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1

DIET OF THE COMMON WARTHOG (PHACOCHOERUS AFRICANUS) ON FORMER  

E-print Network

DIET OF THE COMMON WARTHOG (PHACOCHOERUS AFRICANUS) ON FORMER CATTLE GROUNDS IN A TANZANIAN SAVANNA investigated forage plants and diet of the common warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) on an abandoned cattle ranch values in feces suggest that warthogs preferentially fed in the vicinity of the former bomas. d13 C

Gilli, Adrian

2

Experimental Infection of Common Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) and Bushpigs (Potamochoerus larvatus) with Classical Swine Fever Virus. I: Susceptibility and Transmission.  

PubMed

An incursion of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) into the domestic pig population in South Africa, identified in 2005, raised the concern that infection might spread to wildlife species and be maintained in these hosts. This study sought to determine whether two wildlife Suidae species present in South Africa, the bushpig (Potamochoerus larvatus) and the common warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), could support productive CSFV infection. Both species could be infected with CSFV and transmitted infection to in-contact animals of the same species. Viral antigen and RNA genome were detected in blood/serum and animals that survived initial infection seroconverted approximately 10-14?days post-inoculation. Viral RNA remained detectable in nasal and saliva secretions for prolonged periods until monitoring ended at 42-44?days after initial challenge. These data suggest that both Suidae species could serve to spread circulating CSFV within wild populations, with implications for disease control. PMID:21294855

Everett, H; Crooke, H; Gurrala, R; Dwarka, R; Kim, J; Botha, B; Lubisi, A; Pardini, A; Gers, S; Vosloo, W; Drew, T

2011-02-01

3

Pheochromocytoma in an African warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus).  

PubMed

A 14-yr-old male African warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) with a chronic history of intermittent unilateral epistaxis, degenerative osteoarthritis, and intermittent weakness in the distal lumbar trunk was evaluated to determine the source of epistaxis. No obvious cause was determined, and in light of severe osteoarthritis and a holosystolic cardiac murmur, the animal was euthanized. A tumor of the right adrenal gland involving the medulla was found at gross necropsy. Immunohistochemical staining of the tumor was positive for chromogranin and negative for neurofilament protein, which was diagnostic for pheochromocytoma. No lesions were observed in either nasal cavity. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures measured at the time of immobilization were elevated when compared with another African warthog immobilized with a similar anesthetic regimen. Additionally, the warthog had pronounced serum norepinephrine dominance with a norepinephrine:epinephrine ratio of 10.0, compared with 0.36 from clinically normal warthogs. Practitioners should consider pheochromocytoma when evaluating warthogs or swine for epistaxis. PMID:19110715

Cole, Gretchen; Suedmeyer, W Kirk; Johnson, Gayle

2008-12-01

4

Experimental Infection of Common Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) and Bushpigs (Potamochoerus larvatus) with Classical Swine Fever Virus II: A Comparative Histopathological Study.  

PubMed

Wild African Suidae, the common warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) and bushpig (Potamochoerus larvatus), were experimentally infected with classical swine fever (CSF) virus following the diagnosis of CSF subtype 2.1 in domestic pigs in South Africa in 2005. No data regarding the susceptibility or potential lesions of these African wild suids are available. Seven subadult warthogs and six bushpigs were captured and infected intranasally with the South African isolate. Two in-contact control animals of the same species in each experiment verified intra-species transmission. Surviving animals were euthanized after 44?days. Formalin-fixed tissue samples collected from them as well as animals euthanized during the trial were evaluated for histological lesions. The warthogs, which were clinically normal throughout the study, developed histological lesions that were inconsistently present and sometimes subtle. Three individuals, including one in-contact control, developed distinct lympho-plasmacytic cuffing in their brains. Subtle lesions included scant lympho-plasmacytic infiltration of various organs, occasionally accompanied by perivascular cuffing. In contrast, the bushpigs developed overt clinical signs similar to CSF in domestic pigs. Four of six animals, including two in-contact controls, died or were euthanized during the trial. On postmortem examination, intestinal necrosis and ulceration, purulent rhinitis and pneumonia were present. Affected animals developed lymphoid necrosis and depletion whilst surviving individuals showed perivascular cuffing in multiple organs. From the present work, we conclude that these wild Suidae are susceptible to CSF virus and intra-species transmission under experimental conditions can occur. PMID:21176120

Gers, S; Vosloo, W; Drew, T; Lubisi, A B; Pardini, A; Williams, M

2010-12-22

5

Faecal steroid metabolites for non-invasive assessment of reproduction in common warthogs ( Phacochoerus africanus), red river hogs ( Potamochoerus porcus) and babirusa ( Babyrousa babyrussa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to analyse faecal steroid metabolites in African and South East Asian pig species kept in European zoos. Species studied were the warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), the red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus) and the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa). Faecal samples were collected 1–3 times per week from non-pregnant and pregnant captive female warthogs (n=9), red river hogs

Eva M. Berger; Kristin Leus; Paul Vercammen; Franz Schwarzenberger

2006-01-01

6

Phylogeography and population structure of the common warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) inferred from variation in mitochondrial DNA sequences and microsatellite loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate fluctuated considerably throughout the Pliocene and Pleistocene, influencing the evolutionary history of a wide range of species. Using both mitochondrial sequences and microsatellites, we have investigated the evolutionary consequences of such environmental fluctuation for the patterns of genetic variation in the common warthog, sampled from 24 localities in Africa. In the sample of 181 individuals, 70 mitochondrial DNA

V B Muwanika; S Nyakaana; H R Siegismund; P Arctander

2003-01-01

7

Phylogeography and population structure of the common warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) inferred from variation in mitochondrial DNA sequences and microsatellite loci.  

PubMed

Global climate fluctuated considerably throughout the Pliocene and Pleistocene, influencing the evolutionary history of a wide range of species. Using both mitochondrial sequences and microsatellites, we have investigated the evolutionary consequences of such environmental fluctuation for the patterns of genetic variation in the common warthog, sampled from 24 localities in Africa. In the sample of 181 individuals, 70 mitochondrial DNA haplotypes were identified and an overall nucleotide diversity of 4.0% was observed. The haplotypes cluster in three well-differentiated clades (estimated net sequence divergence of 3.1-6.6%) corresponding to the geographical origins of individuals (i.e. eastern, western and southern African clades). At the microsatellite loci, high polymorphism was observed both in the number of alleles per locus (6-21), and in the gene diversity (in each population 0.59-0.80). Analysis of population differentiation indicates greater subdivision at the mitochondrial loci (FST=0.85) than at nuclear loci (FST=0.20), but both mitochondrial and nuclear loci support the existence of the three warthog lineages. We interpret our results in terms of the large-scale climatic fluctuations of the Pleistocene. PMID:14512951

Muwanika, V B; Nyakaana, S; Siegismund, H R; Arctander, P

2003-10-01

8

Trypanosome infections in warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) in the Gambia.  

PubMed

The prevalence of trypanosome infections in warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) in The Gambia was found to be 11% of a sample of 62 animals. All isolates were identified as Trypanosoma simiae. Serological evidence indicated a higher level of exposure to T. simiae, but results were inconclusive for the presence of Trypanosoma congolense. The course of T. simiae infection in warthog piglets showed a rapidly rising parasitaemia, with a concomitant fall in packed cell volume, and resulted in a prolonged period of low-level parasitaemia. The same infections killed domestic piglets. PMID:1502780

Claxton, J R; Faye, J A; Rawlings, P

1992-03-01

9

Faecal steroid metabolites for non-invasive assessment of reproduction in common warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus), red river hogs (Potamochoerus porcus) and babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa).  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to analyse faecal steroid metabolites in African and South East Asian pig species kept in European zoos. Species studied were the warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), the red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus) and the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa). Faecal samples were collected 1-3 times per week from non-pregnant and pregnant captive female warthogs (n = 9), red river hogs (n = 7) and babirusas (n = 5). Enzyme-immunoassays for faecal progesterone, androgen, and oestrogen metabolites, were tested for their ability to determine follicular and luteal phases. In all three species, oestrous cycles could be monitored with 20alpha-OH- and 20-oxo-pregnane assays. In contrast, oestrogens and androgens were not useful in characterising follicular activity during the oestrous cycle in any species. Faecal 20alpha-OH- and 20-oxo-pregnane values were significantly correlated. Faecal pregnane concentrations revealed species-specific differences. Luteal phase values of 20alpha-OH-pregnanes were considerably higher than 20-oxo-pregnanes; 20alpha-OH-pregnanes were in the range of 3-10 microg/g in warthogs and red river hogs, whereas concentrations were 30-200 microg/g faeces in the babirusa. Regular oestrus cycles had a length of about 35 days in all three species studied. Results indicated a seasonal influence on the occurrence of reproductive cycles in the warthog with anoestrous periods in the European summer. The red river hog was found to be a seasonal and poly oestrous breeder; oestrus cycles started by January and continued until summer. In contrast, the babirusa showed non-seasonal ovarian cyclicity. In pregnant red river hogs, progesterone metabolites were comparable to luteal phase values of the oestrous cycle during the first 3 months of gestation, but did further increase during the last month of pregnancy. Oestrogens and 17-oxo-androstanes were significantly elevated during the second half of gestation. In summary, the reproductive biology of three exotic pig species was studied using non-invasive faecal steroid analysis and these methods were used for comparative investigations of oestrous cycles, pregnancy and seasonality. PMID:15876499

Berger, Eva M; Leus, Kristin; Vercammen, Paul; Schwarzenberger, Franz

2006-01-01

10

PERIODONTAL DISEASE IN SOUTHERN AFRICAN BUSHPIGS (POTAMOCHOERUS PORCUS) AND WARTHOGS (PHACOCHOERUS AETHIOPICUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodontal lesions were found in 14 of 100 bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) skulls and nine of 103 warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) skulls from southern Africa. The prevalence of periodontal disease showed a significant increase with age in the bushpig but not in the warthog skulls. All the lesions affected the cheek teeth, particularly the molars. The lower prevalence of lesions in older

Peter F. Woodall

11

Periodontal disease in southern African bushpigs (Potamochoerus porcus) and warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus).  

PubMed

Periodontal lesions were found in 14 of 100 bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) skulls and nine of 103 warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) skulls from southern Africa. The prevalence of periodontal disease showed a significant increase with age in the bushpig but not in the warthog skulls. All the lesions affected the cheek teeth, particularly the molars. The lower prevalence of lesions in older warthogs may be associated with their specialised molars and abrasive diet. PMID:2915404

Woodall, P F

1989-01-01

12

Blood chemical parameters in the warthog Phacochoerus aethiopicus.  

PubMed

Concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, inorganic phosphorus, total calcium, total magnesium, albumin, total protein, cholesterol, urea, creatinine, cortisol as well as the activities of alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were determined in serum specimens collected from 100 free-ranging warthogs Phacochoerus aethiopicus within five minutes after they were killed with a shotgun. Average concentrations for the following chemical constituents were found: sodium (145 mmol l-1), potassium (8.6 mmol l-1), chloride (102.5 mmol l-1), phosphorus (2.31 mmol l-1), calcium (2.93 mmol l-1), magnesium (1.23 mmol l-1), albumin (26.4 g l-1), serum proteins (62.2 g l-1), cholesterol (1.82 mmol l-1) and urea (8.74 mmol l-1). The cortisol concentrations ranged from 55-340 nmol l-1 (n = 30). Wide variations were recorded in the concentration of creatinine as well as in the activities of the various enzymes. PMID:3508207

Keffen, R H; Van Heerden, J; Dauth, J; Dreyer, M J

1987-09-01

13

A case of anaemia in a neonatal warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) and evaluation of serum-soluble iron in warthogs.  

PubMed

A 38-day-old male warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) with marked anaemia (haematocrit = 14 %) presented to the Denver Zoological Gardens hospital with ataxia, tachypnoea, suspected stunted growth and cardiomegaly. The piglet demonstrated some features consistent with both iron deficiency anaemia and autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Serum-soluble iron was below the level of detection (< 8.96 micromol/l). Iron deficiency anaemia is a well recognised entity in domestic swine reared on concrete and denied access to soil. Fifteen captive warthogs were subsequently evaluated for serum soluble iron content (mean = 21.62 +/- 4.36 micromol/l as well as 5 neonatal warthog piglets that required hand-rearing. Only 1 of 5 neonatal warthog piglets had measurable serum soluble iron (9.50 micromol/l). These data suggest that warthogs are similar to domestic swine and are born with low iron stores. Some form of iron supplementation should be considered for captive neonatal warthog piglets, especially if they are reared on concrete. PMID:12515305

Kenny, D E; Braselton, W E; Taylor, R A; Morgan, T; Hesky, R B

2002-09-01

14

Antibody to porcine parvovirus in warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus).  

PubMed

Haemagglutination inhibiting antibody to porcine parvovirus was shown to be widespread in all but one of the warthog populations sampled from South Africa and Zimbabwe Rhodesia. In some instances titres as high as greater than or equal to 1/20 000 were detected. PMID:7454234

Thomson, G R; Peenze, I

1980-03-01

15

Suspected cervical spinal cord vascular anomaly in an African warthog (Phacochoerus africanus).  

PubMed

Vascular myelopathies of the spinal cord have not been described in Suidae, and are a rare finding in companion animals. An 8.5-yr female African warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) presented with an acute onset of tetraparesis. Based on neurologic findings, a cervical spinal cord lesion between C7-T2 was suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed severe intramedullary hemorrhage with suspected abnormal vessels in the spinal cord at the level of the seventh cervical vertebrae. The acute onset of clinical signs and rapid deterioration of neurological status precluded surgical managements. A vascular anomaly was suspected on gross pathology and histology. Immunohistochemistry identified the lesion as a spontaneous intramedullary hematoma. Spontaneous intramedullary hematomyelia should be considered as a differential for acute onset of paresis in suid species. PMID:17319141

Whiteside, Douglas P; Shury, Todd K; Black, Sandra R; Raverty, Stephen

2006-09-01

16

The prevalence of helminth and arthropod parasites of warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus, in South West Africa/Namibia.  

PubMed

A total of 38 warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus, shot on a farm in northern South West Africa/Namibia were examined for internal and external parasites at monthly intervals over a period of 13 months. They harboured cestodes, 9 nematode species, 6 ixodid tick species and 1 species each of an argasid tick, a flea, a louse and larvae of a dipteran fly. Clear patterns of seasonal abundance could be determined only for the spirurid stomach worm, Physocephalus sexalatus, and the sucking louse, Haematopinus phachoeri. PMID:6634088

Horak, I G; Biggs, H C; Hanssen, T S; Hanssen, R E

1983-06-01

17

Parasites of South African wildlife. V. A. description of the males of Oesophagostomum mocambiquei Ortlepp, 1964 from warthogs, Phacochoerus aethiopicus (Pallas, 1766).  

PubMed

Oesophagostomum mocambiquei Ortlepp, 1964 was described from 9 females recovered from a warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus (Pallas, 1766), from northern Mozambique. Large numbers of O. mocambiquei were recovered during subsequent surveys of the parasites of warthogs from the Kruger National Park and the Hoedspruit Nature Reserve. The males, which have not yet been described, resemble those of Oesophagostomum santosdiasi Ortlepp, 1964 in the principal measurements. They can, however, be differentiated by the shape of the mouth capsule, which is round in O. mocambiquei and oval in O. santosdiasi. A simplified key for the identification of the Oesophagostomum species that occur in warthogs in South Africa and Namibia is provided and the differences between them tabulated. The names Oesophagostomum moçambiquei and Oesophagostomum santos-diasi are corrected to O. mocambiquei and O. santosdiasi respectively, since diacritic marks are not allowed under the Code of International Zoological Nomenclature. PMID:2234863

Boomker, J

1990-09-01

18

Sarcocystis dubeyella n. sp. and Sarcocystis phacochoeri n. sp. (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) from the warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) in South Africa.  

PubMed

Sarcocystis dubeyella n. sp. and S. phacochoeri n. sp. from muscle fibers of the skeletal musculature of two warthogs in South Africa are described by light and and electron microscopy. Sarcocystis dubeyella sarcocysts are macroscopic (up to 12 mm long and 1 mm wide), with a parasite-induced encapsulation of the host muscle fiber in which the plasma membrane of the latter remained unaltered. The sarcocyst wall is characterized by evenly arranged, irregularly semicircular or rectangular villar protrusions (5.0 x 2.8-11.0 microns) with indented margins and no specific content. Sarcocystis phacochoeri formed filiform microcysts (up to 4 mm long and 0.13 mm wide). Its cyst wall is provided with tightly packed, molarlike villar protrusions (1.6-3.3 x 1.7-3.3 microns), with smooth margins, hollow on one side, and with longitudinal condensations of the fine granular matrix at various locations in the interior. PMID:9495038

Stolte, M; Odening, K; Quandt, S; Bengis, R G; Bockhardt, I

1998-01-01

19

Habitat use of warthogs on a former cattle ranch in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated habitat use of the common warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) on a large, recently abandoned ranch in Tanzania. Fifty years of ranching had heavily modified the savanna vegetation, especially close to the paddocks where cattle were kept overnight. We recognized 4 characteristic vegetation zones along transects radiating from these paddocks: paddock center (PC), paddock margin (PM), acacia scrub (AS), and

ANNA C. TREYDTE; STEPHANIE A. HALSDORF; EWALD WEBER; PETER J. EDWARDS

2006-01-01

20

Attempted artificaial infection or impala, blue wildebeest, buffalo, kudu, giraffe and warthog with heartwater.  

PubMed

Intravenous injection of Cowdria ruminantium infected blood produced no sings of disease in four impala, Aepyceros melampus; three blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus; a buffalo, Syncerus caffer; a kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros; a giraffe. Giraffa camelopardalis and a warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus. a control sheep injected with the same blood reacted severely and showed typical lesions of heartwater at autopsy. PMID:994140

Gradwell, D V; Van Niekerk, C A; Joubert, D C

1976-09-01

21

Rainfall extremes explain interannual shifts in timing and synchrony of calving in topi and warthog  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that ungulates time and synchronize births to match gestation and lactation with peak food availability\\u000a and quality in seasonal environments, using ground counts of topi and warthog conducted over 174 months (July 1989–December\\u000a 2003) in the Mara–Serengeti ecosystem. During this 15-year period, 2,725 newborn and 45,574 adult female topi and 933 newborn\\u000a and 7,831 adult warthogs were

Joseph O. Ogutu; Hans-Peter Piepho; Holly T. Dublin; Nina Bhola; Robin S. Reid

2010-01-01

22

The Developmental Role of warthog, the Notch Modifier Encoding Drab6  

PubMed Central

The warthog (wrt) gene, recovered as a modifier for Notch signaling, was found to encode the Drosophila homologue of rab6, Drab6. Vertebrate and yeast homologues of this protein have been shown to regulate Golgi network to TGN trafficking. To study the function of this protein in the development of a multicellular organism, we analyzed three different warthog mutants. The first was an R62C point mutation, the second a genomic null, and the third was an engineered GTP-bound form. Our studies show, contrary to yeast, that the Drosophila homologue of rab6 is an essential gene. However, it has limited effects on development beyond the larval stage. Only the mechanosensory bristles on the head, notum, and scutellum are affected by warthog mutations. We present models for the modifying effect of Drab6 on Notch signaling. PMID:10459009

Purcell, Karen; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Spyros

1999-01-01

23

The developmental role of warthog, the notch modifier encoding Drab6.  

PubMed

The warthog (wrt) gene, recovered as a modifier for Notch signaling, was found to encode the Drosophila homologue of rab6, Drab6. Vertebrate and yeast homologues of this protein have been shown to regulate Golgi network to TGN trafficking. To study the function of this protein in the development of a multicellular organism, we analyzed three different warthog mutants. The first was an R62C point mutation, the second a genomic null, and the third was an engineered GTP-bound form. Our studies show, contrary to yeast, that the Drosophila homologue of rab6 is an essential gene. However, it has limited effects on development beyond the larval stage. Only the mechanosensory bristles on the head, notum, and scutellum are affected by warthog mutations. We present models for the modifying effect of Drab6 on Notch signaling. PMID:10459009

Purcell, K; Artavanis-Tsakonas, S

1999-08-23

24

Experimental infection of warthos (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) with African swine fever virus.  

PubMed

Although there were no obvious signs of illness following experimental infection of young warthog with African swine fever virus, the animals developed viraemias between 10(2,4) and 10(3,6) HD50/ml within the first week of infection, and virus concentrations in a number of lymphatic tissues attained high levels (greater than or equal to 10(6) HD50/g). Unlike in blood, and to some extent in the spleen, virus titres in lymph nodes did not decline appreciable during the 33-day observation period, since at the end of the period lymphatic tissues from 2 warthog were still infectious for domestic pigs to which these tissues were fed. PMID:7454231

Thomson, G R; Gainaru, M D; Van Dellen, A F

1980-03-01

25

The Developmental Role of warthog, the Notch Modifier Encoding Drab6  

Microsoft Academic Search

The warthog ( wrt ) gene, recovered as a modi- fier for Notch signaling, was found to encode the Drosophila homologue of rab6, Drab6. Vertebrate and yeast homologues of this protein have been shown to regulate Golgi network to TGN trafficking. To study the function of this protein in the development of a multi- cellular organism, we analyzed three different

Karen Purcell; Spyros Artavanis-Tsakonas

1999-01-01

26

Genetic diversity of African swine fever virus isolates from soft ticks (Ornithodoros moubata) inhabiting warthog burrows in Zambia.  

PubMed

The genomes of African swine fever virus isolates collected from soft ticks (Ornithodoros moubata) inhabiting warthog burrows in four areas of Zambia were compared by restriction enzyme site mapping. Isolates from different areas showed considerable diversity. The regions of genomes that differed between isolates were distributed throughout the virus genome, although some more conserved regions were identified, such as the right-hand third of the genome. The genomes of seven isolates from neighbouring warthog burrows within Livingstone Game Park in southern Zambia were more similar to each other than those from different areas. However, a number of differences were observed even between the genomes of isolates from the same warthog burrow. The variation between these latter isolates probably resulted from point mutations located at various positions along the genome, in addition to small additions or deletions at both terminal regions. Restriction enzyme site mapping indicated that one isolate may have originated by earlier recombination between two distinguishable viruses. PMID:3199101

Dixon, L K; Wilkinson, P J

1988-12-01

27

Genetic Diversity of African Swine Fever Virus Isolates from Soft Ticks (Ornithodoros moubata) Inhabiting Warthog Burrows in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The genomes of African swine fever virus isolates collected from soft ticks (Ornithodoros moubata) inhabiting warthog burrows in four areas of Zambia were compared by restriction enzyme site mapping. Isolates from different areas showed considerable diversity. The regions of genomes that differed between isolates were distributed throughout the virus genome, although some more conserved regions were identified, such as

LINDA K. DIXON; PHILIP J. WILKINSON

1988-01-01

28

African swine fever viruses with two different genotypes, both of which occur in domestic pigs, are associated with ticks and adult warthogs, respectively, at a single geographical site.  

PubMed

The role of the ancestral sylvatic cycle of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) is not well understood in the endemic areas of eastern Africa. We therefore analysed the ASF infection status on samples collected from 51 free-ranging warthogs (Phacocherus africanus) and 1576 Ornithodorus porcinus ticks from 26 independent warthog burrows at a single ranch in Kenya. Abattoir samples from 83 domestic pigs without clinical symptoms, originating from specific locations with no recent reported ASF outbreaks were included in this study. All samples were derived from areas of central Kenya, where ASF outbreaks have been reported in the past. Infection with ASFV was confirmed in 22?% of O. porcinus pools, 3.22?% of adult warthog serum samples and 49?% of domestic pig serum samples by using p72-based PCR. All of the warthog sera were positive for anti-ASFV antibodies, investigated by using ELISA, but none of the domestic pig sera were positive. Twenty O. porcinus-, 12 domestic pig- and three warthog-derived viruses were genotyped at four polymorphic loci. The ASFV isolates from ticks and domestic pigs clustered within p72 genotype X. By contrast, ASF viruses genotyped directly from warthog sera, at same locality as the tick isolates, were within p72 genotype IX and genetically similar to viruses causing recent ASF outbreaks in Kenya and Uganda. This represents the first report of the co-existence of different ASFV genotypes in warthog burrow-associated ticks and adult wild warthogs. The data from this and earlier studies suggest transfer of viruses of at least two different p72 genotypes, from wild to domestic pigs in East Africa. PMID:20965989

Gallardo, Carmina; Okoth, Edward; Pelayo, Virginia; Anchuelo, Raquel; Martín, Elena; Simón, Alicia; Llorente, Alicia; Nieto, Raquel; Soler, Alejandro; Martín, Raquel; Arias, Marisa; Bishop, Richard P

2011-02-01

29

Tuberculosis in wildlife in the Ruwenzori National Park, Uganda (Part II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of post-mortem examinations of 90 warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) conducted in the Ruwenzori National Park, Uganda during a survey of tuberculous infection in wildlife are described. Nine per cent of warthog were found to show gross lesions on autopsy and of these organisms which could by typed,Mycobacterium bovis was isolated in 2 of 6 cases and 5 atypical mycobacterial

M. H. Woodford

1982-01-01

30

Serum Magnesium and Zinc Status of Wild Ungulates in the Swaziland Lowveld  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) were measured in 179 impala (Aepyceros melampus), 13 warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), 6 kudu (Tragelaphu strepsiceros), 4 grey duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia) and 3 blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) from the Mlawula- Mbuluzi-Simunye Nature Reserve and Protected Area complex in the northeastern Swaziland lowveld from October 1985 to September 1986. Serum Mg was higher in the small

Gordon J. Gallivan; J. Culverwel; R. Girdwood

31

African swine fever virus infection of the bushpig ( Potamochoerus porcus) and its significance in the epidemiology of the disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), giant forest hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni) and bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) are known to be susceptible to infection with African swine fever (ASF) virus. Little however, is known about the ecology of the disease in the bushpig. This study has shown that the bushpig remains viraemic for between 35 and 91 days following infection during which time it is

E. C Anderson; G. H Hutchings; N Mukarati; P. J Wilkinson

1998-01-01

32

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

33

Comparative digestion studies in wild suids at Rotterdam Zoo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Among the artiodactyla, the suids are a group whose digestive physiology has hardly been investigated. The apparent,digestibilities,(aD) of macronutrients were measured,in captive,specimens,of warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), and Visayan warty pigs (Sus cebifrons), and compared with those reported for babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) from the same facility on a similar diet. The animals were fed mixed diets

Marcus Clauss; Joeke Nijboer; Jochem H. M. Loermans; Thomas Roth; Jan Van der Kuilen; Anton C. Beynen

2008-01-01

34

Common cold  

MedlinePLUS

The common cold usually causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. You may also have a sore throat, cough, ... It is called the “common cold” for good reason. There are over one billion colds in the United States each year. You and your children will ...

35

Common Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

36

Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides comprehensive information, selected by medical doctors, about the common cold. "The goal is to provide a framework for critical thinking which will allow informed decisions about medical care for the common cold." The section entitled Understanding Colds gives a detailed overview of how the cold virus invades the human body and how cold symptoms are caused. Information about preventing colds, and some of the complications that can occur are also included. The Special Features section includes one of the most interesting parts of the site -- Myths of the Common Cold. This site should be interesting to almost anyone, but perhaps more so for those of us who have recently had a cold.

37

Common Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents K-12 and college common areas considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

38

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... en español] National Library of Medicine, Medline Plus Common Cold Skip Content Marketing Share this: JavaScript is disabled in your browser. To view this content, please enable JavaScript and refresh the page. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. ...

39

Common Chuckwalla  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Common Chuckwalla is primarily found across the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the United States and Mexico, at elevations ranging from sea level to 1,370 m. This large (125–180 mm) lizard is dorsoventrally flattened and has wrinkles on its belly and neck. Chuckwallas are strongly associa...

40

COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS  

E-print Network

Children with sexual behavior problems (SBPs) are children 12 years and under who demonstrate developmentally inappropriate or aggressive sexual behavior. This definition includes self-focused sexual behavior, such as excessive masturbation, and aggressive sexual behavior towards others that may include coercion or force. Recognizing these children and understanding the causes, impact, and treatment of the sexual behavior problems is a relatively new area of research and clinical practice. Some early assumptions about children with SBPs have not been supported by current research. This Fact Sheet will examine common misconceptions of children with SBPs along with the most recent findings.

unknown authors

41

Novel herpesviruses of Suidae: indicators for a second genogroup of artiodactyl gammaherpesviruses.  

PubMed

Five novel herpesviruses were identified in suid species from Africa (common warthog, Phacochoerus africanus) and South-East Asia (bearded pig, Sus barbatus; babirusa, Babyrousa babyrussa) by detection and analysis of their DNA polymerase genes. Three of the novel species, P. africanus cytomegalovirus 1, P. africanus lymphotropic herpesvirus 1 (PafrLHV-1) and S. barbatus lymphotropic herpesvirus 1 (SbarLHV-1), were closely related to known beta- (porcine cytomegalovirus) and gammaherpesviruses [porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus (PLHV) 1 and 3] of domestic pigs. In contrast, two novel species, S. barbatus rhadinovirus 1 (SbarRHV-1) and Babyrousa babyrussa rhadinovirus 1 (BbabRHV-1), were more closely related to a ruminant gammaherpesvirus, bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4), than to the porcine gammaherpesviruses PLHV-1, -2, -3, PafrLHV-1 and SbarLHV-1. SbarRHV-1, BbabRHV-1 and BoHV-4 were therefore tentatively assigned to a novel genogroup of artiodactyl gammaherpesviruses. This latter genogroup may also contain an as yet undiscovered gammaherpesvirus of domestic pigs, thereby adding a concern to their use in xenotransplantation. PMID:15039528

Ehlers, Bernhard; Lowden, Stewart

2004-04-01

42

Common Waste and Materials  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Wastes Resource Conservation Common Wastes & Materials Common Waste and Materials Related Links Universal Waste Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines (CPG) Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) ...

43

Common sense representations of common illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 320 undergraduates provide evidence that common sense representations of common illnesses involve 5 components: (1) a label, (2) consequences, (3) a time line, (4) a cause, and (5) a cure. The content of schemas for a person's most recent illness is shown to have small but significant effects on changes in health locus of control beliefs but not

Richard R. Lau; Karen A. Hartman

1983-01-01

44

The New Common School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Horace Mann's goal of creating a common school that brings our society's children together in mutual respect and common learning need not be frustrated by residential segregation and geographical separation of the haves and have-nots. Massachusetts' new common school vision boasts a Metro Program for minority students, 80 magnet schools, and…

Glenn, Charles L.

1987-01-01

45

The Common Style of  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraordinary impact of Thomas Paine's Common Sense has often been attributed to its style — to the simplicity and forcefulness with which Paine expressed ideas that many others before him had expressed. Comparative analysis of Common Sense and other pre-Revolutionary pamphlets suggests that Common Sense was indeed stylistically unique; no other pamphleteer came close to matching Paine's combination of

Lee Sigelman; Colin Martindale; Dean McKenzie

1996-01-01

46

Canonical Commonality Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor variable. This paper outlines…

Leister, K. Dawn

47

How Common Is the Common Core?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

2014-01-01

48

Tuberculosis in wildlife in the Ruwenzori National Park, Uganda (Part II).  

PubMed

The results of post-mortem examinations of 90 warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) conducted in the Ruwenzori National Park, Uganda during a survey of tuberculous infection in wildlife are described. Nine per cent of warthog were found to show gross lesions on autopsy and of these organisms which could by typed, Mycobacterium bovis was isolated in 2 of 6 cases and 5 atypical mycobacterial strains were isolated from the remaining 4. The distribution and character of the lesions is described and it is concluded that the route of infection in the warthog is alimentary. A mycobacterial survey of 8 other species of mammals, 7 species of birds, 5 species of fish and 1 species of amphibian is described. None of the mammals (except possibly 1 elephant), birds, fish or amphibia is described. None of the mammals (except possibly 1 elephant), birds, fish or amphibia was found to be infected with M. bovis but several individuals were found to harbour atypical, probably saprophytic, mycobacterial types. The origin of tuberculosis in buffalo and warthog in the Ruwenzori National Park is discussed and is concluded to have been previous contact with domestic cattle. PMID:7123664

Woodford, M H

1982-08-01

49

Common sense treatment for common lipid disorders.  

PubMed

Dyslipidemia is a common, major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Screening for lipid disorders is simple, and available treatments decrease disease risk. However, secondary causes of dyslipidemia are probably underappreciated, and severe lipid elevations should be referred to a lipid specialist. Patients usually respond to lifestyle modifications and drug therapy guided by a stepwise approach supported by the results of clinical trials, but several misconceptions may interfere with treatment strategies. PMID:21568232

Johnson, Mariko; Semenkovich, Clay F

2011-01-01

50

Radiomarked Common Loon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A juvenile common loon wearing a satellite transmitter antenna follows an adult. USGS scientists and partners captured and radiomarked juvenile common loons on lakes scattered across Minnesota and Wisconsin during the last two weeks of August 2014 to track their movements and wintering ground...

51

Scientist Releases Common Loon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As part of a cooperative project, scientists with the USGS and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources tagged common loons in north central Wisconsin to study the distribution and migration movements, as well as foraging patterns and depth profiles of common loons equipped with archiv...

52

Psychology and common sense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the nature of the relationship between psychology and common sense. It is postulated that common sense may be categorized in 3 ways: (a) as a set of shared fundamental assumptions, (b) as a set of maxims or shared beliefs, and (c) as a shared way of thinking. It is argued that psychology has and should have a different relationship

Garth J. Fletcher

1984-01-01

53

Prebreeding in Common Bean  

E-print Network

Prebreeding in Common Bean and Use of Genetic Diversity from Wild Germplasm JORGE A. ACOSTA to human welfare with five cultigens domesticated in pre-Columbian times: the common bean (P. vulgaris number of its species is found in Mesoamerica (Del- gado-Salinas, 1985; Freytag and Debouck, 2002). Among

Gepts, Paul

54

Restorative Commons: Creating Health  

E-print Network

#12; Cover Photo: New York City Housing Authority community garden, MarlboroRestorative Commons: Creating Health and Well-being through Urban Landscapes Edited by Lindsay;#12;Restorative Commons: Creating Health and Well-being through Urban Landscapes Edited by Lindsay Campbell

55

NSDL Math Common Core  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NSDL Math Common Core collection provides quick and easy access to high-quality math resources that have been related to one or more standard statements within the Math Common Core. These resources are selected from the larger NSDL collection and other trusted providers, and organized by grade level and domain area.

2010-08-10

56

Campus Common Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the legal principle of common law as it applies to the personnel policies of colleges and universities in an attempt to define the parameters of campus common law and to clarify its relationship to written university policies and relevant state laws. (JG)

Bakken, Gordon Morris

1976-01-01

57

A questionnaire-based evaluation of the veterinary cordon fence separating wildlife and livestock along the boundary of the Kruger National Park, South Africa.  

PubMed

Veterinary cordon fences are used in Southern Africa to separate wildlife from domestic animals in order to prevent transmission of infectious diseases. Such fences are a control method recognized by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) for establishing disease-free zones in beef exporting countries. However, few studies have evaluated the ecological impact of these physical barriers or their effectiveness at a multispecies level. We examined the permeability of one such barrier, along 357 km of the western and southern boundary of the Kruger National Park (KNP) during 2007. Information was gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire implemented among 32 teams of fence maintenance workers. Data were analyzed to identify (a) the main causes of fence damage, (b) the seasonality, location and duration of fence repairs, (c) high permeability areas for elephant (Loxodonta africana), kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), impala (Aepyceros melampus), buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), and (d) the influence of fence electrification, rivers and elephant damage on the frequency of observation of wildlife species outside the KNP estimated during the year. Human and elephant damage were the most common reasons for fence repairs. Elephant and buffalo were the most and least common large mammal species reported observed outside the KNP (1076 and 162 reports/year), respectively. Cattle incursions into the KNP were also reported in 44% of the fence sections. Electrification of the fence was an important factor explaining differences in estimated wildlife species observations outside the KNP during the year. Correlations between estimations of observed species suggested that fence gaps created by elephants might be used by the other wildlife species. Estimated annual counts of kudu, impala and buffalo, but not warthog, were found to correlate with elephant observations. Negative binomial regression models were developed to explore the relationships between observed estimations of different wildlife species outside the KNP the fence, electrification of fence sections and the presence of watercourses, suggesting that kudu, impala and buffalo could use elephant induced fence damage to leave the KNP. The questionnaire was able to evaluate fence integrity and identify sections where integrity was sub-optimal for separating wildlife from domestic livestock species. If combined with more quantitative methods and applied on a routine basis, it could provide an efficient and cost-effective method for monitoring the effectiveness of physical barriers to contain wildlife within protected areas such as is the case with veterinary cordon fences in Southern Africa. PMID:21536336

Jori, F; Brahmbhatt, D; Fosgate, G T; Thompson, P N; Budke, C; Ward, M P; Ferguson, K; Gummow, B

2011-07-01

58

Let's Not Let the Number of Warthogs Be "X."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of how to integrate information technology in the teaching/learning environment remains strongly associated with the use of the computer as a tool. While technology based tools such as Logo have been advocated for problem solvers at the elementary level, spreadsheets have a great deal of potential for use at both the junior and senior…

Wright, Peter

59

Common Foot Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... are an area of thickened skin caused by friction and pressure. Juvenile plantar dermatosis occurs in children ... occurs in response to excessive, repeated shear or friction forces, commonly due to constant rubbing of the ...

60

Common Carrier Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

61

Common NICU Equipment  

MedlinePLUS

... dashboard . Common NICU equipment The NICU contains many machines and other types of equipment used to care for sick babies with many different problems. These machines seem less intimidating when you understand how they ...

62

Ten Common NWP Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module introduces forecasters to ten of the most commonly encountered or significant misconceptions about NWP models. This list of ten misconceptions includes issues surrounding data assimilation, model resolution, physical parameterizations, and post-processing of model forecast output.

Comet

2002-05-02

63

Metabolism - Common Metabolism Concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explains how solar energy is the energy source for almost all living systems on earth. Photosynthesis, catabolic reactions, and anabolic reactions are briefly discussed. Lastly, common questions are answered about converting food to energy.

64

COMMONING AND COMMON INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND ECOLOGICAL  

E-print Network

1 COMMONING AND COMMON INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY Claudio and social equity are among the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals - but, unfortunately proposes Commoning and Common Information Systems as a possible tentative to facilitate the inclusion

Boyer, Edmond

65

Rosacea: A Common, Yet Commonly Overlooked, Condition  

E-print Network

Rosacea is a common, but often overlooked, skin condition of uncertain etiology that can lead to significant facial disfigurement, ocular complications, and severe emotional distress. The progression of rosacea is variable; however, typical stages include: (1) facial flushing, (2) erythema and/or edema and ocular symptoms, (3) papules and pustules, and (4) rhinophyma. A history of exacerbation by sun exposure, stress, cold weather, hot beverages, alcohol consumption, or certain foods helps determine the diagnosis; the first line of treatment is avoidance of these triggering or exacerbating factors. Most patients respond well to long-term topical antibiotic treatment. Oral or topical retinoid therapy may also be effective. Laser treatment is an option for progressive telangiectasis or rhinophyma. Family physicians should be able to identify and effectively treat the majority of patients with rosacea. Consultation with subspecialists may be required for the management of rhinophyma, ocular complications, or severe disease. (Am Fam Physician 2002;66:435-40,442. Copyright © 2002 American Academy of Family Physicians.) O A patient information handout on

B. Wayne Blount; Allen L. Pelletier

66

Common Cause Failure Modes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

2011-01-01

67

The Federal Commons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1999, the Federal Financial Assistance Management Improvement Act was passed in order to force the development of federal electronic grant processing. A result of the legislation, the Federal Commons portal gives "grantees (state and local governments, universities, small businesses, etc.) full service grants processing across all functions in the grant life cycle." While providing only an entrance to various grant institutions and services, the Federal Commons helps to eliminate the maze-like trail that multi-grant projects sometimes must travel to get to grant proposal Web sites. Most physical sciences researchers will find relevant federal departments listed under the Science and Technology link.

68

Common Carrier Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

69

Solving Common Mathematical Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

Luz, Paul L.

2005-01-01

70

The Common Denominator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An author and a poet Nikki Grimes uses her art to reach across differences such as race and culture, and show the commonality of human experience. She uses the power of her poetry to break down racial barriers, shatter cultural stereotypes, and forge community.

Grimes, Nikki

2005-01-01

71

Subtraction with Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers can use this interactive tool to help students build a conceptual understanding of subtracting fractions with common denominators by linking visual models to procedures. The page includes a video demonstration of the tool. Free registration is required to use the tool. A paid subscription is necessary to access curriculum materials and allow full student use.

2011-01-01

72

Space station commonality analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

1988-01-01

73

Common Standards for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

Principal, 2010

2010-01-01

74

Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

Olson, Mark

2013-01-01

75

Discovering Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use pattern blocks to represent fractions with unlike denominators. Students discover that they need to convert all the pattern blocks to the same shape in order to add them. Therefore, they find and use common denominators for the addition of fractions.

Kloper, Adam

2012-07-22

76

Information Commons to Go  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

Bayer, Marc Dewey

2008-01-01

77

COMMON CABBAGE VARIETAL TRIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven common cabbage varieties from 6 different seed companies were evaluated for their yield and other agronomic characters in order to select the good cabbage varieties that have high and stable yield, early and uniform maturity and resistant to soft rot, black rot and mosaic virus diseases. The experiment was conducted from November 23, 1989 to February 12, 1990 in

NGUYEN VAN EM

78

Common Hair Loss Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, close attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a

KARYN SPRINGER; MATTHEW BROWN; DANIEL L. STULBERG

2003-01-01

79

Where Are the Commonalities Among the Therapeutic Common Factors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little convergence or empirical research on factors shared by diverse psychotherapies. We reviewed 50 publications to discern commonalities among proposed therapeutic common factors. The number of factors per publication ranged from 1 to 20, with 89 different commonalities proposed in all. Analyses revealed that 41% of proposed commonalities were change processes; by contrast, only 6% of articulated commonalities

Lisa M. Grencavage; John C. Norcross

1990-01-01

80

The Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When winter rolls around and we begin to spend more time indoors, the common cold becomes an unfortunate reality for many of us. But for something as common as the cold, misconceptions about it are remarkably common as well. The following collection of Web sites provides an in-depth look at the cold and the cold virus.The first site (1) comes from the Common Cold Care Center of Cardiff University in Wales, and offers a thorough and highly readable introduction to the common cold, including sections on conventional and alternative cold medications. Readers can brush up on their basic virology with the next Web site from HowStuffWorks to get a clear, general idea of how the cold virus infects the body (2). This site also explains why antibiotics have no effect on a virus, and includes numerous hypertext links to related HowStuffWorks Web pages. KidsHealth for Parents, a service of the Nemours Foundation, provides a straightforward guide to the symptoms of cold vs. flu, while also offering information on flu treatment options (3). The next Web site, from University of Guelph, contains an easy-to-understand comparison of bacteria and viruses (4). Readers can learn more about rhinoviruses, the family of viruses which account for about one-third of all colds, in the following Web site from the University of South Carolina's Microbiology and Immunology Online (5). The next Web site offers visitors a close-up look at human rhinovirus 14 with over a dozen 3-D images and movies from the University of Wisconsin-Madison Bock Laboratory (6). The following site describes the findings, as detailed in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, of a Purdue University research team that has analyzed on an atomic scale the structure of the cellular receptor that binds cold-causing viruses (7). And finally, find out about common cold clinical trials with ClinicalTrial.gov, a service of the National Institutes of Health (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

81

Common spider bites.  

PubMed

There are more than 30,000 species of spiders, most of which cannot inflict serious bites to humans because of their delicate mouthparts and impotent or prey-specific venoms. However, some spiders produce toxic venoms that can cause skin lesions, systemic illnesses, and neurotoxicity. One of the more common bites is inflicted by the widow spiders (Latrodectus species). A bite from a widow spider results in muscle spasms and rigidity starting at the bite site within 30 minutes to two hours. Another common bite is inflicted by the recluse spider (Loxosceles species). Most bites from these spiders occur early in the morning and are initially painless. These bites usually progress to ulcerating dermonecrosis at the bite site. Spider bites can be prevented by simple measures. Early species identification and specific management can prevent most serious sequelae of spider bites. PMID:17390599

Diaz, James H; Leblanc, Kim Edward

2007-03-15

82

Common Compound Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database, part of a college-level chemistry course, provides information on hundreds of compounds, elements, and substances encountered in introductory chemistry courses and in everyday life. The informaion includes chemical synonyms, molecular weights, structures, equilibrium constants, thermodynamic properties, and common uses, with properties presented in a variety of common units. Structure information includes flat structural formulas, ball and stick models, electron density/electric potential maps, and Chime "live" structures that can be rotated and queried for bond lengths, bond angles, and torsion angles. The site also includes links to the course website, a glossary, a frequently-asked-questions feature, information on sources used in constructing the database, and many other resources.

Frederick A. Senese

83

Common tester platform concept.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

Hurst, Michael James

2008-05-01

84

Common Anorectal Disorders  

PubMed Central

Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

2014-01-01

85

Common drive unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

1987-01-01

86

Common anorectal disorders.  

PubMed

Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E; Umar, Sarah B; Crowell, Michael D

2014-05-01

87

Common variable immunodeficiency.  

PubMed

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVI) is a heterogeneous immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infections, and a variety of immunological abnormalities. In addition to recurrent infections, patients with this syndrome also suffer from an increased incidence of autoimmune disease and malignancy. Because the spectrum of associated diseases is broad, patients with CVI are seen by a variety of medical specialists. In this review, the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of CVI are discussed. PMID:11202479

Sneller, M C

2001-01-01

88

Common gynecologic infections.  

PubMed

Many women seek care for vulvar, vaginal, or pelvic complaints. Primary care providers should possess a solid understanding of the differential diagnosis and treatment of gynecologic infections. Many infections in the reproductive tract are sexually transmitted, whereas other common infections are attributable to an overgrowth of the normally present bacteria or yeast in the vagina. Presenting symptoms and signs are helpful in determining the source of infection, but often a battery of tests must be performed to make a definitive diagnosis. PMID:19231601

Biggs, Wendy S; Williams, Rachel M

2009-03-01

89

Boston University Digital Common  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boston University has a range of scholars, from those who research the hospitality field to others who are fascinated by the world of photonics. The University's Digital Common Repository contains thousands of documents and publications that span this wide range, authored or co-authored by BU faculty, students, and staff. The different communities here are divided into sections that include College of Arts and Sciences, Centers & Institutes, and Metropolitan College. Visitors will find religious sermons, pieces of music, working economics papers, and a vast cornucopia of other materials. Also, visitors are encouraged to use the Browse feature to look for documents by title, subject, author, or date.

90

Asteraceae (Aster family) Common ragweed  

E-print Network

Asteraceae (Aster family) Common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Common ragweed seedling. Life. psilostachya DC.) Differs by having a perennial nature with prolific creeping roots, densely hairy leaves

91

Common Polymorphisms in Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

A wide variety of diseases have a significant genetic component, including major causes of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Many of these diseases are also angiogenesis dependent. In humans, common polymorphisms, although more subtle in effect than rare mutations that cause Mendelian disease, are expected to have greater overall effects on human disease. Thus, common polymorphisms in angiogenesis-regulating genes may affect the response to an angiogenic stimulus and thereby affect susceptibility to or progression of such diseases. Candidate gene studies have identified several associations between angiogenesis gene polymorphisms and disease. Similarly, emerging pharmacogenomic evidence indicates that several angiogenesis-regulating polymorphisms may predict response to therapy. In contrast, genome-wide association studies have identified only a few risk alleles in obvious angiogenesis genes. As in other traits, regulatory polymorphisms appear to dominate the landscape of angiogenic responsiveness. Rodent assays, including the mouse corneal micropocket assay, tumor models, and a macular degeneration model have allowed the identification and comparison of loci that directly affect the trait. Complementarity between human and animal approaches will allow increased understanding of the genetic basis for angiogenesis-dependent disease. PMID:23125197

Rogers, Michael S.; D’Amato, Robert J.

2012-01-01

92

Common pediatric epilepsy syndromes.  

PubMed

Benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE), childhood idiopathic occipital epilepsy (CIOE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are some of the common epilepsy syndromes in the pediatric age group. Among the four, BRE is the most commonly encountered. BRE remits by age 16 years with many children requiring no treatment. Seizures in CAE also remit at the rate of approximately 80%; whereas, JME is considered a lifelong condition even with the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Neonates and infants may also present with seizures that are self-limited with no associated psychomotor disturbances. Benign familial neonatal convulsions caused by a channelopathy, and inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, have a favorable outcome with spontaneous resolution. Benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, also referred to as "fifth-day fits," are an example of another epilepsy syndrome in infants that carries a good prognosis. BRE, CIOE, benign familial neonatal convulsions, benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, and benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy are characterized as "benign" idiopathic age-related epilepsies as they have favorable implications, no structural brain abnormality, are sensitive to AEDs, have a high remission rate, and have no associated psychomotor disturbances. However, sometimes selected patients may have associated comorbidities such as cognitive and language delay for which the term "benign" may not be appropriate. [Pediatr Ann. 2015;44(2):e30-e35.]. PMID:25658216

Park, Jun T; Shahid, Asim M; Jammoul, Adham

2015-02-01

93

National PTA Common Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US National Parents and Teachers Association, in conjunction with GTE Corporation, furnishes this site, an information hub for the promotion of drug- and alcohol-free children. Presently, the site is divided into three sections of both serious and fun activities. The Parent's Center consists of interactive quizzes and tip sheets related to developing drug awareness, being a role model, and getting involved in your kids' activities. Visitors to the Family Room will find activities to help kids with their self-esteem, as well as teach them drug-awareness. Family games, quizzes, and cartoons are also available. Help and Hotlines points to organizations that can provide further support and information (links are provided), as well as books and videos. Finally, the site includes an interactive poll, several bulletin boards (registration required), and information for PTA leaders, highlighted by a library of resources to help spread the common sense message.

94

CPL: Common Pipeline Library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules (using programs such as EsoRex).

ESO CPL Development Team

2014-02-01

95

Common herbal remedies.  

PubMed

Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular as people seek more effective, natural, or safer methods for treating a variety of complaints. As a result, nurses in every setting may expect to see increased numbers of patients who are using herbal products. When patients assume that the nurses will be critical of their use of herbals, they may withhold such information to avoid unpleasantness. This could place patients at risk for adverse effects, drug interactions, and complications related to ineffective treatment. Nurses who are knowledgeable about herbal products and who are open to discussion about these products can provide information and advice about safe use. The discussion in this article addresses actions, possible benefits, and dangers of the most common herbal products. Guidelines for assessing and teaching clients about herbal use are included. PMID:11062629

Turkoski, B B

2000-01-01

96

Mapping Common Psychiatric Disorders  

PubMed Central

Context Clinical experience and factor analytic studies suggest that some psychiatric disorders may be more closely related to one another, as indicated by the frequency of their co-occurrence, which may have etiologic and treatment implications. Objective To construct a virtual space of common psychiatric disorders, spanned by factors reflecting major psychopathologic dimensions, and locate psychiatric disorders in that space, as well as to examine whether the location of disorders at baseline predicts the prevalence and incidence of disorders at 3-year follow-up. Design, Setting, and Patients A total of 34 653 individuals participated in waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Main Outcome Measures The distance between disorders at wave 1, calculated using the loadings of the factors spanning the space of disorders as coordinates. This distance was correlated with the adjusted odds ratios for age, sex, and race/ethnicity of the prevalence and incidence of Axis I disorders in wave 2, with the aim of determining whether smaller distances between disorders at wave 1 predicts higher disorder prevalence and incidence at wave 2. Results A model with 3 correlated factors provided an excellent fit (Comparative Fit Index = 0.99, Tucker-Lewis Index=0.98, root mean square error of approximation=0.008) for the structure of common psychiatric disorders and was used to span the space of disorders. Distances ranged from 0.070 (between drug abuse and dysthymia) to 1.032 (between drug abuse and avoidant personality disorder). The correlation of distance between disorders in wave 1 with adjusted odds ratios of prevalence in wave 2 was ?0.56. The correlation of distance in wave 1 with adjusted odds ratios of incidence in wave 2 was ?0.57. Conclusions Mapping psychiatric disorders can be used to quantify the distances among disorders. Proximity in turn can be used to predict prospectively the incidence and prevalence of Axis I disorders. PMID:23266570

Blanco, Carlos; Krueger, Robert F.; Hasin, Deborah S.; Liu, Shang-Min; Wang, Shuai; Kerridge, Bradley T.; Saha, Tulshi; Olfson, Mark

2013-01-01

97

ALMOST COMMON PRIORS ZIV HELLMAN  

E-print Network

the common priors assumption, `anything is possible', in the sense that heterogeneous priors allowALMOST COMMON PRIORS ZIV HELLMAN ABSTRACT. What happens when priors are not common? We introduce a measure for how far a type space is from having a common prior, which we term prior distance. If a type

Hart, Sergiu

98

PHYSICS AND COMMON SENSE* NICHOLASMAXWELL  

E-print Network

PHYSICS AND COMMON SENSE* NICHOLASMAXWELL I Physicalism and Common Sense THE basic problem with our ordinary common sense views about the world based on our ordinary experience? In order to discuss of common sense, of our ordinary experience, and therefore that scientific discoveries cannot contradict

Blandford, Ann

99

Common Knowledge Revisited Ronald Fagin  

E-print Network

that in order for something to be a convention, it must in fact be common knowledge among the members of a group means "go" and red means "stop" is presumably common knowledge among the drivers in our society.) CommonCommon Knowledge Revisited Ronald Fagin IBM Almaden Research Center 650 Harry Road San Jose, CA

Halpern, Joseph Y.

100

Common Control System Vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the control system processes and functions. With the detailed knowledge of how the control data functions, as well as what computers and devices communicate using this data, the attacker can use a well known Man-in-the-Middle attack to perform malicious operations virtually undetected. The control systems assessment teams have used this method to gather enough information about the system to craft an attack that intercepts and changes the information flow between the end devices (controllers) and the human machine interface (HMI and/or workstation). Using this attack, the cyber assessment team has been able to demonstrate complete manipulation of devices in control systems while simultaneously modifying the data flowing back to the operator's console to give false information of the state of the system (known as ''spoofing''). This is a very effective technique for a control system attack because it allows the attacker to manipulate the system and the operator's situational awareness of the perceived system status. The three main elements of this attack technique are: (1) network reconnaissance and data gathering, (2) reverse engineering, and (3) the Man-in-the-Middle attack. The details of this attack technique and the mitigation techniques are discussed.

Trent Nelson

2005-12-01

101

Stellar mergers are common  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observed Galactic rate of stellar mergers or the initiation of common envelope phases brighter than MV = -3 (MI = -4) is of the order of ˜0.5 (0.3) yr-1 with 90 per cent confidence statistical uncertainties of 0.24-1.1 (0.14-0.65) and factor of ˜2 systematic uncertainties. The (peak) luminosity function is roughly {d}N/{d} L ? L^{-1.4± 0.3}, so the rates for events more luminous than V1309 Sco (MV ? -7 mag) or V838 Mon (MV ? -10 mag) are lower at r ˜ 0.1 and ˜0.03/year, respectively. The peak luminosity is a steep function of progenitor mass, L ? M2 - 3. This very roughly parallels the scaling of luminosity with mass on the main sequence, but the transients are ˜2000-4000 times more luminous at peak. Combining these, the mass function of the progenitors, dN/dM ? M-2.0 ± 0.8, is consistent with the initial mass function, albeit with broad uncertainties. These observational results are also broadly consistent with the estimates of binary population synthesis models. While extragalactic variability surveys can better define the rates and properties of the high-luminosity events, systematic, moderate depth (I ? 16 mag) surveys of the Galactic plane are needed to characterize the low-luminosity events. The existing Galactic samples are only ˜20 per cent complete, and Galactic surveys are (at best!) reaching a typical magnitude limit of ? 13 mag.

Kochanek, C. S.; Adams, Scott M.; Belczynski, Krzysztof

2014-09-01

102

Common sense concepts about motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common sense beliefs of college students about motion and its causes are surveyed and analyzed. A taxonomy of common sense concepts which conflict with Newtonian theory is developed as a guide to instruction.

Ibrahim Abou Halloun; David Hestenes

1985-01-01

103

6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

104

Facts about the Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease > Influenza > In-Depth-Resources Facts About the Common Cold What Is a Cold? Colds are minor infections ... for 10 to 40 percent of colds. Other common cold viruses include coronavirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). ...

105

Commons Request Form Organization Information  

E-print Network

Commons Request Form Organization Information Organization: _______________________________________________________________ Phone: __________________ Email:______________________________________ Event Information Date Date Received ______ Time Received ______ Event Time: _____ to _____ ___ Student Organization

106

Culture and the Common School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay addresses the question: given the flattening out of the cultural hierarchy that was the vestige of colonialism and nation-building, is there anything that might be uniquely common about the common school in this postmodern age? By "uniquely common" I do not mean those subjects that all schools might teach, such as reading or arithmetic.…

Feinberg, Walter

2007-01-01

107

Minimum Common String Partition Parameterized  

E-print Network

Minimum Common String Partition Parameterized Peter Damaschke Department of Computer Science and Engineering Chalmers University, 41296 G¨oteborg, Sweden ptr@cs.chalmers.se Abstract. Minimum Common String occurences in x. In the Minimum Common String Partition (MCSP) problem, two strings x, y of length n

Damaschke, Peter

108

The common ancestry of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is common belief that all cellular life forms on earth have a common origin. This view is supported by the universality of the genetic code and the universal conservation of multiple genes, particularly those that encode key components of the translation system. A remarkable recent study claims to provide a formal, homology independent test of the Universal Common

Eugene V Koonin; Yuri I Wolf

2010-01-01

109

Signaling and Game Theory Pure Common Interest  

E-print Network

Signaling and Game Theory Pure Common Interest Partial Common Interest Game Theory.S. Zollman Signaling #12;Signaling and Game Theory Pure Common Interest Partial Common Interest Introduction Pure Common Interest Partial Common Interest Introduction Methodologies in game theory Signaling

Zollman, Kevin

110

Leading the Common Core State Standards: From Common Sense to Common Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many educators agree that we already know how to foster student success, so what is keeping common sense from becoming common practice? The author provides step-by-step guidance for overcoming the barriers to adopting the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and achieving equity and excellence for all students. As an experienced teacher and…

Dunkle, Cheryl A.

2012-01-01

111

Common Waterfowl in the Southeast Common name1,2  

E-print Network

lesser scaup Aythya affinis greater scaup Aythya marila common goldeneye Bucephala clangula Barrow Anas clypeata canvasback Aythya valisineria redhead Aythya americana ring-necked duck Aythya collaris

Gray, Matthew

112

Comparative digestion studies in wild suids at Rotterdam Zoo.  

PubMed

Among the artiodactyla, the suids are a group whose digestive physiology has hardly been investigated. The apparent digestibilities (aD) of macronutrients were measured in captive specimens of warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), and Visayan warty pigs (Sus cebifrons), and compared with those reported for babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) from the same facility on a similar diet. The animals were fed mixed diets of pelleted feed, grains, fruits, and vegetables; dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ranged from 17 to 26% dry matter. aD of organic matter and protein ranged from 72 to 89 and 70 to 82%, respectively. Although red river hogs and warty pigs achieved aD of NDF of 41-54%, this value was higher both in warthogs (63-66%) and babirusa (61-63%). aD of acid detergent fiber was comparatively low in red river hogs (4%), warty pigs (22%), and babirusa (13-25%) but high in warthog (59-62%). Comparison with additional literature data (including peccaries) indicates that in spite of differences in digestive anatomy, suids and peccaries are similar, and resemble other herbivores in fundamental characteristics, such as the negative influence of fiber on overall digestibility, or the positive influence of dietary protein on protein digestion. Although the existing data are equivocal as to a superior fiber digestion in peccaries as compared with other wild suids, the results suggest that warthogs are more efficient than other wild suids or peccaries in terms of fiber digestion. Zoo Biol 27:305-319, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360626

Clauss, Marcus; Nijboer, Joeke; Loermans, Jochem H M; Roth, Thomas; Van der Kuilen, Jan; Beynen, Anton C

2008-07-01

113

Primary common bile duct stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary or stasis stones in the common duct are a distinct clinical, anatomical, and pathological entity. In the older patient with chills, fever, and jaundice, it is axiomatic that a primary or stasis stone will be found in a common duct that measures 20 mm or more in diameter. Furthermore, about 20% of such patients will not have stones in

John L. Madden

1978-01-01

114

OSTA commonality analysis, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 13 OSTA disciplines are examined and the applications being performed under each discipline and the parameter requirements associated with the various applications are identified. It contains a variety of printouts from the commonality database built using DRS on the Vax. It also shows commonality of parameter requirements by discipline and by application.

Stolarik, E. G.

1981-01-01

115

Common injections in musculoskeletal medicine.  

PubMed

Musculoskeletal injections are a common procedure in primary care and sports medicine but can be intimidating for some clinicians. This article addresses current evidence for corticosteroid injections, and common injection indications and techniques, namely knee, subacromial bursa, glenohumeral joint, lateral epicondyle, de Quervain tenosynovitis, and greater trochanteric bursa injections. Preparation for injections and some evidence for ultrasound guidance are also reviewed. PMID:24209729

Monseau, Aaron J; Nizran, Parminder Singh

2013-12-01

116

The Common Core Takes Hold  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey administered in the spring of 2013 by the Center on Education Policy (CEP) inquired into the implementation of Common Core State Standards at that time. Based on self-reports by state officials, the survey found that curricula aligned to the common core were already being taught in at least some districts or grade levels. All states…

Rothman, Robert

2014-01-01

117

Understanding Common Core State Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now that the Common Core standards are coming to just about every school, what every school leader needs is a straightforward explanation that lays out the benefits of the Common Core in plain English, provides a succinct overview, and gets everyone thinking about how to transition to this promising new paradigm. This handy, inexpensive booklet…

Kendall, John S.

2011-01-01

118

Common Sense and Maximum Entropy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the question of how to draw inferences common sensically from uncertain knowledge. Since the early work of Shore and Johnson, [10], Paris and Vencovsk a, [6], and Csiszár, [1], it has been known that the Maximum Entropy Inference Process is the only inference process which obeys certain common sense principles of uncertain reasoning. In this paper we

Jeff Paris

2000-01-01

119

Building on the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards, released in June 2010, offer an opportunity to shift education away from shallow, test-prep instruction and toward a focus on key cognitive skills, writes Conley. Two consortia of states are now developing common assessments to measure these standards--assessments that will be designed to capture deeper, more…

Conley, David T.

2011-01-01

120

Oxley Creek Common Brisbane, Australia  

E-print Network

Pelican Lagoon (MG) #12;A bird walk on Oxley Creek Common The different areas of the Common have been of Torresian Crows, more if it has food, less if they are just mobbing it. A Brown Falcon was regular in 2008 the barbeque. Brown Honeyeater (MG) 2 Walk down to the Canoe Pontoon ­ Area 1 Superb Fairy-wren, White

Queensland, University of

121

Common Carrier Earth Station Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The report provides documentation for the Common Carrier Earth Station Application File used by the Common Carrier bureau in processing applications for licenses and permits. Each application is made up of 15 records containing such information as the status of the station, identification information, and any special provisions.

1992-12-01

122

Why Common Ground Thinking Works.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modesto (California) City Schools discovered common-ground thinking during a crisis over a safe-schools policy. Instead of shunning controversy, schools should face issues, invite all stakeholders, get training, formulate and approve policy, and train staff and the community to understand common-ground (religious neutrality) thinking. (MLH)

Jacobsen, Wayne

2000-01-01

123

Learning Words with Common Rimes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An extensive research review by M. Adams (1990) led her to the conclusion that providing instruction and reinforcement in learning common rimes is highly beneficial in fostering growth in learning to read. While substantial amounts of reading, either independent or with partners, is critical in learning words with common rimes, focused study is…

Dwyer, Edward J.

124

Further Explorations of Common-Sense Representations of Common Illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method is presented for measuring people’s illness cognitions—their common-sense representations of common illnesses. Data were collected from 1,628 different respondents who described a recent illness from 1 to 3 separate times over a 17-month period. A free-clustering task performed by a set of naive participants confirmed that these cognitions fall into the five components that have been previously

Richard R. Lau; Teresa M. Bernard; Karen A. Hartman

1989-01-01

125

Adolescents' theories of the commons.  

PubMed

Drawing from research on civic engagement and environmental commitment, we make a case for the processes inherent in how adolescents' ideas about the commons (those things that bind a polity together) develop. Engagement in the public realm with a plethora of perspectives and a goal of finding common ground is fundamental. Adolescents participate in the public realm through mini-polities (e.g., schools, community organizations). Practices in those settings can reinforce or challenge dominant political narratives. Special attention is given to the natural environment as a commons that transcends generations and to the opportunities in schools and in community partnerships that enable adolescents to realize their interdependence with nature and to author decisions about the commons. PMID:24851345

Flanagan, Constance; Gallay, Erin

2014-01-01

126

Entomology CSIRO Australia: Common names  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With almost 5000 entries this compendium of common names of Australian insects is one of the most thorough identification tools available online. Most of the pages include images and ranges as well as descriptions of the taxon.

0002-11-30

127

Inherited risk for common disease  

E-print Network

Linkage disequilibrium studies have discovered few gene-disease associations for common diseases. The explanation has been offered that complex modes of inheritance govern risk for cancers, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular ...

Banava, Helen

2007-01-01

128

Common Sense Concepts of Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common sense (CS) misconceptions are not arbitrary or trivial. Indeed, every one of the misconceptions about motion common among students today was seriously advocated by leading intellectuals in pre-Newtonian times. If the evaluation of CS was so difficult for the intellectual giants from Aristotle to Galileo, we should not be surprised it is a problem for ordinary students today. Accordingly, common sense beliefs should be treated with genuine respect by instructors and regarded as serious alternative hypotheses to be evaluated by scientific procedures. A taxonomy of common sense concepts which conflict with Newton s laws is presented. Elementary teachers who are aware of these CS beliefs can teach deliberately to avoid contributing to student development of misconceptions.

Ibrahim Abou Halloun

1985-01-01

129

6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

130

6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

131

6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

132

6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

133

Autoimmunity in Common Variable Immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common clinically significant primary immune defect. Although the hallmark of CVID is hypogammaglobulinemia, the intrinsic dysregulation of the immune system leads to defective T-cell activation and proliferation, as well as dendritic cell and cytokine defects. Although 70% to 80% of patients have had recurrent sinopulmonary infections, auto-immunity and inflammatory complications are also common. The most common autoimmune conditions are immune thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic anemia, but other autoimmune complications arise, including rheumatoid arthritis, pernicious anemia, primary biliary cirrhosis, thyroiditis, sicca syndrome, systemic lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment of autoimmunity includes high-dose immunoglobulins, corticosteroids, selected immunosuppressants, and other immune modulators. This review focuses on autoimmune conditions associated with CVID, potential mechanisms of immune dysregulation, and therapeutic strategies. PMID:19671377

Agarwal, Shradha; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

2010-01-01

134

Sinusitis in the common cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acute community-acquired sinusitis is considered a bacterial complication of the common cold. Radiologic abnormalities in sinuses occur, however, in most patients with upper respiratory virus infections.Objective: Assessment of the occurrence, clinical profile, laboratory findings, and outcome of radiologically confirmed sinusitis was carried out as part of a common cold study in young adults.Methods: Clinical examinations and radiography of the

Tuomo Puhakka; Mika J. Mäkelä; Anu Alanen; Timo Kallio; Leo Korsoff; Pertti Arstila; Maija Leinonen; Markku Pulkkinen; Jouko Suonpää; Jussi Mertsola; Olli Ruuskanen

1998-01-01

135

Antibiotic use for common cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibiotics do not help patients with an uncomplicated common cold. Antibiotics can have side effects for the individual taking\\u000a them that range from unpleasant to serious, even lethal. Antibiotic use also contributes to communal harm by encouraging antibiotic\\u000a resistance. If there can be no benefit, but there can be harm, why is the common cold the commonest reason for doctors

Timothy W. Kenealy; Bruce Arroll

136

Forest commons and local enforcement  

PubMed Central

This article examines the relationship between local enforcement and forests used as commons. It uses a unique multicountry dataset, created over the past 15 years by the International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Program. Drawing on original enforcement and forest commons data from 9 countries, we find that higher levels of local enforcement have a strong and positive but complex relationship to the probability of forest regeneration. This relationship holds even when the influence of a number of other factors such as user group size, subsistence, and commercial importance of forests, size of forest, and collective action for forest improvement activities is taken into account. Although several of the above factors have a statistically significant relationship to changes in the condition of forest commons, differences in levels of local enforcement strongly moderate their link with forest commons outcomes. The research, using data from diverse political, social, and ecological contexts, shows both the importance of enforcement to forest commons and some of the limits of forest governance through commons arrangements. PMID:18768821

Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

2008-01-01

137

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in farm-reared ostriches and wild game species from Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

One hundred and seventy one serum samples from 10 game species from Zimbabwe were tested for IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii infection using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Significantly higher seroprevalences were found in the felidae (Panthera leo) (92% of 26), bovidae (Tragelaphus species) (55.9% of 34) and farm-reared struthionidae (Struthio camelus) (48% of 50) compared to the other groups tested. Among the bovidae, the nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) had the highest seroprevalence of 90% (9/10). Anti-Toxoplasma antibody prevalences in browsers [greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) (20% of 10), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) (10% of 10) and elephant (Loxodonta africana) (10% of 20)] were generally in the lower range. No antibodies were detected in the wild African suidae [warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) and bushpig (Potamochoerus larvatus)]. Attempts to isolate T. gondii from the heart muscles of seropositve ostriches by subinoculation in BALB/c mice were unsuccessful. PMID:15777687

Hove, T; Mukaratirwa, S

2005-04-01

138

Trypanosoma brucei Infection in asymptomatic greater Kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch in Zambia.  

PubMed

Trypomastogotes of Trypanosoma brucei were detected from 4 asymptomatic kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch located approximately 45 km north east of Lusaka, Zambia. Blood smears examined from 14 wildlife species comprising of the impala (Aepyceros melampus), Kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), puku (Kobus vardoni), zebra (Equus burchelli), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), wilderbeest (Connochaetes taurinus), hartebeest (Alcephelus lichtensteini), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) showed that only the kudu had T. brucei. Although game ranching has emerged to be a successful ex-situ conservation strategy aimed at saving the declining wildlife population in the National Parks, our findings suggest that it has the potential of aiding the re-distribution of animal diseases. Hence, there is a need for augmenting wildlife conservation with disease control strategies aimed at reducing the risk of disease transmission between wildlife and domestic animals. PMID:20333288

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew; Mutoloki, Stephen; Matandiko, Wigganson

2010-03-01

139

Identification by the blood incubation infectivity test of Trypanosoma brucei subspecies isolated from game animals in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.  

PubMed

A total of 7 stocks of Trypanosoma brucei subspecies, isolated from naturally infected game animals in the Luangwa Valley, Eastern Province, Zambia were examined using a modified version of the Blood Incubation Infectivity Test (BIIT). One stock giving consistent BIIT responses typical of T.b. rhodesiense, was obtained from warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus). Four other stocks, 2 from hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), 1 from a waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) and 1 from a lion (Panthera leo) responded like T.b. brucei. One stock from a waterbuck and 1 from a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) failed to infect mice after incubation in human serum for 30 min at 37 degrees C when first tested, but after 5 or 6 further serial passages in mice and even with serum incubation time increased to 5 h, they retained infectivity. PMID:44098

Awan, M A

1979-12-01

140

Garlic for the common cold.  

PubMed

Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions There is insufficient clinical trial evidence regarding the effects of garlic in preventing or treating the common cold. A single trial suggested that garlic may prevent occurrences of the common cold but more studies are needed to validate this finding. Claims of effectiveness appear to rely largely on poor-quality evidence. PMID:25386977

Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

2014-01-01

141

Orbit Evolution in Common Envelopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study how the inclination angle and eccentricity evolve during a common envelope phase. During a common envelope phase, a compact star is swallowed by its giant companion and spirals into a tighter orbit. A close binary results if the compact star releases enough energy to expel the envelope. We investigate possible fossil evidence of the common envelope phase on the inclination angle and the eccentricity. A convective common envelope leads to force component perpendicular to the orbital plane, and thus change the orbital inclination. This makes it harder to uniquely identify the signature of neutron star natal kicks. A common envelope is usually assumed to circularize orbits, but some eccentricity in fact arises both from the spiral-in process itself, and from random forces in the orbital plane. When the envelope is expelled, it might seem that the binary system would preserve whatever eccentricity had been established at the final stage of the inspiral. But tidal dissipation by the residual envelope can reduce the eccentricity. The final eccentricity depends on which of these effects wins or how they balance each other. We discuss applications and observational tests of these predictions.

Luan, Jing; Phinney, E. S.

2011-09-01

142

The last common bilaterian ancestor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many regulatory genes appear to be utilized in at least superficially similar ways in the development of particular body parts in Drosophila and in chordates. These similarities have been widely interpreted as functional homologies, producing the conventional view of the last common protostome-deuterostome ancestor (PDA) as a complex organism that possessed some of the same body parts as modern bilaterians. Here we discuss an alternative view, in which the last common PDA had a less complex body plan than is frequently conceived. This reconstruction alters expectations for Neoproterozoic fossil remains that could illustrate the pathways of bilaterian evolution.

Erwin, Douglas H.; Davidson, Eric H.

2002-01-01

143

Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Common Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Numerous genetic syndromes have had the cognitive and behavioral components of the phenotype delineated, leading to improved\\u000a diagnosis of the condition, as well as to better management and interventional approaches. This article is a review of some\\u000a of what is known about the neurodevelopmental aspects of some of the more common genetic syndromes.

Helga V. Toriello

144

Community Commons Program Development Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community Commons (CC) is a collaborative partnership among Brevard Community College (BCC) (Florida) and over 40 social service organizations and agencies in Florida dedicated to providing education, job training, social services, recreation, and a drug free environment to communities of low income families. The project specifically seeks to…

Culp, Kieta Osteen

145

TRUMAN STATE UNIVERSITY'S COMMON FRAMEWORK  

E-print Network

TRUMAN STATE UNIVERSITY'S COMMON FRAMEWORK FOR CRITICAL THINKING PEDAGOGY 30 October, 2012 Pathways Critical Thinking Task Force Table of Contents Framework Narrative 1-10 Introduction and Rationale 1: Critical Thinking Rubric Template Appendix B: "Purple Paper: Critical Thinking Task Force" Exhibits Exhibit

Gering, Jon C.

146

Common sleep disorders in children.  

PubMed

Up to 50% of children will experience a sleep problem. Early identification of sleep problems may prevent negative consequences, such as daytime sleepiness, irritability, behavioral problems, learning difficulties, motor vehicle crashes in teenagers, and poor academic performance. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs in 1% to 5% of children. Polysomnography is needed to diagnose the condition because it may not be detected through history and physical examination alone. Adenotonsillectomy is the primary treatment for most children with obstructive sleep apnea. Parasomnias are common in childhood; sleepwalking, sleep talking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors tend to occur in the first half of the night, whereas nightmares are more common in the second half of the night. Only 4% of parasomnias will persist past adolescence; thus, the best management is parental reassurance and proper safety measures. Behavioral insomnia of childhood is common and is characterized by a learned inability to fall and/or stay asleep. Management begins with consistent implementation of good sleep hygiene practices, and, in some cases, use of extinction techniques may be appropriate. Delayed sleep phase disorder is most common in adolescence, presenting as difficulty falling asleep and awakening at socially acceptable times. Treatment involves good sleep hygiene and a consistent sleep-wake schedule, with nighttime melatonin and/or morning bright light therapy as needed. Diagnosing restless legs syndrome in children can be difficult; management focuses on trigger avoidance and treatment of iron deficiency, if present. PMID:24695508

Carter, Kevin A; Hathaway, Nathanael E; Lettieri, Christine F

2014-03-01

147

Sequential bargaining with common values  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the alternating-offers bargaining problem of assigning an indivisible and commonly valued object to one of two players who jointly own this object. The players are asymmetrically informed about the object’s value and have veto power over any settlement. There is no depreciation during the bargaining process which involves signalling of private information. We characterise the perfect Bayesian equilibrium

Paul Schweinzer

2010-01-01

148

Treatment of the common cold.  

PubMed

The common cold is a viral illness that affects persons of all ages, prompting frequent use of over-the-counter and prescription medications and alternative remedies. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms (e.g., cough, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea). Dextromethorphan may be beneficial in adults with cough, but its effectiveness has not been demonstrated in children and adolescents. Codeine has not been shown to effectively treat cough caused by the common cold. Although hydrocodone is widely used and has been shown to effectively treat cough caused by other conditions, the drug has not been studied in patients with colds. Topical (intranasal) and oral nasal decongestants have been shown to relieve nasal symptoms and can be used in adolescents and adults for up to three days. Antihistamines and combination antihistamine/decongestant therapies can modestly improve symptoms in adults; however, the benefits must be weighed against potential side effects. Newer nonsedating antihistamines are ineffective against cough. Topical ipratropium, a prescription anticholinergic, relieves nasal symptoms in older children and adults. Antibiotics have not been shown to improve symptoms or shorten illness duration. Complementary and alternative therapies (i.e., Echinacea, vitamin C, and zinc) are not recommended for treating common cold symptoms; however, humidified air and fluid intake may be useful without adverse side effects. Vitamin C prophylaxis may modestly reduce the duration and severity of the common cold in the general population and may reduce the incidence of the illness in persons exposed to physical and environmental stresses. PMID:17323712

Simasek, Madeline; Blandino, David A

2007-02-15

149

Common Core: Rx for Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When David Coleman, one of the authors of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), spoke to New York educators, he stated that over the last forty years 8th grade reading scores have been flat. Despite doubling expenditures on classroom instruction, there has been little growth. Most educators are aware that what worked for the students of the…

Jaeger, Paige

2012-01-01

150

Common Core: Solve Math Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond…

Strom, Erich

2012-01-01

151

NIH Roadmap & the Common Fund  

Cancer.gov

The NIH Roadmap for Medical Research is a series of high impact, trans-NIH programs supported by the NIH Common Fund. These programs address challenges that are priorities for the NIH and medical research but are issues that require the cooperation of more than one NIH institute to address.

152

Common Core: Fact vs. Fiction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite students' interest in informational text, it has played second fiddle in literacy instruction for years. Now, though, nonfiction is getting its turn in the spotlight. The Common Core State Standards require that students become thoughtful consumers of complex, informative texts--taking them beyond the realm of dry textbooks and…

Greene, Kim

2012-01-01

153

Health Education. Common Curriculum Goals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide presents the common curriculm goals for health education developed by the Oregon State Department of Education. Four content strands--safe living, stressor/risk-taking management, physical fitness, and nutrition--are a synthesis of the traditional health education and health promotion objectives. Knowledge and skills objectives are…

Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

154

Common Practices in Adventure Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goals of this manual are to raise the level of safety, environmental awareness, and quality in outdoor adventure education, and to encourage the development of skilled, knowledgeable outdoor leaders through the compilation and dissemination of common practices and information. Other goals are to provide information for programs to use as a…

Johanson, Karl M., Ed.

155

Technology: Technology and Common Sense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The absence of common sense in the world of technology continues to amaze the author. Things that seem so logical to just aren nott for many people. The installation of Voice-over IP (VoIP, with IP standing for Internet Protocol) in many school districts is a good example. Schools have always had trouble with telephones. Many districts don't even…

Van Horn, Royal

2004-01-01

156

Objectification in Common Sense Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In epistemologies of both scientific and common sense thinking "objectification" characterizes the formation of knowledge and concepts, yet in each case its meaning is different. In the former, objectification in acquiring knowledge refers to the individual's rationalistic reification of an object or of another person and to disengagement or…

Markova, Ivana

2012-01-01

157

A Common Core of Readiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The common core state standards, which have now been adopted by 46 states and the District of Columbia, were designed around the goal of ensuring college and career readiness for all students. In this article, Rothman discusses research showing that a large proportion of U.S. high school graduates are ill-prepared to succeed in college or a…

Rothman, Robert

2012-01-01

158

Salicaceae (Willow family) Common cottonwood  

E-print Network

Salicaceae (Willow family) Common cottonwood Populus deltoides Marshall Life cycle Fast trees and greenish yellow on young stems. Plants have the ability to form many vigorous, weedy sprouts. Flowers and fruit Male and female flowers are found on sepa- rate plants and are clustered in drooping, up

159

Oxley Creek Common Brisbane, Australia  

E-print Network

be minor flooding. Path near Pelican Lagoon (MG) #12;A bird walk on Oxley Creek Common The different areas, more if it has food, less if they are just mobbing it. Brown Falcon and Black-shouldered Kite might-lark are also easy to find. Striped Honeyeater have nested in the Hoop Pines around the BBQ. Brown Honeyeater

Queensland, University of

160

Pediatric migraine: common, yet treatable.  

PubMed

Migraine headache is a common problem among children and adolescents that is now recognized as a significant and often debilitating condition in this population. Improved recognition and management of pediatric migraine in primary care is necessary, as there is a knowledge gap in understanding the unique features of this condition and a general reluctance to treat children. PMID:25286367

Harding, Alicia; Clark, Lynn

2014-11-16

161

Watershed Analysis Common Trouble Spots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common Trouble Spots A student doesn't have a good grasp of geography (and place names) of their chosen area. Solution: have them work with maps from the area(e.g. Google Maps: http://maps.google.com/). No ...

162

Plant Allergies Common Allergy Plants  

E-print Network

Gardening and Your Health: Plant Allergies Common Allergy Plants Trees and shrubs ash (male taken as a precaution before gardening activities - and allergy symptoms - begin. For gardeners or inhaled form, to treat your condition. Allergy shots or vaccinations can desensitize allergies

Liskiewicz, Maciej

163

Common Ground: Expanding Our Horizons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Common Ground: Dialogue, Understanding, and the Teaching of Composition," Kurt Spellmeyer seeks to familiarize students and teachers with the linguistic and cultural no-man's-land separating them. Reinstating the value of two writing conventions often used by traditional students--expressive and commonplaces--can help expand on the horizons of…

McDevitt, Michele J.

164

Low Back Pain COMMON CAUSES  

E-print Network

Low Back Pain COMMON CAUSES: Low back pain may be triggered by a specific event, such improper are known to increase risk for potential injury, but often back pain occurs after a seemingly innocent task, like bending over to pick up something from the floor. Sufferers frequently complain that back pain

Virginia Tech

165

Upper Back Pain COMMON CAUSES  

E-print Network

Upper Back Pain COMMON CAUSES: Upper back pain may be triggered by a specific event of the computer can innocently strain muscles of the upper back. Long term back problems are more likely when pain develops gradually or discomfort is recurrent over a period of time. Chronic back pain is often triggered

Virginia Tech

166

Common skin conditions during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Common skin conditions during pregnancy generally can be separated into three categories: hormone-related, preexisting, and pregnancy-specific. Normal hormone changes during pregnancy may cause benign skin conditions including striae gravidarum (stretch marks); hyperpigmentation (e.g., melasma); and hair, nail, and vascular changes. Preexisting skin conditions (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, fungal infections, cutaneous tumors) may change during pregnancy. Pregnancy-specific skin conditions include pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy, prurigo of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, pemphigoid gestationis, impetigo herpetiformis, and pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy. Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy are the most common of these disorders. Most skin conditions resolve postpartum and only require symptomatic treatment. However, there are specific treatments for some conditions (e.g., melasma, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy). Antepartum surveillance is recommended for patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, and pemphigoid gestationis. PMID:17263216

Tunzi, Marc; Gray, Gary R

2007-01-15

167

A calendar with common sense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital devices today have little understanding of their real-world context, and as a result they often make stupid mistakes. To improve this situation we are developing a database of world knowledge called ThoughtTreasure at the same time that we develop intelligent applications. In this paper we present one such application, SensiCal, a calendar with a degree of common sense. We

Erik T. Mueller

2000-01-01

168

Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

Vermeir, Koen

2013-10-01

169

More Common Than You Think: Common Variable Immune Deficiency  

PubMed Central

We report a challenging case of a 16-year-old male who presented with thrombocytopenia and eluded a definitive diagnosis for over 2 years. He was initially diagnosed with a viral illness, although he later developed adenopathy and splenomegaly. An evaluation by an oncologist was unrevealing. He worked on a farm with livestock exposure and was later diagnosed with an atypical, zoonotic infection. Despite appropriate antibiotic therapy, the thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly persisted. Further evaluation revealed that he has a relatively common immunologic disorder. He is currently doing well on appropriate therapy for this disorder. PMID:24381771

Resar, Danielle F.; Resar, Linda M. S.

2013-01-01

170

Common Rail Injection System Development  

SciTech Connect

The collaborative research program between the Department of energy and Electro-Motive Diesels, Inc. on the development of common rail fuel injection system for locomotive diesel engines that can meet US EPA Tier 2 exhaust emissions has been completed. This final report summarizes the objectives of the program, work scope, key accomplishments and research findings. The major objectives of this project encompassed identification of appropriate injection strategies by using advanced analytical tools, development of required prototype hardware/controls, investigations of fuel spray characteristics including cavitation phenomena, and validation of hareware using a single-cylinder research locomotive diesel engine. Major milestones included: (1) a detailed modeling study using advanced mathematical models - several various injection profiles that show simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulates on a four stroke-cycle locomotive diesel engine were identified; (2) development of new common rail fuel injection hardware capable of providing these injection profiles while meeting EMD engine and injection performance specifications. This hardware was developed together with EMD's current fuel injection component supplier. (3) Analysis of fuel spray characteristics. Fuel spray numerical studies and high speed photographic imaging analyses were performed. (4) Validation of new hardware and fuel injection profiles. EMD's single-cylinder research diesel engine located at Argonne National Laboratory was used to confirm emissions and performacne predictions. These analytical ane experimental investigations resulted in optimized fuel injection profiles and engine operating conditions that yield reductions in NOx emissions from 7.8 g/bhp-hr to 5.0 g/bhp-hr at full (rated) load. Additionally, hydrocarbon and particulate emissions were reduced considerably when compared to baseline Tier I levels. The most significant finding from the injection optimization process was a 2% to 3% improvement in fuel economy over EMD's traditional Tier I engine hardware configuration. the common rail fuel injection system enabled this added benefit by virtue of an inherent capability to provide multiple injections per power stroke at high fuel rail pressures. On the basis of the findings in this study, EMD concludes that the new electronically-controlled high-pressure common rail injection system has the potential to meet locomotive Tier 2 NOx and particulates emission standards without sacrificing the fuel economy. A number of areas to further improve the injection hardware and engine operating characteristics to further exploit the benefits of common rail injection system have also been identified.

Electro-Motive,

2005-12-30

171

Exemplar Longest Common Subsequence Paola Bonizzoni  

E-print Network

Exemplar Longest Common Subsequence Paola Bonizzoni , Gianluca Della Vedova , Riccardo Dondi 1 approximation complexity Exemplar Longest Common Subsequence sequences (ELCS problem), generalization Longest Common Subsequence problem, where input sequences over union of disjoint of symbols, mandatory symbols

Fertin, Guillaume

172

Multiple order common path spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

173

Evolution of a common controller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precedent has shown common controllers must strike a balance between the desire for an integrated user interface design by human factors engineers and support of project-specific data requirements. A common user-interface requires the project-specific data to conform to an internal representation, but project-specific customization is impeded by the implicit rules introduced by the internal data representation. Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) developed the latest version of the Multi-robot Operator Control Unit (MOCU) to address interoperability, standardization, and customization issues by using a modular, extensible, and flexible architecture built upon a sharedworld model. MOCU version 3 provides an open and extensible operator-control interface that allows additional functionality to be seamlessly added with software modules while providing the means to fully integrate the information into a layered game-like user interface. MOCU's design allows it to completely decouple the human interface from the core management modules, while still enabling modules to render overlapping regions of the screen without interference or a priori knowledge of other display elements, thus allowing more flexibility in project-specific customization.

Powell, D.; Barbour, D.; Gilbreath, G.

2012-06-01

174

The Common Communication Interface (CCI)  

SciTech Connect

There are many APIs for connecting and exchanging data between network peers. Each interface varies wildly based on metrics including performance, portability, and complexity. Specifically, many interfaces make design or implementation choices emphasizing some of the more desirable metrics (e.g., performance) while sacrificing others (e.g., portability). As a direct result, software developers building large, network-based applications are forced to choose a specific network API based on a complex, multi-dimensional set of criteria. Such trade-offs inevitably result in an interface that fails to deliver some desirable features. In this paper, we introduce a novel interface that both supports many features that have become standard (or otherwise generally expected) in other communication interfaces, and strives to export a small, yet powerful, interface. This new interface draws upon years of experience from network-oriented software development best practices to systems-level implementations. The goal is to create a relatively simple, high-level communication interface with low barriers to adoption while still providing important features such as scalability, resiliency, and performance. The result is the Common Communications Interface (CCI): an intuitive API that is portable, efficient, scalable, and robust to meet the needs of network-intensive applications common in HPC and cloud computing.

Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Atchley, Scott [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL; Geoffray, Patrick [ORNL; Bosilca, George [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Squyres, Jeffrey M [ORNL; Minnich, Ronald [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)

2011-01-01

175

Conservation challenge: human-herbivore conflict in Chebera Churchura National Park, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

An investigation on human-herbivore conflict was carried out in CCNP between 2011 and 2012 in seven randomly selected villages (Chebera, Serri, Yora, Shita, Delba, Chuchra, Chewda) around the Park. A total of 312 household samples were identified for interview. Group discussion and field observation were also carried out. Among the respondents, the majority (83.9%) faced crop damage. African elephant (Loxodonta africana), Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibious), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), Desert warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), Wild pig (Sus scrofa), Porcupine (Hystrix cristata), Vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) and Anubis baboon (Papio anubis) were identified as the most problematic animals in the area. However, buffalo, monkey and warthog were considered as the notorious pest. Crop damage and threats to human safety were the major problems encountered resulting in conflict between human and wildlife. Most respondents had a negative attitude towards the problem-posing animals. This will lead to a change in public attitude from one that supports wildlife conservation to sees wild herbivores as a threat and a potential negative consequence for wildlife conservation. Active measures have to be implemented to solve the problems and safeguard the future of the wildlife management in the park. PMID:24506044

Datiko, Demeke; Bekele, Afework

2013-12-01

176

Fast Parallel Computation of Longest Common Prefixes  

E-print Network

Fast Parallel Computation of Longest Common Prefixes Julian Shun Carnegie Mellon University Email arrays [12]) along with the corresponding longest common prefix array have appli- cations in many fields also require the longest common prefix (LCP) array, which stores the length of the longest common

177

UNCERTAINTY IN THE COMMON Marie Nilsenov a  

E-print Network

by the existence of common ground among communicating participants, but the question of how common ground comesUNCERTAINTY IN THE COMMON GROUND Marie Nilsenov#19;a ILLC, University of Amsterdam December 2000 considering the fact that they belong to the most commonly performed dialogue acts. To solve the diÃ?culty, we

Amsterdam, University of

178

Rainfall influences on ungulate population abundance in the Mara-Serengeti ecosystem.  

PubMed

1. Rainfall is the prime climatic factor underpinning the dynamics of African savanna ungulates, but no study has analysed its influence on the abundance of these ungulates at monthly to multiannual time scales. 2. We report relationships between rainfall and changes in age- and sex-structured abundances of seven ungulate species monitored monthly for 15 years using vehicle ground counts in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya. 3. Abundance showed strong and curvilinear relationships with current and cumulative rainfall, with older topi, Damaliscus korrigum (Ogilby); warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus (Pallas); waterbuck, Kobus ellipsyprimnus (Ogilby); and impala, Aepyceros melampus (Lichtenstein) responding to longer lags than younger animals, portraying carryover effects of prior habitat conditions. 4. The abundances of newborn calves were best correlated with monthly rainfall averaged over the preceding 5-6 months for topi, waterbuck, warthog, and 2 months for the migratory zebra Equus burchelli (Gray), but with seasonal rainfall averaged over 2-5 years for giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis (L.); impala; and kongoni, Alcelaphus busephalus (Pallas). The cumulative late wet-season rainfall was the best predictor of abundance for quarter- to full-grown animals for most species. Monthly rainfall exerted both negative and positive effects on the abundances of zebra, impala and waterbuck. Ignoring age, both sexes responded similarly to rainfall. 5. Births were strongly seasonal only for warthog and topi, but peaked between August and December for most species. Hence abundance was strongly seasonal for young topi and warthog and the migratory zebra. Pronounced seasonality in births for warthog and topi obliterated otherwise strong relationships between abundance and rainfall when both month and rainfall were included in the same model. Aggregated density produced relationships with rainfall similar to those for fully grown animals, emphasizing the necessity of demographic monitoring to reliably reveal rainfall influences on ungulate abundance in the Mara. 6. Strong relationships between abundance and rainfall suggest that rainfall underpins the dynamics of African savanna ungulates, and that changes in rainfall due to global warming may markedly alter the abundance and diversity of these mammals. Ungulates respond to rainfall fluctuations through movements, reproduction or survival, and the responses appear independent of breeding phenology and synchrony, dietary guild, or degree of water dependence. Newborns and adults have contrasting responses to rainfall. Males and females respond similarly to rainfall when age is ignored. PMID:18422558

Ogutu, J O; Piepho, H-P; Dublin, H T; Bhola, N; Reid, R S

2008-07-01

179

Common Bolted Joint Analysis Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Common Bolted Joint Analysis Tool (comBAT) is an Excel/VB-based bolted joint analysis/optimization program that lays out a systematic foundation for an inexperienced or seasoned analyst to determine fastener size, material, and assembly torque for a given design. Analysts are able to perform numerous what-if scenarios within minutes to arrive at an optimal solution. The program evaluates input design parameters, performs joint assembly checks, and steps through numerous calculations to arrive at several key margins of safety for each member in a joint. It also checks for joint gapping, provides fatigue calculations, and generates joint diagrams for a visual reference. Optimum fastener size and material, as well as correct torque, can then be provided. Analysis methodology, equations, and guidelines are provided throughout the solution sequence so that this program does not become a "black box:" for the analyst. There are built-in databases that reduce the legwork required by the analyst. Each step is clearly identified and results are provided in number format, as well as color-coded spelled-out words to draw user attention. The three key features of the software are robust technical content, innovative and user friendly I/O, and a large database. The program addresses every aspect of bolted joint analysis and proves to be an instructional tool at the same time. It saves analysis time, has intelligent messaging features, and catches operator errors in real time.

Imtiaz, Kauser

2011-01-01

180

Common Syndromes of Orthostatic Intolerance  

PubMed Central

The autonomic nervous system, adequate blood volume, and intact skeletal and respiratory muscle pumps are essential components for rapid cardiovascular adjustments to upright posture (orthostasis). Patients lacking sufficient blood volume or having defective sympathetic adrenergic vasoconstriction develop orthostatic hypotension (OH), prohibiting effective upright activities. OH is one form of orthostatic intolerance (OI) defined by signs, such as hypotension, and symptoms, such as lightheadedness, that occur when upright and are relieved by recumbence. Mild OI is commonly experienced during intercurrent illnesses and when standing up rapidly. The latter is denoted “initial OH” and represents a normal cardiovascular adjustment to the blood volume shifts during standing. Some people experience episodic acute OI, such as postural vasovagal syncope (fainting), or chronic OI, such as postural tachycardia syndrome, which can significantly reduce quality of life. The lifetime incidence of ?1 fainting episodes is ?40%. For the most part, these episodes are benign and self-limited, although frequent syncope episodes can be debilitating, and injury may occur from sudden falls. In this article, mechanisms for OI having components of adrenergic hypofunction, adrenergic hyperfunction, hyperpnea, and regional blood volume redistribution are discussed. Therapeutic strategies to cope with OI are proposed. PMID:23569093

2013-01-01

181

Common variable immunodeficiency - an update  

PubMed Central

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) describes a heterogeneous subset of hypogammaglobulinemias of unknown etiology. Typically, patients present with recurrent bacterial infections of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. A significant proportion of CVID patients develops additional autoimmune, inflammatory or lymphoproliferative complications. CVID is the most frequent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency encountered in adults. Informative monogenetic defects have been found in single patients and families but in most cases the pathogenesis is still elusive. Numerous immunological studies have demonstrated phenotypic and functional abnormalities of T cells, B cells and antigen-presenting cells. A hallmark is the impaired memory B-cell formation that has been taken advantage of for classifying CVID patients. Clinical multi-center studies have demonstrated a correlation between immunological markers and clinical presentation. Long-term outcome is significantly influenced by delay of diagnosis and treatment and the presence of chronic inflammatory complications. While immunoglobulin replacement therapy plus antibiotics can control infections in most cases, patients with non-infectious inflammatory complications such as granulomatous inflammation, interstitial lung disease, inflammatory bowel disease, lymphoproliferation and developing malignancies still represent a therapeutic challenge. In this review we provide a systematic overview of the immunological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of CVID and highlight recent developments in these fields. PMID:23043756

2012-01-01

182

Common questions about wound care.  

PubMed

Lacerations, abrasions, burns, and puncture wounds are common in the outpatient setting. Because wounds can quickly become infected, the most important aspect of treating a minor wound is irrigation and cleaning. There is no evidence that antiseptic irrigation is superior to sterile saline or tap water. Occlusion of the wound is key to preventing contamination. Suturing, if required, can be completed up to 24 hours after the trauma occurs, depending on the wound site. Tissue adhesives are equally effective for low-tension wounds with linear edges that can be evenly approximated. Although patients are often instructed to keep their wounds covered and dry after suturing, they can get wet within the first 24 to 48 hours without increasing the risk of infection. There is no evidence that prophylactic antibiotics improve outcomes for most simple wounds. Tetanus toxoid should be administered as soon as possible to patients who have not received a booster in the past 10 years. Superficial mild wound infections can be treated with topical agents, whereas deeper mild and moderate infections should be treated with oral antibiotics. Most severe infections, and moderate infections in high-risk patients, require initial parenteral antibiotics. Severe burns and wounds that cover large areas of the body or involve the face, joints, bone, tendons, or nerves should generally be referred to wound care specialists. PMID:25591209

Worster, Brooke; Zawora, Michelle Q; Hsieh, Christine

2015-01-15

183

Natural host odours as possible attractants for Glossina tachinoides and G. longipalpis (Diptera: Glossinidae).  

PubMed

As strictly haematophagous insects, tsetse flies feed on a wide variety of wild and domestic animals. Although these are mainly mammals, some tsetse species also feed on reptiles. The present study investigated whether the odours of several potential natural tsetse hosts may be used as novel attractants to improve the catch of Glossina tachinoides or G. longipalpis in biconical traps. The odour of a living monitor lizard (Varanus niloticus) had no effect on the catch of G. tachinoides. Hexane skin washings of monitor lizard and warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) dispensed in small quantities improved the catch of G. tachinoides significantly by factors of up to 1.34 and 1.46, respectively. Skin washing of bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) did not increase the catch of G. tachinoides, but the synthetic phenolic fraction of bushbuck urine enhanced it significantly by 1.81 times. The catch of G. longipalpis was improved significantly by the urines of warthog, domestic pig and bushbuck by factors of 1.58, 1.91 and 2.51, respectively. In relation to the quantity of evaporated odour, bushbuck and warthog urine seem to be of particular interest for further attractant studies. The effect of tested host odours on the catch of G. tachinoides and G. longipalpis is compared with data of other tsetse species and with the frequency these hosts are fed on by tsetse flies. Bushbuck is one of the principal natural hosts of both Glossina species investigated, and of all odours tested, bushbuck urine and its synthetic phenolic fraction improved the catch of both tsetse species the most. PMID:9386790

Späth, J

1997-11-01

184

Designing the Microbial Research Commons  

SciTech Connect

Recent decades have witnessed an ever-increasing range and volume of digital data. All elements of the pillars of science--whether observation, experiment, or theory and modeling--are being transformed by the continuous cycle of generation, dissemination, and use of factual information. This is even more so in terms of the re-using and re-purposing of digital scientific data beyond the original intent of the data collectors, often with dramatic results. We all know about the potential benefits and impacts of digital data, but we are also aware of the barriers, the challenges in maximizing the access, and use of such data. There is thus a need to think about how a data infrastructure can enhance capabilities for finding, using, and integrating information to accelerate discovery and innovation. How can we best implement an accessible, interoperable digital environment so that the data can be repeatedly used by a wide variety of users in different settings and with different applications? With this objective: to use the microbial communities and microbial data, literature, and the research materials themselves as a test case, the Board on Research Data and Information held an International Symposium on Designing the Microbial Research Commons at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC on 8-9 October 2009. The symposium addressed topics such as models to lower the transaction costs and support access to and use of microbiological materials and digital resources from the perspective of publicly funded research, public-private interactions, and developing country concerns. The overall goal of the symposium was to stimulate more research and implementation of improved legal and institutional models for publicly funded research in microbiology.

Uhlir, Paul F

2011-10-01

185

Coordinating towards a Common Good  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout their life, humans often engage in collective endeavors ranging from family related issues to global warming. In all cases, the tragedy of the commons threatens the possibility of reaching the optimal solution associated with global cooperation, a scenario predicted by theory and demonstrated by many experiments. Using the toolbox of evolutionary game theory, I will address two important aspects of evolutionary dynamics that have been neglected so far in the context of public goods games and evolution of cooperation. On one hand, the fact that often there is a threshold above which a public good is reached [1, 2]. On the other hand, the fact that individuals often participate in several games, related to the their social context and pattern of social ties, defined by a social network [3, 4, 5]. In the first case, the existence of a threshold above which collective action is materialized dictates a rich pattern of evolutionary dynamics where the direction of natural selection can be inverted compared to standard expectations. Scenarios of defector dominance, pure coordination or coexistence may arise simultaneously. Both finite and infinite population models are analyzed. In networked games, cooperation blooms whenever the act of contributing is more important than the effort contributed. In particular, the heterogeneous nature of social networks naturally induces a symmetry breaking of the dilemmas of cooperation, as contributions made by cooperators may become contingent on the social context in which the individual is embedded. This diversity in context provides an advantage to cooperators, which is particularly strong when both wealth and social ties follow a power-law distribution, providing clues on the self-organization of social communities. Finally, in both situations, it can be shown that individuals no longer play a defection dominance dilemma, but effectively engage in a general N-person coordination game. Even if locally defection may seem inescapable, globally there is an emergent new dilemma in which cooperation often prevails, illustrating how collective cooperative action may emerge from myopic individual selfishness.

Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

2010-09-01

186

The behavioural final common path.  

PubMed

In this paper it is argued that any model of the motivational (i.e. reversible) processes governing the behaviour of an animal can be represented by means of isoclines in a multidimensional 'causal-factor space'. The argument is axiomatic, based upon the two prime assumptions: that (1) it is always possible to classify the behavioural repertoire of a species in such a way that the classes are mutually exclusive in the sense that the members of different classes cannot occur simultaneously, and (2) these incompatible actions are uniquely determined by a particular set of causal factors. The isoclines join all points in the space which present a given 'degree of competitiveness' of a particular 'candidate' for overt behavioural expression. The competition between candidates is an inevitable consequence of the fact that animals cannot 'do more than one thing at a time', and is envisaged as taking place in the behavioural final common path. An empirical method of determining the motivational state (i.e. point in causal-factor space) is outlined. This is a 'relative' method, independent of the arbitrary calibration of the axes of the causal-factor space. It is shown that an arbitrary scale of measurement along any two axes of the causal-factor space is all that is necessary for empirical determination of the shape of a motivational isocline. Experiments in which this method has been applied to the measurement of hunger and thirst in doves are outlined, and the results are discussed in terms of their implications for motivation theory in general. PMID:239416

McFarland, D J; Sibly, R M

1975-05-15

187

Returning common sense to regulations  

SciTech Connect

While these sessions of the November 1995 meeting of the American Nuclear Society are being devoted to the Linear Theory of harm from radiation, it must be realized that the low-level radiation issue, as important as it may be, is but a subset of an entire body of environmental issues running afoul of common sense. Cellular phones, electromagnetic fields, asbestos, dioxin, acid rain, and others especially in their public portrayals, some in their regulatory treatment, are based upon exaggerated or misunderstood risks. One must recognize that what lies ahead is an immense effort to revisit the underlying science of the existing regulations of radiation exposures. New evidence has been published, and most importantly, it is now recognized that many of these regulations--promulgated with the best of intentions--have been extraordinarily harmful to the public. In many cases, the harm has been exaggerated, and has created in the public policy arena the notion that the public is at great risk from the smallest sources of radiation. The national cost of compliance with these regulations has been enormous. To the extent that existing environmental regulations are not being moderated, they pose major economic threats to present and future industries involving nuclear materials and technology. These would include the pharmaceutical industries as well as those seeking U.S. isotope markets in separations, purification, labeling, and manufacturing of new radiopharmaceuticals for cancer therapy, diagnosis, pain mitigation, treatment of arthritis, and other new applications. For those who are not aware of the results of recent advances in radiopharmaceuticals, clinical trials have demonstrated an 80% remission rate in the treatment of b-cell lymphoma and leukemia. New isotopes and new isotope technology promise greater effectiveness in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. The regulatory problems and their enormous costs exist at all stages in nuclear medicine, from the manufacture of the radiopharmaceuticals to the disposal of low-level wastes in Ward Valley, California, for example. Access to these promising new technologies will be severely limited under the existing regulatory environment.

Fox, M.R.

1995-10-01

188

Common unfoldings of polyominoes and polycubes  

E-print Network

This paper studies common unfoldings of various classes of polycubes, as well as a new type of unfolding of polyominoes. Previously, Knuth and Miller found a common unfolding of all tree-like tetracubes. By contrast, we ...

Aloupis, Greg

189

Rare Virus Discovered in Common Tick  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rare Virus Discovered in Common Tick Scientists not yet sure ... FRIDAY, Jan. 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A rare virus has been found in ticks that are common ...

190

How Are Pelvic Floor Disorders Commonly Treated?  

MedlinePLUS

... Trials Resources and Publications En Español How are pelvic floor disorders commonly treated? Skip sharing on social ... Treatment Nonsurgical treatments commonly used for PFDs include: Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT). Also called Kegel (pronounced ...

191

Common cold - how to treat at home  

MedlinePLUS

... Antibiotics are almost never needed to treat a common cold. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) help lower ... Many home remedies are popular treatments for the common cold. These include vitamin C, zinc supplements, and Echinacea. ...

192

What Are Some Commonly Abused Prescription Drugs?  

MedlinePLUS

... some of the commonly abused prescription drugs? Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter What are some of the ... 2014 Contents From the Director What is prescription drug abuse? What are some of the commonly abused prescription ...

193

Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation presents NASA's Common Badging and Access Control System. NASA began a Smart Card implementation in January 2004. Following site surveys, it was determined that NASA's badging and access control systems required upgrades to common infrastructure in order to provide flexibly, usability, and return on investment prior to a smart card implantation. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS) provides the common infrastructure from which FIPS-201 compliant processes, systems, and credentials can be developed and used.

Dischinger, Portia

2005-01-01

194

Therapeutic Alliance and Common Factors in Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Changes in therapy can result from variables unique to a particular treatment package (i.e., specific factors), as a function\\u000a of variables common to a variety of treatments (i.e., nonspecific\\/common factors), or a combination of both specific and nonspecific\\u000a ingredients (Kazdin,1979). Nonspecific (or common) treatment factors include variables that are common across different treatment\\u000a modalities, which are thought to influence outcomes

Daniella M. Halperin; Meara L. Weitzman; Michael W. Otto

195

Plant nutrition: from common sense to  

E-print Network

Plant nutrition: from common sense to scientific views Science teaching unit #12;Disclaimer-2008DVD-EN Plant nutrition: from common sense to scientific views #12;#12;© Crown copyright 2008 1The National Strategies | Secondary Plant nutrition: from common sense to scientific views 00094-2008DVD

Berzins, M.

196

Formal ontology, common sense and cognitive science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common sense is on the one hand a certain set of processes of natural cognition - of speaking, reasoning, seeing, and so on. On the other hand common sense is a system of beliefs (of folk physics, folk psychology and so on). Over against both of these is the world of common sense, the world of objects to which the

Barry Smith

1995-01-01

197

Beyond Idiot Savants: Recommendations and Common Sense  

E-print Network

Beyond Idiot Savants: Recommendations and Common Sense Michael J. Pazzani Department of Informatics@ics.uci.edu ABSTRACT The current generation of recommendation systems exhibits little if any common sense. While adept is missing the common sense of sales clerk on his or her first day on job. The problem is not restricted to e

Pazzani, Michael J.

198

Characterizing common cause closed probability spaces  

E-print Network

in the very strong sense of being embeddable into a common cause closed probability space. These results solveCharacterizing common cause closed probability spaces October 12, 2010 Zal´an Gyenis Department probability measure space was defined in earlier papers [14], [9] to be common cause closed if it contains

199

Experience Programming Radiotherapy Applications in Common Lisp  

E-print Network

Experience Programming Radiotherapy Applications in Common Lisp Ira J. Kalet, Ph.D. 1, Jonathan M experience using Common Lisp 1] as the programming language for a new radiation treatment planning (RTP, and added powerful object oriented programming capabilities, along with standard- ization, so that Common

Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha

200

Introduction What is the Common Core Curriculum?  

E-print Network

#12;1 Introduction What is the Common Core Curriculum? What are the goals? What will you study are tutorials important? What are the requirements? · Table1:ProgrammeRequirementsfor TakingCommonCoreCoursesforStudentsof the3-YearUndergraduateCurriculumEnteringin2012-13 · Table2:ProgrammeRequirementsfor TakingCommon

Leung, Ka-Cheong

201

Common Nouns as Types Zhaohui Luo  

E-print Network

Common Nouns as Types Zhaohui Luo zhaohui.luo@hotmail.co.uk Abstract. When modern type theories are employed for formal seman- tics, common nouns (CNs) are interpreted as types, not as predicates. Although to the semantics of CNs. 1 Introduction It has been proposed that common nouns be interpreted as types, when modern

Luo, Zhaohui

202

Finding Nested Common Intervals Efficiently Guillaume Blin  

E-print Network

Finding Nested Common Intervals Efficiently Guillaume Blin David Faye Jens Stoye Abstract In this paper, we study the problem of efficiently finding gene clusters formalized by nested common intervals common intervals. We reduce this complexity by providing a quadratic time algorithm computing

Boyer, Edmond

203

First order common knowledge logics Frank Wolter  

E-print Network

(believes) ''' and ``it is common knowledge among the agents in M that ''', respectively. PropositionalFirst order common knowledge logics Frank Wolter Institut f¨ur Informatik, Universit¨at Leipzig #12; Abstract In this paper we investigate first order common knowledge logics; i.e., modal epistemic

Wolter, Frank

204

Common Intervals of Trees Steffen Heber  

E-print Network

Common Intervals of Trees Steffen Heber Dept. of Computer Science N. C. State University, Box 7566 problems, algorithms, labelled trees 1 Introduction In this paper we consider the problem of finding common intervals of trees, a general- ization of the concept of common intervals in permutations. For a permutation

Savage, Carla D.

205

COMPUTING WITH COMMON KNOWLEDGE Ricardo Wehbe  

E-print Network

There are several situations in which common knowledge becomes important. Among them we have games, social behaviour- edge between them. Besides, public announcements cre- ates common knowledge among all agents. We showCOMPUTING WITH COMMON KNOWLEDGE Ricardo Wehbe Institut f¨ur Informatik und angewandte Mathematik

Jäger, Gerhard

206

Common Knowledge Revisited \\Lambda Ronald Fagin  

E-print Network

that in order for something to be a convention, it must in fact be common knowledge among the members of a group #12; convention that green means ``go'' and red means ``stop'' is presumably common knowledge amongCommon Knowledge Revisited \\Lambda Ronald Fagin IBM Almaden Research Center 650 Harry Road San Jose

Vardi, Moshe Y.

207

THE COMMONS INITIATIVE: COOPERATIVE MEASUREMENT AND  

E-print Network

-- collaboration among researchers and networks to simultaneously solve three * The COMMONS Strategy WorkshopTHE COMMONS INITIATIVE: COOPERATIVE MEASUREMENT AND MODELING OF OPEN NETWORKED SYSTEMS * Sascha D to thank all the participants in the COMMONS Strategy Workshop for their vital and continuing input

California at San Diego, University of

208

Introduction What is the Common Core Curriculum?  

E-print Network

#12;Introduction What is the Common Core Curriculum? What are the goals? What will you study? WhatRequirementsfor TakingCommonCoreCoursesforStudents Enteringin2013-14 Non-Permissible Combinations · Table2:Non-PermissibleCombinationsof CommonCoreCourses The Areas of Inquiry: Rationale, Aims and Objectives, and Key Themes · Scientificand

Leung, Ka-Cheong

209

Common Randomness Amplification: A Constructive View  

E-print Network

probabilistic game over the Internet requires some randomness shared among the players. This common randomnessCommon Randomness Amplification: A Constructive View Gr´egory Demay Ueli Maurer Department of Computer Science, ETH Z¨urich, Switzerland Email: {demayg,maurer}@inf.ethz.ch Abstract--Common randomness

Maurer, Ueli

210

Discriminative Common Vectors for Face Recognition  

E-print Network

Discriminative Common Vectors for Face Recognition Hakan Cevikalp, Student Member, IEEE, Marian propose a new face recognition method called the Discriminative Common Vector method based on a variation to extract the discriminative common vectors representing each person in the training set of the face

211

Longest common separable pattern among permutations  

E-print Network

Longest common separable pattern among permutations Mathilde Bouvel, Dominique Rossin, and St´ephane Vialette CPM, July 9 to 11, 2007 Bouvel, Rossin and Vialette () Longest common separable pattern among, Rossin and Vialette () Longest common separable pattern among permutations CPM'07 2 / 33 #12;Introduction

Lonardi, Stefano

212

Simplifying the ELA Common Core; Demystifying Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The English Language Arts (ELA) Common Core State Standards ([CCSS], 2010) could have a transformational effect on American education. Though the process seems daunting, one can begin immediately integrating the essence of the ELA Common Core in every subject area. This article shows how one could implement the Common Core and create coherent,…

Schmoker, Mike; Jago, Carol

2013-01-01

213

Mary Grace and the Warthog from Hell: Violent Redemption in Flannery O’Connor’s “Revelation”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholarship on the works of Flannery O’Connor is divided concerning her depiction of divine grace as a violent force. Some scholars worry that her insistence on the violence of grace makes God a violent God or excuses the pain and brokenness of the world. Despite the arguments of those who oppose O’Connor’s view of violent grace, this paper will argue

Halina Hopkins

2012-01-01

214

Learning from warthogs and oxpeckers: promoting mutualism in school and university research partnerships  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article it is argued that metaphors can be useful in explaining the ways academics and teachers can work inter-dependently, using action research, to achieve different, but mutually beneficial outcomes. The authors explore several metaphors used by other writers to capture some of the essential characteristics of research partnerships, while playfully advancing their own biological metaphor of mutualism to

Bruce Johnson; Kaye Johnson

2002-01-01

215

A pigheaded compromise: do competition and predation explain variation in warthog group size?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive payoff to an individual for participating in a group will often be affected by the size of the group. Competition for resources and predation pressure are 2 primary factors that influence sociality and group size in a variety of species. In this correlative study, I investigated how resource competition and predation influenced group size and female reproduction in

Angela M. White

2010-01-01

216

Evidence of helping behavior in a free-ranging population of communally breeding warthogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperative breeding societies are defined by the presence of helpers. Defining helping behavior in cooperatively breeding\\u000a mammals has been difficult because lactation limits the ability of individuals to provision non-genetic young. As a consequence,\\u000a “helping” behavior has frequently included predator and conspecific defense and thermoregulation. However, these behaviors\\u000a are often associated with the benefits of group living and their expression

Angela M. White; Elissa Z. Cameron

217

Diagnosis and management of common fetal arrhythmias  

PubMed Central

Fetal arrhythmias are detected in at least 2% of unselected pregnancies during routine obstetrical scans. Most common are transient, brief episodes of a slow or fast heart rate or of an irregular heart rhythm. Less common are prolonged or persistent abnormalities such as supraventricular tachycardia and complete heart block which may lead to low cardiac output, fetal hydrops and demise. The objectives of this review are to update the reader on the diagnosis and management of the more common arrhythmias. PMID:23960639

Weber, Roland; Stambach, Dominik; Jaeggi, Edgar

2011-01-01

218

Common Financial System Going from CMS (Common Management System)g ( g y )  

E-print Network

Common Financial System Going from CMS (Common Management System)g ( g y ) to CFS (Common Financial at the Chancellor's Office has launched CFS, Common Financial Systems, y · The CFS database consolidation project the following groups » Finance Central Office \\ Functional Owners » Division Financial Managers » End Users

de Lijser, Peter

219

A Common UniversityA Common University Dataset for Canada (CUDC)  

E-print Network

HEADset and EDUCQ (the "consensus template") common use among universities of CUSC as student satisfaction11/18/2008 1 A Common UniversityA Common University Dataset for Canada (CUDC) Alan Harrison P d Vi capacity, literacy and Aboriginal education The Story So Far Provincial initiatives Common University

Garousi, Vahid

220

Common Misconceptions about Biomes and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes some common misconceptions that elementary students may have about biomes and ecosystems. It also includes suggestions for formative assessment and teaching for conceptual change.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

221

Common Misconceptions about Heat and Insulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes some common misconceptions that elementary students may have about energy, heat, and insulation. It also includes suggestions for formative assessment and teaching for conceptual change.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

222

The Common Forces: Conservative or Nonconservative?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of the forces commonly encountered when solving problems in Newtonian mechanics, introductory texts usually limit illustrations of the definitions of conservative and nonconservative forces to gravity, spring forces, kinetic friction and fluid resistance. However, at the expense of very little class time, the question of whether each of the common

Keeports, David

2006-01-01

223

Common complications of pediatric neuromuscular disorders.  

PubMed

Children with pediatric neuromuscular disorders experience common complications, primarily due to immobility and weakness. Musculoskeletal complications include hip dysplasia with associated hip subluxation or dislocation, neuromuscular scoliosis, and osteoporosis and resulting fractures. Constipation, gastroesophageal reflux, and obesity and malnutrition are commonly experienced gastrointestinal complications. Disordered sleep also is frequently observed, which affects both patients and caregivers. PMID:25479776

Skalsky, Andrew J; Dalal, Pritha B

2015-02-01

224

Instructional Leadership and the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following the 2012-13 administrators welcome back kick-off meeting, superintendent Pat highlighted the district's plan to roll-out of the new Common Core State Standards (CCSS), including integration of learning experiences that would prepare students for the new Common Core assessments from the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC).…

Groth, Karla; Bennett-Schmidt, Sally J.

2013-01-01

225

Investigating nitrogen deficiency in common beans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) and soybean diverged from a common ancestor approximately 19 million years ago. The genome of P. vulgaris is approximately half the size of soybean, making it an excellent model for soybean genetics. Nitrogen (N) is often a growth-limiting nutrient, and N deficiency ...

226

Beating Common Sense into Interactive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-standing dream of artificial intelligence has been to put common sense knowledge into computers—enabling machines to reason about everyday life. Some projects, such as Cyc, have begun to amass large collections of such knowl- edge. However, it is widely assumed that the use of common sense in interactive applications will remain impractical for years, until these collec- tions can

Henry Lieberman; Hugo Liu; Push Singh; Barbara Barry

2004-01-01

227

Technical Communicators as Purveyors of Common Sense.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that technical communicators are in the position to foster users' commonsense understanding of products. Discusses different definitions of common sense and suggests that including scenarios, common metaphors, and language that promotes procedural knowledge in product information can strengthen users' commonsense understanding of the…

Praetorius, Pete

2002-01-01

228

Common Sequence Polymorphisms Shaping Genetic Diversity in  

E-print Network

Common Sequence Polymorphisms Shaping Genetic Diversity in Arabidopsis thaliana Richard M. Clark,1 to the reference genome sequence. Patterns of polymorphism are highly nonrandom among gene families, with genes- phism data set captures much of the common sequence variation in the worldwide A. thaliana pop- ulation

Weigel, Detlef

229

Common Knowledge and Consistent Simultaneous Coordination  

E-print Network

Common Knowledge and Consistent Simultaneous Coordination Gil Neiger College of Computing Georgia, and Distributed Firing Squad problems. These problems require coordination only among the processors that do in terms of common knowledge. (Others have performed similar analyses of traditional coordination problems

Tuttle, Mark R.

230

Timed Common Lisp: Scott D. Anderson  

E-print Network

Timed Common Lisp: Scott D. Anderson Spelman College Atlanta, GA anderson©auc, edu The Duration among AI simu- lators for reai-time planning [1]. Unfortunately, there are problems with using CPU time the increments are determined. 2.1 Low-level Models A "low-level" primitive is a primitive of the Common Lisp

231

Towards a Common Framework for Multimodal Generation  

E-print Network

Towards a Common Framework for Multimodal Generation: The Behavior Markup Language Stefan Kopp1 among the approaches. To avoid replication of work, as well as to allow for sharing modules, a push was initiated to develop a common specification. In April 2005, a group of researchers in the area of multimodal

232

116 Computer reating a common language  

E-print Network

116 Computer C reating a common language provides one of a social enter- prise's defining moments allowing a field's participants to communicate among themselves. Its importance extends beyond this func to identify the people who participate in an enterprise and, by its arcanism when related to the common

Santini, Simone

233

Pixel Approximation Errors in Common Watershed Algorithms  

E-print Network

Pixel Approximation Errors in Common Watershed Algorithms Hans Meine1 , Peer Stelldinger1 algorithms are among the most important approaches to image seg- mentation. This is in large part due caused by common watershed discretization schemes. This investigation reveals a number of interesting

Hamprecht, Fred A.

234

Searching for Fundamentals and Commonalities of Search  

E-print Network

4 Searching for Fundamentals and Commonalities of Search John M. C. Hutchinson, David W. Stephens commonly appeal to optimality or game-theo- retical models, and these models, along with knowledge about are to utilize variation among species or natural variation among individuals of a single species. If what

235

COMMON TIME REFERENCE FOR INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA APPLICATIONS  

E-print Network

COMMON TIME REFERENCE FOR INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA APPLICATIONS Mario Baldi and Yoram Ofek Multiplexing (WDM). Networks will suffer (i) electronic switching bottlenecks among high-speed links and (ii, videotelephony and videoconferencing, highlighting the benefits brought by the availability of global common time

Baldi, Mario

236

THERIDIOSOMATIDAE1 genus, 2 species Common name --  

E-print Network

244 Chapter 63 THERIDIOSOMATIDAE1 genus, 2 species Common name -- Ray spiders. Similar families) is a more southerly species, only common along the gulf coastal plain. The two species are broadly sympatric- tinctly different habitats but are alike and unusual among orbweavers in being primarily diurnal predators

Coddington, Jonathan A.

237

Common Knowledge and Consistent Simultaneous Coordination  

E-print Network

Common Knowledge and Consistent Simultaneous Coordination Gil Neiger # College of Computing Georgia, and Distributed Firing Squad problems. These problems require coordination only among the processors that do in terms of common knowledge. (Others have performed similar analyses of traditional coordination problems

Tuttle, Mark R.

238

DIVISIBILITY AND GREATEST COMMON DIVISORS KEITH CONRAD  

E-print Network

DIVISIBILITY AND GREATEST COMMON DIVISORS KEITH CONRAD 1. Introduction We will begin with a review of divisibility among integers, mostly to set some notation and to indicate its properties. Then we will look at two important theorems involving greatest common divisors: Euclid's algorithm and Bezout's identity

Lozano-Robledo, Alvaro

239

Confronting Common Folklore: Catching a Cold  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost every child has experienced the sniffly, stuffy, and achy congestion of the common cold. In addition, many have encountered the "old wives tales" that forge a link between personal actions and coming down with this common respiratory infection. Much of this health folklore has been passed down from generation to generation (e.g., getting a…

Keeley, Page

2012-01-01

240

Mathematics Common Core Unpacked: Grade Five  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document provides descriptions and examples of what each Mathematics Common Core standard means a Grade Five student will know, understand and be able to do. This "unpacking" of the standards provides instructional guidelines and was developed to assist North Carolina educators teach the Mathematics Common Core (Standard Course of Study).

Drew Polly at UNCC

241

Common coil magnet system for VLHC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the common coil magnet system for the proposed Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC). In this system, the high energy booster (HEB), the injector to VLHC, is integrated as the iron dominated low field aperture within the coldmass of the common coil magnet design introduced earlier. This 4-in-1 magnet concept for a 2-in-1 machine should provide a major

Ramesh Gupta; Lawrence Berkeley

1999-01-01

242

Vitamin C and the common cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of vitamin C on the common cold has been the subject of several studies. These studies do not support a considerable decrease in the incidence of the common cold with supplemental vitamin C. However, vitamin C has consistently decreased the duration of cold episodes and the severity of symptoms. The benefits that have been observed in different studies

Harri Hemilä

1992-01-01

243

Organized Interests and the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the notable aspects of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is the diverse array of interest groups supporting them. These organizations must now apply the strategies they used so effectively in advancing the Common Core to stem mounting opposition to it. This article draws on theories of political and policy learning and interviews with…

McDonnell, Lorraine M.; Weatherford, M. Stephen

2013-01-01

244

Testing the Hypothesis of Common Ancestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that all life on earth traces back to a single common ancestor is a fundamental postulate in modern evolutionary theory. Yet, despite its widespread acceptance in biology, there has been comparatively little attention to formally testing this “hypothesis of common ancestry”. We review and critically examine some arguments that have been proposed in support of this hypothesis. We

Elliott Soberwz; Michael Steelny

2002-01-01

245

Testing the Hypothesis of Common Ancestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that all life on earth traces back to a single common ancestor is a fundamental postulate in modern evolutionary theory. Yet, despite its widespread acceptance in biology, there has been comparatively little attention to formally testing this'hypothesis of common ancestry''. We review and critically examine some arguments that have been proposed in support of this hypothesis. We then

E. Sober; M. Steel

2002-01-01

246

Commonality and Variability in Software Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes how to perform domain engineering by identifying the commonalities and variabilities within a family of products. Through interesting examples dealing with reuse libraries, design patterns, and programming language design, the authors suggest a systematic scope, commonalities, and variabilities approach to formal analysis. Their SCV analysis has been an integral part of the FAST (Family-oriented Abstraction, Specification, and

James Coplien; Daniel Hoffman; David M. Weiss

1998-01-01

247

Gender, Nation and the Common Law Constitution†  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that the common law constitution can be thought of as the working out of a tradition within which notions of gender, national identity and citizenship are conveyed and secured. It looks at the making and interpretation of Commonwealth Caribbean Constitutions in the latter half of the twentieth century. It shows how the language of the common law

Tracy Robinson

2008-01-01

248

Mathematics Common Core Unpacked: Grade Four  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document provides descriptions and examples of what each Mathematics Common Core standard means a Grade Four student will know, understand and be able to do. This "unpacking" of the standards provides instructional guidelines and was developed to assist North Carolina educators teach the Mathematics Common Core (Standard Course of Study).

Uncc, Ew P.

2012-08-01

249

Mathematics Common Core Unpacked: Grade Three  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document provides descriptions and examples of what each Mathematics Common Core standard means a Grade Three student will know, understand and be able to do. This "unpacking" of the standards provides instructional guidelines and was developed to assist North Carolina educators teach the Mathematics Common Core (Standard Course of Study).

Uncc, Ew P.

2012-08-01

250

Common Standards for Career Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Office of College and Career Readiness has developed the "Common Standards for Career Education Programs." The six common standards are: (1) Program Management and Planning; (2) Curriculum; (3) Instruction; (4) Professional Development; (5) Career and Technical Student Organizations; and (6) Instructional Facilities and Equipment. These…

Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2012

2012-01-01

251

Guidelines for Common Bean QTL Nomenclature  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis has become an important tool for the characterization and breeding of complex traits in crops plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). A standard system for naming QTL in common bean is needed for effective referencing of new and previously identif...

252

Original article Preliminary results of common oak  

E-print Network

Original article Preliminary results of common oak (Quercus robur L) provenance experiments en hauteur / surviel/ Croatie INTRODUCTION Common oak (Quercus robur L) is one of the most valuable- an oak" is well known in Croatia and in world markets. However, difficulties with natural regeneration

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

253

Newton's method for the common eigenvector problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In El Ghazi et al. [Backward error for the common eigenvector problem, CERFACS Report TR/PA/06/16, Toulouse, France, 2006], we have proved the sensitivity of computing the common eigenvector of two matrices A and B, and we have designed a new approach to solve this problem based on the notion of the backward error. If one of the two matrices (saying A) has n eigenvectors then to find the common eigenvector we have just to write the matrix B in the basis formed by the eigenvectors of A. But if there is eigenvectors with multiplicity >1, the common vector belong to vector space of dimension >1 and such strategy would not help compute it. In this paper we use Newton's method to compute a common eigenvector for two matrices, taking the backward error as a stopping criteria. We mention that no assumptions are made on the matrices A and B.

El Ghazi, Abdellatif; El Hajji, Said; Giraud, Luc; Gratton, Serge

2008-10-01

254

What Are Some Common Signs of Pregnancy?  

MedlinePLUS

... are common and can have a variety of causes, including taking birth control pills, conditions such as diabetes and polycystic ovary syndrome , eating disorders, excessive exercise, and certain medications. Women who miss ...

255

Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought  

PubMed Central

Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

2013-01-01

256

Common Disorders of the Achilles Tendon  

MedlinePLUS

... helping to raise the heel off the ground. Achilles Tendonitis and Achilles Tendonosis Two common disorders that occur in the heel cord are Achilles tendonitis and Achilles tendonosis. Achilles tendonitis is an inflammation ...

257

What Are Common Symptoms of Down Syndrome?  

MedlinePLUS

... Publications En Español What are common symptoms of Down syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content The symptoms of Down syndrome vary from person to person, and people with ...

258

What Are Common Treatments for Down Syndrome?  

MedlinePLUS

... Publications En Español What are common treatments for Down syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... Content There is no single, standard treatment for Down syndrome. Treatments are based on each individual's physical and ...

259

Lung Cancer and COPD: a Common Combination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objectiveTo analyse frequency, characteristics and patient survival with lung cancer (LC) and Common Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), comparing them with patients that do not have COPD.

José Abal Arca; Isaura Parente Lamelas; Raquel Almazán Ortega; José Blanco Pérez; María Elena Toubes Navarro; Pedro Marcos Velázquez

2009-01-01

260

The Erickson Alumni Center Statler Wilson Commons  

E-print Network

The Erickson Alumni Center At Statler Wilson Commons Wedding Guide One Alumni Drive PO Box 4269.Laverdiere@mail.wvu.edu Revised 7/25/12 #12;Wedding Facilities We, the staff of The Erickson Alumni Center at Statler

Mohaghegh, Shahab

261

A common-view disciplined oscillator  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a common-view disciplined oscillator (CVDO) that locks to a reference time scale through the use of common-view global positioning system (GPS) satellite measurements. The CVDO employs a proportional-integral-derivative controller that obtains near real-time common-view GPS measurements from the internet and provides steering corrections to a local oscillator. A CVDO can be locked to any time scale that makes real-time common-view data available and can serve as a high-accuracy, self-calibrating frequency and time standard. Measurement results are presented where a CVDO is locked to UTC(NIST), the coordinated universal time scale maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado.

Lombardi, Michael A. [Time and Frequency Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Dahlen, Aaron P. [Loran Support Unit, United States Coast Guard (USCG), Wildwood, New Jersey 08260 (United States)

2010-05-15

262

Eleven Common-Sense Learning Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides 11 common-sense learning principles for trainers: tell stories, play games, explore and experiment, use pictures, have a coach, learn with others, focus on what is important, take breaks, have lunch, be passionate, and keep learning. (JOW)

Forman, David C.

2003-01-01

263

What Are Common Treatments for Turner Syndrome?  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources and Publications What are common treatments for Turner syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Although there is no cure for Turner syndrome, some treatments can help minimize its symptoms. These ...

264

Familial Cavernous Malformations (CCM) - Common Hispanic Mutation  

MedlinePLUS

... Learn More Familial Cavernous Malformations (CCM) - Common Hispanic Mutation What is Familial Cavernous Malformations (CCM)? Cerebral Cavernous ... Malformations (CCM)? CCM may be inherited due to mutations in one of three genes, CCM1, CCM2, or ...

265

University of Pennsylvania ScholarlyCommons  

E-print Network

University of Pennsylvania ScholarlyCommons Center for Human Modeling and Simulation Department University of Pennsylvania Julie Dorsey Massachusetts Institute of Technology Eero Simoncelli University of Pennsylvania Norman I. Badler University of Pennsylvania, badler@seas.upenn.edu Copyright Massachusetts

Badler, Norman I.

266

Tragedy of the Commons: Simulation A  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity explores how common usage of a limited, potentially renewable resource invariably leads to its exploitation. In this simulation, students imagine that they are fishermen sharing access to a common fishing pond. Two different stages of the simulation are performed. In this, the first, students are not allowed to communicate, and each fisher has no knowledge of how many fish have been taken before them. In the second, students are allowed to strategize, plan, and learn from their experiences. In this way, the ability (or not) to communicate is the independent variable, and the size of the resource over time is the dependent variable. After completing this activity students should understand the conditions that lead to a "tragedy of the commons", learn strategies that prevent the destruction of a common resource, and apply these strategies to global environmental issues and suggest solutions. The activity is evaluated on the basis of written work.

Tori Haidinger

267

Tragedy of the Commons: Simulation B  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity explores how common usage of a limited, potentially renewable resource invariably leads to its exploitation. In this simulation, students imagine that they are fishermen sharing access to a common fishing pond. Two different stages of the simulation are performed. In the first, students are not allowed to communicate, and each fisher has no knowledge of how many fish have been taken before them. In this, the second, students are allowed to strategize, plan, and learn from their experiences. In this way, the ability (or not) to communicate is the independent variable, and the size of the resource over time is the dependent variable. After completing this activity students should understand the conditions that lead to a "tragedy of the commons", learn strategies that prevent the destruction of a common resource, and apply these strategies to global environmental issues and suggest solutions. The activity is discussed in progress.

Tori Haidinger

268

Common Misconceptions about Day and Night, Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes common misconceptions held by elementary students about the cause of day and night and seasons. The article provides ideas for formative assessment, teaching strategies, and the National Science Education Standards.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

269

Common flea beetles of North Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A very nicely illustrated key to 46 flea beetles regularly found in North Dakota. The key is a lucid style key, and the images are carefully produced. A beautiful photo gallery and list of common flea beetles is also included.

0002-11-30

270

Get Answers to Common Questions About...  

Cancer.gov

Get Answers to Common Questions About... Biological Specimens Drug Availability, Labeling and Distribution Ethics Indemnity Insurance Planning Clinical Trials and Navigating Regulatory Requirements Protocols Quality Assurance and Monitoring Software

271

Something in Common: The Common Core Standards and the Next Chapter in American Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Something in Common" is the first book to provide a detailed look at the groundbreaking Common Core State Standards and their potential to transform American education. This book tells the story of the unfolding political drama around the making of the Common Core State Standards for math and English language arts, which were adopted by 43 states…

Rothman, Robert

2011-01-01

272

What is the Ecosystem Commons? Why do we need the Ecosystem Commons?  

E-print Network

What is the Ecosystem Commons? Why do we need the Ecosystem Commons? The overarching goal of Ecosystem Commons is to enhance the use of ecosystem services and related science in conservation at regional and national ecosystem services events and conferences Provide news and information

Escher, Christine

273

Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals of the project are: Achieve high business value through a common badging and access control system that integrates with smart cards. Provide physical (versus logical) deployment of smart cards initially. Provides a common consistent and reliable environment into which to release the smart card. Gives opportunity to develop agency-wide consistent processes, practices and policies. Enables enterprise data capture and management. Promotes data validation prior to SC issuance.

Baldridge, Tim

2005-01-01

274

Testing the Hardness of Common Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity gives students practice and a chance to develop expertise in using the test for hardness in identifying common minerals. Following a discussion and an introduction to Moh's scale, the students will work in groups to test minerals whose identities are known against their standards (common substances whose hardnesses are known). Once the known minerals have been tested, the students can proceed to test unknown samples. A student worksheet and discussion questions are provided.

2005-10-06

275

Onchocerca dewittei japonica n. subsp., a common parasite from wild boar in Kyushu Island, Japan.  

PubMed

We describe Onchocerca dewittei japonica n. subsp. from the Japanese wild boar, Sus scrofa leucomystax, in Oita, Kyushu Island, where all seven animals examined were found to be infected. This study began with efforts to identify the causative species in a recent case of zoonotic onchocerciasis. Compared with Onchocerca dewittei dewittei from Sus scrofa jubatus in Malaysia, which was reexamined here, our new subspecies has much greater space between the ridges on the females. In addition, its microfilariae (from uteri) are shorter (192-210 microns compared with 228-247 microns), and only the posterior third of the microfilarial body is coiled, instead of the entire body. The Onchocerca species parasitic in suids (these two subspecies and O. ramachandrini from the warthog in the Ethiopian region) form a group sharing several characters. Among the most unusual characters are the body swellings (a specialized apparatus for mating, known in only a few other genera). In addition, longitudinal cuticular crests were found on males of both subspecies from wild boar and on females of O. ramachandrini. PMID:11584751

Uni, S; Bain, O; Takaoka, H; Miyashita, M; Suzuki, Y

2001-09-01

276

A common language for computer security incidents  

SciTech Connect

Much of the computer security information regularly gathered and disseminated by individuals and organizations cannot currently be combined or compared because a common language has yet to emerge in the field of computer security. A common language consists of terms and taxonomies (principles of classification) which enable the gathering, exchange and comparison of information. This paper presents the results of a project to develop such a common language for computer security incidents. This project results from cooperation between the Security and Networking Research Group at the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, and the CERT{reg_sign} Coordination Center at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. This Common Language Project was not an effort to develop a comprehensive dictionary of terms used in the field of computer security. Instead, the authors developed a minimum set of high-level terms, along with a structure indicating their relationship (a taxonomy), which can be used to classify and understand computer security incident information. They hope these high-level terms and their structure will gain wide acceptance, be useful, and most importantly, enable the exchange and comparison of computer security incident information. They anticipate, however, that individuals and organizations will continue to use their own terms, which may be more specific both in meaning and use. They designed the common language to enable these lower-level terms to be classified within the common language structure.

John D. Howard; Thomas A Longstaff

1998-10-01

277

29 CFR 779.221 - “Common control” defined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Enterprise Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control § 779.221 “Common control” defined. Under the definition the “enterprise...related activities performed through “common control” for a common business purpose. The...

2011-07-01

278

29 CFR 779.221 - “Common control” defined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Enterprise Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control § 779.221 “Common control” defined. Under the definition the “enterprise...related activities performed through “common control” for a common business purpose. The...

2010-07-01

279

Economic Analysis of Social Common Capital  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social common capital provides members of society with those services and institutional arrangements that are crucial in maintaining human and cultural life. The term æsocial common capital' is comprised of three categories: natural capital, social infrastructure, and institutional capital. Natural capital consists of all natural environment and natural resources including the earth's atmosphere. Social infrastructure consists of roads, bridges, public transportation systems, electricity, and other public utilities. Institutional capital includes hospitals, educational institutions, judicial and police systems, public administrative services, financial and monetary institutions, and cultural capital. This book attempts to modify and extend the theoretical premises of orthodox economic theory to make them broad enough to analyze the economic implications of social common capital. It further aims to find the institutional arrangements and policy measures that will bring about the optimal state of affairs.

Uzawa, Hirofumi

2005-06-01

280

Organising pneumonia in common variable immunodeficiency.  

PubMed

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common of the primary immunodeficiency disorders. Pulmonary manifestations are characterised by recurrent rhinosinusitis, respiratory tract infections and bronchiectasis. Less commonly the lung may be affected by lymphoid disorders and sarcoid-like granulomas. Organising pneumonia (OP) is a rare pulmonary manifestation. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with CVID who presented with fever, dyspnoea and persistent lung infiltrates despite antibiotic therapy. CT of the chest showed bilateral patchy alveolar infiltrates. Pulmonary function tests revealed moderate restriction and reduction in diffusion capacity. Initial bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies did not yield a diagnosis but surgical lung biopsies identified OP. Significant clinical, radiographic and physiological improvement was achieved after institution of corticosteroid therapy. PMID:23749855

Boujaoude, Ziad; Arya, Rohan; Rafferty, William; Dammert, Pedro

2013-01-01

281

Simulating futures in extended common LISP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stack-groups comprise the mechanism underlying implementation of multiprocessing in Extended Common LISP, i.e., running multiple quasi-simultaneous processes within a single LISP address space. On the other hand, the future construct of MULTILISP, an extension of the LISP dialect scheme, deals with parallel execution. The source of concurrency that future exploits is the overlap between computation of a value and use of the value. Described is a simulation of the future construct by an interpreter utilizing stack-group extensions to common LISP.

Nachtsheim, Philip R.

1988-01-01

282

Open Educational Resources Commons: Mathematics and Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Open Educational Resources (OER) Commons is an open network of course materials and other educational resources, for all levels, that are freely available online for the use of educators, students, and self-learners. Materials include full courses, course modules, syllabi, lectures, homework assignments, quizzes, lab and classroom activities, pedagogical materials, games, simulations, and many other items. The mathematics and statistics section of OER Commons provides access to thousands of resources in all areas of math and statistics. Each resource is accompanied by metadata, including type, subject, grade level, a rating, and other types of information. Users are also invited to submit resources for others to share.

283

NASA information systems commonality and convergence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts to identify high payback functions performed by the Office of Space Science Applications (OSSA) data systems package existing operationally proven implementations as system building blocks and foster their use in the OSSA environment. An overview is given of the current state of OSSA data systems and the major challenges facing system developers over the next five years. Current trends in system commonality are discussed, and development is examined in the context of system design. Central system engineering approaches to solving the commonality and interoperability challenges are described. Efforts to package three diverse building blocks and to foster their reuse are documented.

Handley, Thomas H., Jr.; Preheim, Larry E.

1991-01-01

284

Space application of airborne common modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that, with some early planning, common electronics modules designed for combat aircraft can be used in space applications. It is shown that architectures, made up of common modules, can be constructed in a manner that will resolve reliability, safety, environmental and cost concerns. Growth path and capability are shown for near-term projects (heavy launch vehicle) through far-term (manned Mars mission) applications. Performance requirements, environmental specifications, validation methods, and testing philosophy for missions in space transportation are addressed.

Flanagan, R. A.; Mosher, T. O.; Fleischman, D. L.; Bond, D. G.

285

Solving the 10 Most Common Carpet Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies the 10 most common carpet problems in school facilities and offers solutions. These include: transition areas, moisture, spot removal, recurring spots, cleaning agents, allergens, wicking, biological contamination, equipment selection, and cleaning methods. Ensuring a successful maintenance program results in satisfactory appearance,…

Hilton, Michael

1998-01-01

286

Key to Identifying Common Household Ants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short lucid key to 8 common household ant species with control strategies. The information presented is accurate and the key easy to use; ancillary pages are also useful. The key may present difficulties if other ant species are encountered or in other parts of the U.S.

0002-11-30

287

Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) in English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) is a large-scale, high-stakes, English language proficiency/placement test administered in the United Arab Emirates to Emirati nationals in their final year of secondary education or Grade 12. The purpose of the CEPA is to place students into English classes at the appropriate government…

Coombe, Christine; Davidson, Peter

2014-01-01

288

The Common Core and Inverse Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The widespread adoption of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) shows a commitment to changing mathematics teaching and learning in pursuit of increasing student achievement. CCSSM should not be viewed as just another list of content standards for publishers and assessment groups to design their products around. Many…

Edenfield, Kelly W.

2012-01-01

289

FEATURED PHOTO WILSON'S AND COMMON SNIPES  

Microsoft Academic Search

th edition of the AOU Check-list (1931). Then, with the publication of the 20 th supplement to its Checklist of North American Birds, the AOU (1945) decided to treat it as conspecific with the Common Snipe ( G. gallinago) of the Old World. The reference cited for this change was the treatment in Witherby et al. (1940). In lumping these

290

Chromosome Connections: Compelling Clues to Common Ancestry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students compare banding patterns on hominid chromosomes and see striking evidence of their common ancestry. To test this, human chromosome no. 2 is matched with two shorter chimpanzee chromosomes, leading to the hypothesis that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of the two shorter chromosomes. Students test that hypothesis by looking for…

Flammer, Larry

2013-01-01

291

Internet 2 Commons: A Collaborative Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of Internet 2, a partnership in educational efforts, focuses on the Internet 2 Commons which is a collaborative framework for the advancement of research and pedagogical activities. Discusses the use of videoconferencing to improve communication and to create an environment for group collaboration; networking and collaboration; video…

Simco, Greg

2002-01-01

292

Common DNS Operational and Configuration Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This memo describes errors often found in both the operation of Domain Name System (DNS) servers, and in the data that these DNS servers contain. This memo tries to summarize current Internet requirements as well as common practice in the operation and configuration of the DNS. This memo also tries to summarize or expand upon issues raised in (RFC 1537).

D. Barr

1996-01-01

293

Common Exposure to STL Polyomavirus During Childhood  

PubMed Central

STL polyomavirus (STLPyV) was recently identified in human specimens. To determine seropositivity for STLPyV, we developed an ELISA and screened patient samples from 2 US cities (Denver, Colorado [500]; St. Louis, Missouri [419]). Overall seropositivity was 68%–70%. The age-stratified data suggest that STLPyV infection is widespread and commonly acquired during childhood. PMID:25148144

Lim, Efrem S.; Meinerz, Natalie M.; Primi, Blake; Wang, David

2014-01-01

294

EVALUATING SILICON UPTAKE IN COMMON FLORICULTURE PLANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Silicon (Si) is not commonly added in floriculture crop fertilizer recipes in the United States because it is not considered to be an essential plant nutrient. Given the growing body of information showing a clear, beneficial effect on plant growth, inclusion of Si in fertilizer recipes could be a ...

295

Laying a Common Foundation for Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For decades, the American elementary and secondary education system has operated somewhat as the railroads did before Lincoln's day, with each state setting its own expectations for what students should know and be able to do. To address that problem, nearly every state, with little fanfare, has adopted the Common Core State Standards for student…

Rothman, Robert

2012-01-01

296

Tools for the Common Core Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bill McCallum, a leader in the development of the Common Core State Standards for mathematics, maintains this blog to share news about the progress of some tools and projects being developed to support implementation of the CCSS. From the Tools page he has linked a downloadable hyperlinked version of the mathematics standards, which facilitates navigation.

297

Common obstacles to making quality hay  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many obstacles are known to limit the production of high-quality hays. Among these, advanced plant maturity, rain damage during field wilting, and spontaneous heating during bale storage are most common. Rain damage reduces forage quality by leaching cell solubles (mostly sugars) from the forage, th...

298

Certification Issues for Some Common Aquaculture Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is interest in certification of aquaculture production facilities in response to concerns about negative environmental and social impacts and food safety. This study identifies issues to be considered by stakeholders in developing certification standards for channel catfish, tilapias, rainbow trout, oysters, mussels, clams, scallops, abalone, and seaweed. Common issues include land and water use, water pollution, benthic effects, effects

Claude E. Boyd; Aaron A. McNevin; Jason Clay; Howard M. Johnson

2005-01-01

299

Identifying common dynamic features in stock returns  

E-print Network

Identifying common dynamic features in stock returns Jorge Caiado and Nuno Crato CEMAPRE, Instituto This paper proposes volatility and spectral based methods for cluster analysis of stock returns. Using and the periodogram of the squared returns, we compute a distance matrix for the stock returns. Clusters are formed

Crato, Nuno

300

Exploring Function Transformations Using the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When examining transformations of the plane in geometry, teachers typically have students experiment with transformations of polygons. Students are usually quick to notice patterns with ordered pairs. The Common Core State Standard, Geometry, Congruence 2 (G-CO.2), requires students to describe transformations as functions that take points in the…

Hall, Becky; Giacin, Rich

2013-01-01

301

The Common Application: When Competitors Collaborate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American colleges and universities compete with each other for undergraduate and graduate students, faculty and staff, research funding, and external contributions, as well as on athletic fields. This competition is often alleged to be a zero-sum game; what one institution wins, another must lose. However, as the authors show here, the Common

Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Liu, Albert Yung-Hsu

2009-01-01

302

Lactoferrin for prevention of common viral infections.  

PubMed

Although lactoferrin has many biological functions, the host-protective effects against pathogenic microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and viruses are regarded as one of the most important. Here, we review research on the protective role of lactoferrin administration against common viral infections. Many studies have shown the in vitro antiviral activity of lactoferrin against viral pathogens that cause common infections such as the common cold, influenza, gastroenteritis, summer cold, and herpes, where lactoferrin inhibits mainly viral attachment to the target cells. Recently, studies indicating the in vivo protective effects of lactoferrin by oral administration against common viral infections have been increasing. For instance, norovirus is an extremely important emerging human pathogen that causes a majority of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide that may be a target candidate for lactoferrin. Lactoferrin consumption reduced the incidence of noroviral gastroenteritis in children and a similar effect was observed in a wide range of ages in a preliminary survey. A recent in vitro study reported that lactoferrin inhibits both cellular attachment of the murine norovirus, a virus closely-related to the human norovirus, and viral replication in the cells by inducing antiviral cytokines interferon (IFN)-?/?. Lactoferrin administration also enhances NK cell activity and Th1 cytokine responses, which lead to protection against viral infections. In conclusion, lactoferrin consumption may protect the host from viral infections through inhibiting the attachment of a virus to the cells, replication of the virus in the cells, and enhancement of systemic immune functions. PMID:25182867

Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Oda, Hirotsugu; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki

2014-11-01

303

Is Incest Common In Gray Wolf Packs?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In early 2000 the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center posted this resource on wolves at their Website. "Is Incest Common In Gray Wolf Packs?" suggests that incest is rare in wolf packs. The resource may be downloaded as a .zip file.

Adams, Layne G.; Burch, John W.; Geffen, Eli ..; Mech, L. D.; Meier, Thomas J.; Smith, Deborah.

304

Cancer Cell A Transcriptional Signature and Common  

E-print Network

Metabolism and Diverse Human Diseases Heather A. Hirsch,1,7 Dimitrios Iliopoulos,1,7 Amita Joshi,1,7 Yong and metabolic diseases. In accord with this common transcriptional program, many drugs used for treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases inhibit transformation and tumor growth. Unexpectedly, lipid

Bulyk, Martha L.

305

Common Factors in Effective HIV Prevention Programs  

PubMed Central

We propose a set of common factors in evidence-based interventions (EBI) for HIV prevention, which cut across theoretical models of behavior change. Three existing literatures support this agenda: (1) Common factors in psychotherapy; (2) core elements from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention EBIs; and (3) component analyses of EBI. To stimulate discussion among prevention researchers, we propose a set of common factors at the highest level of abstraction that describe what all effective programs do: (1) establish a framework to understand behavior change; (2) convey issue-specific and population-specific information necessary for healthy actions; (3) build cognitive, affective, and behavioral self-management skills; (4) address environmental barriers to implementing health behaviors; and (5) provide tools to develop ongoing social and community support for healthy actions. A focus on common factors will enhance research on new HIV prevention interventions, encourage collaboration among researchers, provide guidelines for adapting EBI, and simplify and speed the adoption of EBI for providers. PMID:18830813

Swendeman, Dallas; Flannery, Diane; Rice, Eric; Adamson, David M.; Ingram, Barbara

2010-01-01

306

Virginia Standards Predated the Common Core Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Virginia Board of Education is committed to the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL) program and opposed to adoption of the newly developed Common Core State Standards as a prerequisite for participation in federal competitive grant and entitlement programs. The Standards of Learning are clear and rigorous and have won the acceptance and trust…

Knowledge Quest, 2014

2014-01-01

307

Original article Identification of common fragile sites  

E-print Network

Original article Identification of common fragile sites in chromosomes of 2 species of bat molossus, spontaneous and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)- or aphidicolin (APC)-sensitive fragile sites were located. Four chromosome regions harbored APC-sensitive fragile sites: lq9 and 8q4 in both M ater and M

Boyer, Edmond

308

Translating the Common Core State Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the authors describe in Chapter 7 of their new book, "The School Reform Landscape: Fraud, Myth, and Lies," the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative continues to ramble on, without evidence to support its efficacy. That is because education reform in the United States is being driven largely by ideology, rhetoric, and dogma instead of…

Tienken, Christopher H.; Orlich, Donald C.

2013-01-01

309

A Common Sense Approach to Behavior Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the attitude toward and treatment of student behavioral problems in the K-12 Special Education Learning Center developed by the Hartford (Connecticut) Public Schools. They provide a positive attitude while stressing discipline and good behavior as a top priority and use many common-sense principles in handling disruptive behavior.(MD)

Petty, Ray

1987-01-01

310

Some Common Tor and Ext Groups Abstract  

E-print Network

Some Common Tor and Ext Groups Abstract We compute all the groups G H, Tor(G, H), Hom (G, H), and Ext(G, H), where G and H can be any the definition of Tor(G, H) is not symmetric, it is true that Tor(G* *, H) ~= Tor(H, G). This requires some

Boardman, J. Michael

311

Two Versions of "Common" Test Eyed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An unprecedented assessment project involving half the states is planning a significant shift: Instead of designing one test for all of them, it will offer a choice of a longer and a shorter version. The pivot came in response to some states' resistance to spending more time and money on testing for the common standards. The plan under discussion…

Gewertz, Catherine

2012-01-01

312

Some Sri Lankan common pot-herbs  

PubMed Central

As a follow-up of the articles of R. Brindha and S. Parvathy, ASL, XXII, 2003, 166-168, fifteen edible plants of South Asian ecosystem, commonly used in Sri Lankan cuisine, are dealt with in view of their ethnobotanical and ehtonomedical value. Their vernacular names (Sanskrit, Sinhala, and Tamil given here) often reveal different botanical features and medicinal properties. PMID:22557115

Liyanaratne, Jinadas

2003-01-01

313

Information Commons Help Desk Transactions Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the purpose of designing a training program for a new team serving at a technology service point, the author analyzed the transactions log using a new, multi-faceted, taxonomy. The resulting list of competencies and the methodology would be useful for managers of information or learning commons. (Contains 5 tables.)

Wong, Gabrielle K. W.

2010-01-01

314

Tragedy of the commons in Melipona bees  

E-print Network

on a TOC occurring in Melipona bee societies. Keywords: caste conflict; tragedy of the commons; stingless that rational individuals benefit from increasing their share, even if this depletes the resource on which females from developing into queens by controlling their access to food (`nutritional caste determination

Wenseleers, Tom

315

Silence and the Notion of the Commons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stresses the value of silence, the right to have silence, and how technology has manipulated the sound environment and therefore taken silence out of common availability. Discusses noise pollution and the manipulative use of sound for private gain. Suggests taking action to restore the right to silence. (LP)

Franklin, Ursula

1994-01-01

316

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, LOGIC AND FORMALIZING COMMON SENSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the problems and difficulties, the results so far, andsome improvements in logic and logical languages that may be required toformalize common sense. Fundamental conceptual advances are almost certainlyrequired. The object of the paper is to get more help for AI fromphilosophical logicians. Some of the requested help will be mostly philosophicaland some will be logical. Likewise the

John McCarthy

1990-01-01

317

The Bachelor's Degree Is Obsolete? Common Sense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why don't we eliminate the bachelor's degree? The author believes it's only common sense. In this essay, the author questions the outlay in time and dollars of the bachelor's degree. He believes that the need is not for millions of people with expensive four-year degrees. The real need is for millions of citizens with the critical thinking and…

Sloane, Wick

2008-01-01

318

A Common-Sense Theory of Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on the nature and representation of time is full of disputes and contradictory theories. This is surprising since the nature of time does not cause any worry for people in their everyday coping with the world. What this suggests is that there is some form of common sense knowledge about time that is rich enough to enable people

James F. Allen; Patrick J. Hayes

1985-01-01

319

Documenting life: videography and common sense  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a model for producing common sense metadata during video capture and describes how this technique can have a positive impact on content capture, representation, and presentation. Metadata entered into the system at the moment of capture is used to generate suggestions designed to help the videographer decide what to shoot, how to compose a shot and how

Barbara Barry; Glorianna Davenport

2003-01-01

320

The Common Core: Far from Home  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this opinion piece, Michael Toscano writes that his criticism of the Common Core State Standards ultimately has very little to do with their innate quality, but rather that their relation to other social spheres is disordered. He refers to the full reordering of American education away from families and local communities--which he states are…

Toscano, Michael

2013-01-01

321

Lesson Planning with the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Planning a lesson can be similar to planning a road trip--a metaphor the authors use to describe how they applied research and theory to their lesson planning process. A map and mode of transportation, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and textbooks as resources, can lead to desired destinations, such as students engaging in…

Estes, Linda A.; McDuffie, Amy Roth; Tate, Cathie

2014-01-01

322

Common Topics and Commonplaces of Environmental Rhetoric  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Common topics are words or phrases used to develop argument, and commonplaces aid memory or catalyze frames of understanding. When used in argumentation, each may help interested parties more effectively communicate valuable scientific and environment-related information. This article describes 12 modern topics of environmental rhetoric,…

Ross, Derek G.

2013-01-01

323

Learning Preferences with Hidden Common Cause Relations  

E-print Network

Learning Preferences with Hidden Common Cause Relations Kristian Kersting and Zhao Xu Fraunhofer.kersting,zhao.xu}@iais.fraunhofer.de Abstract. Gaussian processes have successfully been used to learn pref- erences among entities. In this paper, we present a preference model which incor- porates information on relations among entities

Kersting, Kristian

324

Coming This Fall: Common Chinese Medicinal Plants  

E-print Network

. In addition, the knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine and Herb uses, systems and methods for Chinese;2 2. To introduce students the philosophy of Traditional Chinese Medicine and herbal uses. 3Coming This Fall: Common Chinese Medicinal Plants Identification, Classification and Application

Weiblen, George D

325

Common Criteria Set for Federal Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an effort to improve the quality of educational research and make it less balkanized, the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) have introduced a common set of evidence standards for federally funded work. The criteria will guide all new research at the IES, the U.S. Department of Education's…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2013-01-01

326

Restrained Teaching: the common core of Didaktik  

Microsoft Academic Search

Didaktik is at the centre of most school teaching and teacher education in Continental Europe, but at the same time almost unknown in the English speaking world. The article gives a brief outline of the history and the common core of Didaktik, of its current situation, and of the basic differences compared to the Anglo-American concept of 'curriculum and instruction'

STEFAN HOPMANN

2007-01-01

327

Common Core Poses Challenges for Preschools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the common-core standards are calibrated to ensure that students leave K-12 schools ready for work and college, they are also posing challenges for the educators who work with children just starting out their school careers. As 46 states and the District of Columbia work this year to put the new curricular guidelines in place, preschool…

Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

2011-01-01

328

Science To Serve the Common Good.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews "Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest", a report produced by a committee of the National Research Council that offers a model of a new and better approach to addressing environmental problems that could enable science to serve the common good. Demonstrates a successful approach to doing science and contributing to society.…

Brewer, Garry D.

1997-01-01

329

Variation and Commonality in Phenomenographic Research Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the data analysis stage of phenomenographic research, elucidating what is involved in terms of both commonality and variation in accepted practice. The analysis stage of phenomenographic research is often not well understood. This paper helps to clarify the process, initially by collecting together in one location the more…

Akerlind, Gerlese S.

2012-01-01

330

Common signs & symptoms of meningitis & septicaemia  

E-print Network

Common signs & symptoms of meningitis & septicaemia © Meningitis Trust July 2011 · Next review July at all. Early symptoms can include fever, headache, vomiting, muscle pain and fever with cold hands, cold hands & feet Unusual cry, moaning Tense, bulging fontanelle Neck stiffness, dislike bright lights

331

Phytotherapeutic Approaches to Common Dermatologic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

n this review, we discuss some common herbal preparations historically used for derma- tologic conditions and recent studies that support their use. The traditional practice of topi- cally treating dermatologic conditions with plant-derived medicines predates the cultures of ancient Egypt and remains vital today in the industrialized cultures of both the United States and Europe. Recent scientific studies lend support

Donald J. Brown; Alan M. Dattner

332

IBM Common Cryptographic Architecture (CCA) and  

E-print Network

math functions for RSA and similar public-key cryptographic algorithms A flexible solution to your high IBM Common Cryptographic Architecture (CCA) and PKCS #11 Support Programs Custom software options while installed in application systems IBM 4758 Models 2 and 23 PCI Cryptographic Coprocessor Highlights

Ramkumar, Mahalingam

333

Common Questions Why should I soil test?  

E-print Network

, 1066 Bogue St., Room A81 (basement), East Lansing, MI. We are located in the Plant and Soil Science Soil & Plant Nutrient Laboratory Plant and Soil Sciences Building 1066 Bogue Street, Room A81 EastCommon Questions Why should I soil test? Soil testing is an important diagnostic tool to evaluate

Isaacs, Rufus

334

PATIENT INFORMATION SHEET Tobacco Use: Common  

E-print Network

PATIENT INFORMATION SHEET Tobacco Use: Common Questions & Concerns I want to quit positive. You are closer to being tobacco-free. Think about your quit attempt. What worked---what didn tobacco doesn't help with stress. It just relieves the nicotine withdrawal symptoms when you haven't used

335

Why the Common Core Changes Math Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core math standards promote several important differences in how math concepts are taught and should be talked about. These changes will make it easier for younger students to comprehend and adapt to more complex concepts in the later grades. This guide should help elementary teachers make changes and adaptations that are in line the…

Faulkner, Valerie N.

2013-01-01

336

Properties of commonly used New Hampshire woods  

E-print Network

, before any wood is burned or moved. Questions? If you have general questions feel free to call UNH ­ cord or fraction of cord · Length of the pieces ­ short enough to fit in your wood stove or fireplaceProperties of commonly used New Hampshire woods Pine, Hemlock, Spruce, Aspen Dries and splits

New Hampshire, University of

337

Access to the Common Core for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too often under the various state-developed standards and assessments, accommodations for students with disabilities--a heterogeneous group with varied characteristics and needs--have not been adequately addressed or have been ignored. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative provides an historic opportunity to improve access to rigorous…

McLaughlin, Margaret J.

2012-01-01

338

Laptop Use in University Common Spaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anecdotal evidence existed about the many students who use their laptops and the wireless network in university common spaces, but little was known about how, where, and why students use laptops on campus, and less was known about students' awareness of university wireless network policies and security. This article discusses the results of a…

Wolff, Bill

2006-01-01

339

Common Data Set A. GENERAL INFORMATION  

E-print Network

Institutional Research Analyst-Associate Office of Budget and Planning 520 E. Liberty, Suite 300 Ann Arbor, MI://sitemaker.umich.edu/obpinfo/common_data_set A1. Address Information University of Michigan-Ann Arbor Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 USA Main Phone Activities Building Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1316 Admissions Phone: (734) 764-7433 Admissions Fax: (734) 936

Eustice, Ryan

340

Commonly held theories of human resource development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the interdisciplinary nature of human resource development (HRD), there has been little agreement as to the underlying definition and primary theories that form the basis for the field. In order to reach some understanding, this paper will outline many of the current US American definitions now held in the HRD profession. Commonly held themes will be removed from

Lisa A Weinberger

1998-01-01

341

Toxicity of Trihalomethanes to Common Carp Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal

J. S. Mattice; S. C. Tsai; M. B. Burch; J. J. Beauchamp

1981-01-01

342

Toxicity of trihalomethanes to common carp embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal

J. S. Mattice; S. C. Tsai; M. B. Burch; J. J. Beauchamp

1981-01-01

343

Common Math Tracking Courses Traditional Courses  

E-print Network

Common Math Tracking Courses Traditional Courses Math 112 College Algebra 3 cr. Math 113 Trigonometry 2 cr. Math 114 Precalculus (112+113) 5 cr. Math 221 Calculus 1 5 cr. Hybrid Courses Calc 1 with Precalc I Math 171 5 cr. (only offered in Fall) Calc 1 with Precalc II Math 217 5 cr. (only offered

Miller, Joseph S.

344

A common framework for image segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We attempt to unify several approaches to image segmentation in early vision under a common framework. The Bayesian approach is very attractive since: (i) it enables the assumptions used to be explicitly stated in the probability distributions, and (ii) it can be extended to deal with most other problems in early vision. Here, we consider the Markov random field formalism,

Davi Geiger; Alan L. Yuille

1991-01-01

345

The Tragedy of the Commons Craig Callender  

E-print Network

. "Life boat ethics": Hardin is against World Food Bank Overpopulation is a commons tragedy too, Hardin it? Is overpopulation really a tragedy problem? Is Hardin right? How many other scenarios mentioned themselves worse than the consequences of not doing so? #12;Is overpopulation a TOC? PD1: It is collectively

Callender, Craig

346

Are You Ready for Common Core Math?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With new Common Core State Standards assessments in K12 mathematics due to be in use by the start of the 2014-2015 school year, many district administrators and teachers do not know what they should know about them now and are not taking steps they should be taking to prepare for them. While they are aware that the assessments are being developed,…

Dessoff, Alan

2012-01-01

347

Badges: A Common Currency for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital Badges--icons that can represent skills and achievements at a more fine-grained level than a degree--give colleges and universities a new way to document learning outcomes and to map the pathways students follow to earn a degree. They also provide a common currency to denote learning outcomes and give employers a visual representation and…

Bowen, Kyle; Thomas, Andrea

2014-01-01

348

Mathematical Rigor in the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A whirlwind of activity surrounds the topic of teaching and learning mathematics. The driving forces are a combination of changes in assessment and advances in technology that are being spurred on by the introduction of content in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practice. Although the issues are certainly complex, the same forces…

Hull, Ted H.; Balka, Don S.; Miles, Ruth Harbin

2013-01-01

349

EDITORIAL: Bad breath and exhaled breath analysis---common fields with common denominators Bad breath and exhaled breath analysis---common fields with common denominators  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 20th century, bad breath and analysis of breath for medical diagnosis evolved as two separate fields. Papers on bad breath were published almost exclusively in dental journals, whereas papers on exhaled breath analysis were more commonly found in medical and chemical analysis journals. When Daniel van Steenberghe and Mel Rosenberg first discussed setting up an international society for

Mel Rosenberg; Anton Amann

2008-01-01

350

Microcosms for testing common sense reasoning abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key step towards achieving human-level intelligence is to endow computers with reasoning abilities common to most people but absent from the current best artificial intelligence systems. Tests of intelligence can play an important role in this endeavour. We suggest some criteria for tests that measure progress towards human-level artificial intelligence (HLAI) and argue that tasks designed to study child

Nicholas L. Cassimatis; Perrin Bignoli

2011-01-01

351

A Common Language Effect Size Statistic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the shortcomings in interpretability and generalizability of the effect size statistics currently available to researchers can be overcome by a statistic that expresses how often a score sampled from one distribution will be greater than a score sampled from another distribution. The statistic, the common language effect size indicator, is easily calculated from sample means and variances (or

Kenneth O. McGraw; S. P. Wong

1992-01-01

352

Commonalities between Adolescents' Work Values and Interests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the chief work values, assessed by Super's Work Values Inventory--Revised (D. G. Zytowski, 2004b), across interest groups organized by the 6 Holland theme scales of the Kuder Career Search (D. G. Zytowski, 2004a). Results strengthen vocational theory through clarification of gender differences and conceptual commonalities

Rottinghaus, Patrick J.; Zytowski, Donald G.

2006-01-01

353

Common skin disorders of the penis.  

PubMed

Diseases of the male genitalia range from infectious lesions to inflammatory and neoplastic conditions, including many genital manifestations of more general skin diseases. This review highlights the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of the most common dermatoses of the male genitalia. Herpes genitalis and infections caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) are increasing, particularly in young sexually active people. Herpes simplex virus infection is the commonest infectious cause of genital ulceration, with evidence that many infections are asymptomatic. HPV infection may be latent, subclinical and clinical. The most common causal agents for condyloma acuminatum are low-risk HPV 6 and 11; high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 are associated with premalignant and malignant lesions. Treatment for genital warts remains unsatisfactory; recurrences are common. Imiquimod, a new topical immunotherapeutic agent, which induces interferon and other cytokines, has the potential to be a first-line therapy for genital warts. Scabies and pediculosis are transmitted by skin-to-skin contact and sexual transmission is common, with the penis and scrotum favourite locations for scabious lesions. Oral ivermectin, a highly active antiparasitic drug, is likely to be the treatment of choice, but until approval is granted it should be reserved for special forms of scabies. Common skin diseases, e.g. psoriasis and lichen planus, may have an atypical appearance in the genital area. The typical psoriatic scale is usually not apparent because of moisture and maceration. Allergic contact dermatitis of the genital area may result from condoms, lubricants, feminine hygiene deodorant spray and spermicides. More often, contact dermatitis is irritant, resulting from persistent moisture and maceration. Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs as atrophic white patches on the glans penis and foreskin. The penile form is a common cause of phimosis in uncircumcised men; involvement of the urethral meatus may lead to progressive meatal stenosis. Plasma cell balanitis is a benign, idiopathic condition presenting as a solitary, smooth, shiny, red-orange plaque of the glans and prepuce of a middle-aged to older man. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ, e.g. erythroplasia of Queyrat and Bowen's disease, cannot be excluded clinically; their apparent clinical benignity may lead to lengthy periods of misdiagnosis and biopsy is required to confirm the diagnosis. SCC is the most common malignancy of the penis and the role of oncogenic HPV-types has been also established in SCC of the penis. Prevention of SCC of the penis presupposes an identification of risk factors, early detection of all pre-cancerous lesions and treatment of phimosis. PMID:12175386

Buechner, S A

2002-09-01

354

Operative choledochoscopy in common bile duct surgery.  

PubMed Central

Surgical exploration of the common bile duct for gallstones is a common operation but carries a high residual stone rate. Conventional techniques for exploring the bile ducts are blind procedures. The surgeon cannot see what he is doing. Also there has been no reliable method for a postexploratory check of the bile ducts before closure, usually around a T-tube. Operative choledochoscopy allows the surgeon to see stones in the duct, may aid the removal of stones and provides visual postexploratory checks that the common bile duct and the hepatic ducts are clear, that papilla is patent and that no stone is left behind before closure. A personal series of 150 patients had operative choledochoscopy using a flexible fibreoptic choledochoscope. If there was a clear indication on preoperative investigations that the ducts should be explored, an operative cholangiogram was omitted and the choledochoscope used as the exploring instrument. In 127 patients with a diagnosis of gallstone disease, choledochoscopy was used at the primary operation. In 12 patients choledochoscopy was used at a secondary operation for recurrent gallstone disease, and 11 patients had malignant obstruction of the biliary tract. In 70 of the 127 patients, gallstones were found and extracted using the choledochoscope. In 53 patients the ducts were clear, and in 4, other lesions were found: 3 papillomas and one polycystic disease. One hundred and six of the patients had the common bile duct closed primarily with no T-tube drainage. There was no increase in complications and no deaths associated with choledochoscopy or primary closure of the common bile duct.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 p283-a PMID:4051422

Ashby, B. S.

1985-01-01

355

Reproduction in captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).  

PubMed

Though sexual maturation may begin at around one year of age, first successful reproduction of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is likely to be later, and it is generally recommended that animals not be mated before 1.5 years of age. The average gestation period is estimated to be 143 to 144 days. A crown-rump length measurement taken by use of ultrasonography during the linear, rapid, prenatal growth phase (between approx. days 60 and 95) can be compared against standard growth curves to estimate delivery date to within 3 to 4 days, on average. Marmosets produce more young per delivery than does any other anthropoid primate, and have more variation in litter size. Many long-established colonies report that triplets are the most common litter size, and there is documented association between higher maternal body weight and higher ovulation numbers. Higher litter sizes generally do not generate higher numbers of viable young. Marmosets are unusual among primates in having a postpartum ovulation that typically results in conception and successful delivery; reported median inter-birth intervals range from 154 to 162 days. However, pregnancy losses are quite common; one study of a large breeding colony indicated 50 percent loss between conception and term delivery. The average life span for breeding females is around six years; the range of reported average lifetime number of litters for a breeding pair is 3.45 to 4.0. Our purpose is to provide an overview of reproduction in the common marmoset, including basic reproductive life history, lactation and weaning, social housing requirements, and common problems encountered in the captive breeding of this species. A brief comparison between marmoset and tamarin reproduction also will be provided. PMID:14524412

Tardif, Suzette D; Smucny, Darlene A; Abbott, David H; Mansfield, Keith; Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Yamamoto, Maria Emilia

2003-08-01

356

Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (Genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are species within the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae and cause some of the most economically important diseases of legume crops worldwide. Both viruses occur essentially wherever bean and cowpea (including Phaseolus...

357

EPISTATIC INTERACTION BETWEEN TWO MAJOR QTL CONDITIONING RESISTANCE TO COMMON BACTERIAL BLIGHT IN COMMON BEAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Resistance to common bacterial blight in common bean is a complex trait that is quantitatively inherited. Combining QTL is the current strategy for improving resistance, but interactions among different QTL are unknown. We examined the interaction between two independent QTL present in dry bean bre...

358

Using Common Sense in Common Settings: Active Supervision and Precorrection in the Morning Gym  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The management of a large number of children in a nonclassroom or common setting (e.g., gymnasium, auditorium) can present a challenge to school staff. This article describes a set of commonsense solutions that were implemented with 400 elementary students in a before-school common setting. The solutions are described and the results of the…

Haydon, Todd; Scott, Terrance M.

2008-01-01

359

he first glossary of common and not-so-common terms and buzz-  

E-print Network

he first glossary of common and not-so-common terms and buzz- words for reference to high perfor-time users. The entire glossary also can be found on the LCGC web site at http://www. chromatographyonline elution separa- tion. In reversed-phase liquid chromatogra- phy (LC), the A solvent typically is water

Frey, Douglas D.

360

House of Commons Library Research Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The UK House of Commons has recently created a site that offers access to the full text of Research Papers (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only) which are compiled for the benefit of British Members of Parliament by the staff of the House of Commons Library. An occasional series focusing on topics of current parliamentary interest, the papers, "aim to be politically impartial and contain factual information as well as a range of opinions on each subject covered." Recently released titles include: "EU Enlargement: The Political Process," "EU Enlargement: The Financial Consequences," "Northern Ireland: political developments since 1972," "The local elections of 7 May 1998 and the London Referendum," and "Unemployment by Constituency: Welfare-to-work groups - April 1998."

Library., Great B.

1998-01-01

361

Commonality analysis as a knowledge acquisition problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commonality analysis is a systematic attempt to reduce costs in a large scale engineering project by discontinuing development of certain components during the design phase. Each discontinued component is replaced by another component that has sufficient functionality to be considered an appropriate substitute. The replacement strategy is driven by economic considerations. The System Commonality Analysis Tool (SCAT) is based on an oversimplified model of the problem and incorporates no knowledge acquisition component. In fact, the process of arriving at a compromise between functionality and economy is quite complex, with many opportunities for the application of expert knowledge. Such knowledge is of two types: general knowledge expressible as heuristics or mathematical laws potentially applicable to any set of components, and specific knowledge about the way in which elements of a given set of components interrelate. Examples of both types of knowledge are presented, and a framework is proposed for integrating the knowledge into a more general and useable tool.

Yeager, Dorian P.

1987-01-01

362

Heavy metals in common foodstuff: Daily intake  

SciTech Connect

Lately, toxic effects of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd) as well as desirable ones of some others (Ni, Mn, Zn) have been a field of thorough investigation. The main way of human body fortification in metals is through foodchain depending on the kind and quantity of the consumed food, according to dietary habits. The purpose of this study is the calculation of metals daily intake through common foodstuff of Greek inhabitants. The calculation is based on results from quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Zn in common foodstuff from the market of the city of Thessaloniki. The daily food consumption data is derived from three sources: (a) answers to a questionnaire distributed to families of the city of Thessaloniki, (b) nutrition data provided by the Agricultural Bank of Greece and (c) nutrition data according to international bibliography.

Tsoumbaris, P.; Tsoukali-Papadopoulou, H. (Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece))

1994-07-01

363

Biomarker Validation: Common Data Analysis Concerns  

PubMed Central

Biomarker validation, like any other confirmatory process based on statistical methodology, must discern associations that occur by chance from those reflecting true biological relationships. Validity of a biomarker is established by authenticating its correlation with clinical outcome. Validated biomarkers can lead to targeted therapy, improve clinical diagnosis, and serve as useful prognostic and predictive factors of clinical outcome. Statistical concerns such as confounding and multiplicity are common in biomarker validation studies. This article discusses four major areas of concern in the biomarker validation process and some of the proposed solutions. Because present-day statistical packages enable the researcher to address these common concerns, the purpose of this discussion is to raise awareness of these statistical issues in the hope of improving the reproducibility of validation study findings. PMID:25001264

2014-01-01

364

Investigating Common Descent: Formulating Explanations and Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students formulate explanations and models that simulate structural and biochemical data as they investigate the misconception that humans evolved from apes. Students should recognize that present-day species evolved from earlier species and the relatedness of organisms is the result of common ancestry. They will also discover that similarities among existing organisms provide evidence for evolution, anatomical similarities of living things reflect common ancestry, and all life forms use the same basic DNA building blocks. Basic concepts also include the fact that scientists pose, test, and revise multiple hypotheses to explain what they observe, our understanding of life through time is based upon multiple lines of evidence, the similarity of DNA nucleotide sequences can be used to infer the degree of kinship between species, and anatomical evidence is also used to infer lines of descent. This site includes a list of materials and all information required for this activity.

365

Common culture practices for cyprinids in Asia.  

PubMed

Cyprinids are the largest group of cultured freshwater fish and thus the most important from the aspect of fish-borne parasitic zoonoses. The common practices employed in the culture of this group are described to provide background information which may be used in the formulation of strategies for the control of these zoonoses. Only the common carp is cultured in monoculture: all the rest of the carp species are usually cultured in polyculture systems incorporating several species. Polyculture of cyprinids may be carried out in ponds, cages or in free range culture in natural or man-made water bodies, Polyculture of cyprinids is often integrated with agriculture, such as livestock, poultry or crop farming, utilizing byproducts of the agriculture activity, especially manure, as a source of nutrient for the fish pond. If precautions are not taken, this practice may provide an avenue for the transmission of fish borne parasites to man. PMID:9656353

Singh, T

1997-01-01

366

Artemis: Common lunar lander project status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is given in viewgraph form on the Artemis Common Lunar Lander project status. The plans are to start the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) with lunar robotic missions that can demonstrate the NASA cultural change and provide a catalyst for human exploration of the moon and Mars. The Artemis Common Lunar Lander Concept developed by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been accepted as the centerpiece of this lunar robotic exploration program. Topics covered include the anticipated program structure, a concept overview, lander value as a function of payload mass, the approach of the JSC in-house study, an example launch vehicle packaging concept, and the use of the Delta 2 launch vehicle.

Bailey, Stephen

1992-01-01

367

The common law as central economic planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central economic planning traditionally has set goals and allocated resources by supplanting the price system with central\\u000a direction. Planners engaged in industry-by-industry and firm-by-firm decision making, all to achieve predetermined targets.\\u000a The neoclassical approach to law and economics posits that common law judges engage in a similar activity, in rendering decisions\\u000a that maximize wealth. A significant feature of this approach

Peter H. Aranson

1992-01-01

368

Spontaneous pneumothorax in common pulmonary vein atresia.  

PubMed

Common pulmonary vein atresia is a rare congenital anomaly that is rapidly fatal unless immediately recognized and corrected by surgical intervention. This article describes three neonates who died with the diagnosis soon after birth. In the constellation of presenting clinical features in each case, the occurrence of early spontaneous pneumothorax was particularly noteworthy. This sign may well be a helpful physiologic marker within the context of suspected congenital heart disease associated with severe pulmonary venous obstruction. PMID:2313397

Sharda, J K; Kurlandsky, L E; Lacina, S J; Radecki, L L

1990-03-01

369

New Literacies and the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It makes sense that an emphasis on new ways of reading and writing fits easily within the Common Core umbrella. After all, a primary thrust of the new standards is college and career readiness. How can young people be prepared to thrive in today's society--in which people are connected 24 hours a day by media and coworkers may well live in…

Kist, William

2013-01-01

370

Kindergarten Common Core State Standards Flip Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 42-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the Kindergarten level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades 1-5.

2012-06-01

371

Mapping common regulatory variants to human haplotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inter-individual variation in gene expression has proven to be in part governed by genetic determinants, which may be trans -o rcis-acting. The underlying cause of cis-acting regulatory variation has been identified in only a handful of the hundreds of genes shown to display differential allelic expression. In this report, we describe a systematic effort to map common cis-acting variants in

Tomi Pastinen; Bing Ge; Scott Gurd; Tiffany Gaudin; Carole Dore; Mathieu Lemire; Pierre Lepage; Eef Harmsen; Thomas J. Hudson

2005-01-01

372

Remedies for common user-agent problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

User agents---that is browsers and other programs that deal with the Web---can fail the user in many ways. This article, by three people deeply involved with the development of the Web, documents some typical common user agent problems, and suggests correct ways of working.The authors use several Web-specific technical terms, so let me list the important ones here:• Fragment identifier:

Karl Dubost; Hugo Haas; Ian Jacobs

2002-01-01

373

Accepted Common Interest Community (CIC) Proposals.  

PubMed

These are the 18 accepted proposals for the three Common Interest Community (CIC) sessions at IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Therapy and Research (SYTAR), June 5-8, 2014, in Austin, Texas and published in the Final Program Guide and CIC Works for SYTAR 2014. The sessions were CIC#1 Rehab Professionals: Bridging the Past with the Future and CIC#2a & CIC#2b Mental, Emotional and Spiritual Health. PMID:25645135

2014-09-01

374

Commonness and rarity in the marine biosphere  

PubMed Central

Explaining patterns of commonness and rarity is fundamental for understanding and managing biodiversity. Consequently, a key test of biodiversity theory has been how well ecological models reproduce empirical distributions of species abundances. However, ecological models with very different assumptions can predict similar species abundance distributions, whereas models with similar assumptions may generate very different predictions. This complicates inferring processes driving community structure from model fits to data. Here, we use an approximation that captures common features of “neutral” biodiversity models—which assume ecological equivalence of species—to test whether neutrality is consistent with patterns of commonness and rarity in the marine biosphere. We do this by analyzing 1,185 species abundance distributions from 14 marine ecosystems ranging from intertidal habitats to abyssal depths, and from the tropics to polar regions. Neutrality performs substantially worse than a classical nonneutral alternative: empirical data consistently show greater heterogeneity of species abundances than expected under neutrality. Poor performance of neutral theory is driven by its consistent inability to capture the dominance of the communities’ most-abundant species. Previous tests showing poor performance of a neutral model for a particular system often have been followed by controversy about whether an alternative formulation of neutral theory could explain the data after all. However, our approach focuses on common features of neutral models, revealing discrepancies with a broad range of empirical abundance distributions. These findings highlight the need for biodiversity theory in which ecological differences among species, such as niche differences and demographic trade-offs, play a central role. PMID:24912168

Connolly, Sean R.; MacNeil, M. Aaron; Caley, M. Julian; Knowlton, Nancy; Cripps, Ed; Hisano, Mizue; Thibaut, Loïc M.; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar D.; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Brainard, Russell E.; Brandt, Angelika; Bulleri, Fabio; Ellingsen, Kari E.; Kaiser, Stefanie; Kröncke, Ingrid; Linse, Katrin; Maggi, Elena; O’Hara, Timothy D.; Plaisance, Laetitia; Poore, Gary C. B.; Sarkar, Santosh K.; Satpathy, Kamala K.; Schückel, Ulrike; Williams, Alan; Wilson, Robin S.

2014-01-01

375

Economics and the Tragedy of the Commons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In both macroeconomics and microeconomics principles courses, economists teach the virtue of markets as an allocative mechanism. But markets sometimes fail. This example allows students to simulate the market failure associated with a common property resource, a salmon fishery, and evaluate ways to control fishing. The simulation also shows the distributional results of different allocative mechanisms. The simulation was developed by Paul Romer at Stanford University and is available on the Aplia web site.

Blecha, Betty

376

CARO – The Common Anatomy Reference Ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO) is being developed to facilitate interoperability between existing anatomy ontologies\\u000a for different species, and will provide a template for building new anatomy ontologies. CARO has a structural axis of classification\\u000a based on the top-level nodes of the Foundational Model of Anatomy. CARO will complement the developmental process sub-ontology\\u000a of the GO Biological Process ontology,

Melissa A. Haendel; Fabian Neuhaus; David Osumi-Sutherland; Paula M. Mabee; L. V. Mejino Jr; Chris J. Mungall; Barry Smith

377

Micropropagation of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryos extracted from dried seeds of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior), were germinated on growth regulator-free culture medium. Cotyledonary nodes from these seedlings were placed onto Murashige and Skoog, Woody Plant or Driver and Kuniyuki culture media with 22.2 or 44.4 µM benzyladenine, on which they developed into shoot cultures following the outgrowth of axillary buds. With Murashige and Skoog medium,

N. Hammatt; M. S. Ridout

1992-01-01

378

Beating Some Common Sense into Interactive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

n A long-standing dream of artificial intelligence has been to put commonsense knowledge into com-puters, enabling machines to reason about every-day life. Some projects, such as Cyc, have begun to amass large collections of such knowledge. Howev-er, it is widely assumed that the use of common sense in interactive applications will remain im-practical for years, until these collections can be

H. Lieberman; H. Liu; P. Singh; B. Barry

2003-01-01

379

The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) project will provide a core satellite carrying the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and will use microwave observations from a constellation of other satellites. Each partner with a satellite in the constellation will have a calibration that meets their own requirements and will decide on the format to archive their brightness temperature (Tb) record in GPM. However, GPM multi-sensor precipitation algorithms need to input intercalibrated Tb's in order to avoid differences among sensors introducing artifacts into the longer term climate record of precipitation. The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product is intended to address this problem by providing intercalibrated Tb data, called "Tc" data, where the "c" stands for common. The precipitation algorithms require a Tc file format that is both generic and flexible enough to accommodate the different passive microwave instruments. The format will provide detailed information on the processing history in order to allow future researchers to have a record of what was done. The format will be simple, including the main items of scan time, latitude, longitude, and Tc. It will also provide spacecraft orientation, spacecraft location, orbit, and instrument scan type (cross-track or conical). Another simplification is to store data in real numbers, avoiding the ambiguity of scaled data. Finally, units and descriptions will be provided in the product. The format is built on the concept of a swath, which is a series of scans that have common geolocation and common scan geometry. Scan geometry includes pixels per scan, sensor orientation, scan type, and incidence angles. The Tc algorithm and data format are being tested using the pre-GPM Precipitation Processing System (PPS) software to generate formats and 1/0 routines. In the test, data from SSM/I, TMI, AMSR-E, and WindSat are being processed and written as Tc products.

Stout, John; Berg, Wesley; Huffman, George; Kummerow, Chris; Stocker, Erich

2005-01-01

380

Common themes in microbial pathogenicity revisited.  

PubMed Central

Bacterial pathogens employ a number of genetic strategies to cause infection and, occasionally, disease in their hosts. Many of these virulence factors and their regulatory elements can be divided into a smaller number of groups based on the conservation of similar mechanisms. These common themes are found throughout bacterial virulence factors. For example, there are only a few general types of toxins, despite a large number of host targets. Similarly, there are only a few conserved ways to build the bacterial pilus and nonpilus adhesins used by pathogens to adhere to host substrates. Bacterial entry into host cells (invasion) is a complex mechanism. However, several common invasion themes exist in diverse microorganisms. Similarly, once inside a host cell, pathogens have a limited number of ways to ensure their survival, whether remaining within a host vacuole or by escaping into the cytoplasm. Avoidance of the host immune defenses is key to the success of a pathogen. Several common themes again are employed, including antigenic variation, camouflage by binding host molecules, and enzymatic degradation of host immune components. Most virulence factors are found on the bacterial surface or secreted into their immediate environment, yet virulence factors operate through a relatively small number of microbial secretion systems. The expression of bacterial pathogenicity is dependent upon complex regulatory circuits. However, pathogens use only a small number of biochemical families to express distinct functional factors at the appropriate time that causes infection. Finally, virulence factors maintained on mobile genetic elements and pathogenicity islands ensure that new strains of pathogens evolve constantly. Comprehension of these common themes in microbial pathogenicity is critical to the understanding and study of bacterial virulence mechanisms and to the development of new "anti-virulence" agents, which are so desperately needed to replace antibiotics. PMID:9184008

Finlay, B B; Falkow, S

1997-01-01

381

Consortia Provide Preview of Common Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As teachers begin shaping lessons for the common standards, many are wondering how to prepare their students for tests that won't be ready for at least two years. Sample items being drafted for those exams offer early ideas of what lies ahead. Two large groups of states are using federal Race to the Top money to create new suites of exams for the…

Gewertz, Catherine

2012-01-01

382

Quick Start Guide for Common Calculators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by authors Carol Kuiper and Jack Tedeski, this site is a table of instructions for TI, Casio, HP, Sharp, and some common other brands of calculators. Instructions are given for how to enter data (both one and two variable), how to compute mean, standard deviation (both population and sample), correlation, linear regression coefficients, combinations, permutations, and (importantly) how to turn the calculator on and off.

Kuiper, Carol

383

Apoptotic responses common to cancer and inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The pathobiology of chronic inflammation and of cancer share many common attributes. Both can be considered “nonhealing wounds”\\u000a due to the loss of normal tissue integrity. Both show evidence of dysregulated proliferation of particular cell types and\\u000a consequently both are associated with hyperplasias. In addition, both chronic inflammation and cancer are also dependent on\\u000a subverting the process of programmed cell

Barbara Fingleton; Howard C. Crawford

384

Evolution of the common shrew Sorex araneus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review data on the chromosomal variation in the common shrewSorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 in the context of recent molecular findings. The article considers all aspects of chromosomal variation in\\u000a this species: within-population polymorphism, karyotypic races, hybrid zones between karyotypic races, chromosomal evolution,\\u000a and speciation. The recent molecular data provide vital information on different evolutionary processes such as inbreeding,\\u000a genetic

Jan M. Wójcik; Miros?aw Ratkiewicz; Jeremy B. Searle

2002-01-01

385

Vacuum Drying of Common Date Pulp Cubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drying ability of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) pulp cubes from three Algerian common varieties (Mech-Degla, Degla-Beida, and Frezza) were investigated. Drying process was carried out under partial vacuum (200 mbar) at 60, 80, and 100°C. Compared to the Newton model, the Henderson and Pabis model better described drying kinetic of Mech-Degla and Frezza pulps at 60 and 80°C with a mean

Hayet Amellal; Salem Benamara

2008-01-01

386

Enhancer variants: evaluating functions in common disease.  

PubMed

Gene enhancer elements are noncoding segments of DNA that play a central role in regulating transcriptional programs that control development, cell identity, and evolutionary processes. Recent studies have shown that noncoding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been associated with risk for numerous common diseases through genome-wide association studies frequently lie in cell-type-specific enhancer elements. These enhancer variants probably influence transcriptional output, thereby offering a mechanistic basis to explain their association with risk for many common diseases. This review focuses on the identification and interpretation of disease-susceptibility variants that influence enhancer function. We discuss strategies for prioritizing the study of functional enhancer SNPs over those likely to be benign, review experimental and computational approaches to identifying the gene targets of enhancer variants, and highlight efforts to quantify the impact of enhancer variants on target transcript levels and cellular phenotypes. These studies are beginning to provide insights into the mechanistic basis of many common diseases, as well as into how we might translate this knowledge for improved disease diagnosis, prevention and treatments. Finally, we highlight five major challenges often associated with interpreting enhancer variants, and discuss recent technical advances that may help to surmount these challenges. PMID:25473424

Corradin, Olivia; Scacheri, Peter C

2014-01-01

387

Common Data Set 2001-2002 Page 1 of 33  

E-print Network

Common Data Set 2001-2002 Page 1 of 33 Common Data Set A. General Information B. Enrollment. Degrees Conferred Common Data Set Definitions #12;Common Data Set 2001-2002 Page 2 of 33 A. GENERAL Transfer Doctoral Terminal First professional Bachelor's First professional certificate #12;Common Data Set

388

Common knowledge does not have the Beth Thomas Studer  

E-print Network

is an essential notion for coordination among agents. We show that the logic of common knowledge does not haveCommon knowledge does not have the Beth property Thomas Studer Abstract Common knowledge an explanation why it is so difficult to find `nice' deductive systems for common knowledge. Keywords: Common

Jäger, Gerhard

389

Antibodies to Neospora caninum in wild animals from Kenya, East Africa.  

PubMed

The prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum was examined in six wild Artiodactyla species, and in five wild Carnivora species from Kenya. Blood sera (104 wild ungulates from Marula Estates (MEs), and 31 wild carnivores from Masai-Mara reserve and from other wildlife areas in northern and Southern Kenya), were screened using a Neospora agglutination test (NAT), with a twofold dilution (1:40-1:320 titres). Presence of NAT antibodies to N. caninun is reported here for the first time in zebra (Equus burchelli), eland (Taurotragus oryx), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), Thompson gazelle (Gazella thompsoni), impala (Aepyceros melampus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) and in free-ranging cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). At 1:80 dilution, prevalence was 61.5% in eland, 58.5% in zebra, 19.2% in Thompson gazelle, 33.3% in warthog, 50% in African buffalo, 30% in lion (Panthera leo), 20% in cheetah, and 33.3% in spotted hyena. Antibodies up to 1:320 titre were detected in eland (38.4%), zebra (19.5%), Thompson gazelle (3.8%) and lion (5%). Amongst herbivores, sero-prevalence was significantly (P<0.05) higher, at all dilutions, in "grazer/digger" species (e.g. eland and zebra) than in non-"grazer/digger" species (e.g. impala and Thompson gazelle). No antibodies to N. caninum were found in two leopards (Panthera pardus) and one serval (Felis serval). Our results indicates a steady presence of N. caninum in wild mammals from Kenya. The hypothesis of a sylvatic cycle of N. caninum could be suggested, but more data are needed to verify the hypothesis, as to evaluate the role of N. caninum infection on the dynamics of wild animals population in the study area. PMID:14651874

Ferroglio, E; Wambwa, E; Castiello, M; Trisciuoglio, A; Prouteau, A; Pradere, E; Ndungu, S; De Meneghi, D

2003-12-01

390

Common Techniques in FaultTolerance and Security 1 Common Techniques in  

E-print Network

look. The threat to security is usually a human or processes (or programs) that trace their ancestry, auditing, testing or monitoring by site administrators, virus scanners, integrity checking #12; Common

California at Davis, University of

391

The exceptionally rare (sic) Common Scoter.  

PubMed

A 1-month-old infant with congenital heart disease underwent initial cardiac surgery (Mee Shunt) at day 20 but was later readmitted because of poor shunt flow and hypoxemia. Despite therapy, the infant deteriorated and suffered a cardiopulmonary arrest. After 40 minutes of resuscitation, spontaneous cardiac output was reestablished, and subsequently, the child was placed on extracorporeal circulation membrane oxygen (ECMO) support. The infant deteriorated further over the next 3 days with persistent acidosis, marked abdominal distension associated with significant nasogastric aspirates, and the passage of small amounts of bloodstained stool. The presumed diagnosis was necrotizing enterocolitis, and despite the grave prognostic indicators, the decision was taken to undertake laparotomy. At surgery, there was 350 mL of unclotted venous blood in the peritoneal cavity. The bowel was grossly normal. A ruptured, infarcted, hemorrhagic spleen was discovered to be the cause of the bleeding. A splenectomy was performed, and the child made rapid recovery, sufficiently well to undergo redo Mee shunt 2 days later. A splenic infarct was confirmed at pathological examination. The cause of the splenic infarct and rupture is uncertain in this baby but may have been related to either cardiopulmonary resuscitation and/or ECMO. The importance of this case is the similarity in presentation in a baby with congenital heart disease between necrotizing enterocolitis (which is relatively common) and hemoperitoneum secondary to splenic rupture (which is very rare). Medical practice contains many useful maxims such as, "What walks like a duck, talks like a duck, is often a duck." This case demonstrates that not all ducks are the common Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) but occasionally the exceptionally rare (sic) Common Scoter (Melanitta nigra). The management of neonatal cardiac patients on ECMO therapy continues to be a challenge, and particular diagnostic rigor should be applied in their care. PMID:17161174

Gales, Hannah; Fisher, Ross

2006-12-01

392

Demography and the Tragedy of the Commons  

PubMed Central

Individual success in group-structured populations has two components. First, an individual gains by outcompeting its neighbors for local resources. Second, an individual’s share of group success must be weighted by the total productivity of the group. The essence of sociality arises from the tension between selfish gains against neighbors and the associated loss that selfishness imposes by degrading the efficiency of the group. Without some force to modulate selfishness, the natural tendencies of self interest typically degrade group performance to the detriment of all. This is the tragedy of the commons. Kin selection provides the most widely discussed way in which the tragedy is overcome in biology. Kin selection arises from behavioral associations within groups caused either by genetical kinship or by other processes that correlate the behaviors of group members. Here, I emphasize demography as a second factor that may also modulate the tragedy of the commons and favor cooperative integration of groups. Each act of selfishness or cooperation in a group often influences group survival and fecundity over many subsequent generations. For example, a cooperative act early in the growth cycle of a colony may enhance the future size and survival of the colony. This time-dependent benefit can greatly increase the degree of cooperation favored by natural selection, providing another way in which to overcome the tragedy of the commons and enhance the integration of group behavior. I conclude that analyses of sociality must account for both the behavioral associations of kin selection theory and the demographic consequences of life history theory. PMID:19912449

Frank, Steven A.

2010-01-01

393

Commonality in Down and Fetal Alcohol Syndromes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Down syndrome (DS) and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) are two leading causes of birth defects with phenotypes ranging from craniofacial abnormalities to cognitive impairment. Despite different origins, we report that in addition to sharing many phenotypes, DS and FAS may have common underlying mechanisms of development. METHODS Literature was surveyed for DS and FAS as well as mouse models. Gene expression and apoptosis were compared in embryonic mouse models of DS and FAS by qPCR, immunohistochemical and immunoflurorescence analyses. The craniometry was examined using MicroCT at postnatal day 21. RESULTS A literature survey revealed over 20 comparable craniofacial and structural deficits in both humans with DS and FAS and corresponding mouse models. Similar phenotypes were experimentally found in pre- and postnatal craniofacial and neurological tissues of DS and FAS mice. Dysregulation of two genes, Dyrk1a and Rcan1, key to craniofacial and neurological precursors of DS, was shared in craniofacial precursors of DS and FAS embryos. Increased cleaved caspase 3 expression was also discovered in comparable regions of the craniofacial and brain precursors of DS and FAS embryos. Further mechanistic studies suggested overexpression of trisomic Ttc3 in DS embyros may influence nuclear pAkt localization and cell survival. CONCLUSIONS This first and initial study indicates that DS and FAS share common dysmorphologies in humans and animal models. This work also suggests common mechanisms at cellular and molecular levels that are disrupted by trisomy or alcohol consumption during pregnancy and lead to craniofacial and neurological phenotypes associated with DS or FAS. PMID:23554291

Solzak, Jeffrey P.; Liang, Yun; Zhou, Feng C.; Roper, Randall J.

2014-01-01

394

Freeing data through The Polar Information Commons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polar regions are changing rapidly with dramatic global effect. Wise management of resources, improved decision support, and effective international cooperation on resource and geopolitical issues require deeper understanding and better prediction of these changes. Unfortunately, polar data and information remain scattered, scarce, and sporadic. Inspired by the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 that established the Antarctic as a global commons to be used only for peaceful purposes and scientific research, we assert that data and information about the polar regions are themselves "public goods" that should be shared ethically and with minimal constraint. We therefore envision the Polar Information Commons (PIC) as an open, virtual repository for vital scientific data and information that would provide a shared, community-based cyber-infrastructure fostering innovation, improving scientific efficiency, and encouraging participation in polar research, education, planning, and management. The PIC will build on the legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY), providing a long-term framework for access to and preservation of both existing and future data and information about the polar regions. Rapid change demands rapid data access. The PIC system will enable scientists to quickly expose their data to the world and share them through open protocols on the Internet. A PIC digital label will alert users and data centers to new polar data and ensure that usage rights are clear. The PIC will utilize the Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data, which promotes open data access through the public domain coupled with community norms of practice to ensure use of data in a fair and equitable manner. A set of PIC norms is currently being developed in consultation with key polar data organizations and other stakeholders. We welcome inputs from the broad science community as we further develop and refine the PIC approach and move ahead with implementation.

de Bruin, Taco; Chen, Robert; Parsons, Mark; Carlson, David

2010-05-01

395

Freeing data through The Polar Information Commons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polar regions are changing rapidly with dramatic global effect. Wise management of resources, improved decision support, and effective international cooperation on resource and geopolitical issues require deeper understanding and better prediction of these changes. Unfortunately, polar data and information remain scattered, scarce, and sporadic. Inspired by the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 that established the Antarctic as a global commons to be used only for peaceful purposes and scientific research, we assert that data and information about the polar regions are themselves “public goods” that should be shared ethically and with minimal constraint. We therefore envision the Polar Information Commons (PIC) as an open, virtual repository for vital scientific data and information that would provide a shared, community-based cyber-infrastructure fostering innovation, improving scientific efficiency, and encouraging participation in polar research, education, planning, and management. The PIC will build on the legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY), providing a long-term framework for access to and preservation of both existing and future data and information about the polar regions. Rapid change demands rapid data access. The PIC system will enable scientists to quickly expose their data to the world and share them through open protocols on the Internet. A PIC digital label will alert users and data centers to new polar data and ensure that usage rights are clear. The PIC will utilize the Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data, which promotes open data access through the public domain coupled with community norms of practice to ensure use of data in a fair and equitable manner. A set of PIC norms is currently being developed in consultation with key polar data organizations and other stakeholders. We welcome inputs from the broad science community as we further develop and refine the PIC approach and move ahead with implementation.

de Bruin, T.; Chen, R. S.; Parsons, M. A.; Carlson, D. J.

2009-12-01

396

Autoimmune Cytopenias In Common Variable Immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a humoral immunodeficiency whose primary diagnostic features include hypogammaglobulinemia involving two or more immunoglobulin isotypes and impaired functional antibody responses in the majority of patients. While increased susceptibility to respiratory and other infections is a common thread that binds a large cross-section of CVID patients, the presence of autoimmune complications in this immunologically and clinically heterogeneous disorder is recognized in up to two-thirds of patients. Among the autoimmune manifestations reported in CVID (20–50%; Chapel et al., 2008; Cunningham-Rundles, 2008), autoimmune cytopenias are by far the most common occurring variably in 4–20% (Michel et al., 2004; Chapel et al., 2008) of these patients who have some form of autoimmunity. Association of autoimmune cytopenias with granulomatous disease and splenomegaly has been reported. The spectrum of autoimmune cytopenias includes thrombocytopenia, anemia, and neutropenia. While it may seem paradoxical “prima facie” that autoimmunity is present in patients with primary immune deficiencies, in reality, it could be considered two sides of the same coin, each reflecting a different but inter-connected facet of immune dysregulation. The expansion of CD21 low B cells in CVID patients with autoimmune cytopenias and other autoimmune features has also been previously reported. It has been demonstrated that this unique subset of B cells is enriched for autoreactive germline antibodies. Further, a correlation has been observed between various B cell subsets, such as class-switched memory B cells and plasmablasts, and autoimmunity in CVID. This review attempts to explore the most recent concepts and highlights, along with treatment of autoimmune hematological manifestations of CVID. PMID:22837758

Podjasek, Jenna C.; Abraham, Roshini S.

2012-01-01

397

Tail Kinematics of Juvenile Common Snapping Turtles during Aquatic Walking  

E-print Network

juvenile Common Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina) during aquatic walking. Common Snapping Turtles hold Macrochelys temminicki and three Common Snapping Turtle species in the genus Chelydra; Phillips et al., 1996

Blob, Richard W.

398

Finding Longest Increasing and Common Subsequences in Streaming Data #  

E-print Network

Finding Longest Increasing and Common Subsequences in Streaming Data # David Liben bounds for the Longest Increasing Subsequence (LIS) and Longest Common Subsequence (LCS) problems of #, even if the streams are permutations of each other. 1 Introduction Longest increasing and common

Liben-Nowell, David

399

29 CFR 779.224 - Common control in other cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Common control in other cases. 779.224 Section 779.224...Enterprise Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control § 779.224 Common control in other cases. (a) As stated in §...

2011-07-01

400

29 CFR 779.224 - Common control in other cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Common control in other cases. 779.224 Section 779.224...Enterprise Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control § 779.224 Common control in other cases. (a) As stated in §...

2010-07-01

401

Common Therapeutic Targets in Cardiometabolic Disease  

PubMed Central

The interactions between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and insulin resistance syndromes suggest the possibility of joint targets for cardiometabolic research. The best drugs would go beyond minimizing adverse effects and have protective actions against both metabolic disease and CVD. In this perspective, we will outline a few examples in which a deep mechanistic understanding of the many cellular pathways that contribute to type 2 diabetes and CVD, regardless of cell type, have resulted in common upstream pathogenic pathways that can be therapeutically targeted. PMID:24898746

Fredman, Gabrielle; Ozcan, Lale; Tabas, Ira

2014-01-01

402

Common element key to multiprocessor architecture  

SciTech Connect

The described multiprocessing system uses only one kind of microprocessoras a common intelligent element in order to offer faster response with greater throughput. Unusual design features overcome some of the drawbacks which limit other multiprocessing architectures. A hierarchy of buses allows communication among the master processor, the subordinate processors, and local modules within a subordinate processors, and local modules within a subordinate processor. A flexible set of address mappings allows processors to access the distributed memory. Subordinate processors have two distinct address mappings in order to make different memory regions available on the various buses. The resulting high performance architecture is easily customised for a variety of applications.

Ang, W.S.

1981-10-01

403

G 112-29 (=NLTT 18149): A VERY WIDE COMPANION TO GJ 282 AB WITH A COMMON PROPER MOTION, COMMON PARALLAX, COMMON RADIAL VELOCITY, AND COMMON AGE  

SciTech Connect

We have made a search for common proper motion (CPM) companions to the wide binaries in the solar vicinity. We found that the binary GJ 282AB has a very distant CPM companion (NLTT 18149) at a separation s = 1.{sup 0}09. Improved spectral types and radial velocities are obtained, and ages determined for the three components. The Hipparcos trigonometric parallaxes and the new radial velocities and ages turn out to be very similar for the three stars, and provide strong evidence that they form a physical system. At a projected separation of 55,733 AU from GJ 282AB, NLTT 18149 ranks among the widest physical companions known.

Poveda, A.; Allen, Christine; Costero, R.; EchevarrIa, J.; Hernandez-Alcantara, A., E-mail: chris@astroscu.unam.m [Instituto de AstronomIa, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, 04510, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

2009-11-20

404

Cognitive Architecture of Common and Scientific Concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cognitive architecture of concept is a specific structure consisting of the concept core, concept periphery, the semantic frame as the meaning and the sense of the concept, and the relations among all components of this structure. The model of the cognitive architecture of scientific and common concepts is a conceptual meta-model built upon Vygotsky's concept theory, Fillmore's semantic frame, semantic triangle, on widespread ideas of the structuring of conceptual systems, and the Hestenes' Modeling Theory. The method of semantic mapping of concepts flowing from the model is designed.

Tarábek, Paul

2010-07-01

405

Space Station Freedom common berthing mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) is a generic device used to join the pressurized elements of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) utilizing the Space Shuttle Orbiter Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) or the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). The two berthing halves, the active, and the passive, maintain a pressurized atmosphere to allow astronaut passage, as well as to provide a structural linkage between elements. The generic design of the CBM allows any Passive Berthing Mechanism to berth with any Active Berthing Mechanism, permitting a variety of pressurized module patterns to be built.

Illi, Erik

1992-01-01

406

Common problems and pitfalls in gear design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are several pitfalls and problems associated with the successful design of a new gear transmission. A new design will require the knowledge and experience of several technical areas of engineering. Most of the pitfalls and problems associated with a new design are related to an inadequate evaluation of several areas, such as, the lubrication and cooling requirements, complete static and dynamic load analysis, evaluation of materials and heat treatment and the latest manufacturing technology. Some of the common problems of the gear design process are discussed with recommendations made for avoiding these conditions.

Townsend, Dennis P.

1986-01-01

407

How common is homoploid hybrid speciation?  

PubMed

Hybridization has long been considered a process that prevents divergence between species. In contrast to this historical view, an increasing number of empirical studies claim to show evidence for hybrid speciation without a ploidy change. However, the importance of hybridization as a route to speciation is poorly understood, and many claims have been made with insufficient evidence that hybridization played a role in the speciation process. We propose criteria to determine the strength of evidence for homoploid hybrid speciation. Based on an evaluation of the literature using this framework, we conclude that although hybridization appears to be common, evidence for an important role of hybridization in homoploid speciation is more circumscribed. PMID:24620775

Schumer, Molly; Rosenthal, Gil G; Andolfatto, Peter

2014-06-01

408

Common surgical complications in degenerative spinal surgery  

PubMed Central

The rapid growth of spine degenerative surgery has led to unrelenting efforts to define and prevent possible complications, the incidence of which is probably higher than that reported and varies according to the region of the spine involved (cervical and thoracolumbar) and the severity of the surgery. Several issues are becoming progressively clearer, such as complication rates in primary versus revision spinal surgery, complications in the elderly, the contribution of minimally invasive surgery to the reduction of complication rate. In this paper the most common surgical complications in degenerative spinal surgery are outlined and discussed. PMID:23610753

Papadakis, Michael; Aggeliki, Lianou; Papadopoulos, Elias C; Girardi, Federico P

2013-01-01

409

Diabetic myonecrosis: uncommon complications in common diseases.  

PubMed

We report a case of sudden thigh pain from spontaneous quadriceps necrosis, also known as diabetic myonecrosis, in a 28-year-old patient with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Diabetic muscle infarction is a rare end-organ complication seen in patients with poor glycemic control and advanced chronic microvascular complications. Proposed mechanisms involve atherosclerotic microvascular occlusion, ischemia-reperfusion related injury, vasculitis with microthrombi formation, and an acquired antiphospholipid syndrome. Diabetic myonecrosis most commonly presents as sudden thigh pain with swelling and should be considered in any patient who has poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. PMID:24716004

Sran, Sisira; Sran, Manpreet; Ferguson, Nicole; Anand, Prachi

2014-01-01

410

Diabetic Myonecrosis: Uncommon Complications in Common Diseases  

PubMed Central

We report a case of sudden thigh pain from spontaneous quadriceps necrosis, also known as diabetic myonecrosis, in a 28-year-old patient with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Diabetic muscle infarction is a rare end-organ complication seen in patients with poor glycemic control and advanced chronic microvascular complications. Proposed mechanisms involve atherosclerotic microvascular occlusion, ischemia-reperfusion related injury, vasculitis with microthrombi formation, and an acquired antiphospholipid syndrome. Diabetic myonecrosis most commonly presents as sudden thigh pain with swelling and should be considered in any patient who has poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. PMID:24716004

Sran, Manpreet; Ferguson, Nicole

2014-01-01

411

Common Worldwide Variation Discovered in Human Taste Receptor Genes  

MedlinePLUS

... Taste Receptor Genes Common Worldwide Variation Discovered In Human Taste Receptor Genes Common Worldwide Variation Discovered In Human Taste Receptor Genes Background : Differences in our sense ...

412

Dysphagia revisited: common and unusual causes.  

PubMed

Dysphagia is a common clinical problem whose prevalence is increasing with the aging population in the United States. The term dysphagia is commonly used to describe subjective awareness of swallowing difficulty during the passage of a bolus from the mouth to the stomach or the perception of obstruction during swallowing. Dysphagia may be further classified as oropharyngeal or substernal, depending on the location of this sensation. It can be due to benign or malignant structural lesions, esophageal motility abnormalities, oropharyngeal dysfunction (including aspiration), neuromuscular disorders, or postsurgical changes and is also associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Pathologic conditions of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and proximal stomach can manifest with dysphagia. Imaging remains the preferred method for evaluating patients with dysphagia, and dysphagia is an increasingly encountered indication for radiologic evaluation. Fluoroscopic studies, including the modified barium swallow and esophagography in particular, are often used in the assessment of patients with dysphagia, and the techniques used for these studies should be tailored to the patient's needs. Fluoroscopic studies can be used to evaluate the esophagus for structural abnormalities (eg, webs, diverticula, strictures, masses) and to assess function (eg, the swallowing mechanism and esophageal motility). Knowledge of the imaging spectrum of disease entities that may cause dysphagia and thorough radiologic assessment with a tailored approach may help avoid misdiagnosis. (©)RSNA, 2015. PMID:25590391

Carucci, Laura R; Turner, Mary Ann

2015-01-01

413

Adaptive common average filtering for myocontrol applications.  

PubMed

The use of electromyography (EMG) for the control of upper-limb prostheses has received great interest in neurorehabilitation engineering since decades. Important advances have been performed in the development of machine learning algorithms for myocontrol. This paper describes a novel adaptive filter for EMG preprocessing to be applied as conditioning stage for optimal subsequent information extraction. The aim of this filter is to improve both the quality (signal-to-noise ratio) and the selectivity of the EMG recordings. The filter is based on the classic common average reference (CAR), often used in EEG processing. However, while CAR is stationary, the proposed filter, which is referred to as adaptive common average reference (ACAR), is signal-dependent and its spatial transfer function is adapted over time. The ACAR filter is evaluated in this study for noise reduction and selectivity. Furthermore, it is proven that its application improves the performance of both pattern recognition and regression methods for myoelectric control. It is concluded that the proposed novel filter for EMG conditioning is a useful preprocessing tool in myocontrol applications. PMID:25388778

Rehbaum, Hubertus; Farina, Dario

2015-02-01

414

Quantum phase transition in a common metal.  

PubMed

The classical theory of solids, based on the quantum mechanics of single electrons moving in periodic potentials, provides an excellent description of substances ranging from semiconducting silicon to superconducting aluminium. Over the last fifteen years, it has become increasingly clear that there are substances for which the conventional approach fails. Among these are certain rare earth compounds and transition metal oxides, including high-temperature superconductors. A common feature of these materials is complexity, in the sense that they have relatively large unit cells containing heterogeneous mixtures of atoms. Although many explanations have been put forward for their anomalous properties, it is still possible that the classical theory might suffice. Here we show that a very common chromium alloy has some of the same peculiarities as the more exotic materials, including a quantum critical point, a strongly temperature-dependent Hall resistance and evidence for a 'pseudogap'. This implies that complexity is not a prerequisite for unconventional behaviour. Moreover, it should simplify the general task of explaining anomalous properties because chromium is a relatively simple system in which to work out in quantitative detail the consequences of the conventional theory of solids. PMID:12368850

Yeh, A; Soh, Yeong-Ah; Brooke, J; Aeppli, G; Rosenbaum, T F; Hayden, S M

2002-10-01

415

MetroBoston DataCommon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data visualization has grown by leaps and bounds over the past few years, and the MetroBoston Data Common is a fantastic initiative in this area. The DataCommon is "an interactive data portal and online mapping tool that provides a wealth of information about the region's people, communities and neighborhoods through a wide variety of topics." New visitors may wish to start by looking over the About the Project area to get a better sense of what is available on the site. On the homepage, visitors can Explore Data through topic area or geography. The Regional Map Gallery contains information about population and housing unit change in the 21st century, along with other maps that document foreign language households and where students live in the greater Boston region. The Community Snapshots area features basic demographic profiles of cities and towns across the commonwealth. Also, visitors can use the Do-It-Yourself section to craft bespoke maps and charts using the existing data.

416

Is synaesthesia more common in autism?  

PubMed Central

Background Synaesthesia is a neurodevelopmental condition in which a sensation in one modality triggers a perception in a second modality. Autism (shorthand for Autism Spectrum Conditions) is a neurodevelopmental condition involving social-communication disability alongside resistance to change and unusually narrow interests or activities. Whilst on the surface they appear distinct, they have been suggested to share common atypical neural connectivity. Methods In the present study, we carried out the first prevalence study of synaesthesia in autism to formally test whether these conditions are independent. After exclusions, 164 adults with autism and 97 controls completed a synaesthesia questionnaire, Autism Spectrum Quotient, and Test of Genuineness-Revised (ToG-R) online. Results The rate of synaesthesia in adults with autism was 18.9% (31 out of 164), almost three times greater than in controls (7.22%, 7 out of 97, P <0.05). ToG-R proved unsuitable for synaesthetes with autism. Conclusions The significant increase in synaesthesia prevalence in autism suggests that the two conditions may share some common underlying mechanisms. Future research is needed to develop more feasible validation methods of synaesthesia in autism. PMID:24252644

2013-01-01

417

Epigenetic Mechanisms in Commonly Occurring Cancers  

PubMed Central

Cancer is a collection of very complex diseases that share many traits while differing in many ways as well. This makes a universal cure difficult to attain, and it highlights the importance of understanding each type of cancer at a molecular level. Although many strides have been made in identifying the genetic causes for some cancers, we now understand that simple changes in the primary DNA sequence cannot explain the many steps that are necessary to turn a normal cell into a rouge cancer cell. In recent years, some research has shifted to focusing on detailing epigenetic contributions to the development and progression of cancer. These changes occur apart from primary genomic sequences and include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and miRNA expression. Since these epigenetic modifications are reversible, drugs targeting epigenetic changes are becoming more common in clinical settings. Daily discoveries elucidating these complex epigenetic processes are leading to advances in the field of cancer research. These advances, however, come at a rapid and often overwhelming pace. This review specifically summarizes the main epigenetic mechanisms currently documented in solid tumors common in the United States and Europe. PMID:22519822

2012-01-01

418

Phytotherapeutic approaches to common dermatologic conditions.  

PubMed

In this review, we discuss some common herbal preparations historically used for dermatologic conditions and recent studies that support their use. The traditional practice of topically treating dermatologic conditions with plant-derived medicines predates the cultures of ancient Egypt and remains vital today in the industrialized cultures of both the United States and Europe. Recent scientific studies lend support to some of the claims of herbal practitioners for the safety and efficacy of many herbs. The studies also elucidate, in some cases, the mechanisms by which these herbs act. With the growing interest in alternative and complementary therapies, practitioners need more information. Clinical studies and collected observations will help define specific indications for choice of herbal treatment based on both the skin disorder and the unique characteristics of the patient involved. PMID:9828875

Brown, D J; Dattner, A M

1998-11-01

419

The design of a common lunar lander  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Austin Cynthesis Corporation was formed to respond to a Request for Proposal for the design of a Common Lunar Lander (CLL) capable of carrying lightweight (less than 500 kg), unspecified payload to the moon. This Final Design Report Document includes information on the requirements for the design project; the ideas proposed as solutions to the design problem; the work which has been completed in support of the design effort; justifications, validations, and verifications of decisions made during the project; and suggestions for future work to be done in support of the project. A project schedule, including current status of the items included on the schedule, as well as cost and management summaries is also included.

Driggers, Dan; Hearrell, Sean; Key, Kevin; Le, Brian; Love, Glen; Mcmullen, Rob; Messec, Scott; Ruhnke, Jim

1991-01-01

420

Hemochromatosis. More common than you think.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge of the genetics, presentation, diagnosis, and management of hereditary hemochromatosis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to June 2002, and references of relevant papers were reviewed. Most articles were reviews, practice guidelines, or observational studies. Several randomized controlled trials were identified but none studied primary therapy for hemochromatosis. MAIN MESSAGE: Hemochromatosis, the most common genetic disease in white populations, has a prevalence of one in 200, yet is still underrecognized. This disease of unregulated iron absorption leads to generalized iron overload that can eventually impair organ systems and lead to cirrhosis, diabetes, and cardiomyopathy. Symptoms are often nonspecific and patients are identified by mild abnormalities in routine laboratory testing. Transferrin saturation, ferritin levels, and genotyping can often establish the diagnosis. Iron depletion therapy with phlebotomy is helpful if initiated before organ damage occurs. CONCLUSION: Family physicians should be aware that hemochromatosis can be treated effectively if diagnosed early. PMID:12602841

Borgaonkar, Mark Ram

2003-01-01

421

Solving multi-leader-common-follower games.  

SciTech Connect

Multi-leader-common-follower games arise when modelling two or more competitive firms, the leaders, that commit to their decisions prior to another group of competitive firms, the followers, that react to the decisions made by the leaders. These problems lead in a natural way to equilibrium problems with equilibrium constraints (EPECs). We develop a characterization of the solution sets for these problems and examine a variety of nonlinear optimization and nonlinear complementarity formulations of EPECs. We distinguish two broad cases: problems where the leaders can cost-differentiate and problems with price-consistent followers. We demonstrate the practical viability of our approach by solving a range of medium-sized test problems.

Leyffer, S.; Munson, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science

2010-01-01

422

Algorithmic commonalities in the parallel environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ultimate aim of this project was to analyze procedures from substantially different application areas to discover what is either common or peculiar in the process of conversion to the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP). Three areas were identified: molecular dynamic simulation, production systems (rule systems), and various graphics and vision algorithms. To date, only selected graphics procedures have been investigated. They are the most readily available, and produce the most visible results. These include simple polygon patch rendering, raycasting against a constructive solid geometric model, and stochastic or fractal based textured surface algorithms. Only the simplest of conversion strategies, mapping a major loop to the array, has been investigated so far. It is not entirely satisfactory.

Mcanulty, Michael A.; Wainer, Michael S.

1987-01-01

423

Tumor Ablation: Common Modalities and General Practices  

PubMed Central

Tumor ablation is a minimally invasive technique that is commonly used in the treatment of tumors of the liver, kidney, bone, and lung. During tumor ablation, thermal energy is used to heat or cool tissue to cytotoxic levels (less than ?40°C or more than 60°C). An additional technique is being developed that targets the permeability of the cell membrane and is ostensibly nonthermal. Within the classification of tumor ablation, there are several modalities used worldwide: radiofrequency, microwave, laser, high-intensity focused ultrasound, cryoablation, and irreversible electroporation. Each technique, although similar in purpose, has specific and optimal indications. This review serves to discuss general principles and technique, reviews each modality, and discusses modality selection. PMID:24238374

Knavel, Erica M.; Brace, Christopher L.

2014-01-01

424

Cellular antioxidant activity of common fruits.  

PubMed

Measurement of antioxidant activity using biologically relevant assays is important in the screening of fruits for potential health benefits. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay quantifies antioxidant activity in cell culture and was developed to meet the need for a more biologically representative method than the popular chemistry antioxidant capacity measures. The objective of the study was to determine the cellular antioxidant activity, total phenolic contents, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of 25 fruits commonly consumed in the United States. Pomegranate and berries (wild blueberry, blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry) had the highest CAA values, whereas banana and melons had the lowest. Apples were found to be the largest contributors of fruit phenolics to the American diet, and apple and strawberries were the biggest suppliers of cellular antioxidant activity. Increasing fruit consumption is a logical strategy to increase antioxidant intake and decrease oxidative stress and may lead to reduced risk of cancer. PMID:18759450

Wolfe, Kelly L; Kang, Xinmei; He, Xiangjiu; Dong, Mei; Zhang, Qingyuan; Liu, Rui Hai

2008-09-24

425

Common Methodology for Efficient Airspace Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics include: a) Developing a common methodology to model and avoid disturbances affecting airspace. b) Integrated contrails and emission models to a national level airspace simulation. c) Developed capability to visualize, evaluate technology and alternate operational concepts and provide inputs for policy-analysis tools to reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. d) Collaborating with Volpe Research Center, NOAA and DLR to leverage expertise and tools in aircraft emissions and weather/climate modeling. Airspace operations is a trade-off balancing safety, capacity, efficiency and environmental considerations. Ideal flight: Unimpeded wind optimal route with optimal climb and descent. Operations degraded due to reduction in airport and airspace capacity caused by inefficient procedures and disturbances.

Sridhar, Banavar

2012-01-01

426

Are extrasolar oceans common throughout the Galaxy?  

E-print Network

Light and cold extrasolar planets such as OGLE 2005-BLG-390Lb, a 5.5 Earth-mass planet detected via microlensing, could be frequent in the Galaxy according to some preliminary results from microlensing experiments. These planets can be frozen rocky- or ocean-planets, situated beyond the snow line and, therefore, beyond the habitable zone of their system. They can nonetheless host a layer of liquid water, heated by radiogenic energy, underneath an ice shell surface for billions of years, before freezing completely. These results suggest that oceans under ice, like those suspected to be present on icy moons in the Solar system, could be a common feature of cold low-mass extrasolar planets.

David Ehrenreich; Arnaud Cassan

2007-04-23

427

Erysipelas: a common potentially dangerous infection.  

PubMed

Erysipelas is an acute superficial cutaneous cellulitis that commonly occurs not only in elderly and immunocompromised persons, but also in neonates and small children subsequent to bacterial inoculation through a break in the skin barrier. Group A Beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS, Streptoccocus pyogenes) is the usual etiologic agent. Factors that predispose pediatric patients to the development of erysipelas include very young age, diabetes mellitus, an immunocompromised state, and nephrotic syndrome. Patients typically have a well-demarcated, erythematous, indurated, rapidly spreading patch with a palpable advancing border on the face or extremities. Fever with chills and general malaise may be prominent symptoms. Antibiotics are usually effective. Patients handled in a timely manner tend to recover without problems. However, potential complications include abscess formation, necrotizing fasciitis, septicemia, recurrent infection, and lymphedema. PMID:17994173

Celestin, R; Brown, J; Kihiczak, G; Schwartz, R A

2007-09-01

428

Conventional radiological strategy of common gastrointestinal neoplasms  

PubMed Central

This article summarizes the clinical characteristics and imaging features of common gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms in terms of conventional radiological imaging methods. Barium studies are readily available for displaying primary malignancies and are minimally or not at all invasive. A neoplasm may be manifested as various imaging findings, including mucosal disruption, soft mass, ulcer, submucosal invasion and lumen stenosis on barium studies. Benign tumors typically appear as smoothly marginated intramural masses. Malignant neoplasms most often appear as irregular infiltrative lesions on barium examination. Tumor extension to adjacent GI segments may be indistinct on barium images. Cross-sectional images such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may provide more accurate details of the adjacent organ invasion, omental or peritoneal spread.

Li, Yi-Zhuo; Wu, Pei-Hong

2015-01-01

429

A common pathway for developmental glaucomas.  

PubMed Central

In a clinicopathologic study of ten patients, utilizing a modified trabeculectomy technique for acquisition of histologic specimens, a high insertion of the iris was observed in four types of developmental glaucoma. A survey of the literature revealed additional developmental disorders with this abnormality of the anterior chamber angle. The common defect is believed to arise from a developmental arrest during the third trimester of gestation of tissues derived from cranial neural crest cells. The mechanism by which this developmental defect leads to aqueous outflow obstruction may, in some cases, be a paradoxical collapse of the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal in response to contraction of the ciliary musculature, while other patients may have additional developmental abnormalities in the aqueous outflow system as the possible mechanism of glaucoma. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:3328916

Shields, M B

1987-01-01

430

On statistical biases and their common neglect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of natural phenomena such as hydroclimatic processes demands the use of stochastic tools and the good understanding thereof. However, common statistical practices are often based on classical statistics, which assumes independent identically distributed variables with Gaussian distributions. However, in most cases geophysical processes exhibit temporal dependence and even long term persistence. Also, some statistical estimators for nonnegative random variables have distributions radically different from Gaussian. We demonstrate the impact of neglecting dependence and non-normality in parameter estimators and how this can result in misleading conclusions and futile predictions. To accomplish that, we use synthetic examples derived by Monte Carlo techniques and we also provide a number of examples of misuse. Acknowledgment: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided financial support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

Houdalaki, E.; Basta, M.; Boboti, N.; Bountas, N.; Dodoula, E.; Iliopoulou, T.; Ioannidou, S.; Kassas, K.; Nerantzaki, S.; Papatriantafyllou, E.; Tettas, K.; Tsirantonaki, D.; Papalexiou, S. M.; Koutsoyiannis, D.

2012-04-01

431

Cellular antioxidant activity of common vegetables.  

PubMed

The measurement of antioxidant activity using biologically relevant assays is important to screen fruits, vegetables, natural products, and dietary supplements for potential health benefits. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay quantifies antioxidant activity using a cell culture model and was developed to meet the need for a more biologically representative method than the popular chemistry antioxidant capacity measures. The objective of the study was to determine the CAA, total phenolic contents, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of 27 vegetables commonly consumed in the United States. Beets, broccoli, and red pepper had the highest CAA values, whereas cucumber had the lowest. CAA values were significantly correlated to total phenolic content. Potatoes were found to be the largest contributors of vegetable phenolics and CAA to the American diet. Increased fruit and vegetable consumption is an effective strategy to increase antioxidant intake and decrease oxidative stress and may lead to reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. PMID:20462192

Song, Wei; Derito, Christopher M; Liu, M Keshu; He, Xiangjiu; Dong, Mei; Liu, Rui Hai

2010-06-01

432

Drought Tolerance Indices Study in Common Bean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study Drought tolerance indices, 10 common bean varieties were evaluated in a split plot experiment in the form of complete block design with three replications. The main plots were three environmental conditions namely: non stress (normal), drought stress at vegetative stage and drought stress at reproductive stage. On the basis of seed yield, five indices, mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP), tolerance (TOL), stress susceptibility index (SSI) and stress tolerance index (STI) were evaluated. Stress intensity was equal to 0.12 and 0.55 for stress at vegetative and reproductive stages, respectively. The indices STI, MP and GMP were highly correlated with seed yield of normal (Yp) and stress (Ys) conditions. Using a 3-D plot, cultivars were grouped into 4 groups (A-D) acording to the value of Yp, Ys and STI.

Aminian, Roghayeh; Khodambashi, Mahmood; Yadegari, Mehrab

2008-01-01

433

Common mode chokes and optimisation aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the increasing electrification of modern aircraft, as a result of the More Electric Aircraft concept, new strategies and approaches are required to fulfil the strict EMC aircraft standards (DO-160/ED-14-Sec. 20). Common mode chokes are a key component of electromagnetic filters and often oversized because of the unknown impedance of the surrounding power electronic system. This oversizing results in an increase of weight and volume. It has to be avoided as far as possible for mobile applications. In this context, an advanced method is presented to measure these impedances under operating conditions. Furthermore, the different parameters of the inductance design is explained and an optimisation for weight and volume is introduced.

Kut, T.; Lücken, A.; Dickmann, S.; Schulz, D.

2014-11-01

434

Common occupational classification system - revision 3  

SciTech Connect

Workforce planning has become an increasing concern within the DOE community as the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM or EM) seeks to consolidate and refocus its activities and the Office of Defense Programs (DP) closes production sites. Attempts to manage the growth and skills mix of the EM workforce while retaining the critical skills of the DP workforce have been difficult due to the lack of a consistent set of occupational titles and definitions across the complex. Two reasons for this difficulty may be cited. First, classification systems commonly used in industry often fail to cover in sufficient depth the unique demands of DOE`s nuclear energy and research community. Second, the government practice of contracting the operation of government facilities to the private sector has introduced numerous contractor-specific classification schemes to the DOE complex. As a result, sites/contractors report their workforce needs using unique classification systems. It becomes difficult, therefore, to roll these data up to the national level necessary to support strategic planning and analysis. The Common Occupational Classification System (COCS) is designed to overcome these workforce planning barriers. The COCS is based on earlier workforce planning activities and the input of technical, workforce planning, and human resource managers from across the DOE complex. It provides a set of mutually-exclusive occupation titles and definitions that cover the broad range of activities present in the DOE complex. The COCS is not a required record-keeping or data management guide. Neither is it intended to replace contractor/DOE-specific classification systems. Instead, the system provides a consistent, high- level, functional structure of occupations to which contractors can crosswalk (map) their job titles.

Stahlman, E.J.; Lewis, R.E.

1996-05-01

435

Common modeling system for digital simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Joint Modeling and Simulation System is a tri-service investigation into a common modeling framework for the development digital models. The basis for the success of this framework is an X-window-based, open systems architecture, object-based/oriented methodology, standard interface approach to digital model construction, configuration, execution, and post processing. For years Department of Defense (DOD) agencies have produced various weapon systems/technologies and typically digital representations of the systems/technologies. These digital representations (models) have also been developed for other reasons such as studies and analysis, Cost Effectiveness Analysis (COEA) tradeoffs, etc. Unfortunately, there have been no Modeling and Simulation (M&S) standards, guidelines, or efforts towards commonality in DOD M&S. The typical scenario is an organization hires a contractor to build hardware and in doing so an digital model may be constructed. Until recently, this model was not even obtained by the organization. Even if it was procured, it was on a unique platform, in a unique language, with unique interfaces, and, with the result being UNIQUE maintenance required. Additionally, the constructors of the model expended more effort in writing the 'infrastructure' of the model/simulation (e.g. user interface, database/database management system, data journalizing/archiving, graphical presentations, environment characteristics, other components in the simulation, etc.) than in producing the model of the desired system. Other side effects include: duplication of efforts; varying assumptions; lack of credibility/validation; and decentralization in policy and execution. J-MASS provides the infrastructure, standards, toolset, and architecture to permit M&S developers and analysts to concentrate on the their area of interest.

Painter, Rick

1994-01-01

436

Iatrogenic Injury to the Common Bile Duct  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The formation of gallstones in the gall bladder is very common. It is now considered that approximately 10% to 15% of the adult population has gallstones. It is more frequent in women than men. Etiologies are various and include: age, sex, diet, sudden weight loss, etc. According to the report of the US National Institute of Health, it is estimated that 6.3 million men and 14.2 million women, aged 20-74 years in the United States has calculosis of the gallbladder, due to which every year is performed about 700,000 cholecystectomy. Case report: Male patient, aged about 40 years, admitted at the Clinic and laparoscopic surgery was performed in our department for chronic, as multiple, symptomatic gallbladder calculi. Intraoperative findings showed chronically inflamed, curled gall bladder, and wall thickening. After the first postoperative day there is no content in the drain bag and it is taken out, and the patient leaves the hospital without any problems. The seventh post-operative day occurred abdominal pain, weakness and fatigue, with striking yellow skin and visible mucous membranes. Clinical, laboratory and echo determined abdomen full of fluids, so it was suspected lesion of the bile duct. Urgent revision was performed. Intraoperative was found a lesion of the common bile duct in the form of a complete interruption. Created is anastomosis through transhepatic drain according to Pradera. Early and late postoperative flow was entirely normal with normal laboratory and echofindings. Control, contrast imaging through a drain showed the orderly flow of extrahepatic bile ducts, with minimal extravasation of contrast. Conclusion: At the Department of Surgery of General Hospital in Konjic laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed since 1999. In the beginning it was done by three trocars (European style), and later, in order to prevent complications or injury of the bile duct is performed surgery with four trocars (American style). The number of complicated procedures in our hospital does not differ from similar indicators in foreign surgical facilities. PMID:25568557

Buturovic, Sead

2014-01-01

437

Swine Flu and Common Infections to Prepare For  

E-print Network

Swine Flu and Common Infections to Prepare For Rochester Recreation Club for the Deaf October 15 for the Deaf #12;Overview Fever Different "bugs" Common infections Seasonal Flu H1N1 ("Swine") Flu Prevention ­ Example is the common cold or flu Fungus ­ Small organism ­ Example is mold or yeast #12;Common Cold

Goldman, Steven A.

438

Workshop on transport for a common ion driver  

SciTech Connect

This report contains research in the following areas related to beam transport for a common ion driver: multi-gap acceleration; neutralization with electrons; gas neutralization; self-pinched transport; HIF and LIF transport, and relevance to common ion driver; LIF and HIF reactor concepts and relevance to common ion driver; atomic physics for common ion driver; code capabilities and needed improvement.

Olson, C.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Langdon, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-12-31

439

Common Sense Assistant for Writing Stories that Teach Social Skills  

E-print Network

Common Sense Assistant for Writing Stories that Teach Social Skills Abstract People on the autistic explanations of simple, "common sense" facts and simple variations of the story that might occur in different of the story. It uses a knowledge base of Common Sense sentences, Open Mind Common Sense, and inference

Lieberman, Henry

440

Can Common Sense uncover cultural differences in computer applications?  

E-print Network

Can Common Sense uncover cultural differences in computer applications? Junia Anacleto1 , Henry using a unique resource: Common Sense knowledge bases in different languages. Our research points out that is possessed by most people in a given culture -- what is widely called `common sense knowledge'. While `common

Lieberman, Henry

441

Bravely, Moderately: A Common Theme in Four Recent Works  

E-print Network

is that there is a common theme among the works to be reviewed here, and that this common theme is intriguing and may leadBravely, Moderately: A Common Theme in Four Recent Works Oded Goldreich Department of Computer Abstract We highlight a common theme in four relatively recent works that establish re- markable results

Goldreich, Oded

442

Common effector processing mediates cell-specific responses to stimuli  

E-print Network

LETTERS Common effector processing mediates cell-specific responses to stimuli Kathryn Miller components of many signalling pathways are common to all cells1­3 . However, stimulating or perturbing share a common `effector-processing' mechanism. Partial-least-squares regression models based on common

443

Developing Common Abstractions for Improving Interoperability of Federated Cyberinfrastructure  

E-print Network

Developing Common Abstractions for Improving Interoperability of Federated Cyberinfrastructure. Our approach is to develop common abstractions and define common interfaces for both inter organization or who have made reserva- tions. 1 #12;2 Developing Common Abstractions A federated system can

Tennessee, University of

444

Automatic proof search in logic of justified common knowledge  

E-print Network

Automatic proof search in logic of justified common knowledge Yegor Bryukhov Graduate Center, City the logic of justified common knowledge S4J n in- troduced in [Artemov, 2004]. This system captures the notion of justified common knowledge, which is free of some of the deficiencies of the usual common

Bryukhov, Yegor

445

Bravely, Moderately: A Common Theme in Four Recent Works  

E-print Network

is that there is a common theme among the works to be reviewed here, and that this common theme is intriguing and may leadBravely, Moderately: A Common Theme in Four Recent Works Oded Goldreich Abstract. We highlight a common theme in four relatively recent works that establish remarkable results by an iterative approach

Goldreich, Oded

446

Bravely, Moderately: A Common Theme in Four Recent Works  

E-print Network

is that there is a common theme among the works to be reviewed here, and that this common theme is intriguing and may leadBravely, Moderately: A Common Theme in Four Recent Works Oded Goldreich Department of Computer Abstract We highlight a common theme in four relatively recent works that establish re­ markable results

Goldreich, Oded

447

COMMON HOUR EXAM POLICY Adopted February 26, 2014 Faculty Senate  

E-print Network

, the Registrar's Office will disseminate a list of the students who have conflicts among scheduled common hourCOMMON HOUR EXAM POLICY Adopted February 26, 2014 ­ Faculty Senate INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE Common be from one to two hours. 2. For each Common Hour Examination, students will be excused from an equivalent

Maxwell, Bruce D.

448

Reasoning About Common Knowledge with Infinitely Many Joseph Y. Halpern  

E-print Network

, or that it is common knowledge among the agents on team 1 that p is common knowledge among the agents on team 2. We in group G knows "), and CG (where CG is read " is common knowledge among group G"). The operators EGReasoning About Common Knowledge with Infinitely Many Agents Joseph Y. Halpern Computer Science

Shore, Richard A.

449

Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Digenean Trematodes1  

E-print Network

FA-112 Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Digenean Trematodes1 Deborah B. Pouder parasites. The publications included in this series are: · Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Sessile Ciliates · Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Motile Ciliates · Common Freshwater

Watson, Craig A.

450

Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Flagellates1  

E-print Network

FA-109 Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Flagellates1 Deborah B. Pouder, Eric W parasites. The publications included in this series are: · Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Sessile Ciliates · Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Motile Ciliates · Common Freshwater

Watson, Craig A.

451

Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Dinoflagellates, Coccidia, Microsporidians, &  

E-print Network

FA-110 Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Dinoflagellates, Coccidia, Microsporidians in the identification of common freshwater fish parasites. The publications included in this series are: · Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Sessile Ciliates · Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial

Watson, Craig A.

452

SOLUTION OF VERBAL PROBLEMS USING CONCEPT OF LEAST COMMON MULTIPLIER (LCM) AND GREATEST COMMON DIVISOR (GCD) IN PRIMARY  

E-print Network

290 SOLUTION OF VERBAL PROBLEMS USING CONCEPT OF LEAST COMMON MULTIPLIER (LCM) AND GREATEST COMMON verbal problems concerned with least common multiplier (lcm) and greatest common divisor (gcd level. Teaching archaic methods of problem solving to the students and unconnections among

Spagnolo, Filippo

453

Media Literacy Is Common Sense: Bridging Common Core Standards with the Media Experiences of Digital Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to investigate the concept of "texts" and how the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) affords teachers opportunities to implement media literacy education, in turn providing developmentally and culturally responsive middle level practice and promoting 21st century skills. This has implications for middle…

Redmond, Theresa

2015-01-01

454

Might "Unique" Factors Be "Common"? On the Possibility of Indeterminate Common-Unique Covariances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper shows that the usual factor analytic structured data dispersion matrix lambda psi lambda' + delta can readily arise from a set of scores y = lambda eta + epsilon, shere the "common" (eta) and "unique" (epsilon) factors have nonzero covariance: gamma = Cov epsilon,eta) is not equal to 0. Implications of this finding are discussed…

Grayson, Dave

2006-01-01

455

What Is Common about Common Schooling? Rational Autonomy and Moral Agency in Liberal Democratic Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay I critique two influential accounts of rational autonomy in common schooling that conceive liberalism as an ideal form of life, and I offer an alternative approach to democratic education that views liberal theory as concerned with coexistence among rival ways of living. This view places moral agency, not rational autonomy, at the…

Alexander, Hanan

2007-01-01

456

Common Origins, Common Futures: Reflections on Identity and Difference in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of human evolution is fascinating and complex indeed. Modern science as revealed by the disciplines of archaeology, palaeontology, and genetics presents strong evidence about the common origins of humankind. Dispersal from the birthplace over millennia has produced a mosaic of identities that are cultural artefacts or social constructs…

Nkomo, Mokubung; Dolby, Nadine

2004-01-01

457

Elasticity and Anisotropy of Common Crustal Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full interpretation of crustal seismology in terms of composition and fabric is difficult in the absence of high quality elasticity data for the constituent minerals. Over the last forty years, a limited data set based on 1-bar ultrasonic determinations has served as the principal foundation for such discussions. We have now measured single crystal elastic properties of several dominant crustal minerals in both feldspar and amphibole mineral series. We use impulsively stimulated light scattering to determine body wave or surface wave velocities as a function of propagation direction on crystals having dimensions of tens to hundreds of microns. Full tensor elastic constants for these low symmetry (monoclinic and triclinic) crystals were obtained by inverting the velocity data. We observe greater velocity anisotropy and find constants that are 10 to 25% larger than previously reported constants. Some of the constants that appear biased low in the older data set are associated with strains in common cleavage directions; this underscores the need for a full re-examination of crustal scale elasticity modeled from properties of constituent minerals. In particular, the new data suggest that minerals less abundant than feldspars and amphiboles have a significant role in obtaining an adequate fit to crustal velocity profiles and that large-scale elastic anisotropy of the crust must be addressed in the next generation of crustal velocity models.

Teel, A.; Brown, J. M.; Abramson, E.; West-Foyle, H.; Angel, R.; Johnson, E.

2006-12-01

458

Common high-resolution MMW scene generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a modularized millimeter wave (MMW) target and background high resolution scene generator is reported. The scene generator's underlying algorithms are applicable to both digital and real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulations. The scene generator will be configurable for a variety of MMW and multi-mode sensors employing state of the art signal processing techniques. At present, digital simulations for MMW and multi-mode sensor development and testing are custom-designed by the seeker vendor and are verified, validated, and operated by both the vendor and government in simulation-based acquisition. A typical competition may involve several vendors, each requiring high resolution target and background models for proper exercise of seeker algorithms. There is a need and desire by both the government and sensor vendors to eliminate costly re-design and re-development of digital simulations. Additional efficiencies are realized by assuring commonality between digital and HWIL simulation MMW scene generators, eliminating duplication of verification and validation efforts.

Saylor, Annie V.; McPherson, Dwight A.; Satterfield, H. DeWayne; Sholes, William J.; Mobley, Scott B.

2001-08-01

459

Toxicity of trihalomethanes to common carp embryos  

SciTech Connect

Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal concentrations (LC50) ranged from 161 mg/liter for chloroform to 53 mg/liter for dibromochloromethane. Decay studies conducted under conditions similar to those used for the toxicity studies, but in distilled water, indicated that (1) half-lives of the trihalomethanes ranged from 4.4 to 6.9 hours; (2) decay was due primarily to volatilization; (3) higher relative toxicity of dibromochloromethane probably was due to formation of a degradation product (likely Br/sub 2/). Correction of the nominal LC50 values to time-weighted mean concentrations over the period between toxicant changes gave weighted LC50 values of 97.2, 67.4, 33.5, and 52.3 mg/liter for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, respectively. In addition, the period of water-hardening of fertilized eggs was not critical for expression of toxicity of dibromochloromethane. Comparison of these and other published data on effluent and toxic concentrations, persistence, and bioaccumulation of water-chlorination products suggests that trihalomethanes are not as environmentally critical as other chlorinated organic compounds or residual chlorine.

Mattice, J.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Tsai, S.C.; Burch, M.B.; Beauchamp, J.J.

1981-03-01

460

Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits.  

PubMed

Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Phytochemicals, especially phenolics, in fruits and vegetables are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds for the health benefits. However, the phenolic contents and their antioxidant activities in fruits and vegetables were underestimated in the literature, because bound phenolics were not included. This study was designed to investigate the profiles of total phenolics, including both soluble free and bound forms in common fruits, by applying solvent extraction, base digestion, and solid-phase extraction methods. Cranberry had the highest total phenolic content, followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, pineapple, banana, peach, lemon, orange, pear, and grapefruit. Total antioxidant activity was measured using the TOSC assay. Cranberry had the highest total antioxidant activity (177.0 +/- 4.3 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of fruit), followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, peach, lemon, pear, banana, orange, grapefruit, and pineapple. Antiproliferation activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver-cancer cells, and cranberry showed the highest inhibitory effect with an EC(50) of 14.5 +/- 0.5 mg/mL, followed by lemon, apple, strawberry, red grape, banana, grapefruit, and peach. A bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion. PMID:12452674

Sun, Jie; Chu, Yi-Fang; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai

2002-12-01

461

Evaluation and management of common anorectal conditions.  

PubMed

The prevalence of benign anorectal conditions in the primary care setting is high, although evidence of effective therapy is often lacking. In addition to recognizing common benign anorectal disorders, physicians must maintain a high index of suspicion for inflammatory and malignant disorders. Patients with red flags such as increased age, family history, persistent anorectal bleeding despite treatment, weight loss, or iron deficiency anemia should undergo colonoscopy. Pruritus ani, or perianal itching, is managed by treating the underlying cause, ensuring proper hygiene, and providing symptomatic relief with oral antihistamines, topical steroids, or topical capsaicin. Effective treatments for anal fissures include onabotulinumtoxinA, topical nitroglycerin, and topical calcium channel blockers. Symptomatic external hemorrhoids are managed with dietary modifications, topical steroids, and analgesics. Thrombosed hemorrhoids are best treated with hemorrhoidectomy if symptoms are present for less than 72 hours. Grades I through III internal hemorrhoids can be managed with rubber band ligation. For the treatment of grade III internal hemorrhoids, surgical hemorrhoidectomy has higher remission rates but increased pain and complication rates compared with rubber band ligation. Anorectal condylomas, or anogenital warts, are treated based on size and location, with office treatment consisting of topical trichloroacetic acid or podophyllin, cryotherapy, or laser treatment. Simple anorectal fistulas can be treated conservatively with sitz baths and analgesics, whereas complex or nonhealing fistulas may require surgery. Fecal impaction may be treated with polyethylene glycol, enemas, or manual disimpaction. Fecal incontinence is generally treated with loperamide and biofeedback. Surgical intervention is reserved for anal sphincter injury. PMID:22534276

Fargo, Matthew V; Latimer, Kelly M

2012-03-15

462

Optical Reflectance Measurements for Commonly Used Reflectors  

SciTech Connect

When simulating light collection in scintillators, modeling the angular distribution of optical light reflectance from surfaces is very important. Since light reflectance is poorly understood, either purely specular or purely diffuse reflectance is generally assumed. In this paper we measure the optical reflectance distribution for eleven commonly used reflectors. A 440 nm, output power stabilized, un-polarized laser is shone onto a reflector at a fixed angle of incidence. The reflected light's angular distribution is measured by an array of silicon photodiodes. The photodiodes are movable to cover 2 pi of solid angle. The light-induced current is, through a multiplexer, read out with a digital multimeter. A LabVIEW program controls the motion of the laser and the photodiode array, the multiplexer, and the data collection. The laser can be positioned at any angle with a position accuracy of 10 arc minutes. Each photodiode subtends 6.3o, and the photodiode array can be positioned at any angle with up to 10 arc minute angular resolution. The dynamic range for the current measurements is 105:1. The measured light reflectance distribution was measured to be specular for several ESR films as well as for aluminum foil, mostly diffuse for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tape and titanium dioxide paint, and neither specular nor diffuse for Lumirror(R), Melinex(R) and Tyvek(R). Instead, a more complicated light distribution was measured for these three materials.

Janecek, Petr Martin; Moses, William

2008-06-11

463

Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common vegetables.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables containing high levels of phytochemicals has been recommended to prevent chronic diseases related to oxidative stress in the human body. In this study, 10 common vegetables were selected on the basis of consumption per capita data in the United States. A more complete profile of phenolic distributions, including both free and bound phenolics in these vegetables, is reported here using new and modified methods. Broccoli possessed the highest total phenolic content, followed by spinach, yellow onion, red pepper, carrot, cabbage, potato, lettuce, celery, and cucumber. Red pepper had the highest total antioxidant activity, followed by broccoli, carrot, spinach, cabbage, yellow onion, celery, potato, lettuce, and cucumber. The phenolics antioxidant index (PAI) was proposed to evaluate the quality/quantity of phenolic contents in these vegetables and was calculated from the corrected total antioxidant activities by eliminating vitamin C contributions. Antiproliferative activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver cancer cells. Spinach showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by cabbage, red pepper, onion, and broccoli. On the basis of these results, the bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a simple reference for consumers to choose vegetables in accordance with their beneficial activities. The BI could be a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion. PMID:12405796

Chu, Yi-Fang; Sun, Jie; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai

2002-11-01

464

Motor assessment of developing common marmosets.  

PubMed

Motor development has been extensively studied in human infants and children, with several established scales for the evaluation of motor functions. However, the study of the neuronal mechanisms underlying human motor development is hampered by the lack of good animal models. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small New World monkey, has recently attracted much attention as a potential nonhuman primate model for understanding human physiology and diseases. However, little is known about its gross motor development. In the present study, we found that marmosets have a critical period for motor development in postnatal weeks 2 to 5, and acquire most of their motor skills by 8 weeks of age. We also developed methods to assess their motor functions, which will be useful for the evaluation of motor performance in marmoset models of human diseases. In addition, we found that marmosets exhibit a "head-to-tail" sequence of motor development similar to that found in humans, further supporting the notion that they provide a good animal model for studying the neuronal mechanisms underlying human motor development. PMID:24395453

Wang, Yiwen; Fang, Qin; Gong, Neng

2014-06-01

465

Common Carotid Artery Occlusion: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Subjects and Methods. We analysed 5000 cerebrovascular ultrasound records. A total of 0.4% of the patients had common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO). Results. The mean age was 59.8 ± 14.2 years, and the male/female ratio was 2.33. The most frequent risk factors were hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. Right-sided and left-sided CCAO occurred in 65% and 30% of the cases, respectively, and bilateral occlusion was detected in one case (5%). Patent bifurcation was observed in 10 cases of CCAO in which the anterograde flow in the ICA was maintained from the external carotid artery with reversed flow. In two of the cases, the occluded CCA was hypoplastic. The aetiology of CCAO in the majority of cases was the atherosclerosis (15 cases). The male/female ratio was higher in the patients with occluded distal vessels, and the short-term outcome was poorer. Only two cases from this series underwent revascularisation surgery. Spontaneous recanalisation was observed in one case. Conclusions. The most frequent cause of CCAO was atherosclerosis. The outcome is improved in the cases with patent distal vessels, and spontaneous recanalisation is possible. Treatment methods have not been standardised. Surgical revascularisation is possible in cases of patent distal vessels, but the indications are debatable. PMID:24167740

Bajkó, Zoltán; B?la?a, Rodica; Mo????ianu, Anca; Maier, Smaranda; Chebu?, Octavia Claudia; Szatmári, Szabolcs

2013-01-01

466

Bilateral integration in the common chemical sense.  

PubMed

Human participants judged the pungency of various concentrations of carbon dioxide presented to one nostril, the other nostril, or both (dichorhinic stimulation). Perceived magnitude grew sharply with concentration over the range explored. The combinatorial rule of bilateral integration followed the Pythagorean theorem: the effective mass in a bilateral stimulus equalled the square root of the sum of squares of the mass entering each nostril. This simple rule implies a possible mutual inhibitory interaction between the two nostrils, but it also implies partial spatial summation of the sensory impact of bilaterally presented concentrations. When persons inhale a relatively strong irritant, such as the higher concentrations used here, they will exhibit a very brief reflex interruption of inhalation. An experiment on the threshold for the reflex implied that it too followed the Pythagorean rule of integration. This occurred for both males and females, though females displayed a lower threshold for the reflex, whether evoked unilaterally or bilaterally. This reflex may hold promise as an objective indicator of functional status of the nasal common chemical sense. PMID:7146140

Garcia Medina, M R; Cain, W S

1982-08-01

467

Core radii and common-envelope evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many classes of objects and events are thought to form in binary star systems after a phase in which a core and companion spiral to smaller separation inside a common envelope (CE). Such a phase can end with the merging of the two stars or with the ejection of the envelope to leave a surviving binary system. The outcome is usually predicted by calculating the separation to which the stars must spiral to eject the envelope, assuming that the ratio of the core-envelope binding energy to the change in orbital energy is equal to a constant efficiency factor ?. If either object would overfill its Roche lobe at this end-of-CE separation, then the stars are assumed to merge. It is unclear what critical radius should be compared to the end-of-CE Roche lobe for stars which have developed cores before the start of a CE phase. After improving the core radius formulae in the widely used BSE rapid evolution code, we compare the properties of populations in which the critical radius is chosen to be the pre-CE core radius or the post-CE stripped remnant radius. Our improvements to the core radius formulae and the uncertainty in the critical radius significantly affect the rates of merging in CE phases of most types. We find the types of systems for which these changes are most important.

Hall, Philip D.; Tout, Christopher A.

2014-11-01

468

Visualizing common operating picture of critical infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a solution for visualizing the common operating picture (COP) of the critical infrastructure (CI). The purpose is to improve the situational awareness (SA) of the strategic-level actor and the source system operator in order to support decision making. The information is obtained through the Situational Awareness of Critical Infrastructure and Networks (SACIN) framework. The system consists of an agent-based solution for gathering, storing, and analyzing the information, and a user interface (UI) is presented in this paper. The UI consists of multiple views visualizing information from the CI in different ways. Different CI actors are categorized in 11 separate sectors, and events are used to present meaningful incidents. Past and current states, together with geographical distribution and logical dependencies, are presented to the user. The current states are visualized as segmented circles to represent event categories. Geographical distribution of assets is displayed with a well-known map tool. Logical dependencies are presented in a simple directed graph, and users also have a timeline to review past events. The objective of the UI is to provide an easily understandable overview of the CI status. Therefore, testing methods, such as a walkthrough, an informal walkthrough, and the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT), were used in the evaluation of the UI. Results showed that users were able to obtain an understanding of the current state of CI, and the usability of the UI was rated as good. In particular, the designated display for the CI overview and the timeline were found to be efficient.

Rummukainen, Lauri; Oksama, Lauri; Timonen, Jussi; Vankka, Jouko

2014-05-01

469

Intergroup Cooperation in Common Pool Resource Dilemmas.  

PubMed

Fundamental problems of environmental sustainability, including climate change and fisheries management, require collective action on a scale that transcends the political and cultural boundaries of the nation-state. Rational, self-interested neoclassical economic theories of human behavior predict tragedy in the absence of third party enforcement of agreements and practical difficulties that prevent privatization. Evolutionary biology offers a theory of cooperation, but more often than not in a context of discrimination against other groups. That is, in-group boundaries are necessarily defined by those excluded as members of out-groups. However, in some settings human's exhibit behavior that is inconsistent with both rational economic and group driven cooperation of evolutionary biological theory. This paper reports the results of a non-cooperative game-theoretic exercise that models a tragedy of the commons problem in which groups of players may advance their own positions only at the expense of other groups. Students enrolled from multiple universities and assigned to different multi-university identity groups participated in experiments that repeatedly resulted in cooperative outcomes despite intergroup conflicts and expressions of group identity. We offer three possible explanations: (1) students were cooperative because they were in an academic setting; (2) students may have viewed their instructors as the out-group; or (3) the emergence of a small number of influential, ethical leaders is sufficient to ensure cooperation amongst the larger groups. From our data and analysis, we draw out lessons that may help to inform approaches for institutional design and policy negotiations, particularly in climate change management. PMID:25082500

Sadowski, Jathan; Spierre, Susan G; Selinger, Evan; Seager, Thomas P; Adams, Elizabeth A; Berardy, Andrew

2014-08-01

470

Tensile Properties of Commonly Used Prolapse Meshes  

PubMed Central

Objectives Although most currently available synthetic meshes are lightweight, macroporous polypropylene, they differ in regard to pore size, knit pattern and surface characteristics, all of which may impact behavior. In this study, we compare the biomechanical properties of 4 commonly used prolapse meshes relative to Gynecare PS ™, using a tensile testing protocol. Methods Full length meshes [Gynecare PS™ (Ethicon), Pelvitex ™ (Bard), Popmesh™, Timesh ™ (Caldera), and Polyform (Boston Scientific)] were divided into 15 × 5 cm samples. Light microscopy was used to define pore size. For tensile testing, each mesh was either loaded to failure (n=5 per group) or cyclically loaded (n=3 per group). Data abstracted from the largely bilinear load-elongation curves included the low and high stiffness, the point of transition between them (inflection point), the load at failure, and the relative elongation. Results Microscopic analysis demonstrated that the pore size for all of the meshes were distinct. With the exception of Popmesh which displayed linear behavior, all prolapse meshes were characterized by a very low initial stiffness increasing by an order of magnitude into the high stiffness region. The newer meshes were 70%-90% less stiff than Gynecare (p< 0.05) and more readily deformed in response to cyclical loading (greater permanent elongation; p < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between mesh weight and load at failure, (p< 0.001). Conclusions Newer meshes are significantly less stiff than Gynecare PS. The significant amount of permanent elongation of these meshes may be important to consider, especially during the early post-operative period when tissue in growth has yet to take place. PMID:19495548

Jones, Keisha A.; Feola, Andrew; Meyn, Leslie; Abramowitch, Steven D.; Moalli, Pamela A.

2010-01-01

471

Polarization Signals of Common Spacecraft Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final report documenting the results of the polarization testing of near-planar objects with various reflectance properties. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the portion of the reflected signal which is polarized for materials commonly used in space applications. Tests were conducted on several samples, with surface characteristics ranging from highly reflective to relatively dark. The measurements were obtained by suspending the test object in a beam of collimated light. The amount of light falling on the sample was controlled by a circular aperture placed in the light field. The polarized reflectance at various phase angles was then measured. A nonlinear least squares fitting program was used for analysis. For the specular test objects, the reflected signals were measured in one degree increments near the specular point. Otherwise, measurements were taken every five degrees in phase angle. Generally, the more diffuse surfaces had lower polarized reflectances than their more specular counterparts. The reflected signals for the more diffuse surfaces were spread over a larger phase angle range, while the signals from the more specular samples were reflected almost entirely within five degrees of angular deviation from the specular point. The method used to test all the surfaces is presented. The results of this study will be used to support the NASA Orbital Debris Optical Signature Tests. These tests are intended to help better understand the reflectance properties of materials often used in space applications. This data will then be used to improve the capabilities for identification and tracking of space debris.

Gravseth, Ian; Culp, Robert D.; King, Nicole

1996-01-01

472

Toward a common language for biobanking.  

PubMed

To encourage the process of harmonization, the biobank community should support and use a common terminology. Relevant terms may be found in general thesauri for medicine, legal instruments or specific glossaries for biobanking. A comparison of the use of these sources has so far not been conducted and would be a useful instrument to further promote harmonization and data sharing. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the preference of definitions important for sharing biological samples and data. Definitions for 10 terms -[human] biobank, sample/specimen, sample collection, study, aliquot, coded, identifying information, anonymised, personal data and informed consent-were collected from several sources. A web-based questionnaire was sent to 560 European individuals working with biobanks asking to select their preferred definition for the terms. A total of 123 people participated in the survey, giving a response rate of 23%. The result was evaluated from four aspects: scope of definitions, potential regional differences, differences in semantics and definitions in the context of ontologies, guided by comments from responders. Indicative from the survey is the risk of focusing only on the research aspect of biobanking in definitions. Hence, it is recommended that important terms should be formulated in such a way that all areas of biobanking are covered to improve the bridges between research and clinical application. Since several of the terms investigated here within can also be found in a legal context, which may differ between countries, establishing what is a proper definition on how it adheres to law is also crucial. PMID:24713663

Fransson, Martin N; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Brochhausen, Mathias; Litton, Jan-Eric

2015-01-01

473

African swine fever virus infection of the bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) and its significance in the epidemiology of the disease.  

PubMed

Warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), giant forest hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni) and bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) are known to be susceptible to infection with African swine fever (ASF) virus. Little however, is known about the ecology of the disease in the bushpig. This study has shown that the bushpig remains viraemic for between 35 and 91 days following infection during which time it is able to infect the tick vector O. moubata. These ticks were able to transmit the disease to pigs. The virus persists in the lymphatic tissues for less than 34 weeks. Bushpigs infected with LIL 20/l virus but not VIC T90/l virus transmitted infection to in-contact pigs. Infected domestic pigs did not transmit the infection to in-contact bushpigs. ASF virus was able to replicate in in vitro cultures of bushpig leucocytes and endothelial cells. Recovered bushpigs could be reinfected with some strains of virus but not others. While it has been demonstrated that bushpigs remain carriers of ASFV following infection a complete understanding of their significance in the epidemiology of the disease awaits further investigations of their association with O. moubata. PMID:9659687

Anderson, E C; Hutchings, G H; Mukarati, N; Wilkinson, P J

1998-04-30

474

Estimating carnivoran diets using a combination of carcass observations and scats from GPS clusters  

PubMed Central

Scat analysis is one of the most frequently used methods to assess carnivoran diets and Global Positioning System (GPS) cluster methods are increasingly being used to locate feeding sites for large carnivorans. However, both methods have inherent biases that limit their use. GPS methods to locate kill sites are biased towards large carcasses, while scat analysis over-estimates the biomass consumed from smaller prey. We combined carcass observations and scats collected along known movement routes, assessed using GPS data from four African lion (Panthera leo) prides in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, to determine how a combination of these two datasets change diet estimates. As expected, using carcasses alone under-estimated the number of feeding events on small species, primarily impala (Aepyceros melampus) and warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), in our case by more than 50% and thus significantly under-estimated the biomass consumed per pride per day in comparison to when the diet was assessed using carcass observations alone. We show that an approach that supplements carcass observations with scats that enables the identification of potentially missed feeding events increases the estimates of food intake rates for large carnivorans, with possible ramifications for predator-prey interaction studies dealing with biomass intake rate. PMID:22408290

Tambling, C.J.; Laurence, S.D.; Bellan, S.E.; Cameron, E.Z.; du Toit, J.T.; Getz, W.M.

2011-01-01

475

Trypanosoma (Nannomonas) godfreyi sp. nov. from tsetse flies in The Gambia: biological and biochemical characterization.  

PubMed

We provide evidence from isoenzyme analysis, hybridization with repetitive DNA probes, behavioural studies and morphometrics that 4 trypanosome isolates from Glossina morsitans submorsitans in The Gambia constitute a new species now named Trypanosoma (Nannomonas) godfreyi. The bloodstream trypomastigotes of T. (N.) godfreyi are relatively small with a mean length of 13.7 microns (range: 9.1-21.8 microns) and a mean width of 1.65 microns (range: 0.65-2.69 microns). There is no free flagellum and the marginal kinetoplast is subterminal to a rounded posterior end; the undulating membrane is usually conspicuous. As with other Nannomonas, T. godfreyi developed in the midgut and proboscis of Glossina and infections matured in 21-28 days in laboratory G.m. morsitans. In The Gambia the normal vertebrate host appears to be the warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus, although elsewhere other wild and domestic suids may also be implicated in the life-cycle. T. godfreyi was identified unequivocally using a 380 bp DNA probe specific for a major genomic repeat sequence; its isoenzyme profile distinguished it clearly from T. simiae and three strain groups of T. congolense: savannah, riverine-forest and kilifi. PMID:7800418

McNamara, J J; Mohammed, G; Gibson, W C

1994-11-01

476

Estimating carnivoran diets using a combination of carcass observations and scats from GPS clusters.  

PubMed

Scat analysis is one of the most frequently used methods to assess carnivoran diets and Global Positioning System (GPS) cluster methods are increasingly being used to locate feeding sites for large carnivorans. However, both methods have inherent biases that limit their use. GPS methods to locate kill sites are biased towards large carcasses, while scat analysis over-estimates the biomass consumed from smaller prey. We combined carcass observations and scats collected along known movement routes, assessed using GPS data from four African lion (Panthera leo) prides in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, to determine how a combination of these two datasets change diet estimates. As expected, using carcasses alone under-estimated the number of feeding events on small species, primarily impala (Aepyceros melampus) and warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), in our case by more than 50% and thus significantly under-estimated the biomass consumed per pride per day in comparison to when the diet was assessed using carcass observations alone. We show that an approach that supplements carcass observations with scats that enables the identification of potentially missed feeding events increases the estimates of food intake rates for large carnivorans, with possible ramifications for predator-prey interaction studies dealing with biomass intake rate. PMID:22408290

Tambling, C J; Laurence, S D; Bellan, S E; Cameron, E Z; du Toit, J T; Getz, W M

2012-02-01

477

Contribution to the knowledge of helminthofauna of wild mammals of Somalia.  

PubMed

Within a survey of parasitic infections in wild mammals of Somalia, during the first semester of 1983 and the second of 1984, endoparasites were collected from 11 host species: Gazella soemmeringi, Gazella spekei, Madoqua saltiana, Phacochoerus aethiopicus, Xerus rutilus, Lepus sp., Genetta genetta, Herpestes (Galerella) sanguineus, Felis sylvestris libyca, Felis caracal, Canis mesomelas. A total of 22 species of helminths (20 nematode and 2 metacestode species) were identified. Lepus sp. is a new host for Heteroxinema (P.) proboscidiphora and Herpestes sanguineus for Oxinema sp. Teladorsagia hamata had not been previously reported in G. spekei; the genital cone and the corresponding supporting apparatus of this nematode are described. Two metacestodes were collected from the mesenteric membranes of a P. aethiopicus. The shape, number and length of their rostellar hooks, the size of the larvocysts, the occurrence of pseudostrobilum, are similar to those of the Taenia regis metacestode: but the size and shape of the hooks of the Somalian warthog larvocysts are slightly different and they have not been recovered from the musculature as previously reported in the intermediate hosts of T. regis. PMID:9257339

Iori, A; Lanfranchi, P

1996-12-01

478

A preliminary investigation of tuberculosis and other diseases in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda.  

PubMed

A survey to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis and certain other infectious diseases was conducted on 42 free-ranging African buffaloes, (Syncerus caffer) from May to June 1997 in the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Using the gamma interferon test, exposure to M. bovis was detected in 21.6% of the buffaloes. One dead buffalo and an emaciated warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) that was euthanased, were necropsied; both had miliary granulomas from which M. bovis was isolated. None of the buffaloes sampled in Sector A of the park, which has no cattle interface, tested positive for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) exposure. The prevalence and distribution of BTB does not appear to have changed significantly since the 1960s, but this may be due to fluxes in the buffalo population. Serological testing for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) demonstrated positive exposure of 57.1% of the buffaloes sampled, with types A, O and SAT 1-3, which is the first known report of FMD antibodies to A and O types in free ranging African buffaloes. Foot-and-mouth disease virus types SAT 1 and SAT 3 were isolated from buffalo probang samples. Two percent of the buffaloes had been exposed to brucellosis. None of the buffaloes tested had antibodies to rinderpest, leptospirosis or Q fever. PMID:16137132

Kalema-Zikusoka, G; Bengis, R G; Michel, A L; Woodford, M H

2005-06-01

479

Detection of Trypanosoma brucei in field-captured tsetse flies and identification of host species fed on by the infected flies.  

PubMed

The prevalence of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies in the Chiawa area of Lower Zambezi in Zambia, with endemic trypanosomosis, was determined by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method that allowed the detection of trypanosome DNA and determination of the type of animal host fed on by the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes, using tsetse-derived DNA extracts as templates. Ninety G. pallidipes (82 females and 8 males; 18.3%) of the 492 flies captured by baited biconical traps tested positive for the presence of Trypanosoma brucei species genomic DNA. Of the 90 T. brucei-positive flies, 47 (52.2%) also tested positive for vertebrate mitochondrial DNA. Sequence analysis of the vertebrate mitochondrial DNA amplicons established that they originated from 8 different vertebrate species, namely, human (Homo sapiens), African elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), and goat (Capra hircus). Furthermore, to investigate the prevalence of trypanosome infections in domestic goats in the same area where trypanosomes had been detected in tsetse files, a total of 86 goats were randomly selected from 6 different herds. Among the selected goats, 36 (41.9%) were found to be positive for T. brucei species. This combined detection method would be an ideal approach not only for mass screening for infection prevalence in tsetse populations, but also for the prediction of natural reservoirs in areas endemic for trypanosomosis. PMID:18399780

Konnai, Satoru; Mekata, Hirohisa; Odbileg, Raadan; Simuunza, Martin; Chembensof, Mwelwa; Witola, William Harold; Tembo, Mwase Enala; Chitambo, Harrison; Inoue, Noboru; Onuma, Misao; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

2008-08-01

480

The life cycle of Rhipicephalus lunulatus Neumann, 1907 (Acarina:Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions, with notes on its ecology in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

The durations of the developmental periods of Rhipicephalus lunulatus at 25 degrees C and 87% RH were: preoviposition, 2-9 days; oviposition, 29-34 days; minimum incubation, 11-27 days; nymphal premoult period, 11-23 days; and adult premoult period, 19-30 days. The durations of the feeding periods on a rabbit were: 3-7 days for larvae and 4-11 days for nymphs. Adult feeding was completed on a rabbit and a sheep in 10-22 days in January and 14-64 days in September, and only fertilized females completed engorgement. The mean number of eggs laid by engorged females was 4732, with 95% being laid within the first 16 days. In the southeastern lowveld of Zimbabwe adult ticks were most abundant on cattle between November and December, and their preferred sites of attachment were the legs and tail. Other hosts of adult R. lunulatus were impala (Aepyceros melampus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and eland (Taurotragus oryx). PMID:3870962

Colborne, J

1985-12-01

481

Interaction of common bacterial blight bacteria with disease resistance quantitative trait loci in common bean.  

PubMed

Common bacterial blight (CBB) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans, and is the most important bacterial disease of this crop in many regions of the world. In 2005 and 2006, dark red kidney bean fields in a major bean-growing region in central Wisconsin were surveyed for CBB incidence and representative symptomatic leaves collected. Xanthomonad-like bacteria were isolated from these leaves and characterized based upon phenotypic (colony) characteristics, pathogenicity on common bean, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with X. campestris pv. phaseoli- and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans-specific primers, and repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) and 16S-28S ribosomal RNA spacer region sequence analyses. Of 348 isolates that were characterized, 293 were identified as common blight bacteria (i.e., pathogenic on common bean and positive in PCR tests with the X. campestris pv. phaseoli- and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans-specific primers), whereas the other isolates were nonpathogenic xanthomonads. Most (98%) of the pathogenic xanthomonads were X. campestris pv. phaseoli, consistent with the association of this bacterium with CBB in large-seeded bean cultivars of the Andean gene pool. Two types of X. campestris pv. phaseoli were involved with CBB in this region: typical X. campestris pv. phaseoli (P) isolates with yellow mucoid colonies, no brown pigment production, and a typical X. campestris pv. phaseoli rep-PCR fingerprint (60% of strains); and a new phenotype and genotype (Px) with an X. campestris pv. phaseoli-type fingerprint and less mucoid colonies that produced brown pigment (40% of strains). In addition, a small number of X. fuscans subsp. fuscans strains, representing a new genotype (FH), were isolated from two fields in 2005. Representative P and Px X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains, an FH X. fuscans subsp. fuscans strain, plus five previously characterized X. campestris pv. phaseoli and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans genotypes were inoculated onto 28 common bean genotypes having various combinations of known CBB resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) and associated sequence-characterized amplified region markers. Different levels of virulence were observed for X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains, whereas X. fuscans subsp. fuscans strains were similar in virulence. The typical X. campestris pv. phaseoli strain from Wisconsin was most virulent, whereas X. campestris pv. phaseoli genotypes from East Africa were the least virulent. Host genotypes having the SU91 marker-associated resistance and one or more other QTL (i.e., pyramided resistance), such as the VAX lines, were highly resistant to all genotypes of common blight bacteria tested. This information will help in the development of CBB resistance-breeding strategies for different common bean market classes in different geographical regions, as well as the identification of appropriate pathogen genotypes for screening for resistance. PMID:21391823

Duncan, Robert W; Singh, Shree P; Gilbertson, Robert L

2011-04-01

482

Using common variants to indicate cancer genes  

PubMed Central

The catalogue of tumour-specific somatic mutations (SMs) is growing rapidly owing to the advent of next-generation sequencing. Identifying those mutations responsible for the development and progression of the disease, so-called driver mutations, will increase our understanding of carcinogenesis and provide candidates for targeted therapeutics. The phenotypic consequence(s) of driver mutations cause them to be selected for within the tumour environment, such that many approaches aimed at distinguishing drivers are based on finding significantly somatically mutated genes. Currently, these methods are designed to analyse, or be specifically applied to, nonsynonymous mutations: those that alter an encoded protein. However, growing evidence suggests the involvement of noncoding transcripts in carcinogenesis, mutations in which may also be disease-driving. We wished to test the hypothesis that common DNA variation rates within humans can be used as a baseline from which to score the rate of SMs, irrespective of coding capacity. We preliminarily tested this by applying it to a dataset of 159,498 SMs and using the results to rank genes. This resulted in significant enrichment of known cancer genes, indicating that the approach has merit. As additional data from cancer sequencing studies are made publicly available, this approach can be refined and applied to specific cancer subtypes. We named this preliminary version of our approach PRISMAD (polymorphism rates indicate somatic mutations as drivers) and have made it publicly accessible, with scripts, via a link at www.precancer.leeds.ac.uk/software-and-datasets. What's New? Somatic mutations are important drivers of the cancerous process but identifying the key “driver” mutations remains a challenging question. The authors hypothesize that the variation level in healthy tissue represents a transcript's tolerance to mutation and that if the number of mutations in tumors exceeds this level, positive selection might have occurred that point to this transcript as a major driver in carcinogenesis. They tested their program with a large dataset of somatic mutations and obtained a ranked list of genes significantly enriched in known cancer-associated genes. Their program called PRISMAD is publicly available and could help identify new driver mutations in various tumors. PMID:24798945

Stead, Lucy F; Thygesen, Helene; Westhead, David R; Rabbitts, Pamela

2015-01-01

483

FINAL STUDY REPORT INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPACTS OF COMMON ENDOCRINE  

E-print Network

FINAL STUDY REPORT INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPACTS OF COMMON ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPACTS OF COMMON ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS ON MULTIPLE EARLY LIFE STAGES the terms of the federal Clean Water Act's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES

484

Resolving the paradox of common, harmful, heritable mental disorders  

E-print Network

Resolving the paradox of common, harmful, heritable mental disorders: Which evolutionary genetic unable to eliminate genes (susceptibility alleles) that predispose to common, harmful, heritable mental not harmful among ancestors), (2) balancing selection (susceptibility alleles sometimes increased fitness

Miller, Geoffrey

485

Relationships among invasive common carp, native fishes and physicochemical characteristics  

E-print Network

). Common carp Cyprinus carpio are distributed worldwide and considered one of the most wide- spread of Freshwater Fish 2011. � 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract ­ Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread

486

Common Pediatric Disabilities: Medical Aspects and Educational Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents definitions of common pediatric disabilities and information about incidence, causes, diagnosis, common characteristics, complications with educational implications, and multidisciplinary intervention approaches. It covers the following conditions: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, fragile…

Tyler, Janet Siantz; Colson, Steven

1994-01-01

487

Common Core State Standards Office of Academic Affairs  

E-print Network

....................................................................................5 Teacher Education Common Core Projects Bronx Community CollegeCommon Core State Standards at CUNY #12;Office of Academic Affairs Angelita Alvarado-Santos Director of Education Research Initiatives Jennifer Case Project Director, Professional Development

Rosen, Jay

488

Reasoning About Common Knowledge with Infinitely Many Agents  

E-print Network

Reasoning About Common Knowledge with Infinitely Many and exponential-time decision procedures are p* *rovided for reasoning about knowledge and common knowledge when there are infinitely m* *any agents. The results show that reasoning about knowledge

Shore, Richard A.

489

Application and management of commonality within NASA systems  

E-print Network

Commonality can be defined as the sharing of assets such as components, designs, processes, technologies, interfaces, and/or infrastructure across systems. Through commonality, NASA has the opportunity to develop, produce, ...

Rhodes, Richard Alexander

2010-01-01

490

Common Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis Reduces Risk of Death  

MedlinePLUS

... Common Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis Reduces Risk of Death Taking methotrexate—a commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory medication—may reduce the risk of death among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), according to ...

491

Speakers' Use of Interactive Gestures as Markers of Common Ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This study experimentally manipulates common ground (the knowledge, beliefs and assumptions interlocutors mutually share [6])\\u000a and measures the effect on speakers’ use of interactive gestures to mark common ground. The data consist of narratives based\\u000a on a video of which selected scenes were known to both speaker and addressee (common ground condition) or to only the speaker\\u000a (no common ground

Judith Holler

2009-01-01

492

Hematozoa of hatch-year common mergansers from Michigan.  

PubMed

Fifty-five hatch-year common mergansers (Mergus merganser) were sampled for hematozoa from Douglas Lake (Michigan, USA) on 17 July 1995. Forty-one (75%) were infected with hematozoa. Haemoproteus greineri and Leucocytozoon simondi were common, infecting 28 (51%) and 26 (47%) common mergansers, respectively. Plasmodium circumflexum infected two (4%) birds. The common merganser is a new host record for H. greineri and P. circumflexum. Intensity data indicate possible negative interspecific interaction between H. greineri and L. simondi. PMID:11310899

DeJong, R J; Reimink, R L; Blankespoor, H D

2001-04-01

493

How Common Can Be Universality in Cellular Automata?  

E-print Network

How Common Can Be Universality in Cellular Automata? STACS 2005, Stuttgart Guillaume Theyssier (LIP, ENS Lyon, France) #12;How Common Can Be Universality in Cellular Automata? STACS 2005, Stuttgart Guillaume Theyssier (LIP, ENS Lyon, France) #12;A natural question 3 How Common Can Be Universality

Theyssier, Guillaume

494

47 CFR 74.22 - Use of common antenna structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Use of common antenna structure. 74.22 Section 74.22...Services in Part 74 § 74.22 Use of common antenna structure. The simultaneous use of a common antenna structure by more than one station...

2011-10-01

495

47 CFR 74.22 - Use of common antenna structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Use of common antenna structure. 74.22 Section 74.22...Services in Part 74 § 74.22 Use of common antenna structure. The simultaneous use of a common antenna structure by more than one station...

2010-10-01

496

47 CFR 74.22 - Use of common antenna structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Use of common antenna structure. 74.22 Section 74.22...Services in Part 74 § 74.22 Use of common antenna structure. The simultaneous use of a common antenna structure by more than one station...

2013-10-01

497

47 CFR 74.22 - Use of common antenna structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Use of common antenna structure. 74.22 Section 74.22...Services in Part 74 § 74.22 Use of common antenna structure. The simultaneous use of a common antenna structure by more than one station...

2014-10-01

498

47 CFR 74.22 - Use of common antenna structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Use of common antenna structure. 74.22 Section 74.22...Services in Part 74 § 74.22 Use of common antenna structure. The simultaneous use of a common antenna structure by more than one station...

2012-10-01

499

20 CFR 222.13 - Common-law marriage relationship.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Common-law marriage relationship. 222.13 Section...er) § 222.13 Common-law marriage relationship. Under the laws of some States, a common-law marriage is one which is not solemnized...

2010-04-01

500

20 CFR 222.13 - Common-law marriage relationship.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2012-04-01 true Common-law marriage relationship. 222.13 Section...er) § 222.13 Common-law marriage relationship. Under the laws of some States, a common-law marriage is one which is not solemnized...

2014-04-01