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1

Suspected cervical spinal cord vascular anomaly in an African warthog (Phacochoerus africanus).  

PubMed

Vascular myelopathies of the spinal cord have not been described in Suidae, and are a rare finding in companion animals. An 8.5-yr female African warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) presented with an acute onset of tetraparesis. Based on neurologic findings, a cervical spinal cord lesion between C7-T2 was suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed severe intramedullary hemorrhage with suspected abnormal vessels in the spinal cord at the level of the seventh cervical vertebrae. The acute onset of clinical signs and rapid deterioration of neurological status precluded surgical managements. A vascular anomaly was suspected on gross pathology and histology. Immunohistochemistry identified the lesion as a spontaneous intramedullary hematoma. Spontaneous intramedullary hematomyelia should be considered as a differential for acute onset of paresis in suid species. PMID:17319141

Whiteside, Douglas P; Shury, Todd K; Black, Sandra R; Raverty, Stephen

2006-09-01

2

Parasites of South African wildlife. XIX. The prevalence of helminths in some common antelopes, warthogs and a bushpig in the Limpopo province, South Africa.  

PubMed

Little work has been conducted on the helminth parasites of artiodactylids in the northern and western parts of the Limpopo province, which is considerably drier than the rest of the province. The aim of this study was to determine the kinds and numbers of helminth that occur in different wildlife hosts in the area as well as whether any zoonotic helminths were present. Ten impalas (Aepyceros melampus), eight kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), four blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), two black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou), three gemsbok (Oryx gazella), one nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), one bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), one waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), six warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) and a single bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) were sampled from various localities in the semi-arid northern and western areas of the Limpopo province. New host-parasite associations included Trichostrongylus deflexus from blue wildebeest, Agriostomum gorgonis from black wildebeest, Stilesia globipunctata from the waterbuck and Fasciola hepatica in a kudu. The mean helminth burden, including extra-gastrointestinal helminths, was 592 in impalas, 407 in kudus and blue wildebeest, 588 in black wildebeest, 184 in gemsbok, and 2150 in the waterbuck. Excluding Probstmayria vivipara, the mean helminth burden in warthogs was 2228 and the total nematode burden in the bushpig was 80. The total burdens and species richness of the helminths in this study were consistently low when compared with similar studies on the same species in areas with higher rainfall. This has practical implications when animals are translocated to areas with higher rainfall and higher prevalence of helminths. PMID:23327219

Van Wyk, Ilana C; Boomker, Joop

2011-11-10

3

Rainfall extremes explain interannual shifts in timing and synchrony of calving in topi and warthog  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that ungulates time and synchronize births to match gestation and lactation with peak food availability\\u000a and quality in seasonal environments, using ground counts of topi and warthog conducted over 174 months (July 1989–December\\u000a 2003) in the Mara–Serengeti ecosystem. During this 15-year period, 2,725 newborn and 45,574 adult female topi and 933 newborn\\u000a and 7,831 adult warthogs were

Joseph O. Ogutu; Hans-Peter Piepho; Holly T. Dublin; Nina Bhola; Robin S. Reid

2010-01-01

4

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

5

Common cold  

MedlinePLUS

... C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 3. Art. ... M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 2. Art. ...

6

Common Warts  

MedlinePLUS

Common warts Basics In-Depth Multimedia Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Common warts By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ...

7

Common Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

8

Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides comprehensive information, selected by medical doctors, about the common cold. The goal is to provide a framework for critical thinking which will allow informed decisions about medical care for the common cold. The section entitled Understanding Colds gives a detailed overview of how the cold virus invades the human body and how cold symptoms are caused. Information about preventing colds, and some of the complications that can occur are also included. The Special Features section includes one of the most interesting parts of the site -- Myths of the Common Cold. This site should be interesting to almost anyone, but perhaps more so for those of us who have recently had a cold.

2007-12-12

9

Common Beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most widely cultivated legumes in the world, occupying over 27 million hectares of tropical and temperate\\u000a agricultural land in the Americas, Europe, Africa and Asia (FAO, 2003). The genus Phaseolus is of American origin and comprises over 30 species (Debouck, 1999). P. vulgaris is the most widely grown legume, occupying

Francisco J. Morales

10

Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

Green, Kimberly

2012-01-01

11

Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

Green, Kimberly

2012-01-01

12

Power system commonality study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system\\/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this

Franklin D. Littman

1992-01-01

13

Canonical Commonality Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor variable. This paper outlines…

Leister, K. Dawn

14

Common Bayesian models for common cognitive issues.  

PubMed

How can an incomplete and uncertain model of the environment be used to perceive, infer, decide and act efficiently? This is the challenge that both living and artificial cognitive systems have to face. Symbolic logic is, by its nature, unable to deal with this question. The subjectivist approach to probability is an extension to logic that is designed specifically to face this challenge. In this paper, we review a number of frequently encountered cognitive issues and cast them into a common Bayesian formalism. The concepts we review are ambiguities, fusion, multimodality, conflicts, modularity, hierarchies and loops. First, each of these concepts is introduced briefly using some examples from the neuroscience, psychophysics or robotics literature. Then, the concept is formalized using a template Bayesian model. The assumptions and common features of these models, as well as their major differences, are outlined and discussed. PMID:20658175

Colas, Francis; Diard, Julien; Bessière, Pierre

2010-07-24

15

Convention et Common knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

[eng] Convention and common knowledge. . « Rationality cannot feed on itself only » (Aumann). Unless it feeds also on collective entities, such as conventions, that are not amenable to individual rationality, it fails to determine social reality. The concept of Common knowledge is examined in this Hght, as well as its ambition to render the collectivity totally transparent to

Jean-Pierre Dupuy

1989-01-01

16

Justified common knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce the justified knowledge operator J with the intended meaning of J? as ‘there is a justification for ?.’ Though justified knowledge appears here in a case study of common knowledge systems, a similar approach is applicable in more general situations. First we consider evidence-based common knowledge systems obtained by augmenting a multi-agent logic of knowledge

Sergei N. Artëmov

2006-01-01

17

Conceptualizing an information commons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concepts from Strategic Alignment, a technology management theory, are used to discuss the Information Commons as a new service delivery model in academic libraries. The Information Commons, as a conceptual, physical, and instructional space, involves an organizational realignment from print to the digital environment.

Donald Beagle

1999-01-01

18

Conceptualizing an Information Commons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concepts from Strategic Alignment, a technology-management theory, are used to discuss the Information Commons as a new service-delivery model in academic libraries. The Information Commons, as a conceptual, physical, and instructional space, involves an organizational realignment from print to the digital environment. (Author)

Beagle, Donald

1999-01-01

19

Space Station Commonality Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems a...

1988-01-01

20

Common Foot Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... are an area of thickened skin caused by friction and pressure. Juvenile plantar dermatosis occurs in children ... occurs in response to excessive, repeated shear or friction forces, commonly due to constant rubbing of the ...

21

Metabolism - Common Metabolism Concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explains how solar energy is the energy source for almost all living systems on earth. Photosynthesis, catabolic reactions, and anabolic reactions are briefly discussed. Lastly, common questions are answered about converting food to energy.

22

Common Reactions After Trauma  

MedlinePLUS

... trauma? All kinds of trauma survivors commonly experience stress reactions. This is true for veterans, children, and disaster rescue or relief workers. If you understand what is happening when ...

23

Common Carrier Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

24

Common MANET Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This effort researched, developed and demonstrated a Common Mobile Ad-hoc Networking (MANET) framework (CMF) to provide a uniform abstraction for wireless discovery, communication, and routing of network traffic over heterogeneous transmission technologie...

G. Frazier

2008-01-01

25

Common NICU Equipment  

MedlinePLUS

... period. Common NICU equipment The NICU contains many machines and other types of equipment used to care for sick babies with many different problems. These machines seem less intimidating when you understand how they ...

26

Common peroneal nerve dysfunction  

MedlinePLUS

... type of peripheral neuropathy (damage to nerves outside the brain or spinal cord). This condition can affect people ... people: Who are very thin (for example, from anorexia nervosa ) ... damage the common peroneal nerve Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is ...

27

Deriving Common Model Characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students confront several different models - from the DNA helix Watson and Crick constructed in their laboratory to a map of McDonalds density in the US - and work in small groups to derive their commonalities.

Momsen, Jennifer; Long, Tammy M.; Speth, Elena B.

28

New common fragile sites.  

PubMed

We report the finding of a large number of new common fragile sites. Thirty-one (56%) of 55 common fragile sites found in a sample of human lymphocytes were ones not described at the Eighth International Workshop on Human Gene Mapping (HGM 8). The sample consisted of 3023 lymphocytes from nine unrelated individuals with a history of genitourinary malignancy. The lymphocytes were challenged in culture with aphidicolin (Apc), fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdR), 5-azacytidine (Aza), and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Thirteen of the new common fragile sites were induced by Apc and FUdR, nine by Aza, five by BrdU, and four by combined means. The sites induced by Apc and FUdR were cross-induced by BrdU. The fragile sites induced by a diminished concentration of Aza were largely located in heterochromatic regions and were cross-induced by BrdU and FUdR. Exposure to BrdU for 24 hours, a technique hitherto restricted to rare fragile sites, induced several common fragile sites. Control lymphocytes had far fewer gaps and breaks, but these were clustered predominantly at high-expression fragile sites. Because more than half of the common fragile sites in this study were new, it is clear that much remains to be learned. Because the classes of fragile sites reveal cross-induction, we propose that fragile sites share structures in DNA. PMID:2454726

Hecht, F; Tajara, E H; Lockwood, D; Sandberg, A A; Hecht, B K

1988-07-01

29

The Federal Commons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1999, the Federal Financial Assistance Management Improvement Act was passed in order to force the development of federal electronic grant processing. A result of the legislation, the Federal Commons portal gives "grantees (state and local governments, universities, small businesses, etc.) full service grants processing across all functions in the grant life cycle." While providing only an entrance to various grant institutions and services, the Federal Commons helps to eliminate the maze-like trail that multi-grant projects sometimes must travel to get to grant proposal Web sites. Most physical sciences researchers will find relevant federal departments listed under the Science and Technology link.

30

Optimisation and common sense.  

PubMed

This note builds on recent articles about the development of new ICRP recommendations by supporting the use of common sense in optimisation; use of an additional criterion relating to technology-based principles is suggested to support utility- and equity-based criteria. This is taken forward by use of authoritative good practice safety precautions and a need to consider safety in an integrated manner. It is noted that use of common sense in ALARP or ALARA decisions is liable to rely on access to information and training. PMID:11929114

Robinson, Ian F

2002-03-01

31

Common-place  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This promising new quarterly online publication situates itself somewhere between a popular magazine and scholarly journal, offering a common place for a variety of readers "to explore and exchange ideas about American history." Similar in some ways to the UK-based popular history magazine History Today, Common-place offers a mix of articles, short features, and reviews aimed at an interested and informed, but not necessarily academic, audience. A discussion board is planned for the near future, and users may subscribe for email notification of new issues.

32

Subtraction with Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers can use this interactive tool to help students build a conceptual understanding of subtracting fractions with common denominators by linking visual models to procedures. The page includes a video demonstration of the tool. Free registration is required to use the tool. A paid subscription is necessary to access curriculum materials and allow full student use.

2011-01-01

33

The Common Command Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common command language has been proposed for use by systems designers and those developing new user interfaces. There is controversy over the appropriateness of a standard command language, and those who are working in artificial intelligence believe that natural language interfaces will make it unnecessary for users to learn such a language,…

Fayen, Emily Gallup

34

The Common Denominator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An author and a poet Nikki Grimes uses her art to reach across differences such as race and culture, and show the commonality of human experience. She uses the power of her poetry to break down racial barriers, shatter cultural stereotypes, and forge community.

Grimes, Nikki

2005-01-01

35

Common Dermatoses of Infancy  

PubMed Central

Within the pediatric population of their practices, family physicians frequently encounter infants with skin rashes. This article discusses several of the more common rashes of infancy: atopic dermatitis, cradle cap, diaper dermatitis and miliaria. Etiology, clinical picture and possible approaches to treatment are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7

Gora, Irv

1986-01-01

36

Common File System Specifications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Common File System (CFS) is a mass storage system for the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Integrated Computer Network. The function of the CFS is to allow users of computers in the network to store and retrieve large amounts of data. The CFS will h...

P. M. Blood R. D. Christman M. W. Collins E. W. Willbanks

1977-01-01

37

Common File System specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Common File System (CFS) is a mass storage system for the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Integrated Computer Network. The function of the CFS is to allow users of computers in the network to store and retrieve large amounts of data. The CFS will have an on-line storage capacity of more than a trillion bits and an archival storage capacity

P. M. Blood; R. D. Christman; M. W. Collins; E. W. Willbanks

1977-01-01

38

Common racial stereotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observes racial stereotypes and explains the way human beings “see” one another because of this. Adumbrates that even as far back as 1798, the media stereotyped people into various groups, and subsequent surveys only seem to emphasize this. Lists out the more common racial stereotypes using (US) surveys to collect peoples’ thoughts and feelings. Shows how to overcome racial stereotypes.

Szu-Hsien Chang; Brian H. Kleiner

2003-01-01

39

Common Hair Loss Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, close attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a

KARYN SPRINGER; MATTHEW BROWN; DANIEL L. STULBERG

2003-01-01

40

Common Standards for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

Principal, 2010

2010-01-01

41

The Common Land Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Common Land Model (CLM) was developed for community use by a grassroots collaboration of scientists who have an interest in making a general land model available for public use and further development. The major model characteristics include enough unevenly spaced layers to adequately represent soil temperature and soil moisture, and a multilayer parameterization of snow processes; an explicit treatment

Yongjiu Dai; Xubin Zeng; Robert E. Dickinson; Ian Baker; Gordon B. Bonan; Michael G. Bosilovich; A. Scott Denning; Paul A. Dirmeyer; Guoyue Niu; Keith W. Oleson; C. Adam Schlosser; Zong-Liang Yang

2003-01-01

42

Common tester platform concept.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

Hurst, Michael James

2008-05-01

43

Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, I discuss a ``misconception'' in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational contexts. This leads students, in my experience, to frequently and erroneously attribute magnetic poles based on geometric associations rather than actual observed behavior. This polarity discrepancy can provide teachers the opportunity to engage students in authentic inquiry about objects in their daily experiences. I've found that investigation of the magnetic polarities of common magnets provides a productive context for students in which to develop valuable and authentic scientific inquiry practices.

Olson, Mark

2013-11-01

44

Common Compound Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database, part of a college-level chemistry course, provides information on hundreds of compounds, elements, and substances encountered in introductory chemistry courses and in everyday life. The informaion includes chemical synonyms, molecular weights, structures, equilibrium constants, thermodynamic properties, and common uses, with properties presented in a variety of common units. Structure information includes flat structural formulas, ball and stick models, electron density/electric potential maps, and Chime "live" structures that can be rotated and queried for bond lengths, bond angles, and torsion angles. The site also includes links to the course website, a glossary, a frequently-asked-questions feature, information on sources used in constructing the database, and many other resources.

Senese, Frederick A.

45

Finding Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers can use this interactive tool to help students build a conceptual understanding of common denominators by relating visual models to numbers. Students learn the value of multiplying a fraction by a fraction with a value of 1. This page includes a video demonstration of the tool and sample lessons from the Conceptua curriculum. Free registration is required to use the tool. A paid subscription is necessary to access full curriculum and allow full student use.

2011-01-01

46

Six Common Air Pollutants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EPA's site about the six common air pollutants is a great resource for the public, or for anyone studying or teaching about air pollution and other environmental issues. Air pollution trends are outlined on the site and a brief backround shows highlights of air pollutant history including the Clean Air Act and different standards. This site is a great place to find the most recent information about air pollutants and quality in the U.S.

2008-11-25

47

Common Skin Cancers  

PubMed Central

Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common forms of skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. Early detection is the key to successful management. In this article, the salient clinical features and diagnostic clues for these tumors and their precursor lesions are presented. Current management guidelines are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figures 4-6Figures 7-9

Ho, Vincent C.

1992-01-01

48

Digital Resource Commons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ohio Digital Resource Commons (DRC) is a place to learn about the historic, instructional, cultural, and creative works of those in the Ohio University system, as well as the liberal arts colleges of Ohio. Although not all of the Ohio schools save material with the DRC, many of them elect to do so. Higher education institutions, as well as K-12 institutions are allowed to save their work via the central network, as long as the work has archival merit. Visitors will want to click on "Communities and Collections" on the left hand menu to browse the vast resources available. Some of the communities included are "Art and Architecture", "Multi-Subject Video", and "OhioLINK Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Center". Within each community are some notable collections including, "Archaeological Atlas of Ohio", "Encyclopedia of Physics Demonstrations", and the "Kent State Shootings Oral Histories". In order to see a list of the archives available to search, visitors should click on "Advanced Search", under the blank search box near the top of the page. The scrollable box next to the archives category includes such choices as "Oberlin Digital Commons", "Scholarly Commons at Miami University", and "Digital Archive of Literacy Narratives".

49

'Historicising common sense'.  

PubMed

This essay is an expanded set of comments on the social psychology papers written for the special issue on History and Social Psychology. It considers what social psychology, and particularly the theory of social representations, might offer historians working on similar problems, and what historical methods might offer social psychology. The social history of thinking has been a major theme in twentieth and twenty-first century historical writing, represented most recently by the genre of 'cultural history'. Cultural history and the theory of social representations have common ancestors in early twentieth-century social science. Nevertheless, the two lines of research have developed in different ways and are better seen as complementary than similar. The theory of social representations usefully foregrounds issues, like social division and change over time, that cultural history relegates to the background. But for historians, the theory of social representations seems oddly fixated on comparing the thought styles associated with positivist science and 'common sense'. Using historical analysis, this essay tries to dissect the core opposition 'science : common sense' and argues for a more flexible approach to comparing modes of thought. PMID:23135802

Millstone, Noah

2012-12-01

50

Common Congenital Anomalies  

PubMed Central

Congenital anomalies account for a substantial proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality. They have become proportionately larger because of the decline of such other categories as infections or birth trauma. Approximately 3% of newborns have a serious handicapping or potentially lethal condition; in longterm studies the frequency is much higher. There is no good evidence to suggest that the rates of congenital anomalies are increasing, although this is a common perception. This article discusses diagnosis and management (especially genetic implications) of heart defects, neural tube defects, orofacial clefting, dislocated hip, clubfoot, and hypospadias.

Lowry, R. B.

1985-01-01

51

Boston University Digital Common  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boston University has a range of scholars, from those who research the hospitality field to others who are fascinated by the world of photonics. The University's Digital Common Repository contains thousands of documents and publications that span this wide range, authored or co-authored by BU faculty, students, and staff. The different communities here are divided into sections that include College of Arts and Sciences, Centers & Institutes, and Metropolitan College. Visitors will find religious sermons, pieces of music, working economics papers, and a vast cornucopia of other materials. Also, visitors are encouraged to use the Browse feature to look for documents by title, subject, author, or date.

52

Common breast problems.  

PubMed

A palpable mass, mastalgia, and nipple discharge are common breast symptoms for which patients seek medical attention. Patients should be evaluated initially with a detailed clinical history and physical examination. Most women presenting with a breast mass will require imaging and further workup to exclude cancer. Diagnostic mammography is usually the imaging study of choice, but ultrasonography is more sensitive in women younger than 30 years. Any suspicious mass that is detected on physical examination, mammography, or ultrasonography should be biopsied. Biopsy options include fine-needle aspiration, core needle biopsy, and excisional biopsy. Mastalgia is usually not an indication of underlying malignancy. Oral contraceptives, hormone therapy, psychotropic drugs, and some cardiovascular agents have been associated with mastalgia. Focal breast pain should be evaluated with diagnostic imaging. Targeted ultrasonography can be used alone to evaluate focal breast pain in women younger than 30 years, and as an adjunct to mammography in women 30 years and older. Treatment options include acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The first step in the diagnostic workup for patients with nipple discharge is classification of the discharge as pathologic or physiologic. Nipple discharge is classified as pathologic if it is spontaneous, bloody, unilateral, or associated with a breast mass. Patients with pathologic discharge should be referred to a surgeon. Galactorrhea is the most common cause of physiologic discharge not associated with pregnancy or lactation. Prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels should be checked in patients with galactorrhea. PMID:22963023

Salzman, Brooke; Fleegle, Stephenie; Tully, Amber S

2012-08-15

53

[Halitosis. A common problem].  

PubMed

Halitosis is a frequently occurring problem, the cause of which is generally to be found in the mouth. The challenge for oral health care providers is to diagnose it correctly and treat it effectively. Differential diagnosis is of great importance in making a distinction between halitosis which originates in the mouth and which does not originate in the mouth. Oral halitosis can be treated effectively by good oral health care. Plaque accumulation on the tongue is the most common cause of oral halitosis. Tongue cleansing, possibly in combination with a specific mouth wash, is consequently recommended as an element of oral hygiene care. Other oral health problems, such as periodontal disease, caries and ill-fitting removable dentures should be treated adequately to eliminate these problems as potential causes of halitosis. PMID:22292352

Laine, M L; Slot, D E; Danser, M M

2011-12-01

54

National PTA Common Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US National Parents and Teachers Association, in conjunction with GTE Corporation, furnishes this site, an information hub for the promotion of drug- and alcohol-free children. Presently, the site is divided into three sections of both serious and fun activities. The Parent's Center consists of interactive quizzes and tip sheets related to developing drug awareness, being a role model, and getting involved in your kids' activities. Visitors to the Family Room will find activities to help kids with their self-esteem, as well as teach them drug-awareness. Family games, quizzes, and cartoons are also available. Help and Hotlines points to organizations that can provide further support and information (links are provided), as well as books and videos. Finally, the site includes an interactive poll, several bulletin boards (registration required), and information for PTA leaders, highlighted by a library of resources to help spread the common sense message.

55

Common hair loss disorders.  

PubMed

Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, dose attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a specific pattern of temporal-frontal loss in men and central thinning in women. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved topical minoxidil to treat men and women, with the addition of finasteride for men. Telogen effluvium is characterized by the loss of "handfuls" of hair, often following emotional or physical stressors. Alopecia areata, trichotillomania, traction alopecia, and tinea capitis have unique features on examination that aid in diagnosis. Treatment for these disorders and telogen effluvium focuses on resolution of the underlying cause. PMID:12887115

Springer, Karyn; Brown, Matthew; Stulberg, Daniel L

2003-07-01

56

Learning Commons to Communicative Commons: Transforming the Academic Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition from information to learning commons is an important step in the transformation of the academic library; yet, it is important that the commons movement not lose its momentum. The learning commons may be considered as a stage in the transformation of the academic library as a whole to a communicative commons whose objective is to insure that all

William F. Birdsall

2010-01-01

57

Common Control System Vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the control system processes and functions. With the detailed knowledge of how the control data functions, as well as what computers and devices communicate using this data, the attacker can use a well known Man-in-the-Middle attack to perform malicious operations virtually undetected. The control systems assessment teams have used this method to gather enough information about the system to craft an attack that intercepts and changes the information flow between the end devices (controllers) and the human machine interface (HMI and/or workstation). Using this attack, the cyber assessment team has been able to demonstrate complete manipulation of devices in control systems while simultaneously modifying the data flowing back to the operator's console to give false information of the state of the system (known as ''spoofing''). This is a very effective technique for a control system attack because it allows the attacker to manipulate the system and the operator's situational awareness of the perceived system status. The three main elements of this attack technique are: (1) network reconnaissance and data gathering, (2) reverse engineering, and (3) the Man-in-the-Middle attack. The details of this attack technique and the mitigation techniques are discussed.

Trent Nelson

2005-12-01

58

COMMON ENVELOPE: ENTHALPY CONSIDERATION  

SciTech Connect

In this Letter, we discuss a modification to the criterion for the common envelope (CE) event to result in envelope dispersion. We emphasize that the current energy criterion for the CE phase is not sufficient for an instability of the CE, nor for an ejection. However, in some cases, stellar envelopes undergo stationary mass outflows, which are likely to occur during the slow spiral-in stage of the CE event. We propose the condition for such outflows, in a manner similar to the currently standard {alpha}{sub CE}{lambda}-prescription but with an addition of P/{rho} term in the energy balance equation, accounting therefore for the enthalpy of the envelope rather than merely the gas internal energy. This produces a significant correction, which might help to dispense with an unphysically high value of energy efficiency parameter during the CE phase, currently required in the binary population synthesis studies to make the production of low-mass X-ray binaries with a black hole companion to match the observations.

Ivanova, N. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Ave, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E7 (Canada); Chaichenets, S. [Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, University of Alberta, CAB, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G1 (Canada)

2011-04-20

59

Common gastrointestinal symptoms: Dysphagia.  

PubMed

Swallowing occurs in 3 phases: oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal. Oropharyngeal dysphagia typically is a result of neuromuscular disorders, such as stroke and parkinsonism, or of mucosal dryness caused by drugs or radiation therapy. Esophageal dysphagia is commonly caused by anatomic defects of the esophagus, such as reflux disease; motility disorders, such as achalasia; or eosinophilic esophagitis. If oropharyngeal dysphagia is suspected, the patient should undergo initial testing with a water or semisolid bolus swallow test. If results are positive, the diagnosis can be confirmed with a videofluoroscopic swallowing study. If esophageal dysphagia is suspected, patients typically undergo endoscopic esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Management of confirmed oropharyngeal dysphagia involves short-term compensation strategies, such as postural changes or food thickening, to minimize the risk of aspiration. This is followed by rehabilitation that may involve swallowing exercises with biofeedback or electrical stimulation of the swallowing muscles. Some patients may need enteral feeding. For esophageal dysphagia, choice of management depends on the etiology; it may include endoscopic dilation, myotomy, injection of onabotulinumtoxinA (formerly called botulinum toxin type A) for structural abnormalities, or topical steroid therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:24124702

Fashner, Julia; Gitu, Alfred Chege

2013-10-01

60

Common knowledge in update logics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current dynamic epistemic logics often become cumbersome and opaque when common knowledge is added for groups of agents. Still, postconditions regarding common knowledge express the essence of what communication achieves. We present some methods that yield so-called reduction axioms for common knowledge. We investigate the expressive power of public announcement logic with relativized common knowledge, and present reduction axioms that

Johan van Benthem; Jan van Eijck; Barteld P. Kooi

2005-01-01

61

Trypanosoma brucei Infection in asymptomatic greater Kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch in Zambia.  

PubMed

Trypomastogotes of Trypanosoma brucei were detected from 4 asymptomatic kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch located approximately 45 km north east of Lusaka, Zambia. Blood smears examined from 14 wildlife species comprising of the impala (Aepyceros melampus), Kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), puku (Kobus vardoni), zebra (Equus burchelli), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), wilderbeest (Connochaetes taurinus), hartebeest (Alcephelus lichtensteini), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) showed that only the kudu had T. brucei. Although game ranching has emerged to be a successful ex-situ conservation strategy aimed at saving the declining wildlife population in the National Parks, our findings suggest that it has the potential of aiding the re-distribution of animal diseases. Hence, there is a need for augmenting wildlife conservation with disease control strategies aimed at reducing the risk of disease transmission between wildlife and domestic animals. PMID:20333288

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew; Mutoloki, Stephen; Matandiko, Wigganson

2010-03-18

62

Trypanosoma brucei Infection in Asymptomatic Greater Kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a Game Ranch in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Trypomastogotes of Trypanosoma brucei were detected from 4 asymptomatic kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch located approximately 45 km north east of Lusaka, Zambia. Blood smears examined from 14 wildlife species comprising of the impala (Aepyceros melampus), Kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), puku (Kobus vardoni), zebra (Equus burchelli), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), wilderbeest (Connochaetes taurinus), hartebeest (Alcephelus lichtensteini), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) showed that only the kudu had T. brucei. Although game ranching has emerged to be a successful ex-situ conservation strategy aimed at saving the declining wildlife population in the National Parks, our findings suggest that it has the potential of aiding the re-distribution of animal diseases. Hence, there is a need for augmenting wildlife conservation with disease control strategies aimed at reducing the risk of disease transmission between wildlife and domestic animals.

Siamudaala, Victor; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew; Mutoloki, Stephen; Matandiko, Wigganson

2010-01-01

63

On the logic of common belief and common knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper surveys the currently available axiomatizations of common belief (CB) and common knowledge (CK) by means of modal propositional logics. (Throughout, knowledge — whether individual or common — is defined as true belief.) Section 1 introduces the formal method of axiomatization followed by epistemic logicians, especially the syntax-semantics distinction, and the notion of a soundness and completeness theorem. Section

Luc Lismont; Philippe Mongin

1994-01-01

64

Facts about the Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease > Influenza > In-Depth-Resources Facts About the Common Cold What is a Cold? Colds are minor infections ... are no antiviral medications available for treating the common cold. Antibiotics are not useful for treating a cold, ...

65

Chains and the Common Ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we provide a description of how the iterated specific use of an indefinite NP can lead to the establishment of referential chains across dialogues and dialogue participants. We describe how they introduce discourse referents, how they are related to the common ground, and how this common ground can be represented by the dialogue participants. Of central concern

Anton Benz

66

Evolution of a Common Controller.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Precedent has shown common controllers must strike a balance between the desire for an integrated user interface design by human factors engineers and support of project-specific data requirements. A common user-interface requires the project-specific dat...

D. Barbour D. Powell G. Gilbreath

2012-01-01

67

Remedies for Common Cold Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Individuals suffering from intolerable symptoms of the common cold can now be advised of safe and effective products for symptomatic relief. This article describes and discusses four categories of drugs used to treat the common cold. To simplify the product selection process for family physicians, suggestions are included for possible ingredients for treatments of specific cold symptoms.

Miller, Penny F.

1991-01-01

68

Teachers' Domain Common Core Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection provides a selection of 300 resources from Teachers' Domain, selected because they support the represent approaches to using digital media to support the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics, or the approaches to science education detailed in the Framework for K-12 Science Education.

2012-08-28

69

Building on the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Common Core State Standards, released in June 2010, offer an opportunity to shift education away from shallow, test-prep instruction and toward a focus on key cognitive skills, writes Conley. Two consortia of states are now developing common assessments to measure these standards--assessments that will be designed to capture deeper, more…

Conley, David T.

2011-01-01

70

Objectification in Common Sense Thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In epistemologies of both scientific and common sense thinking ‘objectification’ characterizes the formation of knowledge and concepts, yet in each case its meaning is different. In the former, objectification in acquiring knowledge refers to the individual's rationalistic reification of an object or of another person, and to disengagement or alienation. Formation of concepts refers to the attainment of common features

Ivana Marková

2012-01-01

71

Personal Finance. Common Curriculum Goals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides the common curriculum goals for the state of Oregon in personal finance, an area of study that relates basic economic concepts and practices to the financial concerns of consumers. These goals were designed to define what should be taught in all public school settings. The common curriculum goals in personal finance are…

Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

72

Mathematics Common Core Unpacked: Kindergarten  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document provides descriptions and examples of what each Mathematics Common Core standard means a Kindergarten student will know, understand and be able to do. This "unpacking" of the standards provides instructional guidelines and was developed to assist North Carolina educators teach the Mathematics Common Core (Standard Course of Study).

Uncc, Ew P.

2012-08-01

73

Bilateral common carotid artery dissection.  

PubMed

A 63-year-old Japanese man with no significant medical or family history was admitted for sudden consciousness disturbance, left hemiparesis and shock. Physical examination showed internal carotid artery asymmetry on palpation and significant differential blood pressure in both upper arms. A thoracic CT scan showed classic aortic dissection from the ascending aorta through the common iliac artery, classic dissection of the left common carotid artery and an intramural haematoma in the right common carotid artery. The patient's consciousness level gradually improved, and he underwent emergency surgery involving aortic rebuilding with a synthetic graft. Subsequently, he had a good clinical course. PMID:22783009

Inokuchi, Ryota; Sato, Hajime; Aoki, Yuta; Yahagi, Naoki

2012-07-10

74

Autoimmunity in Common Variable Immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common clinically significant primary immune defect. Although the hallmark of CVID is hypogammaglobulinemia, the intrinsic dysregulation of the immune system leads to defective T-cell activation and proliferation, as well as dendritic cell and cytokine defects. Although 70% to 80% of patients have had recurrent sinopulmonary infections, auto-immunity and inflammatory complications are also common. The most common autoimmune conditions are immune thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic anemia, but other autoimmune complications arise, including rheumatoid arthritis, pernicious anemia, primary biliary cirrhosis, thyroiditis, sicca syndrome, systemic lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment of autoimmunity includes high-dose immunoglobulins, corticosteroids, selected immunosuppressants, and other immune modulators. This review focuses on autoimmune conditions associated with CVID, potential mechanisms of immune dysregulation, and therapeutic strategies.

Agarwal, Shradha; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

2010-01-01

75

Common Sense Concepts of Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common sense (CS) misconceptions are not arbitrary or trivial. Indeed, every one of the misconceptions about motion common among students today was seriously advocated by leading intellectuals in pre-Newtonian times. If the evaluation of CS was so difficult for the intellectual giants from Aristotle to Galileo, we should not be surprised it is a problem for ordinary students today. Accordingly, common sense beliefs should be treated with genuine respect by instructors and regarded as serious alternative hypotheses to be evaluated by scientific procedures. A taxonomy of common sense concepts which conflict with Newton s laws is presented. Elementary teachers who are aware of these CS beliefs can teach deliberately to avoid contributing to student development of misconceptions.

Halloun, Ibrahim A.; Hestenes, David

1985-01-01

76

Common Mapping System Media Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Common Mapping System (CMS) defines data formats and standard distribution media for the storage, interchange, and retrieval of mapping, charting, geodesy, and imagery (MCGI) data. A variety of DOD systems are expected to adopt the CMS standard, inclu...

J. R. Leger

1994-01-01

77

Single Common Powertrain Lubricant Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Army has a desire to consolidate multiple MIL specification fluids into a single specification, or Single Common Powertrain Lubricant (SCPL). The application of this fluid would include engine lubrication, power shift transmission operation, and li...

A. C. Brandt A. S. Comfort E. A. Frame G. A. Hansen R. W. Warden

2012-01-01

78

Common finger fractures and dislocations.  

PubMed

Finger fractures and dislocations are common injuries that are often managed by family physicians. A systematic physical examination is imperative to avoid complications and poor outcomes following these injuries. Radiography (commonly anteroposterior, true lateral, and oblique views) is required in the evaluation of finger fractures and dislocations. Dorsal dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint is the most common type of finger dislocation. Finger dislocations should be reduced as quickly as possible and concurrent soft tissue injuries treated appropriately. Referral to a hand specialist is needed if a dislocation cannot be reduced; is unstable following reduction; or involves significant ligament, tendon, or soft tissue injury. Some common finger fractures can be treated conservatively with appropriate reduction and immobilization. Referral to a hand specialist is required if a fracture is unstable, involves a large portion (greater than 30 percent) of the intra-articular surface, or has significant rotation. PMID:22534390

Borchers, James R; Best, Thomas M

2012-04-15

79

Antibiotic use for common cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibiotics do not help patients with an uncomplicated common cold. Antibiotics can have side effects for the individual taking\\u000a them that range from unpleasant to serious, even lethal. Antibiotic use also contributes to communal harm by encouraging antibiotic\\u000a resistance. If there can be no benefit, but there can be harm, why is the common cold the commonest reason for doctors

Timothy W. Kenealy; Bruce Arroll

80

Common Core in Mathematics: Overview  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 13-minute video shows CCSS contributing author David Coleman discussing the background of the Common Core State Standards, their value in the state, the principles of their development, and the changes required of schools during this transition. The video details six important shifts in math instruction that will take place through the Common Core, these include: more focus, coherence, fluency, deeper understanding, flexible application, and dual intensity. Included with this video are resources for teachers and discussion questions.

Engageny

2011-01-01

81

Sinusitis in the common cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acute community-acquired sinusitis is considered a bacterial complication of the common cold. Radiologic abnormalities in sinuses occur, however, in most patients with upper respiratory virus infections.Objective: Assessment of the occurrence, clinical profile, laboratory findings, and outcome of radiologically confirmed sinusitis was carried out as part of a common cold study in young adults.Methods: Clinical examinations and radiography of the

Tuomo Puhakka; Mika J. Mäkelä; Anu Alanen; Timo Kallio; Leo Korsoff; Pertti Arstila; Maija Leinonen; Markku Pulkkinen; Jouko Suonpää; Jussi Mertsola; Olli Ruuskanen

1998-01-01

82

The tragedy of the commons?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We provide a complete characterization of the set of Markov-Perfect Equilibria (MPE) of dynamic common-property resource games a la Levhari and Mirman (1980). We find that all MPE of such games exhibit remarkably regular dynamic behavior. Surprisingly, however, and despite their memoryless nature, MPE need not result in a “tragedy of the commons”, i.e., overexploitation of the resource relative

Prajit K. Dutta; Rangarajan K. Sundaram

1993-01-01

83

Forest commons and local enforcement  

PubMed Central

This article examines the relationship between local enforcement and forests used as commons. It uses a unique multicountry dataset, created over the past 15 years by the International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Program. Drawing on original enforcement and forest commons data from 9 countries, we find that higher levels of local enforcement have a strong and positive but complex relationship to the probability of forest regeneration. This relationship holds even when the influence of a number of other factors such as user group size, subsistence, and commercial importance of forests, size of forest, and collective action for forest improvement activities is taken into account. Although several of the above factors have a statistically significant relationship to changes in the condition of forest commons, differences in levels of local enforcement strongly moderate their link with forest commons outcomes. The research, using data from diverse political, social, and ecological contexts, shows both the importance of enforcement to forest commons and some of the limits of forest governance through commons arrangements.

Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

2008-01-01

84

Orbit Evolution in Common Envelopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study how the inclination angle and eccentricity evolve during a common envelope phase. During a common envelope phase, a compact star is swallowed by its giant companion and spirals into a tighter orbit. A close binary results if the compact star releases enough energy to expel the envelope. We investigate possible fossil evidence of the common envelope phase on the inclination angle and the eccentricity. A convective common envelope leads to force component perpendicular to the orbital plane, and thus change the orbital inclination. This makes it harder to uniquely identify the signature of neutron star natal kicks. A common envelope is usually assumed to circularize orbits, but some eccentricity in fact arises both from the spiral-in process itself, and from random forces in the orbital plane. When the envelope is expelled, it might seem that the binary system would preserve whatever eccentricity had been established at the final stage of the inspiral. But tidal dissipation by the residual envelope can reduce the eccentricity. The final eccentricity depends on which of these effects wins or how they balance each other. We discuss applications and observational tests of these predictions.

Luan, Jing; Phinney, E. S.

2011-09-01

85

Continuous Quality Improvement and Adult Education: Common Principles, Common Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adult education and Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) have at least 10 areas of commonality, the most obvious being that they are both client centered. They have gone against the grain of excessive specialization by becoming advocates for interdisciplinary learning and interconnected functions. (JOW)|

Buchen, Irving H.

1995-01-01

86

Entrepreneurship and leadership: common trends and common threads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continued treatment of entrepreneurship as a separate area of study that is distinct from other broader domains (e.g., leadership and interpersonal influence) is questioned. Reviews of related research on personality, demographics, fit, and cognitive framing\\/bias reveal mixed findings and a lack of sufficient evidence to warrant a distinctly different view of entrepreneurship. Instead, a recognition of common trends and

Robert P. Vecchio

2003-01-01

87

Vibrio chromosomes share common history  

PubMed Central

Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II) were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes.

2010-01-01

88

Common-Sense Rule Inference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper we show how rule-based inference can be made more flexible by exploiting semantic information associated with the concepts involved in the rules. We introduce flexible forms of common sense reasoning in which whenever no rule applies to a given situation, the inference engine can fire rules that apply to more general or to similar situations. This can be obtained by defining new forms of match between rules and the facts in the working memory and new forms of conflict resolution. We claim that in this way we can overcome some of the brittleness problems that are common in rule-based systems.

Lombardi, Ilaria; Console, Luca

89

Does Common Mean "the Same"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards and the attendant assessments being developed by state consortia create a tremendous opportunity and simultaneous challenge for state boards of education. Many of the issues apply to all boards, even those in states that have not adopted the standards or assessments. Boards will need to think carefully about the…

Conley, David

2012-01-01

90

Technology: Technology and Common Sense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The absence of common sense in the world of technology continues to amaze the author. Things that seem so logical to just aren nott for many people. The installation of Voice-over IP (VoIP, with IP standing for Internet Protocol) in many school districts is a good example. Schools have always had trouble with telephones. Many districts don't even…

Van Horn, Royal

2004-01-01

91

Is it rare or common?  

PubMed Central

Many Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have signals with unknown etiology. This paper addresses the question — is such an association signal caused by rare or common variants that lead to increased disease risk? For a genomic region implicated by a GWAS, we use Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) data in a case-control setting to predict how many common or rare variants there are, using a Bayesian analysis. Our objective is to compute posterior probabilities for configurations of rare and/or common variants. We use an extension of coalescent trees — the Ancestral Recombination Graphs (ARG) — to model the genealogical history of the samples based on marker data. As we expect SNPs to be in Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) with common disease variants, we can expect the trees to reflect on the type of variants. To demonstrate the application, we apply our method to candidate gene sequencing data from a German case-control study on nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P).

Adhikari, Kaustubh; AlChawa, Taofik; Ludwig, Kerstin; Laird, Nan; Mangold, Elisabeth; Lange, Christoph

2013-01-01

92

Common variable immunodeficiency: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the commonest symptomatic primary antibody deficiency syndrome. The predominant manifestation is hypogammaglobulinemia. CVID is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, especially of the upper and lower respiratory airways, and is also associated with an increased incidence of autoimmune and neoplastic disorders. Most patients are diagnosed as adults and delay in the recognition of the disease is

M. Di Renzo; A. L. Pasqui; A. Auteri

2004-01-01

93

Evidence-Based Common Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce a new type of knowledge operator, called evidence- based knowledge, intended to capture the constructive core of common knowledge. An evidence-based knowledge system is obtained by augmenting a multi-agent logic of knowledge with a system of evidence assertions t:' (\\

Sergei Artemov

2005-01-01

94

Caffeine and the common cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was carried out to determine whether caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee removed the malaise (reduced alertness, slower psychomotor performance) associated with having a common cold. One hundred volunteers were tested when healthy and 46 returned to the laboratory when they developed colds. Those subjects who remained healthy were then recalled as a control group. On the second visit subjects

Andrew Smith; Marie Thomas; Kate Perry; Helen Whitney

1997-01-01

95

Common Ground: Expanding Our Horizons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Common Ground: Dialogue, Understanding, and the Teaching of Composition," Kurt Spellmeyer seeks to familiarize students and teachers with the linguistic and cultural no-man's-land separating them. Reinstating the value of two writing conventions often used by traditional students--expressive and commonplaces--can help expand on the horizons of…

McDevitt, Michele J.

96

NOTE: Optimisation and common sense  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note builds on recent articles about the development of new ICRP recommendations by supporting the use of common sense in optimisation; use of an additional criterion relating to technology-based principles is suggested to support utility- and equity-based criteria. This is taken forward by use of authoritative good practice safety precautions and a need to consider safety in an integrated

Ian F. Robinson

2002-01-01

97

Homeless adolescents: Common clinical concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeless youth are at alarmingly high risk for a myriad of physical and psychological problems as a result of both the circumstances that prededed their homelessness, and as a direct consequence of life on the streets. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), pregnancy, trauma, tuberculosis, uncontrolled asthma, and dermatologic infestations are a few of the health problems with which these youth commonly

Jennifer Feldmann; Amy B. Middleman

2003-01-01

98

Common Rock-Forming Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of images of the common rock-forming minerals. Along with the image, the physical and chemical properties of each mineral are listed. These include: metallic or nonmetallic luster, light or dark color, chemical formula, mineral group, cleavage, general color, hardness, and other characteristics.

Weiland, Tom

99

A Common Core of Readiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The common core state standards, which have now been adopted by 46 states and the District of Columbia, were designed around the goal of ensuring college and career readiness for all students. In this article, Rothman discusses research showing that a large proportion of U.S. high school graduates are ill-prepared to succeed in college or a…

Rothman, Robert

2012-01-01

100

Common Practices in Adventure Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goals of this manual are to raise the level of safety, environmental awareness, and quality in outdoor adventure education, and to encourage the development of skilled, knowledgeable outdoor leaders through the compilation and dissemination of common practices and information. Other goals are to provide information for programs to use as a…

Johanson, Karl M., Ed.

101

Trade, Tragedy, and the Commons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a theory of resource management where the degree to which countries escape the tragedy of the commons, and hence the de facto property rights regime, is endogenously determined. Three forces determine success or failure in resource management: the regulator's enforcement power, the extent of harvesting capacity, and the ability of the resource to generate competitive returns without being

Brian R. Copeland; M. Scott Taylor

2009-01-01

102

Common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the origins and general botany of Phaseolus vulgaris, the different cropping systems used for bean production, the agronomic and biological factors which most limit crop yield, and the strategies for improvement in this crop. While the common bean originated in the Americas, it is now grown widely in both the old- and the new world and in

P. H. Graham; P. Ranalli

1997-01-01

103

Voxelization in Common Sampling Lattices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce algorithms to voxelize polyg- onal meshes in common sampling lattices. In the case of Cartesian lattices, we complete the separability and minimality proof for the voxelization method presented by Huang et al (5). We extend the ideas to general 2D lat- tices, including hexagonal lattices, and 3D body-centred cubic lattices. The notion of connectedness in

Haris Widjaya; Torsten Möller; Alireza Entezari

2003-01-01

104

Revisiting Rose's common currency debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research is to revisit the estimation of the effect of a common currency on international trade by applying the new methodology proposed by Helpman, Melitz and Rubistein (2008) and incorporating tourism to the theoretical framework. Rose (2000) estimates an empirical model of bilateral trade, finding a significant coefficient for a currency union variable of 1.2,

María Santana-Gallego; Francisco J. Ledesma-Rodríguez; Jorge V. Pérez-Rodríguez

2010-01-01

105

Common interferometer control systems architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical interferometry at the JPL has grown rapidly in the last two years. JPL is now engaged in a number of interferometry projects and is also developing a number of internal testbeds to support those projects. While each of these projects and testbeds has its own unique properties, they do share a lot of common features, and JPL is striving, through its interferometer technology program (ITP), to develop common components, software, and hardware that can be reused by multiple projects. The discipline where this commonality is probably most apparent is in the area of realtime control systems, specifically the software and electronics that drive the instrument control loops and sequence the subsystems. To this end, within the ITP, JPL has developed the realtime interferometer control systems testbed (RICST) as a facility where a common software and electronics core, essentially a control system for a generic interferometer, can be developed. The realtime control (RTC) team in the ITP program consists of about 20 full-time equivalent engineers, technicians, quality assurance personnel, architects, and managers. The remainder of this paper will describe the interferometry landscape at JPL, the RTC effort, an overview of the RICST testbed, and the generic interferometer control system architecture that has been developed.

Hines, Braden E.; Johnson, Richard L.; Starr, Kenneth M.

1998-07-01

106

Watershed Analysis Common Trouble Spots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common Trouble Spots A student doesn't have a good grasp of geography (and place names) of their chosen area. Solution: have them work with maps from the area(e.g. Google Maps: http://maps.google.com/). No ...

107

Technology: Technology and Common Sense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The absence of common sense in the world of technology continues to amaze the author. Things that seem so logical to just aren nott for many people. The installation of Voice-over IP (VoIP, with IP standing for Internet Protocol) in many school districts is a good example. Schools have always had trouble with telephones. Many districts don't even…

Van Horn, Royal

2004-01-01

108

Management of common respiratory problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the clinical management of common respiratory illnesses that primary care providers encounter in an out-patient setting. The latest recommendations from the American Thoracic Society, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are summarized. The article discusses the causative organisms and antibiotics of choice for community-acquired pneumonia, and how to

Mary Mays; Steven Leiner

1996-01-01

109

Common Core: Rx for Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When David Coleman, one of the authors of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), spoke to New York educators, he stated that over the last forty years 8th grade reading scores have been flat. Despite doubling expenditures on classroom instruction, there has been little growth. Most educators are aware that what worked for the students of the…

Jaeger, Paige

2012-01-01

110

CCF: The Common Communication Format.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the Common Communication Format (CCF) is to provide a detailed and structured method for recording a number of mandatory and optional data elements in a computer-readable bibliographic record for exchange purposes between two or more computer-based systems. However, it can also be useful within non-computerized bibliographic…

Simmons, Peter, Ed.; Hopkinson, Alan, Ed.

111

Reciprocal Net: Common Molecules Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Common Molecules Collection, this set of 3D biochemical molecule images is an educational feature from Reciprocal Net, a Web portal for crystallography research funded by the National Science Foundation and part of NSDL. The Common Molecules Collection currently offers a number of image galleries, but only a couple -- including the biochemical molecules set -- with direct life sciences application. Users can view and rotate a 3D image for each molecule provided (organized by amino acids, hormones, and nucleosides), accompanied by a brief explanation and other particulars such as chemical formula. It's a great tool for visual learners and a fun Web site to visit just for the 3D effects.

1995-01-01

112

A calendar with common sense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital devices today have little understanding of their real-world context, and as a result they often make stupid mistakes. To improve this situation we are developing a database of world knowledge called ThoughtTreasure at the same time that we develop intelligent applications. In this paper we present one such application, SensiCal, a calendar with a degree of common sense. We

Erik T. Mueller

2000-01-01

113

Experimental Toothclenching in Common Migraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 30 min voluntary toothclenching was studied in 48 patients with common migraine, randomized in two groups. Group 1 performed low-level tension at 5% and group 2, high-level tension at 30% the individual maximum, as judged by surface EMG from the temporal muscle. Pericranial muscle tenderness was evaluated by manual palpation and a four-point verbal scale. Headache, nausea,

Kai Jensen; Per Bülow; Hanne Hansen

1985-01-01

114

Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

Vermeir, Koen

2013-10-01

115

Teaching the common emitter amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If one wishes to teach some device electronics in schools it will have to be very limited. It is not productive to measure all the common emitter and common base characteristics of the bipolar transistor as required by at least one A-level syllabus. To do so wastes pupil time and leads to considerable confusion. Nor should the study be extended to cover for example all possible methods of biasing a common emitter amplifier. What is needed is a 'bare bones' approach, enough to give a first step towards understanding the subject. A case can be made for the study of an operational amplifier in electronic circuits, treating it as an ideal electronic 'device'. However, the author's personal feeling is that the study of a single active device such as the bipolar transistor provides a firm background from which students can extend their study of electronics and has the advantage in a physics course that from there it is a very short step to discuss a simple model for the internal mechanisms of semiconductor devices.

Ellse, Mark D.

1984-11-01

116

Common Rail Injection System Development  

SciTech Connect

The collaborative research program between the Department of energy and Electro-Motive Diesels, Inc. on the development of common rail fuel injection system for locomotive diesel engines that can meet US EPA Tier 2 exhaust emissions has been completed. This final report summarizes the objectives of the program, work scope, key accomplishments and research findings. The major objectives of this project encompassed identification of appropriate injection strategies by using advanced analytical tools, development of required prototype hardware/controls, investigations of fuel spray characteristics including cavitation phenomena, and validation of hareware using a single-cylinder research locomotive diesel engine. Major milestones included: (1) a detailed modeling study using advanced mathematical models - several various injection profiles that show simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulates on a four stroke-cycle locomotive diesel engine were identified; (2) development of new common rail fuel injection hardware capable of providing these injection profiles while meeting EMD engine and injection performance specifications. This hardware was developed together with EMD's current fuel injection component supplier. (3) Analysis of fuel spray characteristics. Fuel spray numerical studies and high speed photographic imaging analyses were performed. (4) Validation of new hardware and fuel injection profiles. EMD's single-cylinder research diesel engine located at Argonne National Laboratory was used to confirm emissions and performacne predictions. These analytical ane experimental investigations resulted in optimized fuel injection profiles and engine operating conditions that yield reductions in NOx emissions from 7.8 g/bhp-hr to 5.0 g/bhp-hr at full (rated) load. Additionally, hydrocarbon and particulate emissions were reduced considerably when compared to baseline Tier I levels. The most significant finding from the injection optimization process was a 2% to 3% improvement in fuel economy over EMD's traditional Tier I engine hardware configuration. the common rail fuel injection system enabled this added benefit by virtue of an inherent capability to provide multiple injections per power stroke at high fuel rail pressures. On the basis of the findings in this study, EMD concludes that the new electronically-controlled high-pressure common rail injection system has the potential to meet locomotive Tier 2 NOx and particulates emission standards without sacrificing the fuel economy. A number of areas to further improve the injection hardware and engine operating characteristics to further exploit the benefits of common rail injection system have also been identified.

Electro-Motive,

2005-12-30

117

Vibrios Commonly Possess Two Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of the two-chromosome configuration was investigated in 34 species of vibrios and closely related species. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of undigested genomic DNA suggested that vibrios commonly have two chromosomes. The size of the large chromosome is predominantly within a narrow range (3.0 to 3.3 Mb), whereas the size of the small chromosome varies considerably among the vibrios (0.8 to 2.4 Mb). This fact suggests that the structure of the small chromosome is more flexible than that of the large chromosome during the evolution of vibrios.

Okada, Kazuhisa; Iida, Tetsuya; Kita-Tsukamoto, Kumiko; Honda, Takeshi

2005-01-01

118

Otitis from the Common Bedbug  

PubMed Central

There is a resurgence of interest in the biology and clinical disease associated with Cimex lectularius, as the common bed bug is becoming more prevalent in well-developed countries. A patient presented with complaints of right ear irritation for several days' duration. A foreign body was lavaged from the ear canal, which proved to be an engorged nymphal form of Cimex lectularius. The parasite had apparently obtained a blood feed from the tympanic membrane. The resolution of the illness was unremarkable. This ectoparasite is currently re-emerging as a human pest worldwide. The case report herein describes a new variation of the dermatological manifestations from this infestation.

Cimolai, Tomas L.

2012-01-01

119

CASA: Common Astronomy Software Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CASA, the Common Astronomy Software Applications package, is being developed with the primary goal of supporting the data post-processing needs of the next generation of radio astronomical telescopes such as ALMA and EVLA. The package can process both interferometric and single dish data. The CASA infrastructure consists of a set of C++ tools bundled together under an iPython interface as a set of data reduction tasks. This structure provides flexibility to process the data via task interface or as a python script. In addition to the data reduction tasks, many post-processing tools are available for even more flexibility and special purpose reduction needs.

International Consortium Of Scientists

2011-07-01

120

Sampled Longest Common Prefix Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When augmented with the longest common prefix (LCP) array and some other structures, the suffix array can solve many string processing problems in optimal time and space. A compressed representation of the LCP array is also one of the main building blocks in many compressed suffix tree proposals. In this paper, we describe a new compressed LCP representation: the sampled LCP array. We show that when used with a compressed suffix array (CSA), the sampled LCP array often offers better time/space trade-offs than the existing alternatives. We also show how to construct the compressed representations of the LCP array directly from a CSA.

Sirén, Jouni

121

Otitis from the common bedbug.  

PubMed

There is a resurgence of interest in the biology and clinical disease associated with Cimex lectularius, as the common bed bug is becoming more prevalent in well-developed countries. A patient presented with complaints of right ear irritation for several days' duration. A foreign body was lavaged from the ear canal, which proved to be an engorged nymphal form of Cimex lectularius. The parasite had apparently obtained a blood feed from the tympanic membrane. The resolution of the illness was unremarkable. This ectoparasite is currently re-emerging as a human pest worldwide. The case report herein describes a new variation of the dermatological manifestations from this infestation. PMID:23277805

Cimolai, Nevio; Cimolai, Tomas L

2012-12-01

122

Management of common sleep disorders.  

PubMed

Sleep disorders are common and affect sleep quality and quantity, leading to increased morbidity. Patients with sleep disorders can be categorized as those who cannot sleep, those who will not sleep, those with excessive daytime sleepiness, and those with increased movements during sleep. Insomnia, defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep that results in daytime impairment, is diagnosed using history findings and treated with cognitive behavior therapy, with or without sleep hypnotics. Restless legs syndrome is characterized by an urge to move the legs that worsens with rest, is relieved by movement, and often occurs in the evening or at night. Restless legs syndrome is treated based on the frequency of symptoms. Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. It is diagnosed using a sleep log or actigraphy, followed by overnight polysomnography and a multiple sleep latency test. Narcolepsy is treated with stimulants, such as modafinil; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; or gamma hydroxybutyric acid (sodium oxybate). Patients with snoring and witnessed apneas may have obstructive sleep apnea, which is diagnosed using overnight polysomnography. Continuous positive airway pressure is the most common and effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is characterized by increased muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep, resulting in the patient acting out dreams with possible harmful consequences. It is diagnosed based on history and polysomnography findings, and treated with environmental safety measures and melatonin or clonazepam. PMID:23944726

Ramar, Kannan; Olson, Eric J

2013-08-15

123

Common ecology quantifies human insurgency.  

PubMed

Many collective human activities, including violence, have been shown to exhibit universal patterns. The size distributions of casualties both in whole wars from 1816 to 1980 and terrorist attacks have separately been shown to follow approximate power-law distributions. However, the possibility of universal patterns ranging across wars in the size distribution or timing of within-conflict events has barely been explored. Here we show that the sizes and timing of violent events within different insurgent conflicts exhibit remarkable similarities. We propose a unified model of human insurgency that reproduces these commonalities, and explains conflict-specific variations quantitatively in terms of underlying rules of engagement. Our model treats each insurgent population as an ecology of dynamically evolving, self-organized groups following common decision-making processes. Our model is consistent with several recent hypotheses about modern insurgency, is robust to many generalizations, and establishes a quantitative connection between human insurgency, global terrorism and ecology. Its similarity to financial market models provides a surprising link between violent and non-violent forms of human behaviour. PMID:20016600

Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Gourley, Sean; Dixon, Alexander R; Spagat, Michael; Johnson, Neil F

2009-12-17

124

Common sense in nuclear energy  

SciTech Connect

Public concern about energy resource exhaustion is noted to have developed only after the means (nuclear power) for avoiding this disaster became available and the negative implications of a nuclear society became a focus for anxiety. Ironically, collapse of conventional energy supplies could lead to the nuclear confrontation which anti-nuclear forces claim as the inevitable outcome of nuclear power. A review of the risks, environmental impacts, and political implications of the major energy sources concludes that emotion, not common sense, has made nuclear energy an unpopular option. While the problems of proliferation, radiation protection, waste management, and accident prevention are far from trivial, they will respond to technological improvements and responsible control policies. An historical tradition of fearing new, poorly understood technologies is seen in the reaction to railroads during the early 19th Century. (DCK)

Hoyle, F.; Hoyle, G.

1980-01-01

125

The Common Patterns of Nature  

PubMed Central

We typically observe large-scale outcomes that arise from the interactions of many hidden, small-scale processes. Examples include age of disease onset, rates of amino acid substitutions, and composition of ecological communities. The macroscopic patterns in each problem often vary around a characteristic shape that can be generated by neutral processes. A neutral generative model assumes that each microscopic process follows unbiased or random stochastic fluctuations: random connections of network nodes; amino acid substitutions with no effect on fitness; species that arise or disappear from communities randomly. These neutral generative models often match common patterns of nature. In this paper, I present the theoretical background by which we can understand why these neutral generative models are so successful. I show where the classic patterns come from, such as the Poisson pattern, the normal or Gaussian pattern, and many others. Each classic pattern was often discovered by a simple neutral generative model. The neutral patterns share a special characteristic: they describe the patterns of nature that follow from simple constraints on information. For example, any aggregation of processes that preserves information only about the mean and variance attracts to the Gaussian pattern; any aggregation that preserves information only about the mean attracts to the exponential pattern; any aggregation that preserves information only about the geometric mean attracts to the power law pattern. I present a simple and consistent informational framework of the common patterns of nature based on the method of maximum entropy. This framework shows that each neutral generative model is a special case that helps to discover a particular set of informational constraints; those informational constraints define a much wider domain of non-neutral generative processes that attract to the same neutral pattern.

Frank, Steven A.

2010-01-01

126

Work and common psychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

Psychiatric disorders are now the most common reason for long-term sickness absence. The associated loss in productivity and the payment of disability benefits places a substantial burden on the economies of many developed countries. The occupational dysfunction associated with psychiatric disorders can also lead to poverty and social isolation. As a result the area of work and psychiatric disorders is a high priority for policymakers. There are two main agendas: for many researchers and clinicians the focus is on the need to overcome stigma and ensure people with severe psychiatric disorders have meaningful work; however the public health agenda predominantly relates to the more common disorders such as depression and anxiety, which contribute a greater burden of disability benefits and pensions. In this review we attempt to address this second agenda. The relatively sparse evidence available reveals a complex field with significant interplay between medical, psychological social and cultural factors. Sick leave can be a 'process' as well as an 'event'. In this review we propose a staged model where different risk and protective factors contribute to the onset of psychiatric disorders in the working population, the onset of short-term sickness absence, and the transition from short- to long-term absence. We also examine strategies to manage psychiatric disorder in the workforce with a view towards returning the employee to work. Our aim in this review is to highlight the complexity of the area, to stimulate debate and to identify important gaps in knowledge where further research might benefit both patients and wider society. PMID:21558098

Henderson, M; Harvey, S B; Overland, S; Mykletun, A; Hotopf, M

2011-05-01

127

Common cutaneous disorders in athletes.  

PubMed

Athletic activity may cause or aggravate skin disorders, which in turn may diminish athletic performance. Since many sporting activities necessitate prolonged exposure to the sun, athletes must avoid painful sunburn which will adversely affect their performance. Drugs and chemicals also may cause photoallergic and/or phototoxic reactions, including polymorphous light eruption and athletes should thus avoid photosensitising drugs and chemicals. The effects of chronic ultraviolet exposure include ageing, pigmentation and skin cancers. The most effective protection against excessive exposure to sunlight is the use of sunscreens, although inadequate application and poor protection in the UVA spectrum may diminish their effectiveness and contact allergies may create other problems. Viral, bacterial and fungal infections are common in athletes due to heat, friction and contact with others. Herpes simplex may be treated with any drying agents (e.g. alcohol) as they are as effective as more expensive topical agents such as acyclovir. Molluscum contagiosum may be spread by close contact or water contact and is treated by superficial incision, cryotherapy or standard wart varnishes. Plantar wart infection is transmitted by swimming pool decks, changing rooms and hand-to-hand from weights in gymnasiums. Plantar warts presenting with pain may be aggressively treated, by blunt dissection, but painless ones are best treated conservatively. Impetigo and folliculitis often develop after trauma. Antibiotics are effective against mild infections while abrasions and lacerations should be cleansed and dressed with occlusive dressings. Diphtheroid bacteria in moist footwear may produce pitted keratolysis and erythrasma. Tinea pedis is common in athletes and probably originates in swimming pools, gymnasium floors and locker rooms. Interdigital, dry-moccasin and pustular-midsole forms can be distinguished. The latter two forms respond to topical antifungal agents, while the interdigital form, a mixed fungal/bacterial infection, is treated with debridement, antibiotics and drying routine similar to the therapy of otitis externa. Nail infections by a variety of organisms may appear as onycholysis with or without paronychia and should be treated with the appropriate antibiotics. Tinea versicolor occurs in heat and humidity. Since Pityrosporum orbiculare is part of the normal flora it often recurs, necessitating regular treatment. Acute trauma injuries include contusions, black heel or petichiae of the heel, black toe (bleeding under the nail), 'jogger's nipple' caused by chafing, and foot blisters. Chronic trauma may result in calluses, corns and paronychia. Plantar corns can be disabling and may be caused by overly tight shoes or abnormalities in biomechanics; treatment includes restoring normal foot function and minimal surgical procedures. Paronychia is treated best by wedge resection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2180022

Conklin, R J

1990-02-01

128

Common syndromes of orthostatic intolerance.  

PubMed

The autonomic nervous system, adequate blood volume, and intact skeletal and respiratory muscle pumps are essential components for rapid cardiovascular adjustments to upright posture (orthostasis). Patients lacking sufficient blood volume or having defective sympathetic adrenergic vasoconstriction develop orthostatic hypotension (OH), prohibiting effective upright activities. OH is one form of orthostatic intolerance (OI) defined by signs, such as hypotension, and symptoms, such as lightheadedness, that occur when upright and are relieved by recumbence. Mild OI is commonly experienced during intercurrent illnesses and when standing up rapidly. The latter is denoted "initial OH" and represents a normal cardiovascular adjustment to the blood volume shifts during standing. Some people experience episodic acute OI, such as postural vasovagal syncope (fainting), or chronic OI, such as postural tachycardia syndrome, which can significantly reduce quality of life. The lifetime incidence of ?1 fainting episodes is ?40%. For the most part, these episodes are benign and self-limited, although frequent syncope episodes can be debilitating, and injury may occur from sudden falls. In this article, mechanisms for OI having components of adrenergic hypofunction, adrenergic hyperfunction, hyperpnea, and regional blood volume redistribution are discussed. Therapeutic strategies to cope with OI are proposed. PMID:23569093

Stewart, Julian M

2013-04-08

129

Common forearm fractures in adults.  

PubMed

Fractures of the forearm are common injuries in adults. Proper initial assessment includes a detailed history of the mechanism of injury, a complete examination of the affected arm, and appropriate radiography. Open fractures, joint dislocation or instability, and evidence of neurovascular injury are indications for emergent referral. Fractures demonstrating significant displacement, comminution, or intra-articular involvement may also warrant orthopedic consultation. In the absence of these findings, many forearm fractures can be managed by a primary care physician. Initial management of forearm fractures should follow the PRICE (protection, rest, ice, compression, and elevation) protocol, with the exception of compression, which should be avoided in the acute setting. Distal radius fractures with minimal displacement can be treated with a short arm cast. Isolated ulnar fractures can usually be managed with a short arm cast or a functional forearm brace. Mason type I radial head fractures can be treated with a splint for five to seven days or with a sling as needed for comfort, along with early range-of-motion exercises. Patients with an olecranon fracture are candidates for nonsurgical treatment if the elbow is stable and the extensor mechanism is intact. PMID:19904894

Black, W Scott; Becker, Jonathan A

2009-11-15

130

Common variable immunodeficiency - an update  

PubMed Central

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) describes a heterogeneous subset of hypogammaglobulinemias of unknown etiology. Typically, patients present with recurrent bacterial infections of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. A significant proportion of CVID patients develops additional autoimmune, inflammatory or lymphoproliferative complications. CVID is the most frequent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency encountered in adults. Informative monogenetic defects have been found in single patients and families but in most cases the pathogenesis is still elusive. Numerous immunological studies have demonstrated phenotypic and functional abnormalities of T cells, B cells and antigen-presenting cells. A hallmark is the impaired memory B-cell formation that has been taken advantage of for classifying CVID patients. Clinical multi-center studies have demonstrated a correlation between immunological markers and clinical presentation. Long-term outcome is significantly influenced by delay of diagnosis and treatment and the presence of chronic inflammatory complications. While immunoglobulin replacement therapy plus antibiotics can control infections in most cases, patients with non-infectious inflammatory complications such as granulomatous inflammation, interstitial lung disease, inflammatory bowel disease, lymphoproliferation and developing malignancies still represent a therapeutic challenge. In this review we provide a systematic overview of the immunological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of CVID and highlight recent developments in these fields.

2012-01-01

131

Common antigenicity for two glycosidases.  

PubMed

Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has proven to be an effective therapy for some lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) patients. A potential complication during ERT is the generation of an immune response against the replacement protein. We have investigated the antigenicity of two distantly related glycosidases, alpha-glucosidase (Pompe disease or glycogen storage disease type II, GSD II), and alpha-L-iduronidase (Hurler syndrome, mucopolysaccharidosis type I, MPS I). The linear sequence epitope reactivity of affinity purified polyclonal antibodies to recombinant human alpha-glucosidase and alpha-L-iduronidase was defined, to both glycosidases. The polyclonal antibodies exhibited some cross-reactive epitopes on the two proteins. Moreover, a monoclonal antibody to the active site of alpha-glucosidase showed cross-reactivity with a catalytic structural element of alpha-L-iduronidase. In a previous study, in MPS I patients who developed an immune response to ERT, this same site on alpha-L-iduronidase was highly antigenic and the last to tolerise following repeated enzyme infusions. We conclude that glycosidases can exhibit cross-reactive epitopes, and infer that this may relate to common structural elements associated with their active sites. PMID:16359666

Kakavanos, Revecca; Lehn, Pierre; Callebaut, Isabelle; Meikle, Peter J; Parkinson-Lawrence, Emma J; Hopwood, John J; Brooks, Doug A

2005-12-06

132

Common hyperspectral image database design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is to introduce Common hyperspectral image database with a demand-oriented Database design method (CHIDB), which comprehensively set ground-based spectra, standardized hyperspectral cube, spectral analysis together to meet some applications. The paper presents an integrated approach to retrieving spectral and spatial patterns from remotely sensed imagery using state-of-the-art data mining and advanced database technologies, some data mining ideas and functions were associated into CHIDB to make it more suitable to serve in agriculture, geological and environmental areas. A broad range of data from multiple regions of the electromagnetic spectrum is supported, including ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, thermal infrared, and fluorescence. CHIDB is based on dotnet framework and designed by MVC architecture including five main functional modules: Data importer/exporter, Image/spectrum Viewer, Data Processor, Parameter Extractor, and On-line Analyzer. The original data were all stored in SQL server2008 for efficient search, query and update, and some advance Spectral image data Processing technology are used such as Parallel processing in C#; Finally an application case is presented in agricultural disease detecting area.

Tian, Lixun; Liao, Ningfang; Chai, Ali

2009-11-01

133

Hemochromatosis. Common genes, uncommon illness?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To increase family physicians' awareness of the prevalence of hemochromatosis and to suggest strategies for diagnosis and management of hemochromatosis with the goal of decreasing the development of associated life-threatening conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from January 1966 to January 2002 using the MeSH term hemochromatosis/therapy found no randomized controlled trials. A further search from January 1990 to January 2002, using the heading hemochromatosis and subheadings diagnosis, epidemiology, genetics, and therapy, found articles with level II evidence (case-control and cross-sectional studies) and level III evidence (descriptive studies and reports from expert committees). Articles were selected based on clinical relevance. MAIN MESSAGE: Hemochromatosis is the most common hereditary condition in populations of Northern European descent, affecting three to five people per thousand. Many of these people remain undiagnosed with this condition. The iron overload associated with hemochromatosis can lead to serious, life-threatening conditions, such as diabetes, hepatic cirrhosis, primary liver cancer, and cardiomyopathy. Family physicians can screen patients they suspect are at risk of hemochromatosis with simple indirect serum iron measurements (transferrin saturation and serum ferritin) and with widely available genetic tests (C282Y and H63D). Studies of families can help uncover further cases of hemochromatosis; population screening is currently under study. CONCLUSION: Family physicians can facilitate early diagnosis of hemochromatosis by maintaining a high index of suspicion in patients with early signs or symptoms or in high-risk groups, and screening these patients for hemochromatosis.

Harrison, Helen; Adams, Paul C.

2002-01-01

134

Less common upper limb mononeuropathies.  

PubMed

This article will focus on the less commonly injured nerves of the upper extremity. These nerves may be involved when trauma results in fractures, dislocations, or swelling with resultant nerve compression. Tumors and ganglions can also compress nerves, causing pain and, over time, demyelination or axon degeneration with weakness. Other mechanisms for upper limb nerve injury include participation in high-level sports, that is, those that generate torque about the arm and shoulder, abnormal stresses about the joints and muscles, or muscle hypertrophy, which may result in nerve injury. The goals of this review are to discuss the clinical presentation and possible causes of upper extremity nerve entrapments and to formulate an electrodiagnostic plan for evaluation. Descriptions of the appropriate nerve conduction studies or needle electromyographic protocols are included for specific nerves. The purpose of the electrodiagnostic examination is to evaluate the degree of nerve injury, axon loss over time, and later, evidence for reinnervation to assist with prognostication. The latter has implications for management of the neuropathy, including the type of exercises and therapy that may be indicated to help maintain the stability and motion of the involved joint(s) and promote strengthening over time as the nerve regenerates. PMID:23523706

Williams, Faren H; Kumiga, Bryan

2013-03-21

135

Coordinating towards a Common Good  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout their life, humans often engage in collective endeavors ranging from family related issues to global warming. In all cases, the tragedy of the commons threatens the possibility of reaching the optimal solution associated with global cooperation, a scenario predicted by theory and demonstrated by many experiments. Using the toolbox of evolutionary game theory, I will address two important aspects of evolutionary dynamics that have been neglected so far in the context of public goods games and evolution of cooperation. On one hand, the fact that often there is a threshold above which a public good is reached [1, 2]. On the other hand, the fact that individuals often participate in several games, related to the their social context and pattern of social ties, defined by a social network [3, 4, 5]. In the first case, the existence of a threshold above which collective action is materialized dictates a rich pattern of evolutionary dynamics where the direction of natural selection can be inverted compared to standard expectations. Scenarios of defector dominance, pure coordination or coexistence may arise simultaneously. Both finite and infinite population models are analyzed. In networked games, cooperation blooms whenever the act of contributing is more important than the effort contributed. In particular, the heterogeneous nature of social networks naturally induces a symmetry breaking of the dilemmas of cooperation, as contributions made by cooperators may become contingent on the social context in which the individual is embedded. This diversity in context provides an advantage to cooperators, which is particularly strong when both wealth and social ties follow a power-law distribution, providing clues on the self-organization of social communities. Finally, in both situations, it can be shown that individuals no longer play a defection dominance dilemma, but effectively engage in a general N-person coordination game. Even if locally defection may seem inescapable, globally there is an emergent new dilemma in which cooperation often prevails, illustrating how collective cooperative action may emerge from myopic individual selfishness.

Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

2010-09-01

136

Returning common sense to regulations  

SciTech Connect

While these sessions of the November 1995 meeting of the American Nuclear Society are being devoted to the Linear Theory of harm from radiation, it must be realized that the low-level radiation issue, as important as it may be, is but a subset of an entire body of environmental issues running afoul of common sense. Cellular phones, electromagnetic fields, asbestos, dioxin, acid rain, and others especially in their public portrayals, some in their regulatory treatment, are based upon exaggerated or misunderstood risks. One must recognize that what lies ahead is an immense effort to revisit the underlying science of the existing regulations of radiation exposures. New evidence has been published, and most importantly, it is now recognized that many of these regulations--promulgated with the best of intentions--have been extraordinarily harmful to the public. In many cases, the harm has been exaggerated, and has created in the public policy arena the notion that the public is at great risk from the smallest sources of radiation. The national cost of compliance with these regulations has been enormous. To the extent that existing environmental regulations are not being moderated, they pose major economic threats to present and future industries involving nuclear materials and technology. These would include the pharmaceutical industries as well as those seeking U.S. isotope markets in separations, purification, labeling, and manufacturing of new radiopharmaceuticals for cancer therapy, diagnosis, pain mitigation, treatment of arthritis, and other new applications. For those who are not aware of the results of recent advances in radiopharmaceuticals, clinical trials have demonstrated an 80% remission rate in the treatment of b-cell lymphoma and leukemia. New isotopes and new isotope technology promise greater effectiveness in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. The regulatory problems and their enormous costs exist at all stages in nuclear medicine, from the manufacture of the radiopharmaceuticals to the disposal of low-level wastes in Ward Valley, California, for example. Access to these promising new technologies will be severely limited under the existing regulatory environment.

Fox, M.R.

1995-10-01

137

Common Carrier Earth Station Database Documentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The documentation contains the Common Carrier Earth Station Application File information used by the Common Carrier Bureau in processing applications for licenses and permits. Each application is made up of 15 records containing such information as the st...

1989-01-01

138

Commons Game: A Lesson in Resources Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Commons Game was developed to demonstrate behavioral patterns involved in individual decision-making regarding commons property and it has been used in various psychology courses. In this study the game was used to teach university students the comple...

C. A. Kirts M. A. Tumeo

1992-01-01

139

Common Wetland Delineation Sedges of the Northeast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This field guide is intended to assist in identifying 16 of the most common Carex (sedge) species observed during wetland delineations. And additional 26 species that are similar in appearance to these common sedges are included and distinguished. This gu...

R. Lichvar

2005-01-01

140

The common law process: Efficiency or order?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common law applies to conflicts not covered by statutes or the U.S. Constitution. Because constitutional law and common\\u000a law are applicable (common) to all members of the community, they both confront aggregation problems of the sort discussed\\u000a by Buchanan and Arrow. p ]Recent writings in law and economics view the common law as an efficient process that promotes the

Louis De Alessi; Robert J. Staaf

1991-01-01

141

The genetic determinants of common human obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic determinants of common human obesity have been elusive until recently, when work from several groups led to the\\u000a identification of 16 loci that reproducibly associate with common human obesity. These loci reveal that the genetic architecture\\u000a of common human obesity likely involves rare high penetrant loci, common low penetrant loci, and likely intermediate loci\\u000a that are yet to

Elizabeth K. Speliotes

2009-01-01

142

A School for the Common Good  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the history and the concept of the common school from the Common School Movement reformers of the 1850s to the present. These reformers envisioned schools that were to be tuition free and open to everyone, places where rich and poor met and learned together on equal terms. Central to the concept of the common school is its…

Baines, Lawrence; Foster, Hal

2006-01-01

143

Evolving a new model: the information commons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The article aims to provide a historical context for the information commons model in college and university libraries, reviewing trends in reference services, user expectations, technology and facilities planning. It suggests future directions for expansion of the information commons model and provides URLs for academic libraries with information commons of note. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The article serves as a

Mary Ellen Spencer

2006-01-01

144

Common Technical Document (CTD) Modules/Sections ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Common Technical Document (CTD) Modules/Sections Corresponding to Summary Data Tables in Bioequivalence Submissions to ANDAs. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/howdrugsaredevelopedandapproved

145

Common Misconceptions about Heat and Insulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes some common misconceptions that elementary students may have about energy, heat, and insulation. It also includes suggestions for formative assessment and teaching for conceptual change.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

146

40 Common Minerals and Their Uses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Of the ninety two elements found in the Earth, forty of them are used in our daily lives. Some of the names are common and well known, and others seem obscure until one sees that it helps create something we cannot live without. This page describes these 40 common minerals.

Gold-Traders (UK) Ltd.

147

Optimal Central Banker Contracts and Common Agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the contracting approach to centralbanking in a simple common agency model. We suggest thatcentral banker contracts that do not consider the possibilityof more than one principal existing are incomplete contracts.Such incomplete contracts can be a poor form ofmonetary policy delegation under common agency. We develop amodel with two principals – society (government) and ageneric interest group, whose

Georgios E. Chortareas; Stephen M. Miller

2004-01-01

148

Band Wear In Common Ravens (Corvus corax)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed band wear on Common Ravens (Corvus corax) banded with aluminum USGS and alpha-numeric color anodized bands in northwest­ ern Wyoming. Both bands began to exhibit sharp edges less than one year after banding and anodized color bands began to lose color in similar time. We suggest banders use hard metal and engraved plastic color bands for Common Ravens

Bryan Bedrosian; Derek Craighead; Craighead Beringia South

149

Common knowledge and consensus with noisy communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a unifying survey and treatment of the relations between common knowledge and consensus when individuals may be uncertain about both objective parameters and time. We show that common knowledge cannot emerge with any non-public and noisy communication protocol. But with ‘fair’ protocols and a sufficiently rich language, a consensus and arbitrarily high levels of interactive knowledge are

Frédéric Koessler

2001-01-01

150

Investigating nitrogen deficiency in common beans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) and soybean diverged from a common ancestor approximately 19 million years ago. The genome of P. vulgaris is approximately half the size of soybean, making it an excellent model for soybean genetics. Nitrogen (N) is often a growth-limiting nutrient, and N deficiency ...

151

A common language for computer security incidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the computer security information regularly gathered and disseminated by individuals and organizations cannot currently be combined or compared because a common language has yet to emerge in the field of computer security. A common language consists of terms and taxonomies (principles of classification) which enable the gathering, exchange and comparison of information. This paper presents the results of

John D. Howard; Thomas A Longstaff

1998-01-01

152

Beating Common Sense into Interactive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-standing dream of artificial intelligence has been to put common sense knowledge into computers—enabling machines to reason about everyday life. Some projects, such as Cyc, have begun to amass large collections of such knowl- edge. However, it is widely assumed that the use of common sense in interactive applications will remain impractical for years, until these collec- tions can

Henry Lieberman; Hugo Liu; Push Singh; Barbara Barry

2004-01-01

153

The Dimensions of Common Factors in Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Common factors is a concept that offers an explanation as to what makes counseling effective. Evidence from outcome studies has implications for training and practice. The particular purpose of this paper is to review the components of a popular model of common factors, the evidence supporting them, and subsequent implications for counselor…

Leibert, Todd W.

2011-01-01

154

Confronting Common Folklore: Catching a Cold  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Almost every child has experienced the sniffly, stuffy, and achy congestion of the common cold. In addition, many have encountered the "old wives tales" that forge a link between personal actions and coming down with this common respiratory infection. Much of this health folklore has been passed down from generation to generation (e.g., getting a…

Keeley, Page

2012-01-01

155

Vitamin C and the common cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of vitamin C on the common cold has been the subject of several studies. These studies do not support a considerable decrease in the incidence of the common cold with supplemental vitamin C. However, vitamin C has consistently decreased the duration of cold episodes and the severity of symptoms. The benefits that have been observed in different studies

Harri Hemilä

1992-01-01

156

Revisiting the Commons: Local Lessons, Global Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a seminal paper, Garrett Hardin argued in 1968 that users of a commons are caught in an inevitable process that leads to the destruction of the resources on which they depend. This article discusses new insights about such problems and the conditions most likely to favor sustainable uses of common-pool resources. Some of the most difficult challenges concern the

Elinor Ostrom; Joanna Burger; Christopher B. Field; Richard B. Norgaard; David Policansky

1999-01-01

157

Organised Crime and Common Transit Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian Institute of Criminology has produced a diverse range of studies on illicit markets, including those in drugs, diamonds, stolen vehicle parts, abalone, plastic payment cards and antiquities. This paper draws together information on one aspect that these markets have in common— networks of transportation. In view of the common structure of these networks for transporting and distributing illicit

Simon Mackenzie; Adam Graycar

158

Common trenching reduces damage to buried utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1972 Niagara Mohawk Power Co. has established a utility corridor, installing 503 miles of buried gas mains and electric cables in a common trench. Their guidelines for common trenching included (1) the developer's responsibility for providing a subdivision map showing the location of each sidewalk, lot, and roadway, (2) an easement strip paralleling the front lot (street) line that

Alfiere

1982-01-01

159

Tragedy of the commons in Melipona bees.  

PubMed

In human society selfish use of common resources can lead to disaster, a situation known as the 'tragedy of the commons' (TOC). Although a TOC is usually prevented by coercion, theory predicts that close kinship ties can also favour reduced exploitation. We test this prediction using data on a TOC occurring in Melipona bee societies. PMID:15504003

Wenseleers, Tom; Ratnieks, Francis L W

2004-08-01

160

Insights into The Commons on Flickr  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Commons on Flickr, comprised of an international community of select libraries, museums, and archives, was a project initially launched in 2008 by the Library of Congress and Flickr. Primary goals of The Commons are to broaden exposure to rich cultural heritage photographs and to observe and participate in the communities of engagement and…

Vaughan, Jason

2010-01-01

161

Acid rain and federal common law  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Illinois v. Milwaukee first came before the Supreme Court in 1972, the court decided, in recognizing the history of federal common law, that federal courts had power to fashion federal common law “when there is an overriding federal interest in the need for a uniform rule of decision or where the controversy touches basic interests of federalism” 406 U.S.

J. D. Harper

1982-01-01

162

Common metrics for human-robot interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an effort to identify common metrics for task-oriented human-robot interaction (HRI). We begin by discussing the need for a toolkit of HRI metrics. We then describe the framework of our work and identify important biasing factors that must be taken into consideration. Finally, we present suggested common metrics for standardization and a case study. Preparation of a

Aaron Steinfeld; Terrence Fong; David B. Kaber; Michael Lewis; Jean Scholtz; Alan C. Schultz; Michael A. Goodrich

2006-01-01

163

Mathematics Common Core Unpacked: Grade Two  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document provides descriptions and examples of what each Mathematics Common Core standard means a Grade Two student will know, understand and be able to do. This "unpacking" of the standards provides instructional guidelines and was developed to assist North Carolina educators teach the Mathematics Common Core (Standard Course of Study).

Uncc, Ew P.

2012-08-01

164

Mathematics Common Core Unpacked: Grade Three  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document provides descriptions and examples of what each Mathematics Common Core standard means a Grade Three student will know, understand and be able to do. This "unpacking" of the standards provides instructional guidelines and was developed to assist North Carolina educators teach the Mathematics Common Core (Standard Course of Study).

Uncc, Ew P.

2012-08-01

165

Mathematics Common Core Unpacked: Grade Four  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document provides descriptions and examples of what each Mathematics Common Core standard means a Grade Four student will know, understand and be able to do. This "unpacking" of the standards provides instructional guidelines and was developed to assist North Carolina educators teach the Mathematics Common Core (Standard Course of Study).

Uncc, Ew P.

2012-08-01

166

Mathematics Common Core Unpacked: Grade Five  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document provides descriptions and examples of what each Mathematics Common Core standard means a Grade Five student will know, understand and be able to do. This "unpacking" of the standards provides instructional guidelines and was developed to assist North Carolina educators teach the Mathematics Common Core (Standard Course of Study).

Uncc, Ew P.

2012-08-01

167

Common belief in monotonic epistemic logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the extent to which the notion of common belief may be expressed by a finitary logic. We devise a set of axioms for common belief in a system where beliefs are only required to be monotonic. These axioms are generally less restrictive than those in the existing literature. We prove completeness with respect to monotonic neighborhood models, in

Aviad Heifetz

1996-01-01

168

Tragedy of the commons in Melipona bees.  

PubMed Central

In human society selfish use of common resources can lead to disaster, a situation known as the 'tragedy of the commons' (TOC). Although a TOC is usually prevented by coercion, theory predicts that close kinship ties can also favour reduced exploitation. We test this prediction using data on a TOC occurring in Melipona bee societies.

Wenseleers, Tom; Ratnieks, Francis L W

2004-01-01

169

Common colds. Causes, potential cures, and treatment.  

PubMed Central

Colds are a common clinical condition, caused by a variety of pathogens. This article reviews the etiology of the cold, proposed cures, symptomatic relief, method of transmission, and advice for patients. Transmission through indirect contact, or self-inoculation, seems more common than was once thought. Experimental antiviral agents hold some promise; in the meantime, symptomatic relief is available.

Saroea, H. G.

1993-01-01

170

Antibodies to Neospora caninum in wild animals from Kenya, East Africa.  

PubMed

The prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum was examined in six wild Artiodactyla species, and in five wild Carnivora species from Kenya. Blood sera (104 wild ungulates from Marula Estates (MEs), and 31 wild carnivores from Masai-Mara reserve and from other wildlife areas in northern and Southern Kenya), were screened using a Neospora agglutination test (NAT), with a twofold dilution (1:40-1:320 titres). Presence of NAT antibodies to N. caninun is reported here for the first time in zebra (Equus burchelli), eland (Taurotragus oryx), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), Thompson gazelle (Gazella thompsoni), impala (Aepyceros melampus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) and in free-ranging cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). At 1:80 dilution, prevalence was 61.5% in eland, 58.5% in zebra, 19.2% in Thompson gazelle, 33.3% in warthog, 50% in African buffalo, 30% in lion (Panthera leo), 20% in cheetah, and 33.3% in spotted hyena. Antibodies up to 1:320 titre were detected in eland (38.4%), zebra (19.5%), Thompson gazelle (3.8%) and lion (5%). Amongst herbivores, sero-prevalence was significantly (P<0.05) higher, at all dilutions, in "grazer/digger" species (e.g. eland and zebra) than in non-"grazer/digger" species (e.g. impala and Thompson gazelle). No antibodies to N. caninum were found in two leopards (Panthera pardus) and one serval (Felis serval). Our results indicates a steady presence of N. caninum in wild mammals from Kenya. The hypothesis of a sylvatic cycle of N. caninum could be suggested, but more data are needed to verify the hypothesis, as to evaluate the role of N. caninum infection on the dynamics of wild animals population in the study area. PMID:14651874

Ferroglio, E; Wambwa, E; Castiello, M; Trisciuoglio, A; Prouteau, A; Pradere, E; Ndungu, S; De Meneghi, D

2003-12-01

171

Common-offset-distance seismic trace filtering  

SciTech Connect

A multiple coverage seismic exploration technique provides for a plurality of seismic trace recordings along a line of exploration. From these recordings, sets of common-offsetdistance traces are gathered. Initial estimates are made of the apparent dips associated with the seismic reflection signals across each set of common-offset-distance traces. These initial dip estimates are smoothed and the sets of common-offset-distance traces filtered along the apparent dips associated with the smoothed dip estimates to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the primary reflection signals.

Bratton, R.H.

1982-05-18

172

ICH Guideline Implementation and the Common Technical ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... staff needed to assemble and disassemble documents for submission to ICH regions Page 7. ... Page 8. Common Technical Document ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/newsevents

173

What Are Common Symptoms of Phenylketonuria (PKU)?  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources and Publications What are common symptoms of PKU? Page Content Children with untreated PKU appear normal at birth. But by age 3 ... than someone without the condition. If people with PKU do not restrict the phenylalanine in their diet, ...

174

Tragedy of the Commons: Simulation B  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity explores how common usage of a limited, potentially renewable resource invariably leads to its exploitation. In this simulation, students imagine that they are fishermen sharing access to a common fishing pond. Two different stages of the simulation are performed. In the first, students are not allowed to communicate, and each fisher has no knowledge of how many fish have been taken before them. In this, the second, students are allowed to strategize, plan, and learn from their experiences. In this way, the ability (or not) to communicate is the independent variable, and the size of the resource over time is the dependent variable. After completing this activity students should understand the conditions that lead to a "tragedy of the commons", learn strategies that prevent the destruction of a common resource, and apply these strategies to global environmental issues and suggest solutions. The activity is discussed in progress.

Haidinger, Tori

175

Tragedy of the Commons: Simulation A  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity explores how common usage of a limited, potentially renewable resource invariably leads to its exploitation. In this simulation, students imagine that they are fishermen sharing access to a common fishing pond. Two different stages of the simulation are performed. In this, the first, students are not allowed to communicate, and each fisher has no knowledge of how many fish have been taken before them. In the second, students are allowed to strategize, plan, and learn from their experiences. In this way, the ability (or not) to communicate is the independent variable, and the size of the resource over time is the dependent variable. After completing this activity students should understand the conditions that lead to a "tragedy of the commons", learn strategies that prevent the destruction of a common resource, and apply these strategies to global environmental issues and suggest solutions. The activity is evaluated on the basis of written work.

Haidinger, Tori

176

Common Carrier FCC Telephone Equipment Registration List.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contains Fiche copies of Common Carrier 'FCC Telephone Equipment Registration List.' The report is listed in order of equipment type and produced on a quarterly basis. It applies to Part 68 of FCC Rules and Regulations.

1981-01-01

177

Backward induction and common knowledge of rationality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We formulate precisely and prove the proposition that if common knowledge of rationality obtains in a game of perfect information, then the backward induction outcome is reached. Journal of Economic Literatur Classification Numbers: C72 D81.

Robert J. Aumann

1995-01-01

178

What Are Common Treatments for Phenylketonuria (PKU)?  

MedlinePLUS

... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What are common treatments for PKU? Page Content There is no ... O., & Muntau, A.C. (2011). Up-to-date knowledge on different treatment strategies for phenylketonuria. Molecular Genetics ...

179

Common flea beetles of North Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A very nicely illustrated key to 46 flea beetles regularly found in North Dakota. The key is a lucid style key, and the images are carefully produced. A beautiful photo gallery and list of common flea beetles is also included.

0002-11-30

180

Common Disorders of the Achilles Tendon  

MedlinePLUS

... Text Size Print Bookmark Common Disorders of the Achilles Tendon What Is the Achilles Tendon? A tendon is a band of tissue that connects a muscle to a bone. The Achilles tendon runs down the back of the lower leg ...

181

Short Sleep on Work Nights Common  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Short Sleep on Work Nights Common: Poll International survey highlights how culture ... Japanese sleep 30 to 40 minutes less on work nights than people in the other countries, averaging ...

182

What Are Common Symptoms of Pheochromocytoma?  

MedlinePLUS

... Publications What are common symptoms of pheochromocytoma? Page Content Pheochromocytoma causes a variety of signs and symptoms, including (in alphabetical order): Abdominal pain Constipation Chest pain Dizziness Elevated blood sugar Facial flushing (redness) High blood pressure Increased respiratory ...

183

Introduction: The Common Core of Data Surveys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the history, uses, and ongoing development of the Common Core of Data (CCD). Describes the six surveys of the CCD, explores issues in survey and data quality, and discusses recent and ongoing developments. (Author/SLD)|

Hoffman, Lee

2000-01-01

184

Impetigo: A Common Skin Infection among Children  

MedlinePLUS

... Medical School Health Resources Health Calculators AOA Partnerships Impetigo - A Common Skin Infection Among Children Page Content A highly contagious bacterial infection, impetigo often starts when a small cut or scratch ...

185

Common Module Electro Optical Multiplexer Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The output imagery of parallel scan, modular FLIR systems is commonly viewed through an ocular or biocular eyepiece. For system applications requiring serial video for remote imagery or automatic tracking, parallel to serial multiplexing is required. A mi...

J. J. Klein L. Arlan R. C. DeMeo R. G. Spiecker

1977-01-01

186

Common Carrier Cumulative Staff Study Data File.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cumulative Staff Study - A weekly report by frequency produced by Common Carrier Land Mobile System. Data on report are: Frequency, longitude, latitude, state, applicant name, call sign, received date, public notice date, file number, and application type...

J. Colbert

1988-01-01

187

Etymology of Some Common Geologic Terms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A knowledge of Latin, Greek, and modern foreign language prefixes and suffixes often enables one to define a word without using a dictionary. A list of certain common geologic terms and their etymologies is provided. (Author/MA)|

Lutz, Alan

1978-01-01

188

Common Carrier Microwave Pending Applications Dump.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contains fiche copies of pending application records that were not used in the production of the common carriers construction permit authorizations. These records are printed, (unformatted and without titles of labels to identify contents) utilizing the H...

1983-01-01

189

RFE - Browse Species by Common Name  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Format: Common Name || Market Name || Scientific Name || Family. Albacore||Tuna||Thunnus alalunga||Family: Scombridae (mackerels and tunas); ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/rfe

190

Mycorrhiza: A Common Form of Mutualism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mycorrhizae are among the most common examples of mutualism. This article discusses their structure, symbolic relationship, factors affecting formation and applying research. Questions are posed and answers suggested. (MA)|

Medve, Richard J.

1978-01-01

191

Regulatory Submissions - Part II: Common Elements  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Guidance for Industry Providing Regulatory Submissions in Electronic or Paper Format to the Office of Food Additive Safety Part II: Common ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

192

Get Answers to Common Questions About...  

Cancer.gov

Get Answers to Common Questions About... Biological Specimens Drug Availability, Labeling and Distribution Ethics Indemnity Insurance Planning Clinical Trials and Navigating Regulatory Requirements Protocols Quality Assurance and Monitoring Software

193

Structures for Common-Cause Failure Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Common-cause failure methodology and terminology have been reviewed and structured to provide a systematical basis for addressing and developing models and methods for quantification. The structure is based on (1) a specific set of definitions, (2) catego...

J. K. Vaurio

1981-01-01

194

‘Extreme’ Binge Drinking Common Among Teens  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. ‘Extreme’ binge drinking common among teens: study (*this news item will ... Health) - One in five high school seniors reports binge drinking in the last two weeks, and one in ...

195

TSPG Common Dataset Standard, Concept of Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

INTRODUCTION: Meeting yesterday, attended by 40 people * Objective to obtain industry input on the TSPG's implementation of the Common Dataset Standard from a programmatic/ business perspective * Majority of time devoted to conduct of a working session * ...

T. DalSasso

2007-01-01

196

Common Misconceptions about Day and Night, Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes common misconceptions held by elementary students about the cause of day and night and seasons. The article provides ideas for formative assessment, teaching strategies, and the National Science Education Standards.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

197

Breastfeeding Concerns Common Among New Mothers  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Breastfeeding concerns common among new mothers (*this news item will not be available ... MedlinePlus Pages Breastfeeding Women's Health By Genevra Pittman NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - During their child's first two ...

198

What Are Some Common Outcomes of Stroke and Some Common Treatments for These Outcomes?  

MedlinePLUS

... and Publications What are some common outcomes of stroke & some common treatments for these outcomes? Page Content ... and temperature changes Depression Types of Treatment for Stroke Stroke treatment includes: Emergency treatment Preventing another stroke ...

199

MARKER AIDED BREEDING FOR RESISTANCE TO COMMON BACTERIAL BLIGHT IN COMMON BEAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli is a serious seedborne disease limiting common bean production worldwide. Genetic resistance is the most important component of integrated strategies including planting pathogen-free seed, crop rotation, and chemical applications,...

200

Microcredit, Social Capital, and Common Pool Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a conceptual scheme for understanding the impact of microcredit—small loans to poor borrowers—on common pool resources. Impacts on common pool resources are posited to occur through changes in household production and consumption, the focus on women, and the social capital created from group training, decision-making, and risk-bearing with the group lending techniques characteristic of many microcredit programs.

Rachel Nugent; Laura Locker

2002-01-01

201

Tragedy of the commons in Melipona bees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recd 05.11.03; Accptd 22.12.03; Published online 03.03.04 In human society selfish use of common resources can lead to disaster, a situation known as the 'tra- gedy of the commons' (TOC). Although a TOC is usually prevented by coercion, theory predicts that close kinship ties can also favour reduced exploi- tation. We test this prediction using data on a TOC occurring

Tom Wenseleers; Francis L. W. Ratnieks

2004-01-01

202

Unusual differential diagnosis of common arterial trunk.  

PubMed

Common arterial trunk is relatively a straightforward diagnosis on echocardiography. We describe a neonate who was referred to our centre as a case of common arterial trunk but on evaluation was found to have pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and aortopulmonary window, for which he underwent repair with Barbero-Marcial technique. These two conditions differ anatomically and embryologically, and careful echocardiographic evaluation will help in diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:22327230

Shah, Sejal; Kavya; Saraf, Rahul; Rao, Shekhar

2012-02-12

203

Medical Management of Common Bile Duct Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Common bile duct stones are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in adults. An increasing number of surgical\\u000a and medical therapies are available to manage them, with different success rates reported. The various medical treatment strategies\\u000a were developed during the last decade, but these medical modalities should not be contemplated as a first-line alternative\\u000a of treatment. A consensus

Alvaro González-Koch; Flavio Nervi

1998-01-01

204

Common Factors in Effective HIV Prevention Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a set of common factors in evidence-based interventions (EBI) for HIV prevention, which cut across theoretical\\u000a models of behavior change. Three existing literatures support this agenda: (1) Common factors in psychotherapy; (2) core elements\\u000a from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention EBIs; and (3) component analyses of EBI. To stimulate discussion among\\u000a prevention researchers, we propose a

Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus; Dallas Swendeman; Diane Flannery; Eric Rice; David M. Adamson; Barbara Ingram

2009-01-01

205

Testing the Hardness of Common Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity gives students practice and a chance to develop expertise in using the test for hardness in identifying common minerals. Following a discussion and an introduction to Moh's scale, the students will work in groups to test minerals whose identities are known against their standards (common substances whose hardnesses are known). Once the known minerals have been tested, the students can proceed to test unknown samples. A student worksheet and discussion questions are provided.

206

Binary dirty MAC with common state information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general two-user memoryless multiple-access channel, with common channel state information known to the encoders, has no single-letter solution which explicitly characterizes its capacity region. In this paper a binary “dirty” multiple-access channel (MAC) with “common interference”, when the interference sequence is known to both encoders, is considered. We determine its sum-capacity, which equals to the capacity when full-cooperation between

Anatoly Khina; Tal Philosof; Uri Erez; Ram Zamir

2010-01-01

207

A common language for computer security incidents  

SciTech Connect

Much of the computer security information regularly gathered and disseminated by individuals and organizations cannot currently be combined or compared because a common language has yet to emerge in the field of computer security. A common language consists of terms and taxonomies (principles of classification) which enable the gathering, exchange and comparison of information. This paper presents the results of a project to develop such a common language for computer security incidents. This project results from cooperation between the Security and Networking Research Group at the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, and the CERT{reg_sign} Coordination Center at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. This Common Language Project was not an effort to develop a comprehensive dictionary of terms used in the field of computer security. Instead, the authors developed a minimum set of high-level terms, along with a structure indicating their relationship (a taxonomy), which can be used to classify and understand computer security incident information. They hope these high-level terms and their structure will gain wide acceptance, be useful, and most importantly, enable the exchange and comparison of computer security incident information. They anticipate, however, that individuals and organizations will continue to use their own terms, which may be more specific both in meaning and use. They designed the common language to enable these lower-level terms to be classified within the common language structure.

John D. Howard; Thomas A Longstaff

1998-10-01

208

Something in Common: The Common Core Standards and the Next Chapter in American Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Something in Common" is the first book to provide a detailed look at the groundbreaking Common Core State Standards and their potential to transform American education. This book tells the story of the unfolding political drama around the making of the Common Core State Standards for math and English language arts, which were adopted by 43…

Rothman, Robert

2011-01-01

209

Toward a Theory of Intertribal and Intratribal Common Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Courts and scholars refer to the substantive common law applied by tribal courts in the United States using the monolithic term “tribal common law,” but in fact tribal common law can and should be subdivided into two major categories of law – “intertribal common law” and “intratribal common law.” “Intertribal common law” is the common law applied by tribal courts

Matthew L. M. Fletcher

2006-01-01

210

Structures for common-cause failure analysis  

SciTech Connect

Common-cause failure methodology and terminology have been reviewed and structured to provide a systematical basis for addressing and developing models and methods for quantification. The structure is based on (1) a specific set of definitions, (2) categories based on the way faults are attributable to a common cause, and (3) classes based on the time of entry and the time of elimination of the faults. The failure events are then characterized by their likelihood or frequency and the average residence time. The structure provides a basis for selecting computational models, collecting and evaluating data and assessing the importance of various failure types, and for developing effective defences against common-cause failure. The relationships of this and several other structures are described.

Vaurio, J.K.

1981-01-01

211

Young children's understanding of cultural common ground.  

PubMed

Human social interaction depends on individuals identifying the common ground they have with others, based both on personally shared experiences and on cultural common ground that all members of the group share. We introduced 3- and 5-year-old children to a culturally well-known object and a novel object. An experimenter then entered and asked, 'What is that?', either as a request for information or in a recognitory way. When she was requesting information, both 3- and 5-year-olds assumed she was asking about the novel object. When she seemed to recognize an object, 5-year-olds assumed she was referring to the culturally well-known object. Thus, by 3 years of age, children are beginning to understand that they share cultural common ground with other members of their group. PMID:23331108

Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

2012-05-30

212

Secondary Syphilis: Uncommon Manifestations a Common Disease  

PubMed Central

Reports of cases of primary and secondary syphilis are increasing in the United States, particularly in urban areas and among homosexual men. While primary syphilis poses little diagnostic difficulty, many physicians are unfamiliar with the multisystem nature of secondary lues. Patients who have secondary syphilis commonly present with systemic signs, skin rash, mucous membrane lesions and generalized adenopathy. Less commonly, secondary syphilis may occur as acute meningitis, sensorineural hearing loss, iritis, anterior uveitis, optic neuritis, Bell's palsy, gastropathy, proctitis, hepatitis, pulmonary infiltration, nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, periostitis, tenosynovitis and polyarthritis. The diagnosis of secondary syphilis is easily confirmed. Its various manifestations are readily treated with penicillin and, if treated early, are entirely reversible. Two recent cases of secondary syphilis, one presenting as nephrotic syndrome and one as chorioretinitis and ptosis, illustrate the usual and unusual features of this common infection. Images

McPhee, Stephen J.

1984-01-01

213

Organising pneumonia in common variable immunodeficiency.  

PubMed

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common of the primary immunodeficiency disorders. Pulmonary manifestations are characterised by recurrent rhinosinusitis, respiratory tract infections and bronchiectasis. Less commonly the lung may be affected by lymphoid disorders and sarcoid-like granulomas. Organising pneumonia (OP) is a rare pulmonary manifestation. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with CVID who presented with fever, dyspnoea and persistent lung infiltrates despite antibiotic therapy. CT of the chest showed bilateral patchy alveolar infiltrates. Pulmonary function tests revealed moderate restriction and reduction in diffusion capacity. Initial bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies did not yield a diagnosis but surgical lung biopsies identified OP. Significant clinical, radiographic and physiological improvement was achieved after institution of corticosteroid therapy. PMID:23749855

Boujaoude, Ziad; Arya, Rohan; Rafferty, William; Dammert, Pedro

2013-06-07

214

The LINC-NIRVANA Common Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MPIA is leading an international consortium of institutes in building an instrument called LINC-NIRVANA, the LBT INterferometric Camera and Near-IR / Visible Adaptive INterferometer for Astronomy. LINC-NIRVANA is a Fizeau interferometer for the Large Binocular Telescope doing imaging in the near infrared (J, H, K - band). Multi-conjugated adaptive objects is used to increase sky coverage and to get diffraction limited images over a 2 arcminute field of view. The LN Common Software provides a software infrastructure common to all partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns in control systems and of services, which implement those patterns. The heart of LCSW is an object model of controlled devices, implemented as ICE network objects. A code generator creates application from templates for these network objects.

Briegel, Florian; Berwein, Jürgen; Kittmann, Frank; Volchkov, Valentin; Mohr, Lars; Gaessler, Wolfgang; Bertram, Thomas; Rost, Steffen; Wang, Yeping

2006-07-01

215

Common anorectal disorders: diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Anorectal disorders affect men and women of all ages. Their management is not limited to the evaluation and treatment of hemorrhoids. Rather, a spectrum of anorectal disorders ranges from benign and irritating (pruritus ani) to potentially life-threatening (anorectal cancer). Symptoms are nonspecific, which can make the evaluation of patients difficult. In addition, treatment can be frustrating because clinicians are hamstrung by a lack of well-designed, prospective, clinical trials. Some of the most common anorectal disorders include fecal incontinence, pelvic floor dyssynergia, anal fissures, pruritus ani, proctalgia fugax, and solitary rectal ulcer syndrome. This article provides an update on the evaluation and treatment of common anorectal disorders. PMID:19765370

Lacy, Brian E; Weiser, Kirsten

2009-10-01

216

6.NS Factors and Common Factors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: List all the factors of 48. List all the factors of 64. What are the common factors of 48 and 64? What is the greatest common factor of 48 and 64?...

217

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Common Shiner  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for common shiner (Notropis cornutus). The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for the northeastern range of the common shiner in North America. Habitat suitability indexes (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Also included are discussions of Suitability Index (SI) curves as used in the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) and SI curves available for an IFIM analysis of smallmouth bass habitat.

Trial, Joan G.; Wade, Charles S.; Stanley, Jon G.; Nelson, Patrick C.

1983-01-01

218

Revisiting the commons: local lessons, global challenges.  

PubMed

In a seminal paper, Garrett Hardin argued in 1968 that users of a commons are caught in an inevitable process that leads to the destruction of the resources on which they depend. This article discusses new insights about such problems and the conditions most likely to favor sustainable uses of common-pool resources. Some of the most difficult challenges concern the management of large-scale resources that depend on international cooperation, such as fresh water in international basins or large marine ecosystems. Institutional diversity may be as important as biological diversity for our long-term survival. PMID:10195886

Ostrom, E; Burger, J; Field, C B; Norgaard, R B; Policansky, D

1999-04-01

219

A Common Market for District 539  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Serving five counties, John Wood Community College (Quincy, Illinois) operates on a contractual common market approach to community college education through the use of existing colleges and proprietary schools in Illinois, Missouri, and Iowa that provide instruction and selected support services to district residents. (JG)|

Heath, Paul R.; Selby, James

1977-01-01

220

Ironic Effects of Invoking Common Ingroup Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishing a common ingroup identity (CII) can reduce intergroup bias. Appeals to CII made by an outgroup member could, however, increase negative intergroup outcomes if perceivers believe that the speaker defines the superordinate group differently than they do. Study 1 demonstrated that people believe that Democrats and Republicans have different conceptions of the superordinate group “Americans.” In Study 2, persuasive

Abraham M. Rutchick; Collette P. Eccleston

2010-01-01

221

Common DNS Operational and Configuration Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This memo describes errors often found in both the operation of Domain Name System (DNS) servers, and in the data that these DNS servers contain. This memo tries to summarize current Internet requirements as well as common practice in the operation and configuration of the DNS. This memo also tries to summarize or expand upon issues raised in (RFC 1537).

D. Barr

1996-01-01

222

Piloting an information commons at HKUST Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the experience of piloting an information commons at a major academic library in Hong Kong. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – At the pilot phase, assessment is crucial. The article reports how the HKUST Library monitors usage and conducted satisfaction surveys to identify users' needs, expose strengths and weaknesses of the service, and set

Gabrielle K. W. Wong

2009-01-01

223

A programmer's guide to COMMON LISP  

SciTech Connect

This book presents basic and advanced material on COMMON LISP. Topics covered are as follows: introduction to LISP; data types and evaluation; writing procedures; variables; recursion, iteration, and ''PROGN-TYPE'' forms; interactions with the outside world; manipulating data; using procedures as data; advanced concepts; compilation; macros; and extended example: a toy expert system.

Tatar, D.G.

1986-01-01

224

Common Criteria Set for Federal Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of an effort to improve the quality of educational research and make it less balkanized, the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) have introduced a common set of evidence standards for federally funded work. The criteria will guide all new research at the IES, the U.S. Department of Education's…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2013-01-01

225

Optimal monetary policy with imperfect common knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper determines optimal nominal demand policy in a flexible price economy in which firms pay limited attention to aggregate variables. Firms’ inattentiveness gives rise to idiosyncratic information errors and imperfect common knowledge about the shocks hitting the economy. This is shown to have strong implications for optimal nominal demand policy. In particular, if firms’ prices are strategic complements and

Klaus Adam

2007-01-01

226

Anchoring Economic Predictions in Common Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines within a unified methodology expectational coordination in a series of economic models. The methodology views the predictions associated with the Rational Expectations Hypothesis as reasonable whenever they can be derived from the more basic Common Knowledge Hypothesis. The paper successively considers a simple non-noisy \\

R. Guesnerie

2002-01-01

227

Common emergencies in cancer medicine: metabolic syndromes.  

PubMed Central

Metabolic derangements are fairly common occurrences in cancer medicine. In many instances, they require deft recognition and prompt institution of emergency therapeutic intervention. These syndromes may result from a primary tumor, metastatic disease, or anti-tumor therapy. This article discusses the management of such patients.

Thomas, C. R.; Dodhia, N.

1991-01-01

228

Optical Reflectance Measurements for Commonly Used Reflectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

When simulating light collection in scintillators, modeling the angular distribution of optical light reflectance from surfaces is very important. Since light reflectance is poorly understood, either purely specular or purely diffuse reflectance is generally assumed. In this paper we measure the optical reflectance distribution for eleven commonly used reflectors. A 440 nm, output power stabilized, un-polarized laser is shone onto

Martin Janecek; William W. Moses

2008-01-01

229

An Evolutionary Theory of Commons Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Our aim in this chapter is to draw lessons from current theory on the evolution of human cooperation for the management,of contemporary commons. Evolutionary theorists have long been interested in cooperation but social scientists have documented,patterns of cooperation in humans that present unusual problems for conventional evolutionary theory (and for rational choice explanations as well). Humans often cooperate with

Peter J. Richerson; Robert Boyd

230

Common Herbs and Foods Used as Galactogogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, herbs and foods have been used as galactogogues by breastfeeding women to maintain and increase milk supply. Commonly used herbs and foods used as galactogogues are reviewed. Doses, other uses for taking herbals by breastfeeding mothers, and cautions to observe when using these galactogogues are discussed. This information can be used by health care professionals as general guidelines to

Frank J. Nice

2011-01-01

231

A common pathway toward women's health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper calls for an alternate approach to studying the aetiology of women's health conditions. Instead of the long-established disease-specific, compartmentalized approach, it recommends focusing on risk exposures that allows for the identification of multiple disease conditions that stem from the same risk factors. Identifying common risk factors and the related pathways to adverse health outcomes can lead to the

K. S. Chibber; R. L. Kaplan; N. S. Padian; S. J. Anderson; P. M. Ling; N. Acharya; C. Van Dyke; S. Krishnan

2008-01-01

232

Software Design Patterns: Common Questions and Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software design patterns are an emerging tool for guiding and documenting system design. This paper is a beginner's guide to patterns, answering common questions about patterns, pattern languages, generativity, and Alexandrian form. The paper describes patterns in terms of objects, rules, idioms, and paradigms in general. The paper also provides sources for patterns, and provides a short bibliography of patterns

James O. Coplien

1998-01-01

233

Thematic Relations Affect Similarity Via Commonalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thematic relations are an important source of perceived similarity. For instance, the rowing theme of boats and oars increases their perceived similarity. The mechanism of this effect, however, has not been specified previously. The authors investigated whether thematic relations affect similarity by increasing commonalities or by decreasing differences. In Experiment 1, thematic relations affected similarity more than difference, thereby producing

Sabrina Golonka; Zachary Estes

2009-01-01

234

Common Core Poses Challenges for Preschools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the common-core standards are calibrated to ensure that students leave K-12 schools ready for work and college, they are also posing challenges for the educators who work with children just starting out their school careers. As 46 states and the District of Columbia work this year to put the new curricular guidelines in place, preschool…

Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

2011-01-01

235

Brown and Lau: Seeking the Common Ground.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzes commonalities between "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas" and "Lau v. Nichols" compliance efforts and outcomes, recommending strategies for the next decade, including reduction of residential segregation, desegregation by socioeconomic status, untracking, funding initiatives, family friendly policies, and involvement by…

Feinberg, Rosa Castro

1995-01-01

236

Building the Teaching Commons. Carnegie Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay posits the emergence of a "teaching commons"--a conceptual space in which communities of educators committed to inquiry and innovation come together to exchange ideas about teaching and learning and use them to meet the challenges of educating students. The October gathering of the International Society for the Scholarship of Teaching…

Hutchings, Pat; Huber, Mary Taylor

2005-01-01

237

Values Education: Common Sense and Bugaboos.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three "bugaboos" frighten schools to the degree that they do not use common sense to implement values education curricula in the public schools. These bugaboos are the problematic issues of prayer, piety, and pluralism. They are not necessarily barriers. School administrators and boards of education should inform themselves so they will be able to…

Seeley, David S.

238

EDITORIAL: Bad breath and exhaled breath analysis---common fields with common denominators Bad breath and exhaled breath analysis---common fields with common denominators  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 20th century, bad breath and analysis of breath for medical diagnosis evolved as two separate fields. Papers on bad breath were published almost exclusively in dental journals, whereas papers on exhaled breath analysis were more commonly found in medical and chemical analysis journals. When Daniel van Steenberghe and Mel Rosenberg first discussed setting up an international society for

Mel Rosenberg; Anton Amann

2008-01-01

239

A BARGAINING FRAMEWORK FOR THE GLOBAL COMMONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global commons represents a class of environmental problems that require international cooperation. Global environmental problems arise because the actions of some individuals or governments in one location hold serious implications for individuals and governments in other locations. There are global environmental policy problems because adversely-affected individuals (and governments) attempt to alter the behaviors of those responsible for global pollution.

Daniel W. Bromley; Jeffrey A. Cochrane

1995-01-01

240

Illegal Logging in Common Property Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based forestry has the potential to improve forest management in the commons. Unfortunately, the ease with which logging interests are able to ignore community decisions and steal timber remains troubling. This article analyzes how illegal logging is highly erosive to community cohesiveness and institutions in the context of community forestry in Mexico. It analyzes the modus operandi of clandestine logging

Jordi Honey-Rosés

2009-01-01

241

Laying a Common Foundation for Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For decades, the American elementary and secondary education system has operated somewhat as the railroads did before Lincoln's day, with each state setting its own expectations for what students should know and be able to do. To address that problem, nearly every state, with little fanfare, has adopted the Common Core State Standards for student…

Rothman, Robert

2012-01-01

242

Common Topics and Commonplaces of Environmental Rhetoric  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Common topics are words or phrases used to develop argument, and commonplaces aid memory or catalyze frames of understanding. When used in argumentation, each may help interested parties more effectively communicate valuable scientific and environment-related information. This article describes 12 modern topics of environmental rhetoric,…

Ross, Derek G.

2013-01-01

243

Common Topics and Commonplaces of Environmental Rhetoric  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Common topics are words or phrases used to develop argument, and commonplaces aid memory or catalyze frames of understanding. When used in argumentation, each may help interested parties more effectively communicate valuable scientific and environment-related information. This article describes 12 modern topics of environmental rhetoric,…

Ross, Derek G.

2013-01-01

244

Identification of commonly encountered Pratylenchus in Oregon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pratylenchus species are commonly encountered in soil samples collected from a diversity of economically important crops in Oregon, including potato and small fruits. Proper identification is critical to the selection of an appropriate management strategy since, in many cases, populations are an as...

245

Science, values, and common ground1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I argue that there may be common ground shared by animal science and its critics insofar as animal scientists seek improvement in their field in four areas: the quality of their products, the quality of life for those who make their livelihood in food production, the fair treatment of human work- ers, and the humane treatment of

Chris Cuomo

2010-01-01

246

Tourism and terrorism: conflicts and commonalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore why tourists continue to visit troubled and often violent nations, even when there is perceived risk. Tourism and terrorism reflect very different philosophies, but there are also some disturbing commonalities. Both need modern technology to be effective, both rely heavily on media management and both require the manipulation of perceptions

Maximiliano E. Korstanje; Anthony Clayton

2012-01-01

247

A map of the common chimpanzee genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The completion of the chimpanzee genome will greatly help us determine which genetic changes are unique to humanity. Chimpanzees are our closest living relative, and a recent study has made considerable progress towards decoding the genome of our sister taxon.(1) Over 75,000 common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) bacterial artificial chromosome end sequences were aligned and mapped to the human genome.

Derek E. Wildman

2002-01-01

248

Is there a “common law” of responsibility?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to common expectations and a good deal of legal folk wisdom, several surveys have failed to find group differences in the way people attribute responsibility and assign punishments. These “nonfinding,” suggest that there is a considerable degree of consensus about how to judge wrongdoing. The nature of this consensus is examined using survey data collected in two Japanese and

Joseph Sanders; V. Lee Hamilton

1987-01-01

249

AIDATS - CEFLY LANCER Data Link Commonality Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study and engineering evaluation effort was to determine a means of introducing a degree of commonality into the design of the wide band data links for the AIDATS and the CEFLY LANCER programs. The method of attack was to determine the...

J. E. Bartow

1976-01-01

250

Laying a Common Foundation for Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For decades, the American elementary and secondary education system has operated somewhat as the railroads did before Lincoln's day, with each state setting its own expectations for what students should know and be able to do. To address that problem, nearly every state, with little fanfare, has adopted the Common Core State Standards for student…

Rothman, Robert

2012-01-01

251

Mineral Compositions of Eight Common Spices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight common spices have been studied for their mineral compositions using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after acid digestion. The seeds of the following spices were used for analysis: coriander, cumin, anise, nigella, mustard, carum, black pepper, and fenugreek. Average elemental compositions of spices seeds were reported using robust Z-score statistic. Fourteen elements were considered, which include heavy

K. K. Gupta; S. Bhattacharjee; S. Kar; S. Chakrabarty; P. Thakur; G. Bhattacharyya; S. C. Srivastava

2003-01-01

252

Commonalities in Values among Mental Health Counselors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mental-health counselors (N=161) from Buenos Aires, Argentina, who ascribed to distinct theoretical orientations were surveyed with regard to their personal and mental-health values. This study provides further empirical input on what the values commonalities are even among counselors who profess distinct theoretical orientations and have a…

Consoli, Andres J.; Williams, Laurie M.

1999-01-01

253

Common Pediatric Fractures—Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Musculoskeletal injuries are one of the most frequently encoun- tered problems in pediatric practice, with fractures accounting for a surprisingly large percentage of these injuries. A fracture occurs when bone is subjected to more energy than it can ab- sorb. Pediatric healthcare providers must have a good under- standing of normal bone growth and development and must recognize common mechanisms

Erin S. Hart; Maurice B. Albright; Gleeson N. Rebello; Brian E. Grottkau

2006-01-01

254

Commonly held theories of human resource development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the interdisciplinary nature of human resource development (HRD), there has been little agreement as to the underlying definition and primary theories that form the basis for the field. In order to reach some understanding, this paper will outline many of the current US American definitions now held in the HRD profession. Commonly held themes will be removed from

Lisa A Weinberger

1998-01-01

255

THE CONTEXT OF THE “COMMON WORD”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any interfaith initiative needs to be understood and evaluated within the overall institutional context and pattern of interfaith relations. Though “A Common Word” garnered many immediate responses, institutional stakeholders in interreligious affairs, like the Catholic Church, often move at a slower and more calibrated pace. The letter scrambled the established patterns of interfaith exchange and may have provided new energy

Drew Christiansen S. J

2008-01-01

256

STANDPOINTS: A Model for Common Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|STANDPOINTS, a model for general education which focuses on the common learning experiences crucial to the quality of personal and corporate life, was developed at Central YMCA Community College. When developing the model, time, faculty development, student involvement, and leadership constraints were recognized, and a three-phase process was…

Moline, Lorraine G.; And Others

257

The Tragedy of the Common School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Horace Mann's vision of a common school to educate American children has not been realized. Instead, our country is experimenting with many different kinds of schools: charters, independents, parochials, and magnets, to name a few. These schools fill a particular niche for families, with the potential to focus education to the needs of each…

Copeland, Mo

2009-01-01

258

COPING WITH TRAGEDIES OF THE COMMONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary policy analysis of the governance of common-pool resources is based on three core assumptions: (a) resource users are norm-free maxi- mizers of immediate gains, who will not cooperate to overcome the com- mons dilemmas they face; (b) designing rules to change incentives of par- ticipants is a relatively simple analytical task; and (c) organization itself requires central direction. The

Elinor Ostrom

1999-01-01

259

Common optical interconnect for systems and sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the implementation of a single optical backbone interconnect that can accommodate the wide variety of information that must be exchanged within a typical avionics system. The building block elements of this common optical backbone are based on products that have been developed for the commercial telecommunications and cable TV industries. During the development of this architecture a

Rick C. Stevens

2001-01-01

260

Some Sri Lankan common pot-herbs.  

PubMed

As a follow-up of the articles of R. Brindha and S. Parvathy, ASL, XXII, 2003, 166-168, fifteen edible plants of South Asian ecosystem, commonly used in Sri Lankan cuisine, are dealt with in view of their ethnobotanical and ehtonomedical value. Their vernacular names (Sanskrit, Sinhala, and Tamil given here) often reveal different botanical features and medicinal properties. PMID:22557115

Liyanaratne, Jinadas

2003-10-01

261

Public Schools and the Common Good.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving public school education, especially for the poor, requires defining and articulating some vision of the common good. This article reviews key positions taken by liberals and conservatives regarding educational reform during the 19th and 20th centuries and critiques these positions with regard to their disservice to the poor. (IAH)

Reese, William J.

1988-01-01

262

Finding common structured patterns in linear graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linear graph is a graph whose vertices are linearly ordered. This linear ordering allows pairs of disjoint edges to be either preceding (<), nesting (?) or crossing (?). Given a family of linear graphs, and a non-empty subset R?{,?,?}, we are interested in the Maximum Common Structured Pattern (MCSP) problem: find a maximum size edge-disjoint graph, with edge pairs

Guillaume Fertin; Danny Hermelin; Romeo Rizzi; Stéphane Vialette

2010-01-01

263

Doc Dispels Common Myths about Head Lice  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Doc Dispels Common Myths About Head Lice Parents should be reassured that personal hygiene has ... Dallas Friday, October 18, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Page Head Lice FRIDAY, Oct. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Although lice do ...

264

Translating the Common Core State Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As the authors describe in Chapter 7 of their new book, "The School Reform Landscape: Fraud, Myth, and Lies," the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative continues to ramble on, without evidence to support its efficacy. That is because education reform in the United States is being driven largely by ideology, rhetoric, and dogma instead of…

Tienken, Christopher H.; Orlich, Donald C.

2013-01-01

265

The Common Morals Approach to Business Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper anticipates increasing unethicalness of business in a hyper-competitive climate. An attempt is made to rediscover a core set of values and virtues reflective of traditional ethics to combat the crisis of business morality. The proposal for the 'common morals' view of ethics steers clear of the theoretical opposites of Kantian and Utilitarian ethics which seem to have little

Raymond D. Smith

1997-01-01

266

Common Factors in Sex and Race Discrimination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors that might be common to sex and race discrimination were studied with a sample of 86 black and white graduate students enrolled in two Southern colleges. Attitudes toward changing economic roles for women and blacks were also assessed. Thirty-seven percent of the sample was under 30 years old, and 93 percent was from the Southeastern…

Bell, Margaret E.; And Others

267

Chromosome Connections: Compelling Clues to Common Ancestry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students compare banding patterns on hominid chromosomes and see striking evidence of their common ancestry. To test this, human chromosome no. 2 is matched with two shorter chimpanzee chromosomes, leading to the hypothesis that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of the two shorter chromosomes. Students test that hypothesis by looking…

Flammer, Larry

2013-01-01

268

Menstrual cycle effects on common medical conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Menstrual cycle-related exacerbation of common medical conditions such as migraine, epilepsy, asthma, irritable bowel syndrome,\\u000a and diabetes, is a well-recognized phenomenon. Accurate documentation of symptoms on a menstrual calendar allows identification\\u000a of women with cyclic alterations in disease activity.

Allison M. Case; Robert L. Reid

2001-01-01

269

Less Commonly Taught Languages: Resources and Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of papers from a conference on languages less commonly taught in Britain is concerned with administrative and material problems of teaching these languages. Contents of the publication are: an introduction by G. E. Perren; "Practical Needs" by Anthony Crane; "Problems of Producing Printed Materials" by Rosemary Davidson;…

Centre for Information on Language Teaching, London (England).

270

The Common Core Challenge for ELLs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The new Common Core State Standards (CCSS) currently being rolled out in 46 states give little specific acknowledgement of the challenges for English language learners (ELLs). The introduction to the CCSS states that identifying the supports needed to help ELLs (or any other population of students) is "beyond the scope of the Standards". The…

Coleman, Rhoda; Goldenberg, Claude

2012-01-01

271

Common Threads: Teaching Immigration in Elementary Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Brings together ideas on teaching about immigration from a number of elementary-school teachers in New Jersey and summarizes common themes. Outlines three specific projects based on the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island, family history, and children's fiction. Includes a brief list of children's literature and other teaching resources. (DSK)|

McBee, Robin Haskell; Bone, Kristine; Mossop, Gail; Owens, Carrie

1998-01-01

272

Key to Identifying Common Household Ants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short lucid key to 8 common household ant species with control strategies. The information presented is accurate and the key easy to use; ancillary pages are also useful. The key may present difficulties if other ant species are encountered or in other parts of the U.S.

0002-11-30

273

Laptop Use in University Common Spaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Anecdotal evidence existed about the many students who use their laptops and the wireless network in university common spaces, but little was known about how, where, and why students use laptops on campus, and less was known about students' awareness of university wireless network policies and security. This article discusses the results of a…

Wolff, Bill

2006-01-01

274

Common Criteria Set for Federal Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an effort to improve the quality of educational research and make it less balkanized, the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) have introduced a common set of evidence standards for federally funded work. The criteria will guide all new research at the IES, the U.S. Department of Education's…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2013-01-01

275

A Common Core: Thais and Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thais and U.S. citizens have a number of striking cultural similarities. Both prize the freedoms they enjoy, both are quite pragmatic and individualistic, and both disdain pomposity and arrogance. These traits form a kind of common core that helps Thais and U.S. citizens connect in cross-cultural interactions. Nevertheless, there are also…

Fieg, John Paul; Mortlock, Elizabeth

276

Access to the Common Core for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Too often under the various state-developed standards and assessments, accommodations for students with disabilities--a heterogeneous group with varied characteristics and needs--have not been adequately addressed or have been ignored. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative provides an historic opportunity to improve access to rigorous…

McLaughlin, Margaret J.

2012-01-01

277

Common Psychiatric Diseases and Human Genetic Variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A better understanding of human genetic variation is important in assessing disease epidemiology and phenotypic variation, and may be critical in evaluating genetic aspects of common genetic diseases, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disease and Parkinson’s. These diseases are particularly difficult to investigate as there are few peripheral markers, and although a genetic aetiology has long been suspected, robust findings

O. Mukherjee; Q. Saleem; M. Purushottam; A. Anand; S. K. Brahmachari; S. Jain

2002-01-01

278

Adopting a common corporate language: IHRM implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

As companies internationalize and expand their operations into more countries, language questions inevitably come to the fore. As a response to operating in many languages and co-ordinating a multinational workforce, companies may adopt a common language for internal communication. However, the challenges associated with such a 'language standardization' and the broader HR considerations have received limited scholarly attention in the

Rebecca Marschan-Piekkari; Denice Welch; Lawrence Welch

1999-01-01

279

Nursing management of common oncological emergencies.  

PubMed

This article examines three of the most common oncological emergencies. It considers the underlying pathophysiology of these conditions and the symptoms. The role of the nurse in identifying these conditions and expediting timely care to reduce patient morbidity and mortality is discussed. PMID:20608340

Foulkes, Mark

280

Catalog of 'Common Use' Rail Corridors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a catalog of 'common use' rail corridors. These are defined as corridors where non-Federal Railroad Administration (FRA)-compliant light rail or rail rapid transit vehicles operate adjacent to, or on track shared with, rail freight or passe...

R. R. Resor

2003-01-01

281

Rare and common variants: twenty arguments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome-wide association studies have greatly improved our understanding of the genetic basis of disease risk. The fact that they tend not to identify more than a fraction of the specific causal loci has led to divergence of opinion over whether most of the variance is hidden as numerous rare variants of large effect or as common variants of very small

Greg Gibson

2012-01-01

282

Dominant gene for common bean resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common bacterial blight pathogen [Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap)] is a limiting factor for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production worldwide and resistance to the pathogen in most commercial cultivars is inadequate. Variability in virulence\\u000a of the bacterial pathogen has been observed in strains isolated from Puerto Rico and Central America. A few common bean lines\\u000a show a differential

Mildred Zapata; James S. Beaver; Timothy G. Porch

2011-01-01

283

Operative choledochoscopy in common bile duct surgery.  

PubMed Central

Surgical exploration of the common bile duct for gallstones is a common operation but carries a high residual stone rate. Conventional techniques for exploring the bile ducts are blind procedures. The surgeon cannot see what he is doing. Also there has been no reliable method for a postexploratory check of the bile ducts before closure, usually around a T-tube. Operative choledochoscopy allows the surgeon to see stones in the duct, may aid the removal of stones and provides visual postexploratory checks that the common bile duct and the hepatic ducts are clear, that papilla is patent and that no stone is left behind before closure. A personal series of 150 patients had operative choledochoscopy using a flexible fibreoptic choledochoscope. If there was a clear indication on preoperative investigations that the ducts should be explored, an operative cholangiogram was omitted and the choledochoscope used as the exploring instrument. In 127 patients with a diagnosis of gallstone disease, choledochoscopy was used at the primary operation. In 12 patients choledochoscopy was used at a secondary operation for recurrent gallstone disease, and 11 patients had malignant obstruction of the biliary tract. In 70 of the 127 patients, gallstones were found and extracted using the choledochoscope. In 53 patients the ducts were clear, and in 4, other lesions were found: 3 papillomas and one polycystic disease. One hundred and six of the patients had the common bile duct closed primarily with no T-tube drainage. There was no increase in complications and no deaths associated with choledochoscopy or primary closure of the common bile duct.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 p283-a

Ashby, B. S.

1985-01-01

284

EPISTATIC INTERACTION BETWEEN TWO MAJOR QTL CONDITIONING RESISTANCE TO COMMON BACTERIAL BLIGHT IN COMMON BEAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Resistance to common bacterial blight in common bean is a complex trait that is quantitatively inherited. Combining QTL is the current strategy for improving resistance, but interactions among different QTL are unknown. We examined the interaction between two independent QTL present in dry bean bre...

285

How common are common return factors across the NYSE and Nasdaq?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We entertain the possibility of pervasive factors that are not common across two (or more) groups of securities. We propose and implement a general procedure to estimate the space spanned by common and group-specific pervasive factors. In our empirical analysis, we study the factor structure of excess returns on stocks traded on the NYSE and Nasdaq using our methodology. We

Amit Goyal; Christophe Pérignon; Christophe Villa

2008-01-01

286

Information Commons Redux: Concept, Evolution, and Transcending the Tragedy of the Commons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reviews "information commons" concepts and describes administrative and functional integration in an academic library information commons. The roles of inclusive planning structures and careful integration through an enhanced information desk are delineated, emphasizing team building that results from this implementation. The article…

Bailey, Russell; Tierney, Barbara

2002-01-01

287

Information commons redux: Concept, evolution, and transcending the tragedy of the Commons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews “information commons” concepts and describes administrative and functional integration in an academic library information commons. The roles of inclusive planning structures and careful integration through an enhanced information desk are delineated, emphasizing team building that results from this implementation. The article discusses potential problems and suggests solutions.

Russell Bailey; Barbara Tierney

2002-01-01

288

Evaluations of NLG Systems: common corpus and tasks or common dimensions and metrics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this position paper, we argue that a common task and corpus are not the only ways to evaluate Natural Language Gen- eration (NLG) systems. It might be, in fact, too narrow a view on evaluation and thus not be the best way to evaluate these systems. The aim of a common task and corpus is to allow for a

Cécile Paris; Nathalie Colineau; Ross Wilkinson

2006-01-01

289

Common Threads in Persistent Viral Infections?  

PubMed Central

Most viral infections are self-limiting, resulting in either clearance of the pathogen or death of the host. However, a subset of viruses can establish permanent infection and persist indefinitely within the host. Even though persisting viruses are derived from various viral families with distinct replication strategies, they all utilize common mechanisms for establishment of long-lasting infections. Here, we discuss the commonalities between persistent infections with herpes-, retro-, flavi-, arena-, and polyomaviruses that distinguish them from acutely infecting viral pathogens. These shared strategies include selection of cell subsets ideal for long-term maintenance of the viral genome, modulation of viral gene expression, viral subversion of apoptotic pathways, and avoidance of clearance by the immune system.

Kane, Melissa; Golovkina, Tatyana

2010-01-01

290

Common themes in centriole and centrosome movements.  

PubMed

Centrioles are found in nearly all eukaryotic cells and are required for growth and maintenance of the radial array of microtubules, the mitotic spindle, and cilia and flagella. Different types of microtubule structures are often required at different places in a given cell; centrioles must move around to nucleate these varied structures. Here, we draw together recent data on diverse centriole movements to decipher common themes in how centrioles move. Par proteins establish and maintain the required cellular asymmetry. The actin cytoskeleton facilitates movement of multiple basal bodies. Microtubule forces acting on the cell cortex, and nuclear-cytoskeletal links, are important for positioning individual centrosomes, and during cell division. Knowledge of these common mechanisms can inform the study of centriole movements across biology. PMID:20961761

Vaughan, Sue; Dawe, Helen R

2010-10-18

291

Common Astronomical Software Environment for Data Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general user support for many traditional data processing systems (e.g. IRAF, Starlink, and MIDAS) has been significantly reduced in recent years. Further, much of the current efforts in the area of data processing is related to special purpose packages for specific project. This emphasizes the need for planning in the area of common data processing software to ensure that new applications can be shared, general support provided and new technologies (such as VO, Grid) utilized. The OPTICON Network 3.6 and NVO have started a discussion on the high-level requirements and architectural concepts for a common software environment for astronomical data analysis and processing. The BoF was convened to summarize the current status and discuss the developments in a broader community.

Grosbøl, P.; Tody, D.

2006-07-01

292

Common questions patients ask during pregnancy.  

PubMed

When women become pregnant, they expect their family physicians to answer many questions about potential risks during the pregnancy and possible effects on the developing fetus. Many of these questions concern over-the-counter medications, common household exposures and daily activities, which often are not well discussed in obstetric texts. In general, women can be reassured that allergy medications and most common food additives, such as caffeine and aspartame, are safe to use during pregnancy. Most cosmetics and hair care products, including permanent wave solutions, are safe in limited exposures. Patients should be counseled to avoid exposure to insecticides and to continue good safety habits, such as wearing seat belts. Discussion of specific risks may prevent unnecessary anxiety and needless changes in work and home environment and lifestyle for pregnant women. PMID:7732948

Hueston, W J; Eilers, G M; King, D E; McGlaughlin, V G

1995-05-01

293

Isolated transection of the common duct.  

PubMed

A patient with complete transection of the common bile duct after blunt trauma from a steering wheel presented with severe right-sided lower chest pain. Based on results of physical examination, blood and urine analysis and chest x-ray films, he was discharged after suture of a lip laceration. Five days later upon his return for suture removal, the appearance of jaundice and mild symptoms of abdominal distention prompted hospitalization and exploratory surgery. At surgery, avulsion of the common bile duct was the only injury. In the few previously reported cases of this injury, jaundice and mild symptoms of abdominal distention appeared three to four days after injury. The minimal findings of a potentially fatal lesion emphasize the need for securing appropriate follow-up medical care for patients with a history of blunt trauma to the chest and/or abdomen. PMID:430942

Janss, G; Freimark, L

1979-04-01

294

Emerging and less common fungal pathogens.  

PubMed

Less common and emerging fungal pathogens are often resistant to conventional antifungal therapy and may cause severe morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. Some Scedosporium species may be completely resistant to antifungal therapy. Hyaline septated filamentous fungi, such as Fusarium species, Acremonium species, Paecilomyces species, and Trichoderma species, are increasingly reported as causing invasive mycoses refractory to amphotericin B therapy. Dematiaceous septated filamentous fungi, such as Bipolaris species may cause pneumonia, sinusitis, and CNS infections that are unresponsive to current medical interventions. Trichosporon spp are resistant to the fungicidal effects of amphotericin B. An increasing number of different members of the class Zygomycetes are reported as causing lethal infections, despite aggressive medical and surgical interventions. Infections due to these and other less common and emergent fungal pathogens will likely continue to develop in the settings of selective anti-fungal pressure, permissive environmental conditions, and an expanding population of immunocompromised hosts. PMID:12512187

Fleming, Rhonda V; Walsh, Thomas J; Anaissie, Elias J

2002-12-01

295

Plasticity facilitates sustainable growth in the commons  

PubMed Central

In the commons, communities whose growth depends on public good, individuals often rely on surprisingly simple strategies, or heuristics, to decide whether to contribute to the shared resource (at risk of exploitation by free-riders). Although this appears a limitation, we show here how four heuristics lead to sustainable growth when coupled to specific ecological constraints. The two simplest ones—contribute permanently or switch stochastically between contributing or not—are first shown to bring sustainability when the public good efficiently promotes growth. If efficiency declines and the commons is structured in small groups, the most effective strategy resides in contributing only when a majority of individuals are also contributors. In contrast, when group size becomes large, the most effective behaviour follows a minimal-effort rule: contribute only when it is strictly necessary. Both plastic strategies are observed in natural scenarios across scales that present them as relevant social motifs for the sustainable management of public goods.

Cavaliere, Matteo; Poyatos, Juan F.

2013-01-01

296

Investigating Common Descent: Formulating Explanations and Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students formulate explanations and models that simulate structural and biochemical data as they investigate the misconception that humans evolved from apes. Students should recognize that present-day species evolved from earlier species and the relatedness of organisms is the result of common ancestry. They will also discover that similarities among existing organisms provide evidence for evolution, anatomical similarities of living things reflect common ancestry, and all life forms use the same basic DNA building blocks. Basic concepts also include the fact that scientists pose, test, and revise multiple hypotheses to explain what they observe, our understanding of life through time is based upon multiple lines of evidence, the similarity of DNA nucleotide sequences can be used to infer the degree of kinship between species, and anatomical evidence is also used to infer lines of descent. This site includes a list of materials and all information required for this activity.

297

House of Commons Library Research Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The UK House of Commons has recently created a site that offers access to the full text of Research Papers (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only) which are compiled for the benefit of British Members of Parliament by the staff of the House of Commons Library. An occasional series focusing on topics of current parliamentary interest, the papers, "aim to be politically impartial and contain factual information as well as a range of opinions on each subject covered." Recently released titles include: "EU Enlargement: The Political Process," "EU Enlargement: The Financial Consequences," "Northern Ireland: political developments since 1972," "The local elections of 7 May 1998 and the London Referendum," and "Unemployment by Constituency: Welfare-to-work groups - April 1998."

Library., Great B.

1998-01-01

298

Shoulder Ultrasonography: Performance and Common Findings  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound (US) of the shoulder is the most commonly requested examination in musculoskeletal US diagnosis. Sports injuries and degenerative and inflammatory processes are the main sources of shoulder pain and functional limitations. Because of its availability, low cost, dynamic examination process, absence of radiation exposure, and ease of patient compliance, US is the preferred mode for shoulder imaging over other, more sophisticated, and expensive methods. Operator dependence is the main disadvantage of US examinations. Use of high range equipment with high resolution transducers, adhering to a strict examination protocol, good knowledge of normal anatomy and pathological processes and an awareness of common pitfalls are essential for the optimal performance and interpretation of shoulder US. This article addresses examination techniques, the normal sonographic appearance of tendons, bursae and joints, and the main pathological conditions found in shoulder ultrasonography.

Gaitini, Diana

2012-01-01

299

Plasticity facilitates sustainable growth in the commons.  

PubMed

In the commons, communities whose growth depends on public good, individuals often rely on surprisingly simple strategies, or heuristics, to decide whether to contribute to the shared resource (at risk of exploitation by free-riders). Although this appears a limitation, we show here how four heuristics lead to sustainable growth when coupled to specific ecological constraints. The two simplest ones-contribute permanently or switch stochastically between contributing or not-are first shown to bring sustainability when the public good efficiently promotes growth. If efficiency declines and the commons is structured in small groups, the most effective strategy resides in contributing only when a majority of individuals are also contributors. In contrast, when group size becomes large, the most effective behaviour follows a minimal-effort rule: contribute only when it is strictly necessary. Both plastic strategies are observed in natural scenarios across scales that present them as relevant social motifs for the sustainable management of public goods. PMID:23365195

Cavaliere, Matteo; Poyatos, Juan F

2013-01-30

300

Was the universal common ancestry proved?  

PubMed

The question of whether or not all life on Earth shares a single common ancestor has been a central problem of evolutionary biology since Darwin. Although the theory of universal common ancestry (UCA) has gathered a compelling list of circumstantial evidence, as given in ref. 2, there has been no attempt to test statistically the UCA hypothesis among the three domains of life (eubacteria, archaebacteria and eukaryotes) by using molecular sequences. Theobald recently challenged this problem with a formal statistical test, and concluded that the UCA hypothesis holds. Although his attempt is the first step towards establishing the UCA theory with a solid statistical basis, we think that the test of Theobald is not sufficient enough to reject the alternative hypothesis of the separate origins of life, despite the Akaike information criterion (AIC) of model selection giving a clear distinction between the competing hypotheses. PMID:21164432

Yonezawa, Takahiro; Hasegawa, Masami

2010-12-16

301

Estimating carnivoran diets using a combination of carcass observations and scats from GPS clusters.  

PubMed

Scat analysis is one of the most frequently used methods to assess carnivoran diets and Global Positioning System (GPS) cluster methods are increasingly being used to locate feeding sites for large carnivorans. However, both methods have inherent biases that limit their use. GPS methods to locate kill sites are biased towards large carcasses, while scat analysis over-estimates the biomass consumed from smaller prey. We combined carcass observations and scats collected along known movement routes, assessed using GPS data from four African lion (Panthera leo) prides in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, to determine how a combination of these two datasets change diet estimates. As expected, using carcasses alone under-estimated the number of feeding events on small species, primarily impala (Aepyceros melampus) and warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), in our case by more than 50% and thus significantly under-estimated the biomass consumed per pride per day in comparison to when the diet was assessed using carcass observations alone. We show that an approach that supplements carcass observations with scats that enables the identification of potentially missed feeding events increases the estimates of food intake rates for large carnivorans, with possible ramifications for predator-prey interaction studies dealing with biomass intake rate. PMID:22408290

Tambling, C J; Laurence, S D; Bellan, S E; Cameron, E Z; du Toit, J T; Getz, W M

2012-02-01

302

Psychoneuroendocrine characteristics of common obesity clinical subtypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To relate psychological profiles, cerebral asymmetry and the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA) reactivity to clinical characteristics of common obesity.METHODS: Sixty consecutive adult female overweight and obese patients attending the outpatient endocrine department were included in this study. Clinical evaluation specifically selected a priori the following indexes: obesity age of onset, parenthood obesity, carbohydrate craving, binge eating with purging, obesity degree

JM Martins; A Trinca; A Afonso; F Carreiras; J Falcão; JS Nunes; S do Vale; JC da Costa

2001-01-01

303

Common Understanding of Graphic Image Enhance \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of this research is to investigate the empathy of the brand design attribute to development of the product design,\\u000a software screen and web site design. At early phase of the development “Empathy” is one of the important matters of emotional\\u000a design. To share of the target verbal and image help to common understanding of the product characteristic, it

Hisashi Shima

2009-01-01

304

Managing shared access to a spectrum commons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The open access, unlicensed or spectrum commons approach to managing shared access to RF spectrum offers many attractive benefits, especially when implemented in conjunction with and as a complement to a regime of market-based, flexible use, tradable licensed spectrum ([Benkler02], [Lehr04], [Werbach03]). However, as a number of critics have pointed out, implementing the unlicensed model poses difficult challenges that have

William Lehr; Jon Crowcroft

2005-01-01

305

Comment on Consensus without Common Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parikh and Krasucki (Communication, consensus and knowledge,J. Econ. Theory52(1990), 178–189) argued that a group of agents may sometimes reach a consensus when this consensus is not common knowledge among them. We suggest a way to formalize this phenomenon in a rigorous way, by incorporating the time stages into the state space.Journal of Economic LiteratureClassification Number: D80.

Aviad Heifetz

1996-01-01

306

Bayesian Multitask Learning for Common Spatial Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common spatial pattern (CSP) is a widely-used feature extraction method for electroencephalogram (EEG) classification and corresponding probabilistic models were recently developed, adopting a linear generative model for each class. These models are trained on a subject-by-subject basis so that inter-subject information is neglected. Moreover when only a few training samples are available for each subject, the performance is degraded. In

Hyohyeong Kang; Seungjin Choi

2011-01-01

307

Bionomics of the common mosquitoes of Dacca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosquito-borne diseases, other than malaria, are becoming important public health problems in Bangladesh. Knowledge of the bionomics of the vector species is a pre-requisite for planning effective control measures against insect-borne diseases. With the above end in view, the bionomics of the common mosquitoes of Dacca city have been discussed under four headings, viz., seasonal prevalence, host preference, activity periods,

Mahmud-Ul Ameen; Muhammad Moizuddin

1973-01-01

308

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Common Carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie

1982-01-01

309

Common Themes in Mechanisms of Gene Silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assembly of DNA into regions of inaccessible chromatin, called silent chromatin, is involved in the regulation of gene expression and maintenance of chromosome stability in eukaryotes. Recent studies on Sir2-containing silencing complexes in budding yeast and HP1- and Swi6-containing silencing complexes in metazoans and fission yeast suggest a common mechanism for the assembly of these domains, which involves the

Danesh Moazed

2001-01-01

310

Common muscle synergies for balance and walking  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the integration of neural mechanisms for balance and locomotion. Muscle synergies have been studied independently in standing balance and walking, but not compared. Here, we hypothesized that reactive balance and walking are mediated by a common set of lower-limb muscle synergies. In humans, we examined muscle activity during multidirectional support-surface perturbations during standing and walking, as well as unperturbed walking at two speeds. We show that most muscle synergies used in perturbations responses during standing were also used in perturbation responses during walking, suggesting common neural mechanisms for reactive balance across different contexts. We also show that most muscle synergies using in reactive balance were also used during unperturbed walking, suggesting that neural circuits mediating locomotion and reactive balance recruit a common set of muscle synergies to achieve task-level goals. Differences in muscle synergies across conditions reflected differences in the biomechanical demands of the tasks. For example, muscle synergies specific to walking perturbations may reflect biomechanical challenges associated with single limb stance, and muscle synergies used during sagittal balance recovery in standing but not walking were consistent with maintaining the different desired center of mass motions in standing vs. walking. Thus, muscle synergies specifying spatial organization of muscle activation patterns may define a repertoire of biomechanical subtasks available to different neural circuits governing walking and reactive balance and may be recruited based on task-level goals. Muscle synergy analysis may aid in dissociating deficits in spatial vs. temporal organization of muscle activity in motor deficits. Muscle synergy analysis may also provide a more generalizable assessment of motor function by identifying whether common modular mechanisms are impaired across the performance of multiple motor tasks.

Chvatal, Stacie A.; Ting, Lena H.

2013-01-01

311

Character, Common-Sense, and Expertise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gilbert Harman has argued that the common-sense characterological psychology employed in virtue ethics is rooted not in unbiased\\u000a observation of close acquaintances, but rather in the ‘fundamental attribution error’. If this is right, then philosophers\\u000a cannot rely on their intuitions for insight into characterological psychology, and it might even be that there is no such\\u000a thing as character. This supports

Jonathan Webber

2007-01-01

312

Races of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Fabaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence for genetic diversity in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is reviewed. Multivariate statistical analyses of morphological, agronomic, and molecular data, as well as other available\\u000a information on Latin American landraces representing various geographical and ecological regions of their primary centers\\u000a of domestications in the Americas, reveal the existence of two major groups of germplasm: Middle American and Andean South

Shree P. Singh; Paul Gepts; Daniel G. Debouck

1991-01-01

313

Evolution of the common shrew Sorex araneus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review data on the chromosomal variation in the common shrewSorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 in the context of recent molecular findings. The article considers all aspects of chromosomal variation in\\u000a this species: within-population polymorphism, karyotypic races, hybrid zones between karyotypic races, chromosomal evolution,\\u000a and speciation. The recent molecular data provide vital information on different evolutionary processes such as inbreeding,\\u000a genetic

Jan M. Wójcik; Miros?aw Ratkiewicz; Jeremy B. Searle

2002-01-01

314

Intelligent service processing in common USN middleware  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ubiquitous sensor network (USN) is composed of several heterogeneous sensors with a variety of characteristics. An application\\u000a based on the sensor network also has various requirements to provide services to users. Therefore it is important to develop\\u000a the common USN middleware for flexible integration between the sensor networks and applications. Especially, this paper focuses\\u000a on intelligent service management which

Jong-Hyun Park; Ji-Hoon Kang

2011-01-01

315

A Review on Less-common Nanostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Less-comon nanostructures (nanoforms) such as “nanodumbbells”, “nanorices”, “nanolines”, “nanotowers”, “nanoshuttles”, “nanobowlings”, “nanowheels”, “nanofans”, “nanopencils”, “nanotrees”, “nanoarrows”, “nanonails”, “nanobottles”, or “nanovolcanoes”, among many others, have been reviewed. A considerable part of these nanoforms corresponds to gold, zinc oxide, and several binary inorganic compounds that are widely used in electronics. Synthesis methods for obtaining less-common nanoforms include wet-chemistry and electrochemical techniques, laser

Oxana V. Kharissova; Boris I. Kharisov; Tomás Hernández García; Ubaldo Ortiz Méndez

2009-01-01

316

How I treat common variable immune deficiency  

PubMed Central

Common variable immunodeficiency is a rare immune deficiency, characterized by low levels of serum immunoglobulin G, A, and/or M with loss of antibody production. The diagnosis is most commonly made in adults between the ages of 20 and 40 years, but both children and older adults can be found to have this immune defect. The range of clinical manifestations is broad, including acute and chronic infections, inflammatory and autoimmune disease, and an increased incidence of cancer and lymphoma. For all these reasons, the disease phenotype is both heterogeneous and complex. Contributing to the complexity is that patient cohorts are generally small, criteria used for diagnosis vary, and the doses of replacement immune globulin differ. In addition, routines for monitoring patients over the years and protocols for the use of other biologic agents for complications have not been clarified or standardized. In the past few years, data from large patient registries have revealed that both selected laboratory markers and clinical phenotyping may aid in dissecting groups of subjects into biologically relevant categories. This review presents my approach to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with common variable immunodeficiency, with suggestions for the use of laboratory biomarkers and means of monitoring patients.

2010-01-01

317

The common premise for uncommon conclusions.  

PubMed

Recent controversy over philosophical advocacy of infanticide (or the comically-styled euphemism 'postnatal abortion') reveals a surprisingly common premise uniting many of the opponents and supporters of the practice. This is the belief that the moral status of the early fetus or embryo with respect to a right to life is identical to that of a newly born or even very young baby. From this premise, infanticidists and strong anti-abortionists draw opposite conclusions, the former that the healthy newly born have no inherent right to life and the latter that minute embryos and the very early fetus have the same right to life as young babies. (Indeed strong anti-abortionists tend to regard this right to life as identical to that possessed by adult humans.) This paper argues that these opposed conclusions are both deeply implausible and that the implausibility resides in the common premise. The argument requires some attention to the structure of the philosophical case underpinning the supposed vice of speciesism that has been given intellectual currency by many philosophers, most notably Peter Singer, and also to the reasoning behind the strong anti-abortionist adoption of the common premise. PMID:23637428

Coady, C A J

2013-05-01

318

Genes and (Common) Pathways Underlying Drug Addiction  

PubMed Central

Drug addiction is a serious worldwide problem with strong genetic and environmental influences. Different technologies have revealed a variety of genes and pathways underlying addiction; however, each individual technology can be biased and incomplete. We integrated 2,343 items of evidence from peer-reviewed publications between 1976 and 2006 linking genes and chromosome regions to addiction by single-gene strategies, microrray, proteomics, or genetic studies. We identified 1,500 human addiction-related genes and developed KARG (http://karg.cbi.pku.edu.cn), the first molecular database for addiction-related genes with extensive annotations and a friendly Web interface. We then performed a meta-analysis of 396 genes that were supported by two or more independent items of evidence to identify 18 molecular pathways that were statistically significantly enriched, covering both upstream signaling events and downstream effects. Five molecular pathways significantly enriched for all four different types of addictive drugs were identified as common pathways which may underlie shared rewarding and addictive actions, including two new ones, GnRH signaling pathway and gap junction. We connected the common pathways into a hypothetical common molecular network for addiction. We observed that fast and slow positive feedback loops were interlinked through CAMKII, which may provide clues to explain some of the irreversible features of addiction.

Li, Chuan-Yun; Mao, Xizeng; Wei, Liping

2008-01-01

319

Demography and the Tragedy of the Commons  

PubMed Central

Individual success in group-structured populations has two components. First, an individual gains by outcompeting its neighbors for local resources. Second, an individual’s share of group success must be weighted by the total productivity of the group. The essence of sociality arises from the tension between selfish gains against neighbors and the associated loss that selfishness imposes by degrading the efficiency of the group. Without some force to modulate selfishness, the natural tendencies of self interest typically degrade group performance to the detriment of all. This is the tragedy of the commons. Kin selection provides the most widely discussed way in which the tragedy is overcome in biology. Kin selection arises from behavioral associations within groups caused either by genetical kinship or by other processes that correlate the behaviors of group members. Here, I emphasize demography as a second factor that may also modulate the tragedy of the commons and favor cooperative integration of groups. Each act of selfishness or cooperation in a group often influences group survival and fecundity over many subsequent generations. For example, a cooperative act early in the growth cycle of a colony may enhance the future size and survival of the colony. This time-dependent benefit can greatly increase the degree of cooperation favored by natural selection, providing another way in which to overcome the tragedy of the commons and enhance the integration of group behavior. I conclude that analyses of sociality must account for both the behavioral associations of kin selection theory and the demographic consequences of life history theory.

Frank, Steven A.

2010-01-01

320

Demography and the tragedy of the commons.  

PubMed

Individual success in group-structured populations has two components. First, an individual gains by outcompeting its neighbours for local resources. Second, an individual's share of group success must be weighted by the total productivity of the group. The essence of sociality arises from the tension between selfish gains against neighbours and the associated loss that selfishness imposes by degrading the efficiency of the group. Without some force to modulate selfishness, the natural tendencies of self interest typically degrade group performance to the detriment of all. This is the tragedy of the commons. Kin selection provides the most widely discussed way in which the tragedy is overcome in biology. Kin selection arises from behavioural associations within groups caused either by genetical kinship or by other processes that correlate the behaviours of group members. Here, I emphasize demography as a second factor that may also modulate the tragedy of the commons and favour cooperative integration of groups. Each act of selfishness or cooperation in a group often influences group survival and fecundity over many subsequent generations. For example, a cooperative act early in the growth cycle of a colony may enhance the future size and survival of the colony. This time-dependent benefit can greatly increase the degree of cooperation favoured by natural selection, providing another way in which to overcome the tragedy of the commons and enhance the integration of group behaviour. I conclude that analyses of sociality must account for both the behavioural associations of kin selection theory and the demographic consequences of life history theory. PMID:19912449

Frank, S A

2009-11-13

321

Autoimmune Cytopenias In Common Variable Immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a humoral immunodeficiency whose primary diagnostic features include hypogammaglobulinemia involving two or more immunoglobulin isotypes and impaired functional antibody responses in the majority of patients. While increased susceptibility to respiratory and other infections is a common thread that binds a large cross-section of CVID patients, the presence of autoimmune complications in this immunologically and clinically heterogeneous disorder is recognized in up to two-thirds of patients. Among the autoimmune manifestations reported in CVID (20–50%; Chapel et al., 2008; Cunningham-Rundles, 2008), autoimmune cytopenias are by far the most common occurring variably in 4–20% (Michel et al., 2004; Chapel et al., 2008) of these patients who have some form of autoimmunity. Association of autoimmune cytopenias with granulomatous disease and splenomegaly has been reported. The spectrum of autoimmune cytopenias includes thrombocytopenia, anemia, and neutropenia. While it may seem paradoxical “prima facie” that autoimmunity is present in patients with primary immune deficiencies, in reality, it could be considered two sides of the same coin, each reflecting a different but inter-connected facet of immune dysregulation. The expansion of CD21 low B cells in CVID patients with autoimmune cytopenias and other autoimmune features has also been previously reported. It has been demonstrated that this unique subset of B cells is enriched for autoreactive germline antibodies. Further, a correlation has been observed between various B cell subsets, such as class-switched memory B cells and plasmablasts, and autoimmunity in CVID. This review attempts to explore the most recent concepts and highlights, along with treatment of autoimmune hematological manifestations of CVID.

Podjasek, Jenna C.; Abraham, Roshini S.

2012-01-01

322

Freeing data through The Polar Information Commons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polar regions are changing rapidly with dramatic global effect. Wise management of resources, improved decision support, and effective international cooperation on resource and geopolitical issues require deeper understanding and better prediction of these changes. Unfortunately, polar data and information remain scattered, scarce, and sporadic. Inspired by the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 that established the Antarctic as a global commons to be used only for peaceful purposes and scientific research, we assert that data and information about the polar regions are themselves "public goods" that should be shared ethically and with minimal constraint. We therefore envision the Polar Information Commons (PIC) as an open, virtual repository for vital scientific data and information that would provide a shared, community-based cyber-infrastructure fostering innovation, improving scientific efficiency, and encouraging participation in polar research, education, planning, and management. The PIC will build on the legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY), providing a long-term framework for access to and preservation of both existing and future data and information about the polar regions. Rapid change demands rapid data access. The PIC system will enable scientists to quickly expose their data to the world and share them through open protocols on the Internet. A PIC digital label will alert users and data centers to new polar data and ensure that usage rights are clear. The PIC will utilize the Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data, which promotes open data access through the public domain coupled with community norms of practice to ensure use of data in a fair and equitable manner. A set of PIC norms is currently being developed in consultation with key polar data organizations and other stakeholders. We welcome inputs from the broad science community as we further develop and refine the PIC approach and move ahead with implementation.

de Bruin, Taco; Chen, Robert; Parsons, Mark; Carlson, David

2010-05-01

323

Freeing data through The Polar Information Commons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polar regions are changing rapidly with dramatic global effect. Wise management of resources, improved decision support, and effective international cooperation on resource and geopolitical issues require deeper understanding and better prediction of these changes. Unfortunately, polar data and information remain scattered, scarce, and sporadic. Inspired by the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 that established the Antarctic as a global commons to be used only for peaceful purposes and scientific research, we assert that data and information about the polar regions are themselves “public goods” that should be shared ethically and with minimal constraint. We therefore envision the Polar Information Commons (PIC) as an open, virtual repository for vital scientific data and information that would provide a shared, community-based cyber-infrastructure fostering innovation, improving scientific efficiency, and encouraging participation in polar research, education, planning, and management. The PIC will build on the legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY), providing a long-term framework for access to and preservation of both existing and future data and information about the polar regions. Rapid change demands rapid data access. The PIC system will enable scientists to quickly expose their data to the world and share them through open protocols on the Internet. A PIC digital label will alert users and data centers to new polar data and ensure that usage rights are clear. The PIC will utilize the Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data, which promotes open data access through the public domain coupled with community norms of practice to ensure use of data in a fair and equitable manner. A set of PIC norms is currently being developed in consultation with key polar data organizations and other stakeholders. We welcome inputs from the broad science community as we further develop and refine the PIC approach and move ahead with implementation.

de Bruin, T.; Chen, R. S.; Parsons, M. A.; Carlson, D. J.

2009-12-01

324

Freeing data through The Polar Information Commons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polar regions are changing rapidly with dramatic global effect. Wise management of resources, improved decision support, and effective international cooperation on resource and geopolitical issues require deeper understanding and better prediction of these changes. Unfortunately, polar data and information remain scattered, scarce, and sporadic. Inspired by the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 that established the Antarctic as a global commons to be used only for peaceful purposes and scientific research, we assert that data and information about the polar regions are themselves “public goods” that should be shared ethically and with minimal constraint. ICSU’s Committee on Data (CODATA) therefore started the Polar Information Commons (PIC) as an open, virtual repository for vital scientific data and information. The PIC provides a shared, community-based cyber-infrastructure fostering innovation, improving scientific efficiency, and encouraging participation in polar research, education, planning, and management. The PIC builds on the legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY), providing a long-term framework for access to and preservation of both existing and future data and information about the polar regions. Rapid change demands rapid data access. The PIC system enables scientists to quickly expose their data to the world and share them through open protocols on the Internet. A PIC digital label will alert users and data centers to new polar data and ensure that usage rights are clear. The PIC utilizes the Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data, which promotes open data access through the public domain coupled with community norms of practice to ensure use of data in a fair and equitable manner. A set of PIC norms has been developed in consultation with key polar data organizations and other stakeholders. We welcome inputs from the broad science community as we further develop and refine the PIC approach and move ahead with implementation.

de Bruin, T.; Chen, R. S.; Parsons, M. A.; Carlson, D. J.; Cass, K.; Finney, K.; Wilbanks, J.; Jochum, K.

2010-12-01

325

Common element key to multiprocessor architecture  

SciTech Connect

The described multiprocessing system uses only one kind of microprocessoras a common intelligent element in order to offer faster response with greater throughput. Unusual design features overcome some of the drawbacks which limit other multiprocessing architectures. A hierarchy of buses allows communication among the master processor, the subordinate processors, and local modules within a subordinate processors, and local modules within a subordinate processor. A flexible set of address mappings allows processors to access the distributed memory. Subordinate processors have two distinct address mappings in order to make different memory regions available on the various buses. The resulting high performance architecture is easily customised for a variety of applications.

Ang, W.S.

1981-10-01

326

Common Envelope Evolution of Massive Binary Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The common envelope phase of binary star evolution plays an essential role in the formation of short period systems containing a compact object. In this process, significant mass and angular momentum are lost, transforming a wide progenitor system into a close remnant binary. The pathways leading to this phase and the outcomes are described. Emphasis is placed on the conditions that are required for survival of the binary according to the results of three-dimensional hydrodynamics calculations. The evolution of high-mass systems containing neutron stars is discussed, including double neutron stars, binary pulsars, Thorne-Zytkow objects, and high- and low-mass X-ray binaries.

Taam, Ronald E.; Sandquist, Eric L.

327

Audits reveal ten common environmental problems  

SciTech Connect

The old saying that [open quotes]an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure[close quotes] rings particularly true in environmental matters in the 1990s. Environmental problems can potentially lead to expensive fines, costly cleanups, negative public relations, and even criminal sanctions against members of the corporation. A recurring pattern of problems has been noted during the performance of environmental disposition, acquisition, and compliance assessments of many different operators in most of the producing states. The ten most common problems found in oilfield audits are discussed here in an effort to enhance the awareness of operators.

Buys, M.W. (Buys and Associates Inc., Littleton, CO (United States))

1992-12-01

328

Older Adults' Common Sense Models of Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objective Investigate the importance of viewing belief systems about health maintenance holistically. Methods Qualitative (N=74) and quantitative data (N=95) were obtained from multi-ethnic rural-dwelling older adults with diabetes to characterize their Common Sense Models (CSMs) of diabetes. Results There is a discrete number of CSMs held by older adults, each characterized by unique clusters of diabetes-related knowledge and beliefs. Individuals whose CSM was shaped by biomedical knowledge were better able to achieve glycemic control. Conclusions Viewing individuals’ health beliefs incrementally or in a piece-meal strategy may be less effective for health behavior change than focusing on beliefs holistically.

Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Ip, Edward H.; Chapman, Christine; Kirk, Julienne K.; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.

2010-01-01

329

Common surgical complications in degenerative spinal surgery  

PubMed Central

The rapid growth of spine degenerative surgery has led to unrelenting efforts to define and prevent possible complications, the incidence of which is probably higher than that reported and varies according to the region of the spine involved (cervical and thoracolumbar) and the severity of the surgery. Several issues are becoming progressively clearer, such as complication rates in primary versus revision spinal surgery, complications in the elderly, the contribution of minimally invasive surgery to the reduction of complication rate. In this paper the most common surgical complications in degenerative spinal surgery are outlined and discussed.

Papadakis, Michael; Aggeliki, Lianou; Papadopoulos, Elias C; Girardi, Federico P

2013-01-01

330

Common respiratory issues in ambulatory obstetrics.  

PubMed

This article reviews the diagnosis and management of the most common respiratory conditions complicating pregnancy--asthma and influenza. We also review strategies for smoking cessation in pregnancy as, in addition to exacerbating all other pulmonary conditions, smoking is the most modifiable risk factor for poor pregnancy outcome. Moreover, the obstetrician frequently encounters each of these conditions in the ambulatory setting. A thorough knowledge of the normal pregnancy-induced physiological respiratory changes combined with a comprehensive understanding of how to manage these conditions, will provide the obstetrician with the armamentarium needed to optimize health outcomes for mothers and their fetuses. PMID:22828112

Orzechowski, Kelly M; Miller, Richard C

2012-09-01

331

[Common structures of psychotherapy and movement therapy].  

PubMed

The text deals with the anthropological analogies of psychotherapy and movement therapy, especially in view of cooperation between therapists of both directions. Points in common are: coordination of psychic and somatic processes, the unity of perception and movement, the significance of imagination, the connection of the imaginary with the real consciousness as well as promotion of partial functions with central integration and of activity with relaxation. Important analogies further concern the experience of space, time and the formation of identity. Finally the two therapeutic approaches are connected with the different functional centres of both brain hemispheres. PMID:2771884

Herzka, H S; Nil, V

332

Common complications in the critically ill patient.  

PubMed

Critically ill patients in intensive care units are subject to many complications associated with therapy. Many of these complications are health care-associated infections and are related to indwelling devices, including ventilator-associated pneumonia, central line-associated bloodstream infection, catheter-associated urinary tract infection; surgical site infection, venous thromboembolism, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolus are other common complications. All efforts should be undertaken to prevent these complications in surgical critical care, and national efforts are under way for each of these complications. In this article, epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these complications in critically ill patients are discussed. PMID:23153883

To, Kathleen B; Napolitano, Lena M

2012-12-01

333

Common plankton of Twin Lakes, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

A series of studies is being performed to evaluate the effects of the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Powerplant on the ecology of Twin Lakes. Twin Lakes are a pair of connected dimictic lakes, formed as the result of glacial action on alluvial deposits. This report presents a taxonomic species study of the common plankton collected since 1974 from Twin Lakes. A total of 11 zooplankters and 14 phytoplankters were identified from the limnetic zone of Twin Lakes and the associated Mt. Elbert Forebay. The four divisions of zooplankton included four species of Rotifera (rotifer), three species of Copepoda (copepod), three species of Cladocera (cladoceran), and one species of Mysidacea (opossum shrimp).

Lieberman, D.M.

1983-02-01

334

Epidemiology of the Ten Most Common Neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Excluding skin cancer, the most prevalent cancers in Canada are those of lung, breast, colon and rectum, stomach, pancreas, uterus, ovary, prostate and bladder, besides leukemia and lymphomas. Those of the lung, and to a lesser extent pancreas and uterus and the lymphomas are increasing, while stomach, cervix and bladder in females are decreasing. The etiological factors believed relevant are discussed for each of these sites, but two are common to a number of sites: at least a third of cancer cases and 40% of cancer deaths are probably attributable to cigaret smoking and excess fat in the diet.

Miller, A. B.

1979-01-01

335

Hepatic haemangioma: Common and uncommon imaging features.  

PubMed

The haemangioma, the most common non-cystic hepatic lesion, most often discovered by chance, may in certain situations raise diagnostic problems in imaging. In this article, the authors first demonstrate that the radiological appearance of the hepatic haemangioma, in its typical form, is closely related to three known histological sub-types. They then show that certain atypical features should be known in order to establish a diagnosis. They also observe the potential interactions between the haemangioma, an active vascular lesion, and the adjacent hepatic parenchyma. Finally, they discuss the specific paediatric features of hepatic haemangiomas and illustrate the case of a hepatic angiosarcoma. PMID:23796395

Klotz, T; Montoriol, P-F; Da Ines, D; Petitcolin, V; Joubert-Zakeyh, J; Garcier, J-M

2013-06-21

336

Scientists Find Many Common Genetic Variations Play a Role in Common Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... the cause of four common diseases — rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes — is ... genetic factors and environmental factors could lead to celiac disease, coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, or other ...

337

New frameworks for an old tragedy of the commons and an aging common property resource management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plateau has been reached in how to analyze people's use of their common property resources. We require fresh ways of thinking about the issue. Four new and very different approaches are sketched in the article.

Emery M. Roe

1994-01-01

338

The commons and anti-commons problems in the tourism economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countries specialised in tourism tend to face two problems with contradictory effects: the commons and the anti-commons, which lead to tourism over- and under-production, respectively. This paper develops a two-period model to analyse the joint effects of both problems on a small and remote tourism economy. Congestion and the complementariness between foreign transport and local tourism services are key features

Carmen D. Álvarez-Albelo; Raúl Hernández-Martín

2009-01-01

339

Ultrahigh power efficiency operation of common-emitter and common-base HBT's at 10 GHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DC and RF characteristics of microwave power HBTs are described. Ultrahigh power-added efficiency is reported for AlGaAs-GaAs HBTs operating at 10 GHz in common-emitter (CE) and common-base (CB) modes. A record high 67.8% power-added efficiency with 11.6 dB associated gain was achieved with a CE HBT at a CW output power of 0.226 W, corresponding to a power density

N. L. Wang; N. H. Sheng; M.-C. F. Chang; W. J. Ho; G. J. Sullivan; E. A. Sovero; J. A. Higgins; P. M. Asbeck

1990-01-01

340

Dynamical Characteristics Common to Neuronal Competition Models  

PubMed Central

Models implementing neuronal competition by reciprocally inhibitory populations are widely used to characterize bistable phenomena such as binocular rivalry. We find common dynamical behavior in several models of this general type, which differ in their architecture in the form of their gain functions, and in how they implement the slow process that underlies alternating dominance. We focus on examining the effect of the input strength on the rate (and existence) of oscillations. In spite of their differences, all considered models possess similar qualitative features, some of which we report here for the first time. Experimentally, dominance durations have been reported to decrease monotonically with increasing stimulus strength (such as Levelt's “Proposition IV”). The models predict this behavior; however, they also predict that at a lower range of input strength dominance durations increase with increasing stimulus strength. The nonmonotonic dependency of duration on stimulus strength is common to both deterministic and stochastic models. We conclude that additional experimental tests of Levelt's Proposition IV are needed to reconcile models and perception.

Shpiro, Asya; Curtu, Rodica; Rinzel, John; Rubin, Nava

2009-01-01

341

Evaluation of hydroperoxides in common pharmaceutical excipients.  

PubMed

While the physical properties of pharmaceutical excipients have been well characterized, impurities that may influence the chemical stability of formulated drug product have not been well studied. In this work, the hydroperoxide (HPO) impurity levels of common pharmaceutical excipients are measured and presented for both soluble and insoluble excipients. Povidone, polysorbate 80 (PS80), polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400, and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were found to contain substantial concentrations of HPOs with significant lot-to-lot and manufacturer-to-manufacturer variation. Much lower HPO levels were found in the common fillers, like microcrystalline cellulose and lactose, and in high molecular weight PEG, medium chain glyceride (MCG), and poloxamer. The findings are discussed within the context of HPO-mediated oxidation and formulating drug substance sensitive to oxidation. Of the four excipients with substantial HPO levels, povidone, PEG 400, and HPC contain a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and organic HPOs while PS80 contains predominantly organic HPOs. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to the known manufacturing processes and chemistry of HPO reactivity and degradation kinetics. Defining critical HPO limits for excipients should be driven by the chemistry of a specific drug substance or product and can only be defined within this context. PMID:16917844

Wasylaschuk, Walter R; Harmon, Paul A; Wagner, Gabriella; Harman, Amy B; Templeton, Allen C; Xu, Hui; Reed, Robert A

2007-01-01

342

Epigenetic Mechanisms in Commonly Occurring Cancers  

PubMed Central

Cancer is a collection of very complex diseases that share many traits while differing in many ways as well. This makes a universal cure difficult to attain, and it highlights the importance of understanding each type of cancer at a molecular level. Although many strides have been made in identifying the genetic causes for some cancers, we now understand that simple changes in the primary DNA sequence cannot explain the many steps that are necessary to turn a normal cell into a rouge cancer cell. In recent years, some research has shifted to focusing on detailing epigenetic contributions to the development and progression of cancer. These changes occur apart from primary genomic sequences and include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and miRNA expression. Since these epigenetic modifications are reversible, drugs targeting epigenetic changes are becoming more common in clinical settings. Daily discoveries elucidating these complex epigenetic processes are leading to advances in the field of cancer research. These advances, however, come at a rapid and often overwhelming pace. This review specifically summarizes the main epigenetic mechanisms currently documented in solid tumors common in the United States and Europe.

2012-01-01

343

Most common clinical presentations of cutaneous mastocytosis.  

PubMed

The term mastocytosis is referred to as an array of uncommon, usually sporadic, heterogeneous clinical illnesses that result from the hyperplasia of tissue mast cells. It comprises many different clinical manifestations varying from indolent cutaneous forms to systemic and malignant conditions. The characteristic presentation of mastocytosis consists of cutaneous manifestations: either a solitary mastocytoma, urticaria pigmentosa, or less commonly, diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis. Urticaria pigmentosa is the most common manifestation of cutaneous mastocytosis that manifests as a generalized eruption of round or oval erythematous macules, papules and plaques with variable amounts of brown pigment, usually on the trunk, but may also occur in all regions of the body including face and mucous membranes. Pruritus, dermographism and Darier's sign are additional features of these eruptions. Mastocytosis may also be manifested as mastocytoma, a rare, benign, pediatric tumor that results from hyperplasia of mast cells in papillary dermis in the first few weeks of life. The clinical course of mastocytosis is variable. The prognosis for the majority of pediatric patients with urticaria pigmentosa is extremely good, and over half of cases clear completely by adolescence, while those with aggressive systemic mastocytosis or mast cell leukemia show a progressive course, usually with a fatal outcome. PMID:19623875

Bulat, Vedrana; Mihi?, Liborija Lugovi?; Situm, Mirna; Buljan, Marija; Blaji?, Iva; Pusi?, Jana

2009-03-01

344

The Library as Learning Commons: Rethink, Reuse, Recycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Oregon State University (OSU) Libraries, librarians are evaluating the decade-old information commons in the transition to a learning commons. Visits to commons spaces at libraries across the country provided perspective on this transition. This paper describes the development of the OSU Libraries Information Commons, identifies themes from our trips to other commons, and discusses the idea that we need

Uta Hussong-Christian; Hannah Gascho Rempel; Anne-Marie Deitering

2010-01-01

345

Common pediatric and adolescent skin conditions.  

PubMed

Skin lesions are encountered in all areas of medicine, and it is therefore important for physicians to understand the fundamentals of explaining and diagnosing common skin conditions. This article begins with a discussion of description and documentation of skin lesions based on color, size, morphology, and distribution. Pigmentation disorders such as vitiligo are depicted. Cutaneous growths that are found in the pediatric and adolescent population include acrochordons, dermatofibromas, keloids, milia, neurofibromas, and pyogenic granulomas. Treatment of these growths usually involves observation or curettage with electrodessication.Psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, poison ivy, and eczema are comprised of scaling patches and plaques; poison ivy and atopic dermatitis may also present with bullous and vesicular changes. Therapy typically consists of topical emollients and corticosteroids; phototherapy is reserved for refractory cases. Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease of the pediatric and adolescent population. This condition can be psychologically debilitating and, therefore, proper treatment is of paramount importance. Therapeutic options include topical as well as oral antibiotics and retinoids. Extreme caution must be used when prescribing retinoids to post-pubescent females, as these agents are teratogenic. Vascular anomalies are most commonly exemplified as port wine stains and hemangiomas. Port wine stains may be treated with pulsed dye laser or may be observed if they are not of concern to the patient or physician. Hemangiomas typically spontaneously regress by age ten; however, there has been recent concern that certain cases may need to be treated. Dermal rashes may be localized or generalized. Treatment of generalized drug eruptions involves elimination of the inciting agent, topical antipruritics, and systemic corticosteroids for severe reactions. Infectious etiologic agents of skin disease include bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Many sexually transmitted diseases are bacterial or viral in origin and present as a rash or ulcer. Impetigo is a bacterial infection which may present as a bullous eruption or as an erosion with a honey colored crust. Other bacterial infections include erythema chronicum migrans, folliculitis, and cellulitis. Fungal infections include the various forms of tinea and are usually treated with topical antifungals; if the infection is located in a hair-bearing area, systemic antifungals are necessary. Viral infections include warts, varicella, molluscum contagiosum, and herpes. Treatment varies from observation or antivirals for varicella to cryosurgery and topical imiquimod for warts. Finally, scabies and lice are infectious agents that can be treated with permethrin and pyrethrin solutions. PMID:14597015

Sanfilippo, Angela M; Barrio, Victoria; Kulp-Shorten, Carol; Callen, Jeffrey P

2003-10-01

346

Neuromuscular ultrasound in common entrapment neuropathies.  

PubMed

Neuromuscular ultrasound involves the use of high-resolution ultrasound to image the peripheral nervous system of patients with suspected neuromuscular diseases. It complements electrodiagnostic studies well by providing anatomic information regarding nerves, muscles, vessels, tendons, ligaments, bones, and other structures that cannot be obtained with nerve conduction studies and electromyography. Neuromuscular ultrasound has been studied extensively over the past 10 years and has been used most often in the assessment of entrapment neuropathies. This review focuses on the use of neuromuscular ultrasound in 4 of the most common entrapment neuropathies: carpal tunnel syndrome, ulnar neuropathy at the elbow and wrist, and fibular neuropathy at the knee. Muscle Nerve 48:696-704, 2013. PMID:23681885

Cartwright, Michael S; Walker, Francis O

2013-09-02

347

The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) project will provide a core satellite carrying the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and will use microwave observations from a constellation of other satellites. Each partner with a satellite in the constellation will have a calibration that meets their own requirements and will decide on the format to archive their brightness temperature (Tb) record in GPM. However, GPM multi-sensor precipitation algorithms need to input intercalibrated Tb's in order to avoid differences among sensors introducing artifacts into the longer term climate record of precipitation. The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product is intended to address this problem by providing intercalibrated Tb data, called "Tc" data, where the "c" stands for common. The precipitation algorithms require a Tc file format that is both generic and flexible enough to accommodate the different passive microwave instruments. The format provides detailed information on the processing history in order to allow future researchers to have a record of what was done. The format is simple, including the main items of scan time, latitude, longitude, incidence angle, sun glint angle, and Tc. It also provides a quality flag, spacecraft orientation, spacecraft location, orbit, and instrument scan type (cross-track or conical). Another simplification is to store data in real numbers, avoiding the ambiguity of scaled data. Finally, units and descriptions will be provided in the product. The format is built on the concept of a swath, which is a series of scans that have common geolocation and common scan geometry. Scan geometry includes pixels per scan, sensor orientation, scan type, and incidence angles. The format includes 3 space saving methods: first rounding variables written as floats to their needed accuracy to achieve good compression, second writing sun glint angle as a one byte variable, and third storing only unique incidence angles but allowing access via a mapping array. Two programs are used to create a Tc product. Program One reads the input data which may be antenna temperature (Ta) or Tb and could be an orbit with an arbitrary starting point or a half orbit. Program One then writes a "base" file which is a standard orbit and written in a base format which preserves all the information from the input. Program Two reads the base file, calibrates the radiance information, and outputs Tc in the standard format. The use of two programs allows researchers to insert experimental calibrations in Program Two without having to read the input to Program One or orbitize the data. The Tc algorithms and data formats are being tested using the pre-GPM Precipitation Processing System (PPS) software to generate formats and I/O routines. In the test, data from SSM/I, SSMI/S, TMI, AMSR-E, and WindSat are being processed and written as Tc products.

Stout, J.; Chou, J.

2010-12-01

348

CMLOG: A common message logging system  

SciTech Connect

The Common Message Logging (CMLOG) system is an object-oriented and distributed system that not only allows applications and systems to log data (messages) of any type into a centralized database but also lets applications view incoming messages in real-time or retrieve stored data from the database according to selection rules. It consists of a concurrent Unix server that handles incoming logging or searching messages, a Motif browser that can view incoming messages in real-time or display stored data in the database, a client daemon that buffers and sends logging messages to the server, and libraries that can be used by applications to send data to or retrieve data from the database via the server. This paper presents the design and implementation of the CMLOG system meanwhile it will also address the issue of integration of CMLOG into existing control systems.

Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Bickley, M.; Wu, D.; Watson, W. III [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States). Control Software Group

1997-12-01

349

Common origin of visible and dark universe  

SciTech Connect

Dark matter, baryonic matter, and dark energy have different properties but contribute comparable energy density to the present Universe. We point out that they may have a common origin. As the dark energy has a scale far lower than all known scales in particle physics but very close to neutrino masses, while the excess matter over antimatter in the baryonic sector is probably related to the neutrino-mass generation, we unify the origin of the dark and visible universe in a variant of the seesaw model. In our model (i) the dark matter relic density is a dark matter asymmetry emerged simultaneously with the baryon asymmetry from leptogenesis; (ii) the dark energy is due to a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone-Boson associated with the neutrino-mass generation.

Gu Peihong [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Sarkar, Utpal [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India)

2010-02-01

350

Common curbsides and conundrums in geriatric medicine.  

PubMed

Within the next 15 years, the population of adults 65 years and older in the United States will double to approximately 70 million. Physicians must be well prepared to care for this rapidly growing population. Senior adults comprise a large proportion of most primary care practices in the United States, and the unique needs of this population cannot be overstated. Although traditional preventive screening modalities and disease-specific care models are of great utility, these processes may not be appropriate or consistent with the health goals of many older patients with multiple chronic conditions and reduced functional capacity. This Concise Review highlights commonly encountered clinical scenarios important to the care of these older patients. The topics include diagnosis and management of mild cognitive impairment, assessment of the cognitively impaired driver, cancer screening in the older patient, and sarcopenia. PMID:23726402

Tung, Ericka E; Chen, Christina Y Y; Takahashi, Paul Y

2013-06-01

351

Common-path multimodal optical microscopy.  

PubMed

We have developed a common-path multimodal optical microscopy system that is capable of using a single optical source and a single camera to image amplitude, phase, and fluorescence features of a biological specimen. This is achieved by varying either contrast enhancement filters at the Fourier plane and/or neutral density/fluorescence filters in front of the CCD camera. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated by obtaining brightfield, fluorescence, phase-contrast, spatially filtered, brightfield+fluorescence, phase+fluorescence, and edge-enhanced+fluorescence images of the same Drosophila embryo without the need for image registration and fusion. This comprehensive microscope has the capability of providing both structural and functional information and may be used for applications such as studying live-cell dynamics and in high throughput microscopy and automated microscopy. PMID:19370131

Yelleswarapu, Chandra S; Tipping, Marla; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajasekhar; Veraksa, Alexey; Rao, D V G L N

2009-04-15

352

Medical management of common urinary calculi.  

PubMed

Nephrolithiasis is a common condition affecting nearly 5 percent of U.S. men and women during their lifetimes. Recurrent calculi can be prevented in most patients by the use of a simplified evaluation, reasonable dietary and fluid recommendations, and directed pharmacologic intervention. Serum studies and 24-hour urine collections are the mainstays of metabolic investigation and usually are warranted in patients with recurrent calculi. Although some stones are the result of inherited conditions, most result from a complex interaction between diet, fluid habits, and genetic predisposition. Calcium-sparing diuretics such as thiazides often are used to treat hypercalciuria. Citrate medications increase levels of this naturally occurring stone inhibitor. Allopurinol can be helpful in patients with hyperuricosuria, and urease inhibitors can help break the cycle of infectious calculi. Aggressive fluid intake and moderated intake of salt, calcium, and meat are recommended for most patients. PMID:16848382

Pietrow, Paul K; Karellas, Michael E

2006-07-01

353

Fermionic Light in Common Optical Media  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments have proved that the response to short laser pulses of common optical media, such as air or oxygen, can be described by focusing Kerr and higher order nonlinearities of alternating signs. Such media support the propagation of steady solitary waves. We argue by both numerical and analytical computations that the low-power fundamental bright solitons satisfy an equation of state which is similar to that of a degenerate gas of fermions at zero temperature. Considering, in particular, the propagation in both O{sub 2} and air, we also find that the high-power solutions behave like droplets of ordinary liquids. We then show how a grid of the fermionic light bubbles can be generated and forced to merge in a liquid droplet. This leads us to propose a set of experiments aimed at the production of both the fermionic and liquid phases of light, and at the demonstration of the transition from the former to the latter.

Novoa, David; Michinel, Humberto; Tommasini, Daniele [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultade de Ciencias de Ourense, Universidade de Vigo, As Lagoas s/n, Ourense, ES-32004 Spain (Spain)

2010-11-12

354

A syndromic approach to common parasitic diseases  

PubMed Central

Standard textbooks discuss parasitic disease according to specific organisms. In contrast, patients with parasitic infections present to physicians with a variety of clinical manifestations that may involve any of several organ systems and that often mimic nonparasitic diseases. A syndromic approach to the clinical situation may help the physician in considering the most important parasitic agents. Many parasitic infections can be acquired in temperate climates. While often considered tropical or exotic, other parasitic diseases are now seen more frequently in developed countries because of immigration and increased world travel. In this review the clinical syndromes associated with common parasitic diseases in North America are discussed, with an emphasis on risk factors and diagnosis of specific infections.

Shafran, Stephen D.; Chow, Anthony W.

1985-01-01

355

Drought Tolerance Indices Study in Common Bean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study Drought tolerance indices, 10 common bean varieties were evaluated in a split plot experiment in the form of complete block design with three replications. The main plots were three environmental conditions namely: non stress (normal), drought stress at vegetative stage and drought stress at reproductive stage. On the basis of seed yield, five indices, mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP), tolerance (TOL), stress susceptibility index (SSI) and stress tolerance index (STI) were evaluated. Stress intensity was equal to 0.12 and 0.55 for stress at vegetative and reproductive stages, respectively. The indices STI, MP and GMP were highly correlated with seed yield of normal (Yp) and stress (Ys) conditions. Using a 3-D plot, cultivars were grouped into 4 groups (A-D) acording to the value of Yp, Ys and STI.

Aminian, Roghayeh; Khodambashi, Mahmood; Yadegari, Mehrab

2008-01-01

356

Six common mistakes in conservation priority setting.  

PubMed

A vast number of prioritization schemes have been developed to help conservation navigate tough decisions about the allocation of finite resources. However, the application of quantitative approaches to setting priorities in conservation frequently includes mistakes that can undermine their authors' intention to be more rigorous and scientific in the way priorities are established and resources allocated. Drawing on well-established principles of decision science, we highlight 6 mistakes commonly associated with setting priorities for conservation: not acknowledging conservation plans are prioritizations; trying to solve an ill-defined problem; not prioritizing actions; arbitrariness; hidden value judgments; and not acknowledging risk of failure. We explain these mistakes and offer a path to help conservation planners avoid making the same mistakes in future prioritizations. PMID:23565990

Game, Edward T; Kareiva, Peter; Possingham, Hugh P

2013-04-08

357

Cellular antioxidant activity of common vegetables.  

PubMed

The measurement of antioxidant activity using biologically relevant assays is important to screen fruits, vegetables, natural products, and dietary supplements for potential health benefits. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay quantifies antioxidant activity using a cell culture model and was developed to meet the need for a more biologically representative method than the popular chemistry antioxidant capacity measures. The objective of the study was to determine the CAA, total phenolic contents, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of 27 vegetables commonly consumed in the United States. Beets, broccoli, and red pepper had the highest CAA values, whereas cucumber had the lowest. CAA values were significantly correlated to total phenolic content. Potatoes were found to be the largest contributors of vegetable phenolics and CAA to the American diet. Increased fruit and vegetable consumption is an effective strategy to increase antioxidant intake and decrease oxidative stress and may lead to reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. PMID:20462192

Song, Wei; Derito, Christopher M; Liu, M Keshu; He, Xiangjiu; Dong, Mei; Liu, Rui Hai

2010-06-01

358

Cellular antioxidant activity of common fruits.  

PubMed

Measurement of antioxidant activity using biologically relevant assays is important in the screening of fruits for potential health benefits. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay quantifies antioxidant activity in cell culture and was developed to meet the need for a more biologically representative method than the popular chemistry antioxidant capacity measures. The objective of the study was to determine the cellular antioxidant activity, total phenolic contents, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of 25 fruits commonly consumed in the United States. Pomegranate and berries (wild blueberry, blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry) had the highest CAA values, whereas banana and melons had the lowest. Apples were found to be the largest contributors of fruit phenolics to the American diet, and apple and strawberries were the biggest suppliers of cellular antioxidant activity. Increasing fruit consumption is a logical strategy to increase antioxidant intake and decrease oxidative stress and may lead to reduced risk of cancer. PMID:18759450

Wolfe, Kelly L; Kang, Xinmei; He, Xiangjiu; Dong, Mei; Zhang, Qingyuan; Liu, Rui Hai

2008-08-30

359

Echocardiography: common pitfalls and practical solutions.  

PubMed

The asymmetric shape of the heart, small acoustic window, and range of interindividual variation in normal and abnormal states all can limit the extent of echocardiographic studies in small animal medicine. Beyond these uncontrollable variables, however, there are a number of additional potentially complicating factors that the echocardiogapher controls. Understanding and handling this second category of variables is critical for optimizing the quality and diagnostic value of echocardiographic studies. These variables range from such simple issues as proper restraint and an indissociable association between echocardiographic findings and clinical information, to specific points relating to simultaneous electrocardiogram display, good visualization of cardiac structures using multiple overlapping imaging planes, and avoidance of oblique or tangential views. The basic overview presented here aims to describe these commonly encountered, clinically relevant points in a way that helps veterinarians improve the quality of echocardiograms they perform. PMID:16180398

Côté, Etienne

2005-08-01

360

Hemochromatosis. More common than you think.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge of the genetics, presentation, diagnosis, and management of hereditary hemochromatosis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to June 2002, and references of relevant papers were reviewed. Most articles were reviews, practice guidelines, or observational studies. Several randomized controlled trials were identified but none studied primary therapy for hemochromatosis. MAIN MESSAGE: Hemochromatosis, the most common genetic disease in white populations, has a prevalence of one in 200, yet is still underrecognized. This disease of unregulated iron absorption leads to generalized iron overload that can eventually impair organ systems and lead to cirrhosis, diabetes, and cardiomyopathy. Symptoms are often nonspecific and patients are identified by mild abnormalities in routine laboratory testing. Transferrin saturation, ferritin levels, and genotyping can often establish the diagnosis. Iron depletion therapy with phlebotomy is helpful if initiated before organ damage occurs. CONCLUSION: Family physicians should be aware that hemochromatosis can be treated effectively if diagnosed early.

Borgaonkar, Mark Ram

2003-01-01

361

Electrophilic properties of common MALDI matrix molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The negative ion photoelectron spectra of the following MALDI matrix molecules have been measured: 3-carboxypyridine (nicotinic acid), 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (sinapinic acid), 2,6-dihydroxyacetophenone (DHAP), 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid (ferulic acid), 3-hydroxy-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid (3HPA), and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (dipicolinic acid). Adiabatic electron affinities and vertical detachment energies were extracted from these spectra and reported. In addition, electron affinities were calculated for DHAP, ferulic acid, dipicolinic acid and sinapinic acid. Photoelectron spectra were also measured for the dimer anions of DHB and nicotinic acid and for the fragment anion in which alpha-cyano-cinnamic acid had lost a CO2 unit. Together, these results augment the database of presently available electrophilic data on common matrix molecules along with some of their dimers and fragments.

Lippa, T. P.; Eustis, S. N.; Wang, D.; Bowen, K. H.

2007-11-01

362

[Two bacteria and common skin infections].  

PubMed

Common bacterial skin infections represent frequent disorders encountered in general practice and in dermatology as well. They encompass a series of infections affecting the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis and subcutaneous tissues. The two main bacteria involved in these processes are Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. The resulting infections show various clinical presentations. Their management must be adapted to their gravity and to the putative or proven nature of the causal microorganism. Searching for any skin ingress possibility and any favouring factor is always of importance in order to stimulate healing and avoid recurrences. Of note, skin possibly allows the ingress way for a secondary septicemic dissemination. Conversely, skin is possibly involved in tissue localisation of septicemia. PMID:23167160

Piérard-Franchimont, C; Lesuisse, M; Piérard, G E

2012-10-01

363

MicroRNAs in Common Human Diseases  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNA molecules that have attracted tremendous attention from the biological and biomedical research communities over the past decade. With over 1900 miRNAs discovered in humans to date, many of them have already been implicated in common human disorders. Facilitated by high-throughput genomics and bioinformatics in conjunction with traditional molecular biology techniques and animal models, miRNA research is now positioned to make the transition from laboratories to clinics to deliver profound benefits to public health. Herein, we overview the progress of miRNA research related to human diseases, as well as the potential for miRNA to becoming the next generation of diagnostics and therapeutics.

Li, Yu; Kowdley, Kris V.

2013-01-01

364

A Common Neuronal Response to Alphaherpesvirus Infection  

PubMed Central

Alphaherpesviruses are a subfamily of the Herpesviridae that can invade the nervous system and establish either lytic or latent infections. The establishment of latent infection can occur only in neurons, indicating a unique virus–host interaction in these cells. Here, we compare results from seven microarray studies that focused on the host response of either neural tissue or isolated neurons to alphaherpesvirus infection. These studies utilized either herpes simplex virus type 1 or pseudorabies virus as the infectious agent. From these data, we have found common host responses spanning a variety of infection models in different species, with different herpesvirus strains, and during all phases of infection including lytic, latent, and reactivation. The repeated observation of transcriptional effects on these genes and gene families indicates their likely importance in host defenses or the viral infectious process. We discuss the possible role of these different genes and genes families in alphaherpesvirus infection.

Szpara, Moriah L.; Kobiler, Oren; Enquist, Lynn W.

2010-01-01

365

Transvection Is Common Throughout the Drosophila Genome  

PubMed Central

Higher-order genome organization plays an important role in transcriptional regulation. In Drosophila, somatic pairing of homologous chromosomes can lead to transvection, by which the regulatory region of a gene can influence transcription in trans. We observe transvection between transgenes inserted at commonly used phiC31 integration sites in the Drosophila genome. When two transgenes that carry endogenous regulatory elements driving the expression of either LexA or GAL4 are inserted at the same integration site and paired, the enhancer of one transgene can drive or repress expression of the paired transgene. These transvection effects depend on compatibility between regulatory elements and are often restricted to a subset of cell types within a given expression pattern. We further show that activated UAS transgenes can also drive transcription in trans. We discuss the implication of these findings for (1) understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie transvection and (2) the design of experiments that utilize site-specific integration.

Mellert, David J.; Truman, James W.

2012-01-01

366

49 CFR 1150.22 - Exemptions and common carrier status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1150.22 Exemptions and common carrier status. ...itself, it will be considered a common carrier. However, when a State acquires a rail line described under § 1150...only the operator incurs a common carrier obligation....

2011-10-01

367

49 CFR 1150.22 - Exemptions and common carrier status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...1150.22 Exemptions and common carrier status. ...itself, it will be considered a common carrier. However, when a State acquires a rail line described under § 1150...only the operator incurs a common carrier obligation....

2012-10-01

368

The origin and relief of common pain.  

PubMed

Where pain of the musculoskeletal system is present, commonly, this pain is without objective evidence of disease, trauma, or disorder. Absence of an apparent cause for common pain prompts the consideration of mechanical stress as a contributing factor. The principal stress of the musculoskeletal system is postural. By posture it is usually meant the distribution of body mass with respect to gravity. Past efforts to predict chronic pain by postural analysis or to reduce such pain by strengthening, conscious control or splinting of posture has had marginal success. Past failure to relate posture to pain is attributable to (1) ubiquity of sub-optimal posture that precludes clinical comparison to those with optimal posture; (2) presupposition that the causal relation between posture and pain is of the observational class of causality rather than the manipulable kind; (3) a definition of posture that is too narrow to complete the picture; and (4) inadequate methods for reduction of postural asymmetry to an extent that is sufficient to elicit a significant and enduring effect on sub-optimal posture and related pain. Posture can be defined more broadly as the stance of the body performing within the boundaries of posture and which is mediated by the Postural Control System towards greatest stability (Fx. 1). The stance of the body is the arrangement of the body with respect to gravity and other accelerative forces. The postural boundaries are the set of forces that resist acceleration and thereby provide the limits within which one functions stably, and this resistance is currently approximated by six principal sources of resistance to acceleration: viscous, elastic, neuromuscular, rigid, viscoelastic, and inertial. The Postural Control System is located in the brainstem and modulates body stance to more economically and stably effect and resist acceleration. The rigid boundaries can be so with respect to compressive, tractive, or tensile qualities that permits three kinds of motion: translation, rotation and oscillation. An example of postural boundaries that are rigid with respect to compression and tensile character are the bones that bear weight. In contrast, ligaments provide a tractive rigidity and musculotendons a relatively elastic boundary. Joint surfaces are considered boundaries that are rigid but not perfectly so. Of fundamental importance are those joints that arc lowermost in a column of the musculoskeletal system namely: (1) the feet and ankles that support the entirety of the musculoskeletal system and; (2) the base of the sacrum that supports the vertebral spine. This broadened definition of posture leads to a greatly enhanced manipulability of posture in the upright stance and alleviation of more than two-thirds of common pain by the coherent combination of (1) manual manipulation to reduce somatic dysfunction; (2) foot orthotics to optimize the amplitude of the arches of the feet and vertically align the ankle; (3) a heel lift to level the sacral base; (4) and a group of therapeutic postures configured to minimize restriction of peripheral soft tissue reflective of the earlier posture, all aimed to optimize posture. Mediated by the postural control system, manipulation of postural boundaries accordingly modifies the structure and function of the entire musculoskeletal system. Typically, this relief is maintained by foot orthotic and heel lift alone without maintenance by manual manipulation, medication, or exercise. PMID:11542803

Irvin, R E

1998-01-01

369

Diabetes-science, serendipity and common sense.  

PubMed

This paper is dedicated to young researchers in diabetes. One such person was Frederick Banting who, with his colleagues, isolated insulin in 1921, saving the lives of literally millions of people. What factors allowed Banting and other scientists to produce work that has immensely benefited the human race? I propose that it is the combination of good scientific background (the 'prepared mind'), commonly some serendipity taken with a good dose of common sense and supplemented by enthusiasm, tenacity and good mentoring, which drives the 'power of observation' and the ability to take forward the good idea. I give examples from history to support this and then discuss some of the 'truths, perspectives and controversies' within the diabetes arena when I first started in diabetes research in the late 1970s. I describe how my appetite was initially 'whetted' for research by moving to an excellent clinical research environment with encouragement to test ideas and controversies initially in a clinical research programme, followed by more scientific/basic research. The work that I performed as a young doctor and research fellow led to a lifelong professional interest in three major areas-causes and interventions for diabetes vascular disease, studies of the molecular genetics of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes and work on diabetes in different ethnic groups. I provide a summation of my own and other people's work to demonstrate how research can be progressed and lead to patient benefit as well as providing an incredibly rewarding career. I believe that we need to encourage and put more resources into development of young doctors and scientists wishing to undertake research in our discipline. Areas ripe for much-needed clinical research programmes, for example, include work on best practice/provision of health care, application of the evidence base from clinical trials to achieve public health gains, attention to adherence issues and better-tolerated therapies. Most importantly, a greater emphasis on prevention through public health measures and 'buy in' from the whole population is urgently required. PMID:21812811

Barnett, A H

2011-11-01

370

["The athlete's heart": most common electrocardiographic findings].  

PubMed

The morphological and functional cardiac adaptations induced by physical training may be reflected in several athlete's electrocardiographic variants. Rhythm and heart rate disturbances are the most common findings, and sinus bradycardia is the most frequent adaptation. Non-specific intraventricular conduction delay and incomplete right bundle branch block are also frequent, but other bundle branch and fascicular blocks are extremely rare. While the atrioventricular conduction may be prolonged, the occurrence of first degree and type I second degree atrioventricular blocks depends on the individual's susceptibility. Advanced second and third degree atrioventricular blocks are exceptional, and when present, the possibility of underlying heart disease must be excluded. High QRS voltage is more frequent in male athletes, but its correlation with left ventricular hypertrophy is low. The ST segment elevation in the so called "early repolarization" pattern is typical of the athlete's electrocardiogram. Vagotonic or high T wave voltages and U waves are also frequent when sinus bradycardia is present. Tachyarrhythmias and increased automatism arrhythmias are rare and usually benign. The increased vagal tone is responsible for the suppression of the physiological and ectopic pacemakers. While Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome per se does not exclude an athlete from sports activity, the risk of a sudden death makes it mandatory to perform an exhaustive cardiac evaluation. We may conclude that no sport can be considered arrhythmogenic or as a predisposing factor for malignant ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:9644959

Boraita Pérez, A; Serratosa Fernández, L

1998-05-01

371

CFOs and strategists: forging a common framework.  

PubMed

Companies have become increasingly polarized into two divergent camps: those who consider shareholder value the key to managing the company and those who put their faith in gaining competitive advantage. Indeed, that age-old debate between investing for the long term and showing outstanding short-term results is back - only this time the camps are flying banners with the new buzzwords of corporate America: competitive advantage and shareholder value. In this article, Alfred Rappaport attempts to settle the debate once and for all, arguing forcefully that establishing competitive advantage and creating shareholder value both stem from a common economic framework. In fact, long-term productivity is the hinge from which both sustainable competitive advantage and consistent results for the shareholder hang. But many managers refuse to accept this theory and cling to the mistaken belief that the market does not actually value the long-term productivity of their company but judges it only by its short-term performance. They then jump to a second mistaken conclusion: assuming they must depart from the shareholder-value model to improve their competitive position. Rappaport attacks these mistaken beliefs, showing that the stock market does value the long-term productivity of a company and that it is not necessary to depart from the shareholder-value model to improve a company's competitive position. Maximum returns for current shareholders will materialize only when managers maximize long-term shareholder value and deliver interim results that attest credibly to sustainable competitive advantage. PMID:10118005

Rappaport, A

372

Evaluation and management of common anorectal conditions.  

PubMed

The prevalence of benign anorectal conditions in the primary care setting is high, although evidence of effective therapy is often lacking. In addition to recognizing common benign anorectal disorders, physicians must maintain a high index of suspicion for inflammatory and malignant disorders. Patients with red flags such as increased age, family history, persistent anorectal bleeding despite treatment, weight loss, or iron deficiency anemia should undergo colonoscopy. Pruritus ani, or perianal itching, is managed by treating the underlying cause, ensuring proper hygiene, and providing symptomatic relief with oral antihistamines, topical steroids, or topical capsaicin. Effective treatments for anal fissures include onabotulinumtoxinA, topical nitroglycerin, and topical calcium channel blockers. Symptomatic external hemorrhoids are managed with dietary modifications, topical steroids, and analgesics. Thrombosed hemorrhoids are best treated with hemorrhoidectomy if symptoms are present for less than 72 hours. Grades I through III internal hemorrhoids can be managed with rubber band ligation. For the treatment of grade III internal hemorrhoids, surgical hemorrhoidectomy has higher remission rates but increased pain and complication rates compared with rubber band ligation. Anorectal condylomas, or anogenital warts, are treated based on size and location, with office treatment consisting of topical trichloroacetic acid or podophyllin, cryotherapy, or laser treatment. Simple anorectal fistulas can be treated conservatively with sitz baths and analgesics, whereas complex or nonhealing fistulas may require surgery. Fecal impaction may be treated with polyethylene glycol, enemas, or manual disimpaction. Fecal incontinence is generally treated with loperamide and biofeedback. Surgical intervention is reserved for anal sphincter injury. PMID:22534276

Fargo, Matthew V; Latimer, Kelly M

2012-03-15

373

Finding lowest common ancestors in parallel  

SciTech Connect

Two parallel algorithms for finding the lowest common ancestors of a set of vertex pairs Q (the query set) in a directed tree are presented. With all the overheads taken into account, these algorithms take O(((n + absolute value of Q)/p) log/sub 2/n) and O(n/sup 2//p + log/sub 2/n) time, respectively, with p(>0) processors (n is the size of the tree). These results are better than the best known result in that the first achieves the O(log/sub 2/n) time bound with only n + absolute value of Q processors which the second reduces the number of processors used by a factor of log/sub 2/n which is optimal for large query sets when 0 < p less than or equal to n/sup 2//log/sub 2/n. The computer model the authors use here is the PRAM which is an SIMD model allowing read but not write conflicts. The results also imply the following improvements: the processor bound for finding a set of fundamental cycles in an undirected graph is improved by a factor of log/sub 2/n and the result is optimal for dense graphs; the implementations of some other sequential and parallel algorithms are also simplified.

Tsin, Y.H.

1986-08-01

374

Differential gene detection incorporating common expression patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In detection of differentially expressed (DE) genes between different groups of samples based on a high-throughput expression measurement system, we often use a classical statistical testing based on a simple assumption that the expression of a certain DE gene in one group is higher or lower in average than that in the other group. Based on this simple assumption, the theory of optimal discovery procedure (ODP) (Storey, 2005) provided an optimal thresholding function for DE gene detection. However, expression patterns of DE genes over samples may have such a structure that is not exactly consistent with group labels assigned to the samples. Appropriate treatment of such a structure can increase the detection ability. Namely, genes showing similar expression patterns to other biologically meaningful genes can be regarded as statistically more significant than those showing expression patterns independent of other genes, even if differences in mean expression levels are comparable. In this study, we propose a new statistical thresholding function based on a latent variable model incorporating expression patterns together with the ODP theory. The latent variable model assumes hidden common signals behind expression patterns over samples and the ODP theory is extended to involve the latent variables. When applied to several gene expression data matrices which include cluster structures or 'cancer outlier' structures, the newly-proposed thresholding functions showed prominently better detection performance of DE genes than the original ODP thresholding function did. We also demonstrate how the proposed methods behave through analyses of real breast cancer and lymphoma datasets.

Oba, Shigeyuki; Ishii, Shin

2009-12-01

375

Psychosocial effect of common skin diseases.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To increase awareness of the psychosocial effect of acne, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A literature review was based on a MEDLINE search (1966 to 2000). Selected articles from the dermatologic and psychiatric literature, as well as other relevant medical journals, were reviewed and used as the basis for discussion of how skin disease affects patients' lives and of appropriate management. Studies in the medical literature provide mainly level III evidence predominantly based on descriptive studies and expert opinion. MAIN MESSAGE: Dermatologic problems can result in psychosocial effects that seriously affect patients' lives. More than a cosmetic nuisance, skin disease can produce anxiety, depression, and other psychological problems that affect patients' lives in ways comparable to arthritis or other disabling illnesses. An appreciation for the effects of sex, age, and location of lesions is important, as well as the bidirectional relationship between skin disease and psychological distress. This review focuses on the effects of three common skin diseases seen by family physicians: acne, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. CONCLUSION: How skin disease affects psychosocial well-being is underappreciated. Increased understanding of the psychiatric comorbidity associated with skin disease and a biopsychosocial approach to management will ultimately improve patients' lives.

Barankin, Benjamin; DeKoven, Joel

2002-01-01

376

Common musculoskeletal problems in the performing artist.  

PubMed

In this chapter we touched on a wide variety of unique musculoskeletal conditions in the musician and dancer. We outlined generalized methods of evaluation that stress the importance of the interdisciplinary approach in this highly specialized patient population and stressed the importance of specific involvement of the music or dance instructor in evaluation and management. We sought to emphasize the need to refer to specialized care early when in doubt of diagnosis or when usual first-line treatments fail. We gave examples of specific injury patterns common in these subgroups and suggestions for early management. Finally, we described some general principals for prevention of musculoskeletal injury in this group. A physician treating the performing artist must always keep in mind that in this unique patient population, their occupation is not only a means of earning a living, it is their passion. Artists make great sacrifice both physically and mentally to bring the world such immeasurable beauty. It is our responsibility to care for them in the most comprehensive and compassionate manner possible while informing them as honestly as possible about their treatment options. PMID:17097480

Hansen, Pamela A; Reed, Kristi

2006-11-01

377

Topical treatment of common superficial tinea infections.  

PubMed

Tinea infections are superficial fungal infections caused by three species of fungi collectively known as dermatophytes. Commonly these infections are named for the body part affected, including tinea corporis (general skin), tinea cruris (groin), and tinea pedis (feet). Accurate diagnosis is necessary for effective treatment. Diagnosis is usually based on history and clinical appearance plus direct microscopy of a potassium hydroxide preparation. Culture or histologic examination is rarely required for diagnosis. Treatment requires attention to exacerbating factors such as skin moisture and choosing an appropriate antifungal agent. Topical therapy is generally successful unless the infection covers an extensive area or is resistant to initial therapy. In these cases, systemic therapy may be required. Tinea corporis and cruris infections are usually treated for two weeks, while tinea pedis is treated for four weeks with an azole or for one to two weeks with allylamine medication. Treatment should continue for at least one week after clinical clearing of infection. Newer medications require fewer applications and a shorter duration of use. The presence of inflammation may necessitate the use of an agent with inherent anti-inflammatory properties or the use of a combination antifungal/steroid agent. The latter agents should be used with caution because of their potential for causing atrophy and other steroid-associated complications. PMID:12046779

Weinstein, Andrew; Berman, Brian

2002-05-15

378

Common Mechanistic Features among Metallo-?-lactamases  

PubMed Central

Metallo-?-lactamases (M?Ls) constitute an increasingly serious clinical threat by giving rise to ?-lactam antibiotic resistance. They accommodate in their catalytic pocket one or two zinc ions, which are responsible for the hydrolysis of ?-lactams. Recent x-ray studies on a member of the mono-zinc B2 M?Ls, CphA from Aeromonas hydrophila, have paved the way to mechanistic studies of this important subclass, which is selective for carbapenems. Here we have used hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical methods to investigate the enzymatic hydrolysis by CphA of the antibiotic biapenem. Our calculations describe the entire reaction and point to a new mechanistic description, which is in agreement with the available experimental evidence. Within our proposal, the zinc ion properly orients the antibiotic while directly activating a second catalytic water molecule for the completion of the hydrolytic cycle. This mechanism provides an explanation for a variety of mutagenesis experiments and points to common functional facets across B2 and B1 M?Ls.

Simona, Fabio; Magistrato, Alessandra; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Cavalli, Andrea; Vila, Alejandro J.; Carloni, Paolo

2009-01-01

379

Brucellosis of the common vole (Microtus arvalis).  

PubMed

A systemic disease occurred in a wild population of the common vole Microtus arvalis in South Moravia (Czech Republic) during the years 1999-2003. Acute infections were characterized by edema of extremities, occasionally with colliquating abscesses, arthritis, lymphadenitis, perforations of the skin resulting from colliquated abscesses, orchitis, and peritoneal granulomas. From the clinical samples, small Gram-negative coccobacilli were isolated and identified as Ochrobactrum intermedium by API 20NE and colistin sensitivity profiles. However, subsequent rrs (16S rRNA) and recA (recombinase A) gene sequencing analysis of two isolates (CCM 4915=CAPM 6434; CCM 4916=CAPM 6435) identified them as Brucella sp. with sequence identities of 100% to other Brucella spp. Analysis of the omp2a/b genes confirmed the two isolates as Brucella. In AMOS polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a 2000-bp fragment was generated that was not seen in other brucellae. Experimental infection of outbred ICR mice with these isolates resulted in a mortality rate of 50%. Based on the results of the molecular investigations and the mortality observed in experimentally infected mice we conclude that the epizootic was caused by Brucella sp. and not by Ochrobactrum intermedium. The study demonstrates the limitations of commercial biochemical test systems in accurately differentiating among Ochrobactrum and Brucella. PMID:18021023

Hubálek, Z; Scholz, H C; Sedlácek, I; Melzer, F; Sanogo, Y O; Nesvadbová, J

2007-01-01

380

Health-promoting properties of common herbs.  

PubMed

Herbs have been used as food and for medicinal purposes for centuries. Research interest has focused on various herbs that possess hypolipidemic, antiplatelet, antitumor, or immune-stimulating properties that may be useful adjuncts in helping reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. In different herbs, a wide variety of active phytochemicals, including the flavonoids, terpenoids, lignans, sulfides, polyphenolics, carotenoids, coumarins, saponins, plant sterols, curcumins, and phthalides have been identified. Several of these phytochemicals either inhibit nitrosation or the formation of DNA adducts or stimulate the activity of protective enzymes such as the Phase II enzyme glutathione transferase (EC 2.5.1.18). Research has centered around the biochemical activity of the Allium sp. and the Labiatae, Umbelliferae, and Zingiberaceae families, as well as flaxseed, licorice root, and green tea. Many of these herbs contain potent antioxidant compounds that provide significant protection against chronic diseases. These compounds may protect LDL cholesterol from oxidation, inhibit cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes, inhibit lipid peroxidation, or have antiviral or antitumor activity. The volatile essential oils of commonly used culinary herbs, spices, and herbal teas inhibit mevalonate synthesis and thereby suppress cholesterol synthesis and tumor growth. PMID:10479221

Craig, W J

1999-09-01

381

Aflatoxin B1 in common Egyptian foods.  

PubMed

Samples of common Egyptian foods (17 nuts and seeds, 10 spices, 31 herbs and medicinal plants, 12 dried vegetables, and 28 cereal grains) were collected from markets in Cairo and Giza. A portion of each sample was extracted with chloroform, and the concentrated extract was cleaned by passing through a silica gel column. Aflatoxin B1 was determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV detection. The highest prevalence of aflatoxin B1 was in nuts and seeds (82%), followed by spices (40%), herbs and medicinal plants (29%), dried vegetables (25%), and cereal grains (21%). The highest mean concentration of aflatoxin B1 was in herb and medicinal plants (49 ppb), followed by cereals (36 ppb), spices (25 ppb), nuts and seeds (24 ppb), and dried vegetables (20 ppb). Among nuts and seeds, the prevalence of aflatoxin B1 was highest (100%) in watermelon seeds, inshell peanuts, and unshelled peanuts. The lowest prevalence and concentrations were in hommos (garbanzo beans). The highest concentrations of aflatoxin B1 were detected in foods that had no potential for field contamination but required drying during processing and storage, such as pomegranate peel, watermelon seeds, and molokhia. PMID:8823921

Selim, M I; Popendorf, W; Ibrahim, M S; el Sharkawy, S; el Kashory, E S

382

Common tongue conditions in primary care.  

PubMed

Although easily examined, abnormalities of the tongue can present a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for physicians. Recognition and diagnosis require a thorough history, including onset and duration, antecedent symptoms, and tobacco and alcohol use. Examination of tongue morphology and a careful assessment for lymphadenopathy are also important. Geographic tongue, fissured tongue, and hairy tongue are the most common tongue problems and do not require treatment. Median rhomboid glossitis is usually associated with a candidal infection and responds to topical antifungals. Atrophic glossitis is often linked to an underlying nutritional deficiency of iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, riboflavin, or niacin and resolves with correction of the underlying condition. Oral hairy leukoplakia, which can be a marker for underlying immunodeficiency, is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and is treated with oral antivirals. Tongue growths usually require biopsy to differentiate benign lesions (e.g., granular cell tumors, fibromas, lymphoepithelial cysts) from premalignant leukoplakia or squamous cell carcinoma. Burning mouth syndrome often involves the tongue and has responded to treatment with alpha-lipoic acid, clonazepam, and cognitive behavior therapy in controlled trials. Several trials have also confirmed the effectiveness of surgical division of tongue-tie (ankyloglossia), in the context of optimizing the success of breastfeeding compared with education alone. Tongue lesions of unclear etiology may require biopsy or referral to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, head and neck surgeon, or a dentist experienced in oral pathology. PMID:20187599

Reamy, Brian V; Derby, Richard; Bunt, Christopher W

2010-03-01

383

Common Carotid Artery Occlusion: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Subjects and Methods. We analysed 5000 cerebrovascular ultrasound records. A total of 0.4% of the patients had common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO). Results. The mean age was 59.8 ± 14.2 years, and the male/female ratio was 2.33. The most frequent risk factors were hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. Right-sided and left-sided CCAO occurred in 65% and 30% of the cases, respectively, and bilateral occlusion was detected in one case (5%). Patent bifurcation was observed in 10 cases of CCAO in which the anterograde flow in the ICA was maintained from the external carotid artery with reversed flow. In two of the cases, the occluded CCA was hypoplastic. The aetiology of CCAO in the majority of cases was the atherosclerosis (15 cases). The male/female ratio was higher in the patients with occluded distal vessels, and the short-term outcome was poorer. Only two cases from this series underwent revascularisation surgery. Spontaneous recanalisation was observed in one case. Conclusions. The most frequent cause of CCAO was atherosclerosis. The outcome is improved in the cases with patent distal vessels, and spontaneous recanalisation is possible. Treatment methods have not been standardised. Surgical revascularisation is possible in cases of patent distal vessels, but the indications are debatable.

Bajko, Zoltan; Balasa, Rodica; Motataianu, Anca; Maier, Smaranda; Chebut, Octavia Claudia; Szatmari, Szabolcs

2013-01-01

384

[Peripheral nerve disorders as common diseases].  

PubMed

Abstract Peripheral neuropathy occurs as a component of several common and rare diseases. It is heterogeneous in cause, diverse in pathology, and varied in severity. The term peripheral neuropathy includes symmetric polyneuropathy, single and multiple mononeuropathy, and radiculopathy. The major disorders include diabetic neuropathy, alcoholic neuropathy, and carpal tunnel syndrome. The incidence of cancer chemotherapy-induced neuropathy has been increasing substantially. Although the estimated prevalence of all different peripheral neuropathies is considerably high, possibly affecting 10% of the entire population, there is no existing systematic epidemiological study on all the aspects of peripheral nerve disorders. Neurologists should contribute to both fundamental and symptomatic treatments of patients seen in other sections. The important symptomatic therapies include treatments for neuropathic pain and autonomic dysfunction. There is increasing role for neurologists in treating HIV-related and anti-HIV drug-induced neuropathy. More active collaboration with neurologists, oncologists, and general physicians is necessary to improve the quality of life in patients with peripheral nerve disorders. PMID:24018743

Kuwabara, Satoshi

2013-09-01

385

Mutagenicity testing of some commonly used dyes.  

PubMed

Seventeen commonly used dyes and 16 of their metabolites or derivatives were tested in the Salmonella-mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutagens active with and without added Aroclor-induced rat liver microsome preparations (S9) were 3-aminopyrene, lithol red, methylene blue (USP), methyl yellow, neutral red, and phenol red. Those mutagenic only with S9 activation were 4-aminopyrazolone, 2,4-dimethylaniline, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine, methyl red, and 4-phenyl-azo-1-naphthylamine. Orange II was mutagenic only without added S9. Nonmutagenic azo dyes were allura red, amaranth, ponceau R, ponceau SX, sunset yellow, and tartrazine. Miscellaneous dyes not mutagenic were methyl green, methyl violet 2B, and nigrosin. Metabolites of the azo dyes that were not mutagenic were 1-amino-2-naphthol hydrochloride, aniline, anthranilic acid, cresidine salt, pyrazolone T,R-amino salt (1-amino-2-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic disodium salt), R-salt, Schaeffer's salt (2-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid, sodium salt), sodium naphthionate, sulfanilamide, and sulfanilic acid. 4-Amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid sodium salt was also not mutagenic. Fusobacterium sp. 2 could reductively cleave methyl yellow to N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine which was then activated to a mutagen. PMID:7039509

Chung, K T; Fulk, G E; Andrews, A W

1981-10-01

386

Mutagenicity testing of some commonly used dyes.  

PubMed Central

Seventeen commonly used dyes and 16 of their metabolites or derivatives were tested in the Salmonella-mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutagens active with and without added Aroclor-induced rat liver microsome preparations (S9) were 3-aminopyrene, lithol red, methylene blue (USP), methyl yellow, neutral red, and phenol red. Those mutagenic only with S9 activation were 4-aminopyrazolone, 2,4-dimethylaniline, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine, methyl red, and 4-phenyl-azo-1-naphthylamine. Orange II was mutagenic only without added S9. Nonmutagenic azo dyes were allura red, amaranth, ponceau R, ponceau SX, sunset yellow, and tartrazine. Miscellaneous dyes not mutagenic were methyl green, methyl violet 2B, and nigrosin. Metabolites of the azo dyes that were not mutagenic were 1-amino-2-naphthol hydrochloride, aniline, anthranilic acid, cresidine salt, pyrazolone T,R-amino salt (1-amino-2-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic disodium salt), R-salt, Schaeffer's salt (2-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid, sodium salt), sodium naphthionate, sulfanilamide, and sulfanilic acid. 4-Amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid sodium salt was also not mutagenic. Fusobacterium sp. 2 could reductively cleave methyl yellow to N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine which was then activated to a mutagen.

Chung, K T; Fulk, G E; Andrews, A W

1981-01-01

387

Radiofrequency radiation effects on the common bean  

SciTech Connect

Our environment is bombarded daily with thousands of objects we can visually detect. However, invisible to humans are the electromagnetic waves that penetrate our environment. Electromagnetic waves consist of a large spectrum of waves including the harmful gamma rays, x-rays, and ultraviolet rays. The question that has increased tremendously is: can low energy electromagnetic waves become harmful to living organisms? The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of radiofrequency radiation on protein synthesis of the common bean. Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) was surface-sterilized and allowed to germinate on Mushurage and Skoog`s medium for 1 week. Hypocotyls were wounded and placed on media to initiate callus production. Six petri dishes containing 1 g of callus were used in the experiment. Three dishes were exposed to 100kH in a Crawford cell for 24h. The remaining three petri dishes with callus were used as a control. After the exposure period, the protein from callus was extracted and analyzed by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results show that hypocotyl growth was not different between control and experimental groups after 24 h. The result of one-dimensional gel electrophoresis did not show observable differences in protein synthesized by the control and experimental groups. Analysis of protein synthesis is still ongoing.

Thomkins, K.; Griggs, L.; Myles, E.L. [Tennessee State Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others

1995-07-01

388

Interactive form recognition for common use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rather than follow the trend in form recognition procedures toward more and more sophisticated analysis suitable for archival or enhancement of the form, I have chosen to address the most common use of forms: filling them out immediately. My efforts have focuses on permitting the use of the form electronically as early in the recognition process as possible. The interactive procedure described here yields no delay at all, even on older office and home computers. To achieve this, no preprocessing is performed - all computations are made at the instant an area of the form is selected for use. Furthermore, only the addition of new data is permitted, to be aligned with pre-existing markings, precluding the complex analysis needed to replace the image with a symbolic reproduction. Interactivity is the key to the success of this approach. Performing analyses only on demand eliminates the time the human must wait before he is allowed to use the form, and takes advantage of the human element by dividing the tasks. The human locates the areas of interest - task suited to his pattern-recognizing biological brain - and the computer determines precise alignment within each area - a task more suited to rule- based logical algorithms.

Gugler, Sean

1997-03-01

389

From Common Struggles to Common Dreams: Neoliberalism and Multicultural Education in a Globalized Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Major troubling contours of neoliberalism and high-stakes education have common features. Consequently, the author discusses how multicultural education can serve as praxis for collective empowerment in a globalized context. The author asserts that equitable representation and localized multicultural knowledge production are the foundation of a…

Lee, Pei-Lun

2012-01-01

390

Common Origins, Common Futures: Reflections on Identity and Difference in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of human evolution is fascinating and complex indeed. Modern science as revealed by the disciplines of archaeology, palaeontology, and genetics presents strong evidence about the common origins of humankind. Dispersal from the birthplace over millennia has produced a mosaic of identities that are cultural artefacts or social constructs…

Nkomo, Mokubung; Dolby, Nadine

2004-01-01

391

Might "Unique" Factors Be "Common"? On the Possibility of Indeterminate Common-Unique Covariances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present paper shows that the usual factor analytic structured data dispersion matrix lambda psi lambda' + delta can readily arise from a set of scores y = lambda eta + epsilon, shere the "common" (eta) and "unique" (epsilon) factors have nonzero covariance: gamma = Cov epsilon,eta) is not equal to 0. Implications of this finding are discussed…

Grayson, Dave

2006-01-01

392

OWL Pizzas: Practical Experience of Teaching OWL-DL: Common Errors & Common Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the logical meaning of any description logic or sim- ilar formalism is difficult for most people, and OWL-DL is no exception. This paper presents the most common difficulties encountered by newcomers to the language, that have been observed during the course of more than a dozen work- shops, tutorials and modules about OWL-DL and it's predecessor languages. It emphasises

Alan L. Rector; Nick Drummond; Matthew Horridge; Jeremy Rogers; Holger Knublauch; Robert Stevens; Hai Wang; Chris Wroe

2004-01-01

393

Might "Unique" Factors Be "Common"? On the Possibility of Indeterminate Common-Unique Covariances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper shows that the usual factor analytic structured data dispersion matrix lambda psi lambda' + delta can readily arise from a set of scores y = lambda eta + epsilon, shere the "common" (eta) and "unique" (epsilon) factors have nonzero covariance: gamma = Cov epsilon,eta) is not equal to 0. Implications of this finding are discussed…

Grayson, Dave

2006-01-01

394

Concurrent Common Knowledge: Defining Agreement for Asynchronous Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a new, knowledge-theoretic definition of agreement designedfor asynchronous systems. In analogy with common knowledge, it is calledconcurrent common knowledge. Unlike common knowledge, it is a form of agreementthat is attainable asynchronously. In defining concurrent common knowledge, we givea logic with new modal operators and a formal semantics, both of which are based oncausality and consequently

Prakash Panangaden; Kim Taylor

1992-01-01

395

Workshop on transport for a common ion driver  

SciTech Connect

This report contains research in the following areas related to beam transport for a common ion driver: multi-gap acceleration; neutralization with electrons; gas neutralization; self-pinched transport; HIF and LIF transport, and relevance to common ion driver; LIF and HIF reactor concepts and relevance to common ion driver; atomic physics for common ion driver; code capabilities and needed improvement.

Olson, C.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Langdon, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-12-31

396

Towards an Eclectic Theory of the Internet Commons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in communications technologies and, in particular, the advent of the Internet and its widespread applications in all spheres of human activity, have posed a serious challenge to the mainstream neo-institutional theory of the commons (common goods) and, especially, common pool resources theory (CPR). Although the term ' new commons' has been coined to describe a new area of

Justyna Hofmokl

397

Media Commons and the Sad Decline of Vancouver Indymedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author argues that the concept commons is a productive way of thinking about and practicing democratic and participatory media. He begins by defining media commons in such a way as to emphasize the relational and regulated nature of commons. Such a definition critiques the idea that commons are resources available to a public without limits as well as the

Scott Uzelman

2011-01-01

398

Aerodynamics of gliding flight in common swifts.  

PubMed

Gliding flight performance and wake topology of a common swift (Apus apus L.) were examined in a wind tunnel at speeds between 7 and 11 m s(-1). The tunnel was tilted to simulate descending flight at different sink speeds. The swift varied its wingspan, wing area and tail span over the speed range. Wingspan decreased linearly with speed, whereas tail span decreased in a nonlinear manner. For each airspeed, the minimum glide angle was found. The corresponding sink speeds showed a curvilinear relationship with airspeed, with a minimum sink speed at 8.1 m s(-1) and a speed of best glide at 9.4 m s(-1). Lift-to-drag ratio was calculated for each airspeed and tilt angle combinations and the maximum for each speed showed a curvilinear relationship with airspeed, with a maximum of 12.5 at an airspeed of 9.5 m s(-1). Wake was sampled in the transverse plane using stereo digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). The main structures of the wake were a pair of trailing wingtip vortices and a pair of trailing tail vortices. Circulation of these was measured and a model was constructed that showed good weight support. Parasite drag was estimated from the wake defect measured in the wake behind the body. Parasite drag coefficient ranged from 0.30 to 0.22 over the range of airspeeds. Induced drag was calculated and used to estimate profile drag coefficient, which was found to be in the same range as that previously measured on a Harris' hawk. PMID:21228197

Henningsson, P; Hedenström, A

2011-02-01

399

Common lung conditions: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

The etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is chronic lung inflammation. In the United States, this inflammation most commonly is caused by smoking. COPD is diagnosed when an at-risk patient presents with respiratory symptoms and has irreversible airway obstruction indicated by a forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio of less than 0.7. Management goals for COPD include smoking cessation, symptom reduction, exacerbation reduction, hospitalization avoidance, and improvement of quality of life. Stable patients with COPD who remain symptomatic despite using short-acting bronchodilators should start inhaled maintenance drugs to reduce symptoms and exacerbations, avoid hospitalizations, and improve quality of life. A long-acting anticholinergic or a long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) can be used for initial therapy; these drugs have fewer adverse effects than inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). If patients remain symptomatic despite monotherapy, dual therapy with a long-acting anticholinergic and a LABA, or a LABA and an ICS, may be beneficial. Triple therapy (ie, a long-acting anticholinergic, a LABA, and an ICS) also is used, but it is unclear if triple therapy is superior to dual therapy. Roflumilast, an oral selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4, is used to manage moderate to severe COPD. Continuous oxygen therapy is indicated for patients with COPD who have severe hypoxemia (ie, PaO2 less than 55 mm Hg or an oxygen saturation less than 88% on room air). Nonpharmacologic strategies also are useful to improve patient outcomes. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves dyspnea and quality of life. Pulmonary rehabilitation after an acute exacerbation reduces hospitalizations and mortality, and improves quality of life and exercise capacity. Smoking cessation is the most effective management strategy for reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with COPD. Lung volume reduction surgery, bullectomy, and lung transplantation are surgical interventions that are appropriate for some patients with COPD. PMID:23767419

Delzell, John E

2013-06-01

400

Cooling Efficiency of 4 Common Cryotherapeutic Agents  

PubMed Central

Context: Cryotherapy is the application of cold as a treatment. It is widely used and accepted as beneficial in early management of soft tissue injury. However, the most efficient cryotherapeutic agent remains unknown. Objective: To compare 4 common cryotherapeutic agents including crushed ice (CI), gel pack (GP), frozen peas (FP), and ice-water immersion (WI) and to determine which agent provided the greatest cooling efficiency after a 20-minute application. Design: Repeated-measures design. Setting: University physiology laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Nine healthy volunteers participated (5 males, 4 females; age = 24.0 ± 4.6 years, height = 1.73 ± 0.24 m, mass = 79.9 ± 24.1 kg). Intervention(s): The CI, GP, FP, and WI were applied to the right ankle for 20 minutes. Participants were required to attend 1 measurement session for each agent. Main Outcome Measure(s): We recorded skin surface temperature of the right ankle at a sampling rate of 1 image/min, using a thermal imaging camera during a 30-minute rewarming period. Results: Application of CI produced a significantly greater reduction in skin surface temperature (19.56 ± 3.78°C) than GP (13.19 ± 5.07°C) and FP (14.59 ± 4.22°C) ( P < .001). The CI and WI demonstrated significantly ( P < .001) greater cooling efficiency than GP and FP. Conclusions: The CI and WI had the greatest cooling efficiency and sustained decreased skin surface temperatures postapplication, indicating these agents are potentially the most clinically beneficial.

Kennet, Jane; Hardaker, Natalie; Hobbs, Sarah; Selfe, James

2007-01-01

401

Common Avian Infection Plagued the Tyrant Dinosaurs  

PubMed Central

Background Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name ‘Sue’) has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. Conclusions/Significance This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation.

Wolff, Ewan D. S.; Salisbury, Steven W.; Horner, John R.; Varricchio, David J.

2009-01-01

402

Acceptable workloads for three common mining materials.  

PubMed

A series of psychophysical lifting studies was conducted to establish maximum acceptable weights of lift (MAWL) for three supply items commonly handled in underground coal mines (rock dust bags, ventilation stopping blocks, and crib blocks). Each study utilized 12 subjects, all of whom had considerable experience working in underground coal mines. Effects of lifting in four postures (standing, stooping under a 1.5 m ceiling, stooping under a 1.2 m ceiling, and kneeling) were investigated together with four lifting conditions (combinations of lifting symmetry and lifting height). The frequency of lifting was set at four per min, and the task duration was 15 min. Posture significantly affected the MAWL for the rock dust bag (standing MAWL was 7% greater than restricted postures and kneeling MAWL was 6.4% less than stopped); however, posture interacted with lifting conditions for both of the other materials. Physiological costs were found to be significantly greater in the stooped postures compared with kneeling for all materials. Other contrasts (standing versus restricted postures, stooping under 1.5 m ceiling versus stopping under 1.2 m ceiling) did not exhibit significantly different levels of energy expenditure. Energy expenditure was significantly affected by vertical lifting height; however, the plane of lifting had little influence on metabolic cost. Recommended acceptable workloads for the three materials are 20.0 kg for the rock dust bag, 16.5 kg for the ventilation stopping block, and 14.7 kg for the crib block. These results suggest that miners are often required to lift supplies that are substantially heavier than psychophysically acceptable lifting limits. PMID:1387078

Gallagher, S; Hamrick, C A

1992-09-01

403

A common cause for a common phenotype: The gatekeeper hypothesis in fetal programming  

PubMed Central

Sub-optimal nutrition during pregnancy has been shown to have long-term effects on the health of offspring in both humans and animals. The most common outcomes of such programming are hypertension, obesity, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance. This spectrum of disorders, collectively known as metabolic syndrome, appears to be the consequence of nutritional insult during early development, irrespective of the nutritional stress experienced. For example, diets low in protein diet, high in fat, or deficient in iron are all associated with programming of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders when fed during rat pregnancy. In this paper, we hypothesise that the nutritional stresses act on genes or gene pathways common to all of the insults. We have termed these genes and/or gene pathways the “gatekeepers” and hence developed the “gatekeeper hypothesis”. In this paper, we examine the background to the hypothesis and postulate some possible mechanisms or pathways that may constitute programming gatekeepers.

McMullen, S.; Langley-Evans, S.C.; Gambling, L.; Lang, C.; Swali, A.; McArdle, H.J.

2012-01-01

404

A Common Law Mortgage on a Common Law Lease on a Space Resource is Legally Available  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space Objects are subject to the law of the launching states under the Outer Space Treaty, but space resources, those natural resources already located in space, are not subject to any law other than the treaty laws applicable thereto. In this case of "creditor's rights," there is a void in the treaty regime, except for the proposition that all space resources are public property, (thus inferring that private ownership is not legally possible). However, the law of public property clearly allows possessory estates on common grounds that are not official monuments. The common law development for 750 years has maintained possessory estates as readily available: these are the trust, the lease, the easement, and the mortgage. These estates exists as legal superstructures independent from the underlying physical property. Thus, we could have a 99- year lease of the Apollo 17 landing site on iron ore on the Moon that is mortgaged for a trillion dollars or so, subsequently defaulted, and foreclosed in any Court of General Jurisdiction in favor of the creditor as the new owner. The creditor ends up with the remaining term on the lease, but not with any ownership of the site, the iron ore, and not with ownership of any part of the Moon: It is still public property. This is not only legally available today, it is the exact history of common law estates, (none of which impair legal title by definition and precedent). This model will be discussed as a likely way for astro law to evolve. Association; President of United Societies in Space, Inc., and of its Regency of United Societies in Space, Inc. (ROUSIS); Board of Directors, Mars Society; Board of Directors, Lunar Economic Development Authority, Inc.; Board of Directors, Space Orbital Development Authority; Publisher, Space Governance Journal; and member, AIAA Subcommittee on Space Colonization.

O'Donnell, D. J.

2002-01-01

405

37 CFR 42.411 - Common interests in the invention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Common interests in the invention. 42...and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK...PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Derivation...Common interests in the invention. The Board may decline to institute, or...

2013-07-01

406

37 CFR 41.206 - Common interests in the invention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Common interests in the invention. 41...and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Patent Interferences...Common interests in the invention. An...judge may decline to declare, or...

2013-07-01

407

CPAP Machines: Tips for Avoiding 10 Common Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. CPAP machines: Tips for avoiding 10 common problems By Mayo ... share your e-mail address Sign up CPAP machines: Tips for avoiding 10 common problems CPAP is ...

408

Sudden Death During Sports More Common Among Men  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sudden death during sports more common among men (*this news ... Although it's been known that sports-related sudden deaths are more common among men, some researchers have ...

409

Common Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis Reduces Risk of Death  

MedlinePLUS

... Common Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis Reduces Risk of Death Taking methotrexate—a commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory medication—may reduce the risk of death among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), according to ...

410

Implementation of a Standard Format for GPS Common View Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new format for standardizing common view time transfer data, recommended by the Consultative Committee for the Definition of the Second, is being implemented in receivers commonly used for contributing data for the generation of International Atomic Tim...

C. Thomas M. A. Weiss

1994-01-01

411

Implementation of a Standard Format for GPS Common View Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new format for standardizing common view time transfer data, recommended by the Consultative Committee for the Definition of the Second, is being implemented in receivers commonly used for contributing data for the generation of International Atomic Tim...

M. A. Weiss C. Thomas

1995-01-01

412

Multilevel inverter modulation schemes to eliminate common-mode voltages  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that conventional two-level pulsewidth modulated (PWM) inverters generate high-frequency common-mode voltages with high dv\\/dt. Similarly, commonly used multilevel inverter modulation schemes generate common-mode voltages. Common-mode voltages may cause motor shaft voltages and bearing currents and conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI). Premature motor bearing failures and electronic equipment malfunctions have been reported to be directly related to bearing

Haoran Zhang; Annette von Jouanne; Shaoan Dai; Alan K. Wallace; Fei Wang

2000-01-01

413

RESOURCE ALLOCATION MODEL FOR NAVAL AVIATION COMMON GROUND EQUIPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT ________________________________________________________________________ Common,ground equipment is an integral subset of Naval Aviation’s common,support equipment (CSE). Common,ground equipment ranges from “yellow gear” such as tow tractors, cranes, and hydraulic generators, to avionics test boxes, which help maintainers test various sophisticated aircraft systems and subsystems. Without the proper type and amount of common ground equipment, Navy and Marine Corps maintenance personnel cannot adequately

Bob Krekel

414

The Common Core: Insights into the K-5 Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The role of the Common Core English Language Arts Standards in grades K-5 literacy instruction is the focus of the article. The authors begin by raising four questions: (1) What is the essential philosophy of the Common Core State Standards?; (2) What do educators need to know to use the College and Career Readiness Standards and Common Core…

McLaughlin, Maureen; Overturf, Brenda J.

2012-01-01

415

Fertile Ground for Community: Inner-City Neighborhood Common Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research suggests that the formation of neighborhood social ties (NSTs) may substantially depend on the informal social contact which occurs in neighborhood common spaces, and that in inner-city neighborhoods where common spaces are often barren no-man's lands, the presence of trees and grass supports common space use and informal social contact among neighbors. We found that for 145 urban public

Frances E. Kuo; William C. Sullivan; Rebekah Levine Coley; Liesette Brunson

1998-01-01

416

Homocystinuria presenting as fatal common carotid artery occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with homocystinuria presenting with fatal cerebral infarction that resulted from left common carotid artery occlusion is reported. This 13-year-old, healthy and intelligent girl presented with progressive cerebral infarction. Angiography revealed total occlusion of the left common carotid artery and stenosis of the right common carotid artery. Distal stenosis of bilateral vertebral arteries was also observed. Initially Takayasu arteritis

Chun-Yi Lu; Jia-Woei Hou; Pen-Jung Wang; Hsiu-Hui Chiu; Tso-Ren Wang

1996-01-01

417

Approximate Common Knowledge and Coordination: Recent Lessons from Game Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of the notion of common knowledge in sustaining cooperative outcomes in strategic situations is well appreciated. However, the systematic analysis of the extent to which small departures from common knowledge affect equilibrium in games has only recently been attempted. We review the main themes in this literature, in particular, the notion of common -belief. We outline both the

Stephen Morris; Hyun Song Shin

1997-01-01

418

Functional implications of component commonality in operational systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of commonality in a system represents an attempt to reduce costs by reducing the number of unique components. Research in this area has primarily addressed a significant benefit of commonality, the reduction of parts inventories in assemble-to-order manufacturing systems. Likewise, in an operational system subject to component failure, spares inventories are reduced through the increased commonality of components.

Lawrence Dale Thomas

1992-01-01

419

Survey of wheelchair athletic injuries: common patterns and prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve hundred wheelchair athletes were surveyed to determine commonly experienced athletic injuries, sports participation and training patterns associated with injuries. Soft tissue trauma, blisters, lacerations, decubiti and joint disorders were the most commonly reported injuries of the 128 respondents. Over 70 per cent of all reported injuries occurred during wheelchair track, road racing and basketball. Common mechanisms of injury were

Kathleen A Curtis; Deborah A Dillon

1985-01-01

420

Common Worlds: Reconceptualising Inclusion in Early Childhood Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Common worlds" is a conceptual framework developed to reconceptualise inclusion in early childhood communities. Common worlds take account of children's relations with all the others in their worlds--including the more-than-human others. The ethics and politics of living together in these common worlds is the central concern of this article. The…

Taylor, Affrica; Giugni, Miriam

2012-01-01

421

The Dangers and Opportunities of the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|So much has changed in the last 30 years. Diversity is on the verge of extinction--diversity of curriculum, instructional practices, and assessment. The nation is moving into an era that will link Common Core standards with a Common Core curriculum taught by teachers who will assess student learning through a slate of Common Core exams and be…

Brooks, Jacqueline Grennon; Dietz, Mary E.

2013-01-01

422

Estimation of Common Long-Memory Components in Cointegrated Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of cointegration in large systems requires a reduction of their dimensionality. To achieve this, we propose to obtain the I(1) common factors in every subsystem and then analyze cointegration among them. In this article, a new way of estimating common long-memory components of a cointegrated system is proposed. The identification of these I(1) common factors is achieved by

Jesus Gonzalo; Clive W J Granger

1995-01-01

423

Norms of Descriptive Adjective Responses to Common Nouns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper gives the results of a controlled experiment on word association. The purpose was to establish norms of commonality of primary descriptive adjective responses to common nouns. The stimuli consisted of 203 common nouns selected from 10 everyday topics of conversation, approximately 20 from each topic. There were 350 subjects, 50% male,…

Robbins, Janet L.

424

Tom Reid meets Tom Bayes: A defense of common sense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thomas Reid is often misread as defending common sense, if at all, only by relying on illicit premises about God or our natural faculties. On these theological or reliabilist misreadings, Reid makes common sense assertions where he cannot give arguments. This paper attempts to un- tangle Reid's defense of common sense by distinguishing four arguments: (a) the argument from madness,

P. D. Magnus

2006-01-01

425

Common hematologic problems of the immediate newborn period.  

PubMed

Hematologic problems in the early periods of postnatal life are common. Many complications of the common hematologic problems in the newborn, including death, might be prevented with astute nursing care. Frequently encountered blood disorders of the immediate newborn period, clinical manifestations, common treatments, and nursing management are presented. PMID:6553112

Braune, K W; Lacey, L

426

Using Digital Video Production to Meet the Common Core Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The implementation of the Common Core Standards has just begun and these standards will impact a generation that communicates with technology more than anything else. Texting, cell phones, Facebook, YouTube, Skype, etc. are the ways they speak with their friends and the world. The Common Core Standards recognize this. According to the Common Core…

Nichols, Maura

2012-01-01

427

Ethical Obligations in a Tragedy of the Commons  

Microsoft Academic Search

When people use a resource without a co-ordinated plan the result is often a tragedy of the commons in which the resource is depleted. Many environmental resources display the characteristics of a developing tragedy of the commons. Many believe that each person is ethically obligated to reduce use of the commons to the sustainable level. I argue that this is

Baylor L. Johnson

2003-01-01

428

Ten Commonalities of Suicide and Some Implications for Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes 10 common characteristics of suicide that pertain to suicide committed at any age. Each characteristic is defined and analyzed, with specific approaches to treatment identified. The 10 characteristics, based on clinical experience and the relevant work of others, are listed. The commonalities discussed include: (1) the common

Shneidman, Edwin S.

429

Hazardous waste and the common law theories of liability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primer for chemical engineers, this review gives examples of cases involving hazardous waste and environmental pollution. It begins with the discussion of common law tort and its application. The review covers the statute of limitations and common law as it applies to negligence, trespass, nuisance, strict liability, and damages and remedies. Because of the complexity of common law, the

Charleston C. K. Wang; C. C. K

1985-01-01

430

Forest Condition and Management in Swedish Forest Commons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest commons are regarded as a means to support local development and sustainable forest conditions. To evaluate the development impact of Swedish forest commons, comparative surveys have been undertaken in three regions, and the differences in forest condition and management between categories of commons as well as their relation to other forest ownerships have been assessed. Regional differences between the

Eva Holmgren; Gun Lidestav; Göran Kempe

2004-01-01

431

Common community structure in time-varying networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report we introduce the concept of common community structure in time-varying networks. We propose a novel optimization algorithm to rapidly detect common community structure in such networks. Both theoretical and numerical results show that the proposed method not only can resolve detailed common communities, but also can effectively identify the dynamical phenomena in time-varying networks.

Zhang, Shihua; Zhao, Junfei; Zhang, Xiang-Sun

2012-05-01

432

COMCAN;COMCAN2A; System Safety Common Cause Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

COMCAN2A and COMCAN are designed to analyze complex systems such as nuclear plants for common causes of failure. A common cause event, or common mode failure, is a secondary cause that could contribute to the failure of more than one component and violate...

G. R. Burdick J. R. Wilson N. H. Marshall D. M. Rasmuson

1984-01-01

433

DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSE OF COMMON BEAN CULTIVARS TO PHAKOPSORA PACHYRHIZI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow) has been reported on common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Asia, South Africa, and the United States. However, there is little information on the interaction of individual isolates of P. pachyrhizi with common bean germplasm. A set of 16 common...

434

Sustaining the Commons: The Tragedy Works Both Ways  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the management of common property resources, privatization is often advocated as the surest path to sustainability because of its reliance on human self-interest in natural resources decision making. This article demonstrates that the motive of self-interest, though powerful, does not necessarily lead to environmental outcomes that promote the common good. The key to avoiding the Tragedy of the Commons

Mike Ellerbrock; Jessica Bayer; Rose Bradshaw

2008-01-01

435

The opportunities for and challenges of common integrated electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document summarizes a portion of IDA's work concerning common integrated electronics and the potential cost savings of using common electronic hardware and software. It addresses trends in avionics costs and recent experiences in applying common electronic standards to weapon programs as a way to reduce costs. The following essential elements of a program to acquire common integrated electronics are explored: (1) integrated system architecture; (2) advanced technology programs; (3) open system standards; (4) standard common modules; and (5) associated management and policies. The principal recommendation is that OSD support and coordinate such a-program by taking a strong leadership role and setting standards policy.

Nelson, J. R.; Retterer, Bernard L.; Cloud, Harley A.

1994-02-01

436

Development of candidate gene markers associated to common bacterial blight resistance in common bean.  

PubMed

Common bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap), is a major yield-limiting factor of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production around the world. Two major CBB-resistant quantitative trait loci (QTL), linked to the sequence characterized amplified region markers BC420 and SU91, are located at chromosomes 6 and 8, respectively. Using map-based cloning approach, four bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the BC420-QTL locus and one BAC clone containing SU91 were sequenced by Roche 454 technique and subsequently assembled using merged assemblies from three different programs. Based on the quality of the assembly, only the sequences of BAC 32H6 and 4K7 were used for candidate gene marker (CGM) development and candidate gene (CG) selection. For the BC420-QTL locus, 21 novel genes were predicted in silico by FGENESH using Medicago gene model, whereas 16 genes were identified in the SU91-QTL locus. For each putative gene, one or more primer pairs were designed and tested in the contrasting near isogenic lines. Overall, six and nine polymorphic markers were found in the SU91- and BC420-QTL loci, respectively. Afterwards, association mapping was conducted in a breeding population of 395 dry bean lines to discover marker-trait associations. Two CGMs per each locus showed better association with CBB resistance than the BC420 and SU91 markers, which include BC420-CG10B and BC420-CG14 for BC420_QTL locus, and SU91-CG10 and SU91-CG11 for SU91_QTL locus. The strong associations between CBB resistance and the CGs 10 and 14 from BC420_QTL locus and the CGs 10 and 11 from SU91_QTL locus indicate that the genes 10 and 14 from the BC420 locus are potential CGs underlying the BC420_QTL locus, whereas the genes 10 and 11 from the SU91 locus are potential CGs underlying the SU91_QTL locus. The superiority of SU91-CG11 was further validated in a recombinant inbred line population Sanilac × OAC 09-3. Thus, co-dominant CGMs, BC420-CG14 and SU91-CG11, are recommended to replace BC420 and SU91 for marker-assisted selection of common bean with resistance to CBB. PMID:22798059

Shi, Chun; Yu, Kangfu; Xie, Weilong; Perry, Gregory; Navabi, Alireza; Pauls, K Peter; Miklas, Phillip N; Fourie, Deidré

2012-07-14

437

Common Peptides Study of Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAminoacyl tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) constitute an essential enzyme super-family, providing fidelity of the translation process of mRNA to proteins in living cells. They are common to all kingdoms and are of utmost importance to all organisms. It is thus of great interest to understand the evolutionary relationships among them and underline signature motifs defining their common domains.ResultsWe utilized the Common

Assaf Gottlieb; Milana Frenkel-Morgenstern; Mark Safro; David Horn; I. King Jordan

2011-01-01

438

Common variable immunodeficiency complicated with hemolytic uremic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Common variable immunodeficiency is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by reduced serum immunoglobulins and heterogeneous clinical features. Recurrent pyogenic infections of upper and lower respiratory tracts are the main clinical manifestations of common variable immunodeficiency. Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a multisystemic disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and organ ischemia due to platelet aggregation in the arterial microvasculature. This is one of the rare cases of patients diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency, which was complicated by hemolytic uremic syndrome.

2012-01-01

439

Forest condition and management in Swedish forest commons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest commons are regarded as a means to support local development and sustainable forest conditions. To evaluate the development\\u000a impact of Swedish forest commons, comparative surveys have been undertaken in three regions, and the differences in forest\\u000a condition and management between categories of commons as well as their relation to other forest ownerships have been assessed.\\u000a Regional differences between the

Eva Holmgren; Gun Lidestav; Göran Kempe

2004-01-01

440

Bullying a Common Problem for Middle-School Students  

NSF Publications Database

... Bullying a Common Problem for Middle-School Students Behavior affects health and academic ... Harassment at school negatively impacts students? emotional and physical health and can lower their ...

441

Hazardous waste and the common law theories of liability  

SciTech Connect

A primer for chemical engineers, this review gives examples of cases involving hazardous waste and environmental pollution. It begins with the discussion of common law tort and its application. The review covers the statute of limitations and common law as it applies to negligence, trespass, nuisance, strict liability, and damages and remedies. Because of the complexity of common law, the courts will render diverse and sometimes conflicting or confusing decisions. Given the explosive expansion of public awareness and scrutiny in the area of hazardous wastes, the chemical engineer should have a basic appreciation of common law. Professional assistance is advisable since the area is always changing.

Wang, C.C.K.

1985-02-01

442

Electronic Common Technical Document (eCTD) Module 1  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Electronic Common Technical Document (eCTD) Module 1. ... The Specifications and supporting technical files are provided below. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/formssubmissionrequirements

443

66. CORBELS, BLIND ARCHES & SHIELDS, COMMONS EAST WALL, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

66. CORBELS, BLIND ARCHES & SHIELDS, COMMONS EAST WALL, LOOKING EAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

444

Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation  

SciTech Connect

Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance and reducing perturbations induced by this invasive species.

Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

2011-12-01

445

A clinical approach to common electrolyte problems: 3. Hypophosphatemia.  

PubMed Central

Hypophosphatemia is a common disorder caused by decreased intake, increased loss or transcellular shift of phosphorus. Symptoms of severe hypophosphatemia include reversible depression of myocardial function, acute respiratory failure, coma, rhabdomyolysis, osteomalacia, renal tubular acidosis and hemolysis. This paper discusses common clinical disorders associated with hypophosphatemia and presents an approach to diagnosis and treatment. Images p17-a

Berkelhammer, C.; Bear, R. A.

1984-01-01

446

Learning activities on health care supported by common sense knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses how common sense knowledge can be used by teachers for planning Learning Activities on health care. Using common sense statements which were automatically collected, we are developing software that can be used to support the teaching and learning process, in a more contextualized form. When teachers consider the knowledge that learners already have, taking into account their

Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti De Carvalho; Júnia Coutinho Anacleto Silva; Silvia Helena Zem-Mascarenhas

2008-01-01

447

About cut elimination for logics of common knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notions of common knowledge or common belief play an impor- tant role in several areas of computer science (e.g. distributed sys- tems, communication), in philosophy, game theory, artificial intelli- gence, psychology and many other fields which deal with the interac- tion within a group of \\

Luca Alberucci; Gerhard Jäger

2005-01-01

448

Establishing conventional communication systems: Is common knowledge necessary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do communities establish shared communication systems? The Common Knowledge view assumes that symbolic conventions develop through the accumulation of common knowledge regarding communication practices among the members of a community. In contrast with this view, it is proposed that coordinated communication emerges a by-product of local interactions among dyads. A set of multi-agent computer simulations show that a population

Dale J. Barr

2004-01-01

449

Rating specific chiropractic technique procedures for common low back conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To rate specific chiropractic technique procedures used in the treatment of common low back conditions.Design and Methods: A panel of chiropractors rated specific chiropractic technique procedures for their effectiveness in the treatment of common low back conditions, based on the quality of supporting evidence after systematic literature reviews and expert clinical opinion. Statements related to the rating process and

Meridel I. Gatterman; Robert Cooperstein; Charles Lantz; Stephen M. Perle; Michael J. Schneider

2001-01-01

450

Common-Cause Failure Analysis in Event Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the approach taken by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to the treatment of common-cause failure in probabilistic risk assessment of operational events. The approach is based upon the Basic Parameter Model for common-cause failu...

D. L. Kelly D. M. Rasmuson

2008-01-01

451

ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF SEED TREATMENT AGAINST COMMON BUNT OF WHEAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common bunt is an ancient disease. Spores of its causal fungus, Tilletia caries, were found on 4000-year-old kernels from Mesopotamia (Johnsson 1990). Also Holy Bible reports problem of the disease. Before inventing effective control meth- ods, common bunt was one of the most destructive wheat diseases. The greatest epidemics of bunt were reported in Central Europe and in some regions

A. ?ukanowski

452

Experts, Public to Weigh in on Common Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As 48 states charge ahead with plans to adopt common academic standards, the U.S. Department of Education will enlist experts and the public to help design a $350 million competition for the next step: the development of common tests. In coming weeks, top Education Department officials will travel to Atlanta, Boston, and Denver for a series of…

McNeil, Michele

2009-01-01

453

Brown V. Board, Common Citizenship, and the Limits of Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fifty years ago the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board, declaring education to be the foundation of good citizenship and preparation for occupational success, rejected the doctrine of "separate but equal" as applied to schools. The Court extended the American ideal of common education for common citizenship to black school children. Although much…

Waks, Leonard J.

2005-01-01

454

Common Factors: Where the Soul of Counseling and Psychotherapy Resides  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors show how theoretical and empirical findings from the common factors and psychotherapy integration literatures possess potential for infusing soul into psychotherapy. They describe the term soul, outline how the definition translates into soul-nurturing psychotherapy, examine the common factors and integration literatures, and discuss…

Ottens, Allen J.; Klein, James F.

2005-01-01

455

Perceptual speed and IQ are associated through common genetic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in inspection time explain about 20% of IQ test variance. To determine whether the association between inspection time and IQ is mediated by common genes or by a common environmental factor, inspection time and IQ were assessed in an extended twin de- sign. Data from 688 participants from 271 families were collected as part of a large ongoing

D. Posthuma; Geus de E. J. C; D. I. Boomsma

2001-01-01

456

Common dermatoses in moderately pigmented skin: uncommon presentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several common dermatoses appear different in people of color. Most international literature, especially the reputed textbooks, are replete with photographs of skin diseases in fair-skinned patients. The orientation of Western dermatologists to common diseases in pigmented skin therefore is needed. The reverse is also true. Dermatologists who work in pigmented skin communities are known to have initial problems with fair

Mohamed Badawy Abdel-Naser; Shyam B. Verma; Mohamed Abdel Rahim Abdallah

2005-01-01

457

Management of common property resources: Limits to voluntary collective action  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper finds that the voluntary collective action may be an alternative to market and government in the management of common property resources. In developing countries, the people's capabilities to harness the preserved commons and the fairness in the appropriation of benefits from them are the limits on the voluntary collective action. It shows that collective action is possible if

M. N. Murty

1994-01-01

458

Multiple Use Marine Protected Areas as Complex Commons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1970s conservation generally has become more participatory, particularly with regards to local communities. The new paradigm of inclusivity in protected areas calls for the devolution of power, the embracement of uncertainty, and the legitimization of local knowledge and values, many of the principles of successful commons management. Increasingly there is an 'essential affinity' between 'the commons' and 'protected

P. Mackelworth; D. Holcer; C. Fortuna

459

Vitamin C intake and susceptibility to the common cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the role of vitamin C in common cold incidence had been studied extensively, the level of vitamin C intake has not been unequivocally shown to affect the incidence of colds. In the present study the six largest vitamin C supplementation (ï 1 g\\/d) studies, including over 5000 episodes in all, have been analysed, and it is shown that common

Harri Hemilä

1997-01-01

460

Why Do We Keep Catching the Common Cold?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes activities for biology teachers that will stimulate discussions on virus structure, cell biology, rhino viruses, and new trends in treating the common cold. Provides opportunity for inquiry and problem solving in exercises that emphasize an understanding of how common cold viruses might pack inside nasal epithelial cells. (14…

Gillen, Alan L.; Mayor, Heather D.

1995-01-01

461

Public Universities and the Neoliberal Common Sense: Seven Iconoclastic Theses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Neoliberalism has utterly failed as a viable model of economic development, yet the politics of culture associated with neoliberalism is still in force, becoming the new common sense shaping the role of government and education. This "common sense" has become an ideology playing a major role in constructing hegemony as moral and intellectual…

Torres, Carlos Alberto

2011-01-01

462

Ingested foreign body in the common bile duct  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a 5-year-old boy who accidentally ingested a metal pin which was found inside the common bile duct on surgical exploration of duodenum and was removed through the ampulla of Vater. This is the first instance that an ingested metal pin in the common bile duct has been reported in the world literature.

Dias, Ranjan; Dharmaratne, Parackrama

2012-01-01

463

47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section 10.520...Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider...use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal that meets the requirements...

2009-10-01

464

47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section 10.520...Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider...use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal that meets the requirements...

2010-10-01

465

Company Plans to Challenge Dominance of Common Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Last week ApplicationsOnline LLC, in Baltimore, unveiled its Universal College Application, which has already won a baker's dozen of clients dissatisfied with the Common Application, including Duke and Harvard Universities. Although some of the 13 institutions plan to use ApplicationsOnline's service in addition to the Common Application, the…

Farrell, Elizabeth F.

2007-01-01

466

The Determinacy of Common Factors in Large Item Domains.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bounds for the multiple correlation of common factors with the items which comprise those factors are developed. It is then shown that under broad, but not completely general, conditions, the circumstances under which an infinite item domain does or does not perfectly determine selected subsets of its common factors. (Author/JKS)

Rozeboom, William W.

1982-01-01

467

The determinacy of common factors in large item domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bounds are here developed for the multiple correlation of common factors with the items whose factors they are. It is then easy to see, under broad but not completely general conditions, the circumstances under which an infinite item domain does or does not perfectly determine selected subsets of its common factors.

William W. Rozeboom

1982-01-01

468

Embracing the Common Cause Advocating for Ed Tech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a common response from educators confronted with the notion of advocating for educational technology funding. But, in a time when U.S. funding for Ed Tech is in danger of being cut from the budget, ISTE believes that all of its members, and in fact, all U.S. educators, must become advocates for our common cause. "Effective advocacy from…

Roland, Jennifer

2006-01-01

469

Common Problems of Mobile Applications for Foreign Language Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the use of mobile learning educational applications has become more common anywhere in the world, new concerns have appeared in the classroom, human interaction in software engineering and ergonomics. new tests of foreign languages for a number of purposes have become more and more common recently. However, studies interrelating language tests…

Garcia Laborda, Jesus; Magal-Royo, Teresa; Lopez, Jose Luis Gimenez

2011-01-01

470

The Common Law Threesome: Libel, Slander, and Invasion of Privacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unlike most of the regulatory constraints which have impact on the media, libel, slander, and invasion of privacy are common law concepts developed from the precedents of previous court decisions and from reasoning employed in the written judicial opinions of appellate courts. Since common law is thus both traditional in nature and subject to…

Anapol, Malthon M.

471

Public universities and the neoliberal common sense: seven iconoclastic theses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoliberalism has utterly failed as a viable model of economic development, yet the politics of culture associated with neoliberalism is still in force, becoming the new common sense shaping the role of government and education. This ‘common sense’ has become an ideology playing a major role in constructing hegemony as moral and intellectual leadership in contemporary societies. Neoliberal globalisation, predicated

Carlos Alberto Torres

2011-01-01

472

Greatest common divisor via generalized Sylvester and Bezout matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new methods for computing the greatest common right divisor of polynomial matrices. These methods involve the recently studied generalized Sylvester and generalized Bezoutian resultant matrices, which require no polynomial operations. They can provide a row proper greatest common right divisor, test for coprimeness and calculate dual dynamical indices. The generalized resultant matrices are developments of the scalar Sylvester

R. Bitmead; S.-Y. Kung; B. Anderson; T. Kailath

1978-01-01

473

Fostering common ground in human-robot interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective communication between people and interactive robots would benefit if they have a common ground of understanding. I discuss how the common ground principle of least collective effort can be used to predict and design human robot interactions. Social cues lead people to create a mental model of a robot and estimates of its knowledge. People's mental model and knowledge

Sara Kiesler

2005-01-01

474

The Tragedy of the Commons revisited Identifying behavioral principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theme of Hardin's renowned ‘The Tragedy of the Commons’ is that the common-pool resource is dissipated to the level where the average value of extraction equals the wage rate in the long run when the number of appropriators is unlimited. Yet experimental results and rapid deforestation in tropical countries follow a contrasting pattern: even though the number of appropriators

Masaru Ito; Tatsuyoshi Saijo; Masashi Une

1995-01-01

475

Turkana pastoralism: A case against the Tragedy of the Commons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines land-use practice among the Turkana pastoralists of Kenya. Drawing on work of both ecologists and anthropologists, it examines the argument that posits that pastoralism is inherently destructive to the environment, commonly referred to as the Tragedy of the Commons. Results of this research suggest that the livestock management practices of East African pastoralists do not degrade the

J. Terrence McCabe

1990-01-01

476

Not Only the Tragedy of the Commons: Misperceptions of Bioeconomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exploratory search for explanations of mismanagement of renewable resources, other than the theory of the commons, was performed by an experiment. Eighty three subjects, mostly recruited from the fisheries sector in Norway, were asked to manage the same simulated virgin fish stock, one subject at a time. Exclusive property rights were granted to rule out the commons problem. Despite

Erling Moxnes

1998-01-01

477

The Common Core State Standards Initiative: an Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to evaluate decision making in the Common Core State Standards Initiative as the change process moved from research, development and diffusion activities to adoption of the Common Core State Standards by the states. A decision-oriented evaluation model was used to describe the four stages of planning, structuring,…

Watt, Michael G.

2011-01-01

478

Born of Common Hungers: Benedictine Women in Search of Connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Born of Common Hungers celebrates the simplicity and complexity of six communities of Benedictine women. From Germany to England, across America and Brazil, each woman and community profiled has adapted to political, social, and cultural changes both local and global in order to be of practical and spiritual use. This book reveals that sisters have as much in common with

Faulkner Mara OSB; Annette Brophy

1997-01-01

479

Regulatory responses to commons problems: The Columbia River salmon fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article analyzes selected aspects of the history of the Columbia River to identify attempts that have been made to solve use problems involving the salmon fishery commons and to identify associations between antecedent events and particular solutions chosen. The results suggest some rudimentary associations between regulatory arrangements and supply characteristics of the fishery commons. These associations are tenuous, however,

David Goetze; David Peterson

1989-01-01

480

47 CFR 10.530 - Common vibration cadence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common vibration cadence. 10.530 Section 10.530...Equipment Requirements § 10.530 Common vibration cadence. A Participating CMS Provider...public use under part 10 that include a vibration cadence capability that meets the...

2010-10-01

481

47 CFR 10.530 - Common vibration cadence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Common vibration cadence. 10.530 Section 10.530...Equipment Requirements § 10.530 Common vibration cadence. A Participating CMS Provider...public use under part 10 that include a vibration cadence capability that meets the...

2009-10-01

482

Common Reed (Phragmites Australis) Response to Mowing and Herbicide Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common reed is an invasive species that has overtaken wetland habitats in the eastern United States and can spread into roadsides, turf, and ornamental sites. The postemergence grass herbicides used in nursery crops and turf, clethodim, fenoxaprop, fluazifop, and sethoxydim, did not control common reed. Dithiopyr, MSMA, and quinclorac also did not control this weed. Glyphosate applied at 2.24 kg

Jeffrey F. Derr

2008-01-01

483

Common Characteristics of Models in Present-Day Scientific Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching the use of models in scientific research requires a description, in general terms, of how scientists actually use models in their research activities. This paper aims to arrive at defining common characteristics of models that are used in present-day scientific research. Initially, a list of common features of models and modelling, based…

Van Der Valk, Ton; Van Driel, Jan H.; De Vos, Wobbe

2007-01-01

484

Unknown Word Processing Method for the Common Sense Judgement System  

Microsoft Academic Search

When we humans receive uncertain information, we interpret it properly, so we can expand the conversation, and take the proper actions. This is possible because we have ``common sense'' concerning the basic word concept, which is built up from long time experience storing knowledge of our language. Of the common sense we use in our every day lives we think

Seiji Tsuchiya; Kazuhide Kojima; Hirokazu Watabe; Tsukasa Kawaoka

2002-01-01

485

A COMMON WORD VS. A CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Common Word document sets out an alternative to the Clash of Civilizations by asserting that Christianity and Islam are both founded on love of God and love of neighbor, and that those values provide fertile ground for creating a common life together. A three-part strategy is necessary: separating religious pluralists from religious totalitarians; understanding your own faith's narrative of

Eboo Patel

2008-01-01

486

Transcriptional Changes Common to Human Cocaine, Cannabis and Phencyclidine Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major goal of drug abuse research is to identify and understand drug-induced changes in brain function that are common to many or all drugs of abuse. As these may underlie drug dependence and addiction, the purpose of the present study was to examine if different drugs of abuse effect changes in gene expression that converge in common molecular pathways.

Elin Lehrmann; Carlo Colantuoni; Amy Deep-Soboslay; Kevin G. Becker; Ross Lowe; Marilyn A. Huestis; Thomas M. Hyde; Joel E. Kleinman; William J. Freed; Bernhard Baune

2006-01-01

487

Building and Maintaining the Common Ground in Web Based Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the main purpose is to explore how participants establish and maintain the common ground in the computer-based conferences. Previous studies assume that before the participants can reach the deeper level interaction and learning, they have to gain an adequate level of common ground (Dillenbourg, 1999; Baker et al., 1999; Veerman, 2000). Subjects were 68 pre-service teachers and

Kati Mäkitalo; Päivi Häkkinen; Piritta Salo; Sanna Järvelä

488

A Tale of Two Regimes: Instrumentality and Commons Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Technical developments have profound social and environmental impacts. Both are observed in the implications of regimes of instrumentality for commons access regimes. Establishing social, material, ecological, intellectual, and moral infrastructures, technologies are partly constitutive of commons access and may militate against governance…

Toly, Noah J.

2005-01-01

489

Common perceptions of parents requesting personal exemption from vaccination.  

PubMed

School nurses, as vaccination advocates, need to be aware of parents' common concerns regarding vaccines, so the nurse can develop strategies to communicate with parents. The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to identify common reasons parents in Utah seek exempting rather than vaccinating their children. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 801 parents responding to a 16-item questionnaire about why they exempted their children from receiving vaccinations. The most commonly reported reason for seeking a personal exemption included vaccines conflicting with philosophical beliefs. Parents exempting from one vaccine most commonly exempted the hepatitis series. Most parents communicated their vaccine concerns with their health care provider prior to seeking exemption. The majority of exempting parents did not use the Internet when researching vaccines even though they had Internet access. Considering the common vaccine-related perceptions of parents may be helpful when developing strategies to overcome these barriers to vaccination. PMID:22835889

Luthy, Karlen E; Beckstrand, Renea L; Meyers, Carly J H

2012-07-25

490

Experience with common bile duct exploration at Lumbini Medical College.  

PubMed

Common bile duct stones represent a significant danger to patients, because they can lead to biliary colic, obstructive jaundice, cholangitis, or pancreatitis. Common bile duct stones either migrate from the gallbladder or form primarily within the bile ducts themselves. Primary stones are more common in South Asia and are usually sequelae of biliary infection and stasis. In the United States and other Western countries, common bile duct stones are predominantly secondary stones, having formed in the gallbladder. In patients who have gallstones, and in whom a cholecystectomy is considered, common bile duct stones can be found preoperatively, intraoperatively, or postoperatively. Ten percent to 15% of patients undergoing a cholecystectomy will be found to have choledocholithiasis at some point during their treatment. We present our case of 16 patients of common bile duct stones with or without cholelithiasis from April 2011 to March 2012. To review the treatment and outcome of patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones who underwent cholecystecomy with open common bile exploration (CBDE). We analysed the fact that cholecystectomy with commonbile duct exploration still holds as a good modality of treatment where ERCP (Endoscopic Retrograde cholangio pancreaticogram) is not available. All 16 persons in age group of 20-65 years, all females with body weight in the range of 45-60 kgs undergoing inpatient common bile duct exploration during April 2011- March 2012 were included. Common bile duct exploration was successful in all patients. Mean operating time was 120 +/- 40 minutes and length of hospital stay was 13 +/- 3days. 3 complications (18.75%) were recorded, 2 cases of retained stone (12.5%) who underwent choledochoduodenostomy. In 16 patients undergoing common bile duct exploration, CBD stones were discovered with flexible choledochoscope and intraoperative cholangiography. None of the Gallbladder specimen revealed any feature of malignancy in final histopatholgical report. All patients are doing fine till date. Open common bile duct exploration can still be a gold standard technique in set up where ERCP is not available. The results of common bile duct exploration are good with less complications in experienced hands. PMID:23671956

Pokharel, N; Sapkota, P; Kc, B; Rimal, S

2012-06-01

491

Common mycorrhizal networks amplify size inequality in Andropogon gerardii monocultures.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can interconnect plant root systems through hyphal common mycorrhizal networks, which may influence the distribution of limiting mineral nutrients among interconnected individuals, potentially affecting competition and consequent size inequality. Using a microcosm model system, we investigated whether the members of Andropogon gerardii monocultures compete via common mycorrhizal networks. We grew A. gerardii seedlings with isolated root systems in individual, adjacent containers while preventing, disrupting or allowing common mycorrhizal networks among them. Fertile soil was placed within the containers, which were embedded within infertile sand. We assessed mycorrhizas, leaf tissue mineral nutrient concentrations, size hierarchies and the growth of nearest neighbors. Plants interconnected by common mycorrhizal networks had 8% greater colonized root length, 12% higher phosphorus and 35% higher manganese concentrations than plants severed from common mycorrhizal networks. Interconnected plants were, on average, 15% larger and had 32% greater size inequality, as reflected by Gini coefficients, than those with severed connections. Only with intact common mycorrhizal networks were whole-plant dry weights negatively associated with those of their neighbors. In the absence of root system overlap, common mycorrhizal networks likely promote asymmetric competition below ground, thereby exaggerating size inequality within A. gerardii populations. PMID:23356215

Weremijewicz, Joanna; Janos, David P

2013-01-29

492

Unknown Word Processing Method for the Common Sense Judgement System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When we humans receive uncertain information, we interpret it properly, so we can expand the conversation, and take the proper actions. This is possible because we have “common sense” concerning the basic word concept, which is built up from long time experience storing knowledge of our language. Of the common sense we use in our every day lives we think that there are; common sense concerning quantity such as size, weight, speed, time, or place; common sense concerning sense or feeling such as hot, beautiful, or loud; and moreover common sense concerning emotion such as happy or sad. In order to make computers closer to human beings, we think that the construction of a “Common Sense Judgment System” which deals with these kinds of common sense is necessary. When aiming to realize this “Common Sense Judgment System” and trying to make a computer have the same common sense knowledge and judgment ability as human beings, a very important factor is the handling of unknown words. Judgment concerning words which were given to the computer as knowledge before hand, it can refer to that knowledge, and the process will have no problem at all. But when an unknown word, which is not registered as knowledge, is inputted, how to process that word is a very difficult problem. In this paper, by using a concept base, which is made from several electric dictionaries; the degree of association, which is done based on the concept base; neural network, putting the closeness of meaning in consideration, we propose a method of unknown word processing, which connects an inputted unknown word to a representing word that is registered in the judgment knowledge base, and we will verify its effectiveness by experiment applied to the emotional judgment subsystem.

Tsuchiya, Seiji; Kojima, Kazuhide; Watabe, Hirokazu; Kawaoka, Tsukasa

493

MOST COMMON METHODS USED IN COMBINATION TO DETECT SPINAL SUBLUXATION  

PubMed Central

The objective of this research was to identify the most common combination of methods used by chiropractors in Victoria to identify manipulable lesions or subluxations. A postal survey of chiropractors in Victoria achieved an 85% response rate and revealed that eight methods are commonly used in combination to detect subluxation. They are: visual posture analysis, pain description of the patient, plain static erect x-rays, leg length discrepancy, neurological tests, motion palpation, static palpation, orthopaedic tests. These methods have also been found to be used commonly and regarded as reliable.

Walker, Bruce F.

1998-01-01

494

Common ultramarathon injuries and illnesses: race day management.  

PubMed

Participation in ultramarathons has become increasingly popular especially among nonelite athletes. Ultramarathons have a wide spectrum of race characteristics from the variety of distances to environmental factors. Ultramarathons continue to attract a relatively small number of participants who on average are more experienced than marathon runners. There are limited epidemiologic studies on common ultramarathon injuries and illnesses. Musculoskeletal and dermatologic problems are very common among ultramarathoners. Each ultramarathon is unique, and medical directors should try to establish an injury surveillance system in order to be better prepared for possible medical conditions. The focus of this article is on the evaluation and management of common medical conditions encountered during ultramarathons. PMID:23147016

Khodaee, Morteza; Ansari, Majid

495

A linear space algorithm for computing maximal common subsequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of finding a longest common subsequence of two strings has been solved in quadratic time and space. An algorithm is presented which will solve this problem in quadratic time and in linear space.

Daniel S. Hirschberg

1975-01-01

496

Regional and National Convergence to Common Car Ownership Levels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines whether car ownership in various regions and countries has shown evidence over the last twenty-five or thirty years of convergence towards a common level. The differentials between the levels of ownership in British regions, American ...

S. T. Divey

1979-01-01

497

47 CFR 73.635 - Use of common antenna site.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.635 Use of common antenna site. No television license or renewal of a television license will be granted to any person who owns,...

2012-10-01

498

47 CFR 73.635 - Use of common antenna site.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.635 Use of common antenna site. No television license or renewal of a television license will be granted to any person who owns,...

2011-10-01

499

Positive predictive value of cholescintigraphy in common bile duct obstruction  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m DISIDA imaging was employed in 400 patients to differentiate obstruction of the common bile duct from medical and other surgical causes of hyperbilirubinemia. Sequential anterior images demonstrated variable degrees of liver uptake, yet there was no evidence of intrabiliary or extrabiliary radioactivity for at least 4 hr after injection in 25 patients. Twenty-three patients were surgically documented to have complete obstruction of the common bile duct. One patient had hepatitis, and another had sickle cell crisis without bile duct obstruction. The remaining patients had either partial or no obstruction of the common bile duct. We conclude that the presence of liver uptake without evident biliary excretion by 4 hr on cholescintigraphy is highly sensitive and predictive of total obstruction of the common bile duct.

Lecklitner, M.L.; Austin, A.R.; Benedetto, A.R.; Growcock, G.W.

1986-09-01

500

Common Student Misconceptions in Electrochemistry: Galvanic, Electrolytic, and Concentration Cells.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates student (N=16) misconceptions concerning electrochemistry related to galvanic, electrolytic, and concentration cells. Findings indicate that most students demonstrating misconceptions were still able to calculate cell potentials correctly. Discusses common misconceptions and possible sources of these. Contains 33 references.…

Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

1997-01-01