Sample records for common warthog phacochoerus

  1. DIET OF THE COMMON WARTHOG (PHACOCHOERUS AFRICANUS) ON FORMER

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    DIET OF THE COMMON WARTHOG (PHACOCHOERUS AFRICANUS) ON FORMER CATTLE GROUNDS IN A TANZANIAN SAVANNA investigated forage plants and diet of the common warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) on an abandoned cattle ranch be very selective in their diet (Murray 1993; Wilmshurst et al. 1999). For this reason, some East African

  2. Parasites of South African wildlife. XIX. The prevalence of helminths in some common antelopes, warthogs and a bushpig in the Limpopo province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van Wyk, Ilana C; Boomker, Joop

    2011-01-01

    Little work has been conducted on the helminth parasites of artiodactylids in the northern and western parts of the Limpopo province, which is considerably drier than the rest of the province. The aim of this study was to determine the kinds and numbers of helminth that occur in different wildlife hosts in the area as well as whether any zoonotic helminths were present. Ten impalas (Aepyceros melampus), eight kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), four blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), two black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou), three gemsbok (Oryx gazella), one nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), one bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), one waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), six warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) and a single bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) were sampled from various localities in the semi-arid northern and western areas of the Limpopo province. New host-parasite associations included Trichostrongylus deflexus from blue wildebeest, Agriostomum gorgonis from black wildebeest, Stilesia globipunctata from the waterbuck and Fasciola hepatica in a kudu. The mean helminth burden, including extra-gastrointestinal helminths, was 592 in impalas, 407 in kudus and blue wildebeest, 588 in black wildebeest, 184 in gemsbok, and 2150 in the waterbuck. Excluding Probstmayria vivipara, the mean helminth burden in warthogs was 2228 and the total nematode burden in the bushpig was 80. The total burdens and species richness of the helminths in this study were consistently low when compared with similar studies on the same species in areas with higher rainfall. This has practical implications when animals are translocated to areas with higher rainfall and higher prevalence of helminths. PMID:23327219

  3. A review of the genus Paramoniezia Maplestone et Southwell, 1923 (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae), with a new genus, Phascolocestus, from wombats (Marsupialia) and redescriptions of Moniezia mettami Baylis, 1934 and Moniezia phacochoeri (Baylis, 1927) comb. n. from African warthogs (Artiodactyla).

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Ian

    2014-02-01

    Paramoniezia suis Maplestone et Southwell, 1923 is redescribed from the type and only specimen, and is considered to be a genus inquirendum and species inquirenda, possibly based on a host misidentification. Paramoniezia phacochoeri Baylis, 1927 is redescribed from new material from Phacochoerus africanus (Gmelin) from South Africa and is transferred to Moniezia Blanchard. 1891 as M. phacochoeri (Baylis, 1927) comb. n. A redescription of M. mettami Baylis, 1934, also from Ph. africanus, establishes the independence of the two congeneric species parasitizing warthogs. A new genus, Phascolocestus, is erected for Paramoniezia johnstoni Beveridge, 1976 from vombatid marsupials as Phascolocestus johnstoni (Beveridge, 1976) comb. n., and additional host and distributional data are provided for this species. PMID:24684050

  4. The Common Property Resource

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pacific Pacific

    Greetings from The Commons in an Age of Globalization, the 9th Biennial Conference of the IASCP. People from around the world are gathered in a small city of amazingly comfortable meeting tents on a golf course, surrounded by antelope and warthogs . The elephants only come at night. We are having a wonderful meeting and there will be a full

  5. Artificial Warthog Burrows Used to Sample Adult and Immature Tsetse (Glossina spp) in the Zambezi Valley of Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Hargrove, John W.; Muzari, M. Odwell

    2015-01-01

    Background The biology of adult tsetse (Glossina spp), vectors of trypanosomiasis in Africa, has been extensively studied – but little is known about larviposition in the field. Methodology/Principal Findings In September-November 1998, in the hot-dry season in Zimbabwe’s Zambezi Valley, we used artificial warthog burrows to capture adult females as they deposited larvae. Females were subjected to ovarian dissection and were defined as perinatal flies, assumed to have entered burrows to larviposit, if oocyte sizes indicated >95% pregnancy completion. Perinatal flies were defined as full-term pregnant if there was a late third instar larva in utero, or postpartum if the uterus was empty. All other females were defined as pre-full-term pregnant (pre-FT). Of 845 G. m. morsitans captured, 91% (765) were female and 295/724 (41%) of females dissected were perinatal flies. By contrast, of 2805 G. pallidipes captured only 71% (2003) were female and only 33% (596/1825) of females were perinatal. Among all perinatal females 67% (596/891) were G. pallidipes. Conversely, in burrows not fitted with traps – such that flies were free to come and go – 1834 (59%) of pupae deposited were G. m. morsitans and only 1297 (41%) were G. pallidipes. Thus, while more full-term pregnant G. pallidipes enter burrows, greater proportions of G. m. morsitans larviposit in them, reflecting a greater discrimination among G. pallidipes in choosing larviposition sites. Catches of males and pre-FT females increased strongly with temperatures above 32°C, indicating that these flies used burrows as refuges from high ambient temperatures. Conversely, catches of perinatal females changed little with maximum temperature but declined from late September through November: females may anticipate that burrows will be inundated during the forthcoming wet season. Ovarian age distributions of perinatal and pre-FT females were similar, consistent with all ages of females larvipositing in burrows with similar probability. Conclusions/Significance Artificial warthog burrows provide a novel method for collecting tsetse pupae, studying tsetse behaviour at larviposition, assessing the physiological status of female tsetse and their larvae, and of improving understanding of the physiological dynamics of terminal pregnancy, and population dynamics generally, with a view to improving methods of trypanosomiasis control. PMID:25786253

  6. Common Cold

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  7. Common cold

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are the most common reason that children miss school and parents miss work. Parents often get colds ... other children. A cold can spread quickly through schools or daycares. Colds can occur at any time ...

  8. Common Cold

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site provides comprehensive information, selected by medical doctors, about the common cold. "The goal is to provide a framework for critical thinking which will allow informed decisions about medical care for the common cold." The section entitled Understanding Colds gives a detailed overview of how the cold virus invades the human body and how cold symptoms are caused. Information about preventing colds, and some of the complications that can occur are also included. The Special Features section includes one of the most interesting parts of the site -- Myths of the Common Cold. This site should be interesting to almost anyone, but perhaps more so for those of us who have recently had a cold.

  9. Common Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents K-12 and college common areas considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

  10. Common Chuckwalla

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Common Chuckwalla is primarily found across the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the United States and Mexico, at elevations ranging from sea level to 1,370 m. This large (125–180 mm) lizard is dorsoventrally flattened and has wrinkles on its belly and neck. Chuckwallas are strongly associa...

  11. A questionnaire-based evaluation of the veterinary cordon fence separating wildlife and livestock along the boundary of the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jori, F; Brahmbhatt, D; Fosgate, G T; Thompson, P N; Budke, C; Ward, M P; Ferguson, K; Gummow, B

    2011-07-01

    Veterinary cordon fences are used in Southern Africa to separate wildlife from domestic animals in order to prevent transmission of infectious diseases. Such fences are a control method recognized by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) for establishing disease-free zones in beef exporting countries. However, few studies have evaluated the ecological impact of these physical barriers or their effectiveness at a multispecies level. We examined the permeability of one such barrier, along 357 km of the western and southern boundary of the Kruger National Park (KNP) during 2007. Information was gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire implemented among 32 teams of fence maintenance workers. Data were analyzed to identify (a) the main causes of fence damage, (b) the seasonality, location and duration of fence repairs, (c) high permeability areas for elephant (Loxodonta africana), kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), impala (Aepyceros melampus), buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), and (d) the influence of fence electrification, rivers and elephant damage on the frequency of observation of wildlife species outside the KNP estimated during the year. Human and elephant damage were the most common reasons for fence repairs. Elephant and buffalo were the most and least common large mammal species reported observed outside the KNP (1076 and 162 reports/year), respectively. Cattle incursions into the KNP were also reported in 44% of the fence sections. Electrification of the fence was an important factor explaining differences in estimated wildlife species observations outside the KNP during the year. Correlations between estimations of observed species suggested that fence gaps created by elephants might be used by the other wildlife species. Estimated annual counts of kudu, impala and buffalo, but not warthog, were found to correlate with elephant observations. Negative binomial regression models were developed to explore the relationships between observed estimations of different wildlife species outside the KNP the fence, electrification of fence sections and the presence of watercourses, suggesting that kudu, impala and buffalo could use elephant induced fence damage to leave the KNP. The questionnaire was able to evaluate fence integrity and identify sections where integrity was sub-optimal for separating wildlife from domestic livestock species. If combined with more quantitative methods and applied on a routine basis, it could provide an efficient and cost-effective method for monitoring the effectiveness of physical barriers to contain wildlife within protected areas such as is the case with veterinary cordon fences in Southern Africa. PMID:21536336

  12. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  13. Common Platform Enumeration: Dictionary

    E-print Network

    Common Platform Enumeration: Dictionary Specification Version 2.3 Paul Cichonski David Waltermire Karen Scarfone NIST Interagency Report 7697 #12;Common Platform Enumeration: Dictionary Specification and Director NIST Interagency Report 7697 #12;COMMON PLATFORM ENUMERATION (CPE): DICTIONARY SPECIFICATION

  14. Migraine and Common Morbidities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... headaches . Home > Migraine and Common Morbidities Print Email Migraine and Common Morbidities ACHE Newsletter Sign up for ... newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Migraine and Common Morbidities For many patients, migraine is ...

  15. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  16. Canonical Commonality Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leister, K. Dawn

    Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor variable. This paper outlines…

  17. A Common Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Robin

    1995-01-01

    The importance of a common schooling to provide a common education and to create a common culture is argued. The limited separate education supported by E. Callan will not be effective in maintaining the distinctive cultural integrity it hopes to defend. (SLD)

  18. The New Common School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Charles L.

    1987-01-01

    Horace Mann's goal of creating a common school that brings our society's children together in mutual respect and common learning need not be frustrated by residential segregation and geographical separation of the haves and have-nots. Massachusetts' new common school vision boasts a Metro Program for minority students, 80 magnet schools, and…

  19. How Common Is the Common Core?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  20. COMMON WEEDS MASSACHUSETTS

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    oleraceae Annual COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME LIFE CYCLE 6. CARPETWEED FAMILY (Aizoaceae) Carpetweed Mollugo verticillata Annual 7. PINK FAMILY (Caryophyllaceae) Bladder campion Silene cucubalus Perennial Bouncingbet

  1. Radiomarked Common Loon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A juvenile common loon wearing a satellite transmitter antenna follows an adult. USGS scientists and partners captured and radiomarked juvenile common loons on lakes scattered across Minnesota and Wisconsin during the last two weeks of August 2014 to track their movements and wintering ground...

  2. The Common School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the conflicting principles revealed respectively by those who argue for the common school and by those who seek to promote a system of schools that, though maintained by the state, might reflect the different religious beliefs within the community. The philosopher, John Dewey, is appealed to in defence of the common

  3. Scientist Releases Common Loon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    As part of a cooperative project, scientists with the USGS and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources tagged common loons in north central Wisconsin to study the distribution and migration movements, as well as foraging patterns and depth profiles of common loons equipped with archiv...

  4. Common variable immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Jonathan S.

    2013-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a common primary immunodeficiency characterized by a failure in B-cell differentiation with defective immunoglobulin production. Affected patients are uniquely susceptible to recurrent infection with encapsulated organisms and have an increased propensity for the development of inflammatory and autoimmune manifestations. The diagnosis of CVID is commonly delayed and the underlying cause of the disorder is not understood. Replacement antibody therapy reduces the risk of serious infections. However, optimal treatment regimens for the uncommon manifestations associated with this disease, such as granulomatous lymphocytic interstitial lung disease, require further research. PMID:23883805

  5. Comparative digestion studies in wild suids at Rotterdam Zoo.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Nijboer, Joeke; Loermans, Jochem H M; Roth, Thomas; Van der Kuilen, Jan; Beynen, Anton C

    2008-07-01

    Among the artiodactyla, the suids are a group whose digestive physiology has hardly been investigated. The apparent digestibilities (aD) of macronutrients were measured in captive specimens of warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), and Visayan warty pigs (Sus cebifrons), and compared with those reported for babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) from the same facility on a similar diet. The animals were fed mixed diets of pelleted feed, grains, fruits, and vegetables; dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ranged from 17 to 26% dry matter. aD of organic matter and protein ranged from 72 to 89 and 70 to 82%, respectively. Although red river hogs and warty pigs achieved aD of NDF of 41-54%, this value was higher both in warthogs (63-66%) and babirusa (61-63%). aD of acid detergent fiber was comparatively low in red river hogs (4%), warty pigs (22%), and babirusa (13-25%) but high in warthog (59-62%). Comparison with additional literature data (including peccaries) indicates that in spite of differences in digestive anatomy, suids and peccaries are similar, and resemble other herbivores in fundamental characteristics, such as the negative influence of fiber on overall digestibility, or the positive influence of dietary protein on protein digestion. Although the existing data are equivocal as to a superior fiber digestion in peccaries as compared with other wild suids, the results suggest that warthogs are more efficient than other wild suids or peccaries in terms of fiber digestion. Zoo Biol 27:305-319, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360626

  6. Commonly Occurring VHL Manifestations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alliance*. Frequency of pheochromocytoma varies widely depending on genotype. Ages at Diagnosis Most Common Ages at DX ... paragangliomas. **Frequency of pheochromocytoma varies widely depending on genotype. Patients/Caregivers Annual Meetings Basic Facts about VHL ...

  7. Deriving Common Model Characteristics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jennifer Momsen

    In this activity, students confront several different models - from the DNA helix Watson and Crick constructed in their laboratory to a map of McDonalds density in the US - and work in small groups to derive their commonalities.

  8. Metabolism - Common Metabolism Concepts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-19

    This article explains how solar energy is the energy source for almost all living systems on earth. Photosynthesis, catabolic reactions, and anabolic reactions are briefly discussed. Lastly, common questions are answered about converting food to energy.

  9. Common skin conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Ridley, M.; Safranek, M.

    1992-01-01

    Four common conditions: acne, psoriasis, eczema and urticaria are considered. Guidance is given on appropriate topical and systematic treatment for the different types and degrees of these conditions, with notes on management in general and criteria for referral to hospital outpatient departments. Where there are different types of the condition, with varying aetiology, for example in urticaria and eczema, management of the common types is outlined. PMID:1345156

  10. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening criteria (availability, environmental compatibility, mass competitiveness of energy storage, safety, and practicality for the application) were used to define concept applicability for each lunar and Mars application. A screening study resulted in 13 power systems for lunar applications and 15 for Mars applications. A commonality analysis showed several power systems with potentially high commonality (across both lunar and Mars applications). These high commonality systems include d PVA/RFC, dynamic isotope (1033 K Stirling, 1133 K Brayton, and 1300 K Brayton PCU's), SP-100 TE and dynamic derivatives (Mars systems required vacuum enclosure), in-core thermionic reactor, and liquid metal cooled reactor/Stirling cycle (1033 K). The generic commonality results were used to synthesize 3 high commonality power system architectures: (1) predominantly PV (limited nuclear and isotope), (2) predominantly in-core thermionic reactor/DIPS, and (3) predominantly SP-100 reactor/DIPS. The in-core thermionic reactor/DIPS power system architecture had the lowest total mass. Specific outputs from this study included lists of power system requirements, power system candidates, a power system application matrix, power system characteristics (mass), power system commonality ratings, example high commonality power system architectures, architecture masses, and issues/design solutions for lunar/Mars commonality.

  11. The Federal Commons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In 1999, the Federal Financial Assistance Management Improvement Act was passed in order to force the development of federal electronic grant processing. A result of the legislation, the Federal Commons portal gives "grantees (state and local governments, universities, small businesses, etc.) full service grants processing across all functions in the grant life cycle." While providing only an entrance to various grant institutions and services, the Federal Commons helps to eliminate the maze-like trail that multi-grant projects sometimes must travel to get to grant proposal Web sites. Most physical sciences researchers will find relevant federal departments listed under the Science and Technology link.

  12. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  13. Trypanosoma brucei Infection in asymptomatic greater Kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew; Mutoloki, Stephen; Matandiko, Wigganson

    2010-03-01

    Trypomastogotes of Trypanosoma brucei were detected from 4 asymptomatic kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch located approximately 45 km north east of Lusaka, Zambia. Blood smears examined from 14 wildlife species comprising of the impala (Aepyceros melampus), Kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), puku (Kobus vardoni), zebra (Equus burchelli), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), wilderbeest (Connochaetes taurinus), hartebeest (Alcephelus lichtensteini), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) showed that only the kudu had T. brucei. Although game ranching has emerged to be a successful ex-situ conservation strategy aimed at saving the declining wildlife population in the National Parks, our findings suggest that it has the potential of aiding the re-distribution of animal diseases. Hence, there is a need for augmenting wildlife conservation with disease control strategies aimed at reducing the risk of disease transmission between wildlife and domestic animals. PMID:20333288

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in farm-reared ostriches and wild game species from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Hove, T; Mukaratirwa, S

    2005-04-01

    One hundred and seventy one serum samples from 10 game species from Zimbabwe were tested for IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii infection using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Significantly higher seroprevalences were found in the felidae (Panthera leo) (92% of 26), bovidae (Tragelaphus species) (55.9% of 34) and farm-reared struthionidae (Struthio camelus) (48% of 50) compared to the other groups tested. Among the bovidae, the nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) had the highest seroprevalence of 90% (9/10). Anti-Toxoplasma antibody prevalences in browsers [greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) (20% of 10), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) (10% of 10) and elephant (Loxodonta africana) (10% of 20)] were generally in the lower range. No antibodies were detected in the wild African suidae [warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) and bushpig (Potamochoerus larvatus)]. Attempts to isolate T. gondii from the heart muscles of seropositve ostriches by subinoculation in BALB/c mice were unsuccessful. PMID:15777687

  15. Discovering Common Denominators

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Adam Kloper

    2012-07-22

    Students use pattern blocks to represent fractions with unlike denominators. Students discover that they need to convert all the pattern blocks to the same shape in order to add them. Therefore, they find and use common denominators for the addition of fractions.

  16. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    MedlinePLUS

    Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:May 29,2014 Cholesterol can be both good and bad, so it's important to learn the facts about ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  17. Navagating the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a debate over the Common Core State Standards Initiative as it has rocketed to the forefront of education policy discussions around the country. The author contends that there is value in having clear cross state standards that will clarify the new online and blended learning that the growing use of technology has provided…

  18. Common Standards for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

  19. For Research Common Research

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    Blood Draw For Research Common Research Procedures: Blood Draws What is a blood draw? A blood draw done. More questions? Call: Questions to ask: 1. Are you drawing my blood specifically for the research keep my samples? 8. Will my blood samples be used for future research? 9. Will the results of the blood

  20. For Research Common Research

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    MRI Scans For Research Common Research Procedures: MRI Scans More questions? Call: Questions to ask: 1. Is this MRI being done specifically for the research study or is it also part of my regular and is not intended to provide medical advice. Talk with your doctor or research team before acting on any information

  1. For Research Common Research

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    PET Scans For Research Common Research Procedures: PET Scans What is Positron Emission Tomography: 1. Is this PET scan being done specifically for the research study or is it also a part of my purposes and is not intended to provide medical advice. Talk with your doctor or research team before

  2. Common name Scientific name

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    T Other Softwoods Eastern red cedar Juniperus virginiana NT 1 S S­I I Eastern hemlock Tsuga canadensis T 1 to western Virginia. CharacteristicsofCommonWesternVirginiaTrees Publication 420-351 www.ext.vt.edu Produced in which healthy communities of trees and other vegetation are es- tablished and maintained for the benefit

  3. Shoulder Pain COMMON CAUSES

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    Shoulder Pain COMMON CAUSES: Shoulder injury or pain may be triggered by a specific event those required in swimming, tennis, baseball, and football can lead to shoulder pain. These OVER USE labor can lead to shoulder pain over time. Long term shoulder problems are more likely when pain

  4. Common Dermatoses of Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Gora, Irv

    1986-01-01

    Within the pediatric population of their practices, family physicians frequently encounter infants with skin rashes. This article discusses several of the more common rashes of infancy: atopic dermatitis, cradle cap, diaper dermatitis and miliaria. Etiology, clinical picture and possible approaches to treatment are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:21267297

  5. Human Commonalities and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2008-01-01

    Educator Ernest Boyer believed that well-educated students should do more than master isolated facts. They should understand the "connectedness of things." He suggested organizing curriculum thematically around eight commonalities shared by people around the world. In the book "The Basic School: A Community for Learning," Boyer recommends that…

  6. Information Commons to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Marc Dewey

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

  7. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  8. Math, Literacy, & Common Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Nearly every state has signed on to use the Common Core State Standards as a framework for teaching English/language arts and mathematics to students. Translating them for the classroom, however, requires schools, teachers, and students to change the way they approach teaching and learning. This report examines the progress some states have made…

  9. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

  10. COMMON LISP: The language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Steele; G. L. Jr

    1984-01-01

    This book describes COMMON LISP,which is becoming the industry and government standard AI language. Topics covered include the following: data types; scope and extent; type specifiers; program structure; predicates; control structure; macros; declarations; symbols; packages; numbers; characters; sequences; lists; hash tables; arrays; strings; structures; the evaluator; streams; input\\/output; file system interface; and errors.

  11. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  12. A Language in Common.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1963

    This collection of articles reprinted from the "London Times Literary Supplement" indicates the flexibility of English as a common literary language in its widespread use outside the United States and England. Major articles present the thesis that English provides an artistic medium which is enriched through colloquial idioms in the West Indies…

  13. Common Foot Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is also associated with warm, damp feet. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a viral infection causing blisters of ... The most common fungal disease in humans, athlete's foot, may be passed to humans… ... Warts are growths of the skin and mucous membranes (the mouth or genitals) that are caused by over 100 ...

  14. The Common Cold

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sohmer, Rachel.

    2003-01-01

    When winter rolls around and we begin to spend more time indoors, the common cold becomes an unfortunate reality for many of us. But for something as common as the cold, misconceptions about it are remarkably common as well. The following collection of Web sites provides an in-depth look at the cold and the cold virus.The first site (1) comes from the Common Cold Care Center of Cardiff University in Wales, and offers a thorough and highly readable introduction to the common cold, including sections on conventional and alternative cold medications. Readers can brush up on their basic virology with the next Web site from HowStuffWorks to get a clear, general idea of how the cold virus infects the body (2). This site also explains why antibiotics have no effect on a virus, and includes numerous hypertext links to related HowStuffWorks Web pages. KidsHealth for Parents, a service of the Nemours Foundation, provides a straightforward guide to the symptoms of cold vs. flu, while also offering information on flu treatment options (3). The next Web site, from University of Guelph, contains an easy-to-understand comparison of bacteria and viruses (4). Readers can learn more about rhinoviruses, the family of viruses which account for about one-third of all colds, in the following Web site from the University of South Carolina's Microbiology and Immunology Online (5). The next Web site offers visitors a close-up look at human rhinovirus 14 with over a dozen 3-D images and movies from the University of Wisconsin-Madison Bock Laboratory (6). The following site describes the findings, as detailed in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, of a Purdue University research team that has analyzed on an atomic scale the structure of the cellular receptor that binds cold-causing viruses (7). And finally, find out about common cold clinical trials with ClinicalTrial.gov, a service of the National Institutes of Health (8).

  15. Common medical pains

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Pain in infancy and childhood is extremely common. Sources of pain include illness, injury, and medical and dental procedures. Over the past two decades, tremendous progress has been made in the assessment, prevention and treatment of pain. It is important for the paediatric health care provider to be aware of the implications and consequences of pain in childhood. A multitude of interventions are available to reduce or alleviate pain in children of all ages, including neonates. These include behavioural and psychological methods, as well as a host of pharmacological preparations, which are safe and effective when used as indicated. Many complementary and alternative treatments appear to be promising in treating and relieving pain, although further research is required. The present article reviews the most common sources of pain in childhood and infancy, as well as current treatment strategies and options. PMID:19030348

  16. Common tester platform concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  17. Common Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  18. Least Common Ancestor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isaac D. Scherson; Chi-kai Chien

    1993-01-01

    Least Common Ancestor Networks (LCANs) are introducedand shown to be a class of networks that includefat-trees, baseline networks, SW-banyans and therouter networks of the TRAC 1.1 and 2.0, and theCM-5. Some LCAN properties are stated and the permutationrouting capabilities of an important subclassare analyzed. Simulation results for three permutationclasses verify the accuracy of an iterative solution fora randomized routing strategy.1

  19. Common drive unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

  20. Common anorectal disorders.

    PubMed

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E; Umar, Sarah B; Crowell, Michael D

    2014-05-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  1. Diagnosing Common Skin Eruptions

    PubMed Central

    Enta, Tom

    1972-01-01

    The skin reacts to various insults in a limited number of ways. For this reason the etiologic diagnosis of a simple eruption may require some scrutiny on the part of the examiner. Only when a true diagnosis is arrived at, will the treatment be effective or successful. The author provides several examples of commonly seen eruptions and discusses their differential features. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:20468760

  2. Digital Resource Commons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Ohio Digital Resource Commons (DRC) is a place to learn about the historic, instructional, cultural, and creative works of those in the Ohio University system, as well as the liberal arts colleges of Ohio. Although not all of the Ohio schools save material with the DRC, many of them elect to do so. Higher education institutions, as well as K-12 institutions are allowed to save their work via the central network, as long as the work has archival merit. Visitors will want to click on "Communities and Collections" on the left hand menu to browse the vast resources available. Some of the communities included are "Art and Architecture", "Multi-Subject Video", and "OhioLINK Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Center". Within each community are some notable collections including, "Archaeological Atlas of Ohio", "Encyclopedia of Physics Demonstrations", and the "Kent State Shootings Oral Histories". In order to see a list of the archives available to search, visitors should click on "Advanced Search", under the blank search box near the top of the page. The scrollable box next to the archives category includes such choices as "Oberlin Digital Commons", "Scholarly Commons at Miami University", and "Digital Archive of Literacy Narratives".

  3. 'Historicising common sense'.

    PubMed

    Millstone, Noah

    2012-12-01

    This essay is an expanded set of comments on the social psychology papers written for the special issue on History and Social Psychology. It considers what social psychology, and particularly the theory of social representations, might offer historians working on similar problems, and what historical methods might offer social psychology. The social history of thinking has been a major theme in twentieth and twenty-first century historical writing, represented most recently by the genre of 'cultural history'. Cultural history and the theory of social representations have common ancestors in early twentieth-century social science. Nevertheless, the two lines of research have developed in different ways and are better seen as complementary than similar. The theory of social representations usefully foregrounds issues, like social division and change over time, that cultural history relegates to the background. But for historians, the theory of social representations seems oddly fixated on comparing the thought styles associated with positivist science and 'common sense'. Using historical analysis, this essay tries to dissect the core opposition 'science : common sense' and argues for a more flexible approach to comparing modes of thought. PMID:23135802

  4. Common Southeast Wetland Plants Common name1,2

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    capensis No common rush Juncus effuses Seed rice cut grass Leersia oryzoides Seed common duckweed Lemna minor Aquatic Vegetation, Inverts sprangletop Leptochloa panacea Seed cardinal flower Lobelia cardinalis

  5. Boston University Digital Common

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Boston University has a range of scholars, from those who research the hospitality field to others who are fascinated by the world of photonics. The University's Digital Common Repository contains thousands of documents and publications that span this wide range, authored or co-authored by BU faculty, students, and staff. The different communities here are divided into sections that include College of Arts and Sciences, Centers & Institutes, and Metropolitan College. Visitors will find religious sermons, pieces of music, working economics papers, and a vast cornucopia of other materials. Also, visitors are encouraged to use the Browse feature to look for documents by title, subject, author, or date.

  6. Asteraceae (Aster family) Common ragweed

    E-print Network

    Asteraceae (Aster family) Common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Common ragweed seedling. Life. psilostachya DC.) Differs by having a perennial nature with prolific creeping roots, densely hairy leaves

  7. Common Polymorphisms in Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Michael S.; D’Amato, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of diseases have a significant genetic component, including major causes of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Many of these diseases are also angiogenesis dependent. In humans, common polymorphisms, although more subtle in effect than rare mutations that cause Mendelian disease, are expected to have greater overall effects on human disease. Thus, common polymorphisms in angiogenesis-regulating genes may affect the response to an angiogenic stimulus and thereby affect susceptibility to or progression of such diseases. Candidate gene studies have identified several associations between angiogenesis gene polymorphisms and disease. Similarly, emerging pharmacogenomic evidence indicates that several angiogenesis-regulating polymorphisms may predict response to therapy. In contrast, genome-wide association studies have identified only a few risk alleles in obvious angiogenesis genes. As in other traits, regulatory polymorphisms appear to dominate the landscape of angiogenic responsiveness. Rodent assays, including the mouse corneal micropocket assay, tumor models, and a macular degeneration model have allowed the identification and comparison of loci that directly affect the trait. Complementarity between human and animal approaches will allow increased understanding of the genetic basis for angiogenesis-dependent disease. PMID:23125197

  8. Commons Sense: Common Property Rights, Efficiency, and Institutional Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory Clark

    1998-01-01

    Common property rights were widespread in English agriculture for at least 600 years. Since privatizing common fields allegedly produced huge profits in the eigh- teenth century, common land owners seemingly squandered 15 percent of potential income for generations. Ingenious explanations have been produced for this market failure. This article argues for a simple, brutal resolution. Common fields survived because enclosure

  9. National PTA Common Sense

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US National Parents and Teachers Association, in conjunction with GTE Corporation, furnishes this site, an information hub for the promotion of drug- and alcohol-free children. Presently, the site is divided into three sections of both serious and fun activities. The Parent's Center consists of interactive quizzes and tip sheets related to developing drug awareness, being a role model, and getting involved in your kids' activities. Visitors to the Family Room will find activities to help kids with their self-esteem, as well as teach them drug-awareness. Family games, quizzes, and cartoons are also available. Help and Hotlines points to organizations that can provide further support and information (links are provided), as well as books and videos. Finally, the site includes an interactive poll, several bulletin boards (registration required), and information for PTA leaders, highlighted by a library of resources to help spread the common sense message.

  10. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  11. [Halitosis. A common problem].

    PubMed

    Laine, M L; Slot, D E; Danser, M M

    2011-12-01

    Halitosis is a frequently occurring problem, the cause of which is generally to be found in the mouth. The challenge for oral health care providers is to diagnose it correctly and treat it effectively. Differential diagnosis is of great importance in making a distinction between halitosis which originates in the mouth and which does not originate in the mouth. Oral halitosis can be treated effectively by good oral health care. Plaque accumulation on the tongue is the most common cause of oral halitosis. Tongue cleansing, possibly in combination with a specific mouth wash, is consequently recommended as an element of oral hygiene care. Other oral health problems, such as periodontal disease, caries and ill-fitting removable dentures should be treated adequately to eliminate these problems as potential causes of halitosis. PMID:22292352

  12. Mapping Common Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Carlos; Krueger, Robert F.; Hasin, Deborah S.; Liu, Shang-Min; Wang, Shuai; Kerridge, Bradley T.; Saha, Tulshi; Olfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Context Clinical experience and factor analytic studies suggest that some psychiatric disorders may be more closely related to one another, as indicated by the frequency of their co-occurrence, which may have etiologic and treatment implications. Objective To construct a virtual space of common psychiatric disorders, spanned by factors reflecting major psychopathologic dimensions, and locate psychiatric disorders in that space, as well as to examine whether the location of disorders at baseline predicts the prevalence and incidence of disorders at 3-year follow-up. Design, Setting, and Patients A total of 34 653 individuals participated in waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Main Outcome Measures The distance between disorders at wave 1, calculated using the loadings of the factors spanning the space of disorders as coordinates. This distance was correlated with the adjusted odds ratios for age, sex, and race/ethnicity of the prevalence and incidence of Axis I disorders in wave 2, with the aim of determining whether smaller distances between disorders at wave 1 predicts higher disorder prevalence and incidence at wave 2. Results A model with 3 correlated factors provided an excellent fit (Comparative Fit Index = 0.99, Tucker-Lewis Index=0.98, root mean square error of approximation=0.008) for the structure of common psychiatric disorders and was used to span the space of disorders. Distances ranged from 0.070 (between drug abuse and dysthymia) to 1.032 (between drug abuse and avoidant personality disorder). The correlation of distance between disorders in wave 1 with adjusted odds ratios of prevalence in wave 2 was ?0.56. The correlation of distance in wave 1 with adjusted odds ratios of incidence in wave 2 was ?0.57. Conclusions Mapping psychiatric disorders can be used to quantify the distances among disorders. Proximity in turn can be used to predict prospectively the incidence and prevalence of Axis I disorders. PMID:23266570

  13. Common Control System Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the control system processes and functions. With the detailed knowledge of how the control data functions, as well as what computers and devices communicate using this data, the attacker can use a well known Man-in-the-Middle attack to perform malicious operations virtually undetected. The control systems assessment teams have used this method to gather enough information about the system to craft an attack that intercepts and changes the information flow between the end devices (controllers) and the human machine interface (HMI and/or workstation). Using this attack, the cyber assessment team has been able to demonstrate complete manipulation of devices in control systems while simultaneously modifying the data flowing back to the operator's console to give false information of the state of the system (known as ''spoofing''). This is a very effective technique for a control system attack because it allows the attacker to manipulate the system and the operator's situational awareness of the perceived system status. The three main elements of this attack technique are: (1) network reconnaissance and data gathering, (2) reverse engineering, and (3) the Man-in-the-Middle attack. The details of this attack technique and the mitigation techniques are discussed.

  14. The Pharmaceutical Commons

    PubMed Central

    Lezaun, Javier

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the organization of pharmaceutical research on neglected tropical diseases has undergone transformative change. In a context of perceived “market failure,” the development of new medicines is increasingly handled by public-private partnerships. This shift toward hybrid organizational models depends on a particular form of exchange: the sharing of proprietary assets in general and of intellectual property rights in particular. This article explores the paradoxical role of private property in this new configuration of global health research and development. Rather than a tool to block potential competitors, proprietary assets function as a lever to attract others into risky collaborative ventures; instead of demarcating public and private domains, the sharing of property rights is used to increase the porosity of that boundary. This reimagination of the value of property is connected to the peculiar timescape of global health drug development, a promissory orientation to the future that takes its clearest form in the centrality of “virtual” business models and the proliferation of strategies of deferral. Drawing on the anthropological literature on inalienable possessions, we reconsider property’s traditional exclusionary role and discuss the possibility that the new pharmaceutical “commons” proclaimed by contemporary global health partnerships might be the precursor of future enclosures.

  15. Introduction Nested common intervals on permutations Nested common intervals on sequences Conclusion Finding Nested Common Intervals

    E-print Network

    Blin, Guillaume

    Conclusion Comparing genomes Genomes evolved from a common ancestor tend to share the same varieties of geneIntroduction Nested common intervals on permutations Nested common intervals on sequences Conclusion Finding Nested Common Intervals Efficiently Guillaume Blin1 Jens Stoye2 1Université Paris

  16. Threads of common knowledge.

    PubMed

    Icamina, P

    1993-04-01

    Indigenous knowledge is examined as it is affected by development and scientific exploration. The indigenous culture of shamanism, which originated in northern and southeast Asia, is a "political and religious technique for managing societies through rituals, myths, and world views." There is respect for the natural environment and community life as a social common good. This world view is still practiced by many in Latin America and in Colombia specifically. Colombian shamanism has an environmental accounting system, but the Brazilian government has established its own system of land tenure and political representation which does not adequately represent shamanism. In 1992 a conference was held in the Philippines by the International Institute for Rural Reconstruction and IDRC on sustainable development and indigenous knowledge. The link between the two is necessary. Unfortunately, there are already examples in the Philippines of loss of traditional crop diversity after the introduction of modern farming techniques and new crop varieties. An attempt was made to collect species, but without proper identification. Opposition was expressed to the preservation of wilderness preserves; the desire was to allow indigenous people to maintain their homeland and use their time-tested sustainable resource management strategies. Property rights were also discussed during the conference. Of particular concern was the protection of knowledge rights about biological diversity or pharmaceutical properties of indigenous plant species. The original owners and keepers of the knowledge must retain access and control. The research gaps were identified and found to be expansive. Reference was made to a study of Mexican Indian children who knew 138 plant species while non-Indian children knew only 37. Sometimes there is conflict of interest where foresters prefer timber forests and farmers desire fuelwood supplies and fodder and grazing land, which is provided by shrubland. Information and research priorities will be examined and an action plan developed in future months. PMID:12286443

  17. Common cancers in centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Shamfa C.; Delcastilo, Estevan; Osiro, Stephen; Loukas, Marios

    2014-01-01

    Background A Centenarian is a person who attains and lives beyond the age of 100. Four percent of centenarians die from cancer. It is therefore important to understand which cancers affect them in order to devise better methods to prevent and treat them. The aim of this study was to investigate the top cancers that affect centenarians. Material/Method We identified 1385 cases with the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Result (SEER) database. Our study included centenarians age 100–115 years diagnosed with the 5 most common cancers between 1973 and 2007 in the United States. Observed survival (OS) was calculated for each cancer type. The Kaplan-Meier (KM) method was used to calculate OS at 1-month intervals for the first 40 months after diagnosis using SEER*Stat version 7.04. A log rank test was performed on KM survival output and a Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate hazard ratios. All statistical analyses were performed with 95% confidence intervals with significance determined at P<0.05. Cox proportional hazard analysis was done using GraphPad Prism version 5.04. Results There were 879 (63.47%) females and 506 (36.53%) males. There were 1118 (80.72%) whites, 159 (11.48%) blacks, and 108 (7.80%) other. The top cancers were 405 (29.24%) breast, 267 (19.28%) colorectal, 254 (18.34%) prostate, 247 (17.83%) lung and bronchus, and 212 (15.31%) urinary and kidney cancer cases. Conclusions As the prevalence of centenarians increases, it is becoming increasingly important to become aware of the cancers that affect them in order to better manage them. PMID:24399367

  18. Open Mind Commons: An Inquisitive Approach to Learning Common Sense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Speer

    Open Mind Commons is an interface for collecting common sense knowledge from users over the Web. By giving the user many forms of feedback and using inferences by anal- ogy to find appropriate questions to ask, Open Mind Com- mons can learn well-connected structures of common sense knowledge, refine its existing knowledge, and build analo- gies that lead to even

  19. Conservation challenge: human-herbivore conflict in Chebera Churchura National Park, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Datiko, Demeke; Bekele, Afework

    2013-12-01

    An investigation on human-herbivore conflict was carried out in CCNP between 2011 and 2012 in seven randomly selected villages (Chebera, Serri, Yora, Shita, Delba, Chuchra, Chewda) around the Park. A total of 312 household samples were identified for interview. Group discussion and field observation were also carried out. Among the respondents, the majority (83.9%) faced crop damage. African elephant (Loxodonta africana), Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibious), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), Desert warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), Wild pig (Sus scrofa), Porcupine (Hystrix cristata), Vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) and Anubis baboon (Papio anubis) were identified as the most problematic animals in the area. However, buffalo, monkey and warthog were considered as the notorious pest. Crop damage and threats to human safety were the major problems encountered resulting in conflict between human and wildlife. Most respondents had a negative attitude towards the problem-posing animals. This will lead to a change in public attitude from one that supports wildlife conservation to sees wild herbivores as a threat and a potential negative consequence for wildlife conservation. Active measures have to be implemented to solve the problems and safeguard the future of the wildlife management in the park. PMID:24506044

  20. Chenopodiaceae (Goosefoot family) Common lambsquarters

    E-print Network

    family) Common lambsquarters continued Similar weeds Atriplex (Atriplex patula L.) Differs by having lambsquarters. #12;Chenopodiaceae (Goosefoot family) Common lambsquarters continued Atriplex plant. Atriplex seedling. Atriplex leaf base with a lobe on each side. #12;

  1. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  2. Culture and the Common School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Walter

    2007-01-01

    This essay addresses the question: given the flattening out of the cultural hierarchy that was the vestige of colonialism and nation-building, is there anything that might be uniquely common about the common school in this postmodern age? By "uniquely common" I do not mean those subjects that all schools might teach, such as reading or arithmetic.…

  3. ENGLISH AND LOCAL COMMON NAMES

    E-print Network

    ENGLISH AND LOCAL COMMON NAMES OF PHILIPPINE FISHES CIRCULAR 14 Marine Biological labiMutuo ( DEC 1;#12;ENGLISH AND LOCAL COMMON NAMES OF PHILIPPINE FISHES By Albert W. Herre, Ichthyologist Office of Foreign;ENGLISH AND LOCAL COMMON NAMES OF PHILIPPINE FISHES Contents Page Preface v English--Tagalog 1 English

  4. How common are Earths? How common are Jupiters?

    E-print Network

    Charles H. Lineweaver; Daniel Grether; Marton Hidas

    2002-09-19

    Among the billions of planetary systems that fill the Universe, we would like to know how ours fits in. Exoplanet data can already be used to address the question: How common are Jupiters? Here we discuss a simple analysis of recent exoplanet data indicating that Jupiter is a typical massive planet rather than an outlier. A more difficult question to address is: How common are Earths? However, much indirect evidence suggests that wet rocky planets are common.

  5. Common Southeast Wetland Plants Common name1,2

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Echinochloa walteri Water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes Common spikerush Eleocharis palustris Needlepod rush panacea Marsh seedbox Ludwigia palustris Purple loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Yellow water lily Nuphar

  6. Reichenbachian Common Cause Systems Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzola, Claudio

    2012-04-01

    According to Reichenbach's principle of common cause, positive statistical correlations for which no straightforward causal explanation is available should be explained by invoking the action of a hidden conjunctive common cause. Hofer-Szabó and Rédei's notion of a Reichenbachian common cause system is meant to generalize Reichenbach's conjunctive fork model to fit those cases in which two or more common causes cooperate in order to produce a positive statistical correlation. Such a generalization is proved to be unsatisfactory in the light of a probabilistic conception of causation. Accordingly, an alternative model for systems of multiple common causes is offered, which is capable of emulating the explanatory efficacy of Reichenbachian common cause systems, while overcoming their major conceptual shortcomings at the same time.

  7. How Common is Common Use Facilities at Airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbeau, Addison D.

    This study looked at common use airports across the country and at the implementation of common use facailities at airports. Common use consists of several elements that maybe installed at an airport. One of the elements is the self-service kiosks that allow passengers to have a faster check-in process, therefore moving them more quickly within the airport. Another element is signage and the incorporation of each airline's logo. Another aspect of common useis an airport regaining control of terminal gates by reducing the number of gates that are exclusively leased to a specific air carrier. This research focused on the current state of the common use facilities across the United States and examines the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. The research entailed interviews with personnel at a wide range of airports and found that each airport is in a different stage of implementation; some have fully implemented the common use concept while others are in the beginning stages of implementation. The questions were tailored to determine what the advantages and disadvantages are of a common use facility. The most common advantages reported included flexibility and cost. In the commom use system the airport reserves the right to move any airline to a different gate at any time for any reason. In turn, this helps reduce gates delays at that facility. For the airports that were interviewed no major disadvantages were reported. One down side of common use facilities for the airport involved is the major capital cost that is required to move to a common use system.

  8. Understanding Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Now that the Common Core standards are coming to just about every school, what every school leader needs is a straightforward explanation that lays out the benefits of the Common Core in plain English, provides a succinct overview, and gets everyone thinking about how to transition to this promising new paradigm. This handy, inexpensive booklet…

  9. Residential Dining Bartlett Dining Commons

    E-print Network

    Pritchard, Jonathan

    Residential Dining Commons Bartlett Dining Commons M-Th 7am - 8pm Fr 7am - 7pm Sa 8am - 2:30pm Su 8 - Thursday. M-Th 7am - 8pm Fr 7am - 7pm Sa 8am - 2:30pm Su 8am - 8pm Campus Markets Maroon Market M-Su 9am

  10. Uncovering common bacterial skin infections.

    PubMed

    Napierkowski, Daria

    2013-03-10

    The four most common bacterial skin infections are impetigo, erysipelas, cellulitis, and folliculitis. This article summarizes current information about the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and implications for primary care practice needed to effectively diagnose and treat common bacterial skin infections. PMID:23361375

  11. Oxley Creek Common Brisbane, Australia

    E-print Network

    Queensland, University of

    chance of observing have been marked in boldface. White-bellied Sea-Eagle pursued by Torresian crows (HP over the common, and can scan for birds of prey. Most mornings a White-bellied Sea-Eagle flies past screeching flocks. Golden- headed Cisticola and Tawny Grassbird are common in the grasslands. Australasian

  12. OSTA commonality analysis, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarik, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The 13 OSTA disciplines are examined and the applications being performed under each discipline and the parameter requirements associated with the various applications are identified. It contains a variety of printouts from the commonality database built using DRS on the Vax. It also shows commonality of parameter requirements by discipline and by application.

  13. Common eveningprimrose Oenothera biennis L.

    E-print Network

    Common eveningprimrose Oenothera biennis L. Life cycle Usually an erect biennial or winter annual through the winter. Flowers and fruit Flowers are yellow, attached to fused sepals forming a tube plant. Back to identifying Christmas tree weeds. #12;Onagraceae (Eveningprimrose family) Common

  14. Commons Request Form Organization Information

    E-print Network

    : _______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Space Requested (select one): _____ Kafadar Commons _____ Stratton Commons For IM fields, please contact Recreational Sports to reserve space; For athletic fields, please contact Athletics office to reserve space Date Please return form to Student Life Office, SC 218 Contact AJ Lauer 303-273-3353 alauer

  15. The Common Core Takes Hold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A survey administered in the spring of 2013 by the Center on Education Policy (CEP) inquired into the implementation of Common Core State Standards at that time. Based on self-reports by state officials, the survey found that curricula aligned to the common core were already being taught in at least some districts or grade levels. All states…

  16. Inherited risk for common disease

    E-print Network

    Banava, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium studies have discovered few gene-disease associations for common diseases. The explanation has been offered that complex modes of inheritance govern risk for cancers, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular ...

  17. Entomology CSIRO Australia: Common names

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    With almost 5000 entries this compendium of common names of Australian insects is one of the most thorough identification tools available online. Most of the pages include images and ranges as well as descriptions of the taxon.

  18. Blue Flame from Common Salt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Gladstone

    1879-01-01

    At the present time any spectroscopic observations of coloured flames are peculiarly interesting, and I am glad to see the origin of the blue or violet flame produced by common salt and other chlorides again discussed in your pages.

  19. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  20. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  1. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  2. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  3. Common Sense Concepts of Motion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ibrahim Abou Halloun

    1985-01-01

    Common sense (CS) misconceptions are not arbitrary or trivial. Indeed, every one of the misconceptions about motion common among students today was seriously advocated by leading intellectuals in pre-Newtonian times. If the evaluation of CS was so difficult for the intellectual giants from Aristotle to Galileo, we should not be surprised it is a problem for ordinary students today. Accordingly, common sense beliefs should be treated with genuine respect by instructors and regarded as serious alternative hypotheses to be evaluated by scientific procedures. A taxonomy of common sense concepts which conflict with Newton s laws is presented. Elementary teachers who are aware of these CS beliefs can teach deliberately to avoid contributing to student development of misconceptions.

  4. Vibrio chromosomes share common history

    E-print Network

    Kirkup, Benjamin C.

    Abstract Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it ...

  5. Vibrio chromosomes share common history

    E-print Network

    Kirkup, Benjamin C.

    Background: While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an ...

  6. FOUR COMMON TICKS OF PENNSYLVANIA

    E-print Network

    Kaye, Jason P.

    FOUR COMMON TICKS OF PENNSYLVANIA Tick-borne Diseases and Prevention, Tick Distributions, Life identified in Pennsylvania.Ofthese,fourspeciesaccountfornearly90percent of all submissions to Penn State in Pennsylvania and occurs in most counties. Hosts

  7. Antibiotic use for common cold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy W. Kenealy; Bruce Arroll

    Antibiotics do not help patients with an uncomplicated common cold. Antibiotics can have side effects for the individual taking\\u000a them that range from unpleasant to serious, even lethal. Antibiotic use also contributes to communal harm by encouraging antibiotic\\u000a resistance. If there can be no benefit, but there can be harm, why is the common cold the commonest reason for doctors

  8. Sinusitis in the common cold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuomo Puhakka; Mika J. Mäkelä; Anu Alanen; Timo Kallio; Leo Korsoff; Pertti Arstila; Maija Leinonen; Markku Pulkkinen; Jouko Suonpää; Jussi Mertsola; Olli Ruuskanen

    1998-01-01

    Background: Acute community-acquired sinusitis is considered a bacterial complication of the common cold. Radiologic abnormalities in sinuses occur, however, in most patients with upper respiratory virus infections.Objective: Assessment of the occurrence, clinical profile, laboratory findings, and outcome of radiologically confirmed sinusitis was carried out as part of a common cold study in young adults.Methods: Clinical examinations and radiography of the

  9. Common Core in Mathematics: Overview

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    EngageNY

    2011-01-01

    This 13-minute video shows CCSS contributing author David Coleman discussing the background of the Common Core State Standards, their value in the state, the principles of their development, and the changes required of schools during this transition. The video details six important shifts in math instruction that will take place through the Common Core, these include: more focus, coherence, fluency, deeper understanding, flexible application, and dual intensity. Included with this video are resources for teachers and discussion questions.

  10. Garlic for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions There is insufficient clinical trial evidence regarding the effects of garlic in preventing or treating the common cold. A single trial suggested that garlic may prevent occurrences of the common cold but more studies are needed to validate this finding. Claims of effectiveness appear to rely largely on poor-quality evidence. PMID:25386977

  11. Surveying the Commons: Current Implementation of Information Commons Web sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeder, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the content of 72 academic library Information Commons (IC) Web sites using content analysis, quantitative assessment and qualitative surveys of site administrators to analyze current implementation by the academic library community. Results show that IC Web sites vary widely in content, design and functionality, with few…

  12. Creative Commons and Why It Should Be More Commonly Understood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Doug

    2009-01-01

    Authors, videographers, musicians, photographers, and almost anyone who creates materials and makes them publicly available has an alternative to standard copyright licensing: Creative Commons (CC). It is a tool that helps the creator display a licensing mark. The creator can assign a variety of rights for others to use his work--rights that are…

  13. Vibrio chromosomes share common history

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II) were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes. PMID:20459749

  14. Common Sense Concepts About Motion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Halloun, Ibrahim

    In this article we will not attack the difficult problem of designing instruction to accommodate CS preconceptions. But let us note that CS concepts experience providing meaning to our natural language. Discourse on physics would be impossible without it. Indeed, physics and science in general can be instruction frequently appeals tacitly to common sense knowledge, but students have trouble when that knowledge is faulty. It is difficult for students to determine exactly what common sense knowledge is realiable without an explicit critique of CS concepts. Our survey of CS concepts of motion is intended to provide a basis for such a critique.

  15. Tennyson and the Common People

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Kathryne Marie

    1914-01-01

    , nuns. 9. Farmers. V. Summary. 1. Relation of rich and poor. 2. Education and housing of the poor. 3. Class distinctions. TENNYSON AND THE COMMON PEOPLE. The subject for the present paper was suggested by a statement to the effect that Tennyson... people of England as they appear in one of its greatest national poets. T his paper will not attempt to include all those represented in the poems who do not have a t itle, but, since the common people are generally working people, the term...

  16. The last common bilaterian ancestor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, Douglas H.; Davidson, Eric H.

    2002-01-01

    Many regulatory genes appear to be utilized in at least superficially similar ways in the development of particular body parts in Drosophila and in chordates. These similarities have been widely interpreted as functional homologies, producing the conventional view of the last common protostome-deuterostome ancestor (PDA) as a complex organism that possessed some of the same body parts as modern bilaterians. Here we discuss an alternative view, in which the last common PDA had a less complex body plan than is frequently conceived. This reconstruction alters expectations for Neoproterozoic fossil remains that could illustrate the pathways of bilaterian evolution.

  17. Identifying Common Sweet Corn Caterpillars

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Identifying Common Sweet Corn Caterpillars Education Center and Info Line practical solutions, and European corn borer caterpillars can all infest the ears of sweet corn. The most reliable way to identify them is to examine the heads of the caterpillars. Corn earworm caterpillars have a uniform light yellow

  18. Common Core: Solve Math Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Erich

    2012-01-01

    The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond…

  19. Common Reactions to Stress Emotional

    E-print Network

    Weston, Ken

    · Take breaks from social media and news #12;Things to consider... · This may take time, take the time#12;Common Reactions to Stress · Physical · Mental · Emotional · Behavioral #12;Physical · Fatigue Health Services · www.uhs.fsu.edu · (850) 644-4567 #12;Resources · Career Center · www

  20. NIH Roadmap & the Common Fund

    Cancer.gov

    The NIH Roadmap for Medical Research is a series of high impact, trans-NIH programs supported by the NIH Common Fund. These programs address challenges that are priorities for the NIH and medical research but are issues that require the cooperation of more than one NIH institute to address.

  1. Common Core: Fact vs. Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Despite students' interest in informational text, it has played second fiddle in literacy instruction for years. Now, though, nonfiction is getting its turn in the spotlight. The Common Core State Standards require that students become thoughtful consumers of complex, informative texts--taking them beyond the realm of dry textbooks and…

  2. The Flame of Common Salt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. N. Müller

    1876-01-01

    HAVING been much interested in the progress of the investigations concerning the blue flame of common salt when thrown into a coal fire, I made the following experiments, by which I came to the conclusion that the origin of the blue flame is due to the presence of copper, which occurs in nearly every coal as an ingredient of the

  3. TRUMAN STATE UNIVERSITY'S COMMON FRAMEWORK

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    TRUMAN STATE UNIVERSITY'S COMMON FRAMEWORK FOR CRITICAL THINKING PEDAGOGY 30 October, 2012 Pathways Critical Thinking Task Force Table of Contents Framework Narrative 1-10 Introduction and Rationale 1: Critical Thinking Rubric Template Appendix B: "Purple Paper: Critical Thinking Task Force" Exhibits Exhibit

  4. The last common bilaterian ancestor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas H. Erwin; Eric H. Davidson

    2002-01-01

    Many regulatory genes appear to be utilized in at least superficially similar ways in the development of particular body parts in Drosophila and in chordates. These similarities have been widely interpreted as functional homologies, producing the conventional view of the last common protostome-deuterostome ancestor (PDA) as a complex organism that possessed some of the same body parts as modern bilaterians.

  5. An overview of COMMON LISP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy L. Steele Jr.; Alan Bawden; Rodney A. Brooks; Richard L. Bryan; Glenn S. Burke; I. Cannon; George J. Carrette; David Dill; Scott E. Fahlman; Richard J. Fateman; Neal Feinberg; John Foderaro; Richard P. Gabriel; Joseph Ginder; Richard Greenblatt; Martin L. Griss; Earl A. Killian; John L. Kulp; Larry M. Masinter; John McCarthy; David A. Moon; William L. Scherlis; Richard M. Stallman; Walter van Roggen; Allan C. Wechsler; Daniel L. Weinreb; Jon L White; Richard Zippel; Leonard Zubkoff

    1982-01-01

    A dialect of LISP called “COMMON LISP” is being cooperatively developed and implemented at several sites. It is a descendant of the MACLISP family of LISP dialects, and is intended to unify the several divergent efforts of the last five years. We first give an extensive history of LISP, particularly of the MACLISP branch, in order to explain in context

  6. Common Ground: Opportunities and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, M. Katherine; Muck, Randolph; Bazemore, Gordon

    2001-01-01

    Wraps up a theme issue that explores the common ground between the restorative justice and community justice movements and examines their effect on substance-abusing youth and the communities in which they reside. Suggests that restorative justice programs may help adolescent treatment providers in their adoption of practices to promote change and…

  7. The Common Core Math Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurman, Ze'ev; Wilson, W. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    More than 40 states have now signed onto the Common Core standards in English language arts and math, which have been both celebrated as a tremendous advance and criticized as misguided and for bearing the heavy thumbprint of the federal government. This article presents an interview with Ze'ev Wurman and W. Stephen Wilson. Wurman, who was a U.S.…

  8. Common sleep disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Carter, Kevin A; Hathaway, Nathanael E; Lettieri, Christine F

    2014-03-01

    Up to 50% of children will experience a sleep problem. Early identification of sleep problems may prevent negative consequences, such as daytime sleepiness, irritability, behavioral problems, learning difficulties, motor vehicle crashes in teenagers, and poor academic performance. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs in 1% to 5% of children. Polysomnography is needed to diagnose the condition because it may not be detected through history and physical examination alone. Adenotonsillectomy is the primary treatment for most children with obstructive sleep apnea. Parasomnias are common in childhood; sleepwalking, sleep talking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors tend to occur in the first half of the night, whereas nightmares are more common in the second half of the night. Only 4% of parasomnias will persist past adolescence; thus, the best management is parental reassurance and proper safety measures. Behavioral insomnia of childhood is common and is characterized by a learned inability to fall and/or stay asleep. Management begins with consistent implementation of good sleep hygiene practices, and, in some cases, use of extinction techniques may be appropriate. Delayed sleep phase disorder is most common in adolescence, presenting as difficulty falling asleep and awakening at socially acceptable times. Treatment involves good sleep hygiene and a consistent sleep-wake schedule, with nighttime melatonin and/or morning bright light therapy as needed. Diagnosing restless legs syndrome in children can be difficult; management focuses on trigger avoidance and treatment of iron deficiency, if present. PMID:24695508

  9. Oxley Creek Common Brisbane, Australia

    E-print Network

    Queensland, University of

    chance of observing have been marked in boldface. White-bellied Sea-Eagle pursued by Torresian crows (HP over the common, and can scan for birds of prey. Most mornings a White-bellied Sea-Eagle flies past. Both Rainbow and Scaly-breasted Lorikeets fly over in small screeching flocks. Golden-headed Cisticola

  10. Common Issues in Professional Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janosik, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    Most conversations about ethics and professional behavior involve case studies and hypothetical situations. This study identifies and examines the most common concerns in professional behavior as reported by 303 student affairs practitioners in the field. Differences by gender, years of experience, organizational level, institutional type, and…

  11. Community Commons Program Development Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Kieta Osteen

    Community Commons (CC) is a collaborative partnership among Brevard Community College (BCC) (Florida) and over 40 social service organizations and agencies in Florida dedicated to providing education, job training, social services, recreation, and a drug free environment to communities of low income families. The project specifically seeks to…

  12. Upper Back Pain COMMON CAUSES

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    than injury to the spine. Your back may feel tight or sore to touch. Muscle spasms may develop will help the muscles relax. Headache is a common side effect of tight, sore muscles of the upper back, such as improper lifting, bending, or twisting motion, or from poor conditioning (muscle strengthen

  13. Common Core: Rx for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paige

    2012-01-01

    When David Coleman, one of the authors of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), spoke to New York educators, he stated that over the last forty years 8th grade reading scores have been flat. Despite doubling expenditures on classroom instruction, there has been little growth. Most educators are aware that what worked for the students of the…

  14. LIGHTING 101 1. Common terminology

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    these terms in professional practice? 3. What other lighting terminology do you use on the job? SLIDE 14: COMMON LIGHTING TERMINOLOGY 1. What are the definitions of the following lighting terms? 2. Do you use Temperature (CCT) A specification of the color appearance of light emitted by a lamp, relating its color

  15. CROWN/MERRILL DINING COMMONS

    E-print Network

    Wilmers, Chris

    COLLEGE OFFICES FIRESIDE LOUNGE CROWN/MERRILL DINING COMMONS BANANA JOE'S STUDENT LIFE PROVOST QUAD CHINQUAPINROAD TOCROWN/MERRILL APARTMENTS LOWER QUAD RUTHERFORD HOUSE TO PARKING AND CROWN-MERRILL APTS. TO PARKING LOT 111 TO MERRILL COLLEGE CROWN CIRCLE CROWN LIBRARY Library - 1st floor Computer Lab

  16. Technology: Technology and Common Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2004-01-01

    The absence of common sense in the world of technology continues to amaze the author. Things that seem so logical to just aren nott for many people. The installation of Voice-over IP (VoIP, with IP standing for Internet Protocol) in many school districts is a good example. Schools have always had trouble with telephones. Many districts don't even…

  17. Common Misconceptions about Software Architecture

    E-print Network

    van der Hoek, André

    Common Misconceptions about Software Architecture by Philippe Kruchten Rational Fellow Rational Software Canada References to architecture are everywhere: in every article, in every ad. And we take definition of software architecture. Are we all understanding the same thing? We gladly accept that software

  18. Chemflex Overview: Common Chemistry core

    E-print Network

    Napier, Terrence

    393 3 Physical polymer science CHM 394 3 Organic polymer science BS Pharmaceutical Chemistry CourseChemflex Overview: Common Chemistry core CHM 40, 41 (or CHM 30, 31) 8 Introductory chemistry CHM 110,111,112,113 8 Organic chemistry CHM 332 3 Analytical chemistry CHM 201*** 2 Technical writing CHM

  19. A calendar with common sense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik T. Mueller

    2000-01-01

    Digital devices today have little understanding of their real-world context, and as a result they often make stupid mistakes. To improve this situation we are developing a database of world knowledge called ThoughtTreasure at the same time that we develop intelligent applications. In this paper we present one such application, SensiCal, a calendar with a degree of common sense. We

  20. The Common Geometry Module (CGM).

    SciTech Connect

    Tautges, Timothy James

    2004-12-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also includes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  1. Common Rail Injection System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Electro-Motive,

    2005-12-30

    The collaborative research program between the Department of energy and Electro-Motive Diesels, Inc. on the development of common rail fuel injection system for locomotive diesel engines that can meet US EPA Tier 2 exhaust emissions has been completed. This final report summarizes the objectives of the program, work scope, key accomplishments and research findings. The major objectives of this project encompassed identification of appropriate injection strategies by using advanced analytical tools, development of required prototype hardware/controls, investigations of fuel spray characteristics including cavitation phenomena, and validation of hareware using a single-cylinder research locomotive diesel engine. Major milestones included: (1) a detailed modeling study using advanced mathematical models - several various injection profiles that show simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulates on a four stroke-cycle locomotive diesel engine were identified; (2) development of new common rail fuel injection hardware capable of providing these injection profiles while meeting EMD engine and injection performance specifications. This hardware was developed together with EMD's current fuel injection component supplier. (3) Analysis of fuel spray characteristics. Fuel spray numerical studies and high speed photographic imaging analyses were performed. (4) Validation of new hardware and fuel injection profiles. EMD's single-cylinder research diesel engine located at Argonne National Laboratory was used to confirm emissions and performacne predictions. These analytical ane experimental investigations resulted in optimized fuel injection profiles and engine operating conditions that yield reductions in NOx emissions from 7.8 g/bhp-hr to 5.0 g/bhp-hr at full (rated) load. Additionally, hydrocarbon and particulate emissions were reduced considerably when compared to baseline Tier I levels. The most significant finding from the injection optimization process was a 2% to 3% improvement in fuel economy over EMD's traditional Tier I engine hardware configuration. the common rail fuel injection system enabled this added benefit by virtue of an inherent capability to provide multiple injections per power stroke at high fuel rail pressures. On the basis of the findings in this study, EMD concludes that the new electronically-controlled high-pressure common rail injection system has the potential to meet locomotive Tier 2 NOx and particulates emission standards without sacrificing the fuel economy. A number of areas to further improve the injection hardware and engine operating characteristics to further exploit the benefits of common rail injection system have also been identified.

  2. Otitis from the common bedbug.

    PubMed

    Cimolai, Nevio; Cimolai, Tomas L

    2012-12-01

    There is a resurgence of interest in the biology and clinical disease associated with Cimex lectularius, as the common bed bug is becoming more prevalent in well-developed countries. A patient presented with complaints of right ear irritation for several days' duration. A foreign body was lavaged from the ear canal, which proved to be an engorged nymphal form of Cimex lectularius. The parasite had apparently obtained a blood feed from the tympanic membrane. The resolution of the illness was unremarkable. This ectoparasite is currently re-emerging as a human pest worldwide. The case report herein describes a new variation of the dermatological manifestations from this infestation. PMID:23277805

  3. Sampled Longest Common Prefix Array

    E-print Network

    Sirén, Jouni

    2010-01-01

    When augmented with the longest common prefix (LCP) array and some other structures, the suffix array can solve many string processing problems in optimal time and space. A compressed representation of the LCP array is also one of the main building blocks in many compressed suffix tree proposals. In this paper, we describe a new compressed LCP representation: the sampled LCP array. We show that when used with a compressed suffix array (CSA), the sampled LCP array often offers better time/space trade-offs than the existing alternatives. We also show how to construct the compressed representations of the LCP array directly from a CSA.

  4. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  5. On finding lowest common ancestors

    SciTech Connect

    Schieber, B.; Vishkin, U.

    1988-12-01

    The authors consider the following problem. Suppose a rooted tree T is available for preprocessing. Answer on-line queries requesting the lowest common ancestor for any pair of vertices in T. They present a linear time and space preprocessing algorithm that enables us to answer each query in O(1) time, as in previous algorithms. Our algorithm has the advantage of being simple and easily parallelizable. The resulting parallel preprocessing algorithm runs in logarithmic time using an optimal number of processors on an EREW PRAM. Each query is then answered in O(1) time using a single processor.

  6. Common Knowledge in Email Exchanges

    E-print Network

    Sietsma, Floor

    2011-01-01

    We consider a framework in which a group of agents communicates by means of emails, with the possibility of replies, forwards and blind carbon copies (BCC). We study the epistemic consequences of such email exchanges by introducing an appropriate epistemic language and semantics. This allows us to determine when a group of agents acquires common knowledge of the formula expressing that an email was sent. We also show that in our framework from the epistemic point of view the BCC feature of emails cannot be simulated using messages without BCC recipients. Finally, we clarify the notion of a causal relationship between emails using the concept of properly terminating email exchanges.

  7. Common elbow injuries in sport.

    PubMed

    Field, L D; Savoie, F H

    1998-09-01

    Athletes of all ages and skill levels are increasingly participating in sports involving overhead arm motions, making elbow injuries more common. Among these injuries is lateral epicondylitis, which occurs in over 50% of athletes using overhead arm motions. Lateral epicondylitis is characterised by pain in the area where the common extensor muscles meet the lateral humeral epicondyle. The onset of this pathological condition begins with the excessive use of the wrist extensor musculature. Repetitive microtraumatic injury can lead to mucinoid degeneration of the extensor origin and subsequent failure of the tendon. Lateral epicondylitis can almost always be treated nonoperatively with activity modification and specific exercises. If the athlete fails to respond to nonoperative treatment after 6 months to 1 year, they are candidates for surgical intervention. Medial epicondylitis is characterised by pain and tenderness at the flexor-pronator tendinous origin with pathology commonly being located at the interface between the pronator teres and flexor carpi radialis origin. Golfers and tennis players often develop this condition because of the repetitive valgus stress placed on the medial elbow soft tissues. Careful evaluation is important to differentiate medial epicondylitis from other causes of medial elbow pain. As with lateral epicondylitis, patients with medial epicondylitis not responding to an extensive nonoperative programme are candidates for surgical intervention. A less common cause of medial elbow pain is medial ulnar collateral ligament injury. Repetitive valgus stress placed on the joint can lead to microtraumatic injury and valgus instability. When the medial ulnar collateral ligament is disrupted, abnormal stress is placed on the articular surfaces that can lead to degenerative changes with osteophyte formation. As with other elbow injuries, a strict rehabilitation regimen is first employed; ligament reconstruction is only recommended if the injury fails to improve and only in athletes requiring a high level of performance. Excessive valgus stress can also lead to posteromedial olecranon impingement on the olecranon fossa producing pain, osteophyte and loose body formation. Arthroscopic elbow debridement can often be helpful in improving motion and in reducing pain in such patients. PMID:9802175

  8. Common and Scientific Names Table D1 Common and scientific names as referred to in document.

    E-print Network

    to in document. COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME BIRDS American crow Corvus brachyrhynchos American kestrel Falco nighthawk Chordeiles minor Common poorwill Phalaenoptilus nuttallii Common raven Corvus corax Cooper's hawk

  9. The Common Communication Interface (CCI)

    SciTech Connect

    Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Atchley, Scott [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL; Geoffray, Patrick [ORNL; Bosilca, George [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Squyres, Jeffrey M [ORNL; Minnich, Ronald [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)

    2011-01-01

    There are many APIs for connecting and exchanging data between network peers. Each interface varies wildly based on metrics including performance, portability, and complexity. Specifically, many interfaces make design or implementation choices emphasizing some of the more desirable metrics (e.g., performance) while sacrificing others (e.g., portability). As a direct result, software developers building large, network-based applications are forced to choose a specific network API based on a complex, multi-dimensional set of criteria. Such trade-offs inevitably result in an interface that fails to deliver some desirable features. In this paper, we introduce a novel interface that both supports many features that have become standard (or otherwise generally expected) in other communication interfaces, and strives to export a small, yet powerful, interface. This new interface draws upon years of experience from network-oriented software development best practices to systems-level implementations. The goal is to create a relatively simple, high-level communication interface with low barriers to adoption while still providing important features such as scalability, resiliency, and performance. The result is the Common Communications Interface (CCI): an intuitive API that is portable, efficient, scalable, and robust to meet the needs of network-intensive applications common in HPC and cloud computing.

  10. Management of common sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramar, Kannan; Olson, Eric J

    2013-08-15

    Sleep disorders are common and affect sleep quality and quantity, leading to increased morbidity. Patients with sleep disorders can be categorized as those who cannot sleep, those who will not sleep, those with excessive daytime sleepiness, and those with increased movements during sleep. Insomnia, defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep that results in daytime impairment, is diagnosed using history findings and treated with cognitive behavior therapy, with or without sleep hypnotics. Restless legs syndrome is characterized by an urge to move the legs that worsens with rest, is relieved by movement, and often occurs in the evening or at night. Restless legs syndrome is treated based on the frequency of symptoms. Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. It is diagnosed using a sleep log or actigraphy, followed by overnight polysomnography and a multiple sleep latency test. Narcolepsy is treated with stimulants, such as modafinil; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; or gamma hydroxybutyric acid (sodium oxybate). Patients with snoring and witnessed apneas may have obstructive sleep apnea, which is diagnosed using overnight polysomnography. Continuous positive airway pressure is the most common and effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is characterized by increased muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep, resulting in the patient acting out dreams with possible harmful consequences. It is diagnosed based on history and polysomnography findings, and treated with environmental safety measures and melatonin or clonazepam. PMID:23944726

  11. Common sense in nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyle, F.; Hoyle, G.

    1980-01-01

    Public concern about energy resource exhaustion is noted to have developed only after the means (nuclear power) for avoiding this disaster became available and the negative implications of a nuclear society became a focus for anxiety. Ironically, collapse of conventional energy supplies could lead to the nuclear confrontation which anti-nuclear forces claim as the inevitable outcome of nuclear power. A review of the risks, environmental impacts, and political implications of the major energy sources concludes that emotion, not common sense, has made nuclear energy an unpopular option. While the problems of proliferation, radiation protection, waste management, and accident prevention are far from trivial, they will respond to technological improvements and responsible control policies. An historical tradition of fearing new, poorly understood technologies is seen in the reaction to railroads during the early 19th Century. (DCK)

  12. Work and common psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, M; Harvey, SB; Øverland, S; Mykletun, A; Hotopf, M

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are now the most common reason for long-term sickness absence. The associated loss in productivity and the payment of disability benefits places a substantial burden on the economies of many developed countries. The occupational dysfunction associated with psychiatric disorders can also lead to poverty and social isolation. As a result the area of work and psychiatric disorders is a high priority for policymakers. There are two main agendas: for many researchers and clinicians the focus is on the need to overcome stigma and ensure people with severe psychiatric disorders have meaningful work; however the public health agenda predominantly relates to the more common disorders such as depression and anxiety, which contribute a greater burden of disability benefits and pensions. In this review we attempt to address this second agenda. The relatively sparse evidence available reveals a complex field with significant interplay between medical, psychological social and cultural factors. Sick leave can be a ‘process’ as well as an ‘event’. In this review we propose a staged model where different risk and protective factors contribute to the onset of psychiatric disorders in the working population, the onset of short-term sickness absence, and the transition from short- to long-term absence. We also examine strategies to manage psychiatric disorder in the workforce with a view towards returning the employee to work. Our aim in this review is to highlight the complexity of the area, to stimulate debate and to identify important gaps in knowledge where further research might benefit both patients and wider society. PMID:21558098

  13. Review of the Draft K-12 Common

    E-print Network

    Wilson, W. Stephen

    Review of the Draft K-12 Common Core Standards Sheila Byrd CarmiChael, W. Stephen WilSon, Ga porter-maGee, and amBer m. WinKler The Common Core Reviews Common Core Standards for Mathematics (K-12) W. Stephen WilSon and GaBrielle martino Common Core Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy

  14. Instruction and "The Commons". The College Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasowitz-Scheer, Abby

    2009-01-01

    Many academic libraries have embraced the concept of the information commons or the learning commons. These library spaces consist of collections of tools, services and programs intended to enhance the student learning experience. According to Scott Bennett (2008), an information commons supports learning, while the learning commons "enacts" the…

  15. Common and less common peripheral nerve disorders associated with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Michael; Rajabally, Yusuf A

    2012-05-01

    Diabetes can be associated with a number of peripheral nerve disorders. The commonest is slowly-progressive axonal distal symmetrical sensori-motor neuropathy. Sensory loss and positive sensory symptoms are its main manifestations. Lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy (LSRPN) is a distinct entity, accompanied by severe lumbar, hip, leg pain and weight loss, with subsequent weakness. Although typically unilateral, bilaterality is described, with spontaneous recovery usual over several months. The upper limb counterpart, cervical radiculoplexus neuropathy is rare. Acute painful neuropathies, including "diabetic neuropathic cachexia", are infrequent. Accompanying weight loss is usual and burning pains in the extremities are severe. Insulin-triggered acute painful neuropathy is well-described although infrequent and still poorly-understood. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) represents an immune-mediated treatable disorder, usually causing prominent diffuse motor weakness, which was described as more common in diabetics. More recent epidemiological data have however been conflicting and it is possible that CIDP is no more frequent in diabetics than in the general population. Diagnosis is made by electrophysiology and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. A painless diabetic motor neuropathy, thought to be caused by ischaemic injury and microvasculitis, has recently been postulated as separate from LSRPN and CIDP. Other focal and multifocal neuropathies that can occur in diabetics are cranial or truncal. Entrapment neuropathies are more often of median and ulnar nerves, and may in some cases benefit from decompression. Finally, autonomic neuropathies are well-described in diabetes and can be diverse in presentation with cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, urogenital and sudomotor manifestations. Their management can be difficult with debilitating symptoms despite treatment. PMID:22283678

  16. Common variable immunodeficiency - an update

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) describes a heterogeneous subset of hypogammaglobulinemias of unknown etiology. Typically, patients present with recurrent bacterial infections of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. A significant proportion of CVID patients develops additional autoimmune, inflammatory or lymphoproliferative complications. CVID is the most frequent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency encountered in adults. Informative monogenetic defects have been found in single patients and families but in most cases the pathogenesis is still elusive. Numerous immunological studies have demonstrated phenotypic and functional abnormalities of T cells, B cells and antigen-presenting cells. A hallmark is the impaired memory B-cell formation that has been taken advantage of for classifying CVID patients. Clinical multi-center studies have demonstrated a correlation between immunological markers and clinical presentation. Long-term outcome is significantly influenced by delay of diagnosis and treatment and the presence of chronic inflammatory complications. While immunoglobulin replacement therapy plus antibiotics can control infections in most cases, patients with non-infectious inflammatory complications such as granulomatous inflammation, interstitial lung disease, inflammatory bowel disease, lymphoproliferation and developing malignancies still represent a therapeutic challenge. In this review we provide a systematic overview of the immunological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of CVID and highlight recent developments in these fields. PMID:23043756

  17. Designing the Microbial Research Commons

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlir, Paul F

    2011-10-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an ever-increasing range and volume of digital data. All elements of the pillars of science--whether observation, experiment, or theory and modeling--are being transformed by the continuous cycle of generation, dissemination, and use of factual information. This is even more so in terms of the re-using and re-purposing of digital scientific data beyond the original intent of the data collectors, often with dramatic results. We all know about the potential benefits and impacts of digital data, but we are also aware of the barriers, the challenges in maximizing the access, and use of such data. There is thus a need to think about how a data infrastructure can enhance capabilities for finding, using, and integrating information to accelerate discovery and innovation. How can we best implement an accessible, interoperable digital environment so that the data can be repeatedly used by a wide variety of users in different settings and with different applications? With this objective: to use the microbial communities and microbial data, literature, and the research materials themselves as a test case, the Board on Research Data and Information held an International Symposium on Designing the Microbial Research Commons at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC on 8-9 October 2009. The symposium addressed topics such as models to lower the transaction costs and support access to and use of microbiological materials and digital resources from the perspective of publicly funded research, public-private interactions, and developing country concerns. The overall goal of the symposium was to stimulate more research and implementation of improved legal and institutional models for publicly funded research in microbiology.

  18. Strategic mating with common preferences.

    PubMed

    Alpern, Steve; Reyniers, Diane

    2005-12-21

    We present a two-sided search model in which individuals from two groups (males and females, employers and workers) would like to form a long-term relationship with a highly ranked individual of the other group, but are limited to individuals who they randomly encounter and to those who also accept them. This article extends the research program, begun in Alpern and Reyniers [1999. J. Theor. Biol. 198, 71-88], of providing a game theoretic analysis for the Kalick-Hamilton [1986. J. Personality Soc. Psychol. 51, 673-682] mating model in which a cohort of males and females of various 'fitness' or 'attractiveness' levels are randomly paired in successive periods and mate if they accept each other. Their model compared two acceptance rules chosen to represent homotypic (similarity) preferences and common (or 'type') preferences. Our earlier paper modeled the first kind by assuming that if a level x male mates with a level y female, both get utility -|x-y|, whereas this paper models the second kind by giving the male utility y and the female utility x. Our model can also be seen as a continuous generalization of the discrete fitness-level game of Johnstone [1997. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 40, 51-59]. We establish the existence of equilibrium strategy pairs, give examples of multiple equilibria, and conditions guaranteeing uniqueness. In all equilibria individuals become less choosy over time, with high fitness individuals pairing off with each other first, leaving the rest to pair off later. This route to assortative mating was suggested by Parker [1983. Mate Choice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 141-164]. If the initial fitness distributions have atoms, then mixed strategy equilibria may also occur. If these distributions are unknown, there are equilibria in which only individuals in the same fitness band are mated, as in the steady-state model of MacNamara and Collins [1990. J. Appl. Prob. 28, 815-827] for the job search problem. PMID:16171826

  19. Returning common sense to regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.R.

    1995-10-01

    While these sessions of the November 1995 meeting of the American Nuclear Society are being devoted to the Linear Theory of harm from radiation, it must be realized that the low-level radiation issue, as important as it may be, is but a subset of an entire body of environmental issues running afoul of common sense. Cellular phones, electromagnetic fields, asbestos, dioxin, acid rain, and others especially in their public portrayals, some in their regulatory treatment, are based upon exaggerated or misunderstood risks. One must recognize that what lies ahead is an immense effort to revisit the underlying science of the existing regulations of radiation exposures. New evidence has been published, and most importantly, it is now recognized that many of these regulations--promulgated with the best of intentions--have been extraordinarily harmful to the public. In many cases, the harm has been exaggerated, and has created in the public policy arena the notion that the public is at great risk from the smallest sources of radiation. The national cost of compliance with these regulations has been enormous. To the extent that existing environmental regulations are not being moderated, they pose major economic threats to present and future industries involving nuclear materials and technology. These would include the pharmaceutical industries as well as those seeking U.S. isotope markets in separations, purification, labeling, and manufacturing of new radiopharmaceuticals for cancer therapy, diagnosis, pain mitigation, treatment of arthritis, and other new applications. For those who are not aware of the results of recent advances in radiopharmaceuticals, clinical trials have demonstrated an 80% remission rate in the treatment of b-cell lymphoma and leukemia. New isotopes and new isotope technology promise greater effectiveness in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. The regulatory problems and their enormous costs exist at all stages in nuclear medicine, from the manufacture of the radiopharmaceuticals to the disposal of low-level wastes in Ward Valley, California, for example. Access to these promising new technologies will be severely limited under the existing regulatory environment.

  20. Common lung conditions: acute dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Delzell, John E

    2013-06-01

    Dyspnea is a subjective experience of breathing discomfort; patients experience qualitatively distinct sensations that vary in intensity. Acute dyspnea might be secondary to an acute problem, or it might be an exacerbation of an existing disease (eg, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure). It also accompanies a variety of illnesses at the end of life. New information has changed differentiation between respiratory and cardiovascular etiologies of acute dyspnea, as well as rapid diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Management of acute dyspnea from hypercapnic failure also has changed. Patients presenting with dyspnea most commonly have underlying cardiovascular and/or respiratory etiologies, and differentiating between the two can be challenging. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are elevated when ventricular wall tension increases (eg, during a heart failure exacerbation). BNP and NT-proBNP are most useful for identifying patients with dyspnea who do not have heart failure. A BNP level less than 50 pg/mL has a negative predictive value of 96%, effectively ruling out heart failure; a serum BNP level less than 100 pg/mL has a negative likelihood ratio of 0.11. Patients with pulmonary embolism often present with dyspnea, and this condition needs to be diagnosed and managed expeditiously. When pulmonary embolism is suspected, use a clinical decision rule (eg, the Wells rule, the Geneva rule) to establish the probability of this condition. For patients with a low probability, obtain a D-dimer test; if the D-dimer result is negative, monitor the patient. A positive D-dimer result requires further investigation. For patients with intermediate or high probability, obtain computed tomography pulmonary angiography for a definitive diagnosis. Patients who have dyspnea from a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation can experience hypercapnic failure. As an adjunct to usual medical treatment, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation decreases the need for mechanical ventilation and is particularly useful in patients who have chosen not to be resuscitated with intubation. PMID:23767418

  1. Rare Virus Discovered in Common Tick

    MedlinePLUS

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rare Virus Discovered in Common Tick Scientists not yet sure ... FRIDAY, Jan. 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A rare virus has been found in ticks that are common ...

  2. Common cold - how to treat at home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Antibiotics are almost never needed to treat a common cold. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) help lower ... Many home remedies are popular treatments for the common cold. These include vitamin C, zinc supplements, and Echinacea. ...

  3. Common Core Exploring Language Literacy in

    E-print Network

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Common Core Standards Exploring Language Literacy in Middle & Secondary Science (ELLMS2 ) Sponsored the Common Core Stand- ards for Literacy in the Content Areas, the North Carolina Essential Science Standards

  4. The Common Core Mathematics Standards: Implications for

    E-print Network

    Wu, Hung-Hsi

    The Common Core Mathematics Standards: Implications for Administrators Crystal Mountain Resort, MI twenty years. By 2014, the Common Core Mathematics Standards (CCMS) will be phased in. Will it be just

  5. Commonality of ground systems in launch operations

    E-print Network

    Quinn, Shawn M

    2008-01-01

    NASA is examining the utility of requiring a certain degree of commonality in both flight and ground systems in the Constellation Program. While the benefits of commonality seem obvious in terms of minimizing upfront ...

  6. What Are Some Commonly Abused Prescription Drugs?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... some of the commonly abused prescription drugs? Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter What are some of the ... 2014 Contents From the Director What is prescription drug abuse? What are some of the commonly abused prescription ...

  7. Boat electrofishing survey of common smelt and common bullies in the Ohau Channel

    E-print Network

    Waikato, University of

    Boat electrofishing survey of common smelt and common bullies in the Ohau Channel CBER Contract Table 3. Numbers and densities of common smelt and common bullies at sites in the Ohau Channel that were bully and common smelt in the Ohau Channel on 13 December 2007

  8. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dischinger, Portia

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation presents NASA's Common Badging and Access Control System. NASA began a Smart Card implementation in January 2004. Following site surveys, it was determined that NASA's badging and access control systems required upgrades to common infrastructure in order to provide flexibly, usability, and return on investment prior to a smart card implantation. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS) provides the common infrastructure from which FIPS-201 compliant processes, systems, and credentials can be developed and used.

  9. REGISTRATION OF 'EMGOPA 201-OURO' COMMON BEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean cultivar EMGOPA 201- Ouro is among the first common bean cultivars developed by breeding, with resistance to multiple diseases. EMGOPA 201- Ouro has the I gene for resistance to the Bean common mosaic virus. It is also moderately resistant to angular leaf spot (caused by Phaeoisariopsis ...

  10. Introduction What is the Common Core Curriculum?

    E-print Network

    Leung, Ka-Cheong

    #12;Introduction What is the Common Core Curriculum? What are the goals? What will you study? WhatRequirementsfor TakingCommonCoreCoursesforStudents Enteringin2013-14 Non-Permissible Combinations · Table2:Non-PermissibleCombinationsof CommonCoreCourses The Areas of Inquiry: Rationale, Aims and Objectives, and Key Themes · Scientificand

  11. Introduction What is the Common Core Curriculum?

    E-print Network

    Leung, Ka-Cheong

    #12;1 Introduction What is the Common Core Curriculum? What are the goals? What will you study are tutorials important? What are the requirements? · Table1:ProgrammeRequirementsfor TakingCommonCoreCoursesforStudentsof the3-YearUndergraduateCurriculumEnteringin2012-13 · Table2:ProgrammeRequirementsfor TakingCommonCore

  12. Student Learning Commons Questions & Answers for Faculty

    E-print Network

    Student Learning Commons Questions & Answers for Faculty What is the SFU Student Learning Commons? The Student Learning Commons (SLC), is an academic learning centre which provides peer-based assistance with library reference, computer assistance, and other student academic support services. SLC programs

  13. STUDENT LEARNING COMMONS PLANNING 2007-2010

    E-print Network

    STUDENT LEARNING COMMONS PLANNING 2007-2010 Elaine Fairey, Director, Student Learning Commons Lynn delivery 4. Space 5. Internal relations 6. External relations Introduction The Student Learning Commons (SLC) was created in response to the report on Student Learning Support Services (October 2004

  14. Simplifying the ELA Common Core; Demystifying Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmoker, Mike; Jago, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The English Language Arts (ELA) Common Core State Standards ([CCSS], 2010) could have a transformational effect on American education. Though the process seems daunting, one can begin immediately integrating the essence of the ELA Common Core in every subject area. This article shows how one could implement the Common Core and create coherent,…

  15. THE COMMON COLD—FACT AND FANCY

    PubMed Central

    Jawetz, E.; Talbot, J. C.

    1950-01-01

    A great deal of folklore, superstition and emotional reaction is attached to the common cold, but established objective information is quite limited. The evidence concerning etiology, epidemiology, physiology, prevention and treatment of the common cold is briefly summarized and critically evaluated. There is disappointing lack of real progress in any of these aspects of the common cold problem. PMID:14778003

  16. Commonly Rare and Rarely Common: Comparing Population Abundance of Invasive and Native Aquatic

    E-print Network

    Vander Zanden, Jake

    use abundance data from over 24,000 populations of 17 invasive and 104 native aquatic species to test) Commonly Rare and Rarely Common: Comparing Population Abundance of Invasive and Native Aquatic Species. PLoCommonly Rare and Rarely Common: Comparing Population Abundance of Invasive and Native Aquatic

  17. Common best proximity points: global minimal solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Let us suppose that A and B are nonempty subsets of a metric space. Let S:A?B and T:A?B be nonself-mappings. Considering the fact S and T are nonself-mappings, it is feasible that the equations Sx=x and Tx=x have no common solution, designated as a common fixed point of the mappings S and T. Eventually, when the equations have no common solution,

  18. Common Misconceptions about Biomes and Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jessica Fries-Gaither

    This article describes some common misconceptions that elementary students may have about biomes and ecosystems. It also includes suggestions for formative assessment and teaching for conceptual change.

  19. Common Lunar Lander (CLL) trajectory analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Lynn A., Jr.; Wilks, Nancy A.

    1991-01-01

    Common Lunar Lander trajectory analysis is presented in viewgraph format. Trajectory requirements, trajectory characteristics, trajectory timeline, and alternate trajectory advantages and disadvantages are given.

  20. Common Lunar Lander (CLL) trajectory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Lynn A., Jr.; Wilks, Nancy A.

    1991-09-01

    Common Lunar Lander trajectory analysis is presented in viewgraph format. Trajectory requirements, trajectory characteristics, trajectory timeline, and alternate trajectory advantages and disadvantages are given.

  1. Justifying group-specific common morality.

    PubMed

    Strong, Carson

    2008-01-01

    Some defenders of the view that there is a common morality have conceived such morality as being universal, in the sense of extending across all cultures and times. Those who deny the existence of such a common morality often argue that the universality claim is implausible. Defense of common morality must take account of the distinction between descriptive and normative claims that there is a common morality. This essay considers these claims separately and identifies the nature of the arguments for each claim. It argues that the claim that there is a universal common morality in the descriptive sense has not been successfully defended to date. It maintains that the claim that there is a common morality in the normative sense need not be understood as universalist. This paper advocates the concept of group specific common morality, including country-specific versions. It suggests that both the descriptive and the normative claims that there are country-specific common moralities are plausible, and that a country-specific normative common morality could provide the basis for a country's bioethics. PMID:18392949

  2. Common Misconceptions about Heat and Insulation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jessica Fries-Gaither

    This article describes some common misconceptions that elementary students may have about energy, heat, and insulation. It also includes suggestions for formative assessment and teaching for conceptual change.

  3. Thomas Jefferson University Jefferson Digital Commons

    E-print Network

    Popovic, Milos R.

    Thomas Jefferson University Jefferson Digital Commons Department of Physical Therapy Faculty Papers Department of Physical Therapy 3-20-2012 The graded redefined assessment of strength sensibility this and additional works at: http://jdc.jefferson.edu/ptfp Part of the Physical Therapy Commons This Article

  4. Instructional Leadership and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Karla; Bennett-Schmidt, Sally J.

    2013-01-01

    Following the 2012-13 administrators welcome back kick-off meeting, superintendent Pat highlighted the district's plan to roll-out of the new Common Core State Standards (CCSS), including integration of learning experiences that would prepare students for the new Common Core assessments from the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC).…

  5. Vitamin C and the common cold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harri Hemilä

    1992-01-01

    The effect of vitamin C on the common cold has been the subject of several studies. These studies do not support a considerable decrease in the incidence of the common cold with supplemental vitamin C. However, vitamin C has consistently decreased the duration of cold episodes and the severity of symptoms. The benefits that have been observed in different studies

  6. Common Food Allergens in Iranian Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mesdaghi

    2003-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of food allergy is different in different parts of the world. Identification of the most common food allergens is a priority in any population to provide effective preventive and curative measures. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the most common food allergens in Iranian children. Methods: One hundred and ninety children with skin, respiratory

  7. Organized Interests and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lorraine M.; Weatherford, M. Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Among the notable aspects of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is the diverse array of interest groups supporting them. These organizations must now apply the strategies they used so effectively in advancing the Common Core to stem mounting opposition to it. This article draws on theories of political and policy learning and interviews with…

  8. Common Standards for Career Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Office of College and Career Readiness has developed the "Common Standards for Career Education Programs." The six common standards are: (1) Program Management and Planning; (2) Curriculum; (3) Instruction; (4) Professional Development; (5) Career and Technical Student Organizations; and (6) Instructional Facilities and Equipment. These…

  9. Investigating nitrogen deficiency in common beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) and soybean diverged from a common ancestor approximately 19 million years ago. The genome of P. vulgaris is approximately half the size of soybean, making it an excellent model for soybean genetics. Nitrogen (N) is often a growth-limiting nutrient, and N deficiency ...

  10. Mathematics Common Core Unpacked: Grade Five

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Drew Polly at UNCC

    This document provides descriptions and examples of what each Mathematics Common Core standard means a Grade Five student will know, understand and be able to do. This "unpacking" of the standards provides instructional guidelines and was developed to assist North Carolina educators teach the Mathematics Common Core (Standard Course of Study).

  11. 188 RestoRative Commons Memoryscape

    E-print Network

    188 RestoRative Commons Memoryscape Lindsay Campbell U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station;189 Harold Murphy Photo used with Permission by PhotoGrAPher iAn Cheney Brian would visit from New York CityRative Commons LinDsaY CamPBeLL delayed onset stress reactions, which makes having a place to go to "center

  12. Common brachiocephalic trunk: strategies for revascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Azakie; Doff B McElhinney; Louis M Messina; Ronald J Stoney

    1999-01-01

    Background. A common brachiocephalic trunk, in which both common carotid arteries and the right subclavian artery arise from a single trunk off the arch, is a normal variant of aortic arch branching that occurs in approximately 10% of the population. Because three of the four primary sources of cerebral blood flow arise from a single aortic branch, stenosis or occlusion

  13. Band Wear In Common Ravens (Corvus corax)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan Bedrosian; Derek Craighead; Craighead Beringia South

    We observed band wear on Common Ravens (Corvus corax) banded with aluminum USGS and alpha-numeric color anodized bands in northwest­ ern Wyoming. Both bands began to exhibit sharp edges less than one year after banding and anodized color bands began to lose color in similar time. We suggest banders use hard metal and engraved plastic color bands for Common Ravens

  14. Distributed Rate-Distortion With Common Components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron B. Wagner; Benjamin G. Kelly; Yücel Altug

    2011-01-01

    We describe a scheme for rate-distortion with dis- tributed encoding in which the sources to be compressed contain a common component. We show that this scheme is optimal in some situations and that it strictly improves upon existing schemes, which do not make full use of common components. This establishes that independent quantization followed by in- dependent binning is not

  15. Common Core in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.; McShane, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    There are at least four key places where the Common Core intersects with current efforts to improve education in the United States--testing, professional development, expectations, and accountability. Understanding them can help educators, parents, and policymakers maximize the chance that the Common Core is helpful to these efforts and, perhaps…

  16. Reverse Commonality and Some Illustrative Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayeske, George W.; Beaton, Albert E., Jr.

    The results of an algorithm which is designed to take a set of commonality coefficients, either real or manipulated, and, if possible, produce one or more sets of regressor correlations that are consistent with them are examined. A number of different ways of resolving the higher order commonality values into their lower orders were tried and the…

  17. The Information Commons at Solano Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Information Commons at Solano Community College in Suisun, California, which was envisioned as a 'one-stop' access to all electronic resources for students to use in support of learning. States that, as the commons is located in the library, students have direct access to printed resources that are not available online, as well as…

  18. Go Figure: Math and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    In this article about the Common Core State Standards and mathematics, the author wanted to point out what's familiar in these standards and to give teachers clear access to what's different about them. She wanted to emphasize what has made her passionate about the Common Core standards--which is their two-part structure: Standards for…

  19. Common Schools for a Secularist Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Mark

    1995-01-01

    E. Callan develops a coherent argument for the common public school and the standard of reasonableness as a basis for common education. A better basis would be a consensus based on parents' wishes. Valid mainstream schools would compete successfully with separate schools because of their compelling world view. (SLD)

  20. Nuclear power plant common aging terminology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Grant; E. J. Miller; G. E. Sliter

    1992-01-01

    This report defines and encourages the use of a set of common terms and definitions that characterize aging and aging management of nuclear power plant systems, structures, and components. Common aging terminology encompasses the areas of degradation causes, degradation\\/aging, life, failure, and maintenance. The terminology should prove useful in plant license renewal, life-cycle management, maintenance, and equipment qualification. The principal

  1. Confronting Common Folklore: Catching a Cold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2012-01-01

    Almost every child has experienced the sniffly, stuffy, and achy congestion of the common cold. In addition, many have encountered the "old wives tales" that forge a link between personal actions and coming down with this common respiratory infection. Much of this health folklore has been passed down from generation to generation (e.g., getting a…

  2. Revisiting the Commons: Local Lessons, Global Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elinor Ostrom; Joanna Burger; Christopher B. Field; Richard B. Norgaard; David Policansky

    1999-01-01

    In a seminal paper, Garrett Hardin argued in 1968 that users of a commons are caught in an inevitable process that leads to the destruction of the resources on which they depend. This article discusses new insights about such problems and the conditions most likely to favor sustainable uses of common-pool resources. Some of the most difficult challenges concern the

  3. 40 Common Minerals and Their Uses

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gold-Traders (UK) Ltd.

    Of the ninety two elements found in the Earth, forty of them are used in our daily lives. Some of the names are common and well known, and others seem obscure until one sees that it helps create something we cannot live without. This page describes these 40 common minerals.

  4. The Dimensions of Common Factors in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibert, Todd W.

    2011-01-01

    Common factors is a concept that offers an explanation as to what makes counseling effective. Evidence from outcome studies has implications for training and practice. The particular purpose of this paper is to review the components of a popular model of common factors, the evidence supporting them, and subsequent implications for counselor…

  5. 76 FR 63561 - Common Carriers; Editorial Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 [DA 11-1649] Common Carriers; Editorial...Common Carriers, Order (Order), document DA 11-1649, adopted September 30, 2011...September 30, 2011. The full text of document DA 11-1649 and copies of any...

  6. Insights into The Commons on Flickr

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The Commons on Flickr, comprised of an international community of select libraries, museums, and archives, was a project initially launched in 2008 by the Library of Congress and Flickr. Primary goals of The Commons are to broaden exposure to rich cultural heritage photographs and to observe and participate in the communities of engagement and…

  7. Mathematics Common Core Unpacked: Grade Three

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Drew Polly at UNCC

    This document provides descriptions and examples of what each Mathematics Common Core standard means a Grade Three student will know, understand and be able to do. This "unpacking" of the standards provides instructional guidelines and was developed to assist North Carolina educators teach the Mathematics Common Core (Standard Course of Study).

  8. Mathematics Common Core Unpacked: Grade Four

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Drew Polly at UNCC

    This document provides descriptions and examples of what each Mathematics Common Core standard means a Grade Four student will know, understand and be able to do. This "unpacking" of the standards provides instructional guidelines and was developed to assist North Carolina educators teach the Mathematics Common Core (Standard Course of Study).

  9. Some Common Ingredients for Heavy Orographic Rainfall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuh-Lang Lin; Sen Chiao; Ting-An Wang; Michael L. Kaplan; Ronald P. Weglarz

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to synthesize some common synoptic and mesoscale environments conducive to heavy orographic rainfall. Previous studies of U.S. and Alpine cases and new analyses of some Alpine and east Asian cases have shown the following common synoptic and mesoscale environments are conducive to heavy orographic rainfall: 1) a conditionally or potentially unstable airstream impinging on

  10. The Common Forces: Conservative or Nonconservative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeports, David

    2006-01-01

    Of the forces commonly encountered when solving problems in Newtonian mechanics, introductory texts usually limit illustrations of the definitions of conservative and nonconservative forces to gravity, spring forces, kinetic friction and fluid resistance. However, at the expense of very little class time, the question of whether each of the common

  11. African swine fever virus eradication in Africa.

    PubMed

    Penrith, Mary-Louise; Vosloo, Wilna; Jori, Ferran; Bastos, Armanda D S

    2013-04-01

    African swine fever was reported in domestic pigs in 26 African countries during the period 2009-2011. The virus exists in an ancient sylvatic cycle between warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) and argasid ticks of the Ornithodoros moubata complex in many of the countries reporting outbreaks and in two further countries in the region. Eradication of the virus from the countries in eastern and southern Africa where the classic sylvatic cycle occurs is clearly not an option. However, the virus has become endemic in domestic pigs in 20 countries and the great majority of outbreaks in recent decades, even in some countries where the sylvatic cycle occurs, have been associated with movement of infected pigs and pig meat. Pig production and marketing and ASF control in Africa have been examined in order to identify risk factors for the maintenance and spread of ASF. These include large pig populations, traditional free-range husbandry systems, lack of biosecurity in semi-intensive and intensive husbandry systems, lack of organisation in both pig production and pig marketing that results in lack of incentives for investment in pig farming, and ineffective management of ASF. Most of these factors are linked to poverty, yet pigs are recognised as a livestock species that can be used to improve livelihoods and contribute significantly to food security. The changes needed and how they might be implemented in order to reduce the risk of ASF to pig producers in Africa and to the rest of the world are explored. PMID:23142552

  12. Estimating carnivoran diets using a combination of carcass observations and scats from GPS clusters.

    PubMed

    Tambling, C J; Laurence, S D; Bellan, S E; Cameron, E Z; du Toit, J T; Getz, W M

    2012-02-01

    Scat analysis is one of the most frequently used methods to assess carnivoran diets and Global Positioning System (GPS) cluster methods are increasingly being used to locate feeding sites for large carnivorans. However, both methods have inherent biases that limit their use. GPS methods to locate kill sites are biased towards large carcasses, while scat analysis over-estimates the biomass consumed from smaller prey. We combined carcass observations and scats collected along known movement routes, assessed using GPS data from four African lion (Panthera leo) prides in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, to determine how a combination of these two datasets change diet estimates. As expected, using carcasses alone under-estimated the number of feeding events on small species, primarily impala (Aepyceros melampus) and warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), in our case by more than 50% and thus significantly under-estimated the biomass consumed per pride per day in comparison to when the diet was assessed using carcass observations alone. We show that an approach that supplements carcass observations with scats that enables the identification of potentially missed feeding events increases the estimates of food intake rates for large carnivorans, with possible ramifications for predator-prey interaction studies dealing with biomass intake rate. PMID:22408290

  13. Detection of Trypanosoma brucei in field-captured tsetse flies and identification of host species fed on by the infected flies.

    PubMed

    Konnai, Satoru; Mekata, Hirohisa; Odbileg, Raadan; Simuunza, Martin; Chembensof, Mwelwa; Witola, William Harold; Tembo, Mwase Enala; Chitambo, Harrison; Inoue, Noboru; Onuma, Misao; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2008-08-01

    The prevalence of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies in the Chiawa area of Lower Zambezi in Zambia, with endemic trypanosomosis, was determined by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method that allowed the detection of trypanosome DNA and determination of the type of animal host fed on by the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes, using tsetse-derived DNA extracts as templates. Ninety G. pallidipes (82 females and 8 males; 18.3%) of the 492 flies captured by baited biconical traps tested positive for the presence of Trypanosoma brucei species genomic DNA. Of the 90 T. brucei-positive flies, 47 (52.2%) also tested positive for vertebrate mitochondrial DNA. Sequence analysis of the vertebrate mitochondrial DNA amplicons established that they originated from 8 different vertebrate species, namely, human (Homo sapiens), African elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), and goat (Capra hircus). Furthermore, to investigate the prevalence of trypanosome infections in domestic goats in the same area where trypanosomes had been detected in tsetse files, a total of 86 goats were randomly selected from 6 different herds. Among the selected goats, 36 (41.9%) were found to be positive for T. brucei species. This combined detection method would be an ideal approach not only for mass screening for infection prevalence in tsetse populations, but also for the prediction of natural reservoirs in areas endemic for trypanosomosis. PMID:18399780

  14. Estimating carnivoran diets using a combination of carcass observations and scats from GPS clusters

    PubMed Central

    Tambling, C.J.; Laurence, S.D.; Bellan, S.E.; Cameron, E.Z.; du Toit, J.T.; Getz, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Scat analysis is one of the most frequently used methods to assess carnivoran diets and Global Positioning System (GPS) cluster methods are increasingly being used to locate feeding sites for large carnivorans. However, both methods have inherent biases that limit their use. GPS methods to locate kill sites are biased towards large carcasses, while scat analysis over-estimates the biomass consumed from smaller prey. We combined carcass observations and scats collected along known movement routes, assessed using GPS data from four African lion (Panthera leo) prides in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, to determine how a combination of these two datasets change diet estimates. As expected, using carcasses alone under-estimated the number of feeding events on small species, primarily impala (Aepyceros melampus) and warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), in our case by more than 50% and thus significantly under-estimated the biomass consumed per pride per day in comparison to when the diet was assessed using carcass observations alone. We show that an approach that supplements carcass observations with scats that enables the identification of potentially missed feeding events increases the estimates of food intake rates for large carnivorans, with possible ramifications for predator-prey interaction studies dealing with biomass intake rate. PMID:22408290

  15. Something in Common: The Common Core Standards and the Next Chapter in American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    "Something in Common" is the first book to provide a detailed look at the groundbreaking Common Core State Standards and their potential to transform American education. This book tells the story of the unfolding political drama around the making of the Common Core State Standards for math and English language arts, which were adopted by 43 states…

  16. Building a Common Identity Common identity is an important tool in ensuring appropriate access to corporate

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Building a Common Identity Common identity is an important tool in ensuring appropriate access to corporate information. Without an efficient method of establishing and maintaining a common identity across. Forefront Identity Manager (FIM) 2010 R2 helps you resolve these issues by providing self-service identity

  17. What is the Ecosystem Commons? Why do we need the Ecosystem Commons?

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    What is the Ecosystem Commons? Why do we need the Ecosystem Commons? The overarching goal of Ecosystem Commons is to enhance the use of ecosystem services and related science in conservation at regional and national ecosystem services events and conferences Provide news and information

  18. What Are Common Symptoms of Phenylketonuria (PKU)?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources and Publications What are common symptoms of phenylketonuria (PKU)? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... a person's coloring 1 Genetics Home Reference. (2012). Phenylketonuria . Retrieved June 22, 2012, from http://ghr.nlm. ...

  19. Coming This Fall: Common Chinese Medicinal Plants

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    Coming This Fall: Common Chinese Medicinal Plants Identification, Classification and Application used Chinese medicinal plants with Changbin Chen-- A plant scientist grew up in a remote area medicinal plants and their products. 2. Learn the methods of Chinese herbal classification

  20. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  1. Commonality analysis for exploration life support systems

    E-print Network

    Cunio, Phillip M

    2008-01-01

    Commonality, defined practically as the use of similar technologies to deliver similar functions across a range of different complex systems, offers opportunities to improve the lifecycle costs of portfolios of complex ...

  2. Common Edge-Unzippings for Tetrahedra

    E-print Network

    O'Rourke, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that there are examples of distinct polyhedra, each with a Hamiltonian path of edges, which when cut, unfolds the surfaces to a common net. In particular, it is established for infinite classes of triples of tetrahedra.

  3. Common Problems That Can Affect Your Voice

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bumps?) on the vocal cord(s) alter vocal cord vibration and lead to hoarseness. The most common vocal ... repositions the vocal cord to improve contact and vibration of the paralyzed vocal cord with the non- ...

  4. Common Misconceptions about Icebergs and Glaciers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jessica Fries-Gaither

    This article describes some common misconceptions that elementary students may have about icebergs and glaciers (including density and buoyancy). It also includes suggestions for formative assessment and teaching for conceptual change.

  5. A DECADE OF DISCOVERY THE COMMON FUND

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    the movement of research from the laboratory to the patient's bedside. The Roadmap consisted of a compelling, Congress established the NIH Common Fund in 2006 through the NIH Reform Act. The Reform Act provided

  6. Facemail : preventing common errors when composing email

    E-print Network

    Lieberman, Eric (Eric W.)

    2006-01-01

    Facemail is a system designed to investigate and prevent common errors that users make while composing emails. Users often accidentally send email to incorrect recipients by mistyping an email address, accidentally clicking ...

  7. What Are Some Common Signs of Pregnancy?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are common and can have a variety of causes, including taking birth control pills, conditions such as diabetes and polycystic ovary syndrome , eating disorders, excessive exercise, and certain medications. Women who miss ...

  8. DICKENS ARTICLE FINDING COMMON GROUND IN THE

    E-print Network

    Shamos, Michael I.

    DICKENS ARTICLE FINDING COMMON GROUND IN THE WORLD OF ELECTRONIC CONTRACTS: THE CONSISTENCY OF LEGAL REASONING IN CLICKWRAP CASES ROBERT LEE DICKENS* INTRODUCTION State University for their guidance, encouragement, and enthusiasm on this project. #12;DICKENS ARTICLE

  9. A common-view disciplined oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, Michael A. [Time and Frequency Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Dahlen, Aaron P. [Loran Support Unit, United States Coast Guard (USCG), Wildwood, New Jersey 08260 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    This paper describes a common-view disciplined oscillator (CVDO) that locks to a reference time scale through the use of common-view global positioning system (GPS) satellite measurements. The CVDO employs a proportional-integral-derivative controller that obtains near real-time common-view GPS measurements from the internet and provides steering corrections to a local oscillator. A CVDO can be locked to any time scale that makes real-time common-view data available and can serve as a high-accuracy, self-calibrating frequency and time standard. Measurement results are presented where a CVDO is locked to UTC(NIST), the coordinated universal time scale maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado.

  10. Get Answers to Common Questions About...

    Cancer.gov

    Get Answers to Common Questions About... Biological Specimens Drug Availability, Labeling and Distribution Ethics Indemnity Insurance Planning Clinical Trials and Navigating Regulatory Requirements Protocols Quality Assurance and Monitoring Software

  11. Common Misconceptions about Day and Night, Seasons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jessica Fries-Gaither

    This article describes common misconceptions held by elementary students about the cause of day and night and seasons. The article provides ideas for formative assessment, teaching strategies, and the National Science Education Standards.

  12. Common flea beetles of North Dakota

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A very nicely illustrated key to 46 flea beetles regularly found in North Dakota. The key is a lucid style key, and the images are carefully produced. A beautiful photo gallery and list of common flea beetles is also included.

  13. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS § 1185.5 Common control. It shall not be necessary for any person to secure authorization to hold...

  14. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS § 1185.5 Common control. It shall not be necessary for any person to secure authorization to hold...

  15. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS § 1185.5 Common control. It shall not be necessary for any person to secure authorization to hold...

  16. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS § 1185.5 Common control. It shall not be necessary for any person to secure authorization to hold...

  17. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS § 1185.5 Common control. It shall not be necessary for any person to secure authorization to hold...

  18. Sexual Pain Common After Childbirth, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sexual Pain Common After Childbirth, Study Finds C-section ... Thursday, February 5, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Childbirth Sexual Health Sexual Problems in Women THURSDAY, Feb. 5, ...

  19. Common Cause Failure Modeling: Aerospace Versus Nuclear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stott, James E.; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert W.; Hark, Frank; Hatfield, G. Spencer

    2010-01-01

    Aggregate nuclear plant failure data is used to produce generic common-cause factors that are specifically for use in the common-cause failure models of NUREG/CR-5485. Furthermore, the models presented in NUREG/CR-5485 are specifically designed to incorporate two significantly distinct assumptions about the methods of surveillance testing from whence this aggregate failure data came. What are the implications of using these NUREG generic factors to model the common-cause failures of aerospace systems? Herein, the implications of using the NUREG generic factors in the modeling of aerospace systems are investigated in detail and strong recommendations for modeling the common-cause failures of aerospace systems are given.

  20. University of Pennsylvania ScholarlyCommons

    E-print Network

    Badler, Norman I.

    University of Pennsylvania ScholarlyCommons Center for Human Modeling and Simulation Department University of Pennsylvania Julie Dorsey Massachusetts Institute of Technology Eero Simoncelli University of Pennsylvania Norman I. Badler University of Pennsylvania, badler@seas.upenn.edu Copyright Massachusetts

  1. Mycorrhiza: A Common Form of Mutualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medve, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    Mycorrhizae are among the most common examples of mutualism. This article discusses their structure, symbolic relationship, factors affecting formation and applying research. Questions are posed and answers suggested. (MA)

  2. Beyond Idiot Savants: Recommendations and Common Sense

    E-print Network

    Pazzani, Michael J.

    Beyond Idiot Savants: Recommendations and Common Sense Michael J. Pazzani Department of Informatics and are more like idiot savants in that they rely on one or a small number of exceedingly narrow algorithms

  3. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldridge, Tim

    2005-01-01

    The goals of the project are: Achieve high business value through a common badging and access control system that integrates with smart cards. Provide physical (versus logical) deployment of smart cards initially. Provides a common consistent and reliable environment into which to release the smart card. Gives opportunity to develop agency-wide consistent processes, practices and policies. Enables enterprise data capture and management. Promotes data validation prior to SC issuance.

  4. Testing the Hardness of Common Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity gives students practice and a chance to develop expertise in using the test for hardness in identifying common minerals. Following a discussion and an introduction to Moh's scale, the students will work in groups to test minerals whose identities are known against their standards (common substances whose hardnesses are known). Once the known minerals have been tested, the students can proceed to test unknown samples. A student worksheet and discussion questions are provided.

  5. Common Metrics for Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinfeld, Aaron; Lewis, Michael; Fong, Terrence; Scholtz, Jean; Schultz, Alan; Kaber, David; Goodrich, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to identify common metrics for task-oriented human-robot interaction (HRI). We begin by discussing the need for a toolkit of HRI metrics. We then describe the framework of our work and identify important biasing factors that must be taken into consideration. Finally, we present suggested common metrics for standardization and a case study. Preparation of a larger, more detailed toolkit is in progress.

  6. Cutaneous Manifestations of Common Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Sunil; Jindal, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Skin functions as a window to our overall health and a number of systemic diseases result in various cutaneous changes. Knowledge of these manifestations helps in suspecting an underlying systemic illness. Cutaneous abnormalities are quite common in patients with liver diseases and this article aims to focus on these dermatoses. Cutaneous manifestations seen in patients with liver disease though common are nonspecific. They can also be seen in patients without liver diseases and generally do not indicate about a specific underlying hepatic disorder. The presence of a constellation of signs and symptoms is more useful in pointing toward an underlying hepatobiliary condition. The commonest symptom in patients with liver disease is pruritus which is often protracted and disabling. Other common features include spider angiomas, palmar erythema, paper money skin, xanthelasmas, pigmentary changes, and nutritional deficiencies. In this article, first the common cutaneous manifestations that may be associated with liver disorders are discussed and then common liver diseases with their specific cutaneous findings are discussed. Cutaneous abnormalities may be the first clue to the underlying liver disease. Identifying them is crucial for early diagnosis and better management.

  7. GPS common-view time transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, W.

    1994-01-01

    The introduction of the GPS common-view method at the beginning of the 1980's led to an immediate and dramatic improvement of international time comparisons. Since then, further progress brought the precision and accuracy of GPS common-view intercontinental time transfer from tens of nanoseconds to a few nanoseconds, even with SA activated. This achievement was made possible by the use of the following: ultra-precise ground antenna coordinates, post-processed precise ephemerides, double-frequency measurements of ionosphere, and appropriate international coordination and standardization. This paper reviews developments and applications of the GPS common-view method during the last decade and comments on possible future improvements whose objective is to attain sub-nanosecond uncertainty.

  8. Economic Analysis of Social Common Capital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzawa, Hirofumi

    2005-06-01

    Social common capital provides members of society with those services and institutional arrangements that are crucial in maintaining human and cultural life. The term æsocial common capital' is comprised of three categories: natural capital, social infrastructure, and institutional capital. Natural capital consists of all natural environment and natural resources including the earth's atmosphere. Social infrastructure consists of roads, bridges, public transportation systems, electricity, and other public utilities. Institutional capital includes hospitals, educational institutions, judicial and police systems, public administrative services, financial and monetary institutions, and cultural capital. This book attempts to modify and extend the theoretical premises of orthodox economic theory to make them broad enough to analyze the economic implications of social common capital. It further aims to find the institutional arrangements and policy measures that will bring about the optimal state of affairs.

  9. Information-theoretic inference of common ancestors

    E-print Network

    Steudel, Bastian

    2010-01-01

    A directed acyclic graph (DAG) partially represents the conditional independence structure among observations of a system if the local Markov condition holds, that is, if every variable is independent of its non-descendants given its parents. In general, there is a whole class of DAGs that represents a given set of conditional independence relations. We are interested in properties of this class that can be derived from observations of a subsystem only. To this end, we prove an information theoretic inequality that allows for the inference of common ancestors of observed parts in any DAG representing some unknown larger system. More explicitly, we show that a large amount of dependence in terms of mutual information among the observations implies the existence of a common ancestor that distributes this information. Within the causal interpretation of DAGs our result can be seen as a quantitative extension of Reichenbach's Principle of Common Cause to more than two variables. Our conclusions are valid also for...

  10. Common data processing needs for materials databases

    SciTech Connect

    Nishijima, Satoshi [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Failure Physics Div.

    1995-12-31

    An international collaborative work known as VAMAS shows that the same set of factual materials data could result in totally different property values when the analysis model and computational method are different. The work is followed by a collection of models and methods for a wide range of materials properties, with the intention to provide a better awareness to the database builders and users. Establishment of commonly accepted methods for handling fatigue and creep properties data is under way at the Iron and Steel Institute in Japan. This includes consensus formation among concerned experts for the development of common data processing software to be used in their database systems. Other examples show that the use of these common systems will enhance the further development and use of computerized materials property data.

  11. Treatment of Common Congenital Hand Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Takashi; Pushman, Allison G.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Recognize the clinical features associated with five common congenital hand conditions. 2. Describe the indications and appropriate timing for various surgical procedures used to treat congenital hand anomalies. 3. Identify the pearls and pitfalls of these surgical treatments in order to avoid complications. 4. Understand the expected post-operative outcomes associated with these surgical procedures. Summary This article will provide an introduction to congenital hand differences by focusing on practical surgical strategies for treating five commonly encountered conditions including syndactyly, constriction ring syndrome, duplicated thumb, hypoplastic thumb and trigger thumb. The accompanying videos will demonstrate common and reliable surgical techniques for syndactyly release, duplicated thumb reconstruction and pollicization for hypoplastic thumb. PMID:20811188

  12. Secondary Syphilis: Uncommon Manifestations a Common Disease

    PubMed Central

    McPhee, Stephen J.

    1984-01-01

    Reports of cases of primary and secondary syphilis are increasing in the United States, particularly in urban areas and among homosexual men. While primary syphilis poses little diagnostic difficulty, many physicians are unfamiliar with the multisystem nature of secondary lues. Patients who have secondary syphilis commonly present with systemic signs, skin rash, mucous membrane lesions and generalized adenopathy. Less commonly, secondary syphilis may occur as acute meningitis, sensorineural hearing loss, iritis, anterior uveitis, optic neuritis, Bell's palsy, gastropathy, proctitis, hepatitis, pulmonary infiltration, nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, periostitis, tenosynovitis and polyarthritis. The diagnosis of secondary syphilis is easily confirmed. Its various manifestations are readily treated with penicillin and, if treated early, are entirely reversible. Two recent cases of secondary syphilis, one presenting as nephrotic syndrome and one as chorioretinitis and ptosis, illustrate the usual and unusual features of this common infection. Images PMID:6702190

  13. Common aperture multispectral optics for military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, N. A.

    2012-06-01

    With the recent developments in multi-spectral detector technology the interest in common aperture, common focal plane multi-spectral imaging systems is increasing. Such systems are particularly desirable for military applications where increased levels of target discrimination and identification are required in cost-effective, rugged, lightweight systems. During the optical design of dual waveband or multi-spectral systems, the options for material selection are limited. This selection becomes even more restrictive for military applications as material resilience and thermal properties must be considered in addition to colour correction. In this paper we discuss the design challenges that lightweight multi-spectral common aperture systems present along with some potential design solutions. Consideration will be given to material selection for optimum colour correction as well as material resilience and thermal correction. This discussion is supported using design examples that are currently in development at Qioptiq.

  14. Simulating futures in extended common LISP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtsheim, Philip R.

    1988-01-01

    Stack-groups comprise the mechanism underlying implementation of multiprocessing in Extended Common LISP, i.e., running multiple quasi-simultaneous processes within a single LISP address space. On the other hand, the future construct of MULTILISP, an extension of the LISP dialect scheme, deals with parallel execution. The source of concurrency that future exploits is the overlap between computation of a value and use of the value. Described is a simulation of the future construct by an interpreter utilizing stack-group extensions to common LISP.

  15. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Common Shiner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trial, Joan G.; Wade, Charles S.; Stanley, Jon G.; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for common shiner (Notropis cornutus). The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for the northeastern range of the common shiner in North America. Habitat suitability indexes (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Also included are discussions of Suitability Index (SI) curves as used in the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) and SI curves available for an IFIM analysis of smallmouth bass habitat.

  16. Open Educational Resources Commons: Mathematics and Statistics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Open Educational Resources (OER) Commons is an open network of course materials and other educational resources, for all levels, that are freely available online for the use of educators, students, and self-learners. Materials include full courses, course modules, syllabi, lectures, homework assignments, quizzes, lab and classroom activities, pedagogical materials, games, simulations, and many other items. The mathematics and statistics section of OER Commons provides access to thousands of resources in all areas of math and statistics. Each resource is accompanied by metadata, including type, subject, grade level, a rating, and other types of information. Users are also invited to submit resources for others to share.

  17. Open Educational Resources Commons: Science and Technology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Open Educational Resources (OER) Commons is an open network of course materials and other educational resources, for all levels, that are freely available online for the use of educators, students, and self-learners. Materials include full courses, course modules, syllabi, lectures, homework assignments, quizzes, lab and classroom activities, pedagogical materials, games, simulations, and many other items. The science and technology section of OER Commons provides access to thousands of resources in all areas of science and technology. Each resource is accompanied by metadata, including type, subject, grade level, a rating, and other kinds of information. Users are also invited to submit resources for others to share.

  18. Dominant gene for common bean resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mildred Zapata; James S. Beaver; Timothy G. Porch

    2011-01-01

    The common bacterial blight pathogen [Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap)] is a limiting factor for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production worldwide and resistance to the pathogen in most commercial cultivars is inadequate. Variability in virulence\\u000a of the bacterial pathogen has been observed in strains isolated from Puerto Rico and Central America. A few common bean lines\\u000a show a differential

  19. Science To Serve the Common Good.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Garry D.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews "Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest", a report produced by a committee of the National Research Council that offers a model of a new and better approach to addressing environmental problems that could enable science to serve the common good. Demonstrates a successful approach to doing science and contributing to society.…

  20. Common deletion polymorphisms in the human genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A McCarroll; Tracy N Hadnott; George H Perry; Pardis C Sabeti; Michael C Zody; Jeffrey C Barrett; Stephanie Dallaire; Stacey B Gabriel; Charles Lee; Mark J Daly; David M Altshuler

    2005-01-01

    The locations and properties of common deletion variants in the human genome are largely unknown. We describe a systematic method for using dense SNP genotype data to discover deletions and its application to data from the International HapMap Consortium to characterize and catalogue segregating deletion variants across the human genome. We identified 541 deletion variants (94% novel) ranging from 1

  1. Cappasporites: A common middle Pennsylvanian palynomorph

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Chadwick

    1983-01-01

    Cappasporites L. Urban 1966, a Pennsylvanian spore genus, has been commonly overlooked or misidentified during descriptions of Pennsylvanian palynofloras. Numerous spores of this genus were found in the Middle Desmoinesian Croweburg coal of Oklahoma and subsequently in other Desmoinesian coals. The genus includes spores varying from 35?m to 90?m in longest dimension and ranging from broadly oval (polar) to spindle

  2. Principal Prep for Common Core Gaining Traction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    A year ago, top officials in the school leadership world were worried. It seemed to them that principals were being overlooked in national conversations about how to get educators ready for the Common Core State Standards. But that is changing. The past six months have seen a surge of activity to acquaint principals with the new standards and…

  3. Common-Fate Grouping as Feature Selection

    PubMed Central

    Levinthal, Brian R.; Franconeri, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    The visual system groups elements within the visual field that are physically separated yet similar to each other. Although grouping processes have been intensely studied for a century, the mechanisms of grouping remain elusive. We propose that a primary mechanism for grouping by common fate is attentional selection of a direction of motion. A unique prediction follows from this account: that the visual system must be limited to forming only a single common-fate group at a time, and that attempts to find a particular common-fate group among other groups, or among nongroups, should therefore be highly inefficient. We show that this is true in searches for vertically oriented groups of moving dots among horizontally oriented groups (Experiment 1) and in searches for motion-linked groups among nonlinked objects (Experiment 2). Feature selection may limit the visual system to the construction of only one common-fate group at a time, and thus the experience of simultaneous grouping may be an illusion. PMID:21828350

  4. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2011

    2011-01-01

    For over a decade, research studies of mathematics education in high-performing countries have pointed to the conclusion that the mathematics curriculum in the United States must become substantially more focused and coherent in order to improve mathematics achievement in this country. To deliver on the promise of common standards, the standards…

  5. Common Lunar Lander (CLL) Engineering Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecklein, Jonette

    1991-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Common Lunar Lander (CLL) engineering study results. The mission is to provide a delivery system to soft-land a 200 kg payload set at any given lunar latitude and longitude. Topics covered include the study schedule, mission goals and requirements, the CLL reference mission, costs, CLL options, and two stage performance analysis.

  6. Common Lunar Lander (CLL) Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Don

    1991-01-01

    A description of the Common Lunar Lander (CLL) propulsion system is given. Among the topics discussed are the following: system characteristics, system mission requirements, key drivers to subsystem selection, system readiness level, and point design output. Additionally, a schematic of the system is provided.

  7. Common Topics and Commonplaces of Environmental Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Derek G.

    2013-01-01

    Common topics are words or phrases used to develop argument, and commonplaces aid memory or catalyze frames of understanding. When used in argumentation, each may help interested parties more effectively communicate valuable scientific and environment-related information. This article describes 12 modern topics of environmental rhetoric,…

  8. Identification of commonly encountered Pratylenchus in Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pratylenchus species are commonly encountered in soil samples collected from a diversity of economically important crops in Oregon, including potato and small fruits. Proper identification is critical to the selection of an appropriate management strategy since, in many cases, populations are an as...

  9. A Common Origin for Immunity and Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Nichole A.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the digestive and immune systems were viewed and studied as separate entities. However, there are remarkable similarities and shared functions in both nutrient acquisition and host defense. Here, I propose a common origin for both systems. This association provides a new prism for viewing the emergence and evolution of host defense mechanisms. PMID:25745424

  10. Some Sri Lankan common pot-herbs.

    PubMed

    Liyanaratne, Jinadas

    2003-10-01

    As a follow-up of the articles of R. Brindha and S. Parvathy, ASL, XXII, 2003, 166-168, fifteen edible plants of South Asian ecosystem, commonly used in Sri Lankan cuisine, are dealt with in view of their ethnobotanical and ehtonomedical value. Their vernacular names (Sanskrit, Sinhala, and Tamil given here) often reveal different botanical features and medicinal properties. PMID:22557115

  11. The Common Core and Inverse Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edenfield, Kelly W.

    2012-01-01

    The widespread adoption of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) shows a commitment to changing mathematics teaching and learning in pursuit of increasing student achievement. CCSSM should not be viewed as just another list of content standards for publishers and assessment groups to design their products around. Many…

  12. Wikimedia Commons, Paul Keller News & Opinion

    E-print Network

    Lummaa, Virpi

    th century Finnish population suggests that agriculture and monogamy may not have stopped human evolution. By Sabrina Richards | April 30, 2012 Humans can evolve even when monogamy limits their potentialWikimedia Commons, Paul Keller News & Opinion Are Humans Still Evolving? Research on an 18th and 19

  13. Common Criteria Set for Federal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2013-01-01

    As part of an effort to improve the quality of educational research and make it less balkanized, the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) have introduced a common set of evidence standards for federally funded work. The criteria will guide all new research at the IES, the U.S. Department of Education's…

  14. Common Exposure to STL Polyomavirus During Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Efrem S.; Meinerz, Natalie M.; Primi, Blake; Wang, David

    2014-01-01

    STL polyomavirus (STLPyV) was recently identified in human specimens. To determine seropositivity for STLPyV, we developed an ELISA and screened patient samples from 2 US cities (Denver, Colorado [500]; St. Louis, Missouri [419]). Overall seropositivity was 68%–70%. The age-stratified data suggest that STLPyV infection is widespread and commonly acquired during childhood. PMID:25148144

  15. Low-common-mode differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, S.

    1980-01-01

    Outputs of differential amplifier are excellently matched in phase and amplitude over wide range of frequencies. Common mode feedback loop offsets differences between two signal paths. Possible applications of circuit are in oscilloscopes, integrated circuit logic tester, and other self contained instruments.

  16. The psychology of coordination and common knowledge.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kyle A; DeScioli, Peter; Haque, Omar Sultan; Pinker, Steven

    2014-10-01

    Research on human cooperation has concentrated on the puzzle of altruism, in which 1 actor incurs a cost to benefit another, and the psychology of reciprocity, which evolved to solve this problem. We examine the complementary puzzle of mutualism, in which actors can benefit each other simultaneously, and the psychology of coordination, which ensures such benefits. Coordination is facilitated by common knowledge: the recursive belief state in which A knows X, B knows X, A knows that B knows X, B knows that A knows X, ad infinitum. We test whether people are sensitive to common knowledge when deciding whether to engage in risky coordination. Participants decided between working alone for a certain profit and working together for a potentially higher profit that they would receive only if their partner made the same choice. Results showed that more participants attempted risky coordination when they and their prospective partner had common knowledge of the payoffs (broadcast over a loudspeaker) than when they had only shared knowledge (conveyed to both by a messenger) or private knowledge (revealed to each partner separately). These results support the hypothesis that people represent common knowledge as a distinct cognitive category that licenses them to coordinate with others for mutual gain. We discuss how this hypothesis can provide a unified explanation for diverse phenomena in human social life, including recursive mentalizing, performative speech acts, public protests, hypocrisy, and self-conscious emotional expressions. PMID:25111301

  17. 202 RestoRative Commons Youth Empowerment

    E-print Network

    Farm Interview with Ian Marvy Added Value, Brooklyn, NY Lindsay Campbell: What is the main goal. Photo used with Permission by Added VAlue Left: Ian Marvy teaches composting with youth visitors to the farm. Photo used with Permission by Added VAlue #12;204 RestoRative Commons inteRvieW WitH ian ma

  18. A Common Core: Thais and Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fieg, John Paul; Mortlock, Elizabeth

    Thais and U.S. citizens have a number of striking cultural similarities. Both prize the freedoms they enjoy, both are quite pragmatic and individualistic, and both disdain pomposity and arrogance. These traits form a kind of common core that helps Thais and U.S. citizens connect in cross-cultural interactions. Nevertheless, there are also…

  19. The Information and Learning Commons: Some Reflections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth K. Heitsch; Robert P. Holley

    2011-01-01

    The Information and Learning Commons mode of library organization has become more prevalent over the past few decades and allows academic libraries to provide wider-ranging and more cohesive services to their constituents. Several issues, including relying upon a single, mythical “Patron” in planning for services; poor organization; a lack of cohesion and centralized leadership; and the “digital divide” may hinder

  20. 178 RestoRative Commons Restoring Lives,

    E-print Network

    groups in New York City; from salvaged wood, construct nesting boxes and bat houses for city parks178 RestoRative Commons #12;179 Restoring Lives, Transforming Landscapes: The GreenHouse Program possession. During their incarceration, Kamelita and Manual joined the GreenHouse Program, a jail

  1. Social learning in common ravens, Corvus corax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHANNES FRITZ; KURT KOTRSCHAL

    1999-01-01

    We conducted an experiment to investigate whether the presence of a conspecific model can promote the acquisition of a motor task in common ravens. For this purpose, dyads, either of control birds or of model–observer pairings, were allowed to operate together in an arena with a set of identical boxes. Each box consisted of two compartments each containing a reward

  2. Laptop Use in University Common Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Bill

    2006-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence existed about the many students who use their laptops and the wireless network in university common spaces, but little was known about how, where, and why students use laptops on campus, and less was known about students' awareness of university wireless network policies and security. This article discusses the results of a…

  3. On finding lowest common ancestors in trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred V. Aho; John E. Hopcroft; Jeffrey D. Ullman

    1973-01-01

    Trees in an n node forest are to be merged according to instructions in a given sequence, while other instructions in the sequence ask for the lowest common ancestor of pairs of nodes. We show that any sequence of O(n) instructions can be processed “on line” in O(n log n) steps on a random access computer. If we can accept

  4. Common bile duct obstruction by portal cavernoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Choudhuri; R. K. Tandon; S. Nundy; N. K. Misra

    1988-01-01

    Summary Obstructive jaundice occurring in a patient with portal hypertension is a rare association. In this report, a 24-year-old patient is described who had biliary obstruction due to a portal cavernoma compressing the common bile duct and in whom surgical decompression of the portal system resulted in relief of the biliary obstruction, thus proving that the dilated portal vein collaterals

  5. Restrained Teaching: the common core of Didaktik

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEFAN HOPMANN

    2007-01-01

    Didaktik is at the centre of most school teaching and teacher education in Continental Europe, but at the same time almost unknown in the English speaking world. The article gives a brief outline of the history and the common core of Didaktik, of its current situation, and of the basic differences compared to the Anglo-American concept of 'curriculum and instruction'

  6. Common Factors of High Performance Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Bruce; Madsen, Susan R.

    2005-01-01

    Utilization of work teams is now wide spread in all types of organizations throughout the world. However, an understanding of the important factors common to high performance teams is rare. The purpose of this content analysis is to explore the literature and propose findings related to high performance teams. These include definition and types,…

  7. Reproductive Advantages for Common Loons Using Rafts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTOPHER R. DESORBO; KATE M. TAYLOR; DAVID E. KRAMAR; JEFF FAIR; JOHN H. COOLEY; DAVID C. EVERS; WILLIAM HANSON; HARRY S. VOGEL; JONATHAN L. ATWOOD

    2007-01-01

    Artificial nesting islands, or rafts, are often deployed in common loon (Gavia immer) breeding territories to decrease negative impacts of mammalian predation and water-level fluctuations on nesting success. The management value of rafts has been demonstrated in other studies; however, no published studies have quantified the use or associated reproductive benefits of rafts on lakes exhibiting water-level fluctuations. These lakes

  8. Information Commons Help Desk Transactions Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Gabrielle K. W.

    2010-01-01

    With the purpose of designing a training program for a new team serving at a technology service point, the author analyzed the transactions log using a new, multi-faceted, taxonomy. The resulting list of competencies and the methodology would be useful for managers of information or learning commons. (Contains 5 tables.)

  9. Virginia Standards Predated the Common Core Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowledge Quest, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Virginia Board of Education is committed to the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL) program and opposed to adoption of the newly developed Common Core State Standards as a prerequisite for participation in federal competitive grant and entitlement programs. The Standards of Learning are clear and rigorous and have won the acceptance and trust…

  10. Laying a Common Foundation for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    For decades, the American elementary and secondary education system has operated somewhat as the railroads did before Lincoln's day, with each state setting its own expectations for what students should know and be able to do. To address that problem, nearly every state, with little fanfare, has adopted the Common Core State Standards for student…

  11. Is Incest Common In Gray Wolf Packs?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Adams, Layne G.

    In early 2000 the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center posted this resource on wolves at their Website. "Is Incest Common In Gray Wolf Packs?" suggests that incest is rare in wolf packs. The resource may be downloaded as a .zip file.

  12. Badges: A Common Currency for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Kyle; Thomas, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Digital Badges--icons that can represent skills and achievements at a more fine-grained level than a degree--give colleges and universities a new way to document learning outcomes and to map the pathways students follow to earn a degree. They also provide a common currency to denote learning outcomes and give employers a visual representation and…

  13. Access to the Common Core for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    Too often under the various state-developed standards and assessments, accommodations for students with disabilities--a heterogeneous group with varied characteristics and needs--have not been adequately addressed or have been ignored. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative provides an historic opportunity to improve access to rigorous…

  14. The Common Core: Far from Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toscano, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this opinion piece, Michael Toscano writes that his criticism of the Common Core State Standards ultimately has very little to do with their innate quality, but rather that their relation to other social spheres is disordered. He refers to the full reordering of American education away from families and local communities--which he states are…

  15. Are You Ready for Common Core Math?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2012-01-01

    With new Common Core State Standards assessments in K12 mathematics due to be in use by the start of the 2014-2015 school year, many district administrators and teachers do not know what they should know about them now and are not taking steps they should be taking to prepare for them. While they are aware that the assessments are being developed,…

  16. Effect of Common Visual Dysfunctions on Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPartland, Brian P.

    1985-01-01

    Six common visual dysfunctions are briefly explained and their relationships to reading noted: (1) ametropia, refractive error; (2) inaccurate saccades, the small jumping eye movements used in reading; (3) inefficient binocularity/fusion; (4) insufficient convergence/divergence; (5) heterophoria, imbalance in extra-ocular muscles; and (6)…

  17. The Common Good in Classical Political Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, V. Bradley

    2006-01-01

    The term "common good" names the end (or final cause) of political and social life in the tradition of moral thought that owes its main substance to Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas. It names a genuine good ("bonum honestum") and not merely an instrumental or secondary good defeasible in the face of particular goods. However, at the same time, it…

  18. Plant nutrition: from common sense to

    E-print Network

    Berzins, M.

    -EN Contents Plant nutrition: from common sense to scientific views 3 Lesson 1: What if...? 7 Lesson 2: The challenge 19 Lesson 3: The carbon story 25 Lesson 4: So how do plants make sugar? 34 Lesson 5: Full circle of Study for Science. The overall aim of the sequence is for pupils to develop a simple and coherent

  19. Learning Commons Project Team Report Abridged Version

    E-print Network

    Lozano-Robledo, Alvaro

    , central space dedicated to the enrichment of all. In the context of a public institution of higher catalogs, indexes, book stacks, and quiet study carrels, does not always meet the learning needs of today the establishment of a large, centralized area called the Learning Commons: a space deliberately designed to foster

  20. 6 Common Mistakes that Undermine Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kristy

    2014-01-01

    Telling students to study simply because they must or making narrow pitches to a subject's future utility typically fail to generate student interest. Six common mistakes that undermine student motivation can be easily avoided--among them are telling students they need to learn the content now because they will need it when they grow up or…

  1. Health Conditions Common in African American Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > African-Americans Minority Women's Health African-Americans Health conditions common in African-American ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women’s Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for ...

  2. Why the Common Core Changes Math Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Valerie N.

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core math standards promote several important differences in how math concepts are taught and should be talked about. These changes will make it easier for younger students to comprehend and adapt to more complex concepts in the later grades. This guide should help elementary teachers make changes and adaptations that are in line the…

  3. Common Math Tracking Courses Traditional Courses

    E-print Network

    Miller, Joseph S.

    Common Math Tracking Courses Traditional Courses Math 112 College Algebra 3 cr. Math 113 Trigonometry 2 cr. Math 114 Precalculus (112+113) 5 cr. Math 221 Calculus 1 5 cr. Hybrid Courses Calc 1 with Precalc I Math 171 5 cr. (only offered in Fall) Calc 1 with Precalc II Math 217 5 cr. (only offered

  4. The Tragedy of the Commons Craig Callender

    E-print Network

    Callender, Craig

    . "Life boat ethics": Hardin is against World Food Bank Overpopulation is a commons tragedy too, Hardin it? Is overpopulation really a tragedy problem? Is Hardin right? How many other scenarios mentioned themselves worse than the consequences of not doing so? #12;Is overpopulation a TOC? PD1: It is collectively

  5. New northern common proper motion pairs

    E-print Network

    John Greaves

    2012-03-30

    A list of 705 new Northern Celestial Hemisphere common proper motion pairs as derived from the Second U.S. Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog is presented, along with details of their separation, motion, brightness and colour. Objects of particular interest are noted, and the use of the catalogue for such work gauged.

  6. Some Sri Lankan common pot-herbs

    PubMed Central

    Liyanaratne, Jinadas

    2003-01-01

    As a follow-up of the articles of R. Brindha and S. Parvathy, ASL, XXII, 2003, 166-168, fifteen edible plants of South Asian ecosystem, commonly used in Sri Lankan cuisine, are dealt with in view of their ethnobotanical and ehtonomedical value. Their vernacular names (Sanskrit, Sinhala, and Tamil given here) often reveal different botanical features and medicinal properties. PMID:22557115

  7. Tools for the Common Core Standards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill McCallum, a leader in the development of the Common Core State Standards for mathematics, maintains this blog to share news about the progress of some tools and projects being developed to support implementation of the CCSS. From the Tools page he has linked a downloadable hyperlinked version of the mathematics standards, which facilitates navigation.

  8. Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Christine; Davidson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) is a large-scale, high-stakes, English language proficiency/placement test administered in the United Arab Emirates to Emirati nationals in their final year of secondary education or Grade 12. The purpose of the CEPA is to place students into English classes at the appropriate government…

  9. Two Versions of "Common" Test Eyed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    An unprecedented assessment project involving half the states is planning a significant shift: Instead of designing one test for all of them, it will offer a choice of a longer and a shorter version. The pivot came in response to some states' resistance to spending more time and money on testing for the common standards. The plan under discussion…

  10. THE COMMON CORE OF DATA (CCD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Common Core of Data (CCD), a program of the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics, is a comprehensive, annual, national statistical databaseof information concerning allpublic elementary and secondary schools (approximately 95,000) and school...

  11. Rare and common variants: twenty arguments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg Gibson

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have greatly improved our understanding of the genetic basis of disease risk. The fact that they tend not to identify more than a fraction of the specific causal loci has led to divergence of opinion over whether most of the variance is hidden as numerous rare variants of large effect or as common variants of very small

  12. Modeling of common radio resource management scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Pillekeit; Fariborz Derakhshan; Bruno Müller-clostermann

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we first present a systematic view on common radio resource management (CRRM) problems. Then we classify different CRRM levels and propose a categorization framework for CRRM algorithms based on their relationship to load sharing strategies. The proposed model framework based on this systematic view enables a cost-benefit analysis of different CRRM algorithms and architectures. Different centralized or

  13. Neck Pain (Cervical Strain) COMMON CAUSES

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    Neck Pain (Cervical Strain) COMMON CAUSES: Neck pain may be triggered by a specific event discomfort. Long term neck problems are more likely when pain develops gradually or discomfort is recurrent over a period of time. Chronic neck pain is often triggered by prior injuries, especially if original

  14. Cancer Cell A Transcriptional Signature and Common

    E-print Network

    Bulyk, Martha L.

    Cancer Cell Article A Transcriptional Signature and Common Gene Networks Link Cancer with Lipid to transformation. OLR1 is important for maintaining the transformed state in devel- opmentally diverse cancer cell lines and for tumor growth, suggesting a molecular connection between cancer and atherosclerosis. We

  15. Restrained Teaching: The Common Core of Didaktik

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopmann, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    "Didaktik" is at the centre of most school teaching and teacher education in Continental Europe, but at the same time almost unknown in the English speaking world. The article gives a brief outline of the history and the common core of Didaktik, of its current situation, and of the basic differences compared to the Anglo-American concept of…

  16. Aspergillosis in common crows in Nebraska, 1974.

    PubMed

    Zinkl, J G; Hyland, J M; Hurt, J J

    1977-04-01

    During fall 1974, approximately 1,000 to 1,500 common crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) died of aspergillosis in south-central Nebraska. The birds were debilitated, lethargic and dyspneic. On necropsy, typical lesions of aspergillosis were found in the lungs and air sacs. Histopathologic examination revealed granulomatous lesions around fungal hyphae in the respiratory system. PMID:864852

  17. "Lookism", Common Schools, Respect and Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The Common School should promote a sense of the distinctive worth of all human beings. How is the respect thus owed to every individual to be properly understood? This familiar question is explored by discussing "lookism", a form of discrimination on the grounds of appearance. The treatment is located within a wider analysis of stereotyping.…

  18. Chromosome Connections: Compelling Clues to Common Ancestry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Students compare banding patterns on hominid chromosomes and see striking evidence of their common ancestry. To test this, human chromosome no. 2 is matched with two shorter chimpanzee chromosomes, leading to the hypothesis that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of the two shorter chromosomes. Students test that hypothesis by looking for…

  19. Common beans, diseases: ecology and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is one of the most important edible legume crops worldwide, nutritionally and economically. Diseases caused by pathogens that affect beans can have catastrophic effects, destroying entire crops in some instances. There are more than 200 pathogens (bacterial, fungal,...

  20. Solving the 10 Most Common Carpet Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Identifies the 10 most common carpet problems in school facilities and offers solutions. These include: transition areas, moisture, spot removal, recurring spots, cleaning agents, allergens, wicking, biological contamination, equipment selection, and cleaning methods. Ensuring a successful maintenance program results in satisfactory appearance,…

  1. Only Countable Reichenbachian Common Cause Systems Exist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wro?ski, Leszek; Marczyk, Micha?

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we give a positive answer to a problem posed by Hofer-Szabó and Rédei (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 43:1819-1826, 2004) regarding the existence of infinite Reichenbachian common cause systems (RCCSs). An example of a countably infinite RCCS is presented. It is also determined that no RCCSs of greater cardinality exist.

  2. Key to Identifying Common Household Ants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A short lucid key to 8 common household ant species with control strategies. The information presented is accurate and the key easy to use; ancillary pages are also useful. The key may present difficulties if other ant species are encountered or in other parts of the U.S.

  3. Optical Reflectance Measurements for Commonly Used Reflectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Janecek; William W. Moses

    2008-01-01

    When simulating light collection in scintillators, modeling the angular distribution of optical light reflectance from surfaces is very important. Since light reflectance is poorly understood, either purely specular or purely diffuse reflectance is generally assumed. In this paper we measure the optical reflectance distribution for eleven commonly used reflectors. A 440 nm, output power stabilized, un-polarized laser is shone onto

  4. Common causes of male dog infertility.

    PubMed

    Memon, M A

    2007-08-01

    A complete breeding soundness evaluation is essential for assessment of the infertile male dog. Cryptorchidism, a sex-limited autosomal recessive trait, is more common as a unilateral condition. Azoospermia is an ejaculate consisting of seminal plasma but lacking sperm; repeated semen collections in the presence of an estrual bitch will rule out inadequate experience and lack of sexual stimulation. Both carnitine and alkaline phosphatase (AP) are produced in the epididymis; seminal plasma AP concentrations>5000 U/L indicate a normal ejaculate, whereas <5000 U/L is associated with incomplete ejaculation. Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), the most common age-related condition in intact male dogs, is characterized by a sanguineous urethral discharge, hematuria, or hemospermia; diagnosis is based on prostatic enlargement and confirmed by a transabdominal biopsy. Although castration is recommended, valuable breeding dogs can be given finasteride. Prostatitis is more common in older dogs with BPH. Culture of the third fraction of the ejaculate or urine obtained by cystocentesis is indicated. Bacterial prostatitis is treated with antibiotics with high lipid solubility. Some dogs with bacterial prostatitis may develop prostatic abscesses (a medical and surgical emergency). Prostatic cysts are often asymptomatic. Approximately, 5-7% of dogs with prostatic disease have prostatic neoplasia, most commonly adenocarcinoma (it occurs in both intact and castrated dogs), which often metastasizes and has a very poor prognosis. Although a specific diagnosis can be made in many cases of male dog infertility, not all causes are amenable to treatment. PMID:17512045

  5. Beyond Common Sense: Reconceptualizing National Curriculum Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthven, Kenneth

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the implications of the shift, in England and Wales, from the previous National Curriculum assessment model based on the assessment of performance in relation to statements of attainment, to a model based on level descriptions founded on the recommendations of R. Dearing (1994). Both models reflect a common sense view that…

  6. Breeding for resistance to common scab

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although common scab is an important problem for many potato growers, it is difficult to develop cultivars with consistently high levels of resistance. In this project, we have crossed a scab resistant inbred line of S. chacoense with the S. tuberosum haploid US-W4. We used the SolCAP SNP array to ...

  7. A Cognitive Core for Common State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate cognitive challenges introduced by Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (2010) with regard to conceptualizing fractions. We focus on a strand of standards that appear across grades three through five, which is best represented in grade four, by standard 4.NF.4a: "[Students should] understand a…

  8. Variation and Commonality in Phenomenographic Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerlind, Gerlese S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the data analysis stage of phenomenographic research, elucidating what is involved in terms of both commonality and variation in accepted practice. The analysis stage of phenomenographic research is often not well understood. This paper helps to clarify the process, initially by collecting together in one location the more…

  9. Variation and Commonality in Phenomenographic Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerlind, Gerlese S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the data analysis stage of phenomenographic research, elucidating what is involved in terms of both commonality and variation in accepted practice. The analysis stage of phenomenographic research is often not well understood. This paper helps to clarify the process, initially by collecting together in one location the more…

  10. Common obstacles to making quality hay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many obstacles are known to limit the production of high-quality hays. Among these, advanced plant maturity, rain damage during field wilting, and spontaneous heating during bale storage are most common. Rain damage reduces forage quality by leaching cell solubles (mostly sugars) from the forage, th...

  11. Common vnmr commands aa--abort acquisition

    E-print Network

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    Common vnmr commands aa--abort acquisition ai--absolute intensity mode aph--automatic phase correction at--acquisition time (sec) axis--scale units: axis='h' or axis='p' bc--baseline correction bs--plot scale pw--pulse width pwd--present working directory ra--resume acquisition (stopped by sa) rl

  12. Dietary supplements commonly used for prevention.

    PubMed

    Najm, Wadie; Lie, Désirée

    2008-12-01

    The use of complimentary and alternative medicine is on the rise. This article reviews some of the commonly used herbal supplements and others focusing mainly on disease prevention. A summary table of medical conditions is provided, and when possible, a summary of efficacy and safety is provided to facilitate decision making. PMID:18928828

  13. Exploring Function Transformations Using the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Becky; Giacin, Rich

    2013-01-01

    When examining transformations of the plane in geometry, teachers typically have students experiment with transformations of polygons. Students are usually quick to notice patterns with ordered pairs. The Common Core State Standard, Geometry, Congruence 2 (G-CO.2), requires students to describe transformations as functions that take points in the…

  14. Network Geometry Inference using Common Neighbors

    E-print Network

    Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and explore a new method for inferring hidden geometric coordinates of nodes in complex networks based on the number of common neighbors between the nodes. We compare this approach to the one in [1], which is based on the connections (and disconnections) between the nodes, i.e., on the links that the nodes have (or do not have). We find that for high degree nodes the common-neighbors approach yields a more accurate inference than the link-based method, unless heuristic periodic adjustments (or "correction steps") are used in the latter. The common-neighbors approach is computationally intensive, requiring $O(t^4)$ running time to map a network of $t$ nodes, versus $O(t^3)$ in the link-based method. But we also develop a hybrid method with $O(t^3)$ running time, which combines the common-neighbors and link-based approaches, and explore a heuristic that reduces its running time further to $O(t^2)$, without significant reduction in the mapping accuracy. We apply this method to the Autonomous Systems...

  15. Common Factors in Sex and Race Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Margaret E.; And Others

    Factors that might be common to sex and race discrimination were studied with a sample of 86 black and white graduate students enrolled in two Southern colleges. Attitudes toward changing economic roles for women and blacks were also assessed. Thirty-seven percent of the sample was under 30 years old, and 93 percent was from the Southeastern…

  16. Lesson Planning with the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Linda A.; McDuffie, Amy Roth; Tate, Cathie

    2014-01-01

    Planning a lesson can be similar to planning a road trip--a metaphor the authors use to describe how they applied research and theory to their lesson planning process. A map and mode of transportation, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and textbooks as resources, can lead to desired destinations, such as students engaging in…

  17. A common pathway toward women's health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Chibber; R. L. Kaplan; N. S. Padian; S. J. Anderson; P. M. Ling; N. Acharya; C. Van Dyke; S. Krishnan

    2008-01-01

    This paper calls for an alternate approach to studying the aetiology of women's health conditions. Instead of the long-established disease-specific, compartmentalized approach, it recommends focusing on risk exposures that allows for the identification of multiple disease conditions that stem from the same risk factors. Identifying common risk factors and the related pathways to adverse health outcomes can lead to the

  18. The Fertilisation of the Common Speedwell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mackenzie Stapley

    1882-01-01

    ALTHOUGH it is the wrong time of the year for observing flowers, it will perhaps not seem out of place to draw the attention of your readers to the fertilisation of the common Speedwell (Veronica officinalis). The flowers in the plant bang downwards, so as to bring the nearly flat corolla a little under the perpendicular. The two stamens project

  19. The Case for Common Examinations. Carnegie Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    Through an examination of one institution's efforts to strengthen teaching and learning on campus, the author makes a strong case for the use of common examinations as a powerful form of assessment as well as a fruitful context for faculty deliberations. Providing a continuing occasion for faculty inquiry and discussion, insuring grade…

  20. EVALUATING SILICON UPTAKE IN COMMON FLORICULTURE PLANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silicon (Si) is not commonly added in floriculture crop fertilizer recipes in the United States because it is not considered to be an essential plant nutrient. Given the growing body of information showing a clear, beneficial effect on plant growth, inclusion of Si in fertilizer recipes could be a ...

  1. Common Terms in Second Language Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Marguerite Ann

    This glossary defines terms commonly used in second language education, including the subfields of foreign language education, bilingual education, and English as a second language. Its purpose is to minimize confusion about the use of the terms. The terms include: language/linguistic majority student; language/linguistic minority student; limited…

  2. Canada, Copyright, and the Common Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslett, K. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Advocacy on public policy issues such as copyright is a common concern of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and the Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL). Duane Webster has been instrumental in facilitating a collaborative approach to such advocacy. Part of this involves concerted efforts to ensure that fair use (United…

  3. Gates, Pearson Partner on Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    As states and school districts grapple with how to teach the skills outlined in the new common standards, two foundations have announced a partnership aimed at crafting complete, online curricula for those standards in mathematics and English/language arts that span nearly every year of a child's precollegiate education. The announcement last…

  4. Common topics in adolescent critical care medicine.

    PubMed

    Skaletzky, Sharon; Totapally, Balagangadhar R

    2013-04-01

    This article reviews some common conditions in adolescents that require critical care. Topics that are covered include severe sepsis and shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, status asthmaticus, diabetic ketoacidosis, poisoning (acetaminophen, decongestants, prescription medications, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), and trauma. Comments about bariatric surgery are also included. PMID:23705524

  5. COMMONLY ASKED QUESTIONS About the Exhibition

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    is the significance of co-evolution? Organisms ­ from humans to insects to plants ­ have all evolved from a common-evolution is responsible for the relationship between the star orchid and the giant hawk moth in Madagascar. When Charles that nectar. Decades later, the giant hawk moth was discovered. Today, the hawk moth continues to use its 8

  6. GAISEing into the Common Core of Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Randall E.; Bargagliotti, Anna E.

    2012-01-01

    In education, it is common to set aside older curriculum documents when newer ones are released. In fact, some instructional leaders have encouraged the "out with the old, in with the new" process by asking teachers to turn in all copies of the older document. Doing so makes sense when the old curriculum document is incompatible with the new.…

  7. How Common is Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    How Common is Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common by gastroenterologists (specialists whom study the stomach and intestines). Women tend to suffer from IBS over men and absenteeism is considerable and estimated to be $30 billion annually. In terms of the college student, IBS can

  8. Dominant gene for common bean resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common bacterial blight pathogen [Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap)] is a limiting factor for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production worldwide and resistance to the pathogen in most commercial cultivars is inadequate. Variability in virulence of the bacterial pathogen has been ob...

  9. Combined Common Person and Common Item Equating of Medical Science Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Paul R.

    This equating study of the National Board of Medical Examiners Examinations was a combined common persons and common items equating, using the Rasch model. The 1,000-item test was administered to about 3,000 second-year medical students in seven equal-length subtests: anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pathology, microbiology, pharmacology, and…

  10. Common cycling injuries. Management and prevention.

    PubMed

    Mellion, M B

    1991-01-01

    The increasing participation in the athletic forms of bicycling warrants expanded physician attention to the traumatic and overuse injuries experienced by cyclists. The modern bicycle consists of a frame with various components, including handlebars, brakes, wheels, pedals, and gears, in various configurations for the various modes of cycling. For high performance cycling the proper fit of the bicycle is critical. The most efficient method to provide an accurate fit is the Fitkit, but proper frame selection and adjustment can be made by following simple guidelines for frame size, seat height, fore and aft saddle position, saddle angle, reach and handlebar height. The human body functions most effectively in a narrow range of pedal resistance to effort. Riding at too much pedal resistance is a major cause of overuse problems in cyclists. Overuse injuries are lower using lower gear ratios at a higher cadence. Cycling injuries account for 500,000 visits per year to emergency rooms in the US. Over half the accidents involve motor vehicles, and road surface and mechanical problems with the bicycle are also common causes of accidents. Head injuries are common in cyclists and account for most of the fatal accidents. Despite good evidence of their effectiveness, victims with head injuries have rarely worn helmets. Contusions, sprains and fractures may occur throughout the body, most commonly to the hand, wrist, lower arm, shoulder, ankle and lower leg. The handlebar and seat have been implicated in a wide variety of abdominal and genital injuries. Abrasions, lacerations and bruises of the skin are the most common traumatic injuries. Trauma may be prevented or reduced by proper protective safety equipment and keeping the bike in top mechanical condition. Anticipation of the errors of others and practising and adopting specific riding strategies also help to prevent traumatic injuries. Management of overuse injuries in cycling generally involves mechanical adjustment as well as medical management. Neck and back pain are extremely common in cyclists, occurring in up to 60% of riders. Ulnar neuropathy, characterised by tingling, numbness and weakness in the hands is common in serious cyclists after several days of riding. Managing saddle-related injuries or irritations may also involve adjusting seat height, angle and fore and aft position in addition to changing the saddle. Padding in the saddle and shorts play an important part in saddle problems. Saddle-related problems include chafing, perineal folliculitis and furuncles, subcutaneous perineal nodules, pudendal neuropathy, male impotence, traumatic urethritis and a variety of vulva trauma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2011683

  11. Plasticity facilitates sustainable growth in the commons

    PubMed Central

    Cavaliere, Matteo; Poyatos, Juan F.

    2013-01-01

    In the commons, communities whose growth depends on public good, individuals often rely on surprisingly simple strategies, or heuristics, to decide whether to contribute to the shared resource (at risk of exploitation by free-riders). Although this appears a limitation, we show here how four heuristics lead to sustainable growth when coupled to specific ecological constraints. The two simplest ones—contribute permanently or switch stochastically between contributing or not—are first shown to bring sustainability when the public good efficiently promotes growth. If efficiency declines and the commons is structured in small groups, the most effective strategy resides in contributing only when a majority of individuals are also contributors. In contrast, when group size becomes large, the most effective behaviour follows a minimal-effort rule: contribute only when it is strictly necessary. Both plastic strategies are observed in natural scenarios across scales that present them as relevant social motifs for the sustainable management of public goods. PMID:23365195

  12. Common cold outbreaks: A network theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishkaie, Faranak Rajabi; Bakouie, Fatemeh; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar

    2014-11-01

    In this study, at first we evaluated the network structure in social encounters by which respiratory diseases can spread. We considered common-cold and recorded a sample of human population and actual encounters between them. Our results show that the database structure presents a great value of clustering. In the second step, we evaluated dynamics of disease spread with SIR model by assigning a function to each node of the structural network. The rate of disease spread in networks was observed to be inversely correlated with characteristic path length. Therefore, the shortcuts have a significant role in increasing spread rate. We conclude that the dynamics of social encounters' network stands between the random and the lattice in network spectrum. Although in this study we considered the period of common-cold disease for network dynamics, it seems that similar approaches may be useful for other airborne diseases such as SARS.

  13. Artemis: Common lunar lander project status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Artemis Common Lunar Lander project status. The plans are to start the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) with lunar robotic missions that can demonstrate the NASA cultural change and provide a catalyst for human exploration of the moon and Mars. The Artemis Common Lunar Lander Concept developed by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been accepted as the centerpiece of this lunar robotic exploration program. Topics covered include the anticipated program structure, a concept overview, lander value as a function of payload mass, the approach of the JSC in-house study, an example launch vehicle packaging concept, and the use of the Delta 2 launch vehicle.

  14. Common questions patients ask during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hueston, W J; Eilers, G M; King, D E; McGlaughlin, V G

    1995-05-01

    When women become pregnant, they expect their family physicians to answer many questions about potential risks during the pregnancy and possible effects on the developing fetus. Many of these questions concern over-the-counter medications, common household exposures and daily activities, which often are not well discussed in obstetric texts. In general, women can be reassured that allergy medications and most common food additives, such as caffeine and aspartame, are safe to use during pregnancy. Most cosmetics and hair care products, including permanent wave solutions, are safe in limited exposures. Patients should be counseled to avoid exposure to insecticides and to continue good safety habits, such as wearing seat belts. Discussion of specific risks may prevent unnecessary anxiety and needless changes in work and home environment and lifestyle for pregnant women. PMID:7732948

  15. Differential Diagnosis of Common Female Genitourinary Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Zemdegs, Jan; Morgan, J. Edwin

    1980-01-01

    The symptoms and diagnosis of the three most common female bladder-urethral dysfunctions (infection, stress incontinence, and irritable bladder syndrome) are examined so that the practitioner may better differentiate between these problems and some of their counterparts. Cystitis cystica, urethritis, and radiation cystitis are among the less common infections and are frequently missed. Other conditions can be mistaken for infections: urethral diverticulum, Hunner's ulcer, atrophic vaginitis, urethral stenosis. Stress urinary incontinence, arising from abnormal bladder-urethral unit physiology or from obesity, can benefit from Kegel's exercise to strengthen the external sphincter and pubococcygeus muscles. For irritable bladder syndrome, which is often misdiagnosed, a bladder drill with increasing voiding intervals is useful. Patient understanding of bladder function and the need for retraining is also important. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:21297848

  16. Differential diagnosis of common tremor syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Bhidayasiri, R

    2005-01-01

    Tremor is one of the most common involuntary movement disorders seen in clinical practice. In addition to the detailed history, the differential diagnosis is mainly clinical based on the distinction at rest, postural and intention, activation condition, frequency, and topographical distribution. The causes of tremor are heterogeneous and it can present alone (for example, essential tremor) or as a part of a neurological syndrome (for example, multiple sclerosis). Essential tremor and the tremor of Parkinson's disease are the most common tremors encountered in clinical practice. This article focuses on a practical approach to these different forms of tremor and how to distinguish them clinically. Evidence supporting various strategies used in the differentiation is then presented, followed by a review of formal guidelines or recommendations when they exist. PMID:16344298

  17. Investigating Common Descent: Formulating Explanations and Models

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity has students formulate explanations and models that simulate structural and biochemical data as they investigate the misconception that humans evolved from apes. Students should recognize that present-day species evolved from earlier species and the relatedness of organisms is the result of common ancestry. They will also discover that similarities among existing organisms provide evidence for evolution, anatomical similarities of living things reflect common ancestry, and all life forms use the same basic DNA building blocks. Basic concepts also include the fact that scientists pose, test, and revise multiple hypotheses to explain what they observe, our understanding of life through time is based upon multiple lines of evidence, the similarity of DNA nucleotide sequences can be used to infer the degree of kinship between species, and anatomical evidence is also used to infer lines of descent. This site includes a list of materials and all information required for this activity.

  18. Lead poisoning in common loons (Gavia immer).

    PubMed

    Locke, L N; Kerr, S M; Zoromski, D

    1982-01-01

    Two emaciated common loons (Gavia immer) were believed to have died of lead poisoning when fragments of fishing lines and lead sinkers were discovered in their stomachs. Later a third emaciated loon, which had only the remnants of fishing line in its stomach, was suspected of being a possible lead-poisoning victim when all other test results were negative. The liver lead levels in the first two loons were 20.6 ppm and 46.1 ppm (wet weight), and the level in the third was 38.52 ppm (wet weight). Thirteen common loons dying of other causes had liver lead levels of less than 1 ppm (wet weight). PMID:7103895

  19. Biomarker Validation: Common Data Analysis Concerns

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Biomarker validation, like any other confirmatory process based on statistical methodology, must discern associations that occur by chance from those reflecting true biological relationships. Validity of a biomarker is established by authenticating its correlation with clinical outcome. Validated biomarkers can lead to targeted therapy, improve clinical diagnosis, and serve as useful prognostic and predictive factors of clinical outcome. Statistical concerns such as confounding and multiplicity are common in biomarker validation studies. This article discusses four major areas of concern in the biomarker validation process and some of the proposed solutions. Because present-day statistical packages enable the researcher to address these common concerns, the purpose of this discussion is to raise awareness of these statistical issues in the hope of improving the reproducibility of validation study findings. PMID:25001264

  20. Human resources: a common-sense discipline.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Lisa R

    2004-02-01

    Being able to hire the right team members, keeping them engaged ina professional and productive environment, and avoiding litigation help keep the team functioning and meeting the everyday goals of providing quality patient care. Although these topics may seem complex, medical providers and professionals have resources available to them, such as the Human Resources department, the Medical Director, senior management,and legal counsel. Hiring the right people, creating a positive work environment, and avoiding litigation are all common sense principals that are relevant regardless of profession, industry, or company. Understanding how to apply the principles and concepts of Human Resources and personnel management can seem overwhelming: however, asking for help from the resources mentioned previously and applying the common sense information found in this article will help one to be a successful leader and practitioner. PMID:15062502

  1. Nursing Home Quality as a Common Good

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, David C.; Gruber, Jonathan; Angelelli, Joseph J.

    2009-01-01

    A long-standing assumption among economists is that nursing home quality is common across Medicaid and private-pay patients within a shared facility. However, there has been only limited empirical work addressing this issue. Using a unique individual level panel of residents of nursing homes from seven states, we exploit both within-facility and within-person variation in payer source and quality to examine this issue. We also test the robustness of these results across states with different Medicaid and private-pay rate differentials. Across various identification strategies, our results are consistent with the assumption of common quality across Medicaid and private-paying patients within facilities. PMID:20463859

  2. Commonality analysis as a knowledge acquisition problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, Dorian P.

    1987-01-01

    Commonality analysis is a systematic attempt to reduce costs in a large scale engineering project by discontinuing development of certain components during the design phase. Each discontinued component is replaced by another component that has sufficient functionality to be considered an appropriate substitute. The replacement strategy is driven by economic considerations. The System Commonality Analysis Tool (SCAT) is based on an oversimplified model of the problem and incorporates no knowledge acquisition component. In fact, the process of arriving at a compromise between functionality and economy is quite complex, with many opportunities for the application of expert knowledge. Such knowledge is of two types: general knowledge expressible as heuristics or mathematical laws potentially applicable to any set of components, and specific knowledge about the way in which elements of a given set of components interrelate. Examples of both types of knowledge are presented, and a framework is proposed for integrating the knowledge into a more general and useable tool.

  3. Heavy metals in common foodstuff: Daily intake

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoumbaris, P.; Tsoukali-Papadopoulou, H. (Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece))

    1994-07-01

    Lately, toxic effects of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd) as well as desirable ones of some others (Ni, Mn, Zn) have been a field of thorough investigation. The main way of human body fortification in metals is through foodchain depending on the kind and quantity of the consumed food, according to dietary habits. The purpose of this study is the calculation of metals daily intake through common foodstuff of Greek inhabitants. The calculation is based on results from quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Zn in common foodstuff from the market of the city of Thessaloniki. The daily food consumption data is derived from three sources: (a) answers to a questionnaire distributed to families of the city of Thessaloniki, (b) nutrition data provided by the Agricultural Bank of Greece and (c) nutrition data according to international bibliography.

  4. House of Commons Library Research Papers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons. Library.

    1998-01-01

    The UK House of Commons has recently created a site that offers access to the full text of Research Papers (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only) which are compiled for the benefit of British Members of Parliament by the staff of the House of Commons Library. An occasional series focusing on topics of current parliamentary interest, the papers, "aim to be politically impartial and contain factual information as well as a range of opinions on each subject covered." Recently released titles include: "EU Enlargement: The Political Process," "EU Enlargement: The Financial Consequences," "Northern Ireland: political developments since 1972," "The local elections of 7 May 1998 and the London Referendum," and "Unemployment by Constituency: Welfare-to-work groups - April 1998."

  5. Common ear diseases: recognition and management.

    PubMed

    Keim, R J

    1977-05-01

    External otitis is directly related to patient habit patterns. It is easily treated, but the habits must be changed to effect permanent cure. Serous otitis media is the most common cause of conductive hearing loss, and its presence my predispose to development of purulent otitis media. Removal of middle ear fluid may be advisable in persistent serous otitis and is recommended in acute purulent otitis. PMID:857250

  6. Economics and the Tragedy of the Commons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Betty Blecha

    In both macroeconomics and microeconomics principles courses, economists teach the virtue of markets as an allocative mechanism. But markets sometimes fail. This example allows students to simulate the market failure associated with a common property resource, a salmon fishery, and evaluate ways to control fishing. The simulation also shows the distributional results of different allocative mechanisms. The simulation was developed by Paul Romer at Stanford University and is available on the Aplia web site.

  7. Quick Start Guide for Common Calculators

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kuiper, Carol

    Created by authors Carol Kuiper and Jack Tedeski, this site is a table of instructions for TI, Casio, HP, Sharp, and some common other brands of calculators. Instructions are given for how to enter data (both one and two variable), how to compute mean, standard deviation (both population and sample), correlation, linear regression coefficients, combinations, permutations, and (importantly) how to turn the calculator on and off.

  8. Apoptotic responses common to cancer and inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Fingleton; Howard C. Crawford

    \\u000a The pathobiology of chronic inflammation and of cancer share many common attributes. Both can be considered “nonhealing wounds”\\u000a due to the loss of normal tissue integrity. Both show evidence of dysregulated proliferation of particular cell types and\\u000a consequently both are associated with hyperplasias. In addition, both chronic inflammation and cancer are also dependent on\\u000a subverting the process of programmed cell

  9. Do Conventions Need to Be Common Knowledge?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Binmore

    2008-01-01

    Do conventions need to be common knowledge in order to work? David Lewis builds this requirement into his definition of a\\u000a convention. This paper explores the extent to which his approach finds support in the game theory literature. The knowledge\\u000a formalism developed by Robert Aumann and others militates against Lewis’s approach, because it shows that it is almost impossible\\u000a for

  10. Accepted Common Interest Community (CIC) Proposals.

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    These are the 18 accepted proposals for the three Common Interest Community (CIC) sessions at IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Therapy and Research (SYTAR), June 5-8, 2014, in Austin, Texas and published in the Final Program Guide and CIC Works for SYTAR 2014. The sessions were CIC#1 Rehab Professionals: Bridging the Past with the Future and CIC#2a & CIC#2b Mental, Emotional and Spiritual Health. PMID:25645135

  11. Autism: Common, heritable, but not harmful

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Dawson, Michelle; Mottron, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    We assert that one of the examples used by Keller & Miller (K&M), namely, autism, is indeed common, and heritable, but we question whether it is harmful. We provide a brief review of cognitive science literature in which autistics perform superiorly to non-autistics in perceptual, reasoning, and comprehension tasks; however, these superiorities are often occluded and are instead described as dysfunctions. PMID:25506106

  12. Common Insect and Mite Pests of Humans

    E-print Network

    Brown, Elizabeth; Troxclair, Noel N.

    2008-09-25

    E-485 9/08 Common Insect and Mite Pests of Humans Wizzie Brown and Noel Troxclair* B *Extension Program Specialist, and Associate Professor and Extension Entomologist, The Texas A&M System Figure 1. Head louse. Photo by Michael Merchant. ites from... baseboards. Although a pest management professional is needed manage bedbugs, some actions can help reduce their populations: ? Thoroughly clean the infested area, paying close attention to cracks and crevices where the bugs may be hiding. ? Vacuum...

  13. Finding Lowest Common Ancestors in Parallel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung H. Tsin

    1986-01-01

    Two parallel algorithms for finding the lowest common ancestors of a set of vertex pairs Q (the query set) in a directed tree are presented. With all the overheads taken into account, these algorithms take O(((n + absolute value of Q)\\/p) logân) and O(n²\\/p + logân) time, respectively, with p(>0) processors (n is the size of the tree). These results

  14. Micropropagation of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Hammatt; M. S. Ridout

    1992-01-01

    Embryos extracted from dried seeds of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior), were germinated on growth regulator-free culture medium. Cotyledonary nodes from these seedlings were placed onto Murashige and Skoog, Woody Plant or Driver and Kuniyuki culture media with 22.2 or 44.4 µM benzyladenine, on which they developed into shoot cultures following the outgrowth of axillary buds. With Murashige and Skoog medium,

  15. Kindergarten Common Core State Standards Flip Book

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This 42-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the Kindergarten level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades 1-5.

  16. A Review on Less-common Nanostructures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oxana V. Kharissova; Boris I. Kharisov; Tomás Hernández García; Ubaldo Ortiz Méndez

    2009-01-01

    Less-comon nanostructures (nanoforms) such as “nanodumbbells”, “nanorices”, “nanolines”, “nanotowers”, “nanoshuttles”, “nanobowlings”, “nanowheels”, “nanofans”, “nanopencils”, “nanotrees”, “nanoarrows”, “nanonails”, “nanobottles”, or “nanovolcanoes”, among many others, have been reviewed. A considerable part of these nanoforms corresponds to gold, zinc oxide, and several binary inorganic compounds that are widely used in electronics. Synthesis methods for obtaining less-common nanoforms include wet-chemistry and electrochemical techniques, laser

  17. Genetics in psychiatry: Common variant association studies

    E-print Network

    Buxbaum, Joseph D; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Devlin, Bernie

    2010-03-25

    EDITORIAL Open Access Genetics in psychiatry: common variant association studies Joseph D Buxbaum1*, Simon Baron-Cohen2, Bernie Devlin3 Abstract Many psychiatric conditions and traits are associated with significant heritability. Genetic risk... , Propping P, Vasilescu C, Maier W, Rietschel M, Zammit S, Schumacher J, Quinn EM, Schulze TG, Williams NM, Giegling I, Iwata N, Ikeda M, Darvasi A, Shifman S, He L, Duan J, Sanders AR, Levinson DF, Gejman PV, Cichon S, Nöthen MM, Gill M, Corvin A, Rujescu D...

  18. Growth hormone gene transfer in common carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Wu; Yonghua Sun; Zuoyan Zhu

    2003-01-01

    The first successful case of transgenic fish was achieved in 1984. It is in a model system that the integration and expression of recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) in host red common carp (Cyprinus carpio, red var.) have been thoroughly studied. Recently, the integration sites have been recovered and characterized. Compared with non-transgenic peers, hGH-transgenic fish are prior in dietary

  19. Commonness and rarity in the marine biosphere.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Sean R; MacNeil, M Aaron; Caley, M Julian; Knowlton, Nancy; Cripps, Ed; Hisano, Mizue; Thibaut, Loïc M; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar D; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Brainard, Russell E; Brandt, Angelika; Bulleri, Fabio; Ellingsen, Kari E; Kaiser, Stefanie; Kröncke, Ingrid; Linse, Katrin; Maggi, Elena; O'Hara, Timothy D; Plaisance, Laetitia; Poore, Gary C B; Sarkar, Santosh K; Satpathy, Kamala K; Schückel, Ulrike; Williams, Alan; Wilson, Robin S

    2014-06-10

    Explaining patterns of commonness and rarity is fundamental for understanding and managing biodiversity. Consequently, a key test of biodiversity theory has been how well ecological models reproduce empirical distributions of species abundances. However, ecological models with very different assumptions can predict similar species abundance distributions, whereas models with similar assumptions may generate very different predictions. This complicates inferring processes driving community structure from model fits to data. Here, we use an approximation that captures common features of "neutral" biodiversity models--which assume ecological equivalence of species--to test whether neutrality is consistent with patterns of commonness and rarity in the marine biosphere. We do this by analyzing 1,185 species abundance distributions from 14 marine ecosystems ranging from intertidal habitats to abyssal depths, and from the tropics to polar regions. Neutrality performs substantially worse than a classical nonneutral alternative: empirical data consistently show greater heterogeneity of species abundances than expected under neutrality. Poor performance of neutral theory is driven by its consistent inability to capture the dominance of the communities' most-abundant species. Previous tests showing poor performance of a neutral model for a particular system often have been followed by controversy about whether an alternative formulation of neutral theory could explain the data after all. However, our approach focuses on common features of neutral models, revealing discrepancies with a broad range of empirical abundance distributions. These findings highlight the need for biodiversity theory in which ecological differences among species, such as niche differences and demographic trade-offs, play a central role. PMID:24912168

  20. The common law as central economic planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. Aranson

    1992-01-01

    Central economic planning traditionally has set goals and allocated resources by supplanting the price system with central\\u000a direction. Planners engaged in industry-by-industry and firm-by-firm decision making, all to achieve predetermined targets.\\u000a The neoclassical approach to law and economics posits that common law judges engage in a similar activity, in rendering decisions\\u000a that maximize wealth. A significant feature of this approach

  1. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Common Carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie

    1982-01-01

    This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

  2. The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, John; Berg, Wesley; Huffman, George; Kummerow, Chris; Stocker, Erich

    2005-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) project will provide a core satellite carrying the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and will use microwave observations from a constellation of other satellites. Each partner with a satellite in the constellation will have a calibration that meets their own requirements and will decide on the format to archive their brightness temperature (Tb) record in GPM. However, GPM multi-sensor precipitation algorithms need to input intercalibrated Tb's in order to avoid differences among sensors introducing artifacts into the longer term climate record of precipitation. The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product is intended to address this problem by providing intercalibrated Tb data, called "Tc" data, where the "c" stands for common. The precipitation algorithms require a Tc file format that is both generic and flexible enough to accommodate the different passive microwave instruments. The format will provide detailed information on the processing history in order to allow future researchers to have a record of what was done. The format will be simple, including the main items of scan time, latitude, longitude, and Tc. It will also provide spacecraft orientation, spacecraft location, orbit, and instrument scan type (cross-track or conical). Another simplification is to store data in real numbers, avoiding the ambiguity of scaled data. Finally, units and descriptions will be provided in the product. The format is built on the concept of a swath, which is a series of scans that have common geolocation and common scan geometry. Scan geometry includes pixels per scan, sensor orientation, scan type, and incidence angles. The Tc algorithm and data format are being tested using the pre-GPM Precipitation Processing System (PPS) software to generate formats and 1/0 routines. In the test, data from SSM/I, TMI, AMSR-E, and WindSat are being processed and written as Tc products.

  3. Psychoneuroendocrine characteristics of common obesity clinical subtypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JM Martins; A Trinca; A Afonso; F Carreiras; J Falcão; JS Nunes; S do Vale; JC da Costa

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To relate psychological profiles, cerebral asymmetry and the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA) reactivity to clinical characteristics of common obesity.METHODS: Sixty consecutive adult female overweight and obese patients attending the outpatient endocrine department were included in this study. Clinical evaluation specifically selected a priori the following indexes: obesity age of onset, parenthood obesity, carbohydrate craving, binge eating with purging, obesity degree

  4. Consortia Provide Preview of Common Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    As teachers begin shaping lessons for the common standards, many are wondering how to prepare their students for tests that won't be ready for at least two years. Sample items being drafted for those exams offer early ideas of what lies ahead. Two large groups of states are using federal Race to the Top money to create new suites of exams for the…

  5. Familial hepatopulmonary syndrome in common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Holmes, S N; Condliffe, A; Griffiths, W; Baxendale, H; Kumararatne, D S

    2015-04-01

    Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) comprises a heterogeneous group of primary antibody deficiencies which lead to a range of complications, including infectious, neoplastic and inflammatory disorders. This report describes monozygotic twin brothers with CVID who developed cryptogenic liver disease and subsequently hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS). This is the second report of the association of HPS and CVID. Its occurrence in two identical twins implicates a genetic basis. PMID:25708586

  6. Cervical pedicles: correcting a common misconception.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Alexander G

    2011-06-01

    To bring to the attention of Australian radiologists in training, directors of training and radiologists in general, a commonly held erroneous misconception, specifically that of the plain radiographic appearance of the cervical spine pedicle and the transverse process in oblique projections. A human C5 vertebra was appropriately marked and radiographed in the oblique projection to demonstrate key anatomical structures and their relations. The rounded cortical contour overlying the vertebral body is commonly misinterpreted as a cervical transverse process but is the plain radiographic outline of the end-on ipsilateral pedicle. Because of the right-angle relationship of the transverse process long axis and the end-on pedicle long axis, the ipsilateral transverse process appears as a faint elongated corticated structure projecting beyond the vertebral body contour. It may also be obscured because of small size, relative osteopaenia and overlying soft tissue bulk. The end-on pedicle has been unequivocally demonstrated, as has the ipsilateral transverse process. The two lie at right angles to each other. The common misconception (amplified by an error in an earlier edition of a popular atlas) should be debunked by radiologists and should not be promulgated to Australian radiology trainees. PMID:21696564

  7. Genetic control of inflorescence in common bean.

    PubMed

    Guilherme, S R; Ramalho, M A P; de F B Abreu, A; Pereira, L A

    2014-01-01

    The number of pods per common bean plant is a primary component of grain yield, which depends on the number of flowers produced and on the flower set. Thus, a larger number of flowers per plant would increase yield. Lines with inflorescences that had a large number of flowers compared to common bean plants now under cultivation were identified. We analyzed the genetic control of this trait and its association with grain yield. The cultivar BRSMG Talismã was crossed with 2 lines, L.59583 and L.59692, which have a large number of flowers. The F1, F2, and F3 generations were obtained. These generations were assessed together with the parents in a randomized block experimental design with 2 replications. The traits assessed included length of inflorescence, number of pods per inflorescence, number of pods per plant, number of grains per plant, 100-grain weight, and grain yield per plant. Mean genetic components and variance were estimated. The traits length of inflorescence and number of pods per inflorescence exhibited genetic control with predominance that showed an additive effect. In the 2 crosses, genetic control of grain yield and of its primary components showed that the allelic interaction of dominance was high. The wide variability in the traits assessed may be used to increase yield of the common bean plant by increasing the number of flowers on the plant. PMID:25501247

  8. How I treat common variable immune deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency is a rare immune deficiency, characterized by low levels of serum immunoglobulin G, A, and/or M with loss of antibody production. The diagnosis is most commonly made in adults between the ages of 20 and 40 years, but both children and older adults can be found to have this immune defect. The range of clinical manifestations is broad, including acute and chronic infections, inflammatory and autoimmune disease, and an increased incidence of cancer and lymphoma. For all these reasons, the disease phenotype is both heterogeneous and complex. Contributing to the complexity is that patient cohorts are generally small, criteria used for diagnosis vary, and the doses of replacement immune globulin differ. In addition, routines for monitoring patients over the years and protocols for the use of other biologic agents for complications have not been clarified or standardized. In the past few years, data from large patient registries have revealed that both selected laboratory markers and clinical phenotyping may aid in dissecting groups of subjects into biologically relevant categories. This review presents my approach to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with common variable immunodeficiency, with suggestions for the use of laboratory biomarkers and means of monitoring patients. PMID:20332369

  9. House of Commons Papers 2 Select Committee Papers 2

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    Contents House of Commons Papers 2 Select Committee Papers 2 Select Committee enquiries 2 Select and Accounts 4 House returns 4 Other papers 4 Numbering and Indexing 5 Access to House of Commons Papers 5 2007 House of Commons Information Office House of Commons Papers House of Commons Papers are one

  10. Tail Kinematics of Juvenile Common Snapping Turtles during Aquatic Walking

    E-print Network

    Blob, Richard W.

    juvenile Common Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina) during aquatic walking. Common Snapping Turtles hold Macrochelys temminicki and three Common Snapping Turtle species in the genus Chelydra; Phillips et al., 1996

  11. Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Mathematics Curriculum Materials

    E-print Network

    Milner, Fabio Augusto

    1 Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Mathematics Curriculum Materials;3 Overview of the Common Core State Standards Mathematics Curriculum Analysis Project In June 2010, the Council of Chief State School Officers and National Governor's Association released the Common Core State

  12. Common Core State Standards Office of Academic Affairs

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    Common Core State Standards at CUNY #12;Office of Academic Affairs Angelita Alvarado..............................................................................................................1 Common Core State Standards: Background ......................................................2....................................................................................5 Teacher Education Common Core Projects Bronx Community College

  13. Demography and the Tragedy of the Commons

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Individual success in group-structured populations has two components. First, an individual gains by outcompeting its neighbors for local resources. Second, an individual’s share of group success must be weighted by the total productivity of the group. The essence of sociality arises from the tension between selfish gains against neighbors and the associated loss that selfishness imposes by degrading the efficiency of the group. Without some force to modulate selfishness, the natural tendencies of self interest typically degrade group performance to the detriment of all. This is the tragedy of the commons. Kin selection provides the most widely discussed way in which the tragedy is overcome in biology. Kin selection arises from behavioral associations within groups caused either by genetical kinship or by other processes that correlate the behaviors of group members. Here, I emphasize demography as a second factor that may also modulate the tragedy of the commons and favor cooperative integration of groups. Each act of selfishness or cooperation in a group often influences group survival and fecundity over many subsequent generations. For example, a cooperative act early in the growth cycle of a colony may enhance the future size and survival of the colony. This time-dependent benefit can greatly increase the degree of cooperation favored by natural selection, providing another way in which to overcome the tragedy of the commons and enhance the integration of group behavior. I conclude that analyses of sociality must account for both the behavioral associations of kin selection theory and the demographic consequences of life history theory. PMID:19912449

  14. Commonality in Down and Fetal Alcohol Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Solzak, Jeffrey P.; Liang, Yun; Zhou, Feng C.; Roper, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Down syndrome (DS) and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) are two leading causes of birth defects with phenotypes ranging from craniofacial abnormalities to cognitive impairment. Despite different origins, we report that in addition to sharing many phenotypes, DS and FAS may have common underlying mechanisms of development. METHODS Literature was surveyed for DS and FAS as well as mouse models. Gene expression and apoptosis were compared in embryonic mouse models of DS and FAS by qPCR, immunohistochemical and immunoflurorescence analyses. The craniometry was examined using MicroCT at postnatal day 21. RESULTS A literature survey revealed over 20 comparable craniofacial and structural deficits in both humans with DS and FAS and corresponding mouse models. Similar phenotypes were experimentally found in pre- and postnatal craniofacial and neurological tissues of DS and FAS mice. Dysregulation of two genes, Dyrk1a and Rcan1, key to craniofacial and neurological precursors of DS, was shared in craniofacial precursors of DS and FAS embryos. Increased cleaved caspase 3 expression was also discovered in comparable regions of the craniofacial and brain precursors of DS and FAS embryos. Further mechanistic studies suggested overexpression of trisomic Ttc3 in DS embyros may influence nuclear pAkt localization and cell survival. CONCLUSIONS This first and initial study indicates that DS and FAS share common dysmorphologies in humans and animal models. This work also suggests common mechanisms at cellular and molecular levels that are disrupted by trisomy or alcohol consumption during pregnancy and lead to craniofacial and neurological phenotypes associated with DS or FAS. PMID:23554291

  15. Freeing data through The Polar Information Commons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruin, T.; Chen, R. S.; Parsons, M. A.; Carlson, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    The polar regions are changing rapidly with dramatic global effect. Wise management of resources, improved decision support, and effective international cooperation on resource and geopolitical issues require deeper understanding and better prediction of these changes. Unfortunately, polar data and information remain scattered, scarce, and sporadic. Inspired by the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 that established the Antarctic as a global commons to be used only for peaceful purposes and scientific research, we assert that data and information about the polar regions are themselves “public goods” that should be shared ethically and with minimal constraint. We therefore envision the Polar Information Commons (PIC) as an open, virtual repository for vital scientific data and information that would provide a shared, community-based cyber-infrastructure fostering innovation, improving scientific efficiency, and encouraging participation in polar research, education, planning, and management. The PIC will build on the legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY), providing a long-term framework for access to and preservation of both existing and future data and information about the polar regions. Rapid change demands rapid data access. The PIC system will enable scientists to quickly expose their data to the world and share them through open protocols on the Internet. A PIC digital label will alert users and data centers to new polar data and ensure that usage rights are clear. The PIC will utilize the Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data, which promotes open data access through the public domain coupled with community norms of practice to ensure use of data in a fair and equitable manner. A set of PIC norms is currently being developed in consultation with key polar data organizations and other stakeholders. We welcome inputs from the broad science community as we further develop and refine the PIC approach and move ahead with implementation.

  16. Freeing data through The Polar Information Commons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruin, Taco; Chen, Robert; Parsons, Mark; Carlson, David

    2010-05-01

    The polar regions are changing rapidly with dramatic global effect. Wise management of resources, improved decision support, and effective international cooperation on resource and geopolitical issues require deeper understanding and better prediction of these changes. Unfortunately, polar data and information remain scattered, scarce, and sporadic. Inspired by the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 that established the Antarctic as a global commons to be used only for peaceful purposes and scientific research, we assert that data and information about the polar regions are themselves "public goods" that should be shared ethically and with minimal constraint. We therefore envision the Polar Information Commons (PIC) as an open, virtual repository for vital scientific data and information that would provide a shared, community-based cyber-infrastructure fostering innovation, improving scientific efficiency, and encouraging participation in polar research, education, planning, and management. The PIC will build on the legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY), providing a long-term framework for access to and preservation of both existing and future data and information about the polar regions. Rapid change demands rapid data access. The PIC system will enable scientists to quickly expose their data to the world and share them through open protocols on the Internet. A PIC digital label will alert users and data centers to new polar data and ensure that usage rights are clear. The PIC will utilize the Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data, which promotes open data access through the public domain coupled with community norms of practice to ensure use of data in a fair and equitable manner. A set of PIC norms is currently being developed in consultation with key polar data organizations and other stakeholders. We welcome inputs from the broad science community as we further develop and refine the PIC approach and move ahead with implementation.

  17. Freeing data through The Polar Information Commons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruin, T.; Chen, R. S.; Parsons, M. A.; Carlson, D. J.; Cass, K.; Finney, K.; Wilbanks, J.; Jochum, K.

    2010-12-01

    The polar regions are changing rapidly with dramatic global effect. Wise management of resources, improved decision support, and effective international cooperation on resource and geopolitical issues require deeper understanding and better prediction of these changes. Unfortunately, polar data and information remain scattered, scarce, and sporadic. Inspired by the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 that established the Antarctic as a global commons to be used only for peaceful purposes and scientific research, we assert that data and information about the polar regions are themselves “public goods” that should be shared ethically and with minimal constraint. ICSU’s Committee on Data (CODATA) therefore started the Polar Information Commons (PIC) as an open, virtual repository for vital scientific data and information. The PIC provides a shared, community-based cyber-infrastructure fostering innovation, improving scientific efficiency, and encouraging participation in polar research, education, planning, and management. The PIC builds on the legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY), providing a long-term framework for access to and preservation of both existing and future data and information about the polar regions. Rapid change demands rapid data access. The PIC system enables scientists to quickly expose their data to the world and share them through open protocols on the Internet. A PIC digital label will alert users and data centers to new polar data and ensure that usage rights are clear. The PIC utilizes the Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data, which promotes open data access through the public domain coupled with community norms of practice to ensure use of data in a fair and equitable manner. A set of PIC norms has been developed in consultation with key polar data organizations and other stakeholders. We welcome inputs from the broad science community as we further develop and refine the PIC approach and move ahead with implementation.

  18. Common infections in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Karuthu, Shamila; Blumberg, Emily A

    2012-12-01

    Infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant recipients. To some extent, these may be preventable. Careful pretransplant screening, immunization, and post-transplant prophylactic antimicrobials may all reduce the risk for post-transplant infection. However, because transplant recipients may not manifest typical signs and symptoms of infection, diagnoses may be confounded. Furthermore, treatment regimens may be complicated by drug interactions and the need to maintain immunosuppression to avoid allograft rejection. This article reviews common post-transplant infections, including prophylactic, diagnostic, and treatment strategies, providing guidance regarding care of kidney transplant patients with infection. PMID:22977217

  19. Rare and Common Variants: Twenty arguments

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have greatly improved our understanding of the genetic basis of disease risk. The fact that they tend not to identify more than a fraction of the specific causal loci has led to divergence of opinion over whether most of the variance is hidden as numerous rare variants of large effect, or common variants of very small effect. Here I review 20 arguments for and against each of these models of the genetic basis of complex traits, and conclude that both classes of effect can be reconciled readily. PMID:22251874

  20. Neuromuscular ultrasound in common entrapment neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Michael S; Walker, Francis O

    2013-11-01

    Neuromuscular ultrasound involves the use of high-resolution ultrasound to image the peripheral nervous system of patients with suspected neuromuscular diseases. It complements electrodiagnostic studies well by providing anatomic information regarding nerves, muscles, vessels, tendons, ligaments, bones, and other structures that cannot be obtained with nerve conduction studies and electromyography. Neuromuscular ultrasound has been studied extensively over the past 10 years and has been used most often in the assessment of entrapment neuropathies. This review focuses on the use of neuromuscular ultrasound in 4 of the most common entrapment neuropathies: carpal tunnel syndrome, ulnar neuropathy at the elbow and wrist, and fibular neuropathy at the knee. PMID:23681885

  1. Common and Natural Logarithms and Solving Equations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    VU Bioengineering RET Program,

    Students continue an examination of logarithms in the Research and Revise stage by studying two types of logarithms—common logarithms and natural logarithm. In this study, they take notes about the two special types of logarithms, why they are useful, and how to convert to these forms by using the change of base formula. Then students see how these types of logarithms can be applied to solve exponential equations. They compute a set of practice problems and apply the skills learned in class.

  2. A review of common tanning methods.

    PubMed

    Garone, Michael; Howard, John; Fabrikant, Jordan

    2015-02-01

    Tanning in the United States has become an increasingly popular activity in our culture. Tanning methods have evolved through the years to become more readily accessible and easier to use for all consumers, regardless of geographic location. With the rising incidence of skin cancer, the demand for safe and efficient tanning methods remains high. There are currently many different tanning methods being utilized, and still more are being researched. This article serves to summarize some of the most common tarining methods used in the United States today as well as some potential methods currently under study. PMID:25741402

  3. Perspectives on common variable immune deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon H.; Resnick, Elena S.; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is considered to be a collection of genetic immune defects with complex inheritance patterns. While the main phenotype is loss of B cell function, the majority of the genetic mechanisms leading to CVID remain elusive. In the past two decades there have been increasing efforts to unravel the genetic defects in CVID. Here, we provide an overview of our current understanding of the genetic basis of these defects, as revealed over time by earlier linkage studies in large cohorts, analysis of families with recessive inheritance, targeted gene approaches, and genome-wide association studies using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and copy number variation, and whole genome studies. PMID:22236429

  4. A Review of Common Tanning Methods

    PubMed Central

    Garone, Michael; Fabrikant, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Tanning in the United States has become an increasingly popular activity in our culture. Tanning methods have evolved through the years to become more readily accessible and easier to use for all consumers, regardless of geographic location. With the rising incidence of skin cancer, the demand for safe and efficient tanning methods remains high. There are currently many different tanning methods being utilized, and still more are being researched. This article serves to summarize some of the most common tarining methods used in the United States today as well as some potential methods currently under study. PMID:25741402

  5. Common therapeutic factors in bereavement groups.

    PubMed

    Rice, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Group therapy remains a popular treatment format for individuals experiencing bereavement. Although many innovative group treatments for grief are being developed, common therapeutic factors can also contribute to outcomes. The author integrates research on group therapy processes and treatment for grief, and examines evidence regarding group therapeutic factors that may influence bereavement group outcomes. Specifically, research on therapeutic factors related to sharing and support, interpersonal learning, and meaning-making is highlighted where it has relevance to bereavement groups. Potential research examining the interactions of these processes, their effects on group functioning and outcomes, and the moderators of these effects are discussed. PMID:25530427

  6. Space Station Freedom common berthing mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Illi, Erik

    1992-01-01

    The Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) is a generic device used to join the pressurized elements of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) utilizing the Space Shuttle Orbiter Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) or the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). The two berthing halves, the active, and the passive, maintain a pressurized atmosphere to allow astronaut passage, as well as to provide a structural linkage between elements. The generic design of the CBM allows any Passive Berthing Mechanism to berth with any Active Berthing Mechanism, permitting a variety of pressurized module patterns to be built.

  7. Older Adults’ Common Sense Models of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Ip, Edward H.; Chapman, Christine; Kirk, Julienne K.; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Investigate the importance of viewing belief systems about health maintenance holistically. Methods Qualitative (N=74) and quantitative data (N=95) were obtained from multi-ethnic rural-dwelling older adults with diabetes to characterize their Common Sense Models (CSMs) of diabetes. Results There is a discrete number of CSMs held by older adults, each characterized by unique clusters of diabetes-related knowledge and beliefs. Individuals whose CSM was shaped by biomedical knowledge were better able to achieve glycemic control. Conclusions Viewing individuals’ health beliefs incrementally or in a piece-meal strategy may be less effective for health behavior change than focusing on beliefs holistically. PMID:21683021

  8. Common Worldwide Variation Discovered in Human Taste Receptor Genes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Taste Receptor Genes Common Worldwide Variation Discovered In Human Taste Receptor Genes Common Worldwide Variation Discovered In Human Taste Receptor Genes Background : Differences in our sense ...

  9. Epigenetic Mechanisms in Commonly Occurring Cancers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a collection of very complex diseases that share many traits while differing in many ways as well. This makes a universal cure difficult to attain, and it highlights the importance of understanding each type of cancer at a molecular level. Although many strides have been made in identifying the genetic causes for some cancers, we now understand that simple changes in the primary DNA sequence cannot explain the many steps that are necessary to turn a normal cell into a rouge cancer cell. In recent years, some research has shifted to focusing on detailing epigenetic contributions to the development and progression of cancer. These changes occur apart from primary genomic sequences and include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and miRNA expression. Since these epigenetic modifications are reversible, drugs targeting epigenetic changes are becoming more common in clinical settings. Daily discoveries elucidating these complex epigenetic processes are leading to advances in the field of cancer research. These advances, however, come at a rapid and often overwhelming pace. This review specifically summarizes the main epigenetic mechanisms currently documented in solid tumors common in the United States and Europe. PMID:22519822

  10. Common mental disorders in postconflict settings.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Joop T V M; Komproe, Ivan H; Van Ommeren, Mark

    2003-06-21

    Research into postconflict psychiatric sequelae in low-income countries has been focused largely on symptoms rather than on full psychiatric diagnostic assessment. We assessed 3048 respondents from postconflict communities in Algeria, Cambodia, Ethiopia, and Palestine with the aim of establishing the prevalence of mood disorder, somatoform disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other anxiety disorders. PTSD and other anxiety disorders were the most frequent problems. In three countries, PTSD was the most likely disorder in individuals exposed to violence associated with armed conflict, but such violence was a common risk factor for various disorders and comorbidity combinations in different settings. In three countries, anxiety disorder was reported most in people who had not been exposed to such violence. Experience of violence associated with armed conflict was associated with higher rates of disorder that ranged from a risk ratio of 2.10 (95% CI 1.38-2.85) for anxiety in Algeria to 10.03 (5.26-16.65) for PTSD in Palestine. Postconflict mental health programmes should address a range of common disorders beyond PTSD. PMID:12826440

  11. Common world model for unmanned systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Robert Michael S.

    2013-05-01

    The Robotic Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA) seeks to provide adaptive robot capabilities which move beyond traditional metric algorithms to include cognitive capabilities. Key to this effort is the Common World Model, which moves beyond the state-of-the-art by representing the world using metric, semantic, and symbolic information. It joins these layers of information to define objects in the world. These objects may be reasoned upon jointly using traditional geometric, symbolic cognitive algorithms and new computational nodes formed by the combination of these disciplines. The Common World Model must understand how these objects relate to each other. Our world model includes the concept of Self-Information about the robot. By encoding current capability, component status, task execution state, and histories we track information which enables the robot to reason and adapt its performance using Meta-Cognition and Machine Learning principles. The world model includes models of how aspects of the environment behave, which enable prediction of future world states. To manage complexity, we adopted a phased implementation approach to the world model. We discuss the design of "Phase 1" of this world model, and interfaces by tracing perception data through the system from the source to the meta-cognitive layers provided by ACT-R and SS-RICS. We close with lessons learned from implementation and how the design relates to Open Architecture.

  12. Dysphagia revisited: common and unusual causes.

    PubMed

    Carucci, Laura R; Turner, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia is a common clinical problem whose prevalence is increasing with the aging population in the United States. The term dysphagia is commonly used to describe subjective awareness of swallowing difficulty during the passage of a bolus from the mouth to the stomach or the perception of obstruction during swallowing. Dysphagia may be further classified as oropharyngeal or substernal, depending on the location of this sensation. It can be due to benign or malignant structural lesions, esophageal motility abnormalities, oropharyngeal dysfunction (including aspiration), neuromuscular disorders, or postsurgical changes and is also associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Pathologic conditions of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and proximal stomach can manifest with dysphagia. Imaging remains the preferred method for evaluating patients with dysphagia, and dysphagia is an increasingly encountered indication for radiologic evaluation. Fluoroscopic studies, including the modified barium swallow and esophagography in particular, are often used in the assessment of patients with dysphagia, and the techniques used for these studies should be tailored to the patient's needs. Fluoroscopic studies can be used to evaluate the esophagus for structural abnormalities (eg, webs, diverticula, strictures, masses) and to assess function (eg, the swallowing mechanism and esophageal motility). Knowledge of the imaging spectrum of disease entities that may cause dysphagia and thorough radiologic assessment with a tailored approach may help avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:25590391

  13. Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Etiological and Treatment Issues

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Sean; Selmi, Carlo; Naguwa, Stanley M.; Teuber, Suzanne S.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2009-01-01

    One of the great advances in clinical medicine was the recognition of the pleomorphism of the immune response and the multiple afferent and efferent limbs of antigen processing and responsiveness. A significant contribution to this understanding was derived from studies of human immunodeficiency states, including both inherited and acquired syndromes. Amongst these syndromes, one of the most common, and least understood, is common variable immune deficiency (CVID). CVID is a syndrome that leads to a reduction in serum immunoglobulins and complications including recurrent infections. Management includes immunoglobulin replacement therapy; however, patients with CVID are at risk for complications of exogenous immunoglobulin administration as well as CVID-associated diseases such as autoimmune processes and malignancies. To assess the current state of knowledge in the field, we performed a literature review of a total of 753 publications covering the period of 1968 until 2008. From this list, 189 publications were selected for discussion. In this review, we demonstrate that while the molecular basis of CVID in many cases remains incompletely understood, significant strides have been made and it is now clear that there is involvement of several pathways of immune activation, with contributions from both T and B cells. Furthermore, despite the current gaps in our knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of the syndrome, there have been dramatic advances in management that have led to improved survival and significantly reduced morbidity in affected patients. PMID:19571563

  14. Family Species Common name C5

    E-print Network

    Gdw Key Ref; Pinaceae Abies Alba Silver/european Fir; Pinaceae Abies Cilicica Turkish Fir; Pinaceae Abies Fraseri Fraser Fir; Pinaceae Abies Pardei

    nosae (Mimosaceae) Acacia sophorae Sydney wattle - [2] Leguminosae (Mimosaceae) Acacia spp. acacia * <0.1 49 * 31.5 49 Leguminosae (Mimosaceae) Acacia tortilis * <0.5 106 * 8.8 106 Aceraceae Acer campestre - * <0.1 39;60 - 39 Aceraceae Acer floridanum silver/Florida maple - 28,30 * 20.5 sd 28,30 Aceraceae Acer platanoides Norway maple * <0.04 83 Aceraceae Acer pseudoplatanus sycamore (European) - [35] - [35] Aceraceae Acer rubrum red maple - 1,[2],[3],10,30 * 2.75 [3],30 Aceraceae Acer saccharinum silver maple - 1,[2] * 1.94 1 Aceraceae Acer spp. * <0.1 49,60,87 * 0.9-1.60.8 49,87 Myrtaceae Acmena smithii lilly-pilly tree * [2] Cupressaceae Actinostrobus pyramidalis - [2] Leguminosae (Fabaceae) (Mimosaceae)Adenocarpus decorticans * [2] Rosaceae Adenostoma fasciculatum (in bloom) common chamise - [2] * 0.36 4,34,86 Isoprene Emission Potential Monoterpene Emission Potential Family Species Common name C5 g/gdw/h Key ref C10 g/gdw/h

  15. Is synaesthesia more common in autism?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Synaesthesia is a neurodevelopmental condition in which a sensation in one modality triggers a perception in a second modality. Autism (shorthand for Autism Spectrum Conditions) is a neurodevelopmental condition involving social-communication disability alongside resistance to change and unusually narrow interests or activities. Whilst on the surface they appear distinct, they have been suggested to share common atypical neural connectivity. Methods In the present study, we carried out the first prevalence study of synaesthesia in autism to formally test whether these conditions are independent. After exclusions, 164 adults with autism and 97 controls completed a synaesthesia questionnaire, Autism Spectrum Quotient, and Test of Genuineness-Revised (ToG-R) online. Results The rate of synaesthesia in adults with autism was 18.9% (31 out of 164), almost three times greater than in controls (7.22%, 7 out of 97, P <0.05). ToG-R proved unsuitable for synaesthetes with autism. Conclusions The significant increase in synaesthesia prevalence in autism suggests that the two conditions may share some common underlying mechanisms. Future research is needed to develop more feasible validation methods of synaesthesia in autism. PMID:24252644

  16. Adaptive common average filtering for myocontrol applications.

    PubMed

    Rehbaum, Hubertus; Farina, Dario

    2015-02-01

    The use of electromyography (EMG) for the control of upper-limb prostheses has received great interest in neurorehabilitation engineering since decades. Important advances have been performed in the development of machine learning algorithms for myocontrol. This paper describes a novel adaptive filter for EMG preprocessing to be applied as conditioning stage for optimal subsequent information extraction. The aim of this filter is to improve both the quality (signal-to-noise ratio) and the selectivity of the EMG recordings. The filter is based on the classic common average reference (CAR), often used in EEG processing. However, while CAR is stationary, the proposed filter, which is referred to as adaptive common average reference (ACAR), is signal-dependent and its spatial transfer function is adapted over time. The ACAR filter is evaluated in this study for noise reduction and selectivity. Furthermore, it is proven that its application improves the performance of both pattern recognition and regression methods for myoelectric control. It is concluded that the proposed novel filter for EMG conditioning is a useful preprocessing tool in myocontrol applications. PMID:25388778

  17. CMLOG: A common message logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Bickley, M.; Wu, D.; Watson, W. III [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States). Control Software Group

    1997-12-01

    The Common Message Logging (CMLOG) system is an object-oriented and distributed system that not only allows applications and systems to log data (messages) of any type into a centralized database but also lets applications view incoming messages in real-time or retrieve stored data from the database according to selection rules. It consists of a concurrent Unix server that handles incoming logging or searching messages, a Motif browser that can view incoming messages in real-time or display stored data in the database, a client daemon that buffers and sends logging messages to the server, and libraries that can be used by applications to send data to or retrieve data from the database via the server. This paper presents the design and implementation of the CMLOG system meanwhile it will also address the issue of integration of CMLOG into existing control systems.

  18. Conventional radiological strategy of common gastrointestinal neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-Zhuo; Wu, Pei-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes the clinical characteristics and imaging features of common gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms in terms of conventional radiological imaging methods. Barium studies are readily available for displaying primary malignancies and are minimally or not at all invasive. A neoplasm may be manifested as various imaging findings, including mucosal disruption, soft mass, ulcer, submucosal invasion and lumen stenosis on barium studies. Benign tumors typically appear as smoothly marginated intramural masses. Malignant neoplasms most often appear as irregular infiltrative lesions on barium examination. Tumor extension to adjacent GI segments may be indistinct on barium images. Cross-sectional images such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may provide more accurate details of the adjacent organ invasion, omental or peritoneal spread. PMID:25628800

  19. Treating the common cold during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Erebara, Aida; Bozzo, Pina; Einarson, Adrienne; Koren, Gideon

    2008-01-01

    QUESTION Many of my pregnant patients inquire as to what medication they can use when they experience symptoms of the common cold, such as cough, congestion, sneezing, and fever. I am hesitant to recommend over-the-counter cold remedies because I have heard conflicting information regarding the safety of these products. What is known about the safety of cold medications during pregnancy? ANSWER Although there are many over-the-counter brands of cold medications, most products are quite similar, with some containing up to 5 medicinal ingredients. The evidence-based information for all these ingredients suggests no increased risk with short-term use. However, pregnant women should read labels carefully and, when necessary, consult with pharmacists to ensure they are not taking medicine they do not require. PMID:18474699

  20. The design of a common lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggers, Dan; Hearrell, Sean; Key, Kevin; Le, Brian; Love, Glen; Mcmullen, Rob; Messec, Scott; Ruhnke, Jim

    1991-01-01

    The Austin Cynthesis Corporation was formed to respond to a Request for Proposal for the design of a Common Lunar Lander (CLL) capable of carrying lightweight (less than 500 kg), unspecified payload to the moon. This Final Design Report Document includes information on the requirements for the design project; the ideas proposed as solutions to the design problem; the work which has been completed in support of the design effort; justifications, validations, and verifications of decisions made during the project; and suggestions for future work to be done in support of the project. A project schedule, including current status of the items included on the schedule, as well as cost and management summaries is also included.

  1. A syndromic approach to common parasitic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shafran, Stephen D.; Chow, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Standard textbooks discuss parasitic disease according to specific organisms. In contrast, patients with parasitic infections present to physicians with a variety of clinical manifestations that may involve any of several organ systems and that often mimic nonparasitic diseases. A syndromic approach to the clinical situation may help the physician in considering the most important parasitic agents. Many parasitic infections can be acquired in temperate climates. While often considered tropical or exotic, other parasitic diseases are now seen more frequently in developed countries because of immigration and increased world travel. In this review the clinical syndromes associated with common parasitic diseases in North America are discussed, with an emphasis on risk factors and diagnosis of specific infections. PMID:4042057

  2. The design of a common lunar lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driggers, Dan; Hearrell, Sean; Key, Kevin; Le, Brian; Love, Glen; McMullen, Rob; Messec, Scott; Ruhnke, Jim

    1991-12-01

    The Austin Cynthesis Corporation was formed to respond to a Request for Proposal for the design of a Common Lunar Lander (CLL) capable of carrying lightweight (less than 500 kg), unspecified payload to the moon. This Final Design Report Document includes information on the requirements for the design project; the ideas proposed as solutions to the design problem; the work which has been completed in support of the design effort; justifications, validations, and verifications of decisions made during the project; and suggestions for future work to be done in support of the project. A project schedule, including current status of the items included on the schedule, as well as cost and management summaries is also included.

  3. Simulated surface tensions of common water models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Smith, Paul E.

    2007-06-01

    Initial simulated values of the surface tension for the SPC/E water model have indicated excellent agreement with experiment. More recently, differing values have been obtained which are significantly lower than previous estimates. Here, we attempt to explain the differences between the previous studies and show that a variety of simulation conditions can affect the final surface tension values. Consistent values for the surface tensions of six common fixed charge water models (TIP3P, SPC, SPC/E, TIP4P, TIP5P, and TIP6P) are then determined for four temperatures between 275 and 350K. The SPC/E and TIP6P models provide the best agreement with experiment.

  4. Simulated surface tensions of common water models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Smith, Paul E

    2007-06-14

    Initial simulated values of the surface tension for the SPC/E water model have indicated excellent agreement with experiment. More recently, differing values have been obtained which are significantly lower than previous estimates. Here, we attempt to explain the differences between the previous studies and show that a variety of simulation conditions can affect the final surface tension values. Consistent values for the surface tensions of six common fixed charge water models (TIP3P, SPC, SPC/E, TIP4P, TIP5P, and TIP6P) are then determined for four temperatures between 275 and 350 K. The SPC/E and TIP6P models provide the best agreement with experiment. PMID:17581036

  5. Property rights, genes, and common good.

    PubMed

    Reed, Esther D

    2006-03-01

    This paper applies aspects of Hugo Grotius's theologically informed theory of property to contemporary issues concerning access to the human DNA sequence and patenting practices. It argues that Christians who contribute to public debate in these areas might beneficially employ some of the concepts with which he worked--notably "common right," the "right of necessity," and "use right." In the seventeenth century, wars were fought over trading rights and access to the sea. In the twenty-first century, information and intellectual property are the issues of the day. Grotius's writings serve to correct the overemphasis in modern liberalism on individual rights, and have practical application to the debate concerning the reduction of the human genome to the status of private property. PMID:17144023

  6. Common birth defects in South African Blacks.

    PubMed

    Kromberg, J G; Jenkins, T

    1982-10-16

    The prevalence rates of some of the common birth defects have been ascertained in a Black population in South Africa. The births of 29,633 infants were studied retrospectively from hospital records. The commonest defect was found to be polydactyly (10,4/1,000 births), and the other defects investigated were talipes equinovarus (1,55/1000 births), hydrocephalus (1,3/1,000 births), spina bifida and anencephaly (0,78 and 0,40/1,000 births respectively) and facial clefts (0,30/1,000 births). These rates were compared with those found in other population groups in South Africa and, in some cases, in other African countries and in Negro groups in the USA and Canada. PMID:6750816

  7. Common Methodology for Efficient Airspace Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar

    2012-01-01

    Topics include: a) Developing a common methodology to model and avoid disturbances affecting airspace. b) Integrated contrails and emission models to a national level airspace simulation. c) Developed capability to visualize, evaluate technology and alternate operational concepts and provide inputs for policy-analysis tools to reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. d) Collaborating with Volpe Research Center, NOAA and DLR to leverage expertise and tools in aircraft emissions and weather/climate modeling. Airspace operations is a trade-off balancing safety, capacity, efficiency and environmental considerations. Ideal flight: Unimpeded wind optimal route with optimal climb and descent. Operations degraded due to reduction in airport and airspace capacity caused by inefficient procedures and disturbances.

  8. Common ocular problems of Shin Tzu dogs

    PubMed Central

    Christmas, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years the Shih Tzu has become a popular breed of dog. It has a number of serious diseases of the eye which are not being recognized by breeders, owners, and sometimes veterinarians. The purpose of this communication is to assist veterinarians in recognizing and treating, where possible, some of the common ocular problems of this breed, including medial canthal entropion, various trichiasis problems, dermoids, third eyelid gland prolapse, chronic keratitis and corneal ulcers, progressive retinal atrophy, vitreal syneresis, and retinal detachment. Because most of the problems are inherited or of suspected genetic origin, breeders should receive genetic counselling from their veterinarian. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:17424020

  9. Solving multi-leader-common-follower games.

    SciTech Connect

    Leyffer, S.; Munson, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2010-01-01

    Multi-leader-common-follower games arise when modelling two or more competitive firms, the leaders, that commit to their decisions prior to another group of competitive firms, the followers, that react to the decisions made by the leaders. These problems lead in a natural way to equilibrium problems with equilibrium constraints (EPECs). We develop a characterization of the solution sets for these problems and examine a variety of nonlinear optimization and nonlinear complementarity formulations of EPECs. We distinguish two broad cases: problems where the leaders can cost-differentiate and problems with price-consistent followers. We demonstrate the practical viability of our approach by solving a range of medium-sized test problems.

  10. Are extrasolar oceans common throughout the Galaxy?

    E-print Network

    David Ehrenreich; Arnaud Cassan

    2007-04-23

    Light and cold extrasolar planets such as OGLE 2005-BLG-390Lb, a 5.5 Earth-mass planet detected via microlensing, could be frequent in the Galaxy according to some preliminary results from microlensing experiments. These planets can be frozen rocky- or ocean-planets, situated beyond the snow line and, therefore, beyond the habitable zone of their system. They can nonetheless host a layer of liquid water, heated by radiogenic energy, underneath an ice shell surface for billions of years, before freezing completely. These results suggest that oceans under ice, like those suspected to be present on icy moons in the Solar system, could be a common feature of cold low-mass extrasolar planets.

  11. Common mode chokes and optimisation aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kut, T.; Lücken, A.; Dickmann, S.; Schulz, D.

    2014-11-01

    Due to the increasing electrification of modern aircraft, as a result of the More Electric Aircraft concept, new strategies and approaches are required to fulfil the strict EMC aircraft standards (DO-160/ED-14-Sec. 20). Common mode chokes are a key component of electromagnetic filters and often oversized because of the unknown impedance of the surrounding power electronic system. This oversizing results in an increase of weight and volume. It has to be avoided as far as possible for mobile applications. In this context, an advanced method is presented to measure these impedances under operating conditions. Furthermore, the different parameters of the inductance design is explained and an optimisation for weight and volume is introduced.

  12. Tumor Ablation: Common Modalities and General Practices

    PubMed Central

    Knavel, Erica M.; Brace, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor ablation is a minimally invasive technique that is commonly used in the treatment of tumors of the liver, kidney, bone, and lung. During tumor ablation, thermal energy is used to heat or cool tissue to cytotoxic levels (less than ?40°C or more than 60°C). An additional technique is being developed that targets the permeability of the cell membrane and is ostensibly nonthermal. Within the classification of tumor ablation, there are several modalities used worldwide: radiofrequency, microwave, laser, high-intensity focused ultrasound, cryoablation, and irreversible electroporation. Each technique, although similar in purpose, has specific and optimal indications. This review serves to discuss general principles and technique, reviews each modality, and discusses modality selection. PMID:24238374

  13. Common modeling system for digital simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, Rick

    1994-01-01

    The Joint Modeling and Simulation System is a tri-service investigation into a common modeling framework for the development digital models. The basis for the success of this framework is an X-window-based, open systems architecture, object-based/oriented methodology, standard interface approach to digital model construction, configuration, execution, and post processing. For years Department of Defense (DOD) agencies have produced various weapon systems/technologies and typically digital representations of the systems/technologies. These digital representations (models) have also been developed for other reasons such as studies and analysis, Cost Effectiveness Analysis (COEA) tradeoffs, etc. Unfortunately, there have been no Modeling and Simulation (M&S) standards, guidelines, or efforts towards commonality in DOD M&S. The typical scenario is an organization hires a contractor to build hardware and in doing so an digital model may be constructed. Until recently, this model was not even obtained by the organization. Even if it was procured, it was on a unique platform, in a unique language, with unique interfaces, and, with the result being UNIQUE maintenance required. Additionally, the constructors of the model expended more effort in writing the 'infrastructure' of the model/simulation (e.g. user interface, database/database management system, data journalizing/archiving, graphical presentations, environment characteristics, other components in the simulation, etc.) than in producing the model of the desired system. Other side effects include: duplication of efforts; varying assumptions; lack of credibility/validation; and decentralization in policy and execution. J-MASS provides the infrastructure, standards, toolset, and architecture to permit M&S developers and analysts to concentrate on the their area of interest.

  14. Optical design of common aperture, common focal plane, multispectral optics for military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Nicholas Allan

    2013-06-01

    With recent developments in multispectral detector technology, the interest in common aperture, common focal plane multispectral imaging systems is increasing. Such systems are particularly desirable for military applications, where increased levels of target discrimination and identification are required in cost-effective, rugged, lightweight systems. During the optical design of dual waveband or multispectral systems, the options for material selection are limited. This selection becomes even more restrictive for military applications, where material resilience, thermal properties, and color correction must be considered. We discuss the design challenges that lightweight multispectral common aperture systems present, along with some potential design solutions. Consideration is given to material selection for optimum color correction, as well as material resilience and thermal correction. This discussion is supported using design examples currently in development at Qioptiq.

  15. New Common Ancestor Problems in Trees and Directed Acyclic Graphs

    E-print Network

    Fischer, Johannes

    New Common Ancestor Problems in Trees and Directed Acyclic Graphs Johannes Fischer , Daniel H derive a new generalization of lowest common ancestors (LCAs) in dags, called the lowest single common, Data Structures, Computational Biology 1. Introduction The lowest common ancestor (LCA) of a set

  16. Affidavit of Common Law Marriage Student Name (please print) CSUID

    E-print Network

    as a common law divorce. A common law spouse may be entitled to distribution of property, support, and that has not been legally terminated by death or divorce. We understand that this agreement can be terminated only through death or legal divorce proceedings. Signature Common Law Wife Date Signature Common

  17. Workshop on transport for a common ion driver

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Langdon, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This report contains research in the following areas related to beam transport for a common ion driver: multi-gap acceleration; neutralization with electrons; gas neutralization; self-pinched transport; HIF and LIF transport, and relevance to common ion driver; LIF and HIF reactor concepts and relevance to common ion driver; atomic physics for common ion driver; code capabilities and needed improvement.

  18. Anatomic Variation of the Common Palmar Digital Nerves and Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the course and distribution of common palmar digital nerves and arteries are rare. A classic common palmar digital nerves and arteries are defined as concomitant. During routine dissection classes to undergraduate medical students we observed formation of each common palmar digital nerve divided into 2 or 3 branches and formed a ring enclosing the corresponding common palmar digital artery. Knowledge of the anatomical variations of the common palmar digital nerves and arteries is crucial for safe and successful hand surgery.

  19. CommonApp2013-14: Transfer Registrar Report Directions Common App 2013-14: Transfer Registrar Report Directions

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    CommonApp2013-14: Transfer Registrar Report Directions 1 of 3 Common App 2013-14: Transfer. Directions: 1. Log into your Common App account. Select My Colleges tab. Click Invite Registrar 2: Mr. First Name: Scott Last Name: Owczarek Email Address: certs@em.wisc.edu #12;CommonApp2013

  20. Might "Unique" Factors Be "Common"? On the Possibility of Indeterminate Common-Unique Covariances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Dave

    2006-01-01

    The present paper shows that the usual factor analytic structured data dispersion matrix lambda psi lambda' + delta can readily arise from a set of scores y = lambda eta + epsilon, shere the "common" (eta) and "unique" (epsilon) factors have nonzero covariance: gamma = Cov epsilon,eta) is not equal to 0. Implications of this finding are discussed…

  1. Childhood Obesity & Dental Disease: Common Causes, Common Solutions. Oral Health & Obesity Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Too many California children suffer from high rates of preventable chronic conditions associated with childhood obesity and dental disease. The state is experiencing a crisis in both areas. Fortunately, common factors that contribute to both conditions--including the rates of breastfeeding, access to healthy food and the consumption of…

  2. Media Literacy Is Common Sense: Bridging Common Core Standards with the Media Experiences of Digital Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the concept of "texts" and how the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) affords teachers opportunities to implement media literacy education, in turn providing developmentally and culturally responsive middle level practice and promoting 21st century skills. This has implications for middle…

  3. Staffing the Commons: job analysis in the context of an Information Commons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Boyd

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to apply principles from the field of industrial and organizational psychology on organizational analysis and job analysis to better identify successful candidates for employment in an Information Commons. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Review of professional research, research from both library literature and industrial and organizational psychology, review of professional association surveys. Findings – Library

  4. Collaborating with Staff: Sharing a Common Philosophy, Working To Achieve Common Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Jeff

    1999-01-01

    A well-understood camp philosophy motivates the entire staff to work toward a common purpose, which is more meaningful than money. Camp administrators can ensure that staff members implement the camp philosophy by interviewing prospective staff members with the mission in mind, teaching staff the camp's vision, praising staff with specifics,…

  5. Learning Commons @ UConn Assessment Report Use and Satisfaction of the Learning Commons

    E-print Network

    Lozano-Robledo, Alvaro

    ) Libraries and the Institute for Teaching and Learning began developing a plan to establish a learning are represented in the Learning Commons ­ Research Assistance, Q Center Tutoring, Writing Center Tutoring, a Learning Resource Center, and IT Support. Second language tutoring is scheduled to join the Learning

  6. Comparison of Different Assessment Methods for Common Scab from the National Common Scab Trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common scab (CS), caused by various Streptomyces species, is a serious soil-borne potato disease. Information on CS susceptibility is an important component of all potato breeding programs, but the disease shows widely varying symptoms across environments, complicating assessment of resistance. The...

  7. ADELE's Common Gamma-Ray Glows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, N. A.; Smith, D. M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Hazelton, B. J.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Lowell, A.; Splitt, M. E.; Lazarus, S. M.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2012-12-01

    Gamma-ray glows have been observed for the first time as a common, long duration phenomenon from the tops of thunderclouds. The Airborne Detector for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE) observed 12 gamma-ray glows during its Summer 2009 flight campaign. We present their spectra, their relationship to lightning activity and show how the duration and size of a glow changes with distance from the glow. Since glows have a very hard spectrum, with many counts above 5 MeV, they may be evidence of a continual relativistic runaway process with positron feedback. We compare our spectra with simulations of relativistic runaway in the atmosphere with all effects of feedback included. We show that the lightning activity diminishes during the onset of a glow. From our simulations we attempt to distinguish between the two possibilities for this decrease: the mechanism responsible for glows is only able to become significant when lightning activity subsides or glows are actually stifling the lightning activity and considerably limiting the charging of the cloud. Comparison of the data with our simulations will determine if runaway or feedback are necessary to explain the glow brightness and if these mechanisms have significant effects on the total charging of the cloud.

  8. Coccidiosis in common wombats (Vombatus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Hum, S; Barton, N J; Obendorf, D; Barker, I K

    1991-10-01

    Eimeria arundeli is a widespread coccidian parasite of the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), and has been considered to be nonpathogenic. We describe disease in two captive juvenile wombats ascribed to infection with E. arundeli. One animal had diarrhea, the second had mucoid soft feces and lost weight over several weeks prior to death. Masses of coccidial gametocytes in hypertrophic cells in the lamina propria distended villi, causing grossly visible raised pale thickened regions over extensive areas of the mucosa of the small intestine in both animals. Neutrophils infiltrated affected mucosa, and there was an inflammatory exudate into the intestinal lumen in case one. In case two, neutrophils infiltrated the lamina propria of villi focally, crypts were distended by necrotic debris, and epithelium on villi was extremely attenuated. No bacterial pathogens were isolated from lung and intestine in case one; case two was not cultured. Oocysts consistent with E. arundeli were present in large numbers in floatations of diarrheic feces in both cases. PMID:1758038

  9. Social learning in common ravens, Corvus corax.

    PubMed

    Fritz; Kotrschal

    1999-04-01

    We conducted an experiment to investigate whether the presence of a conspecific model can promote the acquisition of a motor task in common ravens. For this purpose, dyads, either of control birds or of model-observer pairings, were allowed to operate together in an arena with a set of identical boxes. Each box consisted of two compartments each containing a reward of three pieces of meat. The compartments were closed by gliding lids with red flaps on their front, opening horizontally in opposite directions. Naive control individuals opened the lids exclusively by levering, that is, jumping on top of the box, inserting the beak at the posterior rim of the lid and pushing it open. Models were trained to demonstrate an alternative opening technique, pulling at the front flap, then jumping on top of the box to get at the reward. In contrast to the control birds, observers initially opened boxes both ways, by pulling and levering. Furthermore, observers approached the boxes more quickly and showed less fearful behaviour than the control birds, which we attribute to the enhancing effect of the model. We discuss both stimulus enhancement and motor imitation as possible learning mechanisms. Even though observers initially obtained a considerable amount of reward produced by the models, scrounging evidently did not inhibit learning. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10202087

  10. Brucellosis of the common vole (Microtus arvalis).

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Z; Scholz, H C; Sedlácek, I; Melzer, F; Sanogo, Y O; Nesvadbová, J

    2007-01-01

    A systemic disease occurred in a wild population of the common vole Microtus arvalis in South Moravia (Czech Republic) during the years 1999-2003. Acute infections were characterized by edema of extremities, occasionally with colliquating abscesses, arthritis, lymphadenitis, perforations of the skin resulting from colliquated abscesses, orchitis, and peritoneal granulomas. From the clinical samples, small Gram-negative coccobacilli were isolated and identified as Ochrobactrum intermedium by API 20NE and colistin sensitivity profiles. However, subsequent rrs (16S rRNA) and recA (recombinase A) gene sequencing analysis of two isolates (CCM 4915=CAPM 6434; CCM 4916=CAPM 6435) identified them as Brucella sp. with sequence identities of 100% to other Brucella spp. Analysis of the omp2a/b genes confirmed the two isolates as Brucella. In AMOS polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a 2000-bp fragment was generated that was not seen in other brucellae. Experimental infection of outbred ICR mice with these isolates resulted in a mortality rate of 50%. Based on the results of the molecular investigations and the mortality observed in experimentally infected mice we conclude that the epizootic was caused by Brucella sp. and not by Ochrobactrum intermedium. The study demonstrates the limitations of commercial biochemical test systems in accurately differentiating among Ochrobactrum and Brucella. PMID:18021023

  11. Common Carotid Artery Occlusion: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Bajkó, Zoltán; B?la?a, Rodica; Mo????ianu, Anca; Maier, Smaranda; Chebu?, Octavia Claudia; Szatmári, Szabolcs

    2013-01-01

    Subjects and Methods. We analysed 5000 cerebrovascular ultrasound records. A total of 0.4% of the patients had common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO). Results. The mean age was 59.8 ± 14.2 years, and the male/female ratio was 2.33. The most frequent risk factors were hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. Right-sided and left-sided CCAO occurred in 65% and 30% of the cases, respectively, and bilateral occlusion was detected in one case (5%). Patent bifurcation was observed in 10 cases of CCAO in which the anterograde flow in the ICA was maintained from the external carotid artery with reversed flow. In two of the cases, the occluded CCA was hypoplastic. The aetiology of CCAO in the majority of cases was the atherosclerosis (15 cases). The male/female ratio was higher in the patients with occluded distal vessels, and the short-term outcome was poorer. Only two cases from this series underwent revascularisation surgery. Spontaneous recanalisation was observed in one case. Conclusions. The most frequent cause of CCAO was atherosclerosis. The outcome is improved in the cases with patent distal vessels, and spontaneous recanalisation is possible. Treatment methods have not been standardised. Surgical revascularisation is possible in cases of patent distal vessels, but the indications are debatable. PMID:24167740

  12. Aflatoxin B1 in common Egyptian foods.

    PubMed

    Selim, M I; Popendorf, W; Ibrahim, M S; el Sharkawy, S; el Kashory, E S

    1996-01-01

    Samples of common Egyptian foods (17 nuts and seeds, 10 spices, 31 herbs and medicinal plants, 12 dried vegetables, and 28 cereal grains) were collected from markets in Cairo and Giza. A portion of each sample was extracted with chloroform, and the concentrated extract was cleaned by passing through a silica gel column. Aflatoxin B1 was determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV detection. The highest prevalence of aflatoxin B1 was in nuts and seeds (82%), followed by spices (40%), herbs and medicinal plants (29%), dried vegetables (25%), and cereal grains (21%). The highest mean concentration of aflatoxin B1 was in herb and medicinal plants (49 ppb), followed by cereals (36 ppb), spices (25 ppb), nuts and seeds (24 ppb), and dried vegetables (20 ppb). Among nuts and seeds, the prevalence of aflatoxin B1 was highest (100%) in watermelon seeds, inshell peanuts, and unshelled peanuts. The lowest prevalence and concentrations were in hommos (garbanzo beans). The highest concentrations of aflatoxin B1 were detected in foods that had no potential for field contamination but required drying during processing and storage, such as pomegranate peel, watermelon seeds, and molokhia. PMID:8823921

  13. Common Gastrointestinal Symptoms: dyspepsia and Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Fashner, Julia; Gitu, Alfred Chege

    2013-10-01

    The most common diagnoses among patients with dyspepsia are functional dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer, and gastric or esophageal cancer. Helicobacter pylori infection is present in many patients with dyspepsia and is etiologic in some conditions. The evaluation of dyspepsia divides patients into 3 categories: 1) for patients taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), NSAIDs should be discontinued; if symptoms resolve after discontinuation, no further evaluation is needed; 2) for patients with reflux symptoms, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) should be prescribed without endoscopy unless alarm symptoms are present; and 3) for patients with no NSAID use or reflux symptoms, evaluation depends on risk. Patients older than 55 years or with alarm symptoms are at high risk and should undergo endoscopy. Those 55 years or younger with no alarm symptoms are at low risk. Those patients should be tested for H pylori and treated if results are positive. If symptoms persist after eradication treatment, PPIs should be prescribed for 4 to 6 weeks; if symptoms persist after treatment, endoscopy should be obtained. If H pylori test results are negative, PPIs should be prescribed for 4 to 6 weeks. Endoscopy should be obtained if symptoms persist. There are several regimens for eradication of H pylori. The most effective is sequential therapy with a PPI and amoxicillin for 5 days followed by a PPI, clarithromycin, and tinidazole for another 5 days. PMID:24124704

  14. Field evaluation of two commonly used slipmeters.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Cotnam, John P; Matz, Simon

    2003-01-01

    A variety of slipmeters have been used to assess the slipperiness of floor surfaces. International standards for the operation of slipmeters describe the protocol for a single measurement. These standards usually do not cover some of the critical elements in safety assessment such as methods for the selection of measurement locations and the necessary number of repeated measurements at each location. Furthermore, most of the slipmeters were evaluated in laboratory settings with new floor surfaces and artificial contaminants. Two commonly used slipmeters, the Brungraber Mark II and the English XL, were evaluated at actual worksites in this experiment. Four floor tiles in each of four different work areas in the kitchens of 18 fast food restaurants were selected for repeated measurements with these two slipmeters. The results indicated that sanding of footwear materials has a significant effect on the outcomes of friction measurements, and the tile-to-tile variations in friction in the same areas of restaurants were also mostly statistically significant. Significant local variation in friction among tiles in the same area could potentially increase the chances of slip and fall incidents. Both slipmeters used in this experiment could potentially have problems in the areas with grease, such as grill and fryer areas, since the build-up of grease during repeated strikes could alter the outcome of friction measured. PMID:12523805

  15. Toxicity of trihalomethanes to common carp embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Mattice, J.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Tsai, S.C.; Burch, M.B.; Beauchamp, J.J.

    1981-03-01

    Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal concentrations (LC50) ranged from 161 mg/liter for chloroform to 53 mg/liter for dibromochloromethane. Decay studies conducted under conditions similar to those used for the toxicity studies, but in distilled water, indicated that (1) half-lives of the trihalomethanes ranged from 4.4 to 6.9 hours; (2) decay was due primarily to volatilization; (3) higher relative toxicity of dibromochloromethane probably was due to formation of a degradation product (likely Br/sub 2/). Correction of the nominal LC50 values to time-weighted mean concentrations over the period between toxicant changes gave weighted LC50 values of 97.2, 67.4, 33.5, and 52.3 mg/liter for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, respectively. In addition, the period of water-hardening of fertilized eggs was not critical for expression of toxicity of dibromochloromethane. Comparison of these and other published data on effluent and toxic concentrations, persistence, and bioaccumulation of water-chlorination products suggests that trihalomethanes are not as environmentally critical as other chlorinated organic compounds or residual chlorine.

  16. Common Attentional Constraints in Visual Foraging

    PubMed Central

    Kristjánsson, Árni; Jóhannesson, Ómar I.; Thornton, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Predators are known to select food of the same type in non-random sequences or “runs” that are longer than would be expected by chance. If prey are conspicuous, predators will switch between available sources, interleaving runs of different prey types. However, when prey are cryptic, predators tend to focus on one food type at a time, effectively ignoring equally available sources. This latter finding is regarded as a key indicator that animal foraging is strongly constrained by attention. It is unknown whether human foraging is equally constrained. Here, using a novel iPad task, we demonstrate for the first time that it is. Participants were required to locate and touch 40 targets from 2 different categories embedded within a dense field of distractors. When individual target items “popped-out” search was organized into multiple runs, with frequent switching between target categories. In contrast, as soon as focused attention was required to identify individual targets, participants typically exhausted one entire category before beginning to search for the other. This commonality in animal and human foraging is compelling given the additional cognitive tools available to humans, and suggests that attention constrains search behavior in a similar way across a broad range of species. PMID:24964082

  17. Factor structure of common drug usage.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, N L; McClearn, G E

    1983-08-01

    The correlated usage of commonly employed, legal drugs was examined in a sample of 377 American and 908 Swedish adults. Measures of alcohol, tranquilizer, sleeping pill, and coffee or tea consumption were submitted to a principal components factor analysis with Varimax rotation. The resultant three factors were characterized by (1) heavy drinking in general and beer consumption specifically (ALCFAC), (2) the use of tranquilizers and sleeping medications (TSFAC) and (3) the consumption of coffee and tea (CTFAC). Factor structure profiles for ALCFAC and TSFAC were more stable than CTFAC across nationalities, sexes, and cohorts. Profiles for Swedish smokers and never-smokers were very similar; for Americans, however, profiles for never-smokers were more similar to Swedish profiles than to those of American smokers. Factor scores were computed to examine the relationship between tobacco use and levels of the factors by means of analysis of variance. In Swedes, ALCFAC and CTFAC levels varied with smoking status, whereas ALCFAC and TSFAC levels with smoking status in Americans. PMID:6641502

  18. Wilson's disease: a common liver disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, W. G.; Hyslop, P. S.; Barr, R.; Sass-Kortsak, A.

    1977-01-01

    In two sibships 7 of 24 siblings were homozygous for Wilson's disease. In family A, the largest kindred of this recessively inherited disease thus far reported, the proband presented with chronic active hepatitis, one sibling died of cirrhosis, a second had clinical evidence of chronic liver disease and two others had biochemical and histologic changes in liver biopsy specimens. In family B the proband had cirrhosis and portal hypertension and one sibling had biochemical and histologic evidence of liver disease. All six living patients had low serum concentrations of ceruloplasmin and copper and a high 24-hour urinary excretion of copper, which was greatly increased by administration of D-penicillamine. None showed neurologic abnormalities and only one had Kayser-Fleischer rings (detectable only by slit-lamp examination). Each patient had an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of 8 mm/h or less. After 3 and 2 years, respectively, of D-penicillamine therapy the conditions of the two probands had improved. Liver function became normal in three siblings, and no abnormalities developed in the remaining one. Thus, since Wilson's disease may present with chronic active hepatitis or cirrhosis with a normal ESR and without ocular or neurologic signs, it may be a more common cause of liver disease in young people than has been appreciated. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 PMID:861910

  19. Bilateral integration in the common chemical sense.

    PubMed

    Garcia Medina, M R; Cain, W S

    1982-08-01

    Human participants judged the pungency of various concentrations of carbon dioxide presented to one nostril, the other nostril, or both (dichorhinic stimulation). Perceived magnitude grew sharply with concentration over the range explored. The combinatorial rule of bilateral integration followed the Pythagorean theorem: the effective mass in a bilateral stimulus equalled the square root of the sum of squares of the mass entering each nostril. This simple rule implies a possible mutual inhibitory interaction between the two nostrils, but it also implies partial spatial summation of the sensory impact of bilaterally presented concentrations. When persons inhale a relatively strong irritant, such as the higher concentrations used here, they will exhibit a very brief reflex interruption of inhalation. An experiment on the threshold for the reflex implied that it too followed the Pythagorean rule of integration. This occurred for both males and females, though females displayed a lower threshold for the reflex, whether evoked unilaterally or bilaterally. This reflex may hold promise as an objective indicator of functional status of the nasal common chemical sense. PMID:7146140

  20. Application development using the ALMA common software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, G.; Caproni, A.; Jeram, B.; Sommer, H.; Wang, V.; Plesko, M.; Sekoranja, M.; Zagar, K.; Fugate, D. W.; Harrington, S.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Cirami, R.

    2006-06-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides the software infrastructure used by ALMA and by several other telescope projects, thanks also to the choice of adopting the LGPL public license. ACS is a set of application frameworks providing the basic services needed for object oriented distributed computing. Among these are transparent remote object invocation, object deployment and location based on a container/component model, distributed error, alarm handling, logging and events. ACS is based on CORBA and built on top of free CORBA implementations. Free software is extensively used wherever possible. The general architecture of ACS was presented at SPIE 2002. ACS has been under development for 6 years and it is midway through its development life. Many applications have been written using ACS; the ALMA test facility, APEX and other telescopes are running systems based on ACS. This is therefore a good time to look back and see what have been until now the strong and the weak points of ACS in terms of architecture and implementation. In this perspective, it is very important to analyze the applications based on ACS, the feedback received by the users and the impact that this feedback has had on the development of ACS itself, by favoring the development of some features with respect to others. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of this analysis and discuss what we would like to do in order to extend and improve ACS in the coming years, in particular to make application development easier and more efficient.

  1. LEECH: LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skemer, A.

    2014-03-01

    In Spring 2013, the LEECH (LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt) survey began its 100-night campaign from the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) atop Mt Graham, Arizona. This survey benefits from the many technological achievements of the LBT, including two 8.4- meter mirrors on a single fixed mount, dual adaptive secondary mirrors for high Strehl performance, and a cold beam combiner to dramatically reducing the telescope's overall background emissivity. LEECH neatly complements other high-contrast planet imaging efforts by observing stars at L' (3.8 microns) with LMIRcam, as opposed to the shorter wavelength near-infrared bands (1-2.4 microns) of other similar surveys. This portion of the spectrum offers deeper mass sensitivity for intermediate age (several hundred Myr-old) systems, since their Jovian-mass planets radiate predominantly in the mid-infrared. The goals of LEECH are to (1) discover new exoplanets, (2) characterize the atmospheres of newly discovered exoplanets, (3) characterize the architectures of nearby planetary systems, and (4) establish meaningful constraints on the prevalence of wideseparation exoplanets.

  2. Common lung conditions: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Delzell, John E

    2013-06-01

    The etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is chronic lung inflammation. In the United States, this inflammation most commonly is caused by smoking. COPD is diagnosed when an at-risk patient presents with respiratory symptoms and has irreversible airway obstruction indicated by a forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio of less than 0.7. Management goals for COPD include smoking cessation, symptom reduction, exacerbation reduction, hospitalization avoidance, and improvement of quality of life. Stable patients with COPD who remain symptomatic despite using short-acting bronchodilators should start inhaled maintenance drugs to reduce symptoms and exacerbations, avoid hospitalizations, and improve quality of life. A long-acting anticholinergic or a long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) can be used for initial therapy; these drugs have fewer adverse effects than inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). If patients remain symptomatic despite monotherapy, dual therapy with a long-acting anticholinergic and a LABA, or a LABA and an ICS, may be beneficial. Triple therapy (ie, a long-acting anticholinergic, a LABA, and an ICS) also is used, but it is unclear if triple therapy is superior to dual therapy. Roflumilast, an oral selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4, is used to manage moderate to severe COPD. Continuous oxygen therapy is indicated for patients with COPD who have severe hypoxemia (ie, PaO2 less than 55 mm Hg or an oxygen saturation less than 88% on room air). Nonpharmacologic strategies also are useful to improve patient outcomes. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves dyspnea and quality of life. Pulmonary rehabilitation after an acute exacerbation reduces hospitalizations and mortality, and improves quality of life and exercise capacity. Smoking cessation is the most effective management strategy for reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with COPD. Lung volume reduction surgery, bullectomy, and lung transplantation are surgical interventions that are appropriate for some patients with COPD. PMID:23767419

  3. Polarization Signals of Common Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gravseth, Ian; Culp, Robert D.; King, Nicole

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report documenting the results of the polarization testing of near-planar objects with various reflectance properties. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the portion of the reflected signal which is polarized for materials commonly used in space applications. Tests were conducted on several samples, with surface characteristics ranging from highly reflective to relatively dark. The measurements were obtained by suspending the test object in a beam of collimated light. The amount of light falling on the sample was controlled by a circular aperture placed in the light field. The polarized reflectance at various phase angles was then measured. A nonlinear least squares fitting program was used for analysis. For the specular test objects, the reflected signals were measured in one degree increments near the specular point. Otherwise, measurements were taken every five degrees in phase angle. Generally, the more diffuse surfaces had lower polarized reflectances than their more specular counterparts. The reflected signals for the more diffuse surfaces were spread over a larger phase angle range, while the signals from the more specular samples were reflected almost entirely within five degrees of angular deviation from the specular point. The method used to test all the surfaces is presented. The results of this study will be used to support the NASA Orbital Debris Optical Signature Tests. These tests are intended to help better understand the reflectance properties of materials often used in space applications. This data will then be used to improve the capabilities for identification and tracking of space debris.

  4. NATO initial common operational picture capability project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanti, Laura; Beach, David

    2002-08-01

    The Common Operational Picture (COP) capability can be defined as the ability to display on a single screen integrated views of the Recognized Maritime, Air and Ground Pictures, enriched by other tactical data, such as theater plans, assets, intelligence and logistics information. The purpose of the COP capability is to provide military forces a comprehensive view of the battle space, thereby enhancing situational awareness and the decision-making process across the military command and control spectrum. The availability of a COP capability throughout the command structure is a high priority operational requirement in NATO. A COP capability for NATO is being procured and implemented in an incremental way within the NATO Automated Information System (Bi-SC AIS) Functional Services programme under the coordination of the NATO Consultation, Command and Control Agency (NC3A) Integrated Programme Team 5 (IPT5). The NATO Initial COP (iCOP) capability project, first step of this evolutionary procurement, will provide an initial COP capability to NATO in a highly pragmatic and low-risk fashion, by using existing operational communications infrastructure and NATO systems, i.e. the NATO-Wide Integrated Command and Control Software for Air Operations (ICC), the Maritime Command and Control Information System (MCCIS), and the Joint Operations and Intelligence Information System (JOIIS), which will provide respectively the Recognized Air, Maritime and Ground Pictures. This paper gives an overview of the NATO Initial COP capability project, including its evolutionary implementation approach, and describes the technical solution selected to satisfy the urgent operational requirement in a timely and cost effective manner.

  5. Asymmetric Accretion Flows within a Common Envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines flows in the immediate vicinity of stars and compact objects dynamically inspiralling within a common envelope (CE). Flow in the vicinity of the embedded object is gravitationally focused, leading to drag and potentially to gas accretion. This process has been studied numerically and analytically in the context of Hoyle–Lyttleton accretion (HLA). Yet, within a CE, accretion structures may span a large fraction of the envelope radius, and in so doing sweep across a substantial radial gradient of density. We quantify these gradients using detailed stellar evolution models for a range of CE encounters. We provide estimates of typical scales in CE encounters that involve main sequence stars, white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes with giant-branch companions of a wide range of masses. We apply these typical scales to hydrodynamic simulations of three-dimensional HLA with an upstream density gradient. This density gradient breaks the symmetry that defines HLA flow, and imposes an angular momentum barrier to accretion. Material that is focused into the vicinity of the embedded object thus may not be able to accrete. As a result, accretion rates drop dramatically, by one to two orders of magnitude, while drag rates are only mildly affected. We provide fitting formulae to the numerically derived rates of drag and accretion as a function of the density gradient. The reduced ratio of accretion to drag suggests that objects that can efficiently gain mass during CE evolution, such as black holes and neutron stars, may grow less than implied by the HLA formalism.

  6. Toward a common language for biobanking.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Martin N; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Brochhausen, Mathias; Litton, Jan-Eric

    2015-01-01

    To encourage the process of harmonization, the biobank community should support and use a common terminology. Relevant terms may be found in general thesauri for medicine, legal instruments or specific glossaries for biobanking. A comparison of the use of these sources has so far not been conducted and would be a useful instrument to further promote harmonization and data sharing. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the preference of definitions important for sharing biological samples and data. Definitions for 10 terms -[human] biobank, sample/specimen, sample collection, study, aliquot, coded, identifying information, anonymised, personal data and informed consent-were collected from several sources. A web-based questionnaire was sent to 560 European individuals working with biobanks asking to select their preferred definition for the terms. A total of 123 people participated in the survey, giving a response rate of 23%. The result was evaluated from four aspects: scope of definitions, potential regional differences, differences in semantics and definitions in the context of ontologies, guided by comments from responders. Indicative from the survey is the risk of focusing only on the research aspect of biobanking in definitions. Hence, it is recommended that important terms should be formulated in such a way that all areas of biobanking are covered to improve the bridges between research and clinical application. Since several of the terms investigated here within can also be found in a legal context, which may differ between countries, establishing what is a proper definition on how it adheres to law is also crucial. PMID:24713663

  7. Six Common Mistakes in Conservation Priority Setting

    PubMed Central

    Game, Edward T; Kareiva, Peter; Possingham, Hugh P

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A vast number of prioritization schemes have been developed to help conservation navigate tough decisions about the allocation of finite resources. However, the application of quantitative approaches to setting priorities in conservation frequently includes mistakes that can undermine their authors’ intention to be more rigorous and scientific in the way priorities are established and resources allocated. Drawing on well-established principles of decision science, we highlight 6 mistakes commonly associated with setting priorities for conservation: not acknowledging conservation plans are prioritizations; trying to solve an ill-defined problem; not prioritizing actions; arbitrariness; hidden value judgments; and not acknowledging risk of failure. We explain these mistakes and offer a path to help conservation planners avoid making the same mistakes in future prioritizations. Seis Errores Comunes en la Definición de Prioridades de Conservación Resumen Se ha desarrollado un vasto número de esquemas de priorización para ayudar a que la conservación navegue entre decisiones difíciles en cuanto a la asignación de recursos finitos. Sin embargo, la aplicación de métodos cuantitativos para la definición de prioridades en la conservación frecuentemente incluye errores que pueden socavar la intención de sus autores de ser más rigurosos y científicos en la manera en que se establecen las prioridades y se asignan los recursos. Con base en los bien establecidos principios de la ciencia de la decisión, resaltamos seis errores comúnmente asociados con la definición de prioridades para la conservación: no reconocer que los planes de conservación son priorizaciones; tratar de resolver un problema mal definido; no priorizar acciones; arbitrariedad; juicios de valor ocultos y no reconocer el riesgo de fracasar. Explicamos estos errores y ofrecemos un camino para que planificadores de la conservación no cometan los mismos errores en priorizaciones futuras. PMID:23565990

  8. Abundant Oligonucleotides Common to Most Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Colin F.; Tümmler, Burkhard

    2010-01-01

    Background Bacteria show a bias in their genomic oligonucleotide composition far beyond that dictated by G+C content. Patterns of over- and underrepresented oligonucleotides carry a phylogenetic signal and are thus diagnostic for individual species. Patterns of short oligomers have been investigated by multiple groups in large numbers of bacteria genomes. However, global distributions of the most highly overrepresented mid-sized oligomers have not been assessed across all prokaryotes to date. We surveyed overrepresented mid-length oligomers across all prokaryotes and normalised for base composition and embedded oligomers using zero and second order Markov models. Principal Findings Here we report a presumably ancient set of oligomers conserved and overrepresented in nearly all branches of prokaryotic life, including Archaea. These oligomers are either adenine rich homopurines with one to three guanine nucleosides, or homopyridimines with one to four cytosine nucleosides. They do not show a consistent preference for coding or non-coding regions or aggregate in any coding frame, implying a role in DNA structure and as polypeptide binding sites. Structural parameters indicate these oligonucleotides to be an extreme and rigid form of B-DNA prone to forming triple stranded helices under common physiological conditions. Moreover, the narrow minor grooves of these structures are recognised by DNA binding and nucleoid associated proteins such as HU. Conclusion Homopurine and homopyrimidine oligomers exhibit distinct and unusual structural features and are present at high copy number in nearly all prokaryotic lineages. This fact suggests a non-neutral role of these oligonucleotides for bacterial genome organization that has been maintained throughout evolution. PMID:20352124

  9. Common Envelope White Dwarf - Red Dwarf Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, G.; Zuckerman, B.; Becklin, E. E.; Barnbaum, C.

    1993-05-01

    By studying cool, low-mass companions to white dwarf stars (Zuckerman & Becklin, ApJ, 386, 260, 1992), we have been attempting to determine the initial mass function (IMF) for star formation at the very bottom of the main sequence. Some of the white dwarf - red dwarf (WD-RD) binaries measured, however, may have shared a common envelope in the past. If the pair were once sufficiently close to share such an envelope, mass transfer could have altered the mass of the secondary, meaning that the mass measured for the red dwarf is not the initial mass and it should therefore be removed from the IMF sample. We have observed 16 WD-RD binaries (so far) with the Hamilton echelle spectrograph on the 3-meter telescope at Lick Observatory. Primarily, our goal is to measure changes in radial velocity due to orbital motion, to infer which binaries have closely-separated components (so that mass transfer has occurred in the past). Eleven of the 16 binaries exhibited H? emission from the red dwarf, and thus radial velocities and equivalent widths were measurable. Of these eleven, PG 0308+096, GD 245, LTT 2980, and PG 1026+002 display large and rapid changes in H? radial velocity and are clearly close binaries. GD 123, PG 1643+143, Rosat 1631+78, PG 1210+464, and GD 984 have shown very small or negligible changes in radial velocity and are unlikely to be close binaries. The data suggest a correlation between the amount of H? variability (as measured by the equivalent width) and the inferred closeness of the binary components. This research is supported by NSF grant no. AST-9115053 to UCLA.

  10. Common Avian Infection Plagued the Tyrant Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Ewan D. S.; Salisbury, Steven W.; Horner, John R.; Varricchio, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name ‘Sue’) has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. Conclusions/Significance This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation. PMID:19789646

  11. Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia in Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Fuss, Ivan J.; Friend, Julia; Yang, Zhiqong; He, Ping; Hooda, Lubna; Boyer, James; Xi, Liqiang; Raffeld, Mark; Kleiner, David E.; Heller, Theo; Strober, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) are subject to the development of a liver disease syndrome known as nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH). The purpose of this study was to define the characteristics and course of this complication of CVID. Methods CVID patients were evaluated by retrospective and prospective clinical course review. Liver biopsy specimens were evaluated for evidence of NRH and studied via RT-PCR for cytokine analysis. Results NRH in our CVID patient population occurred in approximately 5% of the 261 patients in our total CVID study group, initially presenting in most cases with an elevated alkaline phosphatase level. While in some patients the disease remained static, in a larger proportion a more severe disease developed characterized by portal hypertension, the latter leading to hypersplenism with neutropenia and thrombocytopenia and, in some cases, to ascites. In addition, a substantial proportion of patients either developed or presented initially with an autoimmune hepatitis-like (AIH-like) liver disease that resulted in severe liver dysfunction and, in most cases to death due to infections. The liver histologic findings in these AIH-like patients were characterized by underlying NRH pattern with superimposed interface hepatitis, lymphocytic infiltration and fibrosis. Immunologic studies of biopsies of NRH patients demonstrated the presence of infiltrating T cells producing IFN-?, suggesting that the NRH is due to an autoimmune process. Conclusion Overall, these studies provide evidence that NRH may not be benign but, can be a severe and potentially fatal disease complication of CVID that merits close monitoring and intervention. PMID:23420139

  12. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wise, Mitchell Lynn (Pullman, WA); Katahira, Eva Joy (Pullman, WA); Savage, Thomas Jonathan (Christchurch 5, NZ)

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  13. Visualizing common operating picture of critical infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummukainen, Lauri; Oksama, Lauri; Timonen, Jussi; Vankka, Jouko

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a solution for visualizing the common operating picture (COP) of the critical infrastructure (CI). The purpose is to improve the situational awareness (SA) of the strategic-level actor and the source system operator in order to support decision making. The information is obtained through the Situational Awareness of Critical Infrastructure and Networks (SACIN) framework. The system consists of an agent-based solution for gathering, storing, and analyzing the information, and a user interface (UI) is presented in this paper. The UI consists of multiple views visualizing information from the CI in different ways. Different CI actors are categorized in 11 separate sectors, and events are used to present meaningful incidents. Past and current states, together with geographical distribution and logical dependencies, are presented to the user. The current states are visualized as segmented circles to represent event categories. Geographical distribution of assets is displayed with a well-known map tool. Logical dependencies are presented in a simple directed graph, and users also have a timeline to review past events. The objective of the UI is to provide an easily understandable overview of the CI status. Therefore, testing methods, such as a walkthrough, an informal walkthrough, and the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT), were used in the evaluation of the UI. Results showed that users were able to obtain an understanding of the current state of CI, and the usability of the UI was rated as good. In particular, the designated display for the CI overview and the timeline were found to be efficient.

  14. Common Myna Roosts Are Not Recruitment Centres

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Manaswini; Arvind, Chiti; Lakshman, Abhilash; Vidya, T. N. C.

    2014-01-01

    We studied communal roosting in the Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) in the light of the recruitment centre hypothesis and predation at the roost. The number and sizes of flocks departing from and arriving at focal roosts were recorded over a two year period. We also recorded the sizes and behaviour of foraging flocks. We found that flock sizes of birds departing from roosts at sunrise were larger than those at the feeding site, suggesting that there was no recruitment from the roosts. Flocks entering the roosts during sunset were larger on average than those leaving the following sunrise, suggesting no consolidation of flocks in the morning. Flocks entering the roosts at sunset were also larger on average than those that had left that sunrise, although there was no recruitment at the feeding site. There was no effect of group size on the proportion of time spent feeding. Contrary to expectation, single birds showed lower apparent vigilance than birds that foraged in pairs or groups, possibly due to scrounging tactics being used in the presence of feeding companions. Thus, the recruitment centre hypothesis did not hold in our study population of mynas. Predation at dawn and dusk were also not important to communal roosting: predators near the roosts did not result in larger flocks, and resulted in larger durations of arrival/departure contrary to expectation. Since flock sizes were smallest at the feeding site and larger in the evening than in the morning, but did not coincide with predator activity, information transfer unrelated to food (such as breeding opportunities) may possibly give rise to the evening aggregations. PMID:25122467

  15. Solving nursing shortages: a common priority

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, James; Aiken, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Aims and objectives This paper provides a context for this special edition. It highlights the scale of the challenge of nursing shortages, but also makes the point that there is a policy agenda that provides workable solutions. Results An overview of nurse:population ratios in different countries and regions of the world, highlighting considerable variations, with Africa and South East Asia having the lowest average ratios. The paper argues that the ‘shortage’ of nurses is not necessarily a shortage of individuals with nursing qualifications, it is a shortage of nurses willing to work in the present conditions. The causes of shortages are multi-faceted, and there is no single global measure of their extent and nature, there is growing evidence of the impact of relatively low staffing levels on health care delivery and outcomes. The main causes of nursing shortages are highlighted: inadequate workforce planning and allocation mechanisms, resource constrained undersupply of new staff, poor recruitment, retention and ‘return’ policies, and ineffective use of available nursing resources through inappropriate skill mix and utilisation, poor incentive structures and inadequate career support. Conclusions What now faces policy makers in Japan, Europe and other developed countries is a policy agenda with a core of common themes. First, themes related to addressing supply side issues: getting, keeping and keeping in touch with relatively scarce nurses. Second, themes related to dealing with demand side challenges. The paper concludes that the main challenge for policy makers is to develop a co-ordinated package of policies that provide a long term and sustainable solution. Relevance to clinical practice This paper highlights the impact that nursing shortages has on clinical practice and in health service delivery. It outlines scope for addressing shortage problems and therefore for providing a more positive staffing environment in which clinical practice can be delivered. PMID:19146584

  16. Will "common" work environment measures lead to "common" health service performance?

    PubMed

    Stanton, Pauline; Leggat, Sandra G

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of common work environment measures has the potential to increase the focus on and potentially improve human resource management (HRM) practice throughout the Canadian healthcare system. However, based on research evidence, we suggest that successful execution cannot be achieved through top-down implementation of a set of "lag" indicators. We also stress that without accompanying management training in HRM, it is unlikely that the potential benefits of an indicator set will be realized. PMID:20644353

  17. Simulations Provide Support for the Common Disease–Common Variant Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Bo; Kimmel, Marek

    2007-01-01

    The success of mapping genes involved in complex diseases, using association or linkage disequilibrium methods, depends heavily on the number and frequency of susceptibility alleles of these genes. These methods will be economically and statistically feasible if common diseases are usually influenced by one or a few susceptibility alleles at each locus (common disease–common variant, CDCV, hypothesis), but not so if there is a high degree of allelic heterogeneity. Here, we use forward-time population simulations to investigate the impact of various genetic and demographic factors on the allelic spectra of human diseases, on the basis of two models proposed by Reich and Lander and by Pritchard. Factors considered are more complex demographies, a finite-allele mutation model, population structure and migration, and interaction between disease susceptibility loci. The conclusion is that the CDCV hypothesis holds and that the phenomenon is caused by transient effects of demography (population expansion). As a result, we devise a multilocus generalization of the Reich and Lander model and demonstrate how interaction between loci with respect to their response to selection may lead to complex effects. We discuss the implications for mapping of complex diseases. PMID:17151262

  18. Multimorbidity is common to family practice

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Martin; Lapointe, Lise; Hudon, Catherine; Vanasse, Alain

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Family physicians often have to care for patients with several concurrent chronic conditions (multimorbidity or comorbidity). Consequently, they need to inform themselves by reading indexed publications on multimorbidity. This study aimed to assess how well the concept of multimorbidity was covered in the medical literature. Objectives were first, to quantify the literature on multimorbidity (or comorbidity) and to compare the number of publications on it with the number of publications on three common chronic conditions (asthma, hypertension, and diabetes), and second, to describe the articles on multimorbidity. DESIGN Bibliometric study. METHOD We consulted MEDLINE for the reference period 1990 to the end of 2002. The term “multimorbidity” and its various spellings was used as the search term. Comorbidity, asthma, hypertension, and diabetes were searched for using their respective MeSH terms. For comparison purposes, prevalence data were taken from published sources. Abstracts of articles relating to multimorbidity were reviewed and their content analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Number and type of articles. RESULTS Multimorbidity has a prevalence of 60% among people aged 55 to 74. This prevalence is much higher than that of asthma (6.5%), hypertension (29.6%), and diabetes (8.7%). Few articles in the medical literature deal specifically with multimorbidity (or comorbidity), however. For each article on multimorbidity, there are 74 on asthma, 94 on hypertension, and 38 on diabetes. Content analysis of abstracts of articles on multimorbidity revealed a high proportion of epidemiologic studies (50.0%) followed by validation studies (22.4%) and opinion pieces (11.8%). The few experimental studies on multimorbidity were not done in primary care settings. CONCLUSION This study shows that the prevalence of multimorbidity is not matched by the number of indexed publications on it in the medical literature. To date, the number and diversity of articles on multimorbidity are both insufficient to provide scientific background for strong evidence-based care of patients affected by multiple concurrent chronic conditions. Research is needed to increase knowledge and understanding of this important clinical topic. PMID:16926936

  19. Common Pediatric Disabilities: Medical Aspects and Educational Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Janet Siantz; Colson, Steven

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents definitions of common pediatric disabilities and information about incidence, causes, diagnosis, common characteristics, complications with educational implications, and multidisciplinary intervention approaches. It covers the following conditions: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, fragile…

  20. 37 CFR 41.206 - Common interests in the invention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Common interests in the invention. 41.206 Section 41.206...INTERFERENCES Patent Interferences § 41.206 Common interests in the invention. An administrative patent...

  1. 76 FR 45666 - Provisions Common to Registered Entities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ...CFR Part 40 RIN 3038-AD07 Provisions Common to Registered Entities; Correction AGENCY...July 27, 2011, regarding Provisions Common to Registered Entities. DATES: Effective...certification of a product with no open interest and submitted in compliance with...

  2. Teaching Geometry According to the Common Core Standards

    E-print Network

    Wu, Hung-Hsi

    Teaching Geometry According to the Common Core Standards H. Wu c Hung-Hsi Wu 2013 January 1, 2012-by-grade mathematical commentaries on the teaching of the geometry standards in the CCSSM (Common Core State Stan- dards

  3. What is different about the Common Core Mathematics Standards?

    E-print Network

    Wu, Hung-Hsi

    What is different about the Common Core Mathematics Standards? East Lansing Public Schools, MI June in this game. By 2014, the Common Core Mathematics Standards (CCMS) will be phased in. How will it impact

  4. FINAL STUDY REPORT INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPACTS OF COMMON ENDOCRINE

    E-print Network

    FINAL STUDY REPORT INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPACTS OF COMMON ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPACTS OF COMMON ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS ON MULTIPLE EARLY LIFE STAGES the terms of the federal Clean Water Act's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES

  5. Management and Conservation Territory Occupancy by Common Loons in

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Mike

    of environmental and demographic factors. A peninsular population of common loons (Gavia immer) nests on lakes of occupancy of surrounding lakes. ß 2011 The Wildlife Society. KEY WORDS common loon, Gavia immer, habitat

  6. 13-05-2013 Role of Common Properties and Municipalities

    E-print Network

    Pettenella, Davide

    , gathering herbs, grazing, hunting, fishing, etc. Civic Uses Lands Common Properties Ownership. Institutional regime: COMMON Legal personality: PRIVATE Functions: PUBLIC interest The peculiar case of enlarged public participation by local residents, introduction of innovations and improved forest

  7. Relationships among invasive common carp, native fishes and physicochemical characteristics

    E-print Network

    ). Common carp Cyprinus carpio are distributed worldwide and considered one of the most wide- spread of Freshwater Fish 2011. � 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract ­ Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread

  8. Application and management of commonality within NASA systems

    E-print Network

    Rhodes, Richard Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Commonality can be defined as the sharing of assets such as components, designs, processes, technologies, interfaces, and/or infrastructure across systems. Through commonality, NASA has the opportunity to develop, produce, ...

  9. Post-conception reproductive competition in cooperatively breeding common marmosets

    E-print Network

    Saltzman, Wendy

    Post-conception reproductive competition in cooperatively breeding common marmosets Wendy Saltzman online 17 October 2007 Abstract Common marmosets are cooperatively breeding monkeys that exhibit high mothers, and plurally breeding daughters in urinary chorionic gonadotropin or estradiol sulfate

  10. 47 CFR 11.42 - Participation by communications common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...common carriers. 11.42 Section 11.42 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.42 Participation by communications common carriers. (a) During...

  11. 47 CFR 11.42 - Participation by communications common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...common carriers. 11.42 Section 11.42 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.42 Participation by communications common carriers. (a) During...

  12. Concept of common bud and related phenomena in Bryozoa

    E-print Network

    Elias, M. K.

    1971-05-01

    THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PALEONTOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS March 1, 1971 Paper 52 CONCEPT OF COMMON BUD AND RELATED PHENOMENA IN BRYOZOA MAXIM K. ELIAS University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma ABSTRACT The common bud of Stenolaemata (Cyclostomata... of authors), as understood by BORG (1926), is analogous to the buds of higher plants in its terminal position on branches of the Bryozoa and in its vital activities. The common bud is truly common to all developing zooecia in a branch of a zoarium in a sense...

  13. Hematozoa of hatch-year common mergansers from Michigan.

    PubMed

    DeJong, R J; Reimink, R L; Blankespoor, H D

    2001-04-01

    Fifty-five hatch-year common mergansers (Mergus merganser) were sampled for hematozoa from Douglas Lake (Michigan, USA) on 17 July 1995. Forty-one (75%) were infected with hematozoa. Haemoproteus greineri and Leucocytozoon simondi were common, infecting 28 (51%) and 26 (47%) common mergansers, respectively. Plasmodium circumflexum infected two (4%) birds. The common merganser is a new host record for H. greineri and P. circumflexum. Intensity data indicate possible negative interspecific interaction between H. greineri and L. simondi. PMID:11310899

  14. Common volatility across Latin American foreign exchange markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Ruiz

    2009-01-01

    This article uses high-frequency exchange rate data for a group of 13 Latin American countries in order to analyse volatility co-movements. Particular interest is posed on understanding the existence of a common volatility process during the 1995–2008 period. The analysis relies on bivariate common factor models. We test for second-order common features using the common autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity-feature methodology developed

  15. Norms of Descriptive Adjective Responses to Common Nouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Janet L.

    This paper gives the results of a controlled experiment on word association. The purpose was to establish norms of commonality of primary descriptive adjective responses to common nouns. The stimuli consisted of 203 common nouns selected from 10 everyday topics of conversation, approximately 20 from each topic. There were 350 subjects, 50% male,…

  16. 47 CFR 74.22 - Use of common antenna structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Use of common antenna structure. 74.22 Section 74.22...Services in Part 74 § 74.22 Use of common antenna structure. The simultaneous use of a common antenna structure by more than one station...

  17. 47 CFR 74.22 - Use of common antenna structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Use of common antenna structure. 74.22 Section 74.22...Services in Part 74 § 74.22 Use of common antenna structure. The simultaneous use of a common antenna structure by more than one station...

  18. 47 CFR 74.22 - Use of common antenna structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Use of common antenna structure. 74.22 Section 74.22...Services in Part 74 § 74.22 Use of common antenna structure. The simultaneous use of a common antenna structure by more than one station...

  19. 47 CFR 74.22 - Use of common antenna structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Use of common antenna structure. 74.22 Section 74.22...Services in Part 74 § 74.22 Use of common antenna structure. The simultaneous use of a common antenna structure by more than one station...

  20. 47 CFR 74.22 - Use of common antenna structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Use of common antenna structure. 74.22 Section 74.22...Services in Part 74 § 74.22 Use of common antenna structure. The simultaneous use of a common antenna structure by more than one station...