genetic divergence of the samples of the Carioca cultivar in relation to the original provided by Instituto Agronmico de Campinas, indicates a mixture of cultivars. The high divergence among cultivars provides potential for the utilization of this genetic variability in plant breeding. PMID:26400359

  18. What Should Common Core Assessments Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Kayla; Fortune, Nicholas; Lovett, Jennifer N.; Scherrer, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for mathematics promote ideals about learning mathematics by providing specific standards focused on conceptual understanding and incorporating practices in which students must participate to develop conceptual understanding. Thus, how we define learning is pivotal because our current definition isn't aligned with…

  19. The Common Core and Inverse Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edenfield, Kelly W.

    2012-01-01

    The widespread adoption of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) shows a commitment to changing mathematics teaching and learning in pursuit of increasing student achievement. CCSSM should not be viewed as just another list of content standards for publishers and assessment groups to design their products around. Many…

  20. Lesson Planning with the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Linda A.; McDuffie, Amy Roth; Tate, Cathie

    2014-01-01

    Planning a lesson can be similar to planning a road trip--a metaphor the authors use to describe how they applied research and theory to their lesson planning process. A map and mode of transportation, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and textbooks as resources, can lead to desired destinations, such as students engaging in

  1. The psychology of coordination and common knowledge.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kyle A; DeScioli, Peter; Haque, Omar Sultan; Pinker, Steven

    2014-10-01

    Research on human cooperation has concentrated on the puzzle of altruism, in which 1 actor incurs a cost to benefit another, and the psychology of reciprocity, which evolved to solve this problem. We examine the complementary puzzle of mutualism, in which actors can benefit each other simultaneously, and the psychology of coordination, which ensures such benefits. Coordination is facilitated by common knowledge: the recursive belief state in which A knows X, B knows X, A knows that B knows X, B knows that A knows X, ad infinitum. We test whether people are sensitive to common knowledge when deciding whether to engage in risky coordination. Participants decided between working alone for a certain profit and working together for a potentially higher profit that they would receive only if their partner made the same choice. Results showed that more participants attempted risky coordination when they and their prospective partner had common knowledge of the payoffs (broadcast over a loudspeaker) than when they had only shared knowledge (conveyed to both by a messenger) or private knowledge (revealed to each partner separately). These results support the hypothesis that people represent common knowledge as a distinct cognitive category that licenses them to coordinate with others for mutual gain. We discuss how this hypothesis can provide a unified explanation for diverse phenomena in human social life, including recursive mentalizing, performative speech acts, public protests, hypocrisy, and self-conscious emotional expressions. PMID:25111301

  2. Common Factors in Sex and Race Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Margaret E.; And Others

    Factors that might be common to sex and race discrimination were studied with a sample of 86 black and white graduate students enrolled in two Southern colleges. Attitudes toward changing economic roles for women and blacks were also assessed. Thirty-seven percent of the sample was under 30 years old, and 93 percent was from the Southeastern

  3. Variation and Commonality in Phenomenographic Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerlind, Gerlese S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the data analysis stage of phenomenographic research, elucidating what is involved in terms of both commonality and variation in accepted practice. The analysis stage of phenomenographic research is often not well understood. This paper helps to clarify the process, initially by collecting together in one location the more

  4. The Common Core: Far from Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toscano, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this opinion piece, Michael Toscano writes that his criticism of the Common Core State Standards ultimately has very little to do with their innate quality, but rather that their relation to other social spheres is disordered. He refers to the full reordering of American education away from families and local communities--which he states are…

  5. Student Voice and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Common Core proponents and detractors debate its merits, but students have voiced their opinion for years. Using a decade's worth of data gathered through design-research on youth voice, this article discusses what high school students have long described as more ideal learning environments for themselves--and how remarkably similar the Common…

  6. Common Core State Standards: I Wonder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2010-01-01

    On June 1, 2009, the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (NGA Center) and the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) issued a press release stating that 49 states and territories had joined the Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSS). That initiative proposed that all states voluntarily adopt the same set of

  7. GAISEing into the Common Core of Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Randall E.; Bargagliotti, Anna E.

    2012-01-01

    In education, it is common to set aside older curriculum documents when newer ones are released. In fact, some instructional leaders have encouraged the "out with the old, in with the new" process by asking teachers to turn in all copies of the older document. Doing so makes sense when the old curriculum document is incompatible with the new.

  8. Common Selection Problems Can Be Overcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byham, William C.

    1978-01-01

    After listing the 12 most common problems in employee selection, the author offers four principles for improving the selection interview process. The principles focus on using job-related selection targets, using past behavior as an indicator of future behavior, organizing selection elements into a system, and involving several managers.

  9. Badges: A Common Currency for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Kyle; Thomas, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Digital Badges--icons that can represent skills and achievements at a more fine-grained level than a degree--give colleges and universities a new way to document learning outcomes and to map the pathways students follow to earn a degree. They also provide a common currency to denote learning outcomes and give employers a visual representation and

  10. Access to the Common Core for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    Too often under the various state-developed standards and assessments, accommodations for students with disabilities--a heterogeneous group with varied characteristics and needs--have not been adequately addressed or have been ignored. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative provides an historic opportunity to improve access to rigorous…

  11. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2011

    2011-01-01

    For over a decade, research studies of mathematics education in high-performing countries have pointed to the conclusion that the mathematics curriculum in the United States must become substantially more focused and coherent in order to improve mathematics achievement in this country. To deliver on the promise of common standards, the standards…

  12. Restrained Teaching: The Common Core of Didaktik

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopmann, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    "Didaktik" is at the centre of most school teaching and teacher education in Continental Europe, but at the same time almost unknown in the English speaking world. The article gives a brief outline of the history and the common core of Didaktik, of its current situation, and of the basic differences compared to the Anglo-American concept of

  13. Information Commons Help Desk Transactions Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Gabrielle K. W.

    2010-01-01

    With the purpose of designing a training program for a new team serving at a technology service point, the author analyzed the transactions log using a new, multi-faceted, taxonomy. The resulting list of competencies and the methodology would be useful for managers of information or learning commons. (Contains 5 tables.)

  14. Laying a Common Foundation for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    For decades, the American elementary and secondary education system has operated somewhat as the railroads did before Lincoln's day, with each state setting its own expectations for what students should know and be able to do. To address that problem, nearly every state, with little fanfare, has adopted the Common Core State Standards for student…

  15. Common Topics and Commonplaces of Environmental Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Derek G.

    2013-01-01

    Common topics are words or phrases used to develop argument, and commonplaces aid memory or catalyze frames of understanding. When used in argumentation, each may help interested parties more effectively communicate valuable scientific and environment-related information. This article describes 12 modern topics of environmental rhetoric,…

  16. Common Factors of High Performance Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Bruce; Madsen, Susan R.

    2005-01-01

    Utilization of work teams is now wide spread in all types of organizations throughout the world. However, an understanding of the important factors common to high performance teams is rare. The purpose of this content analysis is to explore the literature and propose findings related to high performance teams. These include definition and types,

  17. Mathematical Rigor in the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Ted H.; Balka, Don S.; Miles, Ruth Harbin

    2013-01-01

    A whirlwind of activity surrounds the topic of teaching and learning mathematics. The driving forces are a combination of changes in assessment and advances in technology that are being spurred on by the introduction of content in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practice. Although the issues are certainly complex, the same forces…

  18. Badges: A Common Currency for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Kyle; Thomas, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Digital Badges--icons that can represent skills and achievements at a more fine-grained level than a degree--give colleges and universities a new way to document learning outcomes and to map the pathways students follow to earn a degree. They also provide a common currency to denote learning outcomes and give employers a visual representation and…

  19. How ASCD Supports the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercado, Efrain; Britt, Sherida

    2013-01-01

    As the Common Core State Standards Initiative moved from the development and adoption of the standards to their implementation, ASCD embarked on a multifaceted program to help educators understand and implement the new standards. With support from a $3 million grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, ASCD has enacted a three-pronged

  20. Common questions patients ask during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hueston, W J; Eilers, G M; King, D E; McGlaughlin, V G

    1995-05-01

    When women become pregnant, they expect their family physicians to answer many questions about potential risks during the pregnancy and possible effects on the developing fetus. Many of these questions concern over-the-counter medications, common household exposures and daily activities, which often are not well discussed in obstetric texts. In general, women can be reassured that allergy medications and most common food additives, such as caffeine and aspartame, are safe to use during pregnancy. Most cosmetics and hair care products, including permanent wave solutions, are safe in limited exposures. Patients should be counseled to avoid exposure to insecticides and to continue good safety habits, such as wearing seat belts. Discussion of specific risks may prevent unnecessary anxiety and needless changes in work and home environment and lifestyle for pregnant women. PMID:7732948

  1. Infant formulas: practical answers for common questions.

    PubMed

    Tigges, B B

    1997-08-01

    The pediatric health care provider is often faced with myriad decisions related to the use of infant formula. This article compares human milk to cow's milk. It addresses the composition, classification, and use of some of the most common infant formulas manufactured for use with the term infant in the outpatient setting. Common clinical situations are discussed, including the role for low-iron, goat's milk, and follow-up formulas, and formula use for the infant with diarrhea, colic, and atopic disease. The article highlights the poor quality of research and the lack of definitive answers available to the clinician when managing the infant with atopic disease. It concludes with a review of practical aspects of infant formula feeding for use in client education and management, including guidelines for formula preparation, calculating necessary formula intake, frequency, and quantity of infant feedings, and provisions of the WIC program. PMID:9279846

  2. Viscosity of Common Seed and Vegetable Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wes Fountain, C.; Jennings, Jeanne; McKie, Cheryl K.; Oakman, Patrice; Fetterolf, Monty L.

    1997-02-01

    Viscosity experiments using Ostwald-type gravity flow viscometers are not new to the physical chemistry laboratory. Several physical chemistry laboratory texts (1 - 3) contain at least one experiment studying polymer solutions or other well-defined systems. Several recently published articles (4 - 8) indicated the continued interest in using viscosity measurements in the teaching lab to illustrate molecular interpretation of bulk phenomena. Most of these discussions and teaching experiments are designed around an extensive theory of viscous flow and models of molecular shape that allow a full data interpretation to be attempted. This approach to viscosity experiments may not be appropriate for all teaching situations (e.g., high schools, general chemistry labs, and nonmajor physical chemistry labs). A viscosity experiment is presented here that is designed around common seed and vegetable oils. With the importance of viscosity to foodstuffs (9) and the importance of fatty acids to nutrition (10), an experiment using these common, recognizable oils has broad appeal.

  3. Artemis: Common lunar lander project status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Artemis Common Lunar Lander project status. The plans are to start the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) with lunar robotic missions that can demonstrate the NASA cultural change and provide a catalyst for human exploration of the moon and Mars. The Artemis Common Lunar Lander Concept developed by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been accepted as the centerpiece of this lunar robotic exploration program. Topics covered include the anticipated program structure, a concept overview, lander value as a function of payload mass, the approach of the JSC in-house study, an example launch vehicle packaging concept, and the use of the Delta 2 launch vehicle.

  4. [Renal cancer metastasis into common bile duct].

    PubMed

    Simůnek, R; Sirotek, L; Sefr, R

    2011-03-01

    We present rare case of clear cell renal carcinoma metastasis into common bile duct. It is a 9th case listed on the MEDLINE data base from 1966 to 2010.71-year-old woman underwent right nefrectomy for renal cancer G1 in 1986. She was reoperated in 2006 for relaps in renal bed on the right side. Histological examination confirmed clear cell renal carcinoma again. At present, a new liver metastasis in S 4/5 was detected. During the operation we found first described liver metastasis and second another one in common bile duct with intraluminal growth. Before surgery the patient showed neither clinical nor laboratory marks of biliary obstruction. Even abdominal ultrasound, SONO VUE, CT and body PET were negative. We carried out choledochectomy with hepaticojejunoanastomosis sec Roux and liver metastasis was destructed using radiofrequency ablation. PMID:21634099

  5. The Case for Common Reference Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Graham RD; Barker, Antony; Tate, Jill; Lim, Chen-Fee; Robertson, Ken

    2004-01-01

    The current paradigm for pathology reference intervals is for each laboratory to determine its own interval for use with each test offered by the laboratory. It is our contention that this approach does not best serve the medical community, especially at a time when electronic databases of health information are being expanded and integrated. We also believe that this approach is not performed well in many laboratories and is excessively expensive in practice. In contrast, we believe that the preferable option is to develop and apply common reference intervals throughout Australia and New Zealand, together with common reporting formats and assay standardisation wherever this is possible. We are aware that these are neither trivial nor simple issues, however we believe that failure to achieve this goal where technically possible will be a failure of the pathology profession to meet the challenges of the modern health community. PMID:18458709

  6. Differential diagnosis of common tremor syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Bhidayasiri, R

    2005-01-01

    Tremor is one of the most common involuntary movement disorders seen in clinical practice. In addition to the detailed history, the differential diagnosis is mainly clinical based on the distinction at rest, postural and intention, activation condition, frequency, and topographical distribution. The causes of tremor are heterogeneous and it can present alone (for example, essential tremor) or as a part of a neurological syndrome (for example, multiple sclerosis). Essential tremor and the tremor of Parkinson's disease are the most common tremors encountered in clinical practice. This article focuses on a practical approach to these different forms of tremor and how to distinguish them clinically. Evidence supporting various strategies used in the differentiation is then presented, followed by a review of formal guidelines or recommendations when they exist. PMID:16344298

  7. Common overuse injuries in the young athlete.

    PubMed

    Pengel, K Brooke

    2014-12-01

    Pediatric overuse injury is a common complaint presenting to pediatricians. Overuse injury can affect the soft tissues or bone, and results from an imbalance between training and load to the tissues and recovery time. In the skeletally immature athlete, physeal and apophyseal tissue is particularly vulnerable to overuse resulting in different patterns of injury compared to adults. Awareness of age-dependent patterns of overuse is necessary for proper recognition, treatment, and prevention of injury. This article reviews the most common pediatric overuse injuries with emphasis on risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment. Guidelines for prevention are included, as this is the key component for successful management of overuse injury in pediatric athletes. PMID:25486038

  8. Commonality analysis as a knowledge acquisition problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, Dorian P.

    1987-01-01

    Commonality analysis is a systematic attempt to reduce costs in a large scale engineering project by discontinuing development of certain components during the design phase. Each discontinued component is replaced by another component that has sufficient functionality to be considered an appropriate substitute. The replacement strategy is driven by economic considerations. The System Commonality Analysis Tool (SCAT) is based on an oversimplified model of the problem and incorporates no knowledge acquisition component. In fact, the process of arriving at a compromise between functionality and economy is quite complex, with many opportunities for the application of expert knowledge. Such knowledge is of two types: general knowledge expressible as heuristics or mathematical laws potentially applicable to any set of components, and specific knowledge about the way in which elements of a given set of components interrelate. Examples of both types of knowledge are presented, and a framework is proposed for integrating the knowledge into a more general and useable tool.

  9. Heavy metals in common foodstuff: Daily intake

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoumbaris, P.; Tsoukali-Papadopoulou, H. )

    1994-07-01

    Lately, toxic effects of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd) as well as desirable ones of some others (Ni, Mn, Zn) have been a field of thorough investigation. The main way of human body fortification in metals is through foodchain depending on the kind and quantity of the consumed food, according to dietary habits. The purpose of this study is the calculation of metals daily intake through common foodstuff of Greek inhabitants. The calculation is based on results from quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Zn in common foodstuff from the market of the city of Thessaloniki. The daily food consumption data is derived from three sources: (a) answers to a questionnaire distributed to families of the city of Thessaloniki, (b) nutrition data provided by the Agricultural Bank of Greece and (c) nutrition data according to international bibliography.

  10. Nickel hydrogen common pressure vessel battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kenneth R.; Zagrodnik, Jeffrey P.

    1992-01-01

    Our present design for a common pressure vessel (CPV) battery, a nickel hydrogen battery system to combine all of the cells into a common pressure vessel, uses an open disk which allows the cell to be set into a shallow cavity; subsequent cells are stacked on each other with the total number based on the battery voltage required. This approach not only eliminates the assembly error threat, but also more readily assures equal contact pressure to the heat fin between each cell, which further assures balanced heat transfer. These heat fin dishes with their appropriate cell stacks are held together with tie bars which in turn are connected to the pressure vessel weld rings at each end of the tube.

  11. Human resources: a common-sense discipline.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Lisa R

    2004-02-01

    Being able to hire the right team members, keeping them engaged ina professional and productive environment, and avoiding litigation help keep the team functioning and meeting the everyday goals of providing quality patient care. Although these topics may seem complex, medical providers and professionals have resources available to them, such as the Human Resources department, the Medical Director, senior management,and legal counsel. Hiring the right people, creating a positive work environment, and avoiding litigation are all common sense principals that are relevant regardless of profession, industry, or company. Understanding how to apply the principles and concepts of Human Resources and personnel management can seem overwhelming: however, asking for help from the resources mentioned previously and applying the common sense information found in this article will help one to be a successful leader and practitioner. PMID:15062502

  12. Misdiagnosis of common variable immune deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Anne-Marie; Alluri, Ratna; Herriot, Richard; Dempsey, Owen

    2014-01-01

    We present details of a man who was originally diagnosed with sarcoidosis, based on a combination of nodal granulomatous inflammation and radiology confirming bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy with pulmonary infiltrates. The patient subsequently developed splenomegaly and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and, latterly, a severe cavitating pneumonia. Serum immunoglobulins were checked, confirming panhypogammaglobulinaemia, and his diagnosis was revised to common variable immune deficiency (CVID). CVID is a heterogeneous condition, which can mimic sarcoidosis with granulomatous organ involvement and is commonly complicated by autoimmune disorders, including ITP. Prompt recognition is important to allow early introduction of immunoglobulin replacement therapy to decrease infection frequency, reduce development of secondary disease complications and retard progression of tissue damage. Given the potential for misdiagnosis and delay in recognition of CVID, serum immunoglobulin measurement should be a first-line investigation in patients with suspected sarcoidosis, even if the presentation is ‘typical’. Current international sarcoidosis guidelines should be revised accordingly. PMID:24692376

  13. Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (Genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are species within the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae and cause some of the most economically important diseases of legume crops worldwide. Both viruses occur essentially wherever bean and cowpea (including Phaseolus...

  14. Common Core-Aligned Teaching Resources. State Implementation of Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly; Mira, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The following profiles address how the state departments of education are supporting local educators in classroom implementation of the Common Core by providing and/or facilitating the development of instructional resources and materials aligned to the new standards. In order for instructional resources and materials to be aligned to the Common

  15. Information Commons Redux: Concept, Evolution, and Transcending the Tragedy of the Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Russell; Tierney, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews "information commons" concepts and describes administrative and functional integration in an academic library information commons. The roles of inclusive planning structures and careful integration through an enhanced information desk are delineated, emphasizing team building that results from this implementation. The article

  16. EPISTATIC INTERACTION BETWEEN TWO MAJOR QTL CONDITIONING RESISTANCE TO COMMON BACTERIAL BLIGHT IN COMMON BEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to common bacterial blight in common bean is a complex trait that is quantitatively inherited. Combining QTL is the current strategy for improving resistance, but interactions among different QTL are unknown. We examined the interaction between two independent QTL present in dry bean bre...

  17. Dominant gene for common bean resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common bacterial blight pathogen [Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap)] is a limiting factor for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production worldwide and resistance to the pathogen in most commercial cultivars is inadequate. Variability in virulence of the bacterial pathogen has been ob...

  18. Using Common Sense in Common Settings: Active Supervision and Precorrection in the Morning Gym

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Todd; Scott, Terrance M.

    2008-01-01

    The management of a large number of children in a nonclassroom or common setting (e.g., gymnasium, auditorium) can present a challenge to school staff. This article describes a set of commonsense solutions that were implemented with 400 elementary students in a before-school common setting. The solutions are described and the results of the

  19. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Common Carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie

    1982-01-01

    This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

  20. Common sports injuries in young tennis players.

    PubMed

    Bylak, J; Hutchinson, M R

    1998-08-01

    Tennis is a popular racquet sport played by boys, girls, men and women. Tennis players frequently begin playing in childhood and may continue playing into late adulthood. Preadolescent and adolescent players have open growth plates and a reduced muscle power, lower level of coordination and smaller stature compared with adult players. The physical characteristics of the young tennis player mean that unique demands are placed on the developing athlete which can, in turn, be associated with different types and patterns of injury. The most common types of injury in tennis players of all ages are muscle sprains and ligament sprains secondary to overuse. These are a particular problem in the adolescent age group because, in general, this group begin playing with a lower level of physical conditioning. Fortunately, injuries in younger players are usually not longstanding and the overuse (chronic) problems seen in older players, such as patellar tendinosis and tennis elbow, are less common in younger players. Anatomically, lower extremity injuries are twice as common as those to the upper extremity or spine, with ankle injury being the most common. Prevention of injury in young tennis players, or at least a reduction in the incidence, is possible. Some traumatic injuries, including contusions, abrasions, lacerations and fractures, may be unavoidable as a result of aggressive play, but others may be prevented by monitoring equipment and the court surface to ensure a safe field of play. The prime target of prevention in young tennis players should be overuse injuries. The principles of 'overload' and staged involvement are of particular importance in this age group. A gradual, progressive increase in the intensity of tennis practice, the slow introduction of new court surfaces and a staged progression in the teaching of tennis skills can help to reduce the incidence of injury in young tennis players. PMID:9777684

  1. Imaging of Common Adult Neurologic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McLennan, Michael K.; Marotta, Thomas R.; TerBrugge, Karel G.; Marotta, Joseph T.

    1991-01-01

    The family physician is often called upon to diagnose a range of adult neurologic disorders. Clinical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies are required to discover their cause. Various imaging modalities can be used to evaluate common adult disorders of the central nervous system. ImagesFigures 1-2Figure 3Figure 4Figures 5-6Figures 7-8Figures 9-11 PMID:21229013

  2. The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, John; Berg, Wesley; Huffman, George; Kummerow, Chris; Stocker, Erich

    2005-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) project will provide a core satellite carrying the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and will use microwave observations from a constellation of other satellites. Each partner with a satellite in the constellation will have a calibration that meets their own requirements and will decide on the format to archive their brightness temperature (Tb) record in GPM. However, GPM multi-sensor precipitation algorithms need to input intercalibrated Tb's in order to avoid differences among sensors introducing artifacts into the longer term climate record of precipitation. The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product is intended to address this problem by providing intercalibrated Tb data, called "Tc" data, where the "c" stands for common. The precipitation algorithms require a Tc file format that is both generic and flexible enough to accommodate the different passive microwave instruments. The format will provide detailed information on the processing history in order to allow future researchers to have a record of what was done. The format will be simple, including the main items of scan time, latitude, longitude, and Tc. It will also provide spacecraft orientation, spacecraft location, orbit, and instrument scan type (cross-track or conical). Another simplification is to store data in real numbers, avoiding the ambiguity of scaled data. Finally, units and descriptions will be provided in the product. The format is built on the concept of a swath, which is a series of scans that have common geolocation and common scan geometry. Scan geometry includes pixels per scan, sensor orientation, scan type, and incidence angles. The Tc algorithm and data format are being tested using the pre-GPM Precipitation Processing System (PPS) software to generate formats and 1/0 routines. In the test, data from SSM/I, TMI, AMSR-E, and WindSat are being processed and written as Tc products.

  3. Network geometry inference using common neighbors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Aldecoa, Rodrigo; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-08-01

    We introduce and explore a method for inferring hidden geometric coordinates of nodes in complex networks based on the number of common neighbors between the nodes. We compare this approach to the HyperMap method, which is based only on the connections (and disconnections) between the nodes, i.e., on the links that the nodes have (or do not have). We find that for high degree nodes, the common-neighbors approach yields a more accurate inference than the link-based method, unless heuristic periodic adjustments (or "correction steps") are used in the latter. The common-neighbors approach is computationally intensive, requiring O (t4) running time to map a network of t nodes, versus O (t3) in the link-based method. But we also develop a hybrid method with O (t3) running time, which combines the common-neighbors and link-based approaches, and we explore a heuristic that reduces its running time further to O (t2) , without significant reduction in the mapping accuracy. We apply this method to the autonomous systems (ASs) Internet, and we reveal how soft communities of ASs evolve over time in the similarity space. We further demonstrate the method's predictive power by forecasting future links between ASs. Taken altogether, our results advance our understanding of how to efficiently and accurately map real networks to their latent geometric spaces, which is an important necessary step toward understanding the laws that govern the dynamics of nodes in these spaces, and the fine-grained dynamics of network connections.

  4. Symbolic Lie algebras manipulations using COMMON LISP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchini, R.; Tarlini, M.

    1989-01-01

    We present a description and an implementation of a program in COMMON LISP to perform symbolic computations in a given Lie algebra. Using the general definitions of vector space Lie algebra and enveloping algebra, the program is able to compute commutators, to evaluate similarity transformations and the general Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. All the computations are exact, including numerical coefficients. For the interactive user an optional menu facility and online help are available. LISP knowledge is unnecessary.

  5. DCLOS. Distributed Common Lisp Object System

    SciTech Connect

    Spires, S.

    1997-05-01

    DCLOS provides distributed object capabilities to CLOS. An open implementation distributed object system based upon the Common LISP Object System (CLOS) that supports proxies, copies, replicants, remote method invocation, global object identity, class coercion, object brokering, and other capabilities. Network agents use DCLOS services to exchange messages, to register in a foreign domain, and to provide automatic coercion of objects into proxies, replicants or copies.

  6. Accepted Common Interest Community (CIC) Proposals.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 18 accepted proposals for the three Common Interest Community (CIC) sessions at IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Therapy and Research (SYTAR), June 5-8, 2014, in Austin, Texas and published in the Final Program Guide and CIC Works for SYTAR 2014. The sessions were CIC#1 Rehab Professionals: Bridging the Past with the Future and CIC#2a & CIC#2b Mental, Emotional and Spiritual Health. PMID:25645135

  7. Common themes in microbial pathogenicity revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, B B; Falkow, S

    1997-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens employ a number of genetic strategies to cause infection and, occasionally, disease in their hosts. Many of these virulence factors and their regulatory elements can be divided into a smaller number of groups based on the conservation of similar mechanisms. These common themes are found throughout bacterial virulence factors. For example, there are only a few general types of toxins, despite a large number of host targets. Similarly, there are only a few conserved ways to build the bacterial pilus and nonpilus adhesins used by pathogens to adhere to host substrates. Bacterial entry into host cells (invasion) is a complex mechanism. However, several common invasion themes exist in diverse microorganisms. Similarly, once inside a host cell, pathogens have a limited number of ways to ensure their survival, whether remaining within a host vacuole or by escaping into the cytoplasm. Avoidance of the host immune defenses is key to the success of a pathogen. Several common themes again are employed, including antigenic variation, camouflage by binding host molecules, and enzymatic degradation of host immune components. Most virulence factors are found on the bacterial surface or secreted into their immediate environment, yet virulence factors operate through a relatively small number of microbial secretion systems. The expression of bacterial pathogenicity is dependent upon complex regulatory circuits. However, pathogens use only a small number of biochemical families to express distinct functional factors at the appropriate time that causes infection. Finally, virulence factors maintained on mobile genetic elements and pathogenicity islands ensure that new strains of pathogens evolve constantly. Comprehension of these common themes in microbial pathogenicity is critical to the understanding and study of bacterial virulence mechanisms and to the development of new "anti-virulence" agents, which are so desperately needed to replace antibiotics. PMID:9184008

  8. Polymylagia rheumatica: common disease, elusive diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mager, Diana R

    2015-03-01

    Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common inflammatory rheumatic disease with little known about its etiology or incidence. Frequently found in older adult women, this disease can be debilitating, painful, and dangerous. Diagnosing PMR can be elusive due to lack of specific laboratory tests, and treatment with use of long-term glucocorticoids can be difficult due to side effects. The following article describes the pathophysiology, diagnosis, signs and symptoms, and treatment of PMR, as well as implications for home healthcare. PMID:25738269

  9. Familial hepatopulmonary syndrome in common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Holmes, S N; Condliffe, A; Griffiths, W; Baxendale, H; Kumararatne, D S

    2015-04-01

    Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) comprises a heterogeneous group of primary antibody deficiencies which lead to a range of complications, including infectious, neoplastic and inflammatory disorders. This report describes monozygotic twin brothers with CVID who developed cryptogenic liver disease and subsequently hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS). This is the second report of the association of HPS and CVID. Its occurrence in two identical twins implicates a genetic basis. PMID:25708586

  10. New Literacies and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kist, William

    2013-01-01

    It makes sense that an emphasis on new ways of reading and writing fits easily within the Common Core umbrella. After all, a primary thrust of the new standards is college and career readiness. How can young people be prepared to thrive in today's society--in which people are connected 24 hours a day by media and coworkers may well live in

  11. Consortia Provide Preview of Common Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    As teachers begin shaping lessons for the common standards, many are wondering how to prepare their students for tests that won't be ready for at least two years. Sample items being drafted for those exams offer early ideas of what lies ahead. Two large groups of states are using federal Race to the Top money to create new suites of exams for the…

  12. New Literacies and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kist, William

    2013-01-01

    It makes sense that an emphasis on new ways of reading and writing fits easily within the Common Core umbrella. After all, a primary thrust of the new standards is college and career readiness. How can young people be prepared to thrive in today's society--in which people are connected 24 hours a day by media and coworkers may well live in…

  13. Network geometry inference using common neighbors.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Aldecoa, Rodrigo; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-08-01

    We introduce and explore a method for inferring hidden geometric coordinates of nodes in complex networks based on the number of common neighbors between the nodes. We compare this approach to the HyperMap method, which is based only on the connections (and disconnections) between the nodes, i.e., on the links that the nodes have (or do not have). We find that for high degree nodes, the common-neighbors approach yields a more accurate inference than the link-based method, unless heuristic periodic adjustments (or "correction steps") are used in the latter. The common-neighbors approach is computationally intensive, requiring O(t4) running time to map a network of t nodes, versus O(t3) in the link-based method. But we also develop a hybrid method with O(t3) running time, which combines the common-neighbors and link-based approaches, and we explore a heuristic that reduces its running time further to O(t2), without significant reduction in the mapping accuracy. We apply this method to the autonomous systems (ASs) Internet, and we reveal how soft communities of ASs evolve over time in the similarity space. We further demonstrate the method's predictive power by forecasting future links between ASs. Taken altogether, our results advance our understanding of how to efficiently and accurately map real networks to their latent geometric spaces, which is an important necessary step toward understanding the laws that govern the dynamics of nodes in these spaces, and the fine-grained dynamics of network connections. PMID:26382454

  14. Autism: Common, heritable, but not harmful

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Dawson, Michelle; Mottron, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    We assert that one of the examples used by Keller & Miller (K&M), namely, autism, is indeed common, and heritable, but we question whether it is harmful. We provide a brief review of cognitive science literature in which autistics perform superiorly to non-autistics in perceptual, reasoning, and comprehension tasks; however, these superiorities are often occluded and are instead described as dysfunctions. PMID:25506106

  15. Consortia Provide Preview of Common Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    As teachers begin shaping lessons for the common standards, many are wondering how to prepare their students for tests that won't be ready for at least two years. Sample items being drafted for those exams offer early ideas of what lies ahead. Two large groups of states are using federal Race to the Top money to create new suites of exams for the

  16. Bald eagle predation on common loon egg

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, Stephen; McCarthy, Kyle P.; Laskowski, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Common Loon (Gavia immer) must defend against many potential egg predators during incubation, including corvids, Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), fisher (Martes pennanti), and mink (Neovison vison) (McIntyre 1988, Evers 2004, McCann et al. 2005). Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) have been documented as predators of both adult Common Loons and their chicks (Vliestra and Paruk 1997, Paruk et al. 1999, Erlandson et al. 2007, Piper et al. 2008). In Wisconsin, where nesting Bald Eagles are abundant (.1200 nesting pairs, .1 young/pair/year), field biologists observed four instances of eagle predation of eggs in loon nests during the period 20022004 (M. Meyer pers. comm.). In addition, four cases of eagle predation of incubating adult loons were inferred from evidence found at the loon nest (dozens of plucked adult loon feathers, no carcass remains) and/or loon leg, neck, and skull bones beneath two active eagle nests, including leg bones containing the bands of the nearby (,25 m) incubating adult loon. However, although loon egg predation has been associated with Bald Eagles, predation events have yet to be described in peer-reviewed literature. Here we describe a photographic observation of predation on a Common Loon egg by an immature Bald Eagle as captured by a nest surveillance video camera on Lake Umbagog, a large lake (32 km2) at Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge (UNWR) in Maine.

  17. Genetic control of inflorescence in common bean.

    PubMed

    Guilherme, S R; Ramalho, M A P; de F B Abreu, A; Pereira, L A

    2014-01-01

    The number of pods per common bean plant is a primary component of grain yield, which depends on the number of flowers produced and on the flower set. Thus, a larger number of flowers per plant would increase yield. Lines with inflorescences that had a large number of flowers compared to common bean plants now under cultivation were identified. We analyzed the genetic control of this trait and its association with grain yield. The cultivar BRSMG Talism was crossed with 2 lines, L.59583 and L.59692, which have a large number of flowers. The F1, F2, and F3 generations were obtained. These generations were assessed together with the parents in a randomized block experimental design with 2 replications. The traits assessed included length of inflorescence, number of pods per inflorescence, number of pods per plant, number of grains per plant, 100-grain weight, and grain yield per plant. Mean genetic components and variance were estimated. The traits length of inflorescence and number of pods per inflorescence exhibited genetic control with predominance that showed an additive effect. In the 2 crosses, genetic control of grain yield and of its primary components showed that the allelic interaction of dominance was high. The wide variability in the traits assessed may be used to increase yield of the common bean plant by increasing the number of flowers on the plant. PMID:25501247

  18. How I treat common variable immune deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency is a rare immune deficiency, characterized by low levels of serum immunoglobulin G, A, and/or M with loss of antibody production. The diagnosis is most commonly made in adults between the ages of 20 and 40 years, but both children and older adults can be found to have this immune defect. The range of clinical manifestations is broad, including acute and chronic infections, inflammatory and autoimmune disease, and an increased incidence of cancer and lymphoma. For all these reasons, the disease phenotype is both heterogeneous and complex. Contributing to the complexity is that patient cohorts are generally small, criteria used for diagnosis vary, and the doses of replacement immune globulin differ. In addition, routines for monitoring patients over the years and protocols for the use of other biologic agents for complications have not been clarified or standardized. In the past few years, data from large patient registries have revealed that both selected laboratory markers and clinical phenotyping may aid in dissecting groups of subjects into biologically relevant categories. This review presents my approach to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with common variable immunodeficiency, with suggestions for the use of laboratory biomarkers and means of monitoring patients. PMID:20332369

  19. Efficient heuristics for maximum common substructure search.

    PubMed

    Englert, Pter; Kovcs, Pter

    2015-05-26

    Maximum common substructure search is a computationally hard optimization problem with diverse applications in the field of cheminformatics, including similarity search, lead optimization, molecule alignment, and clustering. Most of these applications have strict constraints on running time, so heuristic methods are often preferred. However, the development of an algorithm that is both fast enough and accurate enough for most practical purposes is still a challenge. Moreover, in some applications, the quality of a common substructure depends not only on its size but also on various topological features of the one-to-one atom correspondence it defines. Two state-of-the-art heuristic algorithms for finding maximum common substructures have been implemented at ChemAxon Ltd., and effective heuristics have been developed to improve both their efficiency and the relevance of the atom mappings they provide. The implementations have been thoroughly evaluated and compared with existing solutions (KCOMBU and Indigo). The heuristics have been found to greatly improve the performance and applicability of the algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the applied methods and present the experimental results. PMID:25865959

  20. The common premise for uncommon conclusions.

    PubMed

    Coady, C A J

    2013-05-01

    Recent controversy over philosophical advocacy of infanticide (or the comically-styled euphemism 'postnatal abortion') reveals a surprisingly common premise uniting many of the opponents and supporters of the practice. This is the belief that the moral status of the early fetus or embryo with respect to a right to life is identical to that of a newly born or even very young baby. From this premise, infanticidists and strong anti-abortionists draw opposite conclusions, the former that the healthy newly born have no inherent right to life and the latter that minute embryos and the very early fetus have the same right to life as young babies. (Indeed strong anti-abortionists tend to regard this right to life as identical to that possessed by adult humans.) This paper argues that these opposed conclusions are both deeply implausible and that the implausibility resides in the common premise. The argument requires some attention to the structure of the philosophical case underpinning the supposed vice of speciesism that has been given intellectual currency by many philosophers, most notably Peter Singer, and also to the reasoning behind the strong anti-abortionist adoption of the common premise. PMID:23637428

  1. Olfactory system and emotion: common substrates.

    PubMed

    Soudry, Y; Lemogne, C; Malinvaud, D; Consoli, S-M; Bonfils, P

    2011-01-01

    THE AIM OF THE REVIEW: A large number of studies suggest a close relationship between olfactory and affective information processing. Odors can modulate mood, cognition, and behavior. The aim of this article is to summarize the comparative anatomy of central olfactory pathways and centers involved in emotional analysis, in order to shed light on the relationship between the two systems. ANATOMY OF THE OLFACTORY SYSTEM: Odorant contact with the primary olfactory neurons is the starting point of olfactory transduction. The glomerulus of the olfactory bulb is the only relay between the peripheral and central olfactory system. Olfactory information is conducted to the secondary olfactory structures, notably the piriform cortex. The tertiary olfactory structures are the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex and insular cortex. THE IMPACT OF ODORS ON AFFECTIVE STATES: Quality of life is commonly impaired in dysosmic patients. There have, however, been few publications on this topic. EMOTION AND OLFACTION: COMMON BRAIN PATHWAYS: There are brain structures common to emotion and odor processing. The present review focuses on such structures: amygdala, hippocampus, insula, anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. The physiology and anatomy of each of these systems is described and discussed. PMID:21227767

  2. Common multigenic activation in different human neoplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Hanania, N; Shaool, D; Harel, J; Wiels, J; Tursz, T

    1983-01-01

    It was previously shown that a common multigenic component, designated as tumor-specific DNA (tsDNA), was transcriptionally active in human lymphoid neoplasias and only slightly active, if at all, in normal lymphoid cells, including the Priess cell line immortalized by Epstein-Barr virus. In the Burkitt lymphoma-derived Raji cell line, tsDNA corresponded to 2500-3000 distinct transcription units, arbitrarily defined as encoding mRNA chains of 1000 kds each. In the present study, radioactive Raji cell tsDNA was isolated by a recycling procedure which eliminates transcribed DNA sequences common to both the Raji cell and the Priess cell, and was used as a probe for homologous transcripts. The major part of this probe could be hybridized to RNAs from all the human neoplasias studied: cultured cell lines derived from leukemias, malignant lymphomas or sarcomas, leukemic cells or solid tumors (sarcomas and carcinomas) recovered from patients. In contrast, only a minor portion of Raji cell tsDNA could be hybridized to RNAs from non-malignant cells, normal human lymphoid cells or fibroblasts grown in culture, fetal and chorioplacental tissues. It is concluded that a common multigenic set is activated in a wide variety of, and perhaps in all, human neoplasias. PMID:6315395

  3. Acute pancreatitis: Etiology and common pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guo-Jun; Gao, Chun-Fang; Wei, Dong; Wang, Cun; Ding, Si-Qin

    2009-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas. The etiology and pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis have been intensively investigated for centuries worldwide. Many causes of acute pancreatitis have been discovered, but the pathogenetic theories are controversial. The most common cause of acute pancreatitis is gallstone impacting the distal common bile-pancreatic duct. The majority of investigators accept that the main factors for acute billiary pancreatitis are pancreatic hyperstimulation and bile-pancreatic duct obstruction which increase pancreatic duct pressure and active trypsin reflux. Acute pancreatitis occurs when intracellular protective mechanisms to prevent trypsinogen activation or reduce trypsin activity are overwhelmed. However, little is known about the other acute pancreatitis. We hypothesize that acute biliary pancreatitis and other causes of acute pancreatitis possess a common pathogenesis. Pancreatic hyperstimulation and pancreatic duct obstruction increase pancreatic duct pressure, active trypsin reflux, and subsequent unregulated activation of trypsin within pancreatic acinar cells. Enzyme activation within the pancreas leads to auto-digestion of the gland and local inflammation. Once the hypothesis is confirmed, traditional therapeutic strategies against acute pancreatitis may be improved. Decompression of pancreatic duct pressure should be advocated in the treatment of acute pancreatitits which may greatly improve its outcome. PMID:19322914

  4. Freeing data through The Polar Information Commons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruin, T.; Chen, R. S.; Parsons, M. A.; Carlson, D. J.; Cass, K.; Finney, K.; Wilbanks, J.; Jochum, K.

    2010-12-01

    The polar regions are changing rapidly with dramatic global effect. Wise management of resources, improved decision support, and effective international cooperation on resource and geopolitical issues require deeper understanding and better prediction of these changes. Unfortunately, polar data and information remain scattered, scarce, and sporadic. Inspired by the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 that established the Antarctic as a global commons to be used only for peaceful purposes and scientific research, we assert that data and information about the polar regions are themselves “public goods” that should be shared ethically and with minimal constraint. ICSU’s Committee on Data (CODATA) therefore started the Polar Information Commons (PIC) as an open, virtual repository for vital scientific data and information. The PIC provides a shared, community-based cyber-infrastructure fostering innovation, improving scientific efficiency, and encouraging participation in polar research, education, planning, and management. The PIC builds on the legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY), providing a long-term framework for access to and preservation of both existing and future data and information about the polar regions. Rapid change demands rapid data access. The PIC system enables scientists to quickly expose their data to the world and share them through open protocols on the Internet. A PIC digital label will alert users and data centers to new polar data and ensure that usage rights are clear. The PIC utilizes the Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data, which promotes open data access through the public domain coupled with community norms of practice to ensure use of data in a fair and equitable manner. A set of PIC norms has been developed in consultation with key polar data organizations and other stakeholders. We welcome inputs from the broad science community as we further develop and refine the PIC approach and move ahead with implementation.

  5. Demography and the tragedy of the commons.

    PubMed

    Frank, S A

    2010-01-01

    Individual success in group-structured populations has two components. First, an individual gains by outcompeting its neighbours for local resources. Second, an individual's share of group success must be weighted by the total productivity of the group. The essence of sociality arises from the tension between selfish gains against neighbours and the associated loss that selfishness imposes by degrading the efficiency of the group. Without some force to modulate selfishness, the natural tendencies of self interest typically degrade group performance to the detriment of all. This is the tragedy of the commons. Kin selection provides the most widely discussed way in which the tragedy is overcome in biology. Kin selection arises from behavioural associations within groups caused either by genetical kinship or by other processes that correlate the behaviours of group members. Here, I emphasize demography as a second factor that may also modulate the tragedy of the commons and favour cooperative integration of groups. Each act of selfishness or cooperation in a group often influences group survival and fecundity over many subsequent generations. For example, a cooperative act early in the growth cycle of a colony may enhance the future size and survival of the colony. This time-dependent benefit can greatly increase the degree of cooperation favoured by natural selection, providing another way in which to overcome the tragedy of the commons and enhance the integration of group behaviour. I conclude that analyses of sociality must account for both the behavioural associations of kin selection theory and the demographic consequences of life history theory. PMID:19912449

  6. Freeing data through The Polar Information Commons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruin, Taco; Chen, Robert; Parsons, Mark; Carlson, David

    2010-05-01

    The polar regions are changing rapidly with dramatic global effect. Wise management of resources, improved decision support, and effective international cooperation on resource and geopolitical issues require deeper understanding and better prediction of these changes. Unfortunately, polar data and information remain scattered, scarce, and sporadic. Inspired by the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 that established the Antarctic as a global commons to be used only for peaceful purposes and scientific research, we assert that data and information about the polar regions are themselves "public goods" that should be shared ethically and with minimal constraint. We therefore envision the Polar Information Commons (PIC) as an open, virtual repository for vital scientific data and information that would provide a shared, community-based cyber-infrastructure fostering innovation, improving scientific efficiency, and encouraging participation in polar research, education, planning, and management. The PIC will build on the legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY), providing a long-term framework for access to and preservation of both existing and future data and information about the polar regions. Rapid change demands rapid data access. The PIC system will enable scientists to quickly expose their data to the world and share them through open protocols on the Internet. A PIC digital label will alert users and data centers to new polar data and ensure that usage rights are clear. The PIC will utilize the Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data, which promotes open data access through the public domain coupled with community norms of practice to ensure use of data in a fair and equitable manner. A set of PIC norms is currently being developed in consultation with key polar data organizations and other stakeholders. We welcome inputs from the broad science community as we further develop and refine the PIC approach and move ahead with implementation.

  7. Freeing data through The Polar Information Commons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruin, T.; Chen, R. S.; Parsons, M. A.; Carlson, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    The polar regions are changing rapidly with dramatic global effect. Wise management of resources, improved decision support, and effective international cooperation on resource and geopolitical issues require deeper understanding and better prediction of these changes. Unfortunately, polar data and information remain scattered, scarce, and sporadic. Inspired by the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 that established the Antarctic as a global commons to be used only for peaceful purposes and scientific research, we assert that data and information about the polar regions are themselves public goods that should be shared ethically and with minimal constraint. We therefore envision the Polar Information Commons (PIC) as an open, virtual repository for vital scientific data and information that would provide a shared, community-based cyber-infrastructure fostering innovation, improving scientific efficiency, and encouraging participation in polar research, education, planning, and management. The PIC will build on the legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY), providing a long-term framework for access to and preservation of both existing and future data and information about the polar regions. Rapid change demands rapid data access. The PIC system will enable scientists to quickly expose their data to the world and share them through open protocols on the Internet. A PIC digital label will alert users and data centers to new polar data and ensure that usage rights are clear. The PIC will utilize the Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data, which promotes open data access through the public domain coupled with community norms of practice to ensure use of data in a fair and equitable manner. A set of PIC norms is currently being developed in consultation with key polar data organizations and other stakeholders. We welcome inputs from the broad science community as we further develop and refine the PIC approach and move ahead with implementation.

  8. COMMON COIL MAGNET PROGRAM AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    GUPTA, R.; ANERELLA, M.; COZZOLINO, J.; ESCALLIER, J.; GANETIS, G.; GHOSH, A.; HARRISON, M.; MORGAN, G.; MURATORE, J.; PARKER, B.; SAMPSON, W.; WANDERER, P.

    2000-09-17

    The goal of the common coil magnet R&D program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is to develop a 12.5 T, 40 mm aperture dipole magnet using ''React and Wind Technology'' with High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) playing a major role. Due to its ''conductor friendly'' nature, the common coil design is attractive for building high field 2-in-1 dipoles with brittle materials such as HTS and Nb{sub 3}Sn. At the current rate of development, it is expected that a sufficient amount of HTS with the required performance would be available in a few years for building a short magnet. In the interim, the first generation dipoles will be built with Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor. They will use a ''React and Wind'' technology similar to that used in HTS and will produce a 12.5 T central field in a 40 mm aperture. The Nb{sub 3}Sn coils and support structure of this magnet will become a part of the next generation hybrid magnet with inner coils made of HTS. To develop various aspects of the technology in a scientific and experimental manner, a 10-turn coil program has been started in parallel. The program allows a number of concepts to be evaluated with a rapid throughput in a cost-effective way. Three 10-turn Nb{sub 3}Sn coils have been built and one HTS coil is under construction. The initial test results of this ''React & Wind'' 10-turn coil program are presented. It is also shown that a common coil magnet design can produce a field quality that is as good as a conventional cosine theta design.

  9. Commonality in Down and Fetal Alcohol Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Solzak, Jeffrey P.; Liang, Yun; Zhou, Feng C.; Roper, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Down syndrome (DS) and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) are two leading causes of birth defects with phenotypes ranging from craniofacial abnormalities to cognitive impairment. Despite different origins, we report that in addition to sharing many phenotypes, DS and FAS may have common underlying mechanisms of development. METHODS Literature was surveyed for DS and FAS as well as mouse models. Gene expression and apoptosis were compared in embryonic mouse models of DS and FAS by qPCR, immunohistochemical and immunoflurorescence analyses. The craniometry was examined using MicroCT at postnatal day 21. RESULTS A literature survey revealed over 20 comparable craniofacial and structural deficits in both humans with DS and FAS and corresponding mouse models. Similar phenotypes were experimentally found in pre- and postnatal craniofacial and neurological tissues of DS and FAS mice. Dysregulation of two genes, Dyrk1a and Rcan1, key to craniofacial and neurological precursors of DS, was shared in craniofacial precursors of DS and FAS embryos. Increased cleaved caspase 3 expression was also discovered in comparable regions of the craniofacial and brain precursors of DS and FAS embryos. Further mechanistic studies suggested overexpression of trisomic Ttc3 in DS embyros may influence nuclear pAkt localization and cell survival. CONCLUSIONS This first and initial study indicates that DS and FAS share common dysmorphologies in humans and animal models. This work also suggests common mechanisms at cellular and molecular levels that are disrupted by trisomy or alcohol consumption during pregnancy and lead to craniofacial and neurological phenotypes associated with DS or FAS. PMID:23554291

  10. A Review of Common Tanning Methods

    PubMed Central

    Garone, Michael; Fabrikant, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Tanning in the United States has become an increasingly popular activity in our culture. Tanning methods have evolved through the years to become more readily accessible and easier to use for all consumers, regardless of geographic location. With the rising incidence of skin cancer, the demand for safe and efficient tanning methods remains high. There are currently many different tanning methods being utilized, and still more are being researched. This article serves to summarize some of the most common tarining methods used in the United States today as well as some potential methods currently under study. PMID:25741402

  11. Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Diagnosis, Management, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Jordan K; Gelfand, Erwin W

    2015-11-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) refers to a grouping of antibody deficiencies that lack a more specific genetic or phenotypic classification. It is the immunodeficiency classification with the greatest number of constituents, likely because of the numerous ways in which antibody production can be impaired and the frequency in which antibody production becomes impaired in human beings. CVID comprises a heterogeneous group of rare diseases. Consequently, CVID presents a significant challenge for researchers and clinicians. Despite these difficulties, both our understanding of and ability to manage this grouping of complex immune diseases has advanced significantly over the past 60years. PMID:26454311

  12. Symbolic superalgebra manipulations using common lisp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchini, R.; Tarlini, M.

    1990-09-01

    We present a description and an implementation of a program in COMMON LISP to perform symbolic computations in a given Lie superalgebra. Using the results of our previous paper, the program is able to compute commutators, to evaluate similarity transformations and the general Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula in the general framework of the Z 2 graded algebras. The parameters are defined as Grassmann or even and treated symbolically. It is possible to perform calculations on finite super Poisson algebras. For the interactive user an optional menu facility and online help are available. LISP knowledge is unnecessary.

  13. Common Criteria Based Security Scenario Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Atsushi

    Software is required to comply with the laws and standards of software security. However, stakeholders with less concern regarding security can neither describe the behaviour of the system with regard to security nor validate the systems behaviour when the security function conflicts with usability. Scenarios or use-case specifications are common in requirements elicitation and are useful to analyze the usability of the system from a behavioural point of view. In this paper, the authors propose both (1) a scenario language based on a simple case grammar and (2) a method to verify a scenario with rules based on security evaluation criteria.

  14. Common Therapeutic Targets in Cardiometabolic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fredman, Gabrielle; Ozcan, Lale; Tabas, Ira

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and insulin resistance syndromes suggest the possibility of joint targets for cardiometabolic research. The best drugs would go beyond minimizing adverse effects and have protective actions against both metabolic disease and CVD. In this perspective, we will outline a few examples in which a deep mechanistic understanding of the many cellular pathways that contribute to type 2 diabetes and CVD, regardless of cell type, have resulted in common upstream pathogenic pathways that can be therapeutically targeted. PMID:24898746

  15. [Atraumatic procedures in common abdominal operations].

    PubMed

    Daskalov, M

    1998-01-01

    The surgical tactics and technical improvements are discussed against the background of personal experience with some common abdominal operations, among which the appendectomy variant leaving the cecum intra-abdominally and using chain retrograde ligature in some cases, with choice of access according to the requirements of the individual case. Special attention is called to retrocecal extraperitoneal complications and Meckel's diverticulum--clinical picture and operative tactics. Emphasis is laid on the advantages of intestinal anastomoses--latero-lateral variant, termino-terminal technique in colo-colostomy and possibilities of latero-terminal sigmoidorectoanastomosis. PMID:9974018

  16. The concurrent common Lisp development environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A discussion of the Concurrent Common Lisp Development Environment on the iNTEL Personal Super Computer (iPSC) is presented. The advent of AI based engineering design tools has lead to a need for increased performance of computational facilities which support those tools. Gold Hill has approached this problem by directing its efforts to the creation of a concurrent, distributed AI development environment. This discussion focuses on the development tools aspect of the CCLISP environment. The future direction of Gold Hill in the area of distributed AI support environments is also presented.

  17. Space Station Freedom common berthing mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Illi, Erik

    1992-01-01

    The Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) is a generic device used to join the pressurized elements of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) utilizing the Space Shuttle Orbiter Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) or the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). The two berthing halves, the active, and the passive, maintain a pressurized atmosphere to allow astronaut passage, as well as to provide a structural linkage between elements. The generic design of the CBM allows any Passive Berthing Mechanism to berth with any Active Berthing Mechanism, permitting a variety of pressurized module patterns to be built.

  18. G 112-29 (=NLTT 18149): A VERY WIDE COMPANION TO GJ 282 AB WITH A COMMON PROPER MOTION, COMMON PARALLAX, COMMON RADIAL VELOCITY, AND COMMON AGE

    SciTech Connect

    Poveda, A.; Allen, Christine; Costero, R.; EchevarrIa, J.; Hernandez-Alcantara, A.

    2009-11-20

    We have made a search for common proper motion (CPM) companions to the wide binaries in the solar vicinity. We found that the binary GJ 282AB has a very distant CPM companion (NLTT 18149) at a separation s = 1.{sup 0}09. Improved spectral types and radial velocities are obtained, and ages determined for the three components. The Hipparcos trigonometric parallaxes and the new radial velocities and ages turn out to be very similar for the three stars, and provide strong evidence that they form a physical system. At a projected separation of 55,733 AU from GJ 282AB, NLTT 18149 ranks among the widest physical companions known.

  19. Common problems and pitfalls in gear design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.

    1986-01-01

    There are several pitfalls and problems associated with the successful design of a new gear transmission. A new design will require the knowledge and experience of several technical areas of engineering. Most of the pitfalls and problems associated with a new design are related to an inadequate evaluation of several areas, such as, the lubrication and cooling requirements, complete static and dynamic load analysis, evaluation of materials and heat treatment and the latest manufacturing technology. Some of the common problems of the gear design process are discussed with recommendations made for avoiding these conditions.

  20. Cognitive Architecture of Common and Scientific Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarbek, Paul

    2010-07-01

    The cognitive architecture of concept is a specific structure consisting of the concept core, concept periphery, the semantic frame as the meaning and the sense of the concept, and the relations among all components of this structure. The model of the cognitive architecture of scientific and common concepts is a conceptual meta-model built upon Vygotsky's concept theory, Fillmore's semantic frame, semantic triangle, on widespread ideas of the structuring of conceptual systems, and the Hestenes' Modeling Theory. The method of semantic mapping of concepts flowing from the model is designed.

  1. Common plankton of Twin Lakes, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, D.M.

    1983-02-01

    A series of studies is being performed to evaluate the effects of the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Powerplant on the ecology of Twin Lakes. Twin Lakes are a pair of connected dimictic lakes, formed as the result of glacial action on alluvial deposits. This report presents a taxonomic species study of the common plankton collected since 1974 from Twin Lakes. A total of 11 zooplankters and 14 phytoplankters were identified from the limnetic zone of Twin Lakes and the associated Mt. Elbert Forebay. The four divisions of zooplankton included four species of Rotifera (rotifer), three species of Copepoda (copepod), three species of Cladocera (cladoceran), and one species of Mysidacea (opossum shrimp).

  2. Perspectives on common variable immune deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon H.; Resnick, Elena S.; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is considered to be a collection of genetic immune defects with complex inheritance patterns. While the main phenotype is loss of B cell function, the majority of the genetic mechanisms leading to CVID remain elusive. In the past two decades there have been increasing efforts to unravel the genetic defects in CVID. Here, we provide an overview of our current understanding of the genetic basis of these defects, as revealed over time by earlier linkage studies in large cohorts, analysis of families with recessive inheritance, targeted gene approaches, and genome-wide association studies using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and copy number variation, and whole genome studies. PMID:22236429

  3. Celestial: Common astronomical conversion routines and functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robotham, Aaron S. G.

    2016-02-01

    The R package Celestial contains common astronomy conversion routines, particularly the HMS and degrees schemes, and a large range of functions for calculating properties of different cosmologies (as used by the cosmocalc website). This includes distances, ages, growth rate/factor and densities (e.g., Omega evolution and critical energy density). It also includes functions for calculating thermal properties of the CMB and Planck's equations and virial properties of halos in different cosmologies, and standard NFW and weak-lensing formulas and low level orbital routines for calculating Roche properties, Vis-Viva and free-fall times.

  4. OVARIECTOMY IN A COMMON HIPPOPOTAMUS (HIPPOPOTAMUS AMPHIBIUS).

    PubMed

    Hernández, Carlos A; Ruiz, Isabel C; Villegas, Juan P; Duque, Diego L

    2015-06-01

    Common hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius) introduced to Colombia in the 80s have since spread into livestock areas. Measures such as breeding control are needed to prevent further uncontrolled population growth. A young female hippopotamus was moved to a university veterinary hospital and anesthetized. Laparoscopic ovariectomy was attempted, but because of the difficulty of inserting the trocars in an apparently lax peritoneum, lateral laparotomy was performed. Both ovaries were transected with the use of an ultrasonic hemostatic device and clamping. Patient recovery was completely successful and the wound healed with few complications. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing a successful ovariectomy in a hippopotamus. PMID:26056898

  5. Auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder: common phenomenology, common cause, common interventions?

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Longden, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH: ‘hearing voices’) are found in both schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this paper we first demonstrate that AVH in these two diagnoses share a qualitatively similar phenomenology. We then show that the presence of AVH in schizophrenia is often associated with earlier exposure to traumatic/emotionally overwhelming events, as it is by definition in PTSD. We next argue that the content of AVH relates to earlier traumatic events in a similar way in both PTSD and schizophrenia, most commonly having direct or indirect thematic links to emotionally overwhelming events, rather than being direct re-experiencing. We then propose, following cognitive models of PTSD, that the reconstructive nature of memory may be able to account for the nature of these associations between trauma and AVH content, as may threat-hypervigilance and the individual’s personal goals. We conclude that a notable subset of people diagnosed with schizophrenia with AVH are having phenomenologically and aetiologically identical experiences to PTSD patients who hear voices. As such we propose that the iron curtain between AVH in PTSD (often termed ‘dissociative AVH’) and AVH in schizophrenia (so-called ‘psychotic AVH’) needs to be torn down, as these are often the same experience. One implication of this is that these trauma-related AVH require a common trans-diagnostic treatment strategy. Whilst antipsychotics are already increasingly being used to treat AVH in PTSD, we argue for the centrality of trauma-based interventions for trauma-based AVH in both PTSD and in people diagnosed with schizophrenia. PMID:26283997

  6. Scientists Find Many Common Genetic Variations Play a Role in Common Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the cause of four common diseases — rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes — is ... genetic factors and environmental factors could lead to celiac disease, coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, or other ...

  7. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2nd most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase Teriac (raw opium) as a means of antidote a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption. PMID:26288642

  8. Toxicity of common ions to marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pillard, D.A.; DuFresne, D.L.; Evans, J.

    1995-12-31

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and these may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due to osmotic imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnetsium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that the salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to the produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in a produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant.

  9. Common property systems, migration, and coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Curran, Sara R; Agardy, Tundi

    2002-06-01

    Common property systems are a critical institution mediating the relationship between population change and environmental outcomes, especially in coastal and marine ecosystems. Evidence from El Salvador; Goa, India; and the Solomon Islands demonstrates how the social structures and institutions stemming from patterns of human migration variably influence environmental out-comes through their effects on common property resource institutions. In each of the case studies, the demographic phenomenon is not population growth or a change in numbers, but an underlying process that affects population size and growth rates: i.e. migration and associated social relations that result from or cause more migration. The following 3 cases studies provide the respective historical and cultural context to show that there is a nonlinear link between population and environment, which when explored reveals the importance of understanding how individuals and communities are embedded in sets of social relations that must be considered when evaluating environmental policies or when determining the causes of environmental degradation. PMID:12174600

  10. Adaptive common average filtering for myocontrol applications.

    PubMed

    Rehbaum, Hubertus; Farina, Dario

    2015-02-01

    The use of electromyography (EMG) for the control of upper-limb prostheses has received great interest in neurorehabilitation engineering since decades. Important advances have been performed in the development of machine learning algorithms for myocontrol. This paper describes a novel adaptive filter for EMG preprocessing to be applied as conditioning stage for optimal subsequent information extraction. The aim of this filter is to improve both the quality (signal-to-noise ratio) and the selectivity of the EMG recordings. The filter is based on the classic common average reference (CAR), often used in EEG processing. However, while CAR is stationary, the proposed filter, which is referred to as adaptive common average reference (ACAR), is signal-dependent and its spatial transfer function is adapted over time. The ACAR filter is evaluated in this study for noise reduction and selectivity. Furthermore, it is proven that its application improves the performance of both pattern recognition and regression methods for myoelectric control. It is concluded that the proposed novel filter for EMG conditioning is a useful preprocessing tool in myocontrol applications. PMID:25388778

  11. Common questions about Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Winslow, Bradford T; Onysko, Mary; Thompson, Kathleen A; Caldwell, Katharine; Ehlers, Gordon H

    2014-03-15

    Clostridium difficile infection is a common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. It causes no symptoms in more than one-half of infected patients, but can also cause a wide spectrum of illnesses and death. The incidence and severity have increased in recent years. The most important modifiable risk factor for C. difficile infection is antibiotic exposure; this risk is dose-related and higher with longer courses and combination therapy. C. difficile infection is also associated with older age, recent hospitalization, multiple comorbidities, use of gastric acid blockers, inflammatory bowel disease, and immunosuppression. It has become more common in younger, healthier patients in community settings. The most practical testing options are rapid testing with nucleic acid amplification or enzyme immunoassays to detect toxin, or a two-step strategy. Treatment includes discontinuing the contributing antibiotic, if possible. Mild C. difficile infection should be treated with oral metronidazole; severe infection should be treated with oral vancomycin. Fidaxomicin may be an effective alternative. Recurrences of the infection should be treated based on severity. Tapering and the pulsed-dose method of oral vancomycin therapy for second recurrences are effective. Prevention includes responsible antibiotic prescribing and vigilant handwashing. Probiotics prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea, but are not recommended specifically for preventing C. difficile infection. PMID:24695562

  12. Is synaesthesia more common in autism?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Synaesthesia is a neurodevelopmental condition in which a sensation in one modality triggers a perception in a second modality. Autism (shorthand for Autism Spectrum Conditions) is a neurodevelopmental condition involving social-communication disability alongside resistance to change and unusually narrow interests or activities. Whilst on the surface they appear distinct, they have been suggested to share common atypical neural connectivity. Methods In the present study, we carried out the first prevalence study of synaesthesia in autism to formally test whether these conditions are independent. After exclusions, 164 adults with autism and 97 controls completed a synaesthesia questionnaire, Autism Spectrum Quotient, and Test of Genuineness-Revised (ToG-R) online. Results The rate of synaesthesia in adults with autism was 18.9% (31 out of 164), almost three times greater than in controls (7.22%, 7 out of 97, P <0.05). ToG-R proved unsuitable for synaesthetes with autism. Conclusions The significant increase in synaesthesia prevalence in autism suggests that the two conditions may share some common underlying mechanisms. Future research is needed to develop more feasible validation methods of synaesthesia in autism. PMID:24252644

  13. Food Allergy: Common Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavisha Y; Volcheck, Gerald W

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is a growing concern, and recognition of symptoms, knowledge of common food allergens, and management of reactions are important for patients and practitioners. Symptoms of a classic IgE-mediated food allergy vary in severity and can include any combination of laryngeal edema, wheezing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, urticaria, angioedema, and hypotension. Many foods can induce an allergic reaction, but the most commonly implicated foods include cow's milk, egg, peanut, tree nut, soy, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Milk and egg allergy generally develop and are outgrown in childhood. Peanut and tree nut allergy can occur during childhood or adulthood, are less likely to be outgrown, and tend to cause more fatal reactions. Given the possibility of life-threatening reactions, it is important to recognize the potential for cross-reactivity among food groups. Diagnosis of food allergy includes skin prick testing, specific serum IgE testing, and oral food challenges. Management is centered on avoidance of allergenic and cross-reacting foods and early recognition and immediate treatment of reactions. Treatment protocols to desensitize patients to food are currently under investigation. PMID:26434966

  14. Dysphagia revisited: common and unusual causes.

    PubMed

    Carucci, Laura R; Turner, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia is a common clinical problem whose prevalence is increasing with the aging population in the United States. The term dysphagia is commonly used to describe subjective awareness of swallowing difficulty during the passage of a bolus from the mouth to the stomach or the perception of obstruction during swallowing. Dysphagia may be further classified as oropharyngeal or substernal, depending on the location of this sensation. It can be due to benign or malignant structural lesions, esophageal motility abnormalities, oropharyngeal dysfunction (including aspiration), neuromuscular disorders, or postsurgical changes and is also associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Pathologic conditions of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and proximal stomach can manifest with dysphagia. Imaging remains the preferred method for evaluating patients with dysphagia, and dysphagia is an increasingly encountered indication for radiologic evaluation. Fluoroscopic studies, including the modified barium swallow and esophagography in particular, are often used in the assessment of patients with dysphagia, and the techniques used for these studies should be tailored to the patient's needs. Fluoroscopic studies can be used to evaluate the esophagus for structural abnormalities (eg, webs, diverticula, strictures, masses) and to assess function (eg, the swallowing mechanism and esophageal motility). Knowledge of the imaging spectrum of disease entities that may cause dysphagia and thorough radiologic assessment with a tailored approach may help avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:25590391

  15. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption.

    PubMed

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-06-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2(nd) most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase "Teriac" (raw opium) as a means of "antidote" a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption. PMID:26288642

  16. Common world model for unmanned systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Robert Michael S.

    2013-05-01

    The Robotic Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA) seeks to provide adaptive robot capabilities which move beyond traditional metric algorithms to include cognitive capabilities. Key to this effort is the Common World Model, which moves beyond the state-of-the-art by representing the world using metric, semantic, and symbolic information. It joins these layers of information to define objects in the world. These objects may be reasoned upon jointly using traditional geometric, symbolic cognitive algorithms and new computational nodes formed by the combination of these disciplines. The Common World Model must understand how these objects relate to each other. Our world model includes the concept of Self-Information about the robot. By encoding current capability, component status, task execution state, and histories we track information which enables the robot to reason and adapt its performance using Meta-Cognition and Machine Learning principles. The world model includes models of how aspects of the environment behave, which enable prediction of future world states. To manage complexity, we adopted a phased implementation approach to the world model. We discuss the design of "Phase 1" of this world model, and interfaces by tracing perception data through the system from the source to the meta-cognitive layers provided by ACT-R and SS-RICS. We close with lessons learned from implementation and how the design relates to Open Architecture.

  17. Epigenetic Mechanisms in Commonly Occurring Cancers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a collection of very complex diseases that share many traits while differing in many ways as well. This makes a universal cure difficult to attain, and it highlights the importance of understanding each type of cancer at a molecular level. Although many strides have been made in identifying the genetic causes for some cancers, we now understand that simple changes in the primary DNA sequence cannot explain the many steps that are necessary to turn a normal cell into a rouge cancer cell. In recent years, some research has shifted to focusing on detailing epigenetic contributions to the development and progression of cancer. These changes occur apart from primary genomic sequences and include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and miRNA expression. Since these epigenetic modifications are reversible, drugs targeting epigenetic changes are becoming more common in clinical settings. Daily discoveries elucidating these complex epigenetic processes are leading to advances in the field of cancer research. These advances, however, come at a rapid and often overwhelming pace. This review specifically summarizes the main epigenetic mechanisms currently documented in solid tumors common in the United States and Europe. PMID:22519822

  18. Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Etiological and Treatment Issues

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Sean; Selmi, Carlo; Naguwa, Stanley M.; Teuber, Suzanne S.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2009-01-01

    One of the great advances in clinical medicine was the recognition of the pleomorphism of the immune response and the multiple afferent and efferent limbs of antigen processing and responsiveness. A significant contribution to this understanding was derived from studies of human immunodeficiency states, including both inherited and acquired syndromes. Amongst these syndromes, one of the most common, and least understood, is common variable immune deficiency (CVID). CVID is a syndrome that leads to a reduction in serum immunoglobulins and complications including recurrent infections. Management includes immunoglobulin replacement therapy; however, patients with CVID are at risk for complications of exogenous immunoglobulin administration as well as CVID-associated diseases such as autoimmune processes and malignancies. To assess the current state of knowledge in the field, we performed a literature review of a total of 753 publications covering the period of 1968 until 2008. From this list, 189 publications were selected for discussion. In this review, we demonstrate that while the molecular basis of CVID in many cases remains incompletely understood, significant strides have been made and it is now clear that there is involvement of several pathways of immune activation, with contributions from both T and B cells. Furthermore, despite the current gaps in our knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of the syndrome, there have been dramatic advances in management that have led to improved survival and significantly reduced morbidity in affected patients. PMID:19571563

  19. Common variable immunodeficiency: etiological and treatment issues.

    PubMed

    Deane, Sean; Selmi, Carlo; Naguwa, Stanley M; Teuber, Suzanne S; Gershwin, M Eric

    2009-01-01

    One of the great advances in clinical medicine was the recognition of the pleomorphism of the immune response and the multiple afferent and efferent limbs of antigen processing and responsiveness. A significant contribution to this understanding was derived from studies of human immunodeficiency states, including both inherited and acquired syndromes. Amongst these syndromes, one of the most common, and least understood, is common variable immune deficiency (CVID). CVID is a syndrome that leads to a reduction in serum immunoglobulins and complications including recurrent infections. Management includes immunoglobulin replacement therapy; however, patients with CVID are at risk for complications of exogenous immunoglobulin administration as well as CVID-associated diseases such as autoimmune processes and malignancies. To assess the current state of knowledge in the field, we performed a literature review of a total of 753 publications covering the period of 1968 until 2008. From this list, 189 publications were selected for discussion. In this review, we demonstrate that while the molecular basis of CVID in many cases remains incompletely understood, significant strides have been made and it is now clear that there is involvement of several pathways of immune activation, with contributions from both T and B cells. Furthermore, despite the current gaps in our knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of the syndrome, there have been dramatic advances in management that have led to improved survival and significantly reduced morbidity in affected patients. PMID:19571563

  20. Concurrence of the tortuosity of bilateral common and left internal carotid arteries in a case with common origin of the innominate trunk and left common carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Sema; Cece, Hasan; Karayol, Sibel; Ziylan, Zeki

    2010-10-01

    Anatomical variations of carotid arterial system, which are not infrequently encountered, have great impact on the surgical approaches of the neck. Although few reports on common carotid artery tortuosity have been published, no case of symptomatic concurrent common carotid and internal carotid artery tortuosity has been reported. Herein, we report the first case with concurrent common origin of the innominate trunk and left common carotid artery and common and internal carotid artery tortuosity presenting with an oropharyngeal mass. PMID:20407773

  1. 29 CFR 779.221 - Common control defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Common control defined. 779.221 Section 779.221 Labor... Or Common Control 779.221 Common control defined. Under the definition the enterprise includes all related activities performed through common control for a common business purpose. The...

  2. 29 CFR 779.221 - Common control defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Common control defined. 779.221 Section 779.221 Labor... Or Common Control 779.221 Common control defined. Under the definition the enterprise includes all related activities performed through common control for a common business purpose. The...

  3. Common pediatric and adolescent skin conditions.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Angela M; Barrio, Victoria; Kulp-Shorten, Carol; Callen, Jeffrey P

    2003-10-01

    Skin lesions are encountered in all areas of medicine, and it is therefore important for physicians to understand the fundamentals of explaining and diagnosing common skin conditions. This article begins with a discussion of description and documentation of skin lesions based on color, size, morphology, and distribution. Pigmentation disorders such as vitiligo are depicted. Cutaneous growths that are found in the pediatric and adolescent population include acrochordons, dermatofibromas, keloids, milia, neurofibromas, and pyogenic granulomas. Treatment of these growths usually involves observation or curettage with electrodessication.Psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, poison ivy, and eczema are comprised of scaling patches and plaques; poison ivy and atopic dermatitis may also present with bullous and vesicular changes. Therapy typically consists of topical emollients and corticosteroids; phototherapy is reserved for refractory cases. Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease of the pediatric and adolescent population. This condition can be psychologically debilitating and, therefore, proper treatment is of paramount importance. Therapeutic options include topical as well as oral antibiotics and retinoids. Extreme caution must be used when prescribing retinoids to post-pubescent females, as these agents are teratogenic. Vascular anomalies are most commonly exemplified as port wine stains and hemangiomas. Port wine stains may be treated with pulsed dye laser or may be observed if they are not of concern to the patient or physician. Hemangiomas typically spontaneously regress by age ten; however, there has been recent concern that certain cases may need to be treated. Dermal rashes may be localized or generalized. Treatment of generalized drug eruptions involves elimination of the inciting agent, topical antipruritics, and systemic corticosteroids for severe reactions. Infectious etiologic agents of skin disease include bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Many sexually transmitted diseases are bacterial or viral in origin and present as a rash or ulcer. Impetigo is a bacterial infection which may present as a bullous eruption or as an erosion with a honey colored crust. Other bacterial infections include erythema chronicum migrans, folliculitis, and cellulitis. Fungal infections include the various forms of tinea and are usually treated with topical antifungals; if the infection is located in a hair-bearing area, systemic antifungals are necessary. Viral infections include warts, varicella, molluscum contagiosum, and herpes. Treatment varies from observation or antivirals for varicella to cryosurgery and topical imiquimod for warts. Finally, scabies and lice are infectious agents that can be treated with permethrin and pyrethrin solutions. PMID:14597015

  4. Common Era Sea-Level Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, B.; Kemp, A.; Kopp, R. E., III

    2014-12-01

    The Atlantic coast of North America provides a sedimentary record of Common Era sea levels with the resolution to identify the mechanisms that cause spatial variability in sea-level rise. This coast has a small tidal range, improving the precision of sea-level reconstructions. Coastal subsidence (from glacial isostatic adjustment, GIA) creates accommodation space that is filled by salt-marsh peat and preserves accurate and precise sea-level indicators and abundant material for radiocarbon dating. In addition, the western North Atlantic Ocean is sensitive to spatial variability in sea-level change, because of static equilibrium effects from melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet, ocean circulation and wind-driven variability in the Gulf Stream and GIA induced land-level change from ongoing collapse of Laurentide forbuldge. We reveal three distinct patters in sea-level during the Common Era along the North American Atlantic coast, likely linked to wind-driven changes in the Gulf Stream: (1) Florida, sea level is essentially flat, with the record dominated by long-term geological processes; (2) North Carolina, sea level falls to a minimum near the beginning of the second millennium, climbing to an early Little Ice Age maximum in the fifteenth century, and then declining through most of the nineteenth century; and (3) New Jersey, a sea-level maximum around 900 CE, a sea-level minimum around 1500 CE, and a long-term sea-level rise through the second half of the second millennium. We combine the salt-marsh data from North American Atlantic coast with tide-gauge records and lower resolution proxies from the northern and southern hemispheres. We apply a noisy-input Gaussian process spatio-temporal modeling framework, which identifies a long-term falling global mean sea-level (GMSL), interrupted in the middle of the 19th century by an acceleration yielding a 20th century rate of rise extremely likely (probability P = 0:95) faster than any previous century in the Common Era.

  5. Fermionic light in common optical media.

    PubMed

    Novoa, David; Michinel, Humberto; Tommasini, Daniele

    2010-11-12

    Recent experiments have proved that the response to short laser pulses of common optical media, such as air or oxygen, can be described by focusing Kerr and higher order nonlinearities of alternating signs. Such media support the propagation of steady solitary waves. We argue by both numerical and analytical computations that the low-power fundamental bright solitons satisfy an equation of state which is similar to that of a degenerate gas of fermions at zero temperature. Considering, in particular, the propagation in both O2 and air, we also find that the high-power solutions behave like droplets of ordinary liquids. We then show how a grid of the fermionic light bubbles can be generated and forced to merge in a liquid droplet. This leads us to propose a set of experiments aimed at the production of both the fermionic and liquid phases of light, and at the demonstration of the transition from the former to the latter. PMID:21231236

  6. Neurobehavioral development of common marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Braun, Katarina M; Emborg, Marina E

    2016-03-01

    Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) monkeys are a resource for biomedical research and their use is predicted to increase due to the suitability of this species for transgenic approaches. Identification of abnormal neurodevelopment due to genetic modification relies upon the comparison with validated patterns of normal behavior defined by unbiased methods. As scientists unfamiliar with nonhuman primate development are interested to apply genomic editing techniques in marmosets, it would be beneficial to the field that the investigators use validated methods of postnatal evaluation that are age and species appropriate. This review aims to analyze current available data on marmoset physical and behavioral postnatal development, describe the methods used and discuss next steps to better understand and evaluate marmoset normal and abnormal postnatal neurodevelopment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 141-158, 2016. PMID:26502294

  7. GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE in COMMON VARIABLE IMMUNODEFICIENCY#

    PubMed Central

    Ardeniz, mr; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Granulomatous disease occurs in 8-22% of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). We examined the clinical and immunologic information of all 37 of 455 (8.1%) CVID subjects with this complication. The median age at diagnosis of CVID was 26 (2 - 59). 14 had granulomas 1 - 18 years before diagnosis of CVID. In 6 detection of granulomas coincided with this diagnosis; for 17, granulomas were documented later. 54% had lung granulomas, 43% in lymph nodes and 32% in liver. 54% of the group had had autoimmune diseases, mostly immune thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia. 24% had had a splenectomy. Nineteen (51.3%) required steroid treatment for granulomas; other immune suppressants were used in some. Over 25 years 28.5% died (median age 37.5), but not significantly more when compared to our CVID patients without granulomas (19.8%). Those with lung granulomas had similar mortality to those with granulomas in other tissues. PMID:19716342

  8. Retrieval pathways for common and proper names.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Carlo

    2006-08-01

    Paradigmatic cases of proper name anomia and proper name selective sparing are reviewed from relevant neuropsychological literature. Available evidence supports the existence of functionally and anatomically distinct retrieval pathways for the categories of proper and common names. An information processing model whose main feature lies in the relative independence within the semantic-conceptual system of information concerning individual entities may account for most of the observed phenomena. Localization studies seem to indicate that a complex neural network sustains various tasks implied in proper name processing. A dedicated module dealing with proper name retrieval is probably there, but its location within the left hemisphere is not at present fully understood. The proper name specific retrieval process is shown, in keeping with current philosophical and linguistic theories, to be intrinsically fragile and source-consuming. PMID:17131594

  9. Common postural defects among music students.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Piñeiro, Patricia; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Martínez, Aurora

    2015-07-01

    Postural quality during musical performance affects both musculoskeletal health and the quality of the performance. In this study we examined the posture of 100 students at a Higher Conservatory of Music in Spain. By analysing video tapes and photographs of the students while performing, a panel of experts extracted values of 11 variables reflecting aspects of overall postural quality or the postural quality of various parts of the body. The most common postural defects were identified, together with the situations in which they occur. It is concluded that most students incur in unphysiological postures during performance. It is hoped that use of the results of this study will help correct these errors. PMID:26118530

  10. Cluster MigraineAn Unrecognized Common Entity

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Robert F.

    1970-01-01

    A review is presented of a distinctive type of vascular headache and its stereotyped features are emphasized, viz. severe non-throbbing character, unilateral and usually peri-ocular localization, frequent nocturnal occurrence and tendency to occur in brief episodes in a clustered pattern over weeks or months, with headache-free periods lasting months or years. Ten illustrative case histories are given and a plea is made for the early clinical recognition of this entity so that patients will not be submitted to unnecessary and potentially hazardous investigative procedures. While the common analgesics and narcotics are usually ineffective, ergotamine derivatives, methysergide and a new compound, BC-105, are highly effective forms of therapy. PMID:5494819

  11. HSE inspector advises on 'common mistakes'.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    A recent IHEEM seminar on water hygiene and safety, 'The Invisible Threat', saw John Newbold, an HM specialist inspector at the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) with experience investigating Legionella cases and outbreaks, provide useful insight into how healthcare estates engineers and other 'responsible' personnel could ensure compliance with the law by properly 'managing and controlling' Legionella risk. He provided a first-hand view of what he dubbed 'some of the common mistakes' made by those responsible for managing water system safety, and gave useful advice and guidance on how to avoid them, and thus minimise the risk of falling foul of the HSE and other regulators. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports. PMID:23140000

  12. Planets around post-common envelope binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreizler, Stefan; Beuermann, Klaus; Hessman, Frederic; Husser, Tim-Oliver

    2015-12-01

    The timing method enables to search planets in extreme conditions, e.g. as companion to pulsars or as planets in post-common envelope binaries (PCEB). In both cases, the planetary systems have experience a dramatic evolution of the primary star.Eclipse time variations in PCEBs with white dwarfs and subdwarf-B stars as primaries have been interpreted as signatures from circumbinary planets and planetary systems. Several of these interpretations have been questioned later on, either due to dynamical instability of the proposed planetary systems or due to non-detection of the proposed companions. We will give an overview of our long-term monitoring of PCEB systems and the modelling in terms of Keplerian and Newtonian planetary orbits in order to assess the circumbinary planet scenario for these systems. We discuss the implications for the first-generation or second-generatoin planet scenario for these potential planets around these evolved stars.

  13. A syndromic approach to common parasitic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shafran, Stephen D.; Chow, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Standard textbooks discuss parasitic disease according to specific organisms. In contrast, patients with parasitic infections present to physicians with a variety of clinical manifestations that may involve any of several organ systems and that often mimic nonparasitic diseases. A syndromic approach to the clinical situation may help the physician in considering the most important parasitic agents. Many parasitic infections can be acquired in temperate climates. While often considered tropical or exotic, other parasitic diseases are now seen more frequently in developed countries because of immigration and increased world travel. In this review the clinical syndromes associated with common parasitic diseases in North America are discussed, with an emphasis on risk factors and diagnosis of specific infections. PMID:4042057

  14. Intertrigo and common secondary skin infections.

    PubMed

    Janniger, Camila K; Schwartz, Robert A; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Reich, Adam

    2005-09-01

    Intertrigo is inflammation of skinfolds caused by skin-on-skin friction. It is a common skin condition affecting opposing cutaneous or mucocutaneous surfaces. Intertrigo may present as diaper rash in children. The condition appears in natural and obesity-created body folds. The friction in these folds can lead to a variety of complications such as secondary bacterial or fungal infections. The usual approach to managing intertrigo is to minimize moisture and friction with absorptive powders such as cornstarch or with barrier creams. Patients should wear light, nonconstricting, and absorbent clothing and avoid wool and synthetic fibers. Physicians should educate patients about precautions with regard to heat, humidity, and outside activities. Physical exercise usually is desirable, but patients should shower afterward and dry intertriginous areas thoroughly. Wearing open-toed shoes can be beneficial for toe web intertrigo. Secondary bacterial and fungal infections should be treated with antiseptics, antibiotics, or antifungals, depending on the pathogens. PMID:16156342

  15. Common origin of visible and dark universe

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Peihong; Sarkar, Utpal

    2010-02-01

    Dark matter, baryonic matter, and dark energy have different properties but contribute comparable energy density to the present Universe. We point out that they may have a common origin. As the dark energy has a scale far lower than all known scales in particle physics but very close to neutrino masses, while the excess matter over antimatter in the baryonic sector is probably related to the neutrino-mass generation, we unify the origin of the dark and visible universe in a variant of the seesaw model. In our model (i) the dark matter relic density is a dark matter asymmetry emerged simultaneously with the baryon asymmetry from leptogenesis; (ii) the dark energy is due to a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone-Boson associated with the neutrino-mass generation.

  16. [Two bacteria and common skin infections].

    PubMed

    Pirard-Franchimont, C; Lesuisse, M; Pirard, G E

    2012-10-01

    Common bacterial skin infections represent frequent disorders encountered in general practice and in dermatology as well. They encompass a series of infections affecting the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis and subcutaneous tissues. The two main bacteria involved in these processes are Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. The resulting infections show various clinical presentations. Their management must be adapted to their gravity and to the putative or proven nature of the causal microorganism. Searching for any skin ingress possibility and any favouring factor is always of importance in order to stimulate healing and avoid recurrences. Of note, skin possibly allows the ingress way for a secondary septicemic dissemination. Conversely, skin is possibly involved in tissue localisation of septicemia. PMID:23167160

  17. The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, J.; Chou, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) project will provide a core satellite carrying the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and will use microwave observations from a constellation of other satellites. Each partner with a satellite in the constellation will have a calibration that meets their own requirements and will decide on the format to archive their brightness temperature (Tb) record in GPM. However, GPM multi-sensor precipitation algorithms need to input intercalibrated Tb's in order to avoid differences among sensors introducing artifacts into the longer term climate record of precipitation. The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product is intended to address this problem by providing intercalibrated Tb data, called "Tc" data, where the "c" stands for common. The precipitation algorithms require a Tc file format that is both generic and flexible enough to accommodate the different passive microwave instruments. The format provides detailed information on the processing history in order to allow future researchers to have a record of what was done. The format is simple, including the main items of scan time, latitude, longitude, incidence angle, sun glint angle, and Tc. It also provides a quality flag, spacecraft orientation, spacecraft location, orbit, and instrument scan type (cross-track or conical). Another simplification is to store data in real numbers, avoiding the ambiguity of scaled data. Finally, units and descriptions will be provided in the product. The format is built on the concept of a swath, which is a series of scans that have common geolocation and common scan geometry. Scan geometry includes pixels per scan, sensor orientation, scan type, and incidence angles. The format includes 3 space saving methods: first rounding variables written as floats to their needed accuracy to achieve good compression, second writing sun glint angle as a one byte variable, and third storing only unique incidence angles but allowing access via a mapping array. Two programs are used to create a Tc product. Program One reads the input data which may be antenna temperature (Ta) or Tb and could be an orbit with an arbitrary starting point or a half orbit. Program One then writes a "base" file which is a standard orbit and written in a base format which preserves all the information from the input. Program Two reads the base file, calibrates the radiance information, and outputs Tc in the standard format. The use of two programs allows researchers to insert experimental calibrations in Program Two without having to read the input to Program One or orbitize the data. The Tc algorithms and data formats are being tested using the pre-GPM Precipitation Processing System (PPS) software to generate formats and I/O routines. In the test, data from SSM/I, SSMI/S, TMI, AMSR-E, and WindSat are being processed and written as Tc products.

  18. CMLOG: A common message logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Bickley, M.; Wu, D.; Watson, W. III

    1997-12-01

    The Common Message Logging (CMLOG) system is an object-oriented and distributed system that not only allows applications and systems to log data (messages) of any type into a centralized database but also lets applications view incoming messages in real-time or retrieve stored data from the database according to selection rules. It consists of a concurrent Unix server that handles incoming logging or searching messages, a Motif browser that can view incoming messages in real-time or display stored data in the database, a client daemon that buffers and sends logging messages to the server, and libraries that can be used by applications to send data to or retrieve data from the database via the server. This paper presents the design and implementation of the CMLOG system meanwhile it will also address the issue of integration of CMLOG into existing control systems.

  19. Common dietary supplements for cognitive health

    PubMed Central

    Gestuvo, MK; Hung, WW

    2012-01-01

    Advancing age is a major risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia. Currently, there are no effective preventive strategies for cognitive decline. Since physicians have no drug therapies to offer, patients and families may turn to complementary and alternative medicine to preserve cognition. Dietary supplements are one of the most common forms of complementary and alternative medicine that patients use and although limited, evidence for their potential interactions with other treatments has been documented. Considering the insufficient evidence for their efficacy, potential for interaction with other therapies and costs to patients, physicians should be aware of the use of dietary supplements among their patients so that they can advise their patients on the potential benefits and harms. PMID:22451847

  20. Common dermatologic manifestations of primary immune deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Relan, Manisha; Lehman, Heather K

    2014-12-01

    The skin is the largest organ of our body; it consists of the epidermis, dermis, hair follicles, sweat glands, blood vessels, and connective tissue matrix. Its main function is to act as a barrier to the outside world and protect us from infections. Any component of the skin is subject to insults from the environment and/or from within the body. Primary immune deficiency patients present with recurrent or prolonged infections not frequently seen in healthy individuals. Oftentimes, these infections involve the skin. Primary immune deficiency may also present with noninfectious cutaneous signs, such as eczema; erythroderma; granulomas; dysplasia of the skin, hair, nails, or teeth; pigmentary changes; angioedema; urticaria; vasculitis; or autoimmune skin disease due to immune dysregulation. Prompt recognition of the underlying diagnosis and initiation of treatment decrease morbidity. This review provides the reader with an up-to-date summary of the common dermatologic manifestations of primary immune deficiency diseases. PMID:25269404

  1. On statistical biases and their common neglect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdalaki, E.; Basta, M.; Boboti, N.; Bountas, N.; Dodoula, E.; Iliopoulou, T.; Ioannidou, S.; Kassas, K.; Nerantzaki, S.; Papatriantafyllou, E.; Tettas, K.; Tsirantonaki, D.; Papalexiou, S. M.; Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2012-04-01

    The study of natural phenomena such as hydroclimatic processes demands the use of stochastic tools and the good understanding thereof. However, common statistical practices are often based on classical statistics, which assumes independent identically distributed variables with Gaussian distributions. However, in most cases geophysical processes exhibit temporal dependence and even long term persistence. Also, some statistical estimators for nonnegative random variables have distributions radically different from Gaussian. We demonstrate the impact of neglecting dependence and non-normality in parameter estimators and how this can result in misleading conclusions and futile predictions. To accomplish that, we use synthetic examples derived by Monte Carlo techniques and we also provide a number of examples of misuse. Acknowledgment: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided financial support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  2. Assay of brines for common radiolysis products

    SciTech Connect

    MacDougall, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Brines are assayed for four common products of radiolytic reaction. Free chlorine is determined spectrophotometrically after reaction with o-tolidine. The test is specific for chlorine, and quantities of chlorine from 0.1 to 6 ..mu..g in the test aliquot are determined with a precision of about +- 5%. Hydrogen peroxide is reacted with xylenol orange and determined spectrophotometrically with a precision of +- 5% on 2-..mu..g quantities of peroxide. A spectrophotometric method using thiocyanate is employed in the chlorate assay. After subtracting the bias caused by any H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ or Cl/sub 2/, 1-..mu..g quantities of chlorate can be determined with a precision of +- 10%. Perchlorate ion quantities of 1 ppM can be determined directly in brines by ion chromatography with a precision of about +- 15%.

  3. Conventional radiological strategy of common gastrointestinal neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-Zhuo; Wu, Pei-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes the clinical characteristics and imaging features of common gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms in terms of conventional radiological imaging methods. Barium studies are readily available for displaying primary malignancies and are minimally or not at all invasive. A neoplasm may be manifested as various imaging findings, including mucosal disruption, soft mass, ulcer, submucosal invasion and lumen stenosis on barium studies. Benign tumors typically appear as smoothly marginated intramural masses. Malignant neoplasms most often appear as irregular infiltrative lesions on barium examination. Tumor extension to adjacent GI segments may be indistinct on barium images. Cross-sectional images such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may provide more accurate details of the adjacent organ invasion, omental or peritoneal spread. PMID:25628800

  4. Common Methodology for Efficient Airspace Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar

    2012-01-01

    Topics include: a) Developing a common methodology to model and avoid disturbances affecting airspace. b) Integrated contrails and emission models to a national level airspace simulation. c) Developed capability to visualize, evaluate technology and alternate operational concepts and provide inputs for policy-analysis tools to reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. d) Collaborating with Volpe Research Center, NOAA and DLR to leverage expertise and tools in aircraft emissions and weather/climate modeling. Airspace operations is a trade-off balancing safety, capacity, efficiency and environmental considerations. Ideal flight: Unimpeded wind optimal route with optimal climb and descent. Operations degraded due to reduction in airport and airspace capacity caused by inefficient procedures and disturbances.

  5. The design of a common lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggers, Dan; Hearrell, Sean; Key, Kevin; Le, Brian; Love, Glen; Mcmullen, Rob; Messec, Scott; Ruhnke, Jim

    1991-01-01

    The Austin Cynthesis Corporation was formed to respond to a Request for Proposal for the design of a Common Lunar Lander (CLL) capable of carrying lightweight (less than 500 kg), unspecified payload to the moon. This Final Design Report Document includes information on the requirements for the design project; the ideas proposed as solutions to the design problem; the work which has been completed in support of the design effort; justifications, validations, and verifications of decisions made during the project; and suggestions for future work to be done in support of the project. A project schedule, including current status of the items included on the schedule, as well as cost and management summaries is also included.

  6. Solving multi-leader-common-follower games.

    SciTech Connect

    Leyffer, S.; Munson, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2010-01-01

    Multi-leader-common-follower games arise when modelling two or more competitive firms, the leaders, that commit to their decisions prior to another group of competitive firms, the followers, that react to the decisions made by the leaders. These problems lead in a natural way to equilibrium problems with equilibrium constraints (EPECs). We develop a characterization of the solution sets for these problems and examine a variety of nonlinear optimization and nonlinear complementarity formulations of EPECs. We distinguish two broad cases: problems where the leaders can cost-differentiate and problems with price-consistent followers. We demonstrate the practical viability of our approach by solving a range of medium-sized test problems.

  7. Fermionic Light in Common Optical Media

    SciTech Connect

    Novoa, David; Michinel, Humberto; Tommasini, Daniele

    2010-11-12

    Recent experiments have proved that the response to short laser pulses of common optical media, such as air or oxygen, can be described by focusing Kerr and higher order nonlinearities of alternating signs. Such media support the propagation of steady solitary waves. We argue by both numerical and analytical computations that the low-power fundamental bright solitons satisfy an equation of state which is similar to that of a degenerate gas of fermions at zero temperature. Considering, in particular, the propagation in both O{sub 2} and air, we also find that the high-power solutions behave like droplets of ordinary liquids. We then show how a grid of the fermionic light bubbles can be generated and forced to merge in a liquid droplet. This leads us to propose a set of experiments aimed at the production of both the fermionic and liquid phases of light, and at the demonstration of the transition from the former to the latter.

  8. Algorithmic commonalities in the parallel environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcanulty, Michael A.; Wainer, Michael S.

    1987-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this project was to analyze procedures from substantially different application areas to discover what is either common or peculiar in the process of conversion to the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP). Three areas were identified: molecular dynamic simulation, production systems (rule systems), and various graphics and vision algorithms. To date, only selected graphics procedures have been investigated. They are the most readily available, and produce the most visible results. These include simple polygon patch rendering, raycasting against a constructive solid geometric model, and stochastic or fractal based textured surface algorithms. Only the simplest of conversion strategies, mapping a major loop to the array, has been investigated so far. It is not entirely satisfactory.

  9. Erysipelas: a common potentially dangerous infection.

    PubMed

    Celestin, R; Brown, J; Kihiczak, G; Schwartz, R A

    2007-09-01

    Erysipelas is an acute superficial cutaneous cellulitis that commonly occurs not only in elderly and immunocompromised persons, but also in neonates and small children subsequent to bacterial inoculation through a break in the skin barrier. Group A Beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS, Streptoccocus pyogenes) is the usual etiologic agent. Factors that predispose pediatric patients to the development of erysipelas include very young age, diabetes mellitus, an immunocompromised state, and nephrotic syndrome. Patients typically have a well-demarcated, erythematous, indurated, rapidly spreading patch with a palpable advancing border on the face or extremities. Fever with chills and general malaise may be prominent symptoms. Antibiotics are usually effective. Patients handled in a timely manner tend to recover without problems. However, potential complications include abscess formation, necrotizing fasciitis, septicemia, recurrent infection, and lymphedema. PMID:17994173

  10. Tumor Ablation: Common Modalities and General Practices

    PubMed Central

    Knavel, Erica M.; Brace, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor ablation is a minimally invasive technique that is commonly used in the treatment of tumors of the liver, kidney, bone, and lung. During tumor ablation, thermal energy is used to heat or cool tissue to cytotoxic levels (less than ?40C or more than 60C). An additional technique is being developed that targets the permeability of the cell membrane and is ostensibly nonthermal. Within the classification of tumor ablation, there are several modalities used worldwide: radiofrequency, microwave, laser, high-intensity focused ultrasound, cryoablation, and irreversible electroporation. Each technique, although similar in purpose, has specific and optimal indications. This review serves to discuss general principles and technique, reviews each modality, and discusses modality selection. PMID:24238374

  11. Common modeling system for digital simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, Rick

    1994-01-01

    The Joint Modeling and Simulation System is a tri-service investigation into a common modeling framework for the development digital models. The basis for the success of this framework is an X-window-based, open systems architecture, object-based/oriented methodology, standard interface approach to digital model construction, configuration, execution, and post processing. For years Department of Defense (DOD) agencies have produced various weapon systems/technologies and typically digital representations of the systems/technologies. These digital representations (models) have also been developed for other reasons such as studies and analysis, Cost Effectiveness Analysis (COEA) tradeoffs, etc. Unfortunately, there have been no Modeling and Simulation (M&S) standards, guidelines, or efforts towards commonality in DOD M&S. The typical scenario is an organization hires a contractor to build hardware and in doing so an digital model may be constructed. Until recently, this model was not even obtained by the organization. Even if it was procured, it was on a unique platform, in a unique language, with unique interfaces, and, with the result being UNIQUE maintenance required. Additionally, the constructors of the model expended more effort in writing the 'infrastructure' of the model/simulation (e.g. user interface, database/database management system, data journalizing/archiving, graphical presentations, environment characteristics, other components in the simulation, etc.) than in producing the model of the desired system. Other side effects include: duplication of efforts; varying assumptions; lack of credibility/validation; and decentralization in policy and execution. J-MASS provides the infrastructure, standards, toolset, and architecture to permit M&S developers and analysts to concentrate on the their area of interest.

  12. Common envelopes in binary star evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iben, Icko, Jr.; Livio, Mario

    1993-12-01

    The characteristics of many close, evolved binaries can be understood most easily if there exists some agency that can abstract angular momentum or mass, or both, from the precursor system. Close binaries may be defined as systems in which at least one of the components has filled or will fill its Roche lobe and attempt to transfer matter to its companion. If the time scale for mass transfer is considerably shorter than the time scale on which the accretor can adjust thermally to the proffered mass, the accreted layer will heat up, expand, and fill the Roche lobe of the accretor. The mass lost by the donor thereafter flows into a 'common envelope' (CE) which encompasses both stars. The frictional interaction between this common envelope and the stellar cores produces drag forces that cause the cores to spiral in toward one another; some of the orbital energy helps drive matter from the CE into interstellar space. Examples of systems which are experiencing or have experienced this process include some planetary nebulae, cataclysmic variables, and close binary degenerate stars. Similar situations can arise if one of the components can support, of its own accord, a dense wind that flows out of the system; the drag luminosity produced by interaction between the companion and the wind may intensify the wind and contribute to mass loss from the donor. Systems undergoing this 'wind-CE' process include novae and close binaries containing an OB star. Planetary nebulae with close binary central stars are actually ejected CEs, and precursors of many cataclysmic variables were once the central stars of planetary nebulae formed in a CE event. In this review, we (1) describe various initial configurations which will produce a CE, (2) discuss the physics of the CE event, (3) describe attempts to model the event quantitatively, and (4) apply what we have learned to describe, in several real situations, the transformations wrought by evolution through a CE phase.

  13. Common occupational classification system - revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Stahlman, E.J.; Lewis, R.E.

    1996-05-01

    Workforce planning has become an increasing concern within the DOE community as the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM or EM) seeks to consolidate and refocus its activities and the Office of Defense Programs (DP) closes production sites. Attempts to manage the growth and skills mix of the EM workforce while retaining the critical skills of the DP workforce have been difficult due to the lack of a consistent set of occupational titles and definitions across the complex. Two reasons for this difficulty may be cited. First, classification systems commonly used in industry often fail to cover in sufficient depth the unique demands of DOE`s nuclear energy and research community. Second, the government practice of contracting the operation of government facilities to the private sector has introduced numerous contractor-specific classification schemes to the DOE complex. As a result, sites/contractors report their workforce needs using unique classification systems. It becomes difficult, therefore, to roll these data up to the national level necessary to support strategic planning and analysis. The Common Occupational Classification System (COCS) is designed to overcome these workforce planning barriers. The COCS is based on earlier workforce planning activities and the input of technical, workforce planning, and human resource managers from across the DOE complex. It provides a set of mutually-exclusive occupation titles and definitions that cover the broad range of activities present in the DOE complex. The COCS is not a required record-keeping or data management guide. Neither is it intended to replace contractor/DOE-specific classification systems. Instead, the system provides a consistent, high- level, functional structure of occupations to which contractors can crosswalk (map) their job titles.

  14. Rethinking Soils: an under-investigated commons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Chrisopher; Mills, Jane; Ingram, Julie

    2015-04-01

    In a number of global contexts there is a re-awakening of interest in soils in both increasing the resilience of complex social-ecological systems (SES) and as a result of the threats to them, as shown by the UN International Year of Soils in 2015. Consequently the management of soils and their wider role within property regimes and natural resource management might need to be reassessed. At the heart of this is the rise in awareness regarding the connectedness of SES, and in frameworks such as the Ecosystem Approach and the identification and analysis of Ecosystem Services. Whilst not new to some, it has widened the understanding among many, that soils have a valuable role to play in complex SES because they are a slow variable crucial to underlying structure of the SES. The conventional approach that soils are linked to the ecosystem services category of provisioning services (production of food, timber and fibre) remains valid. Not surprisingly this link is strong within natural resource management and property rights regimes but soils remain at risk for a range of threats, for example soil erosion and compaction, salinization, sealing, desertification, loss of organic matter and biodiversity and contamination. However, soils are increasingly seen as a slow variable that can lead to increased resilience within a SES and have a profound importance to human life through a range of regulating services including water quality and purification, water flow and attenuation and , pest and disease control. Given the long-standing importance of soil as a natural resource there are also accompanying legal systems, property regimes, societal values, knowledge, custom and traditions. However, in the light of the wider understanding soil functions are these social frameworks appropriate and fit for purpose or would a shared resource of commons approach be more appropriate. To some extent this examination would also extend to the presence of soils within the cultural services category of ecosystem services. As a result of the increasing evidence regarding soil threats, there is concern that the knowledge relating to soils is fragmented and incomplete. This is particular true regarding the complexity and functioning of soil systems and their interaction with human activities and the effectiveness of governance arrangements to promote resilience in the management of soils. Therefore discussions concerning soils needs to be taken from an interdisciplinary perspectives that embraces both natural and social sciences. This paper will seek to examine soils from a multi-scale governance/complex commons perspective. It will also consider how a commons perspective might be useful in reducing soil threats and in the development of effective prevention, remediation and restoration measures. This often requires a change in thinking about soil, perhaps considering it as a 'slow variable', able to drive long-term change or as a 'cultural asset' and 'knowledge resource'.

  15. Common tongue conditions in primary care.

    PubMed

    Reamy, Brian V; Derby, Richard; Bunt, Christopher W

    2010-03-01

    Although easily examined, abnormalities of the tongue can present a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for physicians. Recognition and diagnosis require a thorough history, including onset and duration, antecedent symptoms, and tobacco and alcohol use. Examination of tongue morphology and a careful assessment for lymphadenopathy are also important. Geographic tongue, fissured tongue, and hairy tongue are the most common tongue problems and do not require treatment. Median rhomboid glossitis is usually associated with a candidal infection and responds to topical antifungals. Atrophic glossitis is often linked to an underlying nutritional deficiency of iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, riboflavin, or niacin and resolves with correction of the underlying condition. Oral hairy leukoplakia, which can be a marker for underlying immunodeficiency, is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and is treated with oral antivirals. Tongue growths usually require biopsy to differentiate benign lesions (e.g., granular cell tumors, fibromas, lymphoepithelial cysts) from premalignant leukoplakia or squamous cell carcinoma. Burning mouth syndrome often involves the tongue and has responded to treatment with alpha-lipoic acid, clonazepam, and cognitive behavior therapy in controlled trials. Several trials have also confirmed the effectiveness of surgical division of tongue-tie (ankyloglossia), in the context of optimizing the success of breastfeeding compared with education alone. Tongue lesions of unclear etiology may require biopsy or referral to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, head and neck surgeon, or a dentist experienced in oral pathology. PMID:20187599

  16. Extrachromosomal circular DNA is common in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Mller, Henrik D.; Parsons, Lance; Jrgensen, Tue S.; Botstein, David; Regenberg, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    Examples of extrachromosomal circular DNAs (eccDNAs) are found in many organisms, but their impact on genetic variation at the genome scale has not been investigated. We mapped 1,756 eccDNAs in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome using Circle-Seq, a highly sensitive eccDNA purification method. Yeast eccDNAs ranged from an arbitrary lower limit of 1 kb up to 38 kb and covered 23% of the genome, representing thousands of genes. EccDNA arose both from genomic regions with repetitive sequences ?15 bases long and from regions with short or no repetitive sequences. Some eccDNAs were identified in several yeast populations. These eccDNAs contained ribosomal genes, transposon remnants, and tandemly repeated genes (HXT6/7, ENA1/2/5, and CUP1-1/-2) that were generally enriched on eccDNAs. EccDNAs seemed to be replicated and 80% contained consensus sequences for autonomous replication origins that could explain their maintenance. Our data suggest that eccDNAs are common in S. cerevisiae, where they might contribute substantially to genetic variation and evolution. PMID:26038577

  17. Toxicity of trihalomethanes to common carp embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Mattice, J.S.; Tsai, S.C.; Burch, M.B.; Beauchamp, J.J.

    1981-03-01

    Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal concentrations (LC50) ranged from 161 mg/liter for chloroform to 53 mg/liter for dibromochloromethane. Decay studies conducted under conditions similar to those used for the toxicity studies, but in distilled water, indicated that (1) half-lives of the trihalomethanes ranged from 4.4 to 6.9 hours; (2) decay was due primarily to volatilization; (3) higher relative toxicity of dibromochloromethane probably was due to formation of a degradation product (likely Br/sub 2/). Correction of the nominal LC50 values to time-weighted mean concentrations over the period between toxicant changes gave weighted LC50 values of 97.2, 67.4, 33.5, and 52.3 mg/liter for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, respectively. In addition, the period of water-hardening of fertilized eggs was not critical for expression of toxicity of dibromochloromethane. Comparison of these and other published data on effluent and toxic concentrations, persistence, and bioaccumulation of water-chlorination products suggests that trihalomethanes are not as environmentally critical as other chlorinated organic compounds or residual chlorine.

  18. Information Commons for Rice (IC4R).

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population and also a key model organism for plant research. Here, we present Information Commons for Rice (IC4R; http://ic4r.org), a rice knowledgebase featuring adoption of an extensible and sustainable architecture that integrates multiple omics data through community-contributed modules. Each module is developed and maintained by different committed groups, deals with data collection, processing and visualization, and delivers data on-demand via web services. In the current version, IC4R incorporates a variety of rice data through multiple committed modules, including genome-wide expression profiles derived entirely from RNA-Seq data, resequencing-based genomic variations obtained from re-sequencing data of thousands of rice varieties, plant homologous genes covering multiple diverse plant species, post-translational modifications, rice-related literatures and gene annotations contributed by the rice research community. Unlike extant related databases, IC4R is designed for scalability and sustainability and thus also features collaborative integration of rice data and low costs for database update and maintenance. Future directions of IC4R include incorporation of other omics data and association of multiple omics data with agronomically important traits, dedicating to build IC4R into a valuable knowledgebase for both basic and translational researches in rice. PMID:26519466

  19. Common features of extraordinary rate theories.

    PubMed

    Peters, Baron

    2015-05-28

    We examine the capabilities and foundations of three landmark rate theories: harmonic transition state theory, classical nucleation theory, and the Marcus theory of electron transfer. Each of the three classic rate theories is widely used to predict rates and trends. They are also used "in reverse" to interpret experimental data with no computation at all. Their common foundations include a quasi-equilibrium assumption and dimensionality reduction to a physically meaningful, one-dimensional, and broadly applicable reaction coordinate. Many applications lie beyond the scope of the classic theories, so rare events research has pursued trajectory-based methods that efficiently predict accurate rate constants even when the reaction coordinate and mechanistic details are unknown. Trajectory based rare events methods achieved these ambitious goals, but (by construction) they provide rates rather than mechanistic understanding. We briefly discuss recent efforts to identify reaction coordinates, including methods which provide abstract statistically defined coordinates and those which identify physical collective variables. Finally, we note some natural synergies between existing simulation methods which might help discover simple and powerful quasi-equilibrium theories for the many applications that fall beyond the scope of the classic rate theories. PMID:25920343

  20. Inhaled corticosteroids for asthma: common clinical quandaries.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, Krishnan; O'Byrne, Paul M; Sears, Malcolm R

    2003-04-01

    This narrative review provides evidence-based explanations to some of the common clinical concerns regarding inhaled corticosteroids. Inhaled corticosteroids are the treatment of choice for a newly diagnosed asthmatic patient. Better results are obtained when treatment is initiated as soon as the diagnosis is made. Asthma control can be achieved and maintained in most patients with a low or moderate dose of inhaled corticosteroid administered in two daily doses. Longer duration of treatment provides more sustained benefits than treatment that is intermittent and for short periods of time. The clinical benefits can be observed within 24 hours of commencing treatment and may be more pronounced in patients with an eosinophilic bronchitis. Inhaled corticosteroids provide additional benefit when used in conjunction with prednisone in acute severe asthma. Low doses do not have clinically deleterious side effects on the bones, growth, eye, or hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-axis. However, they do not normalize lung function and prevent structural changes in the airway wall in all asthmatic patients. PMID:12765311

  1. Common Attentional Constraints in Visual Foraging

    PubMed Central

    Kristjnsson, rni; Jhannesson, mar I.; Thornton, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Predators are known to select food of the same type in non-random sequences or runs that are longer than would be expected by chance. If prey are conspicuous, predators will switch between available sources, interleaving runs of different prey types. However, when prey are cryptic, predators tend to focus on one food type at a time, effectively ignoring equally available sources. This latter finding is regarded as a key indicator that animal foraging is strongly constrained by attention. It is unknown whether human foraging is equally constrained. Here, using a novel iPad task, we demonstrate for the first time that it is. Participants were required to locate and touch 40 targets from 2 different categories embedded within a dense field of distractors. When individual target items popped-out search was organized into multiple runs, with frequent switching between target categories. In contrast, as soon as focused attention was required to identify individual targets, participants typically exhausted one entire category before beginning to search for the other. This commonality in animal and human foraging is compelling given the additional cognitive tools available to humans, and suggests that attention constrains search behavior in a similar way across a broad range of species. PMID:24964082

  2. Constitution and common law in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Santosuosso, A

    2001-10-01

    In recent years legal intervention in bioethical matters has increased notably following various paths: court decisions, parliamentary acts, codes of conduct and solemn declarations (i.e. European Bioethics Convention, 1997, or the UNESCO Genome Declaration, 1997). Body and liberty, as a question of fundamental legal rights, are constitutionalized along two paths. The former is vertical (a text created at central level is open to ratification and domestic implementation to finally become the rule in concrete cases). The latter is, above all, horizontal. It is characterized by the existence at world level of a number of centres and institutions, with the judiciary and judge-made law playing a major role. The most important new rights and freedoms in bioethics have been recognized in this ever-changing and troubled environment. The horizontal way has the great advantage of considering the differences as a resource and not as a limit. In the case law on bioethics a sort of jurisprudential model seems to be at work, that goes some way toward a judge-made law at a universal level. Cases such as Cruzan, Bland and Massimo held the fundamental concept of self-determination with surprising similarity. But we don't know if one of them has influenced the others, always supposing that the judges were aware of them. Today's first duty is to raise the consciousness of judges as to how common their problems are and how often their rulings are similar to each other's. PMID:12058772

  3. Hypocalcemia in Malignancy - Unexpected but Common

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, Evan; Shakuntala, Shrestha; Chiha, Maguy; Khosla, Pam

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common metabolic abnormalities found in patients with malignancy is hypercalcemia. Hypocalcemia is a rare occurrence and is often found to be associated with renal failure and patients taking bisphosphonate therapy for bone metastasis in this patient population. Here, we present two different case reports with hypocalcemia. A 66-year-oldfemale with a recent diagnosis of tonsillar diffuse B-cell lymphoma admitted with complaints of generalized weakness after one cycle of R-CHOP, found to have neutropenia, a low calcium level, high PTH, and low 25-hydroxy Vitamin D levels. She was given calcium gluconate and supplemental 25-hydroxy Vitamin D. On day 2, the patient's symptoms and counts improved.The second patient was a 64-year-old male with recurrent metastatic laryngeal carcinoma, along with a second locally advanced primary rectal adenocarcinoma, presented with severe hypocalcemia and a low PTH level. The patient was on adjuvant chemotherapy and exhibited Chvosteks sign, along with perioral numbness, tingling, and twitching sensations, which eventually led to dysphagia. He was treated with calcium gluconate, calcitriol, and calcium carbonate. Signs and symptoms, along with lab values, improved on day 4.These cases suggest that calcium kinetics and 25-hydroxy Vitamin D levels need to be monitored in these patient populations in a routine manner.

  4. Interactive form recognition for common use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gugler, Sean

    1997-04-01

    Rather than follow the trend in form recognition procedures toward more and more sophisticated analysis suitable for archival or enhancement of the form, I have chosen to address the most common use of forms: filling them out immediately. My efforts have focuses on permitting the use of the form electronically as early in the recognition process as possible. The interactive procedure described here yields no delay at all, even on older office and home computers. To achieve this, no preprocessing is performed - all computations are made at the instant an area of the form is selected for use. Furthermore, only the addition of new data is permitted, to be aligned with pre-existing markings, precluding the complex analysis needed to replace the image with a symbolic reproduction. Interactivity is the key to the success of this approach. Performing analyses only on demand eliminates the time the human must wait before he is allowed to use the form, and takes advantage of the human element by dividing the tasks. The human locates the areas of interest - task suited to his pattern-recognizing biological brain - and the computer determines precise alignment within each area - a task more suited to rule- based logical algorithms.

  5. Farm noise emissions during common agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Depczynski, J; Franklin, R C; Challinor, K; Williams, W; Fragar, L J

    2005-08-01

    Noise injury in agriculture is a significant yet often unrecognized problem. Many farmers, farm workers, and family members are exposed to noise levels above recommended levels and have greater hearing loss than their non-farming contemporaries. The aim of this study was to gather up-to-date information on farm noise levels and to enhance the quality of information available to assist farmers in reducing noise exposure and meeting Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) regulations regarding noise management. Farm visits were conducted on 48 agricultural establishments that produce a range of commodities. Noise levels were measured at the ears of operators and bystanders involved in typical activities on farms. The average and peak noise levels were measured for 56 types of machinery or sites of farming activity, totaling 298 separate items and activities. Common noise hazards identified included firearms, tractors without cabs, workshop tools, small motors (e.g., chainsaws, augers, pumps), manual handling of pigs, shearing sheds, older cabbed tractors, and heavy machinery such as harvesters, bulldozers, and cotton module presses. We found that use of firearms without hearing protection presents a pressing hearing health priority. However, farming activities involving machinery used for prolonged periods also present significant risks to farmers' hearing health. Noise management strategies on the farm are essential in order to prevent noise injury among farmers. PMID:16184791

  6. Common duct stricture from chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Yadegar, J; Williams, R A; Passaro, E; Wilson, S E

    1980-05-01

    Common bile duct stricture secondary to chronic pancreatitis is difficult to detect clinically. Surgical bypass is necessary if complications from biliary obstruction develop. In 21 patients operated on between 1968 and 1979, the earliest typical biochemical finding was a persistently elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level. The SGOT level was minimally elevated in seven patients, but did not correlate with changes in the stricture. An increased bilirubin level was noted either during an acute exacerbation of pancreatitis or late in the course of the stricture development, when obstruction was almost complete. Operative cholangiograms taken in 12 of these patients and transhepatic cholangiograms taken in nine demonstrated a stricture of the intrapancreatic bile duct more than 2 cm long. Operations were performed for treatment of obstructive jaundice (11), ascending cholangitis (three), suspected pancreatic cancer (three), and progressive biliary cirrhosis (two). Sphincteroplasty, initially attempted in four patients, uniformly failed to relieve the obstruction due to the length of strictured duct. Satisfactory drainage was obtained for up to ten years with choledochoduodenostomy (12), choledochojejunostomy (three), and cholecystojejunostomy (six). PMID:7377960

  7. Hypocalcemia in Malignancy - Unexpected but Common.

    PubMed

    Diniotis, Bobby; Sternberg, Evan; Shakuntala, Shrestha; Chiha, Maguy; Khosla, Pam

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common metabolic abnormalities found in patients with malignancy is hypercalcemia. Hypocalcemia is a rare occurrence and is often found to be associated with renal failure and patients taking bisphosphonate therapy for bone metastasis in this patient population. Here, we present two different case reports with hypocalcemia. A 66-year-oldfemale with a recent diagnosis of tonsillar diffuse B-cell lymphoma admitted with complaints of generalized weakness after one cycle of R-CHOP, found to have neutropenia, a low calcium level, high PTH, and low 25-hydroxy Vitamin D levels. She was given calcium gluconate and supplemental 25-hydroxy Vitamin D. On day 2, the patient's symptoms and counts improved.The second patient was a 64-year-old male with recurrent metastatic laryngeal carcinoma, along with a second locally advanced primary rectal adenocarcinoma, presented with severe hypocalcemia and a low PTH level. The patient was on adjuvant chemotherapy and exhibited Chvostek's sign, along with perioral numbness, tingling, and twitching sensations, which eventually led to dysphagia. He was treated with calcium gluconate, calcitriol, and calcium carbonate. Signs and symptoms, along with lab values, improved on day 4.These cases suggest that calcium kinetics and 25-hydroxy Vitamin D levels need to be monitored in these patient populations in a routine manner. PMID:26858923

  8. A common aperture active imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Lijun; Huang, Gang

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, the researches and experiments on the feasibility of a common aperture active imaging system using a polarization beam splitter have been presented. The system includes a CCD imaging unit, a semiconductor laser unit, a polarization beam splitter, a linear polarizer, a quarter-wave plate, a telescope objective, a designed laser collimating lens and mechanical assembling structures. According to the analysis with Jones matrix, the system gains remarkably high utilization ratio of luminous energy. Also, the system can reach an illuminating distance of 3km, a laser divergence angle of 0.504 and a degree of uniformity of 83% theoretically. The experiments have been conducted to obtain images of objects at 300m and 3km. From the results, clear illuminated objects can be identified and no impacts of back scattering of atmosphere turbulence have been detected. However, to make this kind of systems more effective, higher demands on the extinction ratio, reflectivity and transmissivity of the polarized components and the uniformity of the illuminating spot should be met.

  9. Information Commons for Rice (IC4R)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population and also a key model organism for plant research. Here, we present Information Commons for Rice (IC4R; http://ic4r.org), a rice knowledgebase featuring adoption of an extensible and sustainable architecture that integrates multiple omics data through community-contributed modules. Each module is developed and maintained by different committed groups, deals with data collection, processing and visualization, and delivers data on-demand via web services. In the current version, IC4R incorporates a variety of rice data through multiple committed modules, including genome-wide expression profiles derived entirely from RNA-Seq data, resequencing-based genomic variations obtained from re-sequencing data of thousands of rice varieties, plant homologous genes covering multiple diverse plant species, post-translational modifications, rice-related literatures and gene annotations contributed by the rice research community. Unlike extant related databases, IC4R is designed for scalability and sustainability and thus also features collaborative integration of rice data and low costs for database update and maintenance. Future directions of IC4R include incorporation of other omics data and association of multiple omics data with agronomically important traits, dedicating to build IC4R into a valuable knowledgebase for both basic and translational researches in rice. PMID:26519466

  10. Negative linear compressibility in common materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, W.; Evans, K. E.; Marmier, A.

    2015-06-01

    Negative linear compressibility (NLC) is still considered an exotic property, only observed in a few obscure crystals. The vast majority of materials compress axially in all directions when loaded in hydrostatic compression. However, a few materials have been observed which expand in one or two directions under hydrostatic compression. At present, the list of materials demonstrating this unusual behaviour is confined to a small number of relatively rare crystal phases, biological materials, and designed structures, and the lack of widespread availability hinders promising technological applications. Using improved representations of elastic properties, this study revisits existing databases of elastic constants and identifies several crystals missed by previous reviews. More importantly, several common materialsdrawn polymers, certain types of paper and wood, and carbon fibre laminatesare found to display NLC. We show that NLC in these materials originates from the misalignment of polymers/fibres. Using a beam model, we propose that maximum NLC is obtained for misalignment of 26. The existence of such widely available materials increases significantly the prospects for applications of NLC.

  11. Common Urological Conditions in the Female

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, David

    1965-01-01

    Stress incontinence, urge incontinence, and pyelitis of pregnancy are common urological conditions in the female. Poor therapeutic results in the treatment of stress incontinence may be traced to errors in diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis is based on an accurate history, residual urine test, the stress test, cystometric studies (to rule out neurogenic disturbances), cystourethroscopy and cystourethrography. The most important factor in the production of urge incontinence is infection. Some pathological conditions which may be associated with urge incontinence are urethritis, cystitis, urethral stricture, bladder-neck obstruction, urethral diverticula, urethral caruncle and the urgencyfrequency syndrome. Therapy is directed toward the eradication of infection and treatment of the specific lesion. In pyelitis of pregnancy it is urged that, in cases of unusual bacterial virulence and poor ureteral drainage, early cystoscopic ureteral catheter drainage should be instituted in order to prevent permanent kidney damage. The closest co-operation of urologist, gynecologist and general physician is necessary for clarification of some of the more complex problems. PMID:14232184

  12. Radiofrequency radiation effects on the common bean

    SciTech Connect

    Thomkins, K.; Griggs, L.; Myles, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    Our environment is bombarded daily with thousands of objects we can visually detect. However, invisible to humans are the electromagnetic waves that penetrate our environment. Electromagnetic waves consist of a large spectrum of waves including the harmful gamma rays, x-rays, and ultraviolet rays. The question that has increased tremendously is: can low energy electromagnetic waves become harmful to living organisms? The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of radiofrequency radiation on protein synthesis of the common bean. Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) was surface-sterilized and allowed to germinate on Mushurage and Skoog`s medium for 1 week. Hypocotyls were wounded and placed on media to initiate callus production. Six petri dishes containing 1 g of callus were used in the experiment. Three dishes were exposed to 100kH in a Crawford cell for 24h. The remaining three petri dishes with callus were used as a control. After the exposure period, the protein from callus was extracted and analyzed by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results show that hypocotyl growth was not different between control and experimental groups after 24 h. The result of one-dimensional gel electrophoresis did not show observable differences in protein synthesized by the control and experimental groups. Analysis of protein synthesis is still ongoing.

  13. Optical Reflectance Measurements for Commonly Used Reflectors

    SciTech Connect

    Janecek, Petr Martin; Moses, William

    2008-06-11

    When simulating light collection in scintillators, modeling the angular distribution of optical light reflectance from surfaces is very important. Since light reflectance is poorly understood, either purely specular or purely diffuse reflectance is generally assumed. In this paper we measure the optical reflectance distribution for eleven commonly used reflectors. A 440 nm, output power stabilized, un-polarized laser is shone onto a reflector at a fixed angle of incidence. The reflected light's angular distribution is measured by an array of silicon photodiodes. The photodiodes are movable to cover 2 pi of solid angle. The light-induced current is, through a multiplexer, read out with a digital multimeter. A LabVIEW program controls the motion of the laser and the photodiode array, the multiplexer, and the data collection. The laser can be positioned at any angle with a position accuracy of 10 arc minutes. Each photodiode subtends 6.3o, and the photodiode array can be positioned at any angle with up to 10 arc minute angular resolution. The dynamic range for the current measurements is 105:1. The measured light reflectance distribution was measured to be specular for several ESR films as well as for aluminum foil, mostly diffuse for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tape and titanium dioxide paint, and neither specular nor diffuse for Lumirror(R), Melinex(R) and Tyvek(R). Instead, a more complicated light distribution was measured for these three materials.

  14. Brucellosis of the common vole (Microtus arvalis).

    PubMed

    Hublek, Z; Scholz, H C; Sedlcek, I; Melzer, F; Sanogo, Y O; Nesvadbov, J

    2007-01-01

    A systemic disease occurred in a wild population of the common vole Microtus arvalis in South Moravia (Czech Republic) during the years 1999-2003. Acute infections were characterized by edema of extremities, occasionally with colliquating abscesses, arthritis, lymphadenitis, perforations of the skin resulting from colliquated abscesses, orchitis, and peritoneal granulomas. From the clinical samples, small Gram-negative coccobacilli were isolated and identified as Ochrobactrum intermedium by API 20NE and colistin sensitivity profiles. However, subsequent rrs (16S rRNA) and recA (recombinase A) gene sequencing analysis of two isolates (CCM 4915=CAPM 6434; CCM 4916=CAPM 6435) identified them as Brucella sp. with sequence identities of 100% to other Brucella spp. Analysis of the omp2a/b genes confirmed the two isolates as Brucella. In AMOS polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a 2000-bp fragment was generated that was not seen in other brucellae. Experimental infection of outbred ICR mice with these isolates resulted in a mortality rate of 50%. Based on the results of the molecular investigations and the mortality observed in experimentally infected mice we conclude that the epizootic was caused by Brucella sp. and not by Ochrobactrum intermedium. The study demonstrates the limitations of commercial biochemical test systems in accurately differentiating among Ochrobactrum and Brucella. PMID:18021023

  15. Common Data Elements for Muscle Biopsy Reporting.

    PubMed

    Dastgir, Jahannaz; Rutkowski, Anne; Alvarez, Rachel; Cossette, Stacy A; Yan, Ke; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Sewry, Caroline; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Goebel, Hans-Hilmar; Bonnemann, Carsten; Lawlor, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Context .- There is no current standard among myopathologists for reporting muscle biopsy findings. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke has recently launched a common data element (CDE) project to standardize neuromuscular data collected in clinical reports and to facilitate their use in research. Objective .- To develop a more-uniform, prospective reporting tool for muscle biopsies, incorporating the elements identified by the CDE project, in an effort to improve reporting and educational resources. Design .- The variation in current biopsy reporting practice was evaluated through a study of 51 muscle biopsy reports from self-reported diagnoses of genetically confirmed or undiagnosed muscle disease from the Congenital Muscle Disease International Registry. Two reviewers independently extracted data from deidentified reports and entered them into the revised CDE format to identify what was missing and whether or not information provided on the revised CDE report (complete/incomplete) could be successfully interpreted by a neuropathologist. Results .- Analysis of the data highlighted showed (1) inconsistent reporting of key clinical features from referring physicians, and (2) considerable variability in the reporting of pertinent positive and negative histologic findings by pathologists. Conclusions .- We propose a format for muscle-biopsy reporting that includes the elements in the CDE checklist and a brief narrative comment that interprets the data in support of a final interpretation. Such a format standardizes cataloging of pathologic findings across the spectrum of muscle diseases and serves emerging clinical care and research needs with the expansion of genetic-testing therapeutic trials. PMID:26132600

  16. LEECH: LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skemer, A.

    2014-03-01

    In Spring 2013, the LEECH (LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt) survey began its 100-night campaign from the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) atop Mt Graham, Arizona. This survey benefits from the many technological achievements of the LBT, including two 8.4- meter mirrors on a single fixed mount, dual adaptive secondary mirrors for high Strehl performance, and a cold beam combiner to dramatically reducing the telescope's overall background emissivity. LEECH neatly complements other high-contrast planet imaging efforts by observing stars at L' (3.8 microns) with LMIRcam, as opposed to the shorter wavelength near-infrared bands (1-2.4 microns) of other similar surveys. This portion of the spectrum offers deeper mass sensitivity for intermediate age (several hundred Myr-old) systems, since their Jovian-mass planets radiate predominantly in the mid-infrared. The goals of LEECH are to (1) discover new exoplanets, (2) characterize the atmospheres of newly discovered exoplanets, (3) characterize the architectures of nearby planetary systems, and (4) establish meaningful constraints on the prevalence of wideseparation exoplanets.

  17. Management of common breast-feeding problems.

    PubMed

    Melnikow, J; Bedinghaus, J M

    1994-07-01

    The benefits of breast-feeding have been well documented in the literature: it reduces morbidity from many illnesses and is considered the ideal nutrition for the newborn infant. This paper reviews common breast-feeding problems that family physicians may be called upon to manage: maternal problems, infant problems, and problems related to the need for maternal medication. Ensuring proper position of the infant at the breast and attention to the let-down reflex is the recommended method for prevention and treatment of nipple soreness. Prompt identification and treatment of blocked ducts, mastitis, and monilial infection of the nipple can prevent complications and allow uninterrupted nursing. Poor weight gain in the infant is managed by more frequent nursing. Neonatal jaundice or infant gastroenteritis rarely requires discontinuation of breast-feeding. Although physicians frequently recommend that women discontinue breast-feeding because of the administration of some maternal medications, maternal illness can often be managed with medications that do not interfere with nursing. Given proper advice and support, many mothers continue to breast-feed even after returning to work. PMID:8027734

  18. Field evaluation of two commonly used slipmeters.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Cotnam, John P; Matz, Simon

    2003-01-01

    A variety of slipmeters have been used to assess the slipperiness of floor surfaces. International standards for the operation of slipmeters describe the protocol for a single measurement. These standards usually do not cover some of the critical elements in safety assessment such as methods for the selection of measurement locations and the necessary number of repeated measurements at each location. Furthermore, most of the slipmeters were evaluated in laboratory settings with new floor surfaces and artificial contaminants. Two commonly used slipmeters, the Brungraber Mark II and the English XL, were evaluated at actual worksites in this experiment. Four floor tiles in each of four different work areas in the kitchens of 18 fast food restaurants were selected for repeated measurements with these two slipmeters. The results indicated that sanding of footwear materials has a significant effect on the outcomes of friction measurements, and the tile-to-tile variations in friction in the same areas of restaurants were also mostly statistically significant. Significant local variation in friction among tiles in the same area could potentially increase the chances of slip and fall incidents. Both slipmeters used in this experiment could potentially have problems in the areas with grease, such as grill and fryer areas, since the build-up of grease during repeated strikes could alter the outcome of friction measured. PMID:12523805

  19. Differential gene detection incorporating common expression patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Shigeyuki; Ishii, Shin

    2009-12-01

    In detection of differentially expressed (DE) genes between different groups of samples based on a high-throughput expression measurement system, we often use a classical statistical testing based on a simple assumption that the expression of a certain DE gene in one group is higher or lower in average than that in the other group. Based on this simple assumption, the theory of optimal discovery procedure (ODP) (Storey, 2005) provided an optimal thresholding function for DE gene detection. However, expression patterns of DE genes over samples may have such a structure that is not exactly consistent with group labels assigned to the samples. Appropriate treatment of such a structure can increase the detection ability. Namely, genes showing similar expression patterns to other biologically meaningful genes can be regarded as statistically more significant than those showing expression patterns independent of other genes, even if differences in mean expression levels are comparable. In this study, we propose a new statistical thresholding function based on a latent variable model incorporating expression patterns together with the ODP theory. The latent variable model assumes hidden common signals behind expression patterns over samples and the ODP theory is extended to involve the latent variables. When applied to several gene expression data matrices which include cluster structures or 'cancer outlier' structures, the newly-proposed thresholding functions showed prominently better detection performance of DE genes than the original ODP thresholding function did. We also demonstrate how the proposed methods behave through analyses of real breast cancer and lymphoma datasets.

  20. Common Periodicities of Gle's and Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Peraza, Jorge Alberto; Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel; Miroshnichenko, Leonty I.; Vashenyuk, Eduard V.

    Using different techniques of Wavelet Analysis, particularly, cross-wavelet coherence and the Global Wavelet Spectrum, we analyze data of intensity of 70 GLE's of the solar cycles 17 -23 vs data of the solar corona. We have found common periodicities of short period (2.8, 5.2 and 27 days), medium period (0.5, 1.2, 1.8, 3.2) as well as a the 4.6 and 11 yrs. periodicities. The two later are continuous over all the time interval, with a high synchronization and linear phase. In contrast, the short and medium periodicities are rather concentrated around the maximums of solar cycles, with some few cases in the minimums of solar activity, and present in general a complex phase. Results are discussed in terms of the works of others authors related to periodicities of the solar dynamo, solar atmosphere, interplanetary space and cosmic rays. We also evaluated the power anomalies of solar activity by means of sunspots, and have found that anomalies are positives when the GLE 's are of high intensity (higher than 100

  1. Tobacco and the European common agricultural policy.

    PubMed

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1991-10-01

    The common agricultural policy of the European Community subsidizes tobacco production to the tune of 1,300 million ecu a year (US$ 1,500 million, UK pounds 900 million). This amounts to 2,500 ecu ($3,100, pounds 1,700) per minute, and is more in one year than the total amount spent on tobacco subsidies by the US in the last 50 years. The purpose of this policy was to maintain farmers' incomes and adapt community production to demand. Demand for the dark tobaccos which dominate EC production has fallen, while demand for light flue cured tobacco like Virginia has risen. A complex system of production subsidies and quotas was intended to discourage production of the dark tobaccos, for which there is virtually no market, and lead to more Virginia production. The policy has failed. Expenditure has spiralled out of control, production of unmarketable tobacco varieties has risen enormously, and the EC is the world's largest importer of raw tobacco. As a result tobacco is being bought by the community for intervention storage and surpluses of the dark high tar varieties are being 'exported' to eastern Europe and north Africa at giveaway prices. There has been no effective monitoring or control of this policy. This paper explains how this has happened and argues that, in view of the health risks attached to tobacco, these subsidies should be abolished. PMID:1751843

  2. Negative linear compressibility in common materials

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.; Evans, K. E.; Marmier, A.

    2015-06-08

    Negative linear compressibility (NLC) is still considered an exotic property, only observed in a few obscure crystals. The vast majority of materials compress axially in all directions when loaded in hydrostatic compression. However, a few materials have been observed which expand in one or two directions under hydrostatic compression. At present, the list of materials demonstrating this unusual behaviour is confined to a small number of relatively rare crystal phases, biological materials, and designed structures, and the lack of widespread availability hinders promising technological applications. Using improved representations of elastic properties, this study revisits existing databases of elastic constants and identifies several crystals missed by previous reviews. More importantly, several common materials-drawn polymers, certain types of paper and wood, and carbon fibre laminates-are found to display NLC. We show that NLC in these materials originates from the misalignment of polymers/fibres. Using a beam model, we propose that maximum NLC is obtained for misalignment of 26°. The existence of such widely available materials increases significantly the prospects for applications of NLC.

  3. Core radii and common-envelope evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Philip D.; Tout, Christopher A.

    2014-11-01

    Many classes of objects and events are thought to form in binary star systems after a phase in which a core and companion spiral to smaller separation inside a common envelope (CE). Such a phase can end with the merging of the two stars or with the ejection of the envelope to leave a surviving binary system. The outcome is usually predicted by calculating the separation to which the stars must spiral to eject the envelope, assuming that the ratio of the core-envelope binding energy to the change in orbital energy is equal to a constant efficiency factor ?. If either object would overfill its Roche lobe at this end-of-CE separation, then the stars are assumed to merge. It is unclear what critical radius should be compared to the end-of-CE Roche lobe for stars which have developed cores before the start of a CE phase. After improving the core radius formulae in the widely used BSE rapid evolution code, we compare the properties of populations in which the critical radius is chosen to be the pre-CE core radius or the post-CE stripped remnant radius. Our improvements to the core radius formulae and the uncertainty in the critical radius significantly affect the rates of merging in CE phases of most types. We find the types of systems for which these changes are most important.

  4. What Is Common about Common Schooling? Rational Autonomy and Moral Agency in Liberal Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Hanan

    2007-01-01

    In this essay I critique two influential accounts of rational autonomy in common schooling that conceive liberalism as an ideal form of life, and I offer an alternative approach to democratic education that views liberal theory as concerned with coexistence among rival ways of living. This view places moral agency, not rational autonomy, at the

  5. Common Ground with "A Common Faith": Dewey's Idea of the "Religious"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baurain, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    In "A Common Faith", Dewey rejects organized religion and belief in the supernatural, instead arguing for an authentically "religious" attitude which this interpretive essay analyzes in terms of four propositions: (1) Knowledge is unified. (2) Knowledge is democratic. (3) The pursuit of moral ideals requires moral faith. (4) The authority for…

  6. Year 3 of Implementing the Common Core State Standards: States Prepare for Common Core Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentner, Diane Stark

    2013-01-01

    With the voluntary Common Core State Standards (CCSS), states have sought to establish clear, high expectations that are consistent across participating states and that signal what K-12 students should learn in mathematics and English language arts (ELA) to be prepared for college and careers. As of July 2013, the CCSS have been adopted by 45

  7. From Common Struggles to Common Dreams: Neoliberalism and Multicultural Education in a Globalized Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pei-Lun

    2012-01-01

    Major troubling contours of neoliberalism and high-stakes education have common features. Consequently, the author discusses how multicultural education can serve as praxis for collective empowerment in a globalized context. The author asserts that equitable representation and localized multicultural knowledge production are the foundation of a

  8. Media Literacy Is Common Sense: Bridging Common Core Standards with the Media Experiences of Digital Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the concept of "texts" and how the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) affords teachers opportunities to implement media literacy education, in turn providing developmentally and culturally responsive middle level practice and promoting 21st century skills. This has implications for middle

  9. The Common Sense Guide to the Common Core: Teacher-Tested Tools for Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Based on the original source document for the Common Core State Standards and tested by 1,000 educators in diverse classrooms across the country, these research-based tools will help readers examine their current practices and adapt existing curriculum. Each of the 40 tools is clearly presented, explained, and exemplified, guiding educators…

  10. Common Core-Aligned Teaching Resources. State Implementation of Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly; Mira, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The following profiles address how the state departments of education are supporting local educators in classroom implementation of the Common Core by providing and/or facilitating the development of instructional resources and materials aligned to the new standards. In order for instructional resources and materials to be aligned to the Common…

  11. Common Core and the Uncommon Learner: How Autism Affects Acquisition of Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Wendela Whitcomb

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS 2014a, b) are here to stay. State and local education agencies are responsible for ensuring that schools teach all students the core standards that they will need in college and the work force. However, the ever-growing population of students on the autism spectrum has unique learning needs which may make it…

  12. Childhood Obesity & Dental Disease: Common Causes, Common Solutions. Oral Health & Obesity Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Too many California children suffer from high rates of preventable chronic conditions associated with childhood obesity and dental disease. The state is experiencing a crisis in both areas. Fortunately, common factors that contribute to both conditions--including the rates of breastfeeding, access to healthy food and the consumption of…

  13. Common Ground with "A Common Faith": Dewey's Idea of the "Religious"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baurain, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    In "A Common Faith", Dewey rejects organized religion and belief in the supernatural, instead arguing for an authentically "religious" attitude which this interpretive essay analyzes in terms of four propositions: (1) Knowledge is unified. (2) Knowledge is democratic. (3) The pursuit of moral ideals requires moral faith. (4) The authority for

  14. Institutional property rights structure, common pool resource (CPR), tragedy of the urban commons: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, G.; Ho, C. S.; Ali, H. M.

    2014-02-01

    There have been a plethora of researches on the significance of public open space (POS) in contributing to societies' sustainability. However, by virtue of identified maladaptive policy-based-property rights structure, such a shared good becomes vulnerable to tragedy of the urban commons (overexploitation) that subsequently leads to burgeoning number of mismanaged POS e.g., degraded and unkempt urban public spaces. By scrutinising the literatures within property rights domain and commons resources, an objective is highlighted in this paper which is to insightfully discourse institutional property rights structure pertaining to the mechanism, roles and interrelationship between property-rights regimes, bundle of property rights and resource domains; types of goods on how they act upon and tie in the POS with the social quandary. In summary, urban POS tragedy can potentially be triggered by the institutional structure especially if the ownership is left under open-access resource regime and ill-defined property rights which both successively constitute the natures of Common Pool Resource (CPR) within the commons, POS. Therefore, this paper sparks an idea to policy makers that property rights structure is a determinant in sustainably governing the POS in which adaptive assignment of property regimes and property rights are impelled.

  15. Common Origins, Common Futures: Reflections on Identity and Difference in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkomo, Mokubung; Dolby, Nadine

    2004-01-01

    The history of human evolution is fascinating and complex indeed. Modern science as revealed by the disciplines of archaeology, palaeontology, and genetics presents strong evidence about the common origins of humankind. Dispersal from the birthplace over millennia has produced a mosaic of identities that are cultural artefacts or social constructs

  16. From Common Struggles to Common Dreams: Neoliberalism and Multicultural Education in a Globalized Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pei-Lun

    2012-01-01

    Major troubling contours of neoliberalism and high-stakes education have common features. Consequently, the author discusses how multicultural education can serve as praxis for collective empowerment in a globalized context. The author asserts that equitable representation and localized multicultural knowledge production are the foundation of a…

  17. Might "Unique" Factors Be "Common"? On the Possibility of Indeterminate Common-Unique Covariances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Dave

    2006-01-01

    The present paper shows that the usual factor analytic structured data dispersion matrix lambda psi lambda' + delta can readily arise from a set of scores y = lambda eta + epsilon, shere the "common" (eta) and "unique" (epsilon) factors have nonzero covariance: gamma = Cov epsilon,eta) is not equal to 0. Implications of this finding are discussed

  18. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wise, Mitchell Lynn; Katahira, Eva Joy; Savage, Thomas Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  19. Cooling Efficiency of 4 Common Cryotherapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kennet, Jane; Hardaker, Natalie; Hobbs, Sarah; Selfe, James

    2007-01-01

    Context: Cryotherapy is the application of cold as a treatment. It is widely used and accepted as beneficial in early management of soft tissue injury. However, the most efficient cryotherapeutic agent remains unknown. Objective: To compare 4 common cryotherapeutic agents including crushed ice (CI), gel pack (GP), frozen peas (FP), and ice-water immersion (WI) and to determine which agent provided the greatest cooling efficiency after a 20-minute application. Design: Repeated-measures design. Setting: University physiology laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Nine healthy volunteers participated (5 males, 4 females; age = 24.0 4.6 years, height = 1.73 0.24 m, mass = 79.9 24.1 kg). Intervention(s): The CI, GP, FP, and WI were applied to the right ankle for 20 minutes. Participants were required to attend 1 measurement session for each agent. Main Outcome Measure(s): We recorded skin surface temperature of the right ankle at a sampling rate of 1 image/min, using a thermal imaging camera during a 30-minute rewarming period. Results: Application of CI produced a significantly greater reduction in skin surface temperature (19.56 3.78C) than GP (13.19 5.07C) and FP (14.59 4.22C) ( P < .001). The CI and WI demonstrated significantly ( P < .001) greater cooling efficiency than GP and FP. Conclusions: The CI and WI had the greatest cooling efficiency and sustained decreased skin surface temperatures postapplication, indicating these agents are potentially the most clinically beneficial. PMID:18059988

  20. Polarization Signals of Common Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gravseth, Ian; Culp, Robert D.; King, Nicole

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report documenting the results of the polarization testing of near-planar objects with various reflectance properties. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the portion of the reflected signal which is polarized for materials commonly used in space applications. Tests were conducted on several samples, with surface characteristics ranging from highly reflective to relatively dark. The measurements were obtained by suspending the test object in a beam of collimated light. The amount of light falling on the sample was controlled by a circular aperture placed in the light field. The polarized reflectance at various phase angles was then measured. A nonlinear least squares fitting program was used for analysis. For the specular test objects, the reflected signals were measured in one degree increments near the specular point. Otherwise, measurements were taken every five degrees in phase angle. Generally, the more diffuse surfaces had lower polarized reflectances than their more specular counterparts. The reflected signals for the more diffuse surfaces were spread over a larger phase angle range, while the signals from the more specular samples were reflected almost entirely within five degrees of angular deviation from the specular point. The method used to test all the surfaces is presented. The results of this study will be used to support the NASA Orbital Debris Optical Signature Tests. These tests are intended to help better understand the reflectance properties of materials often used in space applications. This data will then be used to improve the capabilities for identification and tracking of space debris.