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Sample records for common wild rice

  1. Identifying novel resistance genes in rice wild relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast and sheath blight are major fungal diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L. ) that limit Arkansas rough rice yields and market potential. Resistance to these diseases has been found in rice wild relatives (Oryza spp.) A collection of these wild relatives originating from outside the U...

  2. Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and "taffy"). The…

  3. Rubisco activity is associated with photosynthetic thermotolerance in a wild rice (Oryza meridionalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oryza meridionalis is a wild species of rice, endemic to tropical Australia. It shares a significant genome homology with the common domesticated rice Oryza sativa. Exploiting the fact that the two species are highly related but O. meridionalis has superior heat tolerance, experiments were undertake...

  4. Nutritional constituents and health benefits of wild rice (Zizania spp.).

    PubMed

    Surendiran, Gangadaran; Alsaif, Maha; Kapourchali, Fatemeh Ramezani; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2014-04-01

    Wild rice (Zizania spp.) seems to have originated in North America and then dispersed into Eastern Asia and other parts of the world. Nutritional analysis shows that wild rice is rich in minerals, vitamins, protein, starch, dietary fiber, and various antioxidant phytochemicals, while it is low in fat. Wild rice has been recognized as a whole grain by the US Food and Drug Administration; in the North American marketplace it is currently sold as and considered to be a health-promoting food. Recent scientific studies have revealed antioxidant and lipid-lowering properties of wild rice, while others have documented cardiovascular benefits associated with the long-term consumption of wild rice in experimental settings. The present review article summarizes various features of wild rice and its cultivation, including its plantation, harvest, nutritional composition, and biological properties. While evidence for the cardiovascular benefits of wild rice consumption is accumulating, additional studies are warranted to determine the clinical benefits of regular consumption of wild rice. PMID:24684371

  5. Information Commons for Rice (IC4R).

    PubMed

    Hao, Lili; Zhang, Huiyong; Zhang, Zhang; Hu, Songnian; Xue, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population and also a key model organism for plant research. Here, we present Information Commons for Rice (IC4R; http://ic4r.org), a rice knowledgebase featuring adoption of an extensible and sustainable architecture that integrates multiple omics data through community-contributed modules. Each module is developed and maintained by different committed groups, deals with data collection, processing and visualization, and delivers data on-demand via web services. In the current version, IC4R incorporates a variety of rice data through multiple committed modules, including genome-wide expression profiles derived entirely from RNA-Seq data, resequencing-based genomic variations obtained from re-sequencing data of thousands of rice varieties, plant homologous genes covering multiple diverse plant species, post-translational modifications, rice-related literatures and gene annotations contributed by the rice research community. Unlike extant related databases, IC4R is designed for scalability and sustainability and thus also features collaborative integration of rice data and low costs for database update and maintenance. Future directions of IC4R include incorporation of other omics data and association of multiple omics data with agronomically important traits, dedicating to build IC4R into a valuable knowledgebase for both basic and translational researches in rice. PMID:26519466

  6. Information Commons for Rice (IC4R)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population and also a key model organism for plant research. Here, we present Information Commons for Rice (IC4R; http://ic4r.org), a rice knowledgebase featuring adoption of an extensible and sustainable architecture that integrates multiple omics data through community-contributed modules. Each module is developed and maintained by different committed groups, deals with data collection, processing and visualization, and delivers data on-demand via web services. In the current version, IC4R incorporates a variety of rice data through multiple committed modules, including genome-wide expression profiles derived entirely from RNA-Seq data, resequencing-based genomic variations obtained from re-sequencing data of thousands of rice varieties, plant homologous genes covering multiple diverse plant species, post-translational modifications, rice-related literatures and gene annotations contributed by the rice research community. Unlike extant related databases, IC4R is designed for scalability and sustainability and thus also features collaborative integration of rice data and low costs for database update and maintenance. Future directions of IC4R include incorporation of other omics data and association of multiple omics data with agronomically important traits, dedicating to build IC4R into a valuable knowledgebase for both basic and translational researches in rice. PMID:26519466

  7. 7 CFR 457.170 - Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions. 457... rice crop insurance provisions. The Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2009 and... reinsured policies: Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Provisions. 1. Definitions Approved laboratory. A...

  8. 7 CFR 457.170 - Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions. 457... rice crop insurance provisions. The Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2009 and... reinsured policies: Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Provisions. 1. Definitions Approved laboratory. A...

  9. 7 CFR 457.170 - Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions. 457... rice crop insurance provisions. The Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2009 and... reinsured policies: Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Provisions. 1. Definitions Approved laboratory. A...

  10. 7 CFR 457.170 - Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions. 457... rice crop insurance provisions. The Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2009 and... reinsured policies: Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Provisions. 1. Definitions Approved laboratory. A...

  11. 7 CFR 457.170 - Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions. 457... rice crop insurance provisions. The Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2009 and... reinsured policies: Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Provisions. 1. Definitions Approved laboratory. A...

  12. 7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting... Contract Violations and Reduction in Payments § 1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. (a)(1) If an acreage report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on base acreage of a...

  13. 7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting... Contract Violations and Reduction in Payments § 1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. (a)(1) If an acreage report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on base acreage of a...

  14. 7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting... Contract Violations and Reduction in Payments § 1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. (a)(1) If an acreage report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on base acreage of a...

  15. 7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting... Contract Violations and Reduction in Payments § 1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. (a)(1) If an acreage report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on base acreage of a...

  16. 7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting... Contract Violations and Reduction in Payments § 1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. (a)(1) If an acreage report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on base acreage of a...

  17. Fungicide sensitivity in the wild rice pathogen Bipolaris oryzae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years the occurrence of fungal brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae has increased in cultivated wild rice (Zizania palustris) paddies in spite of the use of fungicides. To implement an efficient integrated disease management system, we are exploring whether field isolates have developed ...

  18. Heavy metals in wild rice from northern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Chiriboga, E.; Coleman, J.; Waller, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Wild rice grain samples from various parts of the world have been found to have elevated concentrations of heavy metals, raising concern for potential effects on human health. It was hypothesized that wild rice from north-central Wisconsin could potentially have elevated concentrations of some heavy metals because of possible exposure to these elements from the atmosphere or from water and sediments. In addition, no studies of heavy metals in wild rice from Wisconsin had been performed, and a baseline study was needed for future comparisons. Wild rice plants were collected from four areas in Bayfield, Forest, Langlade, Oneida, Sawyer and Wood Counties in September, 1997 and 1998 and divided into four plant parts for elemental analyses: roots, stems, leaves and seeds. A total of 194 samples from 51 plants were analyzed across the localities, with an average of 49 samples per part depending on the element. Samples were cleaned of soil, wet digested, and analyzed by ICP for Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mg, Pb, Se and Zn. Roots contained the highest concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se. Copper was highest in both roots and seeds, while Zn was highest just in seeds. Magnesium was highest in leaves. Seed baseline ranges for the 10 elements were established using the 95% confidence intervals of the medians. Wild rice plants from northern Wisconsin had normal levels of the nutritional elements Cu, Mg and Zn in the seeds. Silver, Cd, Hg, Cr, and Se were very low in concentration or within normal limits for food plants. Arsenic and Pb, however, were elevated and could pose a problem for human health. The pathway for As, Hg and Pb to the plants could be atmospheric.

  19. Evaluation of genetic variation among wild rice populations in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Orn, Chhourn; Shishido, Rieko; Akimoto, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Ryo; Htun, Than Myint; Nonomura, Ken-Ichi; Koide, Yohei; Sarom, Men; Vang, Seng; Sophany, Sakhan; Makara, Ouk; Ishii, Takashige

    2015-01-01

    A total of 448 samples in five natural populations of wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) were collected in Cambodia. They were examined using 12 SSR and two chloroplast markers to evaluate the degree of variation among populations and the genetic structure within populations. In the two annual populations, the number of plants with homozygous alleles at all 12 SSR loci were high (66.3% and 79.5%), suggesting that these plants propagate mainly through self-pollination. In the three perennial populations, no individuals had all homozygous genotypes, but redundant genotypes resulted from clonal propagation were observed. Percentages of the redundant genotypes were highly varied (3.6%, 29.2% and 86.0%). This may be due to the different stable levels of environmental conditions. As for chloroplast genome, most of the wild plants showed the same chloroplast types as most Indica-type cultivars have. However, plants with different chloroplast types were maintained, even in the same population. In tropical Asian countries, many wild rice populations were observed under similar ecological conditions examined in this study. Therefore, the present results concerning population structure will be important to further elucidate genetic features of wild rice, and will also give strong clues to utilize and conserve wild natural genetic resources. PMID:26719746

  20. Bulliform Phytolith Research in Wild and Domesticated Rice Paddy Soil in South China

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Xiujia; Lu, Houyuan; Wang, Can; Tang, Xiangan; Zuo, Xinxin; Ge, Yong; He, Keyang

    2015-01-01

    Bulliform phytoliths play an important role in researching rice origins as they can be used to distinguish between wild and domesticated rice. Rice bulliform phytoliths are characterized by numerous small shallow fish-scale decorations on the lateral side. Previous studies have shown that domesticated rice has a larger number of these decorations than wild rice and that the number of decorations ≥9 is a useful feature for identifying domesticated rice. However, this standard was established based on limited samples of modern rice plants. In this study, we analyzed soil samples from both wild and domesticated rice paddies. Results showed that, in wild rice soil samples, the proportion of bulliform phytoliths with ≥9 decorations was 17.46% ± 8.29%, while in domesticated rice soil samples, the corresponding proportion was 63.70% ± 9.22%. This suggests that the proportion of phytoliths with ≥9 decorations can be adopted as a criterion for discriminating between wild and domesticated rice in prehistoric soil. This indicator will be of significance in improving the application of fish-scale decorations to research into rice origins and the rice domestication process. PMID:26488583

  1. Identification of phasiRNAs in wild rice (Oryza rufipogon).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Fan, Longjiang

    2013-08-01

    Plant miRNAs can trigger the production of phased, secondary siRNAs from either non-coding or protein-coding genes. In this study, at least 864 and 3,961 loci generating 21-nt and 24-nt phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs),respectively, were identified in three tissues from wild rice. Of these phasiRNA-producing loci, or PHAS genes, biogenesis of phasiRNAs in at least 160 of 21-nt and 254 of 24-nt loci could be triggered by interaction with miRNA(s). Developing seeds had more PHAS genes than leaves and roots. Genetic constrain on miRNA-triggered PHAS genes suggests that phasiRNAs might be one of the driving forces contributed to rice domestication. PMID:23733069

  2. Factors Affecting the Distribution of Wild Rice (Zizania palustris) and the Surrounding Macrophyte Community.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillsbury, R. W.; McGuire, M.

    2005-05-01

    A recent decline in wild rice wetlands is cause for concern due to its importance as a food source, refuge for wildlife, and cultural significance. Sixty wetlands in Wisconsin and Minnesota (USA) were sampled, with approximately equal numbers displaying dense, moderate and sparse wild rice production. Chemical, physical, and watershed parameters were measured as well as macrophyte densities. Data were analyzed using multivariate statistics (CCA). Moderate levels of phosphorus appear beneficial to the overall success of wild rice, while free-floating macrophytes show an overwhelming positive response to higher levels of P. The distribution of macrophytes bordering wild rice beds is correlated to pH,with Potamogeton robbinsii and filamentous green algae responding most strongly to its increase. Healthy stands of wild rice exhibit a narrow circum-neutral range of pH (6.1-8.0)which is significantly different from the greater range exhibited by sparse wild rice wetlands (6.5-8.5). This pattern was paralleled when considering depth which suggests that deeper wetlands may be more susceptible to wild rice loss. Management of existing wild rice wetlands should focus monitoring on pH, depth, phosphorus concentrations and shore development. We are currently using this data base to locate the best reintroduction sites for wild rice.

  3. CELL WALL HYDROXYCINNAMATES IN WILD RICE (ZIZANIA AQUATICA L.) INSOLUBLE DIETARY FIBER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contents of ester-linked phenolic acids in wild rice (Zizania aquatica L.) dietary fibre were quantified by HPLC analysis, and oligosaccharide hydroxycinnamates were isolated and identified to investigate the linkages of hydroxycinnamic acids to cell wall polymers. In wild rice insoluble dietary...

  4. Genetic diversity associated with conservation of endangered Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wild progenitor species (Oryza rufipogon) of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa) is located in Dongxiang county, China where it is considered the northernmost range worldwide. Nine ex situ and three in situ populations of the Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR) and four groups of modern cultivars were geno...

  5. Genetic diversity in Oryza glumaepatula wild rice populations in Costa Rica and possible gene flow from O. sativa

    PubMed Central

    Meneses Martínez, Allan; Calvo, Amanda; Muñoz, Melania

    2016-01-01

    Wild crop relatives are an important source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Diversity estimates are generally lacking for many wild crop relatives. The objective of the present study was to analyze how genetic diversity is distributed within and among populations of the wild rice species Oryza glumaepatula in Costa Rica. We also evaluated the likelihood of gene flow between wild and commercial rice species because the latter is commonly sympatric with wild rice populations. Introgression may change wild species by incorporating alleles from domesticated species, increasing the risk of losing original variation. Specimens from all known O. glumaepatula populations in Costa Rica were analyzed with 444 AFLP markers to characterize genetic diversity and structure. We also compared genetic diversity estimates between O. glumaepatula specimens and O. sativa commercial rice. Our results showed that O. glumaepatula populations in Costa Rica have moderately high levels of genetic diversity, comparable to those found in South American populations. Despite the restricted distribution of this species in Costa Rica, populations are fairly large, reducing the effects of drift on genetic diversity. We found a dismissible but significant structure (θ = 0.02 ± 0.001) among populations. A Bayesian structure analysis suggested that some individuals share a significant proportion of their genomes with O. sativa. These results suggest that gene flow from cultivated O. sativa populations may have occurred in the recent past. These results expose an important biohazard: recurrent hybridization may reduce the genetic diversity of this wild rice species. Introgression may transfer commercial traits into O. glumaepatula, which in turn could alter genetic diversity and increase the likelihood of local extinction. These results have important implications for in situ conservation strategies of the only wild populations of O. glumaepatula in Costa Rica. PMID:27077002

  6. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity and Development of a Core Collection of Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) Populations in China

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Lin; Lu, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yuhong; Jiang, Lan; Diao, Mengyang; Liu, Xiangdong; Lu, Yonggen

    2015-01-01

    Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.), the progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa L.), is endangered due to habitat loss. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the genetic diversity of wild rice species in isolated populations and to develop a core collection of representative genotypes for ex situ conservation. We collected 885 wild rice accessions from eight geographically distinct regions and transplanted these accessions in a protected conservation garden over a period of almost two decades. We evaluated these accessions for 13 morphological or phenological traits and genotyped them for 36 DNA markers evenly distributed on the 12 chromosomes. The coefficient of variation of quantitative traits was 0.56 and ranged from 0.37 to 1.06. SSR markers detected 206 different alleles with an average of 6 alleles per locus. The mean polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.64 in all populations, indicating that the marker loci have a high level of polymorphism and genetic diversity in all populations. Phylogenetic analyses based on morphological and molecular data revealed remarkable differences in the genetic diversity of common wild rice populations. The results showed that the Zengcheng, Gaozhou, and Suixi populations possess higher levels of genetic diversity, whereas the Huilai and Boluo populations have lower levels of genetic diversity than do the other populations. Based on their genetic distance, 130 accessions were selected as a core collection that retained over 90% of the alleles at the 36 marker loci. This genetically diverse core collection will be a useful resource for genomic studies of rice and for initiatives aimed at developing rice with improved agronomic traits. PMID:26720755

  7. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity and Development of a Core Collection of Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) Populations in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Bai, Lin; Lu, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yuhong; Jiang, Lan; Diao, Mengyang; Liu, Xiangdong; Lu, Yonggen

    2015-01-01

    Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.), the progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa L.), is endangered due to habitat loss. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the genetic diversity of wild rice species in isolated populations and to develop a core collection of representative genotypes for ex situ conservation. We collected 885 wild rice accessions from eight geographically distinct regions and transplanted these accessions in a protected conservation garden over a period of almost two decades. We evaluated these accessions for 13 morphological or phenological traits and genotyped them for 36 DNA markers evenly distributed on the 12 chromosomes. The coefficient of variation of quantitative traits was 0.56 and ranged from 0.37 to 1.06. SSR markers detected 206 different alleles with an average of 6 alleles per locus. The mean polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.64 in all populations, indicating that the marker loci have a high level of polymorphism and genetic diversity in all populations. Phylogenetic analyses based on morphological and molecular data revealed remarkable differences in the genetic diversity of common wild rice populations. The results showed that the Zengcheng, Gaozhou, and Suixi populations possess higher levels of genetic diversity, whereas the Huilai and Boluo populations have lower levels of genetic diversity than do the other populations. Based on their genetic distance, 130 accessions were selected as a core collection that retained over 90% of the alleles at the 36 marker loci. This genetically diverse core collection will be a useful resource for genomic studies of rice and for initiatives aimed at developing rice with improved agronomic traits. PMID:26720755

  8. Extensive de Novo genomic variation in rice induced by introgression from wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Ming; Dong, Zhen-Ying; Zhang, Zhong-Juan; Lin, Xiu-Yun; Shen, Ye; Zhou, Daowei; Liu, Bao

    2005-08-01

    To study the possible impact of alien introgression on a recipient plant genome, we examined >6000 unbiased genomic loci of three stable rice recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from intergeneric hybridization between rice (cv. Matsumae) and a wild relative (Zizania latifolia Griseb.) followed by successive selfing. Results from amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis showed that, whereas the introgressed Zizania DNA comprised <0.1% of the genome content in the RILs, extensive and genome-wide de novo variations occurred in up to 30% of the analyzed loci for all three lines studied. The AFLP-detected changes were validated by DNA gel-blot hybridization and/or sequence analysis of genomic loci corresponding to a subset of the differentiating AFLP fragments. A BLAST analysis revealed that the genomic variations occurred in diverse sequences, including protein-coding genes, transposable elements, and sequences of unknown functions. Pairwise sequence comparison of selected loci between a RIL and its rice parent showed that the variations represented either base substitutions or small insertion/deletions. Genome variations were detected in all 12 rice chromosomes, although their distribution was uneven both among and within chromosomes. Taken together, our results imply that even cryptic alien introgression can be highly mutagenic to a recipient plant genome. PMID:15937131

  9. WRKY transcription factor genes in wild rice Oryza nivara.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hengjian; Watanabe, Kenneth A; Zhang, Liyuan; Shen, Qingxi J

    2016-08-01

    The WRKY transcription factor family is one of the largest gene families involved in plant development and stress response. Although many WRKY genes have been studied in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), the WRKY genes in the wild rice species Oryza nivara, the direct progenitor of O. sativa, have not been studied. O. nivara shows abundant genetic diversity and elite drought and disease resistance features. Herein, a total of 97 O. nivara WRKY (OnWRKY) genes were identified. RNA-sequencing demonstrates that OnWRKY genes were generally expressed at higher levels in the roots of 30-day-old plants. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that most of OnWRKY genes could be induced by salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and drought. Abundant potential MAPK phosphorylation sites in OnWRKYs suggest that activities of most OnWRKYs can be regulated by phosphorylation. Phylogenetic analyses of OnWRKYs support a novel hypothesis that ancient group IIc OnWRKYs were the original ancestors of only some group IIc and group III WRKYs. The analyses also offer strong support that group IIc OnWRKYs containing the HVE sequence in their zinc finger motifs were derived from group Ia WRKYs. This study provides a solid foundation for the study of the evolution and functions of WRKY genes in O. nivara. PMID:27345721

  10. WRKY transcription factor genes in wild rice Oryza nivara

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hengjian; Watanabe, Kenneth A.; Zhang, Liyuan; Shen, Qingxi J.

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY transcription factor family is one of the largest gene families involved in plant development and stress response. Although many WRKY genes have been studied in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), the WRKY genes in the wild rice species Oryza nivara, the direct progenitor of O. sativa, have not been studied. O. nivara shows abundant genetic diversity and elite drought and disease resistance features. Herein, a total of 97 O. nivara WRKY (OnWRKY) genes were identified. RNA-sequencing demonstrates that OnWRKY genes were generally expressed at higher levels in the roots of 30-day-old plants. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that most of OnWRKY genes could be induced by salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and drought. Abundant potential MAPK phosphorylation sites in OnWRKYs suggest that activities of most OnWRKYs can be regulated by phosphorylation. Phylogenetic analyses of OnWRKYs support a novel hypothesis that ancient group IIc OnWRKYs were the original ancestors of only some group IIc and group III WRKYs. The analyses also offer strong support that group IIc OnWRKYs containing the HVE sequence in their zinc finger motifs were derived from group Ia WRKYs. This study provides a solid foundation for the study of the evolution and functions of WRKY genes in O. nivara. PMID:27345721

  11. Extensive Microsatellite Variation in Rice Induced by Introgression from Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.)

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhenying; Wang, Hongyan; Dong, Yuzhu; Wang, Yongming; Liu, Wei; Miao, Gaojian; Lin, Xiuyun; Wang, Daqing; Liu, Bao

    2013-01-01

    Background It is widely accepted that interspecific hybridization may induce genomic instability in the resultant hybrids. However, few studies have been performed on the genomic analysis of homoploid hybrids and introgression lines. We have reported previously that by introgressive hybridization, a set of introgression lines between rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.) was successfully generated, and which have led to the release of several cultivars. Methodology Using 96 microsatellite markers located in the nuclear and organelle genomes of rice, we investigated microsatellite stability in three typical introgression lines. Expression of a set of mismatch repair (MMR) genes and microsatellite-containing genes was also analyzed. Results/Conclusions Compared with the recipient rice cultivar (Matsumae), 55 of the 96 microsatellite loci revealed variation in one or more of the introgression lines, and 58.2% of the altered alleles were shared by at least two lines, indicating that most of the alterations had occurred in the early stages of introgression before their further differentiation. 73.9% of the non-shared variations were detected only in one introgression line, i.e. RZ2. Sequence alignment showed that the variations included substitutions and indels that occurred both within the repeat tracts and in the flanking regions. Interestingly, expression of a set of MMR genes altered dramatically in the introgression lines relative to their rice parent, suggesting participation of the MMR system in the generation of microsatellite variants. Some of the altered microsatellite loci are concordant with changed expression of the genes harboring them, suggesting their possible cis-regulatory roles in controlling gene expression. Because these genes bear meaningful homology to known-functional proteins, we conclude that the introgression-induced extensive variation of microsatellites may have contributed to the novel phenotypes in the

  12. Herbivory by resident geese: The loss and recovery of wild rice along the tidal Patuxent River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Kearns, G.D.

    2007-01-01

    Well known for a fall spectacle of maturing wild rice (Zizania aquatica) and migrant waterbirds, the tidal freshwater marshes of the Patuxent River, Maryland, USA, experienced a major decline in wild rice during the 1990s. We conducted experiments in 1999 and 2000 with fenced exclosures and discovered herbivory by resident Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Grazing by geese eliminated rice outside exclosures, whereas protected plants achieved greater size, density, and produced more panicles than rice occurring in natural stands. The observed loss of rice on the Patuxent River reflects both the sensitivity of this annual plant to herbivory and the destructive nature of an overabundance of resident geese on natural marsh vegetation. Recovery of rice followed 2 management actions: hunting removal of approximately 1,700 geese during a 4-year period and reestablishment of rice through a large-scale fencing and planting program.

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of Salt Stress Responsiveness in the Seedlings of Dongxiang Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Yang, Ping; Cui, Fenglei; Zhang, Fantao; Luo, Xiangdong; Xie, Jiankun

    2016-01-01

    Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) is the progenitor of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), and is well known for its superior level of tolerance against cold, drought and diseases. To date, however, little is known about the salt-tolerant character of Dongxiang wild rice. To elucidate the molecular genetic mechanisms of salt-stress tolerance in Dongxiang wild rice, the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was used to analyze the transcriptome profiles of the leaves and roots at the seedling stage under salt stress compared with those under normal conditions. The analysis results for the sequencing data showed that 6,867 transcripts were differentially expressed in the leaves (2,216 up-regulated and 4,651 down-regulated) and 4,988 transcripts in the roots (3,105 up-regulated and 1,883 down-regulated). Among these differentially expressed genes, the detection of many transcription factor genes demonstrated that multiple regulatory pathways were involved in salt stress tolerance. In addition, the differentially expressed genes were compared with the previous RNA-Seq analysis of salt-stress responses in cultivated rice Nipponbare, indicating the possible specific molecular mechanisms of salt-stress responses for Dongxiang wild rice. A large number of the salt-inducible genes identified in this study were co-localized onto fine-mapped salt-tolerance-related quantitative trait loci, providing candidates for gene cloning and elucidation of molecular mechanisms responsible for salt-stress tolerance in rice. PMID:26752408

  14. Rice production systems and avian influenza: Interactions between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.

    2010-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are the reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), a family of RNA viruses that may cause mild sickness in waterbirds. Emergence of H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain, causing severe disease and mortality in wild birds, poultry and humans, had raised concerns about the role of wild birds in possible transmission of the disease. In this review, the link between rice production systems, poultry production systems, and wild bird ecology is examined to assess the extent to which these interactions could contribute towards the persistence and evolution of HPAI H5N1. The rice (Oryza sativa) and poultry production systems in Asia described, and then migration and movements of wild birds discussed. Mixed farming systems in Asia and wild bird movement and migration patterns create opportunities for the persistence of low pathogenic AIVs in these systems. Nonetheless, there is no evidence of long-term persistence of HPAI viruses (including the H5N1 subtype) in the wild. There are still significant gaps in the understanding of how AIVs circulate in rice systems. A better understanding of persistence of AIVs in rice farms, particularly of poultry origins, is essential in limiting exchange of AIVs between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds.

  15. Combination effects of wild rice and phytosterols on prevention of atherosclerosis in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Alsaif, Maha; Le, Khuong; Gangadaran, Surendiran; Masisi, Kabo; Beta, Trust; Shen, Garry X

    2016-07-01

    Dietary modifications including healthy eating constitute one of the first line strategies for prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including atherosclerosis. In this study, we assessed anti-atherogenic effects of a combination of wild rice and phytosterols in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDL-r-KO) mice. Male LDL-r-KO mice were divided into four groups and fed with: (1) control diet; (2) the control diet containing 60% (w/w) wild rice; (3) the control diet containing 2% (w/w) phytosterols; or (4) the control diet containing both wild rice and phytosterols for 20weeks. All diets were supplemented with 0.06% (w/w) dietary cholesterol. Blood samples, hearts, and feces were collected and used for biochemical and histological examination. Consumption of 60% (w/w) wild rice in combination with 2% (w/w) phytosterols significantly reduced the size and severity of atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic roots as compared to those in the control group. This effect was associated with significant reductions in plasma total, LDL and VLDL cholesterol concentrations as well as an increase in fecal cholesterol excretion. In conclusion, the dietary combination of wild rice and phytosterols prevents atherogenesis in this animal model. Further investigations are needed to understand mechanisms of action and potential clinical outcome of such dietary intervention. PMID:27155919

  16. Mitochondrial Genome Analysis of Wild Rice (Oryza minuta) and Its Comparison with Other Related Species

    PubMed Central

    Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Shahzad, Raheem; Seo, Chang-Woo; Shin, Jae-Ho; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Oryza minuta (Poaceae family) is a tetraploid wild relative of cultivated rice with a BBCC genome. O. minuta has the potential to resist against various pathogenic diseases such as bacterial blight (BB), white backed planthopper (WBPH) and brown plant hopper (BPH). Here, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome of O. minuta. The mtDNA genome is 515,022 bp, containing 60 protein coding genes, 31 tRNA genes and two rRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome organization and the gene content at the nucleotide level are highly similar (89%) to that of O. rufipogon. Comparison with other related species revealed that most of the genes with known function are conserved among the Poaceae members. Similarly, O. minuta mt genome shared 24 protein-coding genes, 15 tRNA genes and 1 ribosomal RNA gene with other rice species (indica and japonica). The evolutionary relationship and phylogenetic analysis revealed that O. minuta is more closely related to O. rufipogon than to any other related species. Such studies are essential to understand the evolutionary divergence among species and analyze common gene pools to combat risks in the current scenario of a changing environment. PMID:27045847

  17. Relationships of wild and domesticated rices (Oryza AA genome species) based upon whole chloroplast genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Wambugu, Peterson W; Brozynska, Marta; Furtado, Agnelo; Waters, Daniel L; Henry, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Rice is the most important crop in the world, acting as the staple food for over half of the world's population. The evolutionary relationships of cultivated rice and its wild relatives have remained contentious and inconclusive. Here we report on the use of whole chloroplast sequences to elucidate the evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships in the AA genome Oryza species, representing the primary gene pool of rice. This is the first study that has produced a well resolved and strongly supported phylogeny of the AA genome species. The pan tropical distribution of these rice relatives was found to be explained by long distance dispersal within the last million years. The analysis resulted in a clustering pattern that showed strong geographical differentiation. The species were defined in two primary clades with a South American/African clade with two species, O glumaepatula and O longistaminata, distinguished from all other species. The largest clade was comprised of an Australian clade including newly identified taxa and the African and Asian clades. This refined knowledge of the relationships between cultivated rice and the related wild species provides a strong foundation for more targeted use of wild genetic resources in rice improvement and efforts to ensure their conservation. PMID:26355750

  18. Relationships of wild and domesticated rices (Oryza AA genome species) based upon whole chloroplast genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    Wambugu, Peterson W.; Brozynska, Marta; Furtado, Agnelo; Waters, Daniel L.; Henry, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Rice is the most important crop in the world, acting as the staple food for over half of the world’s population. The evolutionary relationships of cultivated rice and its wild relatives have remained contentious and inconclusive. Here we report on the use of whole chloroplast sequences to elucidate the evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships in the AA genome Oryza species, representing the primary gene pool of rice. This is the first study that has produced a well resolved and strongly supported phylogeny of the AA genome species. The pan tropical distribution of these rice relatives was found to be explained by long distance dispersal within the last million years. The analysis resulted in a clustering pattern that showed strong geographical differentiation. The species were defined in two primary clades with a South American/African clade with two species, O glumaepatula and O longistaminata, distinguished from all other species. The largest clade was comprised of an Australian clade including newly identified taxa and the African and Asian clades. This refined knowledge of the relationships between cultivated rice and the related wild species provides a strong foundation for more targeted use of wild genetic resources in rice improvement and efforts to ensure their conservation. PMID:26355750

  19. Oryza nivara, a wild relative of cultivated rice, is a source of genes for improving seedling vigor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) wild relatives are a potential source of genetic diversity for cultivated rice improvement. An advanced backcross population was derived from the U.S. temperate japonica rice variety, M-202, a medium grain commercial cultivar grown in California, crossed with O. nivara Sharma...

  20. Expression profiling of common and specific defense responses of rice to Magnaporthe oryzae infection using deep sequencing technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is a serious disease in rice production. Wild type Nipponbare and transgenic rice plants (carrying the Pi9 blast resistance gene) were challenged with the rice blast strain KJ201 to identify the early, mid and late host responses to M. oryzae infection at the ...

  1. Phylogeny and biogeography of North-American wild rice (Zizania L.Poaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wild-rice genus Zizania includes four species disjunctly distributed in eastern Asia and North America, with three species (Z. aquatica, Z. palustris, and Z. texana) in North America and one (Z. latifolia) in eastern Asia. The phylogeny and biogeography of Zizania were explored using sequences o...

  2. Population Genetic Structure of Cochliobolus miyabeanus on Cultivated Wild Rice (Zizania palustris L.) in Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cochliobolus miyabeanus (Bipolaris oryzae) is the causal agent of fungal brown spot (FBS) in wild rice (Zizania palustris L.), an aquatic grass, endemic in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and parts of Canada. Grain yield losses can reach up to 74% when the disease starts at the boot stage and continues until ...

  3. Novel determination of phytate by ion chromatography in wild rice and diet composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed an ion chromatography (IC) assay using ultraviolet (UV) detection following post-column derivatization with ferric nitrate to determine phytate [inositol hexakis phosphate (iP6)] (1) (2) in wild rice samples and other diet composites. Samples were ground to a fine homogeneous powd...

  4. Ethnobotanical investigation of 'wild' food plants used by rice farmers in Kalasin, Northeast Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Wild food plants are a critical component in the subsistence system of rice farmers in Northeast Thailand. One of the important characteristics of wild plant foods among farming households is that the main collection locations are increasingly from anthropogenic ecosystems such as agricultural areas rather than pristine ecosystems. This paper provides selected results from a study of wild food conducted in several villages in Northeast Thailand. A complete botanical inventory of wild food plants from these communities and surrounding areas is provided including their diversity of growth forms, the different anthropogenic locations were these species grow and the multiplicity of uses they have. Methods Data was collected using focus groups and key informant interviews with women locally recognized as knowledgeable about contemporarily gathered plants. Plant species were identified by local taxonomists. Results A total of 87 wild food plants, belonging to 47 families were reported, mainly trees, herbs (terrestrial and aquatic) and climbers. Rice fields constitute the most important growth location where 70% of the plants are found, followed by secondary woody areas and home gardens. The majority of species (80%) can be found in multiple growth locations, which is partly explained by villagers moving selected species from one place to another and engaging in different degrees of management. Wild food plants have multiple edible parts varying from reproductive structures to vegetative organs. More than two thirds of species are reported as having diverse additional uses and more than half of them are also regarded as medicine. Conclusions This study shows the remarkable importance of anthropogenic areas in providing wild food plants. This is reflected in the great diversity of species found, contributing to the food and nutritional security of rice farmers in Northeast Thailand. PMID:22067578

  5. Analysis of Active Components and Proteomics of Chinese Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) and Indica Rice (Nagina22).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming-Xia; Zhai, Li-Jie; Yang, Hua; Zhai, Shu-Menghui; Zhai, Cheng-Kai

    2016-08-01

    The ancient Chinese wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) (CWR) has valuable biological and medicinal functions. To assess the advantages lost in modern cultivated rice after domestication, we compared the composition of bioactive compounds and the results of proteomic analysis with those of Indica rice (N22). We used routine methods to determine the protein, total dietary fiber, amino acid, mineral substance, plant secondary metabolites, and amino acid composition of CWR and N22. The protein and mineral contents of CWR were two times that of N22, and the levels of calcium, potassium, magnesium, chromium, iron, and zinc were significantly higher than those of N22 (P < .05). There was ∼7.6 times more dietary fiber in CWR than in N22, but fewer carbohydrates (P < .05). Anthocyanins and chlorophyll were detected in CWR, but were absent from N22. Compared with N22, CWR had 53, 19, and 5.4 times higher (P < .05) levels of saponins, flavonoids, and plant sterols, respectively. The amino acid score of CWR was 66.6, which was significantly higher than N22. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicated that the main seed proteins of CWR were glutelins, including both acid and alkaline subunits, which were approximately twice those of N22. To investigate the differences in protein profiles between CWR and N22, we conducted two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis of the total proteins in the seeds of the two rice species. 2-DE gels revealed 19 differentially expressed proteins. Information obtained from peptide mass fingerprinting indicates that glutelin precursor caffeoyl coenzyme A (CoA) O-methyltransferase and putative bithoraxoid-like protein can provide good gene sources for improving rice quality. PMID:27533651

  6. Sequence polymorphisms in wild, weedy, and cultivated rice suggest seed-shattering locus sh4 played a minor role in Asian rice domestication.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongqing; Ellstrand, Norman C; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2012-09-01

    The predominant view regarding Asian rice domestication is that the initial origin of nonshattering involved a single gene of large effect, specifically, the sh4 locus via the evolutionary replacement of a dominant allele for shattering with a recessive allele for reduced shattering. Data have accumulated to challenge this hypothesis. Specifically, a few studies have reported occasional seed-shattering plants from populations of the wild progenitor of cultivated rice (Oryza rufipogon complex) being homozygous for the putative "nonshattering" sh4 alleles. We tested the sh4 hypothesis for the domestication of cultivated rice by obtaining genotypes and phenotypes for a diverse set of samples of wild, weedy, and cultivated rice accessions. The cultivars were fixed for the putative "nonshattering" allele and nonshattering phenotype, but wild rice accessions are highly polymorphic for the putative "nonshattering" allele (frequency ∼26%) with shattering phenotype. All weedy rice accessions are the "nonshattering" genotype at the sh4 locus but with shattering phenotype. These data challenge the widely accepted hypothesis that a single nucleotide mutation ("G"/"T") of the sh4 locus is the major driving force for rice domestication. Instead, we hypothesize that unidentified shattering loci are responsible for the initial domestication of cultivated rice through reduced seed shattering. PMID:23139871

  7. Differential analyses of major allergen proteins in wild-type rice and rice producing a fragment of anti-rotavirus antibody.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kurokawa, Shiho; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Mejima, Mio; Kuroda, Masaharu; Oyama, Masaaki; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Teshima, Reiko; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    To develop oral antibody therapy against rotavirus infection, we previously produced a recombinant fragment of llama heavy-chain antibody to rotavirus (ARP1) in rice seeds (MucoRice-ARP1). We intend to use a purification-free rice powder for clinical application but needed to check whether MucoRice-ARP1 had increased levels of known allergen proteins. For this purpose, we used two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis to compare the allergen protein levels in MucoRice-ARP1 and wild-type rice. We detected no notable differences, except in the levels of α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor-like family proteins. Because by this approach we could not completely separate ARP1 from the proteins of this family, we confirmed the absence of changes in the levels of these allergens by using shotgun mass spectrometry as well as immunoblot. By using immunoelectron microscopy, we also showed that RAG2, a member of the α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor-like protein family, was relocated from protein bodies II to the plasma membrane or cell wall in MucoRice-ARP1 seed. The relocation did not affect the level of RAG2. We demonstrated that most of the known rice allergens were not considerably upregulated by the genetic modification in MucoRice-ARP1. Our data suggest that MucoRice-ARP1 is a potentially safe oral antibody for clinical application. PMID:26851506

  8. The oryza map alignment project: the golden path to unlocking the genetic potential of wild rice species.

    PubMed

    Wing, Rod A; Ammiraju, Jetty S S; Luo, Meizhong; Kim, Hyeran; Yu, Yeisoo; Kudrna, Dave; Goicoechea, Jose L; Wang, Wenming; Nelson, Will; Rao, Kiran; Brar, Darshan; Mackill, Dave J; Han, Bin; Soderlund, Cari; Stein, Lincoln; SanMiguel, Phillip; Jackson, Scott

    2005-09-01

    The wild species of the genus Oryza offer enormous potential to make a significant impact on agricultural productivity of the cultivated rice species Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima. To unlock the genetic potential of wild rice we have initiated a project entitled the 'Oryza Map Alignment Project' (OMAP) with the ultimate goal of constructing and aligning BAC/STC based physical maps of 11 wild and one cultivated rice species to the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project's finished reference genome--O. sativa ssp. japonica c. v. Nipponbare. The 11 wild rice species comprise nine different genome types and include six diploid genomes (AA, BB, CC, EE, FF and GG) and four tetrapliod genomes (BBCC, CCDD, HHKK and HHJJ) with broad geographical distribution and ecological adaptation. In this paper we describe our strategy to construct robust physical maps of all 12 rice species with an emphasis on the AA diploid O. nivara--thought to be the progenitor of modern cultivated rice. PMID:16217601

  9. Ultrastructure of Oryza glumaepatula, a wild rice species endemic of tropical America.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ethel; Espinoza, Ana M

    2005-01-01

    Orv'za gluniaepatula is a perennial wild rice species, endemic to tropical America, previously known as the Latin American race of Orrza rufipogon. In Costa Rica, it is found in the northern region of the country, mainly in the wetland of the Medio Queso River, Los Chiles, Alajuela. It is diploid, of AA type genome and because of its genetic relatedness to cultivated rice it is included in the O. saliva complex. We describe the ultrastructure of leaf blade, spikelet, ligule and auricles. Special emphasis is given to those traits of major taxonomic value for O. glumaepatula and to those characters that distinguish this species from O. rufipogon and O. sativa. O. glumaepatula has a leaf blade covered with tombstone-shaped, oblong and spheroid epicuticular wax papillae. It has diamond-shaped stomata surrounded by spherical papillae, rows of zipper-like silica cells, bulky prickle trichomes of ca. 40 microm in length and small hirsute trichomes of ca. 32 tpm in length. The central vein is covered with large, globular papillae of ca. 146 microm in length, a characteristic that distinguishes this species from O. rufipogon and O. sativa. The border of the leaf blade exhibits a row of even-sized bulky prickle trichomes of ca. 42.5 microm in length. Auricles have attenuated trichomes of ca. 5.5 mm in length on the edges and small bicellular trichomes of 120 microm in length on the surface. The ligule has a large number of short attenuated trichomes on its surface of 100 microm in length. These latter two traits have important taxonomic value since they were found in O. glumaepatula but not found in O. sativa or in O. rufipogon. The spikelet has the typical morphology of the Oryza genus. Fertile lemmas have abundant spines, a trait shared with O. rufipogon but not with O. sativa. The sterile lemmas are wing-shaped with serrated borders, a characteristic that distinguishes this species from O. rufipogon and O. sativa. All the ultrastructure characters observed in O

  10. Growth promotion and inhibition of the Amazonian wild rice species Oryza grandiglumis to survive flooding.

    PubMed

    Okishio, Takuma; Sasayama, Daisuke; Hirano, Tatsuya; Akimoto, Masahiro; Itoh, Kazuyuki; Azuma, Tetsushi

    2014-09-01

    In Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), distinct mechanisms to survive flooding are activated in two groups of varieties. Submergence-tolerant rice varieties possessing the SUBMERGENCE1A (SUB1A) gene display reduced growth during flash floods at the seedling stage and resume growth after the flood recedes, whereas deepwater rice varieties possessing the SNORKEL1 (SK1) and SNORKEL2 (SK2) genes display enhanced growth based on internodal elongation during prolonged submergence at the mature stage. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of these growth responses to submergence in the wild rice species Oryza grandiglumis, which is native to the Amazon floodplains. When subjected to gradual submergence, adult plants of O. grandiglumis accessions showed enhanced internodal elongation with rising water level and their growth response closely resembled that of deepwater varieties of O. sativa with high floating capacity. On the other hand, when subjected to complete submergence, seedlings of O. grandiglumis accessions displayed reduced shoot growth and resumed normal growth after desubmergence, similar to the response of submergence-tolerant varieties of O. sativa. Neither SUB1A nor the SK genes were detected in the O. grandiglumis accessions. These results indicate that the O. grandiglumis accessions are capable of adapting successfully to flooding by activating two contrasting mechanisms as the situation demands and that each mechanism of adaptation to flooding is not mediated by SUB1A or the SK genes. PMID:24893854

  11. Yield-Enhancing Heterotic QTL Transferred from Wild Species to Cultivated Rice Oryza sativa L

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Kiran B.; Singh, Naveen; Bhatia, Dharminder; Kaur, Rupinder; Bains, Navtej S.; Bharaj, Tajinder S.; Singh, Kuldeep

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of “hidden genes” from wild species has emerged as a novel option for enrichment of genetic diversity for productivity traits. In rice we have generated more than 2000 lines having introgression from ‘A’ genome-donor wild species of rice in the genetic background of popular varieties PR114 and Pusa44 were developed. Out of these, based on agronomic acceptability, 318 lines were used for developing rice hybrids to assess the effect of introgressions in heterozygous state. These introgression lines and their recurrent parents, possessing fertility restoration ability for wild abortive (WA) cytoplasm, were crossed with cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line PMS17A to develop hybrids. Hybrids developed from recurrent parents were used as checks to compare the performance of 318 hybrids developed by hybridizing alien introgression lines with PMS17A. Seventeen hybrids expressed a significant increase in yield and its component traits over check hybrids. These 17 hybrids were re-evaluated in large-size replicated plots. Of these, four hybrids, viz., ILH299, ILH326, ILH867 and ILH901, having introgressions from O. rufipogon and two hybrids (ILH921 and ILH951) having introgressions from O. nivara showed significant heterosis over parental introgression line, recurrent parents and check hybrids for grain yield-related traits. Alien introgressions were detected in the lines taken as male parents for developing six superior hybrids, using a set of 100 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Percent introgression showed a range of 2.24 from in O. nivara to 7.66 from O. rufipogon. The introgressed regions and their putative association with yield components in hybrids is reported and discussed. PMID:24949743

  12. Evolutionary dynamics and structure of the rice blast resistance locus Pi-ta in wild, cultivated, and US weedy rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pi-ta gene in rice has been used to control rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryza, in rice growing areas worldwide for decades. To understand the evolutionary process and natural selection of Pi-ta during rice domestication, we first examined sequences of the genomic region of Pi-ta in geograph...

  13. Characterization of yakju brewed from glutinous rice and wild-type yeast strains isolated from nuruks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Ryun; Kim, Jae-Ho; Bae, Dong-Hoon; Ahn, Byung-Hak

    2010-12-01

    Korean traditional rice wines yakju and takju are generally brewed with nuruk as the source of the saccharogenic enzymes by natural fermentation. To improve the quality of Korean rice wine, the microorganisms in the nuruk need to be studied. The objective of this research was to improve the quality of Korean wine with the wild-type yeast strains isolated from the fermentation starter, nuruk. Only strain YA-6 showed high activity in 20% ethanol. Precipitation of Y89-5-3 was similar to that of very flocculent yeast (〉80%) at 75.95%. Using 18S rRNA sequencing, all 10 strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Volatile compounds present in yakju were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass selective detector. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the volatile compounds grouped long-chain esters on the right side of the first principal component, PC1; these compounds were found in yakju that was made with strains YA-6, Y89-5-3, Y89-5- 2, Y90-9, and Y89-1-1. On the other side of PC1 were short-chain esters; these compounds were found in wines that were brewed with strains Y183-2, Y268-3, Y54-3, Y98-4, and Y88-4. Overall, the results indicated that using different wild-type yeast strains in the fermentation process significantly affects the chemical characteristics of the glutinous rice wine. PMID:21193827

  14. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid activate a common defense system in rice

    PubMed Central

    Tamaoki, Daisuke; Seo, Shigemi; Yamada, Shoko; Kano, Akihito; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Shishido, Hodaka; Miyoshi, Seika; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play important roles in plant defense systems. JA and SA signaling pathways interact antagonistically in dicotyledonous plants, but, the status of crosstalk between JA and SA signaling is unknown in monocots. Our rice microarray analysis showed that more than half of the genes upregulated by the SA analog BTH are also upregulated by JA, suggesting that a major portion of the SA-upregulated genes are regulated by JA-dependent signaling in rice. A common defense system that is activated by both JA and SA is thus proposed which plays an important role in pathogen defense responses in rice. PMID:23518581

  15. Mobilization of the active MITE transposons mPing and Pong in rice by introgression from wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.).

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiaohui; Liu, Zhenlan; Dong, Zhenying; Wang, Yongming; Chen, Yu; Lin, Xiuyun; Long, Likun; Han, Fangpu; Dong, Yingshan; Liu, Bao

    2005-04-01

    Hybridization between different species plays an important role in plant genome evolution, as well as is a widely used approach for crop improvement. McClintock has predicted that plant wide hybridization constitutes a "genomic shock" whereby cryptic transposable elements may be activated. However, direct experimental evidence showing a causal relationship between plant wide hybridization and transposon mobilization has not yet been reported. The miniature-Ping (mPing) is a recently isolated active miniature inverted-repeat transposable element transposon from rice, which is mobilized by tissue culture and gamma-ray irradiation. We show herein that mPing, together with its putative transposase-encoding partner, Pong, is mobilized in three homologous recombinant inbred lines (RILs), derived from hybridization between rice (cultivar Matsumae) and wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.), harboring introgressed genomic DNA from wild rice. In contrast, both elements remain immobile in two lines sharing the same parentage to the RILs but possessing no introgressed DNA. Thus, we have presented direct evidence that is consistent with McClintock's insight by demonstrating a causal link between wide hybridization and transposon mobilization in rice. In addition, we report an atypical behavior of mPing/Pong mobilization in these lines, i.e., the exclusive absence of footprints after excision. PMID:15647520

  16. Greenhouse validation of yield component transgressive variation effects of wild Oryza species introgressions in an elite US rice cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of global studies have been conducted which have shown that the wild ancestral species, Oryza rufipogon, possesses beneficial alleles that can be used to improve cultivated rice, O. sativa, for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance as well as yield. Introgression lines (IL) were developed thr...

  17. A natural mutation in rc reverts white-pericarp-rice to red and results is a new, dominant, wild-type allele Rc-g

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence of grain with red pericarp in rice production is normal where red rice is a common weed problem. Classic weedy red rice can usually be distinguished morphologically without the need to de-hull seed to reveal pericarp color. However, rice with red pericarp is also found in cultivated ...

  18. Research on the ultrafast fluorescence property of thylakoid membranes of the wild-type and mutant rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhao-Yu; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Shui-Cai; Xin, Yue-Yong; He, Jun-Fang; Hou, Xun

    2003-10-01

    A high yielding rice variety mutant (Oryza sativa L., Zhenhui 249) with low chlorophyll b (Chl b) has been discovered in natural fields. It has a quality character controlled by a pair of recessive genes (nuclear gene). The partial loss of Chl b in content affects the efficiency of light harvest in a light harvest complex (LHC), thus producing the difference of the exciting energy transfer and the efficiency of photochemistry conversion between the mutant and wild-type rice in photosynthetic unit. The efficiency of utilizing light energy is higher in the mutant than that in the wild-type rice relatively. For further discussion of the above-mentioned difference and learning about the mechanism of the increase in the photochemical efficiency of the mutant, the pico-second resolution fluorescence spectrum measurement with delay-frame-scanning single photon counting technique is adopted. Thylakoid membranes of the mutant and the wild-type rice are excited by an Ar+ laser with a pulse width of 120 ps, repetition rate of 4 MHz and wavelength of 514 nm. Compared with the time and spectrum property of exciting fluorescence, conclusions of those ultrafast dynamic experiments are: 1) The speeds of the exciting energy transferred in photo-system I are faster than that in photo-system II in both samples. 2) The speeds of the exciting energy transfer of mutant sample are faster than those of the wild-type. This might be one of the major reasons why the efficiency of photosynthesis is higher in mutant than that in the wild-type rice.

  19. Evidence for divergence of response in Indica, Japonica, and wild rice to high CO2 × temperature interaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Diane R; Bunce, James A; Tomecek, Martha B; Gealy, David; McClung, Anna; McCouch, Susan R; Ziska, Lewis H

    2016-07-01

    High CO2 and high temperature have an antagonistic interaction effect on rice yield potential and present a unique challenge to adapting rice to projected future climates. Understanding how the differences in response to these two abiotic variables are partitioned across rice germplasm accessions may be key to identifying potentially useful sources of resilient alleles for adapting rice to climate change. In this study, we evaluated eleven globally diverse rice accessions under controlled conditions at two carbon dioxide concentrations (400 and 600 ppm) and four temperature environments (29 °C day/21 °C night; 29 °C day/21 °C night with additional heat stress at anthesis; 34 °C day/26 °C night; and 34 °C day/26 °C night with additional heat stress at anthesis) for a suite of traits including five yield components, five growth characteristics, one phenological trait, and four photosynthesis-related measurements. Multivariate analyses of mean trait data from these eight treatments divide our rice panel into two primary groups consistent with the genetic classification of INDICA/INDICA-like and JAPONICA populations. Overall, we find that the productivity of plants grown under elevated [CO2 ] was more sensitive (negative response) to high temperature stress compared with that of plants grown under ambient [CO2 ] across this diversity panel. We report differential response to CO2 × temperature interaction for INDICA/INDICA-like and JAPONICA rice accessions and find preliminary evidence for the beneficial introduction of exotic alleles into cultivated rice genomic background. Overall, these results support the idea of using wild or currently unadapted gene pools in rice to enhance breeding efforts to secure future climate change adaptation. PMID:26959982

  20. A Tribal Story Written in Silica: Using Phytoliths to Research the Effects of Mining on Past Wild Rice (Zizania palustris) Abundance in Sandy Lake, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, I. R.; Jones, M. A.; Yost, C. L.; Drake, C.; Ladwig, J. L.; Myrbo, A.; Howes, T.

    2014-12-01

    Wild rice (Zizania palustris, manoomin) is an emergent aquatic plant that grows annually in the northern Great Lakes region of North America. This region is also rich in iron ore deposits and correspondingly has an extensive history of mining activities. Wild rice no longer grows in some areas where it was previously abundant. Sandy Lake, located in St. Louis County on federally protected lands that are ceded territory of the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa in Minnesota and downstream of the nearby U.S. Steel Minntac mine, was selected as a test site. This lake has a history of ricing activities by the Ojibwe (Chippewa) People, for whom manoomin has cultural importance. Lake cores were taken on June 17, 2014 by LacCore and FDLRM staff and samples were obtained. This project used phytolith analysis to answer the question of past wild rice presence and abundance in Sandy Lake. Phytoliths are microscopic opal silica deposits produced in some plants. Zizania palustris produces phytolith morphotypes that are unequivocally diagnostic of this species in this region. Microscopic slides were prepared and analyzed for wild rice phytoliths. Concentration values ranged from 25 to 4379 phytoliths per cm3/year, and wild rice accumulation figures ranged from 7 to 789 phytoliths/cm2/year, the maximum values of which occurred in the 1920s and generally declined to the current lowest levels observed. Mining has likely impacted wild rice populations by causing increased sulfate levels and possibly contributing to higher lake levels.

  1. Lowered Diversity and Increased Inbreeding Depression within Peripheral Populations of Wild Rice Oryza rufipogon

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li-Zhi; Gao, Cheng-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Background The distribution of genetic variability from the interior towards the periphery of a species’ range is of great interest to evolutionary biologists. Although it has been long presumed that population genetic variation should decrease as a species’ range is approached, results of empirical investigations still remain ambiguous. Knowledge regarding patterns of genetic variability as well as affected factors is particularly not conclusive in plants. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine genetic divergence in peripheral populations of the wild rice Oryza rufipogon Griff. from China, genetic diversity and population structure were studied in five northern & northeastern peripheral and 16 central populations using six microsatellite loci. We found that populations resided at peripheries of the species possessed markedly decreased microsatellite diversity than those located in its center. Population size was observed to be positively correlated with microsatellite diversity. Moreover, there are significantly positive correlations between levels of microsatellite diversity and distances from the northern and northeastern periphery of this species. To investigate genetic structure and heterozygosity variation between generations of O. rufipogon, a total of 2382 progeny seeds from 186 maternal families were further assayed from three peripheral and central populations, respectively. Peripheral populations exhibited significantly lower levels of heterozygosities than central populations for both seed and maternal generations. In comparisons with maternal samples, significantly low observed heterozygosity (HO) and high heterozygote deficit within populations (FIS) values were detected in seed samples from both peripheral and central populations. Significantly lower observed heterozygosity (HO) and higher FIS values were further observed in peripheral populations than those in central populations for seed samples. The results indicate an excess of

  2. Overexpression of a homopeptide repeat-containing bHLH protein gene (OrbHLH001) from Dongxiang Wild Rice confers freezing and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Guo, Siyi; Zhao, Yuan; Chen, Dazhou; Chong, Kang; Xu, Yunyuan

    2010-09-01

    Dongxiang Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon) is the northernmost wild rice in the world known to date and has extremely high cold tolerance and many other adversity-resistant properties. To identify the genes responsible for the high stress tolerance, we isolated and characterized a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein gene OrbHLH001 from Dongxiang Wild Rice. The gene encodes an ICE1-like protein containing multiple homopeptide repeats. Expression of OrbHLH001 is induced by salt stress and is predominant in the shoots of wild rice seedlings. Overexpression of OrbHLH001 enhanced the tolerance to freezing and salt stresses in transgenic Arabidopsis. Examination of the expression of cold-responsive genes in transgenic Arabidopsis showed that the function of OrbHLH001 differs from that of ICE1 and is independent of a CBF/DREB1 cold-response pathway. PMID:20559833

  3. Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines: A Powerful Tool for the Introgression of Valuable Genes from Oryza Wild Species into Cultivated Rice (O. sativa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild species of rice (genus Oryza) contain many useful genes but a vast majority of these genes remain untapped to date because it is often difficult to transfer these genes into cultivated rice (O. sativa L.). Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) and backcross inbred lines (BILs) are power...

  4. Rice responds to endophytic colonization which is independent of the common symbiotic signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Miché, Lucie; Sachs, Sabrina; Wang, Qi; Buschart, Anna; Yang, Haiyuan; Vera Cruz, Casiana M; Hurek, Thomas; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    As molecular interactions of plants with N2 -fixing endophytes are largely uncharacterized, we investigated whether the common signaling pathway (CSP) shared by root nodule symbioses (RNS) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses may have been recruited for the endophytic Azoarcus sp.-rice (Oryza sativa) interaction, and combined this investigation with global approaches to characterize rice root responses to endophytic colonization. Putative homologs of genes required for the CSP were analyzed for their putative role in endophytic colonization. Proteomic and suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) approaches were also applied, and a comparison of defense-related processes was carried out by setting up a pathosystem for flooded roots with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae strain PXO99 (Xoo). All tested genes were expressed in rice roots seedlings but not induced upon Azoarcus sp. inoculation, and the oscyclops and oscastor mutants were not impaired in endophytic colonization. Global approaches highlighted changes in rice metabolic activity and Ca(2+) -dependent signaling in roots colonized by endophytes, including some stress proteins. Marker genes for defense responses were induced to a lesser extent by the endophytes than by the pathogen, indicating a more compatible interaction. Our results thus suggest that rice roots respond to endophytic colonization by inducing metabolic shifts and signaling events, for which the CSP is not essential. PMID:26009800

  5. Preimpoundment water quality of the Wild Rice River, Norman County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tornes, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Water samples have been collected at two sites on the Wild Rice River since September 1974 to establish baseline water-quality characteristics before construction of a reservoir for recreation and flood control near Twin Valley, Minn. A decline in water quality between the sites is shown by mean total phosphorus concentrations, which increase from 0.06 to 0.10 milligram per liter downstream, and mean turbidity, which increases from 12 to 24 units downstream. Phosphorus and ammonia concentrations, as high as 0.31 and 2.7 milligrams per liter, respectively, could be the result of domestic waste input to the river upstream from Hendrum. Biochemical oxygen demand concentrations were significantly higher during spring runoff than during the rest of the year. Four out of 90 bacteria samples taken at Twin Valley indicate the presence of human fecal material, though bacteria densities do not exceed recommendations of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for public-water supplies. The dominace of organic-pollution tolerant phytoplankton in 49 out of 78 samples also indicates degradation of the river quality at Twin Valley. Nutrient concentrations at Twin Valley have no apparent effect on phytoplankton concentrations. None of the consitituents sampled were found to exceed recommended concentrations for public-water supplies.

  6. Ultrastructure of the wild rice Oryza grandiglumis (Gramineae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ethel; Quesada, Tania; Espinoza, Ana M

    2006-06-01

    Oryza grandiglumis is a wild species of rice endemic to tropical America. This species was first found in 1998 in the wetlands of Caño Negro, located in the northern part of Costa Rica. Twenty five plants of O. grandiglumis were processed for scanning electron microscope. An ultrastructural description of the leaf blade, ligule, auricles, spikelet and caryopsis, with an emphasis on structures of taxonomic value. The leaf blade has a characteristic cuticular wax pattern, composed of dense rod-like structures, and is surrounded by papillae, zipper-like silica cells, abundant bulky prickle trichomes, and hooked trichomes. The blade's edge has three rows of hooked prickle trichomes of various sizes. The auricles wrapped the culm, with long attenuated trichomes at the edges; the base was surrounded by oblong cells. The ligule is a blunt membrane covered by short prickle trichomes. Spikelet morphology is characteristic of the Poaceae family, but the sterile lemmas were nearly as long as the fertile lemmas, and they have an unique crown-like structure of lignified spines between the rachilla and the fertile lemmas. Comparison with Brazilian specimens of O. grandiglumis revealed little differences in the ultrastructural characteristics. PMID:18494308

  7. A Dichotomous Key for the Identification of Common British Wild Flower Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Piers

    2004-01-01

    This article argues the need for, and provides, a dichotomous single access key for the identification of common British wild flower families. A minimum of technical vocabulary is used while at the same time retaining most of the recent botanical names of families. The key provides a user-friendly opportunity for school pupils to become familiar…

  8. Ultrastructural morphologic description of the wild rice species Oryza latifolia (Poaceae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ethel; Montiel, Mayra; Espinoza, Ana M

    2003-06-01

    The wild rice species Oryza latifolia is endemic to Tropical America, allotetraploid and has a CCDD genome type. It belongs to the officinalis group of the genus Oryza. This species is widely distributed throughout the lowlands of Costa Rica and it is found on different life zones, having great morphologic diversity. The purpose of this research is to perform a morphologic description of O. latifolia samples of three Costa Rican localities (Carara, Liberia and Cañas) and to see if the phenotypic diversity of the species is reflected at the ultra-structure level. Structures such as the leaf blade, ligule, auricles and spikelet were analyzed. Leaf blade morphology of the specimens from the three localities is characterized by the presence of diamond-shaped stomata with papillae, zipper-like rows of silica cells; a variety of evenly distributed epicuticular wax papillae and bulky prickle trichomes. The central vein of the leaf blade from the Cañas populations is glabrous, while those from Carara and Liberia have abundant papillae. There are also differences among the borders of the leaf blade between these locations. Cañas and Liberia present alternating large and small prickle trichomes ca. 81 and 150 microns, while Carara exhibits even sized prickle trichomes of ca. 93 microns. Auricles from Cañas are rectangular and present long trichomes along the surface ca. 1.5 mm, while those of Liberia and Carara wrap the culm and exhibit trichomes only in the borders. The ligule from the plants of Carara has an acute distal tip, while that of Cañas and Liberia is blunt. The Liberia spikelet has large lignified spines while Cañas and Carara show flexible trichomes. PMID:15162727

  9. Utilizing wild species to improve cultivated rice for yield, pest resistance, and response to climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 158 million hectares of rice are grown in the world providing a staple food for more than half the world’s population. Although there are several species of Oryza, essentially all cultivated rice is derived from O. sativa which can be genomically differentiated into five sub-populations. There ...

  10. Analysis of suspended-sediment concentrations and radioisotope levels in the Wild Rice River basin, northwestern Minnesota, 1973-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brigham, Mark E.; McCullough, Carolyn J.; Wilkinson, Philip M.

    2001-01-01

    We examined historical suspended-sediment data and activities of fallout radioisotopes (lead-210 [210Pb], cesium-137 [137Cs], and beryllium-7 [7Be]) associated with suspended sediments and source-area sediments (cultivated soils, bank material, and reference soils) in the Wild Rice River Basin, a tributary to the Red River of the North, to better understand sources of suspended sediment to streams in the region. Multiple linear regression analysis of suspended-sediment concentrations from the Wild Rice River at Twin Valley, Minnesota indicated significant relations between suspended-sediment concentrations and streamflow. Flow-adjusted sediment concentrations tended to be slightly higher in spring than summer-autumn. No temporal trends in concentration were observed during 1973-98. The fallout radioisotopes were nearly always detectable in suspended sediments during spring-summer 1998. Mean 210Pb and 7Be activities in suspended sediment and surficial, cultivated soils were similar, perhaps indicating little dilution of suspended sediment from low-isotopic-activity bank sediments. In contrast, mean 137Cs activities in suspended sediment indicated a mixture of sediment originating from eroded soils and from eroded bank material, with bank material being a somewhat more important source upstream of Twin Valley, Minnesota; and approximately equal fractions of bank material and surficial soils contributing to the suspended load downstream at Hendrum, Minnesota. This study indicates that, to be effective, efforts to reduce sediment loading to the Wild Rice River should include measures to control soil erosion from cultivated fields.

  11. Memory, transmission and persistence of alternative foraging techniques in wild common marmosets

    PubMed Central

    Gunhold, Tina; Massen, Jorg J.M.; Schiel, Nicola; Souto, Antonio; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies on traditions in animals have focused almost entirely on the initial transmission phase in captive populations. We conducted an open diffusion field experiment with 13 groups of wild common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus. Seven groups contained individuals that were already familiar with the task (‘push or pull’ box) and thus served as potential models for naïve individuals. Additionally, in four groups one individual was trained for one of the two possible techniques and in two control groups no skilled individuals were present. First, we investigated whether experienced individuals would remember how to solve the task even after 2 years without exposure and whether they would still prefer their learned technique. Second, we tested whether naïve individuals would learn socially from their skilled family members and, more importantly, whether they would use the same technique. Third, we conducted several test blocks to see whether the individual and/or group behaviour would persist over time. Our results show that wild common marmosets were able to memorize, learn socially and maintain preferences of foraging techniques. This field experiment thus reveals a promising approach to studying social learning in the wild and provides the basis for long-term studies on tradition formation. PMID:24910466

  12. Severity of bovine tuberculosis is associated with co-infection with common pathogens in wild boar.

    PubMed

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  13. Severity of Bovine Tuberculosis Is Associated with Co-Infection with Common Pathogens in Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M.; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L.; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  14. Demographic factors shaped diversity in the two gene pools of wild common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed Central

    Mamidi, S; Rossi, M; Moghaddam, S M; Annam, D; Lee, R; Papa, R; McClean, P E

    2013-01-01

    Wild common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is distributed throughout the Americas from Mexico to northern Argentina. Within this range, the species is divided into two gene pools (Andean and Middle American) along a latitudinal gradient. The diversity of 24 wild common bean genotypes from throughout the geographic range of the species was described by using sequence data from 13 loci. An isolation–migration model was evaluated using a coalescent analysis to estimate multiple demographic parameters. Using a Bayesian approach, Andean and Middle American subpopulations with high percentage of parentages were observed. Over all loci, the Middle American gene pool was more diverse than the Andean gene pool (πsil=0.0089 vs 0.0068). The two subpopulations were strongly genetically differentiated over all loci (Fst=0.29). It is estimated that the two current wild gene pools diverged from a common ancestor ∼111 000 years ago. Subsequently, each gene pool underwent a bottleneck immediately after divergence and lasted ∼40 000 years. The Middle American bottleneck population size was ∼46% of the ancestral population size, whereas the Andean was 26%. Continuous asymmetric gene flow was detected between the two gene pools with a larger number of migrants entering Middle American gene pool from the Andean gene pool. These results suggest that because of the complex population structure associated with the ancestral divergence, subsequent bottlenecks in each gene pool, gene pool-specific domestication and intense selection within each gene pool by breeders; association mapping would best be practised within each common bean gene pool. PMID:23169559

  15. Protective potentials of wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) against obesity and lipotoxicity induced by a high-fat/cholesterol diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Hong; Zhai, Cheng-Kai

    2012-07-01

    The study evaluates the protective potentials of wild rice against obesity and lipotoxicity induced by a high-fat/cholesterol diet in rats. In addition to the rats of low-fat diet group, others animals were exposed to a high-fat/cholesterol diet condition for 8 weeks. The city diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by urban residents in modern China, which is rich in fat/cholesterol and high in carbohydrates from white rice and processed wheat starch. The chief source of dietary carbohydrates of wild rice diet (WRD) is from Chinese wild rice and other compositions are the same with CD. Rats fed CD showed elevated body and liver organ weights, lipid profiles, free fatty acids (FFA) and leptin comparable with rats fed high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFD) known to induce obesity and hyperlipidaemia in this species. However, rats consuming WRD suppressed the increase of lipid droplets accumulation, FFA, and leptin, and the decrease of lipoprotein lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase. Meanwhile, WRD prevented high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced elevation in protein expression of sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1c, and gene expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. These findings indicate that wild rice as a natural food has the potentials of preventing obesity and liver lipotoxicity induced by a high-fat/cholesterol diet in rats. PMID:22579924

  16. Hunting strategies in wild common marmosets are prey and age dependent.

    PubMed

    Schiel, Nicola; Souto, Antonio; Huber, Ludwig; Bezerra, Bruna M

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the hunting strategies of wild common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to determine whether the strategies differed among animals of different age classes and/or prey type. The study was conducted in a fragment of Atlantic Rain Forest, situated 40 km from Recife (PE/Brazil). Twenty-seven individuals from four social groups were observed. Captured prey items were divided into three categories. The hunting strategies of the common marmosets were ranked into four categories. The acquisition of larger prey (items more than 2.0 cm) involved the appropriate body movements and postures that concealed the approaching marmosets, whereas the acquisition of smaller prey (items under 2.0 cm) involved less concealing behaviors. Furthermore, adults and juveniles (age ≥ 5 months) were more capable of capturing larger prey than were younger (1-2 months) or older infants (3-4 months). Although older infants were successful in capturing certain prey, they often failed when they attempted to capture larger prey that jumped and/or used flight to escape. The results suggest that both the experience of the monkeys and escape behavior of the prey affect predation efficiency in wild common marmosets. PMID:20623501

  17. A 400-year phytolith-based reconstruction of wild rice (Zizania palustris) abundance from Mud Lake core sediments, Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Reservation, Minnesota, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, R.; Caylor, E.; Yost, C. L.; Drake, C.; Ladwig, J. L.; Myrbo, A.; Howes, T.

    2014-12-01

    Wild rice (Zizania palustris L.) is an aquatic grass with spiritual and subsistence significance to Native people of the Great Lakes region of North America. Mud Lake (Mashkiigwaagamaag), located on the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Reservation in Carlton County, Minnesota, USA, once supported an extensive population of wild rice (manoomin). However, early 20th century attempts to ditch and drain surrounding wetlands for landuse intensification severely altered the natural hydrological system that supports wild rice. Fond du Lac Resource Management (FDLRM) technicians are currently working to increase the wild rice population in Mud Lake. As part of these efforts, this phytolith study was undertaken to better understand how wild rice abundance has fluctuated over the past 400 years, with particular emphasis on the 19th and 20th centuries. Phytoliths are microscopic opal silica plant remains that are incorporated into soils and lake sediments after the plant-parts that contain them decay. Wild rice produces phytolith morphotypes that are unequivocally diagnostic. Mud Lake core MNMN-MUD11-1C-1P-1 (46°43'38.39"N, 92°42'2.45"W) was piston cored by LacCore (National Lacustrine Core Facility) and FDLRM technicians on 24 May 2011. Initial core descriptions, multi-sensor core logging, phytolith sampling and phytolith extractions were completed during the summer of 2014 at LacCore. Wild rice phytolith identification and quantification was conducted on twelve samples using brightfield microscopy at 400x magnification. Wild rice phytolith concentration values ranged from 68 to 2,300 phytoliths/cm3. Wild rice accumulation rates ranged from 9 to 383 phytoliths/ cm2/yr, peaking in 1952 AD. Wild rice abundance in Mud Lake appears to be influenced by a complex set of variables that include anthropogenic disturbance, climatic events and aquatic plant community succession.

  18. Haplotype diversity at the Pi-ta locus in cultivated rice and its wild relataives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pi-ta gene in rice confers resistance to the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae containing AVR-Pita. Pi-ta is predicted to encode a cytoplasmic receptor protein with nucleotide binding sites and leucine rich domain. A panel of 51 oryza accessions consisting of the AA genome species, O. sativa, O. glabe...

  19. Wild Becomings: How the Everyday Experience of Common Wild Animals at Summer Camp Acts as an Entrance to the More-than-Human World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Gavan P. L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the partial results of a research project which investigated conceptions of nature and the role of place in environmental education in children who attended Camp Arowhon. Through interviews and observations, utilizing a hybrid research drawing from phenomenography and ethnography, local common wild animals emerged as playing…

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions, irrigation water use, and arsenic concentrations; a common thread in rice water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice has historically been grown as a flooded crop in the United States. As competition for water resources has grown, there is interest in reducing water use in rice production so as to maintain a viable and sustainable rice industry into the future. An irrigation study was established in 2011 at ...

  1. Genome-Wide Analysis of Polycistronic MicroRNAs in Cultivated and Wild Rice.

    PubMed

    Baldrich, Patricia; Hsing, Yue-Ie Caroline; San Segundo, Blanca

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that direct posttranscriptional gene silencing in eukaryotes. They are frequently clustered in the genomes of animals and can be independently transcribed or simultaneously transcribed into single polycistronic transcripts. Only a few miRNA clusters have been described in plants, and most of them are generated from independent transcriptional units. Here, we used a combination of bioinformatic tools and experimental analyses to discover new polycistronic miRNAs in rice. A genome-wide analysis of clustering patterns of MIRNA loci in the rice genome was carried out using a criterion of 3 kb as the maximal distance between two miRNAs. This analysis revealed 28 loci with the ability to form the typical hairpin structure of miRNA precursors in which 2 or more mature miRNAs mapped along the same structure. RT-PCR provided evidence for the polycistronic nature of seven miRNA precursors containing homologous or nonhomologous miRNA species. Polycistronic miRNAs and candidate polycistronic miRNAs are located across different rice chromosomes, except chromosome 12, and resided in both duplicated and nonduplicated chromosomal regions. Finally, most polycistronic and candidate polycistronic miRNAs showed a pattern of conservation in the genome of rice species with an AA genome. The diversity in the organization of MIR genes that are transcribed as polycistrons suggests a versatile mechanism for the control of gene expression in different biological processes and supports additional levels of complexity in miRNA functioning in plants. PMID:27190137

  2. Genome-Wide Analysis of Polycistronic MicroRNAs in Cultivated and Wild Rice

    PubMed Central

    Baldrich, Patricia; Hsing, Yue-Ie Caroline; San Segundo, Blanca

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that direct posttranscriptional gene silencing in eukaryotes. They are frequently clustered in the genomes of animals and can be independently transcribed or simultaneously transcribed into single polycistronic transcripts. Only a few miRNA clusters have been described in plants, and most of them are generated from independent transcriptional units. Here, we used a combination of bioinformatic tools and experimental analyses to discover new polycistronic miRNAs in rice. A genome-wide analysis of clustering patterns of MIRNA loci in the rice genome was carried out using a criterion of 3 kb as the maximal distance between two miRNAs. This analysis revealed 28 loci with the ability to form the typical hairpin structure of miRNA precursors in which 2 or more mature miRNAs mapped along the same structure. RT-PCR provided evidence for the polycistronic nature of seven miRNA precursors containing homologous or nonhomologous miRNA species. Polycistronic miRNAs and candidate polycistronic miRNAs are located across different rice chromosomes, except chromosome 12, and resided in both duplicated and nonduplicated chromosomal regions. Finally, most polycistronic and candidate polycistronic miRNAs showed a pattern of conservation in the genome of rice species with an AA genome. The diversity in the organization of MIR genes that are transcribed as polycistrons suggests a versatile mechanism for the control of gene expression in different biological processes and supports additional levels of complexity in miRNA functioning in plants. PMID:27190137

  3. Microsatellite DNA marker analysis of genetic diversity in wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Dayu; Kang, Dahai; Yin, Qianqian; Sun, Xiaowen; Liang, Liqun

    2007-11-01

    Thirty microsatellite loci were used for analyzing six wild populations of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Observed (H(o)) and expected (H(e)) heterozygosity values, polymorphic information content (PIC), and number of effective alleles (A(e)) were all detected. Genetic similarity index and genetic distance were computed based on the allele frequency. The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium was checked according to the test of chi2. Genetic differentiation and hierarchical partition of genetic diversity were evaluated by F(ST) and N(m). A clustering dendrogram was made based on the results of UPGMA methods using the PHYLIP software package (version 3.63). There were totally 8,136 fragments ranging from 125 bp to 414 bp in length. Three to thirteen alleles were amplified in 30 loci and 210 alleles in all six populations. The average number of alleles in each locus was seven. The result showed that 1) the level of genetic variability was moderate in the six populations. Polymorphic information contents of the six wild common carp populations were 0.44, 0.52, 0.53, 0.57, 0.63, and 0.64 respectively. Effective alleles were from 1.04 to 4.72, the average numbers in each population were 2.19, 2.60, 2.42, 2.43, 2.45, and 2.33. The average expected heterozygosity values were 0.50, 0.59, 0.56, 0.56, 0.57, and 0.54 respectively; 2) the highest genetic similarity index that came from the populations of BR and ZL was 0.8511 and the lowest index was 0.6688, and it came from the populations of BR and HN. There was a correlation between the clustering result and the geographical distribution. PMID:18037135

  4. qEMF3, a novel QTL for the early-morning flowering trait from wild rice, Oryza officinalis, to mitigate heat stress damage at flowering in rice, O. sativa

    PubMed Central

    Hirabayashi, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Kambe, Takashi; Gannaban, Ritchel B.; Miras, Monaliza A.; Mendioro, Merlyn S.; Simon, Eliza V.; Lumanglas, Patrick D.; Fujita, Daisuke; Takemoto-Kuno, Yoko; Takeuchi, Yoshinobu; Kaji, Ryota; Kondo, Motohiko; Kobayashi, Nobuya; Ogawa, Tsugufumi; Ando, Ikuo; Jagadish, Krishna S. V.; Ishimaru, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    A decline in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production caused by heat stress is one of the biggest concerns resulting from future climate change. Rice spikelets are most susceptible to heat stress at flowering. The early-morning flowering (EMF) trait mitigates heat-induced spikelet sterility at the flowering stage by escaping heat stress during the daytime. We attempted to develop near-isogenic lines (NILs) for EMF in the indica-type genetic background by exploiting the EMF locus from wild rice, O. officinalis (CC genome). A stable quantitative trait locus (QTL) for flower opening time (FOT) was detected on chromosome 3. A QTL was designated as qEMF3 and it shifted FOT by 1.5–2.0h earlier for cv. Nanjing 11 in temperate Japan and cv. IR64 in the Philippine tropics. NILs for EMF mitigated heat-induced spikelet sterility under elevated temperature conditions completing flower opening before reaching 35°C, a general threshold value leading to spikelet sterility. Quantification of FOT of cultivars popular in the tropics and subtropics did not reveal the EMF trait in any of the cultivars tested, suggesting that qEMF3 has the potential to advance FOT of currently popular cultivars to escape heat stress at flowering under future hotter climates. This is the first report to examine rice with the EMF trait through marker-assisted breeding using wild rice as a genetic resource. PMID:25534925

  5. Validation of yield enhancing QTLs from a low-yielding wild ancestor of rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A set of introgression lines (ILs) containing chromosomal segments from O. rufipogon (IRGC 105491), a wild relative of O. sativa, in the genetic background of an elite U.S. variety, cv. Jefferson, was developed to confirm the performance of six yield-enhancing quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Fifty B...

  6. Isolation and characterization of a set of disease resistance-gene analogs (RGAs) from wild rice, Zizania latifolia Griseb. I. Introgression, copy number lability, sequence change, and DNA methylation alteration in several rice-Zizania introgression lines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Long, Likun; Lin, Xiuyun; Guo, Wanli; Liu, Bao

    2006-02-01

    Eight resistance-gene analogs (RGAs) were isolated from wild rice, Zizania latifolia Griseb., by degenerate primers designed according to conserved motifs at or around the nucleotide-binding site (NBS) of known NBS-containing plant resistance genes. The 8 RGAs were classified into 6 distinct groups based on their deduced amino acid sequence similarity of 60% or greater. Gel-blot hybridization of each of the RGAs to 4 rice - Z. latifolia intro gression lines indicated an array of changes at either introgressed Zizania RGAs or, more likely, their rice homologs. The changes included dramatic increase in copy number, modification at the primary DNA sequence, and alteration in DNA methylation patterns. PMID:16498465

  7. Assessment of the importance of alpha-amylase inhibitor-2 in bruchid resistance of wild common bean.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Keito; Teraishi, Masayoshi; Utsumi, Shigeru; Ishimoto, Masao

    2007-02-01

    Both alpha-amylase inhibitor-2 (alphaAI-2) and arcelin have been implicated in resistance of wild common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus Boheman). Near isogenic lines (NILs) for arcelin 1-5 were generated by backcrossing wild common bean accessions with a cultivated variety. Whereas seeds of a wild accession (G12953) containing both alphaAI-2 and arcelin 4 were completely resistant to Z. subfasciatus, those of the corresponding NIL were susceptible to infestation, suggesting that the principal determinant of resistance was lost during backcrossing. Three independent lines of transgenic azuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi and Ohashi] expressing alphaAI-2 accumulated high levels of this protein in seeds. The expression of alphaAI-2 in these lines conferred protection against the azuki bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis L.), likely through inhibition of larval digestive alpha-amylase. However, although the seed content of alphaAI-2 in these transgenic lines was similar to that in a wild accession of common bean (G12953), it did not confer a level of resistance to Z. subfasciatus similar to that of the wild accession. These results suggest that alphaAI-2 alone does not provide a high level of resistance to Z. subfasciatus. However, alphaAI-2 is an effective insecticidal protein with a spectrum of activity distinct from that of alphaAI-1, and it may prove beneficial in genetic engineering of insect resistance in legumes. PMID:17186215

  8. Rice Bran Amendment Suppresses Potato Common Scab by Increasing Antagonistic Bacterial Community Levels in the Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Tomihama, Tsuyoshi; Nishi, Yatsuka; Mori, Kiyofumi; Shirao, Tsukasa; Iida, Toshiya; Uzuhashi, Shihomi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Ikeda, Seishi

    2016-07-01

    Potato common scab (PCS), caused by pathogenic Streptomyces spp., is a serious disease in potato production worldwide. Cultural practices, such as optimizing the soil pH and irrigation, are recommended but it is often difficult to establish stable disease reductions using these methods. Traditionally, local farmers in southwest Japan have amended soils with rice bran (RB) to suppress PCS. However, the scientific mechanism underlying disease suppression by RB has not been elucidated. The present study showed that RB amendment reduced PCS by repressing the pathogenic Streptomyces population in young tubers. Amplicon sequencing analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA genes from the rhizosphere microbiome revealed that RB amendment dramatically changed bacterial composition and led to an increase in the relative abundance of gram-positive bacteria such as Streptomyces spp., and this was negatively correlated with PCS disease severity. Most actinomycete isolates derived from the RB-amended soil showed antagonistic activity against pathogenic Streptomyces scabiei and S. turgidiscabies on R2A medium. Some of the Streptomyces isolates suppressed PCS when they were inoculated onto potato plants in a field experiment. These results suggest that RB amendment increases the levels of antagonistic bacteria against PCS pathogens in the potato rhizosphere. PMID:27050572

  9. A vacuolar antiporter is differentially regulated in leaves and roots of the halophytic wild rice Porteresia coarctata (Roxb.) Tateoka.

    PubMed

    Kizhakkedath, Praseetha; Jegadeeson, Vidya; Venkataraman, Gayatri; Parida, Ajay

    2015-06-01

    Vacuolar NHX-type antiporters play a role in Na(+)/K(+) uptake that contributes to growth, nutrition and development. Under salt/osmotic stress they mediate the vacuolar compartmentalization of K(+)/Na(+), thereby preventing toxic Na(+)K(+) ratios in the cytosol. Porteresia coarctata (Roxb.) Tateoka, a mangrove associate, is a distant wild relative of cultivated rice and is saline as well as submergence tolerant. A vacuolar NHX homolog isolated from a P. coarctata cDNA library (PcNHX1) shows 96 % identity (nucleotide level) to OsNHX1. Diurnal PcNHX1 expression in leaves was found to be largely unaltered, though damped by salinity. PcNHX1 promoter directed GUS expression is phloem-specific in leaves, stem and roots of transgenic plants in the absence of stress. Under NaCl stress, GUS expression was also seen in the epidermal and sub-epidermal layers (mesophyll, guard cells and trichomes) of leaves, root tip. The salinity in the rhizosphere of P. coarctata varies considerably due to diurnal/semi-diurnal tidal inundation. The diurnal expression of PcNHX1 in leaves and salinity induced expression in roots may have evolved in response to dynamic changes in salinity of in the P. coarctata rhizosphere. Despite high sequence conservation between OsNHX1 and PcNHX1, the distinctive expression pattern of PcNHX1 exemplifies how variation in expression is fine tuned to suit the halophytic growth habitat of a plant. PMID:25481774

  10. Diazotrophic bacteria isolated from wild rice Oryza glumaepatula (Poaceae) in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Júnior, Paulo Ivan Fernandes; Pereira, Gilmara Maria Duarte; Perin, Liamara; da Silva, Luana Mesquita; Baraúna, Alexandre Cardoso; Alvess, Francilene Muniz; Passos, Samuel Ribeiro; Zilli, Jerri Edson

    2013-06-01

    The association of wild grasses with diazotrophic bacteria in Brazilian biomes is poorly understood. The isolation and characterization of bacteria associated with wild grasses can contribute to understand the diazotrophic ecology as well as to identify bacteria with biotechnological applications. In this study, we isolated and characterized diazotrophic bacterial isolates from Oryza glumaepatula collected in Cerrado and Forest areas of the Amazon in Roraima State, Brazil. Healthy O. glumepatula plants were collected at five sampling sites at Forest and seven at Cerrado, respectively. The plants were collected at the Cerrado areas in September 2008 while the Forest plants were collected in June/2008 and April/2009. The plants and the soil adhering to the roots were transferred to pots and grown for 35 days in greenhouse conditions. During the harvest, the shoots and the roots were crushed separately in a saline solution; the suspension was diluted serially and inoculated in Petri dishes containing Dyg's medium. All distinct bacterial colonies were purified in the same medium. The diazotrophic capacity of each bacterium in microaerophilic conditions was assessed in semisolid BMGM medium. In addition, the pellicles forming bacterial isolates were also evaluated by PCR amplification for nifH gene. The diversity of nifH bacteria was analyzed by Box-PCR fingerprinting. For selected strains, the growth promoting capacity of O. sativa as a model plant was also evaluated. A total of 992 bacterial isolates were obtained. Fifty-one bacteria were able to form pellicles in the semisolid medium and 38 also positively amplified the 360 bp nifH gene fragment. Among the 38 nifH+ isolates, 24 were obtained from the shoots, while 14 originated from the roots. The Box-PCR profiles showed that the bacterial isolates obtained in this study presented a low similarity with the reference strains belonging to the Herbaspirillum, Azospirillum and Burkholderia genus. The growth

  11. Nanda-gikendaasowin Naawij Gaa-izhiwebakin Manoomini-zaaga'iganiing: Core-based research by Native students on wild rice lakes in northern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrbo, A.; Howes, T.; Defoe, R.; Dalbotten, D. M.; Pellerin, H.; McEathron, M.; Ito, E.

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about how local and global environmental changes affect the habitat of wild rice (manoomin in Ojibwe; Zizania sp.). Using transects of sediment cores from wild rice lakes on the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Reservation (FDL) in Minnesota, undergraduate student researchers are working to reconstruct the lakes' ecological history in order to better manage future change. Reservation Resource Management personnel and University science mentors work together to develop research questions and mentor small groups of college-age students during short (two-week) and long (ten-week) summer internships. Cores are collected during the winter from the frozen lake surface with "Lake Teams" of mainly Native junior high and high school students attending weekend science camps, who also visit LacCore (the National Lacustrine Core Facility) in Minneapolis to conduct initial core description and basic analyses. At the same time as the Fond du Lac Band gains information about the long-term history and variability of the Reservation's lakes, young Native people are exposed to primary research, natural resources management and academia as occupations, and scientists as people. Scientific results, as well as the results of program evaluation, show clearly that this approach has so far been successful and eye-opening for both students and mentors. Lead-210 dated records of the past ~150 years cover the period of European settlement, logging, and the massive ditching of FDL lakes to convert wetlands to agricultural land. Phytolith, pollen, plant macrofossil, and diatom studies by interns, as well as sediment composition and mass accumulation rate data, show anthropogenic lake level and vegetation fluctuations associated with these activities. Earlier in the record (~10,000 years to ~100 years before present), the natural and slow processes of lake infilling and encroachment of shallow-water vegetation are the dominant processes controlling the ecology of the

  12. Molecular relationships between Australian annual wild rice, Oryza meridionalis, and two related perennial forms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The perennial, Oryza rufipogon distributed from Asia to Australia and the annual O. meridionalis indigenous to Australia are AA genome species in the Oryza. However, recent research has demonstrated that the Australian AA genome perennial populations have maternal genomes more closely related to those of O. meridionalis than to those found in Asian populations of O. rufipogon suggesting that the Australian perennials may represent a new distinct gene pool for rice. Results Analysis of an Oryza core collection covering AA genome species from Asia to Oceania revealed that some Oceania perennials had organellar genomes closely related to that of O meridionalis (meridionalis-type). O. rufipogon accessions from New Guinea carried either the meridionalis-type or rufirpogon-type (like O. rufipogon) organellar genomes. Australian perennials carried only the meridionalis-type organellar genomes when accompanied by the rufipogon-type nuclear genome. New accessions were collected to better characterize the Australian perennials, and their life histories (annual or perennial) were confirmed by field observations. All of the material collected carried only meridionalis-type organellar genomes. However, there were two distinct perennial groups. One of them carried an rufipogon-type nuclear genome similar to the Australian O. rufipogon in the core collection and the other carried an meridionalis-type nuclear genome not represented in the existing collection. Morphologically the rufipogon-type shared similarity with Asian O. rufipogon. The meridionalis-type showed some similarities to O. meridionalis such as the short anthers usually characteristic of annual populations. However, the meridionalis-type perennial was readily distinguished from O. meridionalis by the presence of a larger lemma and higher number of spikelets. Conclusion Analysis of current accessions clearly indicated that there are two distinct types of Australian perennials. Both of them differed

  13. Physiological and molecular changes in Oryza meridionalis Ng., a heat-tolerant species of wild rice

    PubMed Central

    Scafaro, Andrew P.; Haynes, Paul A.; Atwell, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Oryza meridionalis Ng. is a wild relative of Oryza sativa L. found throughout northern Australia where temperatures regularly exceed 35 °C in the monsoon growing season. Heat tolerance in O. meridionalis was established by comparing leaf elongation and photosynthetic rates at 45 °C with plants maintained at 27 °C. By comparison with O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Amaroo, O. meridionalis was heat tolerant. Elongation rates of the third leaf of O. meridionalis declined by 47% over 24 h at 45 °C compared with a 91% decrease for O. sativa. Net photosynthesis was significantly higher in O. sativa at 27 °C whereas the two species had the same assimilation rates at 45 °C. The leaf proteome and expression levels of individual heat-responsive genes provided insight into the heat response of O. meridionalis. After 24 h of heat exposure, many enzymes involved in the Calvin Cycle were more abundant, while mRNA of their genes generally decreased. Ferredoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductase, a key enzyme in photosynthetic electron transport had both reduced abundance and gene expression, suggesting light reactions were highly susceptible to heat stress. Rubisco activase was strongly up-regulated after 24 h of heat, with the large isoform having the largest relative increase in protein abundance and a significant increase in gene expression. The protective proteins Cpn60, Hsp90, and Hsp70 all increased in both protein abundance and gene expression. A thiamine biosynthesis protein (THI1), previously shown to act protectively against stress, increased in abundance during heat, even as thiamine levels fell in O. meridionalis. PMID:19819927

  14. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong; Shin, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung; Oh, Boung-Jun; Jung, Ho Won; Chung, Young Soo

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  15. Reproductive aging in captive and wild common chimpanzees: factors influencing the rate of follicular depletion.

    PubMed

    Atsalis, Sylvia; Videan, Elaine

    2009-04-01

    We examine and discuss evidence of contrasting differences in fertility patterns between captive and wild female chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, as they age; in the wild females reproduce in their 40s, but captive studies suggest that menopause occurs around that time. Thus, despite the increased longevity generally observed in captive populations reproductive life span is shortened. We outline a hypothesis to explain the apparent differential pace of reproductive decline observed between wild and captive populations. The breeding schedules of captive primates may contribute to accelerated reproductive senescence because continuous cycling in captive animals results in early depletion of the ovarian stock and premature senescence. Available evidence supports the hypothesis that women with patterns of high oocyte loss experience earlier menopause. Chimpanzees in captivity live longer, and thus, similar to humans, they may experience follicular depletion that precedes death by many years. In captivity, chimpanzees typically have an early age at menarche and first birth, shorter interbirth intervals associated with short lactational periods as young mature faster, and nursery rearing, which allows mothers to begin cycling earlier. Variables typical of wild chimpanzee populations, including late age at menarche and first birth, long interbirth intervals associated with prolonged lactational periods, and a long period of female infertility after immigration, spare ovulations and may be responsible for the later age at reproductive termination. Finally, we describe and discuss the timing of specific reproductive landmarks that occur as female chimpanzees age, distinguishing between functional menopause (age at last birth) and operational menopause (end of cycling). PMID:19067363

  16. Phylogeny and biogeography of the eastern Asian-North American disjunct wild-rice genus (Zizania L., Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinwei; Walters, Christina; Antolin, Michael F; Alexander, Mara L; Lutz, Sue; Ge, Song; Wen, Jun

    2010-06-01

    The wild-rice genus Zizania includes four species disjunctly distributed in eastern Asia and North America, with three species (Z. aquatica, Z. palustris, and Z. texana) in North America and one (Z. latifolia) in eastern Asia. The phylogeny of Zizania was constructed using sequences of seven DNA fragments (atpB-rbcL, matK, rps16, trnL-F, trnH-psbA, nad1, and Adh1a) from chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes. Zizania is shown to be monophyletic with the North American species forming a clade and the eastern Asian Z. latifolia sister to the North American clade. The divergence between the eastern Asian Z. latifolia and the North American clade was dated to be 3.74 (95% HPD: 1.04-7.23) million years ago (mya) using the Bayesian dating method with the combined atpB-rbcL, matK, rps16, trnL-F, and nad1 data. Biogeographic analyses using a likelihood method suggest the North American origin of Zizania and its migration into eastern Asia via the Bering land bridge. Among the three North American species, the organellar data and the haplotype network of the nuclear Adh1a gene show a close relationship between Z. palustris and the narrowly distributed endangered species Z. texana. Bayesian dating estimated the divergence of North American Zizania to be 0.71 (95% HPD: 0.12-1.54) mya in the Pleistocene. The non-monophyly of Z. palustris and Z. aquatica in the organellar and nuclear data is most likely caused by incomplete lineage sorting, yet low-frequency unidirectional introgression of Z. palustris into Z. aquatica is present in the nuclear data as well. PMID:19944174

  17. Identification of Novel and Conserved miRNAs from Extreme Halophyte, Oryza coarctata, a Wild Relative of Rice.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Debnath, Ananda Bhusan

    2015-01-01

    Oryza coarctata, a halophyte and wild relative of rice, is grown normally in saline water. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that play pivotal roles in every domain of life including stress response. There are very few reports on the discovery of salt-responsive miRNAs from halophytes. In this study, two small RNA libraries, one each from the control and salt-treated (450 mM NaCl for 24 h) leaves of O. coarctata were sequenced, which yielded 338 known and 95 novel miRNAs. Additionally, we used publicly available transcriptomics data of O. coarctata which led to the discovery of additional 48 conserved miRNAs along with their pre-miRNA sequences through in silico analysis. In total, 36 known and 7 novel miRNAs were up-regulated whereas, 12 known and 7 novel miRNAs were down-regulated under salinity stress. Further, 233 and 154 target genes were predicted for 48 known and 14 novel differentially regulated miRNAs respectively. These targets with the help of gene ontology analysis were found to be involved in several important biological processes that could be involved in salinity tolerance. Relative expression trends of majority of the miRNAs as detected by real time-PCR as well as predicted by Illumina sequencing were found to be coherent. Additionally, expression of most of the target genes was negatively correlated with their corresponding miRNAs. Thus, the present study provides an account of miRNA-target networking that is involved in salinity adaption of O. coarctata. PMID:26506249

  18. Identification of Novel and Conserved miRNAs from Extreme Halophyte, Oryza coarctata, a Wild Relative of Rice

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Debnath, Ananda Bhusan

    2015-01-01

    Oryza coarctata, a halophyte and wild relative of rice, is grown normally in saline water. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that play pivotal roles in every domain of life including stress response. There are very few reports on the discovery of salt-responsive miRNAs from halophytes. In this study, two small RNA libraries, one each from the control and salt-treated (450 mM NaCl for 24 h) leaves of O. coarctata were sequenced, which yielded 338 known and 95 novel miRNAs. Additionally, we used publicly available transcriptomics data of O. coarctata which led to the discovery of additional 48 conserved miRNAs along with their pre-miRNA sequences through in silico analysis. In total, 36 known and 7 novel miRNAs were up-regulated whereas, 12 known and 7 novel miRNAs were down-regulated under salinity stress. Further, 233 and 154 target genes were predicted for 48 known and 14 novel differentially regulated miRNAs respectively. These targets with the help of gene ontology analysis were found to be involved in several important biological processes that could be involved in salinity tolerance. Relative expression trends of majority of the miRNAs as detected by real time-PCR as well as predicted by Illumina sequencing were found to be coherent. Additionally, expression of most of the target genes was negatively correlated with their corresponding miRNAs. Thus, the present study provides an account of miRNA-target networking that is involved in salinity adaption of O. coarctata. PMID:26506249

  19. Coordination of Leaf Photosynthesis, Transpiration, and Structural Traits in Rice and Wild Relatives (Genus Oryza)1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Rita; Koteyeva, Nuria; Voznesenskaya, Elena; Evans, Marc A.; Cousins, Asaph B.; Edwards, Gerald E.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Oryza, which includes rice (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) and wild relatives, is a useful genus to study leaf properties in order to identify structural features that control CO2 access to chloroplasts, photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and drought tolerance. Traits, 26 structural and 17 functional, associated with photosynthesis and transpiration were quantified on 24 accessions (representatives of 17 species and eight genomes). Hypotheses of associations within, and between, structure, photosynthesis, and transpiration were tested. Two main clusters of positively interrelated leaf traits were identified: in the first cluster were structural features, leaf thickness (Thickleaf), mesophyll (M) cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space per unit of leaf surface area (Smes), and M cell size; a second group included functional traits, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, M conductance to CO2 diffusion (gm), stomatal conductance to gas diffusion (gs), and the gm/gs ratio. While net photosynthetic rate was positively correlated with gm, neither was significantly linked with any individual structural traits. The results suggest that changes in gm depend on covariations of multiple leaf (Smes) and M cell (including cell wall thickness) structural traits. There was an inverse relationship between Thickleaf and transpiration rate and a significant positive association between Thickleaf and leaf transpiration efficiency. Interestingly, high gm together with high gm/gs and a low Smes/gm ratio (M resistance to CO2 diffusion per unit of cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space) appear to be ideal for supporting leaf photosynthesis while preserving water; in addition, thick M cell walls may be beneficial for plant drought tolerance. PMID:23669746

  20. An ATP-binding cassette subfamily G full transporter is essential for the retention of leaf water in both wild barley and rice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; Ma, Jian Feng; Nawrath, Christiane; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Tagiri, Akemi; Hu, Yin-Gang; Sameri, Mohammad; Li, Xinrong; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Yubing; Li, Chao; Ma, Xiaoying; Wang, Aidong; Nair, Sudha; Wang, Ning; Miyao, Akio; Sakuma, Shun; Yamaji, Naoki; Zheng, Xiuting; Nevo, Eviatar

    2011-01-01

    Land plants have developed a cuticle preventing uncontrolled water loss. Here we report that an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily G (ABCG) full transporter is required for leaf water conservation in both wild barley and rice. A spontaneous mutation, eibi1.b, in wild barley has a low capacity to retain leaf water, a phenotype associated with reduced cutin deposition and a thin cuticle. Map-based cloning revealed that Eibi1 encodes an HvABCG31 full transporter. The gene was highly expressed in the elongation zone of a growing leaf (the site of cutin synthesis), and its gene product also was localized in developing, but not in mature tissue. A de novo wild barley mutant named “eibi1.c,” along with two transposon insertion lines of rice mutated in the ortholog of HvABCG31 also were unable to restrict water loss from detached leaves. HvABCG31 is hypothesized to function as a transporter involved in cutin formation. Homologs of HvABCG31 were found in green algae, moss, and lycopods, indicating that this full transporter is highly conserved in the evolution of land plants. PMID:21737747

  1. Recent and Projected Increases in Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Can Enhance Gene Flow between Wild and Genetically Altered Rice (Oryza sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Ziska, Lewis H.; Gealy, David R.; Tomecek, Martha B.; Jackson, Aaron K.; Black, Howard L.

    2012-01-01

    Although recent and projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide can alter plant phenological development, these changes have not been quantified in terms of floral outcrossing rates or gene transfer. Could differential phenological development in response to rising CO2 between genetically modified crops and wild, weedy relatives increase the spread of novel genes, potentially altering evolutionary fitness? Here we show that increasing CO2 from an early 20th century concentration (300 µmol mol−1) to current (400 µmol mol−1) and projected, mid-21st century (600 µmol mol−1) values, enhanced the flow of genes from wild, weedy rice to the genetically altered, herbicide resistant, cultivated population, with outcrossing increasing from 0.22% to 0.71% from 300 to 600 µmol mol−1. The increase in outcrossing and gene transfer was associated with differential increases in plant height, as well as greater tiller and panicle production in the wild, relative to the cultivated population. In addition, increasing CO2 also resulted in a greater synchronicity in flowering times between the two populations. The observed changes reported here resulted in a subsequent increase in rice dedomestication and a greater number of weedy, herbicide-resistant hybrid progeny. Overall, these data suggest that differential phenological responses to rising atmospheric CO2 could result in enhanced flow of novel genes and greater success of feral plant species in agroecosystems. PMID:22649533

  2. An ATP-binding cassette subfamily G full transporter is essential for the retention of leaf water in both wild barley and rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; Ma, Jian Feng; Nawrath, Christiane; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Tagiri, Akemi; Hu, Yin-Gang; Sameri, Mohammad; Li, Xinrong; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Yubing; Li, Chao; Ma, Xiaoying; Wang, Aidong; Nair, Sudha; Wang, Ning; Miyao, Akio; Sakuma, Shun; Yamaji, Naoki; Zheng, Xiuting; Nevo, Eviatar

    2011-07-26

    Land plants have developed a cuticle preventing uncontrolled water loss. Here we report that an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily G (ABCG) full transporter is required for leaf water conservation in both wild barley and rice. A spontaneous mutation, eibi1.b, in wild barley has a low capacity to retain leaf water, a phenotype associated with reduced cutin deposition and a thin cuticle. Map-based cloning revealed that Eibi1 encodes an HvABCG31 full transporter. The gene was highly expressed in the elongation zone of a growing leaf (the site of cutin synthesis), and its gene product also was localized in developing, but not in mature tissue. A de novo wild barley mutant named "eibi1.c," along with two transposon insertion lines of rice mutated in the ortholog of HvABCG31 also were unable to restrict water loss from detached leaves. HvABCG31 is hypothesized to function as a transporter involved in cutin formation. Homologs of HvABCG31 were found in green algae, moss, and lycopods, indicating that this full transporter is highly conserved in the evolution of land plants. PMID:21737747

  3. Prions are a common mechanism for phenotypic inheritance in wild yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Halfmann, Randal; Jarosz, Daniel F.; Jones, Sandra K.; Chang, Amelia; Lancaster, Alex K.; Lindquist, Susan

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The self-templating conformations of yeast prion proteins act as epigenetic elements of inheritance. Yeast prions might provide a mechanism for generating heritable phenotypic diversity that promotes survival in fluctuating environments and the evolution of new traits. However, this hypothesis is highly controversial. Prions that create new traits have not been found in wild strains, leading to the perception that they are rare “diseases” of laboratory cultivation. Here we biochemically test ~700 wild strains of Saccharomyces for [PSI+] or [MOT3+], and find these prions in many. They conferred diverse phenotypes that were frequently beneficial under selective conditions. Simple meiotic re-assortment of the variation harboured within a strain readily fixed one such trait, making it robust and prion-independent. Finally, we genetically screened for unknown prion elements. Fully one third of wild strains harboured them. These, too, created diverse, often beneficial phenotypes. Thus, prions broadly govern heritable traits in nature, in a manner that could profoundly expand adaptive opportunities. PMID:22337056

  4. The compact Brachypodium genome conserves centromeric regions of a common ancestor with wheat and rice.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lili; Friebe, Bernd; Wu, Jiajie; Gu, Yongqiang; Qian, Chen; Gill, Bikram S

    2010-11-01

    The evolution of five chromosomes of Brachypodium distachyon from a 12-chromosome ancestor of all grasses by dysploidy raises an interesting question about the fate of redundant centromeres. Three independent but complementary approaches were pursued to study centromeric region homologies among the chromosomes of Brachypodium, wheat, and rice. The genes present in pericentromeres of the basic set of seven chromosomes of wheat and the Triticeae, and the 80 rice centromeric genes spanning the CENH3 binding domain of centromeres 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8 were used as "anchor" markers to identify centromere locations in the B. distachyon chromosomes. A total of 53 B. distachyon bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones anchored by wheat pericentromeric expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were used as probes for BAC-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of B. distachyon mitotic chromosomes. Integrated sequence alignment and BAC-FISH data were used to determine the approximate positions of active and inactive centromeres in the five B. distachyon chromosomes. The following syntenic relationships of the centromeres for Brachypodium (Bd), rice (R), and wheat (W) were evident: Bd1-R6, Bd2-R5-W1, Bd3-R10, Bd4-R11-W4, and Bd5-R4. Six rice centromeres syntenic to five wheat centromeres were inactive in Brachypodium chromosomes. The conservation of centromere gene synteny among several sets of homologous centromeres of three species indicates that active genes can persist in ancient centromeres with more than 40 million years of shared evolutionary history. Annotation of a BAC contig spanning an inactive centromere in chromosome Bd3 which is syntenic to rice Cen8 and W7 pericentromeres, along with BAC FISH data from inactive centromeres revealed that the centromere inactivation was accompanied by the loss of centromeric retrotransposons and turnover of centromere-specific satellites during Bd chromosome evolution. PMID:20842403

  5. Evidence for divergence of response in Indica, Japonica, and wild rice to high CO2 x temperature interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluating variability of rice response to concurrent increases in CO2 and temperature forecasted for future climates is a prerequisite step towards characterizing the genetic architecture underlying this response. Expanding on previous single cultivar studies, we evaluated eleven biogeographically ...

  6. Wild rice ( Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) improves the serum lipid profile and antioxidant status of rats fed with a high fat/cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Cao, Pei; Agellon, Luis B; Zhai, Cheng-Kai

    2009-12-01

    The diet consumed by urban residents in modern China has become rich in saturated fats and cholesterol. In addition, the diet is high in carbohydrates from white rice and processed wheat starch. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch with wild rice (WR) as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates. Rats fed with the diet patterned after the diet consumed by city residents of modern China showed elevated serum lipid levels comparable with rats consuming a high fat/cholesterol diet known to induce hyperlipidaemia in this species. Meanwhile, rats consuming the city diet with WR as the carbohydrate source suppressed the increase in serum TAG and total cholesterol, and the decrease in HDL cholesterol level. In addition, the rats fed the WR diet suppressed the build-up of oxidative stress by improving antioxidant capacity, increasing superoxide dismutase activity and reducing malondialdehyde concentration, both in the serum and liver. These findings illustrate that WR is effective in suppressing hyperlipidaemia and oxidative stress in rats even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol. PMID:19631021

  7. Genetic diversity of endophytic diazotrophs of the wild rice, Oryza alta and identification of the new diazotroph, Acinetobacter oryzae sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Hassan Javed; Peng, Guixiang; Hu, Mei; He, Yumei; Yang, Lijuan; Luo, Yan; Tan, Zhiyuan

    2012-05-01

    Thirty-three endophytic diazotrophs were isolated from surface-sterilized leaves, stem, and roots of wild rice Oryza alta. The SDS-PAGE profile of total protein and insertion sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (IS-PCR) fingerprinting grouped the isolates into four clusters (I-IV). The 16S rRNA gene sequence homology of the representative strains B21, B31, B1, and B23 of clusters I, II, III, and IV were assigned to Pseudomonas oleovorans (99.2% similarity), Burkholderia fungorum (99.4% similarity), Enterobacter cloacae (98.9% similarity), and Acinetobacter johnsonii (98.4% similarity), respectively. The results showed wide genetic diversity of the putative diazotrophic strains of the wild rice, O. alta, and the strains of cluster IV are the first report of nitrogen-fixing Acinetobacter species. The cell size, phenotypic characters, total protein profile, genomic DNA fingerprinting, DNA-DNA hybridization, and antibiotic resistance differentiated strain B23(T) from its closest relatives A. johnsonii LMG999(T) and Acinetobacter haemolyticus LMG996(T). The DNA-DNA hybridization also distinguished the strain B23(T) from the closely related Acinetobacter species. Based on these data, a novel species, Acinetobacter oryzae sp. nov., and strain B23(T) (=LMG25575(T) = CGMCC1.10689(T)) as the type strain were proposed. PMID:22105517

  8. Use of wild relatives and closely-related species to adapt common bean to climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume crop worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stress limits bean yields less than 600 kg/ha in low-income countries. Current low yields result in food insecurity, while demands for increased yields to match the rate of population growth combin...

  9. Fipronil application on rice paddy fields reduces densities of common skimmer and scarlet skimmer

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Atsushi; Hayashi, Takehiko I.; Ohnishi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Goka, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Several reports suggested that rice seedling nursery-box application of some systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil) is the cause of the decline in dragonfly species noted since the 1990s in Japan. We conducted paddy mesocosm experiments to investigate the effect of the systemic insecticides clothianidin, fipronil and chlorantraniliprole on rice paddy field biological communities. Concentrations of all insecticides in the paddy water were reduced to the limit of detection within 3 months after application. However, residuals of these insecticides in the paddy soil were detected throughout the experimental period. Plankton species were affected by clothianidin and chlorantraniliprole right after the applications, but they recovered after the concentrations decreased. On the other hand, the effects of fipronil treatment, especially on Odonata, were larger than those of any other treatment. The number of adult dragonflies completing eclosion was severely decreased in the fipronil treatment. These results suggest that the accumulation of these insecticides in paddy soil reduces biodiversity by eliminating dragonfly nymphs, which occupy a high trophic level in paddy fields. PMID:26979488

  10. Fipronil application on rice paddy fields reduces densities of common skimmer and scarlet skimmer.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Atsushi; Hayashi, Takehiko I; Ohnishi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Goka, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Several reports suggested that rice seedling nursery-box application of some systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil) is the cause of the decline in dragonfly species noted since the 1990s in Japan. We conducted paddy mesocosm experiments to investigate the effect of the systemic insecticides clothianidin, fipronil and chlorantraniliprole on rice paddy field biological communities. Concentrations of all insecticides in the paddy water were reduced to the limit of detection within 3 months after application. However, residuals of these insecticides in the paddy soil were detected throughout the experimental period. Plankton species were affected by clothianidin and chlorantraniliprole right after the applications, but they recovered after the concentrations decreased. On the other hand, the effects of fipronil treatment, especially on Odonata, were larger than those of any other treatment. The number of adult dragonflies completing eclosion was severely decreased in the fipronil treatment. These results suggest that the accumulation of these insecticides in paddy soil reduces biodiversity by eliminating dragonfly nymphs, which occupy a high trophic level in paddy fields. PMID:26979488

  11. Modelling pollen-mediated gene flow in rice: risk assessment and management of transgene escape.

    PubMed

    Rong, Jun; Song, Zhiping; de Jong, Tom J; Zhang, Xinsheng; Sun, Shuguang; Xu, Xian; Xia, Hui; Liu, Bo; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2010-05-01

    Fast development and commercialization of genetically modified plants have aroused concerns of transgene escape and its environmental consequences. A model that can effectively predict pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) is essential for assessing and managing risks from transgene escape. A pollen-trap method was used to measure the wind-borne pollen dispersal in cultivated rice and common wild rice, and effects of relative humidity, temperature and wind speed on pollen dispersal were estimated. A PMGF model was constructed based on the pollen dispersal pattern in rice, taking outcrossing rates of recipients and cross-compatibility between rice and its wild relatives into consideration. Published rice gene flow data were used to validate the model. Pollen density decreased in a simple exponential pattern with distances to the rice field. High relative humidity reduced pollen dispersal distances. Model simulation showed an increased PMGF frequency with the increase of pollen source size (the area of a rice field), but this effect levelled off with a large pollen-source size. Cross-compatibility is essential when modelling PMGF from rice to its wild relatives. The model fits the data well, including PMGF from rice to its wild relatives. Therefore, it can be used to predict PMGF in rice under diverse conditions (e.g. different outcrossing rates and cross-compatibilities), facilitating the determination of isolation distances to minimize transgene escape. The PMGF model may be extended to other wind-pollinated plant species such as wheat and barley. PMID:20132516

  12. Movement patterns and genetic diversity of wild and reintroduced common dormice, Muscardinus avellanarius.

    PubMed

    Naim, D M; Telfer, S; Tatman, S; Bird, S; Kemp, S J; Watts, P C

    2014-01-01

    Movement is an important life history trait that can have an impact on local adaptation, and other evolutionary phenomena. We used a combination of nestbox survey data and genetic techniques (genotyping at 10 microsatellite loci) to quantify patterns of movement in common dormice Muscardinus avellanarius at two distinct sites in the UK: 1) Bontuchel (a natural population) and 2) Wych (captive-bred individuals that were reintroduced to this site), over three consecutive years (2006-2008). Both methods revealed a consistent pattern of sex-biased movement (movements by adult males and females) in both populations that allowed isolation-by-distance genetic structure to develop within 1 km. The similarity of data from captive-bred and natural individuals indicated that ex situ programing has not significantly altered the natural movement behavior of common dormice; consequently, the two populations could be managed with the same conservation strategies. We also found that the reintroduced dormice in Wych maintained relatively high levels of genetic diversity. This first report of movement patterns in reintroduced and natural populations of M. avellanarius combining genetic and field-survey data highlights the role of genetic studies in the investigation of ecological behaviour and for conservation management. PMID:24446300

  13. Manoomin: place-based research with Native American students on wild rice lakes on the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Reservation, northern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, E.; Myrbo, A.; Dalbotten, D. M.; Pellerin, H.; Greensky, L.; Howes, T.; Wold, A.; McEathron, M. A.; Shanker, V.

    2010-12-01

    The manoomin project is a collaboration between Fond du Lac Tribal and Community College (Cloquet, MN), the Reservation’s Resource Management Division, and the University of Minnesota funded by the NSF GEO-OEDG Program. It builds on a successful seven-year history of collaboration between these parties, including regular science camps (gidaakiimanaanimigawig, Our Earth Lodge) for students of a wide range of ages. We are working as a team with Native students to study the history of wild rice (manoomin; Zizania palustris), a culturally important resource, growing on Reservation lakes. The joint project takes two main approaches: study of sediment core samples collected from Reservation lakes; and the collection of traditional knowledge about wild rice from the Elders. Science campers collect lake cores during winter with the assistance of the U of MN’s LacCore (National Lacustrine Core Facility) and Resource Management and visit LacCore to log, split and describe cores soon thereafter. Academic mentors with a range of specialties (phytoliths, pollen, plant macrofossils, sedimentology, geochemistry, magnetics) spend 1-2 weeks during the summer with small groups of college-age (>18, many nontraditional) student interns working on a particular paleoenvironmental proxy from the sediment cores. Younger students (middle and high school) also work in small teams in half day units with the same mentors. All campers become comfortable in an academic setting, gain experience working in research labs learning and practicing techniques, and jointly interpret collective results. The continuation of the project over five years (2009-2014) will allow these students to develop relationships with scientists and to receive mentoring beyond the laboratory as they make transitions into 2- and 4-year colleges and into graduate school. Their research provides historical and environmental information that is relevant to their own land that will be used by Resource Management which is

  14. In search of the last common ancestor: new findings on wild chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    McGrew, W. C.

    2010-01-01

    Modelling the behaviour of extinct hominins is essential in order to devise useful hypotheses of our species' evolutionary origins for testing in the palaeontological and archaeological records. One approach is to model the last common ancestor (LCA) of living apes and humans, based on current ethological and ecological knowledge of our closest living relations. Such referential modelling is based on rigorous, ongoing field studies of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). This paper reviews recent findings from nature, focusing on those with direct implications for hominin evolution, e.g. apes, using elementary technology to access basic resources such as food and water, or sheltering in caves or bathing as thermoregulatory adaptations. I give preference to studies that directly address key issues, such as whether stone artefacts are detectible before the Oldowan, based on the percussive technology of hammer and anvil use by living apes. Detailed comparative studies of chimpanzees living in varied habitats, from rainforest to savannah, reveal that some behavioural patterns are universal (e.g. shelter construction), while others show marked (e.g. extractive foraging) or nuanced (e.g. courtship) cross-populational variation. These findings allow us to distinguish between retained, primitive traits of the LCA versus derived ones in the human lineage. PMID:20855301

  15. The semifossorial function of the forelimb in the common rice tenrec (Oryzorictes hova) and the streaked tenrec (Hemicentetes hemispinosus).

    PubMed

    Endo, H; Oishi, M; Yonezawa, T; Rakotondraparany, F; Hasegawa, M

    2007-12-01

    The forelimb muscles of the two semifossorial species of Tenrecidae (Oryzoryctinae: common rice tenrec; and Tenrecinae: streaked tenrec) were compared macroscopically with those of the unspecialized terrestrial-arboreal species, the Talazac long-tailed tenrec. The structure of the hand was also observed using three-dimensional reconstructed images from computed tomography data. The two semifossorial species had similar muscle weight ratios in the lateral and long heads of M. triceps brachii and M. teres major. A similar hand skeleton structure (in which the second, third and fourth metacarpals and phalanges act as a digging apparatus) was observed in both species. Our observations confirm that both these species have muscular-skeletal adaptations supporting fossorial locomotion. As each species belongs to a monophyletic subfamily within the Tenrecidae isolated in Madagascar, such semifossorial adaptations are assumed to have evolved convergently. PMID:18021349

  16. Optimization of synthesis and characterization of nanosilica produced from rice husk (a common waste material)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiee, Ezzat; Shahebrahimi, Shabnam; Feyzi, Mostafa; Shaterzadeh, Mahdi

    2012-10-01

    Rice husk (RH), an inexpensive waste material, was used to produce nanosilica. Acid treatment of RH followed by thermal combustion under controlled conditions gave 22.50% ash of which 90.469% was silica. Various chemical treatments in varied conditions for controlled combustion were investigated in order to produce highly purified nanosilica. The structural properties (such as X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy) of the silica were studied. The method was optimized, and the chemical composition of the product was determined by X-ray fluorescence and carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen analysis. Lime reactivity of the ashes was determined. At optimized conditions, a nanosized, highly purified silica (98.8 mass percentage) was produced with a high surface area, high reactivity, and 99.9% amorphous in form. Strength and number of acidic sites were measured by potentiometric titration. This nanosilica showed strong and a large number of acidic sites in comparison with commercial silica, making it as a good support for catalysts. This economic technology, as applied to waste material, also provides many benefits to the local agro-industry.

  17. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Replaced with Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) on Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed with a High-Fat/Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shufen; Zhang, Hong; Qin, Liqiang; Zhai, Chengkai

    2013-01-01

    Wild rice (WR) is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF) diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol. PMID:23434909

  18. Effects of dietary carbohydrate replaced with wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Han, Shufen; Zhang, Hong; Qin, Liqiang; Zhai, Chengkai

    2013-02-01

    Wild rice (WR) is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF) diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol. PMID:23434909

  19. Human-Mediated Emergence as a Weed and Invasive Radiation in the Wild of the CD Genome Allotetraploid Rice Species (Oryza, Poaceae) in the Neotropics

    PubMed Central

    Second, Gérard; Rouhan, Germinal

    2008-01-01

    Background The genus Oryza is being used as a model in plant genomic studies although there are several issues still to be resolved regarding the spatio-temporal evolution of this ancient genus. Particularly contentious is whether undated transoceanic natural dispersal or recent human interference has been the principal agent determining its present distribution and differentiation. In this context, we studied the origin and distribution history of the allotetraploid CD rice genome. It is endemic to the Neotropics but the genus is thought to have originated in the Paleotropics, and there is relatively little genetic divergence between some orthologous sequences of the C genome component and their Old World counterparts. Methodology/Principal Findings Because of its allotetraploidy, there are several potential pitfalls in trying to date the formation of the CD genome using molecular data and this could lead to erroneous estimates. Therefore, we rather chose to rely on historical evidence to determine whether or not the CD genome was present in the Neotropics before the arrival of Columbus. We searched early collections of herbarium specimens and studied the reports of explorers of the tropical Americas for references to rice. In spite of numerous collectors traveling inland and collecting Oryza, plants determined as CD genome species were not observed away from cultivated rice fields until 1869. Various arguments suggest that they only consisted of weedy forms until that time. Conclusions/Significance The spatio-temporal distribution of herbarium collections fits a simple biogeographical scenario for the emergence in cultivated rice fields followed by radiation in the wild of the CD genome in the Neotropics during the last four centuries. This probably occurred from species introduced to the Americas by humans and we found no evidence that the CD genome pre-existed in the Old World. We therefore propose a new evolutionary hypothesis for such a recent origin of the

  20. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor from wild rice (OrbHLH2) improves tolerance to salt- and osmotic stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Li, Fei; Wang, Jin-Lan; Ma, Yun; Chong, Kang; Xu, Yun-yuan

    2009-08-15

    Salt stress adversely affects plant growth and development. Some plants reduce the damage of high-salt stress by expressing a series of salt-responsive genes. Studies of the molecular mechanism of the salt-stress response have focused on the characterization of components involved in signal perception and transduction. In the present work, we cloned and characterized a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) encoding gene, OrbHLH2, from wild rice (Oryza rufipogon), which encodes a homologue protein of ICE1 in Arabidopsis. OrbHLH2 protein localized in the nucleus. Overexpression of OrbHLH2 in Arabidopsis conferred increased tolerance to salt and osmotic stress, and the stress-responsive genes DREB1A/CBF3, RD29A, COR15A and KIN1 were upregulated in transgenic plants. Abscisic acid (ABA) treatment showed a similar effect on the seed germination or transcriptional expression of stress-responsive genes in both wild type and OrbHLH2-overexpressed plants, which implies that OrbHLH2 does not depend on ABA in responding to salt stress. OrbHLH2 may function as a transcription factor and positively regulate salt-stress signals independent of ABA in Arabidopsis, which provides some useful data for improving salt tolerance in crops. PMID:19324458

  1. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural...

  2. Analysis of bruchid resistance in the wild common bean accession G02771: no evidence for insecticidal activity of arcelin 5.

    PubMed

    Goossens, A; Quintero, C; Dillen, W; De Rycke, R; Valor, J F; De Clercq, J; Van Montagu, M; Cardona, C; Angenon, G

    2000-07-01

    Arcelins are abundant seed storage proteins thought to be implicated in the resistance of wild Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) genotypes against Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman), an important storage insect pest of common bean. Here, the insecticidal activity of the arcelin-5 variant that is present in the highly resistant P. vulgaris accession G02771 was investigated. No correlation could be established between the presence of arcelin 5 and the insecticidal effects observed in G02771 seeds. Insect feeding assays with artificial seeds into which purified arcelin-5 protein was incorporated and with transgenic P. acutifolius (A. Gray) seeds in which the arcelin-5 genes were expressed, showed that the presence of arcelin-5 proteins, even at elevated levels, was not sufficient to achieve adequate resistance against Z. subfasciatus. The same might apply to other arcelin variants. Nevertheless, as resistance is clearly closely linked to the presence of the arcelin-1 or arcelin-5 locus, arcelins remain useful markers in breeding programmes aimed at introgressing high levels of resistance to Z. subfasciatus in P. vulgaris cultivars. PMID:10937698

  3. Validation of a sensitive DNA walking strategy to characterise unauthorised GMOs using model food matrices mimicking common rice products.

    PubMed

    Fraiture, Marie-Alice; Herman, Philippe; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Deforce, Dieter; Roosens, Nancy H

    2015-04-15

    To identify unauthorised GMOs in food and feed matrices, an integrated approach has recently been developed targeting pCAMBIA family vectors, highly present in transgenic plants. Their presence is first assessed by qPCR screening and is subsequently confirmed by characterising the transgene flanking regions, using DNA walking. Here, the DNA walking performance has been thoroughly tested for the first time, regarding the targeted DNA quality and quantity. Several assays, on model food matrices mimicking common rice products, have allowed to determine the limit of detection as well as the potential effects of food mixture and processing. This detection system allows the identification of transgenic insertions as low as 10 HGEs and was not affected by the presence of untargeted DNA. Moreover, despite the clear impact of food processing on DNA quality, this method was able to cope with degraded DNA. Given its specificity, sensitivity, reliability, applicability and practicability, the proposed approach is a key detection tool, easily implementable in enforcement laboratories. PMID:25466152

  4. The Puzzle of Italian Rice Origin and Evolution: Determining Genetic Divergence and Affinity of Rice Germplasm from Italy and Asia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhuxi; Basso, Barbara; Sala, Francesco; Spada, Alberto; Grassi, Fabrizio; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of genetic divergence and relationships of a set of germplasm is essential for its efficient applications in crop breeding and understanding of the origin/evolution of crop varieties from a given geographical region. As the largest rice producing country in Europe, Italy holds rice germplasm with abundant genetic diversity. Although Italian rice varieties and the traditional ones in particular have played important roles in rice production and breeding, knowledge concerning the origin and evolution of Italian traditional varieties is still limited. To solve the puzzle of Italian rice origin, we characterized genetic divergence and relationships of 348 rice varieties from Italy and Asia based on the polymorphisms of microsatellite fingerprints. We also included common wild rice O. rufipogon as a reference in the characterization. Results indicated relatively rich genetic diversity (He = 0.63-0.65) in Italian rice varieties. Further analyses revealed a close genetic relationship of the Italian traditional varieties with those from northern China, which provides strong genetic evidence for tracing the possible origin of early established rice varieties in Italy. These findings have significant implications for the rice breeding programs, in which appropriate germplasm can be selected from a given region and utilized for transferring unique genetic traits based on its genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships. PMID:24265814

  5. Effects of water management practices on residue decomposition and degradation of Cry1Ac protein from crop-wild Bt rice hybrids and parental lines during winter fallow season.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Manqiu; Dong, Shanshan; Li, Zhaolei; Tang, Xu; Chen, Yi; Yang, Shengmao; Wu, Chunyan; Ouyang, Dongxin; Fang, Changming; Song, Zhiping

    2015-12-01

    Rice is the staple diet of over half of the world's population and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice expressing insecticidal Cry proteins is ready for deployment. An assessment of the potential impact of Bt rice on the soil ecosystem under varied field management practices is urgently required. We used litter bags to assess the residue (leaves, stems and roots) decomposition dynamics of two transgenic rice lines (Kefeng6 and Kefeng8) containing stacked genes from Bt and sck (a modified CpTI gene encoding a cowpea trypsin inhibitor) (Bt/CpTI), a non-transgenic rice near-isoline (Minghui86), wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) and crop-wild Bt rice hybrid under contrasting conditions (drainage or continuous flooding) in the field. No significant difference was detected in the remaining mass, total C and total N among cultivars under aerobic conditions, whereas significant differences in the remaining mass and total C were detected between Kefeng6 and Kefeng8 and Minghui86 under the flooded condition. A higher decomposition rate constant (km) was measured under the flooded condition compared with the aerobic condition for leaf residues, whereas the reverse was observed for root residues. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which was used to monitor the changes in the Cry1Ac protein in Bt rice residues, indicated that (1) the degradation of the Cry1Ac protein under both conditions best fit first-order kinetics, and the predicted DT50 (50% degradation time) of the Cry1Ac protein ranged from 3.6 to 32.5 days; (2) the Cry1Ac protein in the residue degraded relatively faster under aerobic conditions; and (3) by the end of the study (~154 days), the protein was present at a low concentration in the remaining residues under both conditions. The degradation rate constant was negatively correlated with the initial carbon content and positively correlated with the initial Cry1Ac protein concentration, but it was only correlated with the mass decomposition rate constants under

  6. Swaminathania salitolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a salt-tolerant, nitrogen-fixing and phosphate-solubilizing bacterium from wild rice (Porteresia coarctata Tateoka).

    PubMed

    Loganathan, P; Nair, Sudha

    2004-07-01

    A novel species, Swaminathania salitolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., was isolated from the rhizosphere, roots and stems of salt-tolerant, mangrove-associated wild rice (Porteresia coarctata Tateoka) using nitrogen-free, semi-solid LGI medium at pH 5.5. Strains were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile with peritrichous flagella. The strains grew well in the presence of 0.35% acetic acid, 3% NaCl and 1% KNO3, and produced acid from l-arabinose, d-glucose, glycerol, ethanol, d-mannose, d-galactose and sorbitol. They oxidized ethanol and grew well on mannitol and glutamate agar. The fatty acids 18 : 1omega7c/omega9t/omega12t and 19 : 0cyclo omega8c constituted 30.41 and 11.80% total fatty acids, respectively, whereas 13 : 1 AT 12-13 was found at 0.53%. DNA G+C content was 57.6-59.9 mol% and the major quinone was Q-10. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these strains were related to the genera Acidomonas, Asaia, Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter and Kozakia in the Acetobacteraceae. Isolates were able to fix nitrogen and solubilized phosphate in the presence of NaCl. Based on overall analysis of the tests and comparison with the characteristics of members of the Acetobacteraceae, a novel genus and species is proposed for these isolates, Swaminathania salitolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is PA51T (=LMG 21291T=MTCC 3852T). PMID:15280289

  7. Common cancer in a wild animal: the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) as an emerging model for carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Helen M.; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Hammond, John A.; Colegrove, Kathleen M.; Hall, Ailsa J.

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occurring cancers in non-laboratory species have great potential in helping to decipher the often complex causes of neoplasia. Wild animal models could add substantially to our understanding of carcinogenesis, particularly of genetic and environmental interactions, but they are currently underutilized. Studying neoplasia in wild animals is difficult and especially challenging in marine mammals owing to their inaccessibility, lack of exposure history, and ethical, logistical and legal limits on experimentation. Despite this, California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) offer an opportunity to investigate risk factors for neoplasia development that have implications for terrestrial mammals and humans who share much of their environment and diet. A relatively accessible California sea lion population on the west coast of the USA has a high prevalence of urogenital carcinoma and is regularly sampled during veterinary care in wildlife rehabilitation centres. Collaborative studies have revealed that genotype, persistent organic pollutants and a herpesvirus are all associated with this cancer. This paper reviews research to date on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of urogenital carcinoma in this species, and presents the California sea lion as an important and currently underexploited wild animal model of carcinogenesis. PMID:26056370

  8. Common cancer in a wild animal: the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) as an emerging model for carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Browning, Helen M; Gulland, Frances M D; Hammond, John A; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Hall, Ailsa J

    2015-07-19

    Naturally occurring cancers in non-laboratory species have great potential in helping to decipher the often complex causes of neoplasia. Wild animal models could add substantially to our understanding of carcinogenesis, particularly of genetic and environmental interactions, but they are currently underutilized. Studying neoplasia in wild animals is difficult and especially challenging in marine mammals owing to their inaccessibility, lack of exposure history, and ethical, logistical and legal limits on experimentation. Despite this, California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) offer an opportunity to investigate risk factors for neoplasia development that have implications for terrestrial mammals and humans who share much of their environment and diet. A relatively accessible California sea lion population on the west coast of the USA has a high prevalence of urogenital carcinoma and is regularly sampled during veterinary care in wildlife rehabilitation centres. Collaborative studies have revealed that genotype, persistent organic pollutants and a herpesvirus are all associated with this cancer. This paper reviews research to date on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of urogenital carcinoma in this species, and presents the California sea lion as an important and currently underexploited wild animal model of carcinogenesis. PMID:26056370

  9. A natural mutation in rc reverts white-rice-pericarp to red and results in a new, dominant, wild-type allele: Rc-g

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rc locus regulates pigmentation of the rice bran layer, and selection for the rc allele (white pericarp) occurred during domestication of the crop. White bran is now ubiquitous among cultivated varieties throughout rice growing regions of the world. We identified a new allele that arose by nat...

  10. Effects of physical and biogeochemical processes on aquatic ecosystems at the groundwater-surface water interface: An evaluation of a sulfate-impacted wild rice stream in Minnesota (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, G. H. C.; Yourd, A. R.; Myrbo, A.; Johnson, N.

    2015-12-01

    Significant uncertainty and variability in physical and biogeochemical processes at the groundwater-surface water interface complicate how surface water chemistry affects aquatic ecosystems. Questions surrounding a unique 10 mg/L sulfate standard for wild rice (Zizania sp.) waters in Minnesota are driving research to clarify conditions controlling the geochemistry of shallow sediment porewater in stream- and lake-beds. This issue raises the need and opportunity to carry out in-depth, process-based analysis into how water fluxes and coupled C, S, and Fe redox cycles interact to impact aquatic plants. Our study builds on a recent state-wide field campaign that showed that accumulation of porewater sulfide from sulfate reduction impairs wild rice, an annual grass that grows in shallow lakes and streams in the Great Lakes region of North America. Negative porewater sulfide correlations with organic C and Fe quantities also indicated that lower redox rates and greater mineral precipitation attenuate sulfide. Here, we focus on a stream in northern Minnesota that receives high sulfate loading from iron mining activity yet maintains wild rice stands. In addition to organic C and Fe effects, we evaluate the degree to which streambed hydrology, and in particular groundwater contributions, accounts for the active biogeochemistry. We collect field measurements, spanning the surrounding groundwater system to the stream, to constrain a reactive-transport model. Observations from seepage meters, temperature probes, and monitoring wells delineate upward flow that may lessen surface water impacts below the stream. Geochemical analyses of groundwater, porewater, and surface water samples and of sediment extractions reveal distinctions among the different domains and stream banks, which appear to jointly control conditions in the streambed. A model based on field conditions can be used to evaluate the relative the importance and the spatiotemporal scales of diverse flux and

  11. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Cox, David G.; Simard, Jacques; Sinnett, Daniel; Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Ouimet, Manon; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Szabo, Csilla; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Caligo, Maria A.; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch, Shani S.; Borg, Åke; Karlsson, Per; Stenmark Askmalm, Marie; Barbany Bustinza, Gisela; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti A.; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Ausems, Margreet G.E.M.; Aalfs, Cora M.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Devilee, Peter; Gille, Hans J.J.P.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Paterson, Joan; Eason, Jacqueline; Godwin, Andrew K.; Remon, Marie-Alice; Moncoutier, Virginie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lasset, Christine; Giraud, Sophie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Sobol, Hagay; Eisinger, François; Bressac de Paillerets, Brigitte; Caron, Olivier; Delnatte, Capucine; Goldgar, David; Miron, Alex; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Buys, Saundra; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary Beth; Singer, Christian F.; Dressler, Anne-Catharina; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Hansen, Thomas V.O.; Johannsson, Oskar; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Basil, Jack B.; Blank, Stephanie; Toland, Amanda E.; Montagna, Marco; Isaacs, Claudine; Blanco, Ignacio; Gayther, Simon A.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Fiebig, Britta; Caldes, Trinidad; Laframboise, Rachel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan C.; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Sinilnikova, Olga M.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms that alter the expression and/or function of BRCA1 carried on the wild-type (non-mutated) copy of the BRCA1 gene would modify the risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 mutations. A total of 9874 BRCA1 mutation carriers were available in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) for haplotype analyses of BRCA1. Women carrying the rare allele of single nucleotide polymorphism rs16942 on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 were at decreased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.77–0.95, P = 0.003). Promoter in vitro assays of the major BRCA1 haplotypes showed that common polymorphisms in the regulatory region alter its activity and that this effect may be attributed to the differential binding affinity of nuclear proteins. In conclusion, variants on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 modify risk of breast cancer among carriers of BRCA1 mutations, possibly by altering the efficiency of BRCA1 transcription. PMID:21890493

  12. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Cox, David G; Simard, Jacques; Sinnett, Daniel; Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Ouimet, Manon; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Szabo, Csilla; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Andrulis, Irene L; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Caligo, Maria A; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch, Shani S; Borg, Åke; Karlsson, Per; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark; Bustinza, Gisela Barbany; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti A; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Ausems, Margreet G E M; Aalfs, Cora M; van Asperen, Christi J; Devilee, Peter; Gille, Hans J J P; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Paterson, Joan; Eason, Jacqueline; Godwin, Andrew K; Remon, Marie-Alice; Moncoutier, Virginie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lasset, Christine; Giraud, Sophie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Sobol, Hagay; Eisinger, François; Bressac de Paillerets, Brigitte; Caron, Olivier; Delnatte, Capucine; Goldgar, David; Miron, Alex; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Buys, Saundra; Southey, Melissa C; Terry, Mary Beth; Singer, Christian F; Dressler, Anne-Catharina; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Hansen, Thomas V O; Johannsson, Oskar; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Basil, Jack B; Blank, Stephanie; Toland, Amanda E; Montagna, Marco; Isaacs, Claudine; Blanco, Ignacio; Gayther, Simon A; Moysich, Kirsten B; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Fiebig, Britta; Caldes, Trinidad; Laframboise, Rachel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Spurdle, Amanda B; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan C; Couch, Fergus J; Wang, Xianshu; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Easton, Douglas F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Sinilnikova, Olga M

    2011-12-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms that alter the expression and/or function of BRCA1 carried on the wild-type (non-mutated) copy of the BRCA1 gene would modify the risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 mutations. A total of 9874 BRCA1 mutation carriers were available in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) for haplotype analyses of BRCA1. Women carrying the rare allele of single nucleotide polymorphism rs16942 on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 were at decreased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.77-0.95, P = 0.003). Promoter in vitro assays of the major BRCA1 haplotypes showed that common polymorphisms in the regulatory region alter its activity and that this effect may be attributed to the differential binding affinity of nuclear proteins. In conclusion, variants on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 modify risk of breast cancer among carriers of BRCA1 mutations, possibly by altering the efficiency of BRCA1 transcription. PMID:21890493

  13. cDNA sequence and deduced primary structure of an alpha-amylase inhibitor from a bruchid-resistant wild common bean.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Ishimoto, M; Kitamura, K

    1994-06-12

    alpha-Amylase inhibitor-2 (alpha AI-2), a seed storage protein present in a bruchid-resistant wild common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), inhibits the growth of bruchid pests. The authors isolated and determined the sequence of an 852 nucleotide cDNA, designated as alpha ai2, and found it to contain a 720 base open reading frame (ORF). This ORF encodes a 240 amino-acid alpha AI-2 polypeptide 75.8% identical with alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (alpha AI-1) and 50.6-55.6% with arcelin-1, phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-L and PHA-E of common bean. The high degree of sequence homology suggests that there is an evolutionary relationship among these genes. PMID:8003534

  14. The effect of salinity on chlorophyll, proline and mineral nutrients in common weeds of coastal rice fields in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hakim, M A; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hanafi, M M; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Rafii, M Y; Aslani, Fazad; Selamat, A

    2014-09-01

    Six weed species (Leptochola chinensis, Echinochloa crus-galli, Echinochloa colona, Jussiaea linifolia, Oryza sativa (weedy rice) and Cyperus iria) were tested for their salt tolerant traits in terms of chlorophyll, proline and mineral nutrients accumulation against different salinity levels (0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 dS m(-1)). Chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll content, proline and mineral nutrients accumulation were determined. Salt stress showed prominent effect on all the parameters investigated and there were significant variations between the all weed species. Chlorophyll content, K+, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions in both shoots and roots significantly decreased; while proline and Na+ accumulation significantly increased with increasing salinity up to 40 dS m(-1). In terms of overall performance, Cyperus iria and E. crus-galliwere relatively more tolerant; E. colona and J. linifolia were tolerant; L. chinensis and O. sativa L were salt sensitive, respectively. PMID:25204059

  15. Wild Marshmallows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallas, John N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides information for teaching a unit on wild plants, including resources to use, plants to learn, safety considerations, list of plants (with scientific name, edible parts, and uses), list of plants that might cause allergic reactions when eaten. Also describes the chickweed, bull thistle, and common mallow. (BC)

  16. Selenium concentrations and enzyme activities of glutathione metabolism in wild long-tailed ducks and common eiders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Flint, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships of selenium (Se) concentrations in whole blood with plasma activities of total glutathione peroxidase, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were studied in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and common eiders (Somateria mollissima) sampled along the Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska, USA. Blood Se concentrations were >8 μg/g wet weight in both species. Linear regression revealed that the activities of total and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase were significantly related to Se concentrations only in long-tailed ducks, raising the possibility that these birds were experiencing early oxidative stress.

  17. [Antigenic determination of human anti-rabies vaccine against viral street strains common in the wild animal population in Poland].

    PubMed

    Seroka, D

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the antigen properties of a vaccine strain with street strains isolated from various animal hosts throughout the country. Investigation was carried out using monoclonal antibodies against NC protein. Also, two tests were carried out: the modified NIH test for potency and the neutralization test using the sera of people vaccinated against rabies (PM vaccine strain). The investigated street strains were used in both tests as the challenge viruses. A suspension of these strains diluted five times made it possible to avoid extreme values of animal survival (0% or 100%) what, consequently, made calculation of the LD50 value easier. A different rabies virus serotype (EBLI virus) in the population of insectivore bats Eptesicus serotinus and antigen variants within the first serotype, having common epitopes with strains of the vaccine virus SAD B19 and the polar rabies virus, were found to be present throughout the country. The concentrated and purified vaccine containing the PM virus did not protect mice against infection with strains of viruses isolated from bats (protection index 10 and lower). For the remaining strains, depending on the animal source of their isolation, the protection index ranged from 10 to 1000 and higher. The properties neutralizing a dose of 5 i.u./ml of serum from the subject inoculated with the vaccine containing the PM strain were similar for all the investigated strains; 0,5 i.u./ml did not neutralize the strain isolated from a racoon dog. PMID:7541494

  18. Common Genetic Pathways Regulate Organ-Specific Infection-Related Development in the Rice Blast Fungus[W

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Sara L.; Besi, Maria I.; Galhano, Rita; Franceschetti, Marina; Goetz, Stephan; Lenhert, Steven; Osbourn, Anne; Sesma, Ane

    2010-01-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae is the most important fungal pathogen of rice (Oryza sativa). Under laboratory conditions, it is able to colonize both aerial and underground plant organs using different mechanisms. Here, we characterize an infection-related development in M. oryzae produced on hydrophilic polystyrene (PHIL-PS) and on roots. We show that fungal spores develop preinvasive hyphae (pre-IH) from hyphopodia (root penetration structures) or germ tubes and that pre-IH also enter root cells. Changes in fungal cell wall structure accompanying pre-IH are seen on both artificial and root surfaces. Using characterized mutants, we show that the PMK1 (for pathogenicity mitogen-activated protein kinase 1) pathway is required for pre-IH development. Twenty mutants with altered pre-IH differentiation on PHIL-PS identified from an insertional library of 2885 M. oryzae T-DNA transformants were found to be defective in pathogenicity. The phenotypic analysis of these mutants revealed that appressorium, hyphopodium, and pre-IH formation are genetically linked fungal developmental processes. We further characterized one of these mutants, M1373, which lacked the M. oryzae ortholog of exportin-5/Msn5p (EXP5). Mutants lacking EXP5 were much less virulent on roots, suggesting an important involvement of proteins and/or RNAs transported by EXP5 during M. oryzae root infection. PMID:20348434

  19. Seeing Red: The Origin of Grain Pigmentation in US Weedy Rice

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Briana L.; Reagon, Michael; Hsu, Shih-Chung; Caicedo, Ana L.; Jia, Yulin; Olsen, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Weedy forms of crop species infest agricultural fields worldwide and are a leading cause of crop losses, yet little is known about how these weeds evolve. Red rice (Oryza sativa), a major weed of cultivated rice fields in the US, is recognized by the dark-pigmented grain that gives it its common name. Studies using neutral molecular markers have indicated a close relationship between US red rice and domesticated rice, suggesting that the weed may have originated through reversion of domesticated rice to a feral form. We have tested this reversion hypothesis by examining molecular variation at Rc, the regulatory gene responsible for grain pigmentation differences between domesticated and wild rice. Loss-of-function mutations at Rc account for the absence of proanthocyanidin pigments in cultivated rice grains, and the major rc domestication allele has been shown to be capable of spontaneous reversion to a functional form through additional mutations at the Rc locus. Using a diverse sample of 156 weedy, domesticated, and wild Oryzas, we analyzed DNA sequence variation at Rc and its surrounding 4 Mb genomic region. We find that reversion of domestication alleles does not account for the pigmented grains of weed accessions; moreover, we find that haplotypes characterizing the weed are either absent or very rare in cultivated rice. Sequences from genomic regions flanking Rc are consistent with a genomic footprint of the rc selective sweep in cultivated rice, and are compatible with a close relationship of red rice to Asian Oryzas that have never been cultivated in the US. PMID:20584133

  20. Gene flow from weedy rice populations to cultivated rice varies by plant type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene transfer from crops to its weedy and/or wild relatives has been the research focal point during the last decade. Little is known about the rate and consequences of gene transfer from wild or weedy relatives to the cultivated crops. Red rice, a weed which infests ~ 40% of rice acreage in the sou...

  1. Characterization of functional trait diversity among Indian cultivated and weedy rice populations.

    PubMed

    Rathore, M; Singh, Raghwendra; Kumar, B; Chauhan, B S

    2016-01-01

    Weedy rice, a menace in rice growing areas globally, is biosimilar having attributes similar to cultivated and wild rice, and therefore is difficult to manage. A study was initiated to characterize the functional traits of 76 weedy rice populations and commonly grown rice cultivars from different agro-climatic zones for nine morphological, five physiological, and three phenological parameters in a field experiment under an augmented block design. Comparison between weedy and cultivated rice revealed a difference in duration (days) from panicle emergence to heading as the most variable trait and awn length as the least variable one, as evidenced from their coefficients of variation. The results of principal component analysis revealed the first three principal components to represent 47.3% of the total variation, which indicates an important role of transpiration, conductance, leaf-air temperature difference, days to panicle emergence, days to heading, flag leaf length, SPAD (soil-plant analysis development), grain weight, plant height, and panicle length to the diversity in weedy rice populations. The variations existing in weedy rice population are a major reason for its wider adaptability to varied environmental conditions and also a problem while trying to manage it. PMID:27072282

  2. Characterization of functional trait diversity among Indian cultivated and weedy rice populations

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, M.; Singh, Raghwendra; Kumar, B.; Chauhan, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Weedy rice, a menace in rice growing areas globally, is biosimilar having attributes similar to cultivated and wild rice, and therefore is difficult to manage. A study was initiated to characterize the functional traits of 76 weedy rice populations and commonly grown rice cultivars from different agro-climatic zones for nine morphological, five physiological, and three phenological parameters in a field experiment under an augmented block design. Comparison between weedy and cultivated rice revealed a difference in duration (days) from panicle emergence to heading as the most variable trait and awn length as the least variable one, as evidenced from their coefficients of variation. The results of principal component analysis revealed the first three principal components to represent 47.3% of the total variation, which indicates an important role of transpiration, conductance, leaf-air temperature difference, days to panicle emergence, days to heading, flag leaf length, SPAD (soil-plant analysis development), grain weight, plant height, and panicle length to the diversity in weedy rice populations. The variations existing in weedy rice population are a major reason for its wider adaptability to varied environmental conditions and also a problem while trying to manage it. PMID:27072282

  3. Does density influence relative growth performance of farm, wild and F1 hybrid Atlantic salmon in semi-natural and hatchery common garden conditions?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alison C; Juleff, Gareth; Carvalho, Gary R; Taylor, Martin I; Solberg, Monica F; Creer, Simon; Dyrhovden, Lise; Matre, Ivar-Helge; Glover, Kevin A

    2016-07-01

    The conditions encountered by Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in aquaculture are markedly different from the natural environment. Typically, farmed salmon experience much higher densities than wild individuals, and may therefore have adapted to living in high densities. Previous studies have demonstrated that farmed salmon typically outgrow wild salmon by large ratios in the hatchery, but these differences are much less pronounced in the wild. Such divergence in growth may be explained partly by the offspring of wild salmon experiencing higher stress and thus lower growth when compared under high-density farming conditions. Here, growth of farmed, wild and F1 hybrid salmon was studied at contrasting densities within a hatchery and semi-natural environment. Farmed salmon significantly outgrew hybrid and wild salmon in all treatments. Importantly, however, the reaction norms were similar across treatments for all groups. Thus, this study was unable to find evidence that the offspring of farmed salmon have adapted more readily to higher fish densities than wild salmon as a result of domestication. It is suggested that the substantially higher growth rate of farmed salmon observed in the hatchery compared with wild individuals may not solely be caused by differences in their ability to grow in high-density hatchery scenarios. PMID:27493772

  4. Does density influence relative growth performance of farm, wild and F1 hybrid Atlantic salmon in semi-natural and hatchery common garden conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Juleff, Gareth; Carvalho, Gary R.; Taylor, Martin I.; Creer, Simon; Dyrhovden, Lise; Matre, Ivar-Helge; Glover, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    The conditions encountered by Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in aquaculture are markedly different from the natural environment. Typically, farmed salmon experience much higher densities than wild individuals, and may therefore have adapted to living in high densities. Previous studies have demonstrated that farmed salmon typically outgrow wild salmon by large ratios in the hatchery, but these differences are much less pronounced in the wild. Such divergence in growth may be explained partly by the offspring of wild salmon experiencing higher stress and thus lower growth when compared under high-density farming conditions. Here, growth of farmed, wild and F1 hybrid salmon was studied at contrasting densities within a hatchery and semi-natural environment. Farmed salmon significantly outgrew hybrid and wild salmon in all treatments. Importantly, however, the reaction norms were similar across treatments for all groups. Thus, this study was unable to find evidence that the offspring of farmed salmon have adapted more readily to higher fish densities than wild salmon as a result of domestication. It is suggested that the substantially higher growth rate of farmed salmon observed in the hatchery compared with wild individuals may not solely be caused by differences in their ability to grow in high-density hatchery scenarios. PMID:27493772

  5. Identification and QTL mapping of blast resistance in wild Oryza species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf blast disease of rice (Oryza sativa L.) caused by Magnaporthe oryzae B. Couch is one of the most devastating rice fungal diseases worldwide. Wild relatives of rice (Oryza spp.) may contain novel genes for biotic and abiotic stress resistance lost during domestication. A collection of 67 wild ...

  6. Transport characteristics and morphology of the colon and coprodeum in two wild birds of different habitats, the rock ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) and the common murre (Uria aalge).

    PubMed

    Árnason, Sighvatur S; Elbrønd, Vibeke S; Laverty, Gary

    2015-09-01

    Dietary salt intake in domestic fowl affects epithelial transport and morphology of the lower intestine (colon and coprodeum). This study investigated lower intestinal morphology and transport activity in two wild bird species with natural diets containing either low or high salt. Tissues from rock ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) and common murres (Uria aalge) were sampled for histology and electrophysiological analyses. The ptarmigan exists on a low salt diet, while the murre lives on a high protein and high salt diet. The ptarmigan colon and coprodeum had villi/folds and crypts and the epithelium contained absorptive epithelial cells, mitochondria-rich cells and goblet cells. The colon had significant amiloride-inhibitable Isc, 5-15 μA/cm(2), with no glucose-stimulated Isc, and no significant phloridzin inhibition. The coprodeum also had high amiloride-inhibitable Isc. This transport pattern corresponded to that of chickens on low-salt diets. However, the ptarmigan colon also had a significant lysine/leucine-stimulated Isc of 3±1.0 μA/cm(2). The short U. aalge colon was similar to that of ptarmigans, but with no villi. It demonstrated a significant lysine/leucine-stimulated Isc (11±3.5 μA/cm(2)) with no amiloride-inhibitable Isc, similar to the high-salt chicken colon, but with no Na(+)-glucose cotransport. The murre coprodeum was inert to all substances and showed high resistance (1000 Ω·cm(2)), with a multilayered squamous epithelium. Despite some variations possibly associated with dietary protein intake, we conclude that natural high and low salt diets in different avian species are associated with different lower intestinal transport patterns, providing for post-renal adjustments in ion and water excretion. PMID:25937620

  7. Molecular evolution of the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta in invasive weedy rice in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pi-ta gene has been effectively used to control rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae in many rice growing regions in the world. A number of studies have characterized the molecular evolution of the Pi-ta gene in cultivated rice, O. sativa, and its wild ancestor O. rufipogon; however,...

  8. Golden Rice is an effective source for vitamin A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically engineered "Golden Rice" contains up to 35 ug Beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice Beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A s...

  9. The Tomato Wilt Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici shares Common Ancestors with Nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolated from Wild Tomatoes in the Peruvian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Inami, Keigo; Kashiwa, Takeshi; Kawabe, Masato; Onokubo-Okabe, Akiko; Ishikawa, Nobuko; Pérez, Enrique Rodríguez; Hozumi, Takuo; Caballero, Liliana Aragón; de Baldarrago, Fatima Cáceres; Roco, Mauricio Jiménez; Madadi, Khalid A.; Peever, Tobin L.; Teraoka, Tohru; Kodama, Motoichiro; Arie, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an ascomycetous fungus that is well-known as a soilborne plant pathogen. In addition, a large population of nonpathogenic F. oxysporum (NPF) inhabits various environmental niches, including the phytosphere. To obtain an insight into the origin of plant pathogenic F. oxysporum, we focused on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL). We collected F. oxysporum from wild and transition Solanum spp. and modern cultivars of tomato in Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Afghanistan, Italy, and Japan, evaluated the fungal isolates for pathogenicity, VCG, mating type, and distribution of SIX genes related to the pathogenicity of FOL, and constructed phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer sequences. All F. oxysporum isolates sampled were genetically more diverse than FOL. They were not pathogenic to the tomato and did not carry SIX genes. Certain NPF isolates including those from wild Solanum spp. in Peru were grouped in FOL clades, whereas most of the NPF isolates were not. Our results suggested that the population of NPF isolates in FOL clades gave rise to FOL by gaining pathogenicity. PMID:24909710

  10. Convergent evolution of perenniality in rice and sorghum.

    PubMed

    Hu, F Y; Tao, D Y; Sacks, E; Fu, B Y; Xu, P; Li, J; Yang, Y; McNally, K; Khush, G S; Paterson, A H; Li, Z-K

    2003-04-01

    Annual and perennial habit are two major strategies by which grasses adapt to seasonal environmental change, and these distinguish cultivated cereals from their wild relatives. Rhizomatousness, a key trait contributing to perenniality, was investigated by using an F(2) population from a cross between cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) and its wild relative, Oryza longistaminata. Molecular mapping based on a complete simple sequence-repeat map revealed two dominant-complementary genes controlling rhizomatousness. Rhz3 was mapped to the interval between markers OSR16 [1.3 centimorgans (cM)] and OSR13 (8.1 cM) on rice chromosome 4 and Rhz2 located between RM119 (2.2 cM) and RM273 (7.4 cM) on chromosome 3. Comparative mapping indicated that each gene closely corresponds to major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling rhizomatousness in Sorghum propinquum, a wild relative of cultivated sorghum. Correspondence of these genes in rice and sorghum, which diverged from a common ancestor approximately 50 million years ago, suggests that the two genes may be key regulators of rhizome development in many Poaceae. Many additional QTLs affecting abundance of rhizomes in O. longistaminata were identified, most of which also corresponded to the locations of S. propinquum QTLs. Convergent evolution of independent mutations at, in some cases, corresponding genes may have been responsible for the evolution of annual cereals from perennial wild grasses. DNA markers closely linked to Rhz2 and Rhz3 will facilitate cloning of the genes, which may contribute significantly to our understanding of grass evolution, advance opportunities to develop perennial cereals, and offer insights into environmentally benign weed-control strategies. PMID:12642667

  11. Relative competitive ability of rice with strawhull and blackhull red rice biotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed interference depends largely upon the species composition of the weed community and an ability to compete with the cultured crop. Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern U.S. The focus of this study was to evaluate the competitive ability of rice against common, genetically ...

  12. Nucleotide diversity of a genomic sequence similar to SHATTERPROOF (PvSHP1) in domesticated and wild common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Nanni, L; Bitocchi, E; Bellucci, E; Rossi, M; Rau, D; Attene, G; Gepts, P; Papa, R

    2011-12-01

    Evolutionary studies in plant and animal breeding are aimed at understanding the structure and organization of genetic variations of species. We have identified and characterized a genomic sequence in Phaseolus vulgaris of 1,200 bp (PvSHP1) that is homologous to SHATTERPROOF-1 (SHP1), a gene involved in control of fruit shattering in Arabidopsis thaliana. The PvSHP1 fragment was mapped to chromosome Pv06 in P. vulgaris and is linked to the flower and seed color gene V. Amplification of the PvSHP1 sequence from the most agronomically important legume species showed a high degree of interspecies diversity in the introns within the Phaseoleae, while the coding region was conserved across distant taxa. Sequencing of the PvSHP1 sequence in a sample of 91 wild and domesticated genotypes that span the geographic distribution of this species in the centers of origin showed that PvSHP1 is highly polymorphic and, therefore, particularly useful to further investigate the origin and domestication history of P. vulgaris. Our data confirm the gene pool structure seen in P. vulgaris along with independent domestication processes in the Andes and Mesoamerica; they provide additional evidence for a single domestication event in Mesoamerica. Moreover, our results support the Mesoamerican origin of this species. Finally, we have developed three indel-spanning markers that will be very useful for bean germplasm characterization, and particularly to trace the distribution of the domesticated Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools. PMID:21830108

  13. Evidence for common ancestry among viruses isolated from wild birds in Beringia and highly pathogenic intercontinental reassortant H5N1 and H5N2 influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Andrew M; Reeves, Andrew B; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Nashold, Sean; Donnelly, Tyrone; Bahl, Justin; Hall, Jeffrey S

    2016-06-01

    Highly pathogenic clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8, H5N2, and H5N1 influenza A viruses were first detected in wild, captive, and domestic birds in North America in November-December 2014. In this study, we used wild waterbird samples collected in Alaska prior to the initial detection of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 influenza A viruses in North America to assess the evidence for: (1) dispersal of highly pathogenic influenza A viruses from East Asia to North America by migratory birds via Alaska and (2) ancestral origins of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 reassortant viruses in Beringia. Although we did not detect highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in our sample collection from western Alaska, we did identify viruses that contained gene segments sharing recent common ancestry with intercontinental reassortant H5N2 and H5N1 viruses. Results of phylogenetic analyses and estimates for times of most recent common ancestry support migratory birds sampled in Beringia as maintaining viral diversity closely related to novel highly pathogenic influenza A virus genotypes detected in North America. Although our results do not elucidate the route by which highly pathogenic influenza A viruses were introduced into North America, genetic evidence is consistent with the hypothesized trans-Beringian route of introduction via migratory birds. PMID:26944444

  14. Evidence for common ancestry among viruses isolated from wild birds in Beringia and highly pathogenic intercontinental reassortant H5N1 and H5N2 influenza A viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Donnelly, Tyrone F.; Bahl, Justin; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8, H5N2, and H5N1 influenza A viruses were first detected in wild, captive, and domestic birds in North America in November–December 2014. In this study, we used wild waterbird samples collected in Alaska prior to the initial detection of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 influenza A viruses in North America to assess the evidence for: (1) dispersal of highly pathogenic influenza A viruses from East Asia to North America by migratory birds via Alaska and (2) ancestral origins of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 reassortant viruses in Beringia. Although we did not detect highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in our sample collection from western Alaska, we did identify viruses that contained gene segments sharing recent common ancestry with intercontinental reassortant H5N2 and H5N1 viruses. Results of phylogenetic analyses and estimates for times of most recent common ancestry support migratory birds sampled in Beringia as maintaining viral diversity closely related to novel highly pathogenic influenza A virus genotypes detected in North America. Although our results do not elucidate the route by which highly pathogenic influenza A viruses were introduced into North America, genetic evidence is consistent with the hypothesized trans-Beringian route of introduction via migratory birds.

  15. Rice Nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter presents the symptoms of deficiency and toxicity of the major and minor mineral nutrients in rice, as well as a current synopsis of nutrient transporters and their regulation. The availability of sequences from the recently completed rice genome has furthered the knowledge of how plants...

  16. A map of rice genome variation reveals the origin of cultivated rice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuehui; Kurata, Nori; Wei, Xinghua; Wang, Zi-Xuan; Wang, Ahong; Zhao, Qiang; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Kunyan; Lu, Hengyun; Li, Wenjun; Guo, Yunli; Lu, Yiqi; Zhou, Congcong; Fan, Danlin; Weng, Qijun; Zhu, Chuanrang; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yongchun; Feng, Lei; Furuumi, Hiroyasu; Kubo, Takahiko; Miyabayashi, Toshie; Yuan, Xiaoping; Xu, Qun; Dong, Guojun; Zhan, Qilin; Li, Canyang; Fujiyama, Asao; Toyoda, Atsushi; Lu, Tingting; Feng, Qi; Qian, Qian; Li, Jiayang; Han, Bin

    2012-10-25

    Crop domestications are long-term selection experiments that have greatly advanced human civilization. The domestication of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) ranks as one of the most important developments in history. However, its origins and domestication processes are controversial and have long been debated. Here we generate genome sequences from 446 geographically diverse accessions of the wild rice species Oryza rufipogon, the immediate ancestral progenitor of cultivated rice, and from 1,083 cultivated indica and japonica varieties to construct a comprehensive map of rice genome variation. In the search for signatures of selection, we identify 55 selective sweeps that have occurred during domestication. In-depth analyses of the domestication sweeps and genome-wide patterns reveal that Oryza sativa japonica rice was first domesticated from a specific population of O. rufipogon around the middle area of the Pearl River in southern China, and that Oryza sativa indica rice was subsequently developed from crosses between japonica rice and local wild rice as the initial cultivars spread into South East and South Asia. The domestication-associated traits are analysed through high-resolution genetic mapping. This study provides an important resource for rice breeding and an effective genomics approach for crop domestication research. PMID:23034647

  17. The Rice Genome Knowledgebase (RGKbase): an annotation database for rice comparative genomics and evolutionary biology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dapeng; Xia, Yan; Li, Xinna; Hou, Lixia; Yu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, genomes of cultivated rice cultivars and their wild counterparts have been sequenced although most efforts are focused on genome assembly and annotation of two major cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) subspecies, 93-11 (indica) and Nipponbare (japonica). To integrate information from genome assemblies and annotations for better analysis and application, we now introduce a comparative rice genome database, the Rice Genome Knowledgebase (RGKbase, http://rgkbase.big.ac.cn/RGKbase/). RGKbase is built to have three major components: (i) integrated data curation for rice genomics and molecular biology, which includes genome sequence assemblies, transcriptomic and epigenomic data, genetic variations, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the relevant literature; (ii) User-friendly viewers, such as Gbrowse, GeneBrowse and Circos, for genome annotations and evolutionary dynamics and (iii) Bioinformatic tools for compositional and synteny analyses, gene family classifications, gene ontology terms and pathways and gene co-expression networks. RGKbase current includes data from five rice cultivars and species: Nipponbare (japonica), 93-11 (indica), PA64s (indica), the African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and a wild rice species (Oryza brachyantha). We are also constantly introducing new datasets from variety of public efforts, such as two recent releases—sequence data from ∼1000 rice varieties, which are mapped into the reference genome, yielding ample high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions–deletions. PMID:23193278

  18. Wild yam

    MedlinePlus

    ... premenstrual syndrome), menstrual cramps, weak bones (osteoporosis), increasing energy and sexual drive in men and women, and ... diverticulosis, gallbladder pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and for increasing energy. Some women apply wild yam creams to the ...

  19. Wild Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  20. Loss of function at RAE2, a previously unidentified EPFL, is required for awnlessness in cultivated Asian rice

    PubMed Central

    Bessho-Uehara, Kanako; Wang, Diane R.; Furuta, Tomoyuki; Minami, Anzu; Nagai, Keisuke; Gamuyao, Rico; Asano, Kenji; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B.; Shimizu, Yoshihiro; Ayano, Madoka; Komeda, Norio; Doi, Kazuyuki; Miura, Kotaro; Toda, Yosuke; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Okuda, Satohiro; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Nomoto, Mika; Tada, Yasuomi; Shinohara, Hidefumi; Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu; Greenberg, Anthony; Wu, Jianzhong; Yasui, Hideshi; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Mori, Hitoshi; McCouch, Susan R.; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of crops based on artificial selection has contributed numerous beneficial traits for agriculture. Wild characteristics such as red pericarp and seed shattering were lost in both Asian (Oryza sativa) and African (Oryza glaberrima) cultivated rice species as a result of human selection on common genes. Awnedness, in contrast, is a trait that has been lost in both cultivated species due to selection on different sets of genes. In a previous report, we revealed that at least three loci regulate awn development in rice; however, the molecular mechanism underlying awnlessness remains unknown. Here we isolate and characterize a previously unidentified EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR-LIKE (EPFL) family member named REGULATOR OF AWN ELONGATION 2 (RAE2) and identify one of its requisite processing enzymes, SUBTILISIN-LIKE PROTEASE 1 (SLP1). The RAE2 precursor is specifically cleaved by SLP1 in the rice spikelet, where the mature RAE2 peptide subsequently induces awn elongation. Analysis of RAE2 sequence diversity identified a highly variable GC-rich region harboring multiple independent mutations underlying protein-length variation that disrupt the function of the RAE2 protein and condition the awnless phenotype in Asian rice. Cultivated African rice, on the other hand, retained the functional RAE2 allele despite its awnless phenotype. Our findings illuminate the molecular function of RAE2 in awn development and shed light on the independent domestication histories of Asian and African cultivated rice. PMID:27466405

  1. Loss of function at RAE2, a previously unidentified EPFL, is required for awnlessness in cultivated Asian rice.

    PubMed

    Bessho-Uehara, Kanako; Wang, Diane R; Furuta, Tomoyuki; Minami, Anzu; Nagai, Keisuke; Gamuyao, Rico; Asano, Kenji; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B; Shimizu, Yoshihiro; Ayano, Madoka; Komeda, Norio; Doi, Kazuyuki; Miura, Kotaro; Toda, Yosuke; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Okuda, Satohiro; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Nomoto, Mika; Tada, Yasuomi; Shinohara, Hidefumi; Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu; Greenberg, Anthony; Wu, Jianzhong; Yasui, Hideshi; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Mori, Hitoshi; McCouch, Susan R; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2016-08-01

    Domestication of crops based on artificial selection has contributed numerous beneficial traits for agriculture. Wild characteristics such as red pericarp and seed shattering were lost in both Asian (Oryza sativa) and African (Oryza glaberrima) cultivated rice species as a result of human selection on common genes. Awnedness, in contrast, is a trait that has been lost in both cultivated species due to selection on different sets of genes. In a previous report, we revealed that at least three loci regulate awn development in rice; however, the molecular mechanism underlying awnlessness remains unknown. Here we isolate and characterize a previously unidentified EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR-LIKE (EPFL) family member named REGULATOR OF AWN ELONGATION 2 (RAE2) and identify one of its requisite processing enzymes, SUBTILISIN-LIKE PROTEASE 1 (SLP1). The RAE2 precursor is specifically cleaved by SLP1 in the rice spikelet, where the mature RAE2 peptide subsequently induces awn elongation. Analysis of RAE2 sequence diversity identified a highly variable GC-rich region harboring multiple independent mutations underlying protein-length variation that disrupt the function of the RAE2 protein and condition the awnless phenotype in Asian rice. Cultivated African rice, on the other hand, retained the functional RAE2 allele despite its awnless phenotype. Our findings illuminate the molecular function of RAE2 in awn development and shed light on the independent domestication histories of Asian and African cultivated rice. PMID:27466405

  2. Molecular genetic characterization of the interaction of stem rot (Sclerotium Oryzae) and rice (Oryza Sativa).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotium oryzae is the causal agent of stem rot disease in rice, one of the most important rice diseases in California. Resistance to stem rot, derived from a wild relative of rice called Oryza rufipogon, was identified over twenty years ago and has been crossed into various California breeding li...

  3. Finding high yield genes in weedy red rice to improve new cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice (Oryza rufipogon) is a weedy, wild relative of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) that is considered a major pest in rice production fields. However, researchers have found that it can be a valuable source of disease and insect resistance genes. Researchers with USDA ARS and Cornell University ...

  4. Rice Domestication Revealed by Reduced Shattering of Archaeological rice from the Lower Yangtze valley

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yunfei; Crawford, Gary W.; Jiang, Leping; Chen, Xugao

    2016-01-01

    Plant remains dating to between 9000 and 8400 BP from a probable ditch structure at the Huxi site include the oldest rice (Oryza sativa) spikelet bases and associated plant remains recovered in China. The remains document an early stage of rice domestication and the ecological setting in which early cultivation was taking place. The rice spikelet bases from Huxi include wild (shattering), intermediate, and domesticated (non-shattering) forms. The relative frequency of intermediate and non-shattering spikelet bases indicates that selection for, at the very least, non-shattering rice was underway at Huxi. The rice also has characteristics of japonica rice (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica), helping to clarify the emergence of a significant lineage of the crop. Seeds, phytoliths and their context provide evidence of increasing anthropogenesis and cultivation during the occupation. Rice spikelet bases from Kuahuqiao (8000–7700 BP), Tianluoshan (7000–6500 BP), Majiabang (6300–6000 BP), and Liangzhu (5300–4300 BP) sites indicate that rice underwent continuing selection for reduced shattering and japonica rice characteristics, confirming a prolonged domestication process for rice. PMID:27324699

  5. Rice Domestication Revealed by Reduced Shattering of Archaeological rice from the Lower Yangtze valley.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yunfei; Crawford, Gary W; Jiang, Leping; Chen, Xugao

    2016-01-01

    Plant remains dating to between 9000 and 8400 BP from a probable ditch structure at the Huxi site include the oldest rice (Oryza sativa) spikelet bases and associated plant remains recovered in China. The remains document an early stage of rice domestication and the ecological setting in which early cultivation was taking place. The rice spikelet bases from Huxi include wild (shattering), intermediate, and domesticated (non-shattering) forms. The relative frequency of intermediate and non-shattering spikelet bases indicates that selection for, at the very least, non-shattering rice was underway at Huxi. The rice also has characteristics of japonica rice (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica), helping to clarify the emergence of a significant lineage of the crop. Seeds, phytoliths and their context provide evidence of increasing anthropogenesis and cultivation during the occupation. Rice spikelet bases from Kuahuqiao (8000-7700 BP), Tianluoshan (7000-6500 BP), Majiabang (6300-6000 BP), and Liangzhu (5300-4300 BP) sites indicate that rice underwent continuing selection for reduced shattering and japonica rice characteristics, confirming a prolonged domestication process for rice. PMID:27324699

  6. PDH45 overexpressing transgenic tobacco and rice plants provide salinity stress tolerance via less sodium accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Manoj; Garg, Bharti; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress negatively affects the crop productivity worldwide, including that of rice. Coping with these losses is a major concern for all countries. The pea DNA helicase, PDH45 is a unique member of helicase family involved in the salinity stress tolerance. However, the exact mechanism of the PDH45 in salinity stress tolerance is yet to be established. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of PDH45-mediated salinity stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco and rice lines along with wild type (WT) plants using CoroNa Green dye based sodium localization in root and shoot sections. The results showed that under salinity stress root and shoot of PDH45 overexpressing transgenic tobacco and rice accumulated less sodium (Na+) as compared to their respective WT. The present study also reports salinity tolerant (FL478) and salinity susceptible (Pusa-44) varieties of rice accumulated lowest and highest Na+ level, respectively. All the varieties and transgenic lines of rice accumulate differential Na+ ions in root and shoot. However, roots accumulate high Na+ as compared to the shoots in both tobacco and rice transgenic lines suggesting that the Na+ transport in shoot is somehow inhibited. It is proposed that the PDH45 is probably involved in the deposition of apoplastic hydrophobic barriers and consequently inhibit Na+ transport to shoot and therefore confers salinity stress tolerance to PDH45 overexpressing transgenic lines. This study concludes that tobacco (dicot) and rice (monocot) transgenic plants probably share common salinity tolerance mechanism mediated by PDH45 gene. PMID:25830863

  7. Extensive alterations in DNA methylation and transcription in rice caused by introgression from Zizania latifolia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenlan; Wang, Yongming; Shen, Ye; Guo, Wanli; Hao, Shui; Liu, Bao

    2004-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that insertion of foreign DNA into mammalian genome can profoundly alter the patterns of DNA methylation and transcription of the host genome. Introgression of alien DNA into plant genomes through sexual crossing and genetic engineering are commonly used in breeding, but it is not known if plant genomes have similar responses to alien DNA introgression as those of animals. Two stable rice lines with introgression from wild rice, Zizania latifolia, were analyzed for patterns of cytosine DNA methylation and transcription of a set of selected sequences, including cellular genes and transposable element (TE)-related DNA segments. In 21 of the 30 studied sequences, marked changes in DNA methylation and/or transcription were observed compared with those of the rice parent. In all analyzed sequences, the absence of Zizania homologues in the introgression lines was confirmed. No change in DNA methylation and expression patterns was detected in randomly selected individuals of the rice parent nor in two sibling lines without introgressed Zizania DNA. The changed methylation patterns in both introgression lines were stably maintained in all five randomly sampled individuals of a given line, as well as in selfed progenies of the lines. Changed patterns in methylation and expression were also found in an independently produced asymmetric somatic nuclear hybrid (SH6) of rice and Z. latifolia that involves a different rice genotype but also contains a small amount of Z. latifolia DNA integrated into the rice genome. Thus, we have demonstrated that alien DNA introgression into a plant genome can induce extensive alterations in DNA methylation and transcription of both cellular genes and TE-related DNA segments in a genotype-independent manner. PMID:15316290

  8. Glycaemic index of some commercially available rice and rice products in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Ranawana, D V; Henry, C J K; Lightowler, H J; Wang, D

    2009-01-01

    The glycaemic response to nine types of rice (white basmati, brown basmati, white and brown basmati, easy-cook basmati, basmati and wild rice, long-grain rice, easy-cook long-grain rice, Thai red rice, Thai glutinous rice) and two types of rice vermicelli (Guilin rice vermicelli, Jiangxi rice vermicelli) commercially available in the United Kingdom were compared against a glucose standard in a non-blind, randomized, repeated-measure, crossover design trial. Fourteen healthy subjects (six males, eight females), mean age 38 (standard deviation 16) years and mean body mass index 21.3 (standard deviation 2.3) kg/m(2), were recruited for the study. Subjects were served portions of the test foods and a standard food (glucose), on separate occasions, each containing 50 g available carbohydrates. Capillary blood glucose was measured from finger-prick samples in fasted subjects (-5 and 0 min) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the consumption of each test food. For each type of food, its glycaemic index (GI) was calculated geometrically by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose curve as a percentage of each subject's average incremental area under the blood glucose curve for the standard food. The 10 foods exhibited a range of GI values from 37 to 92. The study indicated that rice noodles, long-grain rice, easy-cook long-grain rice and white basmati rice were low-GI foods, whilst all of the other foods were medium-GI and high-GI foods. The information presented in this paper may be useful in helping people select low-GI foods from the customary foods consumed by the British and Asian populations. PMID:19169946

  9. Evolutionary and social consequences of introgression of nontransgenic herbicide resistance from rice to weedy rice in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Merotto, Aldo; Goulart, Ives C G R; Nunes, Anderson L; Kalsing, Augusto; Markus, Catarine; Menezes, Valmir G; Wander, Alcido E

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have expressed concerns about the effects of gene flow from transgenic herbicide-resistant crops to their wild relatives, but no major problems have been observed. This review describes a case study in which what has been feared in transgenics regarding gene flow has actually changed biodiversity and people's lives. Nontransgenic imidazolinone-resistant rice (IMI-rice) cultivars increased the rice grain yield by 50% in southern Brazil. This increase was beneficial for life quality of the farmers and also improved the regional economy. However, weedy rice resistant to imidazolinone herbicides started to evolve three years after the first use of IMI-rice cultivars. Population genetic studies indicate that the herbicide-resistant weedy rice was mainly originated from gene flow from resistant cultivars and distributed by seed migration. The problems related with herbicide-resistant weedy rice increased the production costs of rice that forced farmers to sell or rent their land. Gene flow from cultivated rice to weedy rice has proven to be a large agricultural, economic, and social constraint in the use of herbicide-resistant technologies in rice. This problem must be taken into account for the development of new transgenic or nontransgenic rice technologies. PMID:27468302

  10. Microbial community response to two water management systems for wetland rice production in high arsenic soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice cultivation on arsenic (As) impacted soils has recently garnered considerable attention. Rice plants can accumulate As in grain, especially under the continuously flooded conditions commonly utilized in wetland-rice production. However, recent studies have indicated that rice-management system...

  11. Genetic control of inflorescence architecture during rice domestication.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zuofeng; Tan, Lubin; Fu, Yongcai; Liu, Fengxia; Cai, Hongwei; Xie, Daoxin; Wu, Feng; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sun, Chuanqing

    2013-01-01

    Inflorescence architecture is a key agronomical factor determining grain yield, and thus has been a major target of cereal crop domestication. Transition from a spread panicle typical of ancestral wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) to the compact panicle of present cultivars (O. sativa L.) was a crucial event in rice domestication. Here we show that the spread panicle architecture of wild rice is controlled by a dominant gene, OsLG1, a previously reported SBP-domain transcription factor that controls rice ligule development. Association analysis indicates that a single-nucleotide polymorphism-6 in the OsLG1 regulatory region led to a compact panicle architecture in cultivars during rice domestication. We speculate that the cis-regulatory mutation can fine-tune the spatial expression of the target gene, and that selection of cis-regulatory mutations might be an efficient strategy for crop domestication. PMID:23884108

  12. Correlation analysis of simulated MODIS vegetation indices and the red edge and rice agricultural parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Qian; Wu, Xiuju

    2007-10-01

    In this study, Hyperspectral data of two variety of rice (common rice and hybrid rice) in whole growing stage during 2002 and 2003 was measured using the ASD FieldSpec UV/VNIR Spectroradiometer with resolution of 3 nm, and the LAI and leaf chlorophyll content of rice agricultural parameter were obtained. Analyses of the correlation between rice agricultural parameter, and hyperspectal data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and the red-edge position (REP) were studied. Results showed that a strong non-linear correlation was found between the rice LAI of two varieties and REP. The REP, EVI and NDVI were well related with LAI for the common rice, but the REP and EVI were more sensitive than the NDVI to rice LAI for the hybrid rice because of different body for two variety rice.

  13. Direct and reverse pollen-mediated gene flow between GM rice and red rice weed

    PubMed Central

    Serrat, X.; Esteban, R.; Peñas, G.; Català, M. M.; Melé, E.; Messeguer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Potential risks of genetically modified (GM) crops must be identified before their commercialization, as happens with all new technologies. One of the major concerns is the proper risk assessment of adventitious presence of transgenic material in rice fields due to cross-pollination. Several studies have been conducted in order to quantify pollen-mediated gene flow from transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) to both conventional rice and red rice weed (O. sativa f. spontanea) under field conditions. Some of these studies reported GM pollen-donor rice transferring GM traits to red rice. However, gene flow also occurs in the opposite direction, in a phenomenon that we have called reverse gene flow, resulting in transgenic seeds that have incorporated the traits of wild red rice. We quantified reverse gene flow using material from two field trials. A molecular analysis based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms was carried out, being complemented with a phenotypic identification of red rice traits. In both field trials, the reverse gene flow detected was greater than the direct gene flow. The rate of direct gene flow varied according to the relative proportions of the donor (GM rice) and receptor (red rice) plants and was influenced by wind direction. The ecological impact of reverse gene flow is limited in comparison with that of direct gene flow because non-shattered and non-dormant seeds would be obtained in the first generation. Hybrid seed would remain in the spike and therefore most of it would be removed during harvesting. Nevertheless, this phenomenon must be considered in fields used for elite seed production and in developing countries where farmers often keep some seed for planting the following year. In these cases, there is a higher risk of GM red rice weed infestation increasing from year to year and therefore a proper monitoring plan needs to be established.

  14. Expressing ScACR3 in rice enhanced arsenite efflux and reduced arsenic accumulation in rice grains.

    PubMed

    Duan, Guilan; Kamiya, Takehiro; Ishikawa, Satoru; Arao, Tomohito; Fujiwara, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) accumulation in rice grain poses a serious health risk to populations with high rice consumption. Extrusion of arsenite [As(III)] by ScAcr3p is the major arsenic detoxification mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, ScAcr3p homolog is absent in higher plants, including rice. In this study, ScACR3 was introduced into rice and expressed under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. In the transgenic lines, As concentrations in shoots and roots were about 30% lower than in the wild type, while the As translocation factors were similar between transgenic lines and the wild type. The roots of transgenic plants exhibited significantly higher As efflux activities than those of the wild type. Within 24 h exposure to 10 μM arsenate [As(V)], roots of ScACR3-expressing plants extruded 80% of absorbed As(V) to the external solution as As(III), while roots of the wild type extruded 50% of absorbed As(V). Additionally, by exposing the As-containing rice plants to an As-lacking solution for 24 h, about 30% of the total As derived from pre-treatment was extruded to the external solution by ScACR3-expressing plants, while about 15% of As was extruded by wild-type plants. Importantly, ScACR3 expression significantly reduced As accumulation in rice straws and grains. When grown in flooded soil irrigated with As(III)-containing water, the As concentration in husk and brown rice of the transgenic lines was reduced by 30 and 20%, respectively, compared with the wild type. This study reports a potential strategy to reduce As accumulation in the food chain by expressing heterologous genes in crops. PMID:22107880

  15. Moulds and mycotoxins in rice from the Swedish retail market.

    PubMed

    Fredlund, E; Thim, A-M; Gidlund, A; Brostedt, S; Nyberg, M; Olsen, M

    2009-04-01

    A survey of moulds and mycotoxins was performed on 99 rice samples taken from the Swedish retail market. The main objective was to study the mould and mycotoxin content in basmati rice and rice with a high content of fibre. Samples of jasmine rice as well as long-grain rice were also included. The samples were analysed for their content of ochratoxin A (high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)), aflatoxin B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2) (HPLC, RIDA(R)QUICK), and mould (traditional cultivation methods in combination with morphological analysis). The majority of samples were sampled according to European Commission Regulation 401/2006. Subsamples were pooled and mixed before milling and both mould and mycotoxin analyses were performed on milled rice. The results showed that the majority of basmati rice (71%) and many jasmine rice samples (20%) contained detectable levels of aflatoxin B(1) (level of quantification = 0.1 microg aflatoxin kg(-1) rice). Two samples of jasmine rice and ten basmati rice samples contained levels over the regulated European maximum limits of 2 microg kg(-1) for aflatoxin B(1) or 4 microg kg(-1) for total aflatoxins. Aspergillus was the most common mould genus isolated, but also Penicillium, Eurotium, Wallemia, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Alternaria, and Trichotecium were found. The presence of Aspergillus flavus in 21% of the samples indicates that incorrect management of rice during production and storage implies a risk of mould growth and subsequent production of aflatoxin. Rough estimates showed that high rice consumers may have an intake of 2-3 ng aflatoxin kg(-1) bodyweight and day(-1) from rice alone. This survey shows that aflatoxin is a common contaminant in rice imported to Europe. PMID:19680928

  16. Babies Fed Rice-Based Cereals Have Higher Arsenic Levels, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158484.html Babies Fed Rice-Based Cereals Have Higher Arsenic Levels, Study Finds ... April 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Parents commonly give rice to their babies as a first food. Now, ...

  17. Contact urticaria from rice.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Y; Ohsuna, H; Aihara, M; Tsubaki, K; Ikezawa, Z

    2001-02-01

    A 30-year-old man with atopic dermatitis had had erythema and itching of the hands after washing rice in water, though he had always eaten cooked rice without problems. Handling test with water used to wash regular rice was performed on abraded hands, and produced urticarial erythema after several minutes. Applications of water used to wash allergen-reduced rice were negative for urticarial reaction. Prick test with water used to wash regular rice was +++. However prick test reaction with water used to wash allergen-reduced rice was +. Histamine-release test of regular rice-washing water was grade 3 and that of allergen-reduced rice grade 1. In immunoblotting analysis with regular rice washing water, there were no bands with this patient. These results suggest that the allergen responsible for contact urticaria in this patient might be water-soluble, heat-unstable, and not contained in allergen-reduced rice. PMID:11205411

  18. Ecotoxicology of Wild Mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2001-01-01

    An international group of 32 scientists has critically reviewed the scientific literature on exposure and effects of environmental contaminants in wild mammals. The underlying theme of this text is encompassed by the following four questions: What exactly do we know about environmental contaminants in mammals? What are the commonalities and differences between mammal orders/species in the effects that contaminants have? How and to what degree of accuracy can we predict the adverse effects of environmental contaminants on mammalian wildlife? How significant are contaminant insults compared with other density-independent and -dependent factors such as habitat loss, climatic factors and disease? The book is organized three topical sections including introductory chapters that provide a background on environmental contaminants and the mammalian orders, eight taxonomic chapters discussing all aspects of the exposure to and effects of contaminants in mammalian orders, and four thematic chapters that review and discuss generic issues including biomarkers, prediction and extrapolation of exposure and effects, hazard and risk assessment, and the relative significance of contaminants on mammals compared with other commonly encountered stressors. A final a summary chapter identifies phylogenetic trends, critical data gaps, and overarching research needs. Although the absolute number of toxicological studies in domesticated and wild mammals eclipses that wildlife species, a detailed examination of our knowledge base reveals that information for 'wild' birds is actually greater than that for 'wild' mammals. Of the various mammalian taxa, ecotoxicological data is most noticeably lacking for marsupials and monotremes. In contrast, rodents (comprising 43% of all mammal species) have been studied extensively, despite evidence of their tolerance to some organochlorine compounds, rodenticides, and even radionuclides. Mammalian species at greatest risk of exposure include those that

  19. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F.; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs. PMID:25653837

  20. [Safety of rice grains and mycotoxins - a historical review of yellow rice mycotoxicoses].

    PubMed

    Udagawa, Shun-ichi; Tatsuno, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    Aflatoxins, the most powerful mycotoxins, were brought to the attention fo the people in the early 1960s with the outbreak of the turkey "X" disease in England. However, the history of mycotoxin research in Japan began 100 years ago. In 1891, Sakaki demonstrated that moldy, unpolished rice was fatal to experimental animals, with symptoms indicating paralysis of the central nervous system (Shoshin-kakke). In 1920, Prof. I. Miyake and Dr. Takada first reported that Penicillium commune, which was known as a causal agent of "Mossy diseased rice" was found to be toxic to experimental animals by feeding the moldy rice to rabbits and rats.With such a historical background, taking the idea of "rice, fungus and toxin" as a working hypothesis, Miyake and his co-workers discovered the first sample of yellow rice grains from Taiwanese and domestic rice, from which was isolated a species of Penicillium and later identified it with P. citreonigrum (=P. toxicarium). The fungus produced a highly toxic metabolite, citreoviridin. Unfortunately because this study was published during wartime, it failed to alert the world to the potential or actual dangers of the toxicity of common molds. After World War II, Japanese people suffered for some years from a shortage in domestic rice production and depended on foreign countries to supply rice, which led to the toxicological screening on fungal isolates from polluted rice grains by Dr. Tsunoda and his co-workers. AMong the isolates from imported rice, there were two species of Penicillium which were particularly associated with high toxicity; P. islandicum responsible for brownish discolored rice, and P. citrinum responsible for yellowish rice. P. islandicum produces two hepatotoxic metabolites: luteoskyrin and cyclochlorotine, while a nephrotoxic of P. citrinum is citrinin. These toxicological characters, including the induction of cancer and chemical structures, were studied by Profs. uraguchi, Saito, Shibata, Tatsuno and their co

  1. Improving folate (vitamin B9) stability in biofortified rice through metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Blancquaert, Dieter; Van Daele, Jeroen; Strobbe, Simon; Kiekens, Filip; Storozhenko, Sergei; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Lambert, Willy; Stove, Christophe; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2015-10-01

    Biofortification of staple crops could help to alleviate micronutrient deficiencies in humans. We show that folates in stored rice grains are unstable, which reduces the potential benefits of folate biofortification. We obtain folate concentrations that are up to 150 fold higher than those of wild-type rice by complexing folate to folate-binding proteins to improve folate stability, thereby enabling long-term storage of biofortified high-folate rice grains. PMID:26389575

  2. Seeing red: The origin of grain pigmentation in US weedy rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the major weed of cultivated rice fields in the US, where it causes tens of millions of dollars in crop losses annually. This weedy crop-relative is characterized by several traits that are typical of wild Oryza species, including the anthocyanin-pigmented pericarp tha...

  3. RiceCAP: Sheath blight QTLs identified in two Bengal/O. nivara advanced backcross populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice sheath blight disease, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most important fungal diseases worldwide. Wild relatives of rice may contain novel genes for biotic/abiotic stress resistance lost during domestication. We identified seven moderately resistant accessions from a collection of 67...

  4. The evolutionary genomics of weedy red rice in the U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice is an interfertile, weedy form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) that competes aggressively with the crop in the southern U.S., reducing yields and contaminating harvests. No wild Oryza species occur in North America, and the weed has been proposed to have evolved through multiple mechanis...

  5. Comparison on cellular mechanisms of iron and cadmium accumulation in rice: prospects for cultivating Fe-rich but Cd-free rice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Chang, Jiadong; Chen, Ruijie; Li, Hubo; Lu, Hongfei; Tao, Longxing; Xiong, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Iron (Fe) is essential for rice growth and humans consuming as their staple food but is often deficient because of insoluble Fe(III) in soil for rice growth and limited assimilation for human bodies, while cadmium (Cd) is non-essential and toxic for rice growth and humans if accumulating at high levels. Over-accumulated Cd can cause damage to human bodies. Selecting and breeding Fe-rich but Cd-free rice cultivars are ambitious, challenging and meaningful tasks for researchers. Although evidences show that the mechanisms of Fe/Cd uptake and accumulation in rice are common to some extent as a result of similar entry routes within rice, an increasing number of researchers have discovered distinct mechanisms between Fe/Cd uptake and accumulation in rice. This comprehensive review systematically elaborates and compares cellular mechanisms of Fe/Cd uptake and accumulation in rice, respectively. Mechanisms for maintaining Fe homeostasis and Cd detoxicification are also elucidated. Then, effects of different fertilizer management on Fe/Cd accumulation in rice are discussed. Finally, this review enumerates various approaches for reducing grain Cd accumulation and enhancing Fe content in rice. In summary, understanding of discrepant cellular mechanisms of Fe/Cd accumulation in rice provides guidance for cultivating Fe-fortified rice and has paved the way to develop rice that are tolerant to Cd stress, aiming at breeding Fe-rich but Cd-free rice. PMID:27502932

  6. Conserving waste rice for wintering waterfowl in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kross, J.P.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.; Pearse, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    Rice lost before or during harvest operations (hereafter waste rice) provides important food for waterfowl in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA, but >70% of waste rice is lost during autumn. We conducted experiments in 19 production rice fields in Arkansas and Mississippi during autumns 2003 and 2004 to evaluate the ability of common postharvest practices (i.e., burn, mow, roll, disk, or standing stubble) to conserve waste rice. We detected a postharvest treatment effect and a positive effect of initial abundance of waste rice on late-autumn abundance of waste rice (P < 0.022). Standing stubble contained the greatest abundance of waste rice followed by burned, mowed, rolled, and disked stubble. We recommend standing stubble or burning to maximize waste rice abundance for wintering waterfowl.

  7. Conserving waste rice for wintering waterfowl in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kross, J.P.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.; Pearse, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    Rice lost before or during harvest operations (hereafter waste rice) provides important food for waterfowl in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA, but >70% of waste rice is lost during autumn. We conducted experiments in 19 production rice fields in Arkansas and Mississippi during autumns 2003 and 2004 to evaluate the ability of common postharvest practices (i.e., burn, mow, roll, disk, or standing stubble) to conserve waste rice. We detected a postharvest treatment effect and a positive effect of initial abundance of waste rice on late-autumn abundance of waste rice (P ??? 0.022). Standing stubble contained the greatest abundance of waste rice followed by burned, mowed, rolled, and disked stubble. We recommend standing stubble or burning to maximize waste rice abundance for wintering waterfowl.

  8. Wild Plants Used by the Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nature Study, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes 10 wild plants used by Native Americans. They include: rose hips; the common milkweed; cattails; elderberries; cactus fruits; lamb's quarters pigweeds (Chenopodium sp.); persimmons; mints (Monardo sp.); the yucca; and the hawthorn. Illustrations of each plant are included. (JN)

  9. Species diversity, pathogenicity and toxigenicity of Fusarium associated with rice seeds in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium is commonly reported in association with rice seeds in Brazil, but knowledge on the species diversity and toxigenic potential is lacking. Such information is critical because maximum limits for Fusarium mycotoxins were set for Brazilian rice in 2011. Ninety-eight rice seed samples from the ...

  10. EXPRESSION PROFILING OF ORYZA SATIVA METAL HOMEOSTASIS GENES IN DIFFERENT RICE CULTIVARS USING CDNA MACROARRAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa) has shaped the cultures, diets and economies of billions of people; unfortunately, rice is a poor source of many essential micronutrients and vitamins. Deficiencies in these micronutrients are common in developing countries, especially where rice is the staple food. In order to i...

  11. Rice Production and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briers, Gary; Lee, Jasper S.

    This guide contains lesson plans for use in secondary programs of agricultural education in geographical areas in which rice is produced. Six units and 13 problem areas are organized into teaching plans that cover the broad nature of rice production. The six units are: (1) determining the importance and history of rice production; (2) determining…

  12. The laboratory mouse and wild immunology.

    PubMed

    Viney, M; Lazarou, L; Abolins, S

    2015-05-01

    The laboratory mouse, Mus musculus domesticus, has been the workhorse of the very successful laboratory study of mammalian immunology. These studies--discovering how the mammalian immune system can work--have allowed the development of the field of wild immunology that is seeking to understand how the immune responses of wild animals contributes to animals' fitness. Remarkably, there have hardly been any studies of the immunology of wild M. musculus domesticus (or of rats, another common laboratory model), but the general finding is that these wild animals are more immunologically responsive, compared with their laboratory domesticated comparators. This difference probably reflects the comparatively greater previous exposure to antigens of these wild-caught animals. There are now excellent prospects for laboratory mouse immunology to make major advances in the field of wild immunology. PMID:25303494

  13. Avian influenza, domestic ducks and rice agriculture in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Marius; Xiao, Xiangming; Chaitaweesub, Prasit; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Premashthira, Sith; Boles, Stephen; Slingenbergh, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by H5N1 viruses has become a global scale problem which first emerged in southern China and from there spread to other countries in Southeast and East Asia, where it was first confirmed in end 2003. In previous work, geospatial analyses demonstrated that free grazing ducks played critical role in the epidemiology of the disease in Thailand in the winter 2004/2005, both in terms of HPAI emergence and spread. This study explored the geographic association between free grazing duck census counts and current statistics on the spatial distribution of rice crops in Thailand, in particular the crop calendar of rice production. The analysis was carried out using both district level rice statistics and rice distribution data predicted with the aid of remote sensing, using a rice-detection algorithm. The results indicated a strong association between the number of free grazing ducks and the number of months during which second-crop rice harvest takes place, as well as with the rice crop intensity as predicted by remote sensing. These results confirmed that free grazing duck husbandry was strongly driven by agricultural land use and rice crop intensity, and that this later variable can be readily predicted using remote sensing. Analysis of rice cropping patterns may provide an indication of the location of populations of free grazing ducks in other countries with similar mixed duck and rice production systems and less detailed duck census data. Apart from free ranging ducks and rice cropping, the role of hydrology and seasonality of wetlands and water bodies in the HPAI risk analysis is also discussed in relation to the presumed dry season aggregation of wild waterfowl and aquatic poultry offering much scope for virus transmission. PMID:18418464

  14. Avian influenza, domestic ducks and rice agriculture in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Marius; Xiao, Xiangming; Chaitaweesub, Prasit; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Premashthira, Sith; Boles, Stephen; Slingenbergh, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by H5N1 viruses has become a global scale problem which first emerged in southern China and from there spread to other countries in Southeast and East Asia, where it was first confirmed in end 2003. In previous work, geospatial analyses demonstrated that free grazing ducks played critical role in the epidemiology of the disease in Thailand in the winter 2004/2005, both in terms of HPAI emergence and spread. This study explored the geographic association between free grazing duck census counts and current statistics on the spatial distribution of rice crops in Thailand, in particular the crop calendar of rice production. The analysis was carried out using both district level rice statistics and rice distribution data predicted with the aid of remote sensing, using a rice-detection algorithm. The results indicated a strong association between the number of free grazing ducks and the number of months during which second-crop rice harvest takes place, as well as with the rice crop intensity as predicted by remote sensing. These results confirmed that free grazing duck husbandry was strongly driven by agricultural land use and rice crop intensity, and that this later variable can be readily predicted using remote sensing. Analysis of rice cropping patterns may provide an indication of the location of populations of free grazing ducks in other countries with similar mixed duck and rice production systems and less detailed duck census data. Apart from free ranging ducks and rice cropping, the role of hydrology and seasonality of wetlands and water bodies in the HPAI risk analysis is also discussed in relation to the presumed dry season aggregation of wild waterfowl and aquatic poultry offering much scope for virus transmission. PMID:18418464

  15. Volatile profiles of aromatic and non-aromatic rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is enjoyed by many people as a staple food because of its flavor and texture. Some scented varieties command a premium in the marketplace because of their distinctive aroma and flavor. The compound most commonly associated with the popcorn or nutty scent of aromatic rice is 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline...

  16. A systems-wide comparison of red rice (Oryza longistaminata) tissues identifies rhizome specific genes and proteins that are targets for cultivated rice improvement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rhizome, the original stem of land plants, enables species to invade new territory and is a critical component of perenniality, especially in grasses. Red rice (Oryza longistaminata) is a perennial wild rice species with many valuable traits that could be used to improve cultivated rice cultivars, including rhizomatousness, disease resistance and drought tolerance. Despite these features, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that contribute to rhizome growth, development and function in this plant. Results We used an integrated approach to compare the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome of the rhizome to other tissues of red rice. 116 Gb of transcriptome sequence was obtained from various tissues and used to identify rhizome-specific and preferentially expressed genes, including transcription factors and hormone metabolism and stress response-related genes. Proteomics and metabolomics approaches identified 41 proteins and more than 100 primary metabolites and plant hormones with rhizome preferential accumulation. Of particular interest was the identification of a large number of gene transcripts from Magnaportha oryzae, the fungus that causes rice blast disease in cultivated rice, even though the red rice plants showed no sign of disease. Conclusions A significant set of genes, proteins and metabolites appear to be specifically or preferentially expressed in the rhizome of O. longistaminata. The presence of M. oryzae gene transcripts at a high level in apparently healthy plants suggests that red rice is resistant to this pathogen, and may be able to provide genes to cultivated rice that will enable resistance to rice blast disease. PMID:24521476

  17. Epigenetic Mutation of RAV6 Affects Leaf Angle and Seed Size in Rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangqian; Sun, Jing; Cao, Xiaofeng; Song, Xianwei

    2015-11-01

    Heritable epigenetic variants of genes, termed epialleles, can broaden genetic and phenotypic diversity in eukaryotes. Epialleles may also provide a new source of beneficial traits for crop breeding, but very few epialleles related to agricultural traits have been identified in crops. Here, we identified Epi-rav6, a gain-of-function epiallele of rice (Oryza sativa) RELATED TO ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3)/VIVIPAROUS1 (VP1) 6 (RAV6), which encodes a B3 DNA-binding domain-containing protein. The Epi-rav6 plants show larger lamina inclination and smaller grain size; these agronomically important phenotypes are inherited in a semidominant manner. We did not find nucleotide sequence variation of RAV6. Instead, we found hypomethylation in the promoter region of RAV6, which caused ectopic expression of RAV6 in Epi-rav6 plants. Bisulfite analysis revealed that cytosine methylation of four CG and two CNG loci within a continuous 96-bp region plays essential roles in regulating RAV6 expression; this region contains a conserved miniature inverted repeat transposable element transposon insertion in cultivated rice genomes. Overexpression of RAV6 in the wild type phenocopied the Epi-rav6 phenotype. The brassinosteroid (BR) receptor BR INSENSITIVE1 and BR biosynthetic genes EBISU DWARF, DWARF11, and BR-DEFICIENT DWARF1 were ectopically expressed in Epi-rav6 plants. Also, treatment with a BR biosynthesis inhibitor restored the leaf angle defects of Epi-rav6 plants. This indicates that RAV6 affects rice leaf angle by modulating BR homeostasis and demonstrates an essential regulatory role of epigenetic modification on a key gene controlling important agricultural traits. Thus, our work identifies a unique rice epiallele, which may represent a common phenomenon in complex crop genomes. PMID:26351308

  18. Extraction of light filth from rice flours, extruded rice products, and rice paper: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Dent, R G

    1982-09-01

    Two new methods were developed for the extraction of rodent hairs and insect fragments from rice products: one for rice flour and one for extruded rice products and rice paper. A 100 g sample of rice flour was extracted with mineral oil-40% isopropanol, followed by a water phase as needed for additional cycles. For extruded rice products and rice paper, a 225 g sample of each was initially extracted as above, followed by a single extraction with mineral oil-20% isopropanol. Both methods used an acid hydrolysis pretreatment followed by wet sieving and a percolator extraction. Average rodent hair recoveries were 77.8% for rice flour and 82.2% for extruded rice products and rice paper. Average insect fragment recoveries were 89.6% for rice flour and 91.9% for extruded rice products and rice paper. Both methods were adopted official first action. PMID:7130079

  19. Cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties; impacted by rice temperature during milling.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2015-03-01

    Rice milling plays a key factor in determining rice quality and value. Therefore accurate quality assessments are critical to the rice industry. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of exposing rice to elevated temperatures during milling, on cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties. Two long (Cybonnett and Francis) and one medium (Jupiter) rice (oryzae sativa L.) cultivars were milled using McGill laboratory mill for 30 and 40 s after warmed up the mill before milling. Four different milling temperatures per milling duration were achieved. Cooked rice texture properties were assessed using a uniaxial compression test and rice flour pasting properties measured using a TA-2000 rheometer. Results of this study showed that exposure of rice to high temperatures during milling significantly decreased cooked rice firmness. An increase in milled rice temperature after milling from 10.0 to 13.3 °C resulted in a 5.4 and 8.1 N decrease in cooked rice firmness. Although not always significant, the increase in milled rice temperature during milling resulted in an increase in cooked rice stickiness. The increase in milling temperature also showed significant increase in rice flour pasting properties. Changes in rice functional characteristics were attributed to the changes occurring to rice chemical constituents due to temperature exposure as indicated by the increase in rice protein hydrophobicity. Proteins are known to affect rice starch water holding capacity and other starch gelatinization properties. PMID:25745230

  20. Differential response of cultivated and weedy (red) rice to recent and projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a principle resource for plant growth; as such, the ongoing increase in its concentration may differentially affect the growth of cultivated and wild types of the same species. Red rice in the U.S. is a weedy relative of cultivated rice that represents a major production con...

  1. Unravelling the proteomic profile of rice meiocytes during early meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Collado-Romero, Melania; Alós, Enriqueta; Prieto, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Transfer of genetic traits from wild or related species into cultivated rice is nowadays an important aim in rice breeding. Breeders use genetic crosses to introduce desirable genes from exotic germplasms into cultivated rice varieties. However, in many hybrids there is only a low level of pairing (if existing) and recombination at early meiosis between cultivated rice and wild relative chromosomes. With the objective of getting deeper into the knowledge of the proteins involved in early meiosis, when chromosomes associate correctly in pairs and recombine, the proteome of isolated rice meiocytes has been characterized by nLC-MS/MS at every stage of early meiosis (prophase I). Up to 1316 different proteins have been identified in rice isolated meiocytes in early meiosis, being 422 exclusively identified in early prophase I (leptotene, zygotene, or pachytene). The classification of proteins in functional groups showed that 167 were related to chromatin structure and remodeling, nucleic acid binding, cell-cycle regulation, and cytoskeleton. Moreover, the putative roles of 16 proteins which have not been previously associated to meiosis or were not identified in rice before, are also discussed namely: seven proteins involved in chromosome structure and remodeling, five regulatory proteins [such as SKP1 (OSK), a putative CDK2 like effector], a protein with RNA recognition motifs, a neddylation-related protein, and two microtubule-related proteins. Revealing the proteins involved in early meiotic processes could provide a valuable tool kit to manipulate chromosome associations during meiosis in rice breeding programs. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with the PXD001058 identifier. PMID:25104955

  2. Genome-Wide Patterns of Nucleotide Polymorphism in Domesticated Rice

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Ryan D; Boyko, Adam; Fledel-Alon, Adi; York, Thomas L; Polato, Nicholas R; Olsen, Kenneth M; Nielsen, Rasmus; McCouch, Susan R; Bustamante, Carlos D; Purugganan, Michael D

    2007-01-01

    Domesticated Asian rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the oldest domesticated crop species in the world, having fed more people than any other plant in human history. We report the patterns of DNA sequence variation in rice and its wild ancestor, O. rufipogon, across 111 randomly chosen gene fragments, and use these to infer the evolutionary dynamics that led to the origins of rice. There is a genome-wide excess of high-frequency derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in O. sativa varieties, a pattern that has not been reported for other crop species. We developed several alternative models to explain contemporary patterns of polymorphisms in rice, including a (i) selectively neutral population bottleneck model, (ii) bottleneck plus migration model, (iii) multiple selective sweeps model, and (iv) bottleneck plus selective sweeps model. We find that a simple bottleneck model, which has been the dominant demographic model for domesticated species, cannot explain the derived nucleotide polymorphism site frequency spectrum in rice. Instead, a bottleneck model that incorporates selective sweeps, or a more complex demographic model that includes subdivision and gene flow, are more plausible explanations for patterns of variation in domesticated rice varieties. If selective sweeps are indeed the explanation for the observed nucleotide data of domesticated rice, it suggests that strong selection can leave its imprint on genome-wide polymorphism patterns, contrary to expectations that selection results only in a local signature of variation. PMID:17907810

  3. Oscar Wilde and the brain cell.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    This chapter considers Oscar Wilde's interest in the brain cell as an aesthetic object. Offering an account of Wilde's career that analyzes his early interest in physiology and philosophy, this chapter argues that Wilde's uniquely aesthetic take on the brain suggests that he rejects an account of the self as autonomous or self-determining. For many late Victorians brain science threatened both the freedom of human action and the legitimacy of beauty because it had the potential to invalidate conscious experience. But writers whose work Wilde knew, like John Ruskin, W. K. Clifford, and John Tyndall, avoided the despair of materialism by using aesthetic terms in their own discussions of life's invisible materials. Wilde's art collaborates with the contemporary sciences. His depictions of the cell direct the senses to a new field of being that emphasizes the molecular life all humans have in common, in which individual responsibility and activity matter less than the necessity of beauty. PMID:24290258

  4. Energy from rice residues

    SciTech Connect

    Mahin, D.B.

    1990-03-01

    Developing countries produce millions of tons of rice husks and straw as a byproduct of harvesting rice. Although some of these rice residues are used for fuel or other purposes, most are burned for disposal or just dumped. However, since the mid- 1980's, industrial plants for rice residue utilization have been installed in several countries and are planned in a number of others. The report provides information on systems to produce energy from rice residues that are commercially available in the United States, Europe, and various developing countries, with an emphasis on those currently used or sold on an international level. Specifically reviewed are the use of rice husks to produce: (1) industrial process heat either directly from furnaces or by generating low pressure steam in boilers; (2) mechanical and electrical power for rice milling via steam engine systems, steam turbine/generator systems, and gasifier/engine systems; and (3) electric power for the grid. The outlook for producing energy from rice straw is also assessed. In addition, the prospects for the use of energy from husks or straw in the processing of rice bran are reviewed.

  5. Post-harvest field manipulations to conserve waste rice for waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stafford, J.D.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.; Kurtz, M.E.; Manley, S.W.

    2005-01-01

    Rice seeds escaping collection by combines during harvest (hereafter, waste rice) provide quality forage for migrating and wintering waterfowl in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) and other rice growing regions in the United States. Recent sample surveys across the MAV have revealed abundance of waste rice in fields declined an average of 71% between harvest and late autumn. Thus, we evaluated the ability of common post-harvest, field-management practices to conserve waste rice for waterfowl until early winter via controlled experiments in Mississippi rice test plots in 2001 and 2003 and analyses of data from MAV-wide surveys of waste rice in rice production fields in 2000-2002. Our experiments indicated test plots with burned rice stubble that were not flooded during autumn contained more waste rice than other treatments in 2001 (P?0.10). Waste-rice abundance in test plots did not differ among postharvest treatments in 2003 (P = 0.97). Our analyses of data from the MAV sample surveys did not detect differences in abundance of waste rice among fields burned, rolled, disked, or left in standing stubble post-harvest (P?0.04; Bonferroni corrected critical ( a= 0.017). Because results from test-plot experiments were inconclusive, we based our primary inference regarding best post-harvest treatments on patterns of rice abundance identified from the MAV surveys and previously documented environmental and agronomic benefits of managing harvested rice fields for wintering waterfowl. Therefore, we recommend leaving standing stubble in rice fields after harvest as a preliminary beneficial management practice. We suggest future research evaluate potential of postharvest practices to conserve waste rice for waterfowl and reduce straw in production rice fields managed for wintering waterfowl throughout the MAV.

  6. The archaeobotany of Asian rice expansion and the development of wet-field cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, D.

    2008-12-01

    Archaeobotanical evidence provides direct data on past human diet and agriculture, including a geographical and chronological framework for studying the expansion of rice agriculture. The growth of systematic archaeobotanical sampling in recent years has allowed for the past presence of rice to be seen in relation to cultivation of other crops and associated weeds. The weed flora provides a basis for inferring the nature of cultivation systems, whether rain-fed dry rice or wetland "paddy" rice, a key distinction for considerations of past methane production. Nevertheless, current data is very unevenly distributed. This poster will summarize available evidence for the origins and spread of rice in South Asia (India and Pakistan), and mainland and Island Southeast Asia deriving from an earlier Chinese domestication. Where possible, such as in India or China, the potential of the weed flora remains for distinguishing wetland rice crops will be summarized. In broad terms, although the origins of rice use and cultivation begins by or during the Middle Holocene (6000- 3000 BC), rice cultivation spread outside the regions of the wild progenitor after this time. Two phases of rice expansion can be distinguished. Phase 1, between 3000 and 1500 BC, introduced rice to Southeast Asia, probably under wetland cultivation, and the spread of dry rice over northern India and Pakistan. Phase 2, taking place between 1000 and 0 BC, sees the spread of rice throughout the Southern Indian Peninsula, with weed evidence suggesting irrigated wetland rice. Similarly, this period sees the spread of intensive paddy agriculture through Korea and Japan, but in Southeast Asia is probably related to a spread of rice in upland, dry field systems.

  7. Tyramine accumulation in rice cells caused a dwarf phenotype via reduced cell division.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Soon; Park, Sangkyu; Kang, Kiyoon; Lee, Kyungjin; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2011-02-01

    Transgenic rice plants overexpressing a rice tyrosine decarboxylase (TyDC) exhibited a dwarf phenotype with a high level of tyramine accumulation. The height of transgenic rice was reduced on average to 35% of the wild-type height, whereas the number of tillers increased to 190% that of wild type. When judged by cellular distribution of tyramine and tyramine derivatives, the level of tyramine in soluble and insoluble fractions was higher than that of tyramine derivatives such as 4-coumaroyltyramine (CT) in the transgenic rice plants, suggesting that tyramine rather than its derivatives was a causative compound triggering the dwarf phenotype. Microscopic observation revealed that cell size in the transgenic lines was maintained, with a slightly irregular arrangement in the leaf mesophyll cells. When wild-type rice seeds were grown in the presence of tyramine, rice seedlings also showed stunted phenotypes in a dose-dependent manner. When these stunted seedlings were employed to measure the degree of cellular proliferation by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, only small numbers of cells were found to retain labeled nuclei in shoot tips compared with the untreated control. These results show that the dwarf phenotype associated with tyramine accumulation in transgenic rice plants is attributable to a reduction in cell number rather than cell size. In addition, our dwarf phenotype caused by tyramine was not closely associated with known dwarf genes such as D88. PMID:20978800

  8. Scheduling Irrigation on Non-Flooded Rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While continuous-flood irrigation, the most common method for US rice production, can have a fairly high application efficiency, factors such as soil variability and the size of most Mid-South farming operations combine to reduce the efficiency in many cases. Center pivot irrigation is one potential...

  9. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  10. Crop management strategies and disease resistance control the severity of false smut and kernel smut of rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    False smut and kernel smut are common diseases of rice capable of severe epidemics with dramatic yield losses. The importance of rice smuts is often overlooked in the US, and highly susceptible varieties are now being grown on the majority of production acres in the southern rice producing states. O...

  11. Crop water use predictions available on-line for sprinkler irrigated rice in the United States and South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is an important food source for people in most of the world. Traditional rice culture requires flood irrigation which commonly uses 60 to 150 cm of water per growing season. Rice production is limited to fields with enough clay in the soils to retain 5 to 10 cm floodwater on the surface and p...

  12. Spotlight on rice: an update from the Rice Division

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This short paper is a 'spotlight' on the Rice Division of the Marican Association of Cereal Chemists, International and features an update and future challenges in rice research and industry. Since rice is consumed largely as milled white rice intact kernals, size, shape, color, appearance, function...

  13. Polyphyletic origin of cultivated rice: based on the interspersion pattern of SINEs.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chaoyang; Motohashi, Reiko; Tsuchimoto, Suguru; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Ohtsubo, Hisako; Ohtsubo, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    The wild rice species Oryza rufipogon with wide intraspecific variation is thought to be the progenitor of the cultivated rice species Oryza sativa with two ecotypes, japonica and indica. To determine the origin of cultivated rice, subfamily members of the rice retroposon p-SINE1, which show insertion polymorphism in the O. sativa -O. rufipogon population, were identified and used to "bar code" each of 101 cultivated and wild rice strains based on the presence or absence of the p-SINE1 members at the respective loci. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on the bar codes given to the rice strains showed that O. sativa strains were classified into two groups corresponding to japonica and indica, whereas O. rufipogon strains were in four groups, in which annual O. rufipogon strains formed a single group, differing from the perennial O. rufipogon strains of the other three groups. Japonica strains were closely related to the O. rufipogon perennial strains of one group, and the indica strains were closely related to the O. rufipogon annual strains, indicating that O. sativa has been derived polyphyletically from O. rufipogon. The subfamily members of p-SINE1 constitute a powerful tool for studying the classification and relationship of rice strains, even when one has limited knowledge of morphology, taxonomy, physiology, and biochemistry of rice strains. PMID:12519908

  14. Fast screening of rice knockout mutants by multi-channel microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Nan, He; Lee, Sang-Won; Kang, Seong Ho

    2012-08-15

    A multi-channel microchip electrophoresis (MC-ME) system with a laser-induced fluorescence detector was developed for the fast simultaneous detection of rice knockout mutants in genetically modified (GM) rice. In addition, three parallel separation channels were fabricated on a glass microchip to investigate the possibility of high-throughput screening of amplified-polymerase chain reaction products representing wild-type rice and mutants. The MC-ME system was developed to simultaneously record data on all channels using specifically designed electrodes for an even distribution of electric fields, an expanded laser beam for excitation, a 10× objective lens to capture emissions, and a charge coupled device camera for detection. Under a programmed electric field strength and a sieving gel matrix of 0.7% poly(ethylene oxide) (M(r)=8,000,000), T-DNA-inserted rice mutants, two standard wild-type rice lines, and six rice knockout mutants were analyzed within 4 min using three parallel channels on the microchip. Compared to conventional microchip electrophoresis, the MC-ME method is a valid and practical way to effectively analyze multiple samples in parallel for the identification of GM rice without any loss of resolving power or reproducibility. The MC-ME method was more than 15 times faster than traditional slab gel electrophoresis and proved to be a powerful tool for high-throughput screening of GM rice with high sensitivity, efficiency, and reproducibility. PMID:22841075

  15. A rice chloroplast transit peptide sequence does not alter the cytoplasmic localization of sheep serotonin N-acetyltransferase expressed in transgenic rice plants.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Yeong; Lee, Hyoung Yool; Lee, Kyungjin; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2014-09-01

    Ectopic overexpression of melatonin biosynthetic genes of animal origin has been used to generate melatonin-rich transgenic plants to examine the functional roles of melatonin in plants. However, the subcellular localization of these proteins expressed in the transgenic plants remains unknown. We studied the localization of sheep (Ovis aries) serotonin N-acetyltransferase (OaSNAT) and a translational fusion of a rice SNAT transit peptide to OaSNAT (TS:OaSNAT) in plants. Laser confocal microscopy analysis revealed that both OaSNAT and TS:OaSNAT proteins were localized to the cytoplasm even with the addition of the transit sequence to OaSNAT. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing the TS:OaSNAT fusion transgene exhibited high SNAT enzyme activity relative to untransformed wild-type plants, but lower activity than transgenic rice plants expressing the wild-type OaSNAT gene. Melatonin levels in both types of transgenic rice plant corresponded well with SNAT enzyme activity levels. The TS:OaSNAT transgenic lines exhibited increased seminal root growth relative to wild-type plants, but less than in the OaSNAT transgenic lines, confirming that melatonin promotes root growth. Seed-specific OaSNAT expression under the control of a rice prolamin promoter did not confer high levels of melatonin production in transgenic rice seeds compared with seeds from transgenic plants expressing OaSNAT under the control of the constitutive maize ubiquitin promoter. PMID:24920304

  16. Common Space, Common Time, Common Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Melody J.

    2005-01-01

    The most valued means of support and learning cited by new teachers at Poland Regional High School in rural Maine are the collegial interactions that common workspace, common planning time, and common tasks make possible. The school has used these everyday structures to enable new and veteran teachers to converse about curricular and pedagogical…

  17. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  18. Registration of 'Cybonnet' Rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Cybonnet’ rice is a high-yielding, short-season, long-grain cultivar. It originated form the cross ‘Cypress’//’Newbonnet’/’Katy’ made at the University of Arkansas Rice Research and Extension Center in Stuttgart, AR. Cybonnet is similar in maturity to ‘Kaybonnet’ and ‘Wells’, is a simidwarf culti...

  19. Making rice even healthier!

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is a naturally healthy food, but what if it could be made even healthier? Would Americans eat more rice if it could be advertised to be a 'New and Improved' source of calcium to promote bone growth, or iron to prevent anemia? Grocery stores are full of foods that are vitamin enhanced to attract...

  20. Registration of 'Medark' Rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Medark’ rice is a high-yielding, early maturing, semidwarf, medium-grain cultivar. It originated from the cross ‘Bengal’/’Short Rico’ and is similar in maturity to Bengal. It has improved disease resistance to rice blase, brown spot and straighthead. Medark has a lodging resistance slightly less...

  1. Project Wild (Project Tame).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegenthaler, David

    For 37 states in the United States, Project Wild has become an officially sanctioned, distributed and funded "environemtnal and conservation education program." For those who are striving to implement focused, sequential, learning programs, as well as those who wish to promote harmony through a non-anthropocentric world view, Project Wild may…

  2. Unavailability of wild relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unavailability of crop wild relatives may come in many forms, including limited possibilities of gene flow with related species due to clonality, differing ploidy levels, or other crossing barriers between species. Alternatively, it may simply mean that we lack information about the wild relativ...

  3. Rice blast disease in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is an important agricultural commodity in Texas, with an economic impact of more than $1 billion annually. Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases in rice. Texas Rice Belt provides a warm, humid climate favorable for the infection and reproduction of M....

  4. Rice and red rice interference. II. Rice response to population densities of three red rice (Oryza sativa) ecotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice, which grows taller and produces more tillers than domestic rice and shatters most of its seeds early, is a major weed in many rice-growing areas of the world. Field experiments were conducted at Stuttgart, AR in 1997 and 1998 to evaluate the growth response of the Kaybonnet (KBNT) rice cul...

  5. The rice mitochondrial genomes and their variations.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiangjun; Zheng, Jing; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

    2006-02-01

    Based on highly redundant and high-quality sequences, we assembled rice (Oryza sativa) mitochondrial genomes for two cultivars, 93-11 (an indica variety) and PA64S (an indica-like variety with maternal origin of japonica), which are paternal and maternal strains of an elite superhybrid rice Liang-You-Pei-Jiu (LYP-9), respectively. Following up with a previous analysis on rice chloroplast genomes, we divided mitochondrial sequence variations into two basic categories, intravarietal and intersubspecific. Intravarietal polymorphisms are variations within mitochondrial genomes of an individual variety. Intersubspecific polymorphisms are variations between subspecies among their major genotypes. In this study, we identified 96 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 25 indels, and three segmental sequence variations as intersubspecific polymorphisms. A signature sequence fragment unique to indica varieties was confirmed experimentally and found in two wild rice samples, but absent in japonica varieties. The intersubspecific polymorphism rate for mitochondrial genomes is 0.02% for SNPs and 0.006% for indels, nearly 2.5 and 3 times lower than that of their chloroplast counterparts and 21 and 38 times lower than corresponding rates of the rice nuclear genome, respectively. The intravarietal polymorphism rates among analyzed mitochondrial genomes, such as 93-11 and PA64S, are 1.26% and 1.38% for SNPs and 1.13% and 1.09% for indels, respectively. Based on the total number of SNPs between the two mitochondrial genomes, we estimate that the divergence of indica and japonica mitochondrial genomes occurred approximately 45,000 to 250,000 years ago. PMID:16384910

  6. Scorpion peptide LqhIT2 activates phenylpropanoid pathways via jasmonate to increase rice resistance to rice leafrollers.

    PubMed

    Tianpei, Xiuzi; Li, Dong; Qiu, Ping; Luo, Jie; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2015-01-01

    LqhIT2 is an insect-specific toxin peptide identified in Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus that can be toxic to lepidoptera pests. However, whether LqhIT2 induces insect resistance in rice, and how the LqhIT2 influences the biochemical metabolism of rice plants remains unknown. Here, purified LqhIT2-GST fusion protein had toxicity to rice leafrollers. Meanwhile, in vitro and field trials showed that LqhIT2 transgenic rice plants were less damaged by rice leafrollers compared to the wild type plants. Introducing LqhIT2 primed the elevated expression of lipoxygenase, a key component of the jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathway, together with enhanced linolenic acid, cis-(+)-12-oxophytodienoic acid, jasmonic acid, and jasmonic acid-isoleucine levels. In addition, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, a key gene of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was up-regulated. Correspondingly, the contents of downstream products of the phenylpropanoid pathway such as flavonoids and lignins, were also increased in LqhIT2 transgenic plants. These changes were paralleled by decreased starch, glucose, and glucose-6-phosphate accumulation, the key metabolites of glycolysis pathway that supplies the raw material and intermediate carbon products for phenylpropanoids biosyntheses. These findings suggest that, in addition to its own toxicity against pests, LqhIT2 activate the phenylpropanoid pathway via jasmonate-mediated priming, which subsequently increases flavonoid and lignin content and improves insect resistance in rice. PMID:25480003

  7. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...) (percent) Chalky kernels 1,2 In long grain rice (percent) In medium or short grain rice (percent)...

  8. The Wild Bunch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Bibi; Brook, Richard; Tisdale, Mary; Wooster, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes the history of wild horses in North America and explains the social structure of horses. Discusses issues related to wildlife management. Presents activities for classroom use and includes a list of references and resources. (YDS)

  9. Does the presence of microplastics influence the acute toxicity of chromium(VI) to early juveniles of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps)? A study with juveniles from two wild estuarine populations.

    PubMed

    Luís, Luís G; Ferreira, Pedro; Fonte, Elsa; Oliveira, Miguel; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2015-07-01

    presence of MP, the negative effect caused by high concentrations of Cr(VI) on the predatory performance was significantly reduced in L-est fish but not in M-est fish, and Cr(VI) concentrations higher than 3.9mg/l caused oxidative damage in L-est fish but not in M-est fish. The acclimatization and test conditions were similar for fish from the two estuaries and these ecosystems have environmental differences. Thus, long-term exposure to distinct environmental conditions in the natural habitat during previous developmental phases influenced the sensitivity and responses of juveniles to Cr(VI), therefore, we rejected hypothesis 3. Overall, the results of this study indicate toxicological interactions between MP and Cr(VI) highlighting the importance of further investigating the combined effects of MP and other common contaminants. PMID:26004740

  10. Common Schools for Common Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Eamonn

    1995-01-01

    A vision of common education for citizens of a liberal democracy warrants faith in common schools as an instrument of social good. Some kinds of separate schooling are not inconsistent with common schooling and are even desirable. Equal respect, as defined by J. Rawls, is a basis for common education. (SLD)

  11. Overexpression of acetylcholinesterase gene in rice results in enhancement of shoot gravitropism.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kosuke; Shida, Satoshi; Honda, Yoshihiro; Shono, Mariko; Miyake, Hiroshi; Oguri, Suguru; Sakamoto, Hikaru; Momonoki, Yoshie S

    2015-09-25

    Acetylcholine (ACh), a known neurotransmitter in animals and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) exists widely in plants, although its role in plant signal transduction is unclear. We previously reported AChE in Zea mays L. might be related to gravitropism based on pharmacological study using an AChE inhibitor. Here we clearly demonstrate plant AChE play an important role as a positive regulator in the gravity response of plants based on a genetic study. First, the gene encoding a second component of the ACh-mediated signal transduction system, AChE was cloned from rice, Oryza sativa L. ssp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare. The rice AChE shared high homology with maize, siratro and Salicornia AChEs. Similar to animal and other plant AChEs, the rice AChE hydrolyzed acetylthiocholine and propionylthiocholine, but not butyrylthiocholine. Thus, the rice AChE might be characterized as an AChE (E.C.3.1.1.7). Similar to maize and siratro AChEs, the rice AChE exhibited low sensitivity to the AChE inhibitor, neostigmine bromide, compared with the electric eel AChE. Next, the functionality of rice AChE was proved by overexpression in rice plants. The rice AChE was localized in extracellular spaces of rice plants. Further, the rice AChE mRNA and its activity were mainly detected during early developmental stages (2 d-10 d after sowing). Finally, by comparing AChE up-regulated plants with wild-type, we found that AChE overexpression causes an enhanced gravitropic response. This result clearly suggests that the function of the rice AChE relate to positive regulation of gravitropic response in rice seedlings. PMID:26277389

  12. Resistance of Rice Varieties to the Stored-Product Insect, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Antunes, Catarina; Mendes, Raquel; Lima, Arlindo; Barros, Graça; Fields, Paul; Da Costa, Luísa Beirão; Rodrigues, José Carlos; Silva, Maria José; Correia, Augusto Manuel; Carvalho, Maria Otilia

    2016-02-01

    Four common Portuguese rice varieties--Thaibonnet, Gladio, Albatros, and Eurosis--were tested for their relative susceptibility to Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, a common pest of stored rice in Portugal and in tropical countries. Physical (moisture content, hardness, length, and width) and chemical (by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) properties of rice kernels were measured. Insect bioassays measured median developmental time, Dobie's index of susceptibility, percentage of damaged grains and weight loss, and progeny developed. This was done for paddy, brown rice, and polished rice for each variety. There were small, but significant, differences in insect resistance among the varieties. However, it was different for paddy and polished rice. In paddy, these differences were correlated with hull damage, and Eurosis was the most susceptible variety. In polished rice, resistance was correlated with hardness, and Thaibonnet was the most susceptible variety. In general, paddy rice was more resistant to insect attack, followed by polished rice and then brown rice. Paddy kernels selected with undamaged hull were completely resistant to attack. Implications for IPM and breeding for resistant varieties are discussed. PMID:26357843

  13. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Common Cold Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page ... Help people who are suffering from the common cold by volunteering for NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials. ...

  14. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds. You can get a cold by touching your ...

  15. Resequencing rice genomes: an emerging new era of rice genomics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuehui; Lu, Tingting; Han, Bin

    2013-04-01

    Rice is a model system for crop genomics studies. Much of the early work on rice genomics focused on analyzing genome-wide genetic variation to further understand rice gene functions in agronomic traits and to generate data and resources for rice research. The advent of next-generation high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies and the completion of high-quality reference genome sequences have enabled the development of sequencing-based genotyping and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that have significantly advanced rice genetics research. This has led to the emergence of a new era of rice genomics aimed at bridging the knowledge gap between genotype and phenotype in rice. These technologies have also led to pyramid breeding through genomics-assisted selection, which will be useful in breeding elite varieties suitable for sustainable agriculture. Here, we review the recent advances in rice genomics and discuss the future of this line of research. PMID:23295340

  16. Sugarcane rice residue biochars and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sugarcane production in U.S. involves either pre-harvest burning or after-harvest burning of the residue. Approximately 70-90% of the dry matter of harvested sugarcane trash is lost through open field burning. This practice has caused considerable concerns over air quality and soil sustainability. We propose an alternative conservation approach to convert the sugarcane residue to biochar and used as soil amendment to conserve carbon and potentially improve soil fertility. In this study, fundamental properties of biochars made from sugarcane residue along with rice residues were tested for agronomic and environmental benefits. Sugarcane and rice harvest residues and milling processing byproducts bagasse and rice husk were converted to biochars at different pyrolysis temperatures and characterized. In general, sugarcane leave biochar contained more P, K, Ca and Mg than sugarcane bagasse biochar. Rice straw biochar had more S, K Ca but less P than rice husk biochar. Both biochars had higher available fraction of total P than that of total K. Sugarcane leave biochar converted at 450oC was dominated with various lignin derived phenols as well as non-specific aromatic compounds whereas bagasse biochar was with both lignin derived phenol and poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Rice straw char was dominated with non-specific aromatic compounds. At 750oC, charred material was dominated with aromatic ethers while losing the aromatic C=C structures. These molecular and surface property differences likely contributed to the difference in water holding capacities observed with these biochars. On the other hand, rice straw biochars produced at different pyrolysis temperatures had no significant effect on rice germination. Soils treated with sugarcane leave/trash biochar significantly enhanced sugarcane growth especially the root length. Treating soil with either sugarcane leave or bagasse char also enhanced soil adsorption capacity of atrazine; a common herbicide used in sugarcane

  17. Ecotoxicology of wild mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Shore, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    An international group of 32 scientists has critically reviewed the scientific literature on exposure and effects of environmental contaminants in wild mammals. Although the absolute number of toxicological studies in domesticated and wild mammals eclipses that for birds, a detailed examination of scientific publications and databases reveal that information for 'wild' birds is actually greater than that for 'wild' mammals. Of the various taxa of mammals, ecotoxicological data is most noticeably lacking for marsupials and monotremes. In contrast, rodents (comprising 43% of all mammal species) have been studied extensively, despite evidence of their tolerance to some organochlorine compounds, rodenticides, and even radionuclides. Mammalian species at greatest risk of exposure include those that consume a high percentage of their body weight on a daily basis (e.g., shrews, moles and bats). Aquatic mammals tend to bioaccumulate tremendous burdens of lipophilic contaminants, although storage in their fat depots may actually limit toxicity. Carnivores appear to be more sensitive to adverse effects of environmental contaminants than herbivores. Remarkably few of the thousands of compounds manufactured worldwide have been toxicologically evaluated in wild mammals, and concentrations of even fewer have been monitored in tissues. Overarching research needs include: development of new exposure/effects models and better methods for estimation of species sensitivities; generation of comparative data on contaminant bioavailability, sublethal responses and detoxication mechanisms; enhanced understanding of pesticide, industrial contaminant and metal interactions; identification of endocrine disruptive contaminants and their overall ecological significance; and finally, estimating the relative contribution of environmental contamination as a factor affecting wild mammal populations.

  18. A new method of utilizing rice husk: consecutively preparing D-xylose, organosolv lignin, ethanol and amorphous superfine silica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongxi; Ding, Xuefeng; Chen, Xue; Ma, Yuejia; Wang, Zichen; Zhao, Xu

    2015-06-30

    Rice husk is an abundant agricultural by-product with the annual output of 120 and 40 million tons in the world and China, respectively. The common disposal method of rice husk in China has caused the pollution. This manuscript deals with a new method of comprehensively utilizing rice husk, by which hazardous materials are avoided to release. 100.3, 219.4, 50.1 and 170.5 g of D-xylose, organosolv lignin, ethanol and superfine silica are consecutively prepared from 1000 g of rice husk. This new method is helpful to resolving the problem of pollution and waste aroused by rice husk. PMID:25768989

  19. Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A1234

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jian; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Genetically engineered “Golden Rice” contains up to 35 μg β-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice β-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status. Objective: The objective was to determine the vitamin A value of intrinsically labeled dietary Golden Rice in humans. Design: Golden Rice plants were grown hydroponically with heavy water (deuterium oxide) to generate deuterium-labeled [2H]β-carotene in the rice grains. Golden Rice servings of 65–98 g (130–200 g cooked rice) containing 0.99–1.53 mg β-carotene were fed to 5 healthy adult volunteers (3 women and 2 men) with 10 g butter. A reference dose of [13C10]retinyl acetate (0.4–1.0 mg) in oil was given to each volunteer 1 wk before ingestion of the Golden Rice dose. Blood samples were collected over 36 d. Results: Our results showed that the mean (±SD) area under the curve for the total serum response to [2H]retinol was 39.9 ± 20.7 μg·d after the Golden Rice dose. Compared with that of the [13C10]retinyl acetate reference dose (84.7 ± 34.6 μg·d), Golden Rice β-carotene provided 0.24–0.94 mg retinol. Thus, the conversion factor of Golden Rice β-carotene to retinol is 3.8 ± 1.7 to 1 with a range of 1.9–6.4 to 1 by weight, or 2.0 ± 0.9 to 1 with a range of 1.0–3.4 to 1 by moles. Conclusion: β-Carotene derived from Golden Rice is effectively converted to vitamin A in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00680355. PMID:19369372

  20. Proteomic analysis of endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Qian, Dandan; Tian, Lihong; Qu, Leqing

    2015-01-01

    The defects in storage proteins secretion in the endosperm of transgenic rice seeds often leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which produces floury and shrunken seeds, but the mechanism of this response remains unclear. We used an iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis of ER-stressed rice seeds due to the endosperm-specific suppression of OsSar1 to identify changes in the protein levels in response to ER stress. ER stress changed the expression of 405 proteins in rice seed by >2.0- fold compared with the wild-type control. Of these proteins, 140 were upregulated and 265 were downregulated. The upregulated proteins were mainly involved in protein modification, transport and degradation, and the downregulated proteins were mainly involved in metabolism and stress/defense responses. A KOBAS analysis revealed that protein-processing in the ER and degradation-related proteasome were the predominant upregulated pathways in the rice endosperm in response to ER stress. Trans-Golgi protein transport was also involved in the ER stress response. Combined with bioinformatic and molecular biology analyses, our proteomic data will facilitate our understanding of the systemic responses to ER stress in rice seeds. PMID:26395408

  1. Molecular analysis of rice plant mutated after space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Z.; Li, C.; Wei, L.; Xu, D.; Gu, D.; Guan, S.; Zhao, H.; Xin, P.; Sun, Y.

    We have obtained several rice mutants planted from seeds flown on recoverable satellites. Some new traits, such as good yields, diseases resistances and higher nutrient values, have been identified, putatively as consequences of the space environment. Radiation inside the Chinese recoverable satellite was composed of low flux of high energy particles (>40 Mev/u). To study the mechanisms of plant mutations induced by the space environment, we used dry rice seeds as a model to identify the phenotype of mutations, and used the wealth of the rice genome to identify the mutated genes in the mutants. The research included collecting rice plant mutants in the seeds flown on the satellites, identifying the nature of genomic and proteomic alterations, modifications and identifying the functional changes of the specific genes. The study showed that the rice seeds are a good model for exploring biological effect of space environment since 1) it is easy fly the seeds without specific hardware and crew work, 2) it is easy to obtain pure mutant breed lines for cloning DNA sequence in order to compare with the sequence in the wild type, and 3) it is easy to quantitatively analyze genetics using advanced molecular techniques.

  2. Proteomic analysis of endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in rice seeds

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Dandan; Tian, Lihong; Qu, Leqing

    2015-01-01

    The defects in storage proteins secretion in the endosperm of transgenic rice seeds often leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which produces floury and shrunken seeds, but the mechanism of this response remains unclear. We used an iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis of ER-stressed rice seeds due to the endosperm-specific suppression of OsSar1 to identify changes in the protein levels in response to ER stress. ER stress changed the expression of 405 proteins in rice seed by >2.0- fold compared with the wild-type control. Of these proteins, 140 were upregulated and 265 were downregulated. The upregulated proteins were mainly involved in protein modification, transport and degradation, and the downregulated proteins were mainly involved in metabolism and stress/defense responses. A KOBAS analysis revealed that protein-processing in the ER and degradation-related proteasome were the predominant upregulated pathways in the rice endosperm in response to ER stress. Trans-Golgi protein transport was also involved in the ER stress response. Combined with bioinformatic and molecular biology analyses, our proteomic data will facilitate our understanding of the systemic responses to ER stress in rice seeds. PMID:26395408

  3. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  4. Rice Body Formation Within a Peri-Articular Shoulder Mass

    PubMed Central

    Caram, Anthony; Flores, Miguel; Scherer, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Most commonly associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, rice bodies represent an uncommon, nonspecific, often intra-articular inflammatory process. Presumably, rice bodies represent the sequelae of microvascular infarcts of the joint synovium. However, rice bodies have been seen in pleural fluid, in the setting of bursitis, and within the tendon sheath. The etiology and prognostic significance of rice bodies are not clear. MRI is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of rice body formation. Here we present a case of a 28-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who presented to her primary care physician with a palpable mass around her right shoulder which was presumed to be a lipoma. An initial ultrasound showed a fluid filled structure with internal debris. Subsequent MRI evaluation was confirmatory for subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis with rice body formation. The salient point of this report is to highlight the importance of patient-specific differential diagnosis. While lipomas are a very common benign soft tissue tumor, patients with RA often have disease-specific sequelae that should be included in the diagnostic deliberation. Thus, when ordering diagnostic testing for patients with a palpable mass and rheumatoid arthritis, MRI--possibly preceded by conventional radiography--is the most appropriate diagnostic algorithm.

  5. Rice Body Formation Within a Peri-Articular Shoulder Mass.

    PubMed

    Edison, Michele N; Caram, Anthony; Flores, Miguel; Scherer, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Most commonly associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, rice bodies represent an uncommon, nonspecific, often intra-articular inflammatory process. Presumably, rice bodies represent the sequelae of microvascular infarcts of the joint synovium. However, rice bodies have been seen in pleural fluid, in the setting of bursitis, and within the tendon sheath. The etiology and prognostic significance of rice bodies are not clear. MRI is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of rice body formation. Here we present a case of a 28-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who presented to her primary care physician with a palpable mass around her right shoulder which was presumed to be a lipoma. An initial ultrasound showed a fluid filled structure with internal debris. Subsequent MRI evaluation was confirmatory for subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis with rice body formation. The salient point of this report is to highlight the importance of patient-specific differential diagnosis. While lipomas are a very common benign soft tissue tumor, patients with RA often have disease-specific sequelae that should be included in the diagnostic deliberation. Thus, when ordering diagnostic testing for patients with a palpable mass and rheumatoid arthritis, MRI--possibly preceded by conventional radiography--is the most appropriate diagnostic algorithm. PMID:27625904

  6. Microarray Analysis of Rice d1 (RGA1) Mutant Reveals the Potential Role of G-Protein Alpha Subunit in Regulating Multiple Abiotic Stresses Such as Drought, Salinity, Heat, and Cold

    PubMed Central

    Jangam, Annie P.; Pathak, Ravi R.; Raghuram, Nandula

    2016-01-01

    The genome-wide role of heterotrimeric G-proteins in abiotic stress response in rice has not been examined from a functional genomics perspective, despite the availability of mutants and evidences involving individual genes/processes/stresses. Our rice whole transcriptome microarray analysis (GSE 20925 at NCBI GEO) using the G-alpha subunit (RGA1) null mutant (Daikoku 1 or d1) and its corresponding wild type (Oryza sativa Japonica Nipponbare) identified 2270 unique differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Out of them, we mined for all the potentially abiotic stress-responsive genes using Gene Ontology terms, STIFDB2.0 and Rice DB. The first two approaches produced smaller subsets of the 1886 genes found at Rice DB. The GO approach revealed similar regulation of several families of stress-responsive genes in RGA1 mutant. The Genevestigator analysis of the stress-responsive subset of the RGA1-regulated genes from STIFDB revealed cold and drought-responsive clusters. Meta data analysis at Rice DB revealed large stress-response categories such as cold (878 up/810 down), drought (882 up/837 down), heat (913 up/777 down), and salt stress (889 up/841 down). One thousand four hundred ninety-eight of them are common to all the four abiotic stresses, followed by fewer genes common to smaller groups of stresses. The RGA1-regulated genes that uniquely respond to individual stresses include 111 in heat stress, eight each in cold only and drought only stresses, and two genes in salt stress only. The common DEGs (1498) belong to pathways such as the synthesis of polyamine, glycine-betaine, proline, and trehalose. Some of the common DEGs belong to abiotic stress signaling pathways such as calcium-dependent pathway, ABA independent and dependent pathway, and MAP kinase pathway in the RGA1 mutant. Gene ontology of the common stress responsive DEGs revealed 62 unique molecular functions such as transporters, enzyme regulators, transferases, hydrolases, carbon and protein metabolism

  7. Microarray Analysis of Rice d1 (RGA1) Mutant Reveals the Potential Role of G-Protein Alpha Subunit in Regulating Multiple Abiotic Stresses Such as Drought, Salinity, Heat, and Cold.

    PubMed

    Jangam, Annie P; Pathak, Ravi R; Raghuram, Nandula

    2016-01-01

    The genome-wide role of heterotrimeric G-proteins in abiotic stress response in rice has not been examined from a functional genomics perspective, despite the availability of mutants and evidences involving individual genes/processes/stresses. Our rice whole transcriptome microarray analysis (GSE 20925 at NCBI GEO) using the G-alpha subunit (RGA1) null mutant (Daikoku 1 or d1) and its corresponding wild type (Oryza sativa Japonica Nipponbare) identified 2270 unique differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Out of them, we mined for all the potentially abiotic stress-responsive genes using Gene Ontology terms, STIFDB2.0 and Rice DB. The first two approaches produced smaller subsets of the 1886 genes found at Rice DB. The GO approach revealed similar regulation of several families of stress-responsive genes in RGA1 mutant. The Genevestigator analysis of the stress-responsive subset of the RGA1-regulated genes from STIFDB revealed cold and drought-responsive clusters. Meta data analysis at Rice DB revealed large stress-response categories such as cold (878 up/810 down), drought (882 up/837 down), heat (913 up/777 down), and salt stress (889 up/841 down). One thousand four hundred ninety-eight of them are common to all the four abiotic stresses, followed by fewer genes common to smaller groups of stresses. The RGA1-regulated genes that uniquely respond to individual stresses include 111 in heat stress, eight each in cold only and drought only stresses, and two genes in salt stress only. The common DEGs (1498) belong to pathways such as the synthesis of polyamine, glycine-betaine, proline, and trehalose. Some of the common DEGs belong to abiotic stress signaling pathways such as calcium-dependent pathway, ABA independent and dependent pathway, and MAP kinase pathway in the RGA1 mutant. Gene ontology of the common stress responsive DEGs revealed 62 unique molecular functions such as transporters, enzyme regulators, transferases, hydrolases, carbon and protein metabolism

  8. Student Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  9. Reduced Dependence of Crested Ibis on Winter-Flooded Rice Fields: Implications for Their Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yiwen; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Wang, Tiejun; van Gils, Hein A. M. J.; Wang, Qi; Qing, Baoping; Ding, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    The Crested Ibis Nipponia nippon was once thought to be extinct in the wild until seven birds were discovered in a remote mountain village in China in 1981. Studies suggested that winter-flooded rice fields play an essential role in nest site selection by the Crested Ibis and hence in their survival. Considerable efforts were therefore made to conserve the winter-flooded rice fields, but these have caused conflicts between the agricultural and conservation communities. The population and geographical range of the wild Crested Ibis has expanded greatly since 1981, but there is no spatial information on the winter-flooded rice fields, nor on the current association of nest sites and winter-flooded rice fields. We mapped winter-flooded rice fields across the entire current range of Crested Ibis using innovative remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS) techniques. The spatial relationships between the nest site clusters and winter-flooded rice fields were quantified using Ward's hierarchical clustering method and Ripley's K-function. We show that both have significantly clumped distribution patterns and that they are positively associated. However, the dependence of Crested Ibis on the winter-flooded rice fields varied significantly among the nest site clusters and has decreased over the years, indicating the absence of winter-flooded rice fields is not constraining their recovery and population expansion. We therefore recommend that efforts should be made to protect the existing winter-flooded rice fields and to restore the functionality of natural and semi-natural wetlands, to encourage both in-situ conservation and the re-introduction of the Crested Ibis. In addition, we recommend that caution should be exercised when interpreting the habitat requirements of species with a narrow distribution, particularly when that interpretation is based only on their current habitat. PMID:24874870

  10. Organic rice disease management using genetic resistance, cover crop and organic fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The strong market demand for organic rice has driven the continued increase of organic rice production in the US. However, growers still lack effective tools to manage narrow brown leaf spot (NBLS) caused by Cercospora janseana and brown spot caused by Cochliobolus miyabeanus, two common diseases af...

  11. PEDIGREE AND DNA MARKER ANALYSIS OF BLAST RESISTANCE GENES IN US RICE GERMPLASM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blast resistance genes have been effectively used in southern US rice germplasm to reduce crop losses from this serious disease threat. Historical records indicate the most common blast resistance genes in USA rice germplasm are Pi-z and Pi-ks in medium grain and Pi-kh and Pi-ta2 in long grain varie...

  12. Biocontrol-based sheath blight management to reduce fungicide use on rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheath blight (ShB) caused by Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important rice diseases in Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi, and other southern states. The lack of complete ShB resistance in the most commonly planted varieties and the severity of this disease results in southern U.S. rice farmers ap...

  13. PGPR: A novel strategy for the control of rice sheath blight disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani is the most important rice disease in Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi and other southern states. Due to the lack of sheath blight resistance in most commonly planted cultivars, southern rice famers apply more than 1 million pounds of fungicides annually to co...

  14. William Wilde: Historian.

    PubMed

    Geary, L

    2016-05-01

    This essay attempts to assess William Wilde as a social historian. It examines some of his contributions to the discipline of history and looks particularly at 'The food of the Irish', which was published in the Dublin University Magazine in February 1854. PMID:26969457

  15. Endangered Species: Wild & Rare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Endangered Species: Wild and Rare." Contents are organized into the following…

  16. Taming the Wild Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allyn, Pam

    2012-01-01

    As a well-known advocate for promoting wider reading and reading engagement among all children--and founder of a reading program for foster children--Pam Allyn knows that struggling readers often face any printed text with fear and confusion, like Max in the book Where the Wild Things Are. She argues that teachers need to actively create a…

  17. Blastomycosis in wild wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiel, R.P.; Mech, L.D.; Ruth, G.R.; Archer, J.R.; Kaufman, L.

    1987-01-01

    Blastomycosis was fatal to a wild wolf in Minnesota, and serologic evidence of blastomycosis was found in a Wisconsin wolf. No unusual movements were detected in the Minnesota animal from October 1983 through October 1985. However, by early December 1985, this wolf was weak and debilitated, and it perished on 14 December after approaching a human residence.

  18. Marc Chagall: "Wild Poppies."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Carolyn

    1987-01-01

    Based on a full-color reproduction of Marc Chagall's painting, "Wild Poppies," the goals of this lesson plan are to introduce students to artist's use of dreams and memories in making art, to communicate the idea that artists include their visual memories of people and things they love in their artwork, and to introduce the concepts of line and…

  19. Wild and Crafty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Wild & Crafty." It contains a variety of craft ideas related to animal life…

  20. Echolocation signals of wild dolphins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, W. W. L.

    2004-07-01

    Most of our understanding of dolphin echolocation has come from studies of captive dolphins performing various echolocation tasks. Recently, measurements of echolocation signals in the wild have expanded our understanding of the characteristics of these signals in a natural setting. Measuring undistorted dolphin echolocation signals with free swimming dolphins in the field can be a challenging task. A four hydrophone array arranged in a symmetrical star pattern was used to measure the echolocation signals of four species of dolphins in the wild. Echolocation signals of the following dolphins have been measured with the symmetrical star array: white-beaked dolphins in Iceland, Atlantic spotted dolphins in the Bahamas, killer whales in British Columbia, and dusky dolphins in New Zealand. There are many common features in the echolocation signals of the different species. Most of the signals had spectra that were bimodal: two peaks, one at low frequencies and another about an octave higher in frequency. The source level of the sonar transmission varies as a function of 20log R, suggesting a form of time-varying gain but on the transmitting end of the sonar process rather than the receiving end. The results of the field work call into question the issue of whether the signals used by captive dolphins may be shaped by the task they are required to perform rather than what they would do more naturally.

  1. WAHIS-Wild and its interface: the OIE worldwide monitoring system for wild animal diseases.

    PubMed

    Jebara, Karim Ben

    2016-06-30

    Wild animal diseases are a global growing concern, given the threat that they pose to animal health and their zoonotic potential. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) was among the first organisations to recognise the importance of having a comprehensive knowledge of the disease situation in wild animals, collecting information on wildlife diseases worldwide since 1993, when for the first time an annual questionnaire was distribute by OIE to members Countries in order to collect qualitative and quantitative data on selected diseases in wild animals. Starting with 2008 until 2012 an updated version of questionnaire was circulated to allow for identifying wildlife species by their Latin name and by their common names in the 3 OIE official languages (English, French, and Spanish). This specific functionality was then implemented in the World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS) in 2012, when this information was made available to the public through WAHIS-Wild Interface. PMID:27393871

  2. A Double Built-In Containment Strategy for Production of Recombinant Proteins in Transgenic Rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sinan; Shen, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    Using transgenic rice as a bioreactor for mass production of pharmaceutical proteins could potentially reduce the cost of production significantly. However, a major concern over the bioreactor transgenic rice is the risk of its unintended spreading into environment and into food or feed supplies. Here we report a mitigating method to prevent unwanted transgenic rice spreading by a double built-in containment strategy, which sets a selectively termination method and a visual tag technology in the T-DNA for transformation. We created transgenic rice with an inserted T-DNA that harbors a human proinsulin gene fused with the far-red fluorescent protein gene mKate_S158A, an RNAi cassette suppressing the expression of the rice bentazon detoxification enzyme CYP81A6, and an EPSPS gene as the selection marker for transformation. Herbicide spray tests indicated that such transgenic rice plants can be killed selectively by a spray of bentazon at regular field application dosage for rice weed control. Moreover, the transgenic rice seeds were bright red in color due to the fused far-red fluorescent protein, and could be easily visualized under daylight by naked eyes. Thus, the transgenic rice plants reported in this study could be selectively killed by a commonly used herbicide during their growth stage, and their seeds may be detected visually during processing and consumption after harvest. This double built-in containment strategy may greatly enhance the confinement of the transgenic rice. PMID:25531447

  3. Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR). Though brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations instead of the commonly consumed WR that is known to promote oxidative stress. This will then provide further reasons why less consumption of WR should be encouraged. We studied the effects of GBR on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats, induced using a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection, and also evaluated the effects of WR, BR and GBR on catalase and superoxide dismutase genes. As dietary components, BR and GBR improved glycemia and kidney hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, and prevented the deterioration of total antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats. Similarly, GBR preserved liver enzymes, as well as serum creatinine. There seem to be evidence that upregulation of superoxide dismutase gene may likely be an underlying mechanism for antioxidant effects of BR and GBR. Our results provide insight into the effects of different rice types on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetes. The results also suggest that WR consumption, contrary to BR and GBR, may worsen antioxidant status that may lead to more damage by free radicals. From the data so far, the antioxidant effects of BR and GBR are worth studying further especially on a long term to determine their effects on development of oxidative stress-related problems, which WR consumption predisposes to. PMID:23202932

  4. Epigenetic Inheritance in Rice Plants

    PubMed Central

    Akimoto, Keiko; Katakami, Hatsue; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Ogawa, Emiko; Sano, Cecile M.; Wada, Yuko; Sano, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Epigenetics is defined as mechanisms that regulate gene expression without base sequence alteration. One molecular basis is considered to be DNA cytosine methylation, which reversibly modifies DNA or chromatin structures. Although its correlation with epigenetic inheritance over generations has been circumstantially shown, evidence at the gene level has been limited. The present study aims to find genes whose methylation status directly correlates with inheritance of phenotypic changes. Methods DNA methylation in vivo was artificially reduced by treating rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica) seeds with 5-azadeoxycytidine, and the progeny were cultivated in the field for > 10 years. Genomic regions with changed methylation status were screened by the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphysm (MSAP) method, and cytosine methylation was directly scanned by the bisulfite mapping method. Pathogen infection with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, race PR2 was performed by the scissors-dip method on mature leaf blades. Key Results The majority of seedlings were lethal, but some survived to maturity. One line designated as Line-2 showed a clear marker phenotype of dwarfism, which was stably inherited by the progeny over nine generations. MSAP screening identified six fragments, among which two were further characterized by DNA blot hybridization and direct methylation mapping. One clone encoding a retrotransposon gag–pol polyprotein showed a complete erasure of 5-methylcytosines in Line-2, but neither translocation nor expression of this region was detectable. The other clone encoded an Xa21-like protein, Xa21G. In wild-type plants, all cytosines were methylated within the promoter region, whereas in Line-2, corresponding methylation was completely erased throughout generations. Expression of Xa21G was not detectable in wild type but was constitutive in Line-2. When infected with X. oryzae pv. oryzae, against which Xa21 confers resistance in a gene

  5. Effect of rice variety and nutrient management on rice productivity in organic rice system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for organic rice has been increasing for decades. However, the information on sustainable organic rice production systems is still lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of soil amendment products, nitrogen rate, and variety on rice grain yield, yield components, ...

  6. Survey of arsenic and its speciation in rice products such as breakfast cereals, rice crackers and Japanese rice condiments.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guo-Xin; Williams, Paul N; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Deacon, Claire; Carey, Anne-Marie; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Meharg, Andrew A

    2009-04-01

    Rice has been demonstrated to be one of the major contributors to arsenic (As) in human diets in addition to drinking water, but little is known about rice products as an additional source of As exposure. Rice products were analyzed for total As and a subset of samples were measured for arsenic speciation using high performance liquid chromatography interfaced with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). A wide range of rice products had total and inorganic arsenic levels that typified those found in rice grain including, crisped rice, puffed rice, rice crackers, rice noodles and a range of Japanese rice condiments as well as rice products targeted at the macrobiotic, vegan, lactose intolerant and gluten intolerance food market. Most As in rice products are inorganic As (75.2-90.1%). This study provides a wider appreciation of how inorganic arsenic derived from rice products enters the human diet. PMID:18775567

  7. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) containing the bar gene is compositionally equivalent to the nontransgenic counterpart.

    PubMed

    Oberdoerfer, Regina B; Shillito, Raymond D; de Beuckeleer, Marc; Mitten, Donna H

    2005-03-01

    This publication presents an approach to assessing compositional equivalence between grain derived from glufosinate-tolerant rice grain, genetic event LLRICE62, and its nontransgenic counterpart. Rice was grown in the same manner as is common for commercial production, using either conventional weed control practices or glufosinate-ammonium herbicide. A two-season multisite trial design provided a robust data set to evaluate environmental effects between the sites. Statistical comparisons to test for equivalence were made between glufosinate-tolerant rice and a conventional counterpart variety. The key nutrients, carbohydrates, protein, iron, calcium, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin, for which rice can be the principal dietary source, were investigated. The data demonstrate that rice containing the genetic locus LLRICE62 has the same nutritional value as its nontransgenic counterpart, and most results for nutritional components fall within the range of values reported for rice commodities in commerce. PMID:15740024

  8. Nutritional Properties of Some Edible Wild Mushrooms in Sabah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kian Shin, Chong; Fook Yee, Chye; Jau Shya, Lee; Atong, Markus

    Ten edible wild mushrooms that were commonly consumed by the native of Sabah were identified as Lentinellus omphallodes, Lentinus cilliatus, Pleurotus sp1, Pleurotus sp2, Schizophyllum commune, Hygrocybe sp., Volvariella sp., Auricularia auricula, Trametes sp. The nutritive value of these wild mushrooms was determined. The protein content of the mushrooms ranged from 5-15% of dry weight, whereas most of the wild species were found to have low fat content (1-5%). Potassium is the most abundant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The sodium concentration was relatively low in all wild mushrooms. However, the calcium content in Pleurotus sp1 is 10 times higher than the cultivated mushrooms. Overall, the trace element concentrations across all wild mushrooms were in the order Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr. The high protein and low fat characteristic of these wild mushrooms indicating the need to further determine their amino acid and fatty acid profiles.

  9. Influenza infection in wild raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, J.S.; Bentler, K.T.; Landolt, G.; Elmore, S.A.; Minnis, R.B.; Campbell, T.A.; Barras, S.C.; Root, J.J.; Pilon, J.; Pabilonia, K.; Driscoll, C.; Slate, D.; Sullivan, H.; McLean, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are common, widely distributed animals that frequently come into contact with wild waterfowl, agricultural operations, and humans. Serosurveys showed that raccoons are exposed to avian influenza virus. We found antibodies to a variety of influenza virus subtypes (H10N7, H4N6, H4N2, H3, and H1) with wide geographic variation in seroprevalence. Experimental infection studies showed that raccoons become infected with avian and human influenza A viruses, shed and transmit virus to virus-free animals, and seroconvert. Analyses of cellular receptors showed that raccoons have avian and human type receptors with a similar distribution as found in human respiratory tracts. The potential exists for co-infection of multiple subtypes of influenza virus with genetic reassortment and creation of novel strains of influenza virus. Experimental and field data indicate that raccoons may play an important role in influenza disease ecology and pose risks to agriculture and human health.

  10. Wild mammalian biomonitors for assessing impacts of environmental contamination on population and community ecology. Final technical report, 1 June 1991-31 October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Lochmiller, R.L.

    1994-10-31

    The overall objective of this research project was to explore the use of in situ bIomonitoring using wild mammalian animal models to assess ecotoxicity risks from petrochemical contaminants. We approached this objective by comparing the relative sensitivities of selected measures of metabolic, immunologic, genetic, and histopathologic toxicity (multiparameter model) in small-mammalian residents of terrestrial ecosystems contaminated with complex mixtures of petrochemicals (an abandoned oil refinery complex). Multiparameter response profiles of small mammals were evaluated relative to results from common laboratory bioassay tests (fathead minnow survival, rice seed germination test, etc.) and soil chemical analyses to determine their ability to predict ecotoxicity risks (as indexed by demographic changes in the small mammal community). Our principal in situ biomonitor was the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus), which is the dominant member of the small mammal community on 3 uncontaminated reference and 3 heavy metal-petrochemical contaminated study sites. Chemical analyses of soil and soil extracts identified a variety of heavy metal and organic contaminants on the 3 suspected toxic study sites, which was reflected in common laboratory bioassay results using fathead minnow, microtox, rice seed germination, and Ceriodaphnia assays.

  11. RICE IDENTITY TESTING USING DNA MARKER ANALYSIS OF PROCESSEDOR ARCHIVED RICE TISSUE AND RICE-INGREDIENT FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highly regarded reputation of USA rice in the world marketplace rice has been achieved by delivering rice and rice products that meet rigorous standards of uniformity and quality. In this regard, seed dealers, farmers, millers, and processors are concerned that the rice seed they are handling is...

  12. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the most common reason that children miss school and parents miss work. Parents often get colds ... other children. A cold can spread quickly through schools or daycares. Colds can occur at any time ...

  13. Molecular identification of trypanosomatids in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Tenório, M S; Oliveira e Sousa, L; Alves-Martin, M F; Paixão, M S; Rodrigues, M V; Starke-Buzetti, W A; Araújo Junior, J P; Lucheis, S B

    2014-06-16

    Diverse wild animal species can be reservoirs of zoonotic flagellate parasites, which can cause pathologic Chagas disease. The present study aimed to detect the natural occurrence of flagellate parasites through direct microscopic examination of the parasites in blood samples and through PCR of whole blood and blood culture (haemoculture) samples from 38 captive and 65 free-living wild animals in the Centre for Conservation of Wild Fauna (CCWF), an area endemic for leishmaniasis. For this study, PCR was accomplished using primers for the ribosomal region (ITS-1) of the flagellate parasites. The amplified fragments were cloned and sequenced to identify DNA of the Trypanosomatid parasite species, observed in blood cultures from 3.9% (04/103) of the animals. Through these techniques, Trypanosoma cruzi was identified in haemoculture samples of the following three free-living species: common agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris), and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus). Furthermore, Trypanosoma minasense was identified in whole blood samples from 01 (0.9%) captive animal (black howler monkey-Alouatta caraya). These results demonstrated the first report of T. cruzi isolation in wild species from the CCWF using blood culture, which can be applied in addition to molecular tools for epidemiological studies and to identify trypanosomatids in wild animals. PMID:24636787

  14. An adjuvant free mouse model of oral allergenic sensitization to rice seeds protein

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rice is commonly known as a staple crop consumed worldwide, though with several rice proteins being reported for allergic properties in clinical studies. Thus, there is a growing need for the development of an animal model to better understand the allergenicity of rice proteins and the immunological and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of food allergy. Methods Groups of BALB/c mice were sensitized daily with freshly homogenized rice flour (30 mg or 80 mg) without adjuvant by intragastric gavage. In addition, the mice were challenged with extracted rice flour proteins at several time points intragastrically. Hypersensitivity symptoms in mice were evaluated according to a scoring system. Vascular leakage, ELISA of rice protein-specific IgE, histopathology of small intestine, and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis were conducted on challenged mice. Results An adjuvant free mouse model of rice allergy was established with sensitized mice showing increased scratching behaviors and increased vascular permeability. Rice protein-specific IgE was detected after eighteen days of sensitization and from the fifth challenge onwards. Inflammatory damage to the epithelium in the small intestine of mice was observed beyond one month of sensitization. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis results confirmed the positive rice allergy in the mouse model. Conclusions We introduced a BALB/c mouse model of rice allergy with simple oral sensitization without the use of adjuvant. This model would serve as a useful tool for further analysis on the immunopathogenic mechanisms of the various rice allergens, for the evaluation of the hypersensitivity of rice or other cereal grains, and to serve as a platform for the development of immunotherapies against rice allergens. PMID:21605393

  15. Oryza rufipogon as a source of yield improvement in cultivated rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oryza rufipogon is a wild relative of the cultivated species, Oryza sativa, and has been found to possess genes associated with yield improvement and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. We have been exploring the use of O. rufipogon as a genetic resource for yield improvement in the USA rice ...

  16. Nitrogen uptake and use efficiency in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is a staple food for a large proportion of the world’s population. Most of the rice is produced and consumed in Asia. Rice is produced in both upland and lowland systems, with about 76% of the global rice produced from irrigated-lowland rice systems. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important in...

  17. Rice disease management under organic production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in organic rice production has increased because of the increased market demand for organic rice. Texas organic rice acreage has constantly increased over the last decade, reaching 32,000 acres in 2012. Texas is now the leading state in organic rice production in the U.S. Organic rice is p...

  18. Organic Rice Production: Challenges and Opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The market demand for organically produced rice has grown steadily with the majority of the acreage now being located in Texas and California. A wide range of organic products are marketed including conventional long and medium grain rice, aromatic or scented rice, rice with colored bran, and rice f...

  19. Wild Duck Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    On April 7, 2005, the Deep Impact spacecraft's Impactor Target Sensor camera recorded this image of M11, the Wild Duck cluster, a galactic open cluster located 6 thousand light years away. The camera is located on the impactor spacecraft, which will image comet Tempel 1 beginning 22 hours before impact until about 2 seconds before impact. Impact with comet Tempel 1 is planned for July 4, 2005.

  20. Wild atom: Nuclear terrorism

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    Nuclear explosives are no longer beyond the reach of terrorists. The wild Atom simulation demonstrated that, because interdiction is difficult, governments must combat illicit possession of nuclear weapons, improve working relationships among domestic agencies, and curb rivalries among national and international counterproliferation and counterterrorism officials. If a nuclear incident occurs, officials must be trained for consequence management; the national security community and the national disaster medical community should be well practiced in working together and with experts in other countries.

  1. Constitutive expression of pathogen-inducible OsWRKY31 enhances disease resistance and affects root growth and auxin response in transgenic rice plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Peng, Youliang; Guo, Zejian

    2008-04-01

    WRKY transcription factors have many regulatory roles in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we isolated a rice WRKY gene (OsWRKY31) that is induced by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea and auxin. This gene encodes a polypeptide of 211 amino-acid residues and belongs to a subgroup of the rice WRKY gene family that probably originated after the divergence of monocot and dicot plants. OsWRKY31 was found to be localized to the nucleus of onion epidermis cells to transiently express OsWRKY31-eGFP fusion protein. Analysis of OsWRKY31 and its mutants fused with a Gal4 DNA-binding domain indicated that OsWRKY31 has transactivation activity in yeast. Overexpression of the OsWRKY31 gene was found to enhance resistance against infection with M. grisea, and the transgenic lines exhibited reduced lateral root formation and elongation compared with wild-type and RNAi plants. The lines with overexpression showed constitutive expression of many defense-related genes, such as PBZ1 and OsSci2, as well as early auxin-response genes, such as OsIAA4 and OsCrl1 genes. Furthermore, the plants with overexpression were less sensitive to exogenously supplied IBA, NAA and 2,4-D at high concentrations, suggesting that overexpression of the OsWRKY31 gene might alter the auxin response or transport. These results also suggest that OsWRKY31 might be a common component in the signal transduction pathways of the auxin response and the defense response in rice. PMID:18071364

  2. Exploring Japan through Rice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the role of rice in Japanese culture by presenting historical background and teaching activities in a variety of categories, such as language, sociology, history, and contemporary politics. Suggests teachers create cross-cultural comparisons; for example, the role of corn in the United States. Provides a list of teacher resources. (CMK)

  3. Rice: chemistry and technology.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice has taken center stage this last decade, not only as an important provider of nourishment for the world’s population, but as a grain now recognized as having many unique nutritional and functional attributes with potential to be captured in a multitude of value-added food and non-food applicati...

  4. The Rice Aquaporin Lsi1 Mediates Uptake of Methylated Arsenic Species1[W

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ren-Ying; Ago, Yukiko; Liu, Wen-Ju; Mitani, Namiki; Feldmann, Jörg; McGrath, Steve P.; Ma, Jian Feng; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2009-01-01

    Pentavalent methylated arsenic (As) species such as monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)] are used as herbicides or pesticides, and can also be synthesized by soil microorganisms or algae through As methylation. The mechanism of MMA(V) and DMA(V) uptake remains unknown. Recent studies have shown that arsenite is taken up by rice (Oryza sativa) roots through two silicon transporters, Lsi1 (the aquaporin NIP2;1) and Lsi2 (an efflux carrier). Here we investigated whether these two transporters also mediate the uptake of MMA(V) and DMA(V). MMA(V) was partly reduced to trivalent MMA(III) in rice roots, but only MMA(V) was translocated to shoots. DMA(V) was stable in plants. The rice lsi1 mutant lost about 80% and 50% of the uptake capacity for MMA(V) and DMA(V), respectively, compared with the wild-type rice, whereas Lsi2 mutation had little effect. The short-term uptake kinetics of MMA(V) can be described by a Michaelis-Menten plus linear model, with the wild type having 3.5-fold higher Vmax than the lsi1 mutant. The uptake kinetics of DMA(V) were linear with the slope being 2.8-fold higher in the wild type than the lsi1 mutant. Heterologous expression of Lsi1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes significantly increased the uptake of MMA(V) but not DMA(V), possibly because of a very limited uptake of the latter. Uptake of MMA(V) and DMA(V) by wild-type rice was increased as the pH of the medium decreased, consistent with an increasing proportion of the undissociated species. The results demonstrate that Lsi1 mediates the uptake of undissociated methylated As in rice roots. PMID:19542298

  5. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  6. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  7. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice... (percent) Removed by a 5 plate 3 (percent) Removed by a 6 plate 3 (percent) Through a 6 sieve 3...

  8. Development of Novel Glyphosate-Tolerant Japonica Rice Lines: A Step Toward Commercial Release.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ying; Huang, Shuqing; Liu, Ziduo; Yi, Shuyuan; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide for its low cost and high efficiency. However, it is rarely applied directly in rice field due to its toxicity to rice. Therefore, glyphosate-tolerant rice can greatly decrease the cost of rice production and provide a more effective weed management strategy. Although, several approaches to develop transgenic rice with glyphosate tolerance have been reported, the agronomic performances of these plants have not been well evaluated, and the feasibility of commercial production has not been confirmed yet. Here, a novel glyphosate-tolerant gene cloned from the bacterium Isoptericola variabilis was identified, codon optimized (designated as I. variabilis-EPSPS (*)), and transferred into Zhonghua11, a widely used japonica rice cultivar. After systematic analysis of the transgene integration via PCR, Southern blot and flanking sequence isolation, three transgenic lines with only one intact I. variabilis-EPSPS (*) expression cassette integrated into intergenic regions were identified. Seed test results showed that the glyphosate tolerance of the transgenic rice was about 240 times that of wild type on plant medium. The glyphosate tolerance of transgenic rice lines was further evaluated based on comprehensive agronomic performances in the field with T3 and T5generations in a 2-year assay, which showed that they were rarely affected by glyphosate even when the dosage was 8400 g ha(-1). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the development of glyphosate-tolerant rice lines based on a comprehensive analysis of agronomic performances in the field. Taken together, the results suggest that the selected glyphosate-tolerant rice lines are highly tolerant to glyphosate and have the possibility of commercial release. I. variabilis-EPSPS (*) also can be a promising candidate gene in other species for developing glyphosate-tolerant crops. PMID:27625652

  9. Development of Novel Glyphosate-Tolerant Japonica Rice Lines: A Step Toward Commercial Release

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ying; Huang, Shuqing; Liu, Ziduo; Yi, Shuyuan; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide for its low cost and high efficiency. However, it is rarely applied directly in rice field due to its toxicity to rice. Therefore, glyphosate-tolerant rice can greatly decrease the cost of rice production and provide a more effective weed management strategy. Although, several approaches to develop transgenic rice with glyphosate tolerance have been reported, the agronomic performances of these plants have not been well evaluated, and the feasibility of commercial production has not been confirmed yet. Here, a novel glyphosate-tolerant gene cloned from the bacterium Isoptericola variabilis was identified, codon optimized (designated as I. variabilis-EPSPS*), and transferred into Zhonghua11, a widely used japonica rice cultivar. After systematic analysis of the transgene integration via PCR, Southern blot and flanking sequence isolation, three transgenic lines with only one intact I. variabilis-EPSPS* expression cassette integrated into intergenic regions were identified. Seed test results showed that the glyphosate tolerance of the transgenic rice was about 240 times that of wild type on plant medium. The glyphosate tolerance of transgenic rice lines was further evaluated based on comprehensive agronomic performances in the field with T3 and T5generations in a 2-year assay, which showed that they were rarely affected by glyphosate even when the dosage was 8400 g ha−1. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the development of glyphosate-tolerant rice lines based on a comprehensive analysis of agronomic performances in the field. Taken together, the results suggest that the selected glyphosate-tolerant rice lines are highly tolerant to glyphosate and have the possibility of commercial release. I. variabilis-EPSPS* also can be a promising candidate gene in other species for developing glyphosate-tolerant crops. PMID:27625652

  10. Overexpressing CYP71Z2 Enhances Resistance to Bacterial Blight by Suppressing Auxin Biosynthesis in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenqi; Wang, Fangquan; Wang, Jun; Fan, Fangjun; Zhu, Jinyan; Yang, Jie; Liu, Fengquan; Zhong, Weigong

    2015-01-01

    Background The hormone auxin plays an important role not only in the growth and development of rice, but also in its defense responses. We’ve previously shown that the P450 gene CYP71Z2 enhances disease resistance to pathogens through regulation of phytoalexin biosynthesis in rice, though it remains unclear if auxin is involved in this process or not. Methodology and Principal Findings The expression of CYP71Z2 was induced by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) inoculation was analyzed by qRT-PCR, with GUS histochemical staining showing that CYP71Z2 expression was limited to roots, blades and nodes. Overexpression of CYP71Z2 in rice durably and stably increased resistance to Xoo, though no significant difference in disease resistance was detected between CYP71Z2-RNA interference (RNAi) rice and wild-type. Moreover, IAA concentration was determined using the HPLC/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry system. The accumulation of IAA was significantly reduced in CYP71Z2-overexpressing rice regardless of whether plants were inoculated or not, whereas it was unaffected in CYP71Z2-RNAi rice. Furthermore, the expression of genes related to IAA, expansin and SA/JA signaling pathways was suppressed in CYP71Z2-overexpressing rice with or without inoculation. Conclusions and Significance These results suggest that CYP71Z2-mediated resistance to Xoo may be via suppression of IAA signaling in rice. Our studies also provide comprehensive insight into molecular mechanism of resistance to Xoo mediated by IAA in rice. Moreover, an available approach for understanding the P450 gene functions in interaction between rice and pathogens has been provided. PMID:25786239

  11. Gathering and Preparing Wild Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, A. Dudley; Williams, Robert A.

    1975-01-01

    Discussed are the applications of gathering and preparing wild foods to environmental, survival, career, and community education programs. It recommends wild foods activities be used to stimulate social and historical studies of "return-to-nature" life styles. Wild food study also emphasizes man as part of the environment. (MR)

  12. Cadmium Removal from Rice by Separating and Washing Protein Isolate.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yinqiang; Du, Hongying; Xue, Bingying; Niu, Meng; Zhao, Siming

    2016-06-01

    In this study detoxification of 3 Chinese Cd-contaminated cultivars (Jinyou463, Yuchi, and Xiangzaoxian 32) of rice was explored. By separation with an alkaline method, Cd concentrations of the starch isolates were decreased from 0.2769, 0.4037, and 0.5156 mg/kg in starting milled rice to 0.1056, 0.1585, and 0.1923 mg/kg, respectively. However, the Cd concentrations reached up to 2.5905, 3.1628, and 4.8593 mg/kg in the protein isolates, respectively. Therefore, 10 common acids in food industry were investigated to remove Cd from protein isolate by washing process. The optimal washing conditions were 0.5 M citric acid, acid to rice protein isolate ratio of 6:1 v/w, shaking time of 1 h at room temperature. The rice protein isolate showed a significant decrease in Cd concentration and the removal efficiency was more than 95% after 2 washings at optimized conditions. Rice proteins were not degraded at all and had very little loss during citric acid washing process. The study presents a promising way of depurating Cd-contaminated rice, and meanwhile it reduces the risk of heavy metal causing food safety issues effectively. PMID:27159878

  13. Rice Sheath Rot: An Emerging Ubiquitous Destructive Disease Complex

    PubMed Central

    Bigirimana, Vincent de P.; Hua, Gia K. H.; Nyamangyoku, Obedi I.; Höfte, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Around one century ago, a rice disease characterized mainly by rotting of sheaths was reported in Taiwan. The causal agent was identified as Acrocylindrium oryzae, later known as Sarocladium oryzae. Since then it has become clear that various other organisms can cause similar disease symptoms, including Fusarium sp. and fluorescent pseudomonads. These organisms have in common that they produce a range of phytotoxins that induce necrosis in plants. The same agents also cause grain discoloration, chaffiness, and sterility and are all seed-transmitted. Rice sheath rot disease symptoms are found in all rice-growing areas of the world. The disease is now getting momentum and is considered as an important emerging rice production threat. The disease can lead to variable yield losses, which can be as high as 85%. This review aims at improving our understanding of the disease etiology of rice sheath rot and mainly deals with the three most reported rice sheath rot pathogens: S. oryzae, the Fusarium fujikuroi complex, and Pseudomonas fuscovaginae. Causal agents, pathogenicity determinants, interactions among the various pathogens, epidemiology, geographical distribution, and control options will be discussed. PMID:26697031

  14. Phenolic and Short-Chained Aliphatic Organic Acid Constituents of Wild Oat (Avena fatua L.) Seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to identify and quantify the phenolic acids present in the seeds 3 of three wild-type populations of wild oat and compare these results to the phenolic acid 4 composition and concentration of seeds from two commonly utilized wild oat isolines (M73 and 5 SH430). Phe...

  15. Rice Glycosyltransferase (GT) Phylogenomic Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ronald, Pamela

    The Ronald Laboratory staff at the University of California-Davis has a primary research focus on the genes of the rice plant. They study the role that genetics plays in the way rice plants respond to their environment. They created the Rice GT Database in order to integrate functional genomic information for putative rice Glycosyltransferases (GTs). This database contains information on nearly 800 putative rice GTs (gene models) identified by sequence similarity searches based on the Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZy) database. The Rice GT Database provides a platform to display user-selected functional genomic data on a phylogenetic tree. This includes sequence information, mutant line information, expression data, etc. An interactive chromosomal map shows the position of all rice GTs, and links to rice annotation databases are included. The format is intended to "facilitate the comparison of closely related GTs within different families, as well as perform global comparisons between sets of related families." [From http://ricephylogenomics.ucdavis.edu/cellwalls/gt/genInfo.shtml] See also the primary paper discussing this work: Peijian Cao, Laura E. Bartley, Ki-Hong Jung and Pamela C. Ronalda. Construction of a Rice Glycosyltransferase Phylogenomic Database and Identification of Rice-Diverged Glycosyltransferases. Molecular Plant, 2008, 1(5): 858-877.

  16. Biofortification of rice with the essential amino acid lysine: molecular characterization, nutritional evaluation, and field performance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing-Qing; Zhang, Chang-Quan; Chan, Man-Ling; Zhao, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Jin-Zhu; Wang, Qing; Li, Qian-Feng; Yu, Heng-Xiu; Gu, Ming-Hong; Sun, Samuel Sai-Ming; Liu, Qiao-Quan

    2016-07-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a major staple crop worldwide, has limited levels of the essential amino acid lysine. We previously produced engineered rice with increased lysine content by expressing bacterial aspartate kinase and dihydrodipicolinate synthase and inhibiting rice lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase activity. However, the grain quality, field performance, and integration patterns of the transgenes in these lysine-enriched lines remain unclear. In the present study, we selected several elite transgenic lines with endosperm-specific or constitutive regulation of the above key enzymes but lacking the selectable marker gene. All target transgenes were integrated into the intragenic region in the rice genome. Two pyramid transgenic lines (High Free Lysine; HFL1 and HFL2) with free lysine levels in seeds up to 25-fold that of wild type were obtained via a combination of the above two transgenic events. We observed a dramatic increase in total free amino acids and a slight increase in total protein content in both pyramid lines. Moreover, the general physicochemical properties were improved in pyramid transgenic rice, but the starch composition was not affected. Field trials indicated that the growth of HFL transgenic rice was normal, except for a slight difference in plant height and grain colour. Taken together, these findings will be useful for the potential commercialization of high-lysine transgenic rice. PMID:27252467

  17. Antisense suppression of LOX3 gene expression in rice endosperm enhances seed longevity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huibin; Wei, Yidong; Zhu, Yongsheng; Lian, Ling; Xie, Hongguang; Cai, Qiuhua; Chen, Qiushi; Lin, Zhongping; Wang, Zonghua; Xie, Huaan; Zhang, Jianfu

    2015-05-01

    Lipid peroxidation plays a major role in seed longevity and viability. In rice grains, lipid peroxidation is catalyzed by the enzyme lipoxygenase 3 (LOX3). Previous reports showed that grain from the rice variety DawDam in which the LOX3 gene was deleted had less stale flavour after grain storage than normal rice. The molecular mechanism by which LOX3 expression is regulated during endosperm development remains unclear. In this study, we expressed a LOX3 antisense construct in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants to down-regulate LOX3 expression in rice endosperm. The transgenic plants exhibited a marked decrease in LOX mRNA levels, normal phenotypes and a normal life cycle. We showed that LOX3 activity and its ability to produce 9-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HPOD) from linoleic acid were significantly lower in transgenic seeds than in wild-type seeds by measuring the ultraviolet absorption of 9-HPOD at 234 nm and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The suppression of LOX3 expression in rice endosperm increased grain storability. The germination rate of TS-91 (antisense LOX3 transgenic line) was much higher than the WT (29% higher after artificial ageing for 21 days, and 40% higher after natural ageing for 12 months). To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that decreased LOX3 expression can preserve rice grain quality during storage with no impact on grain yield, suggesting potential applications in agricultural production. PMID:25545811

  18. Overexpression of OsEm1 encoding a group I LEA protein confers enhanced drought tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Lai, Yongmin; Wu, Xi; Wu, Gang; Guo, Changkui

    2016-09-16

    Drought is the greatest threat for crops, including rice. In an effort to identify rice genes responsible for drought tolerance, a drought-responsive gene OsEm1 encoding a group I LEA protein, was chosen for this study. OsEm1 was shown at vegetative stages to be responsive to various abiotic stresses, including drought, salt, cold and the hormone ABA. In this study, we generated OsEm1-overexpressing rice plants to explore the function of OsEm1 under drought conditions. Overexpression of OsEm1 increases ABA sensitivity and enhances osmotic tolerance in rice. Compared with wild type, the OsEm1-overexpressing rice plants showed enhanced plant survival ratio at the vegetative stage; moreover, over expression of OsEm1 in rice increased the expression of other LEA genes, including RAB16A, RAB16C, RAB21, and LEA3, likely protecting organ integrity against harsh environments. Interestingly, the elevated level of OsEm1 had no different phenotype compared with wild type under normal condition. Our findings suggest that OsEm1 is a positive regulator of drought tolerance and is potentially promising for engineering drought tolerance in rice. PMID:27524243

  19. Brassinosteroids Regulate Grain Filling in Rice[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chuan-yin; Trieu, Anthony; Radhakrishnan, Parthiban; Kwok, Shing F.; Harris, Sam; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Jiulin; Wan, Jianmin; Zhai, Huqu; Takatsuto, Suguru; Matsumoto, Shogo; Fujioka, Shozo; Feldmann, Kenneth A.; Pennell, Roger I.

    2008-01-01

    Genes controlling hormone levels have been used to increase grain yields in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rice (Oryza sativa). We created transgenic rice plants expressing maize (Zea mays), rice, or Arabidopsis thaliana genes encoding sterol C-22 hydroxylases that control brassinosteroid (BR) hormone levels using a promoter that is active in only the stems, leaves, and roots. The transgenic plants produced more tillers and more seed than wild-type plants. The seed were heavier as well, especially the seed at the bases of the spikes that fill the least. These phenotypic changes brought about 15 to 44% increases in grain yield per plant relative to wild-type plants in greenhouse and field trials. Expression of the Arabidopsis C-22 hydroxylase in the embryos or endosperms themselves had no apparent effect on seed weight. These results suggested that BRs stimulate the flow of assimilate from the source to the sink. Microarray and photosynthesis analysis of transgenic plants revealed evidence of enhanced CO2 assimilation, enlarged glucose pools in the flag leaves, and increased assimilation of glucose to starch in the seed. These results further suggested that BRs stimulate the flow of assimilate. Plants have not been bred directly for seed filling traits, suggesting that genes that control seed filling could be used to further increase grain yield in crop plants. PMID:18708477

  20. Antibiotic resistance in wild birds

    PubMed Central

    Bonnedahl, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of resistant bacteria in wild birds, we can better assess their role and thereby help to mitigate the increasing global problem of antibiotic resistance. PMID:24697355

  1. Effects of rice straw ash amendment on Cu solubility and distribution in flooded rice paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jang-Hung; Hsu, Shen-Huei; Wang, Shan-Li

    2011-02-28

    Rice straw burning is a common post-harvest practice on rice paddy land, and it leads to the accumulation of rice straw ash (RSA) in paddy soil. To understand the role of RSA in determining the mobility and bioavailability of metal contaminants, this study investigated the effects of RSA amendment on the solubility and distribution of Cu in contaminated rice paddy soils with flooding incubation. The addition of RSA to the soils suppressed the release of Cu into the soil solutions, which was primarily attributed to the metal-binding capacity of the RSA. Additionally, after the soils were flooded, the increase in soil pH and decrease in redox potential resulted in the transformation of Cu into less soluble forms. The RSA amendment appeared to enhance the changes in pH and redox potential of the flooded soils and, consequently, the immobilization of Cu in the soils. The results suggest that the RSA can retard the bioavailability and movement of the metal in contaminated soils and, thus, lower the potential environmental risk of Cu toxicity. PMID:21232857

  2. A Novel Reference Plasmid for the Qualitative Detection of Genetically Modified Rice in Food and Feed

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Dong, Mei; An, Na; Liang, Lixia; Wan, Yusong; Jin, Wujun

    2015-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world. Genetically modified (GM) technology has been used in rice to confer herbicide tolerance and pathogen or insect resistance. China invests heavily in research on GM rice. By the end of 2014, at least 250 transgenic rice lines had been developed in China. To monitor the presence of GM rice in food and feed, we collected information on foreign elements from 250 transgenic rice lines and found 5 elements, including the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase terminator (T-NOS), the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV35S), the ubiquitin gene (Ubi), the bar gene, and the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (Hpt), that are commonly present in GM rice. Therefore, we constructed a novel plasmid (pBJGMM001) that contains fragments of these elements and two endogenous reference genes (the sucrose phosphate synthase gene, SPS, and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene, PEPC). pBJGMM001 can serve as a standard for detecting 96% of GM rice lines in China. The primers, amplicons, reaction mixture, and PCR program were developed based on Chinese National Standards. The protocol was validated and determined to be suitable for practical use in monitoring and identifying GM rice. PMID:26495318

  3. Mechanisms controlling arsenic uptake in rice grown in mining impacted regions in South China.

    PubMed

    Li, Junhui; Dong, Fei; Lu, Ying; Yan, Qiuyan; Shim, Hojae

    2014-01-01

    Foods produced on soils impacted by Pb-Zn mining activities are a potential health risk due to plant uptake of the arsenic (As) associated with such mining. A field survey was undertaken in two Pb-Zn mining-impacted paddy fields in Guangdong Province, China to assess As accumulation and translocation, as well as other factors influencing As in twelve commonly grown rice cultivars. The results showed that grain As concentrations in all the surveyed rice failed national food standards, irrespective of As speciation. Among the 12 rice cultivars, "SY-89" and "DY-162" had the least As in rice grain. No significant difference for As concentration in grain was observed between the rice grown in the two areas that differed significantly for soil As levels, suggesting that the amount of As contamination in the soil is not necessarily the overriding factor controlling the As content in the rice grain. The iron and manganese plaque on the root surface curtailed As accumulation in rice roots. Based on our results, the accumulation of As within rice plants was strongly associated with such soil properties such as silicon, phosphorus, organic matter, pH, and clay content. Understanding the factors and mechanisms controlling As uptake is important to develop mitigation measures that can reduce the amount of As accumulated in rice grains produced on contaminated soils. PMID:25251438

  4. The integration of ground investigations and radar images on rice yield prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syu, Chien-Hui; Lo, Wei-Shen; Guo, Horng-Yuh

    2016-04-01

    Rice is the staple food and the largest crop in terms of area in Taiwan. Developing the real-time and accurate methods to predict rice yield of large area is important for food security. However, due to the size of rice fields is small and fragmented, and the disturbed weather in Taiwan. It difficult to acquire the information of cropping area and rice yield by optical satellite data, such as SPOT and FORMOSAT-2, because of the cloud cover commonly observed in the region. In contrast, the RADARSAT image data can overcome such problems due to which can penetrate through cloud. The aim of this study is to integrate the data of ground investigations and radar images to predict the rice yield of large area. We used the data of rice yield (ground investigation) and radar images to do regression analysis, and then predict the rice yield of large area. The results of ground investigation indicated that there were high correlation between sample sites yield and real harvest yield (R2 = 0.99), it reveals the investigating method has a high representativeness. The results of the prediction of rice yield by multi-temporal radar images indicated that there was high correlation between ground trust and yield estimation (R2 = 0.68, proof data, 6 fields), and the yield estimation accuracy is higher than 85%. Therefore, this study suggests the application of multi-temporal radar image data can effective and accurate to predict the paddy rice yield in Taiwan.

  5. Mechanisms Controlling Arsenic Uptake in Rice Grown in Mining Impacted Regions in South China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ying; Yan, Qiuyan; Shim, Hojae

    2014-01-01

    Foods produced on soils impacted by Pb-Zn mining activities are a potential health risk due to plant uptake of the arsenic (As) associated with such mining. A field survey was undertaken in two Pb-Zn mining-impacted paddy fields in Guangdong Province, China to assess As accumulation and translocation, as well as other factors influencing As in twelve commonly grown rice cultivars. The results showed that grain As concentrations in all the surveyed rice failed national food standards, irrespective of As speciation. Among the 12 rice cultivars, “SY-89” and “DY-162” had the least As in rice grain. No significant difference for As concentration in grain was observed between the rice grown in the two areas that differed significantly for soil As levels, suggesting that the amount of As contamination in the soil is not necessarily the overriding factor controlling the As content in the rice grain. The iron and manganese plaque on the root surface curtailed As accumulation in rice roots. Based on our results, the accumulation of As within rice plants was strongly associated with such soil properties such as silicon, phosphorus, organic matter, pH, and clay content. Understanding the factors and mechanisms controlling As uptake is important to develop mitigation measures that can reduce the amount of As accumulated in rice grains produced on contaminated soils. PMID:25251438

  6. Teaching in wild meerkats.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Alex; McAuliffe, Katherine

    2006-07-14

    Despite the obvious benefits of directed mechanisms that facilitate the efficient transfer of skills, there is little critical evidence for teaching in nonhuman animals. Using observational and experimental data, we show that wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) teach pups prey-handling skills by providing them with opportunities to interact with live prey. In response to changing pup begging calls, helpers alter their prey-provisioning methods as pups grow older, thus accelerating learning without the use of complex cognition. The lack of evidence for teaching in species other than humans may reflect problems in producing unequivocal support for the occurrence of teaching, rather than the absence of teaching. PMID:16840701

  7. Neglecting rice milling yield and quality underestimates economic losses from high-temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Lyman, Nathaniel B; Jagadish, Krishna S V; Nalley, L Lanier; Dixon, Bruce L; Siebenmorgen, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Future increases in global surface temperature threaten those worldwide who depend on rice production for their livelihoods and food security. Past analyses of high-temperature stress on rice production have focused on paddy yield and have failed to account for the detrimental impact of high temperatures on milling quality outcomes, which ultimately determine edible (marketable) rice yield and market value. Using genotype specific rice yield and milling quality data on six common rice varieties from Arkansas, USA, combined with on-site, half-hourly and daily temperature observations, we show a nonlinear effect of high-temperature stress exposure on yield and milling quality. A 1 °C increase in average growing season temperature reduces paddy yield by 6.2%, total milled rice yield by 7.1% to 8.0%, head rice yield by 9.0% to 13.8%, and total milling revenue by 8.1% to 11.0%, across genotypes. Our results indicate that failure to account for changes in milling quality leads to understatement of the impacts of high temperatures on rice production outcomes. These dramatic losses result from reduced paddy yield and increased percentages of chalky and broken kernels, which together decrease the quantity and market value of milled rice. Recently published estimates show paddy yield reductions of up to 10% across the major rice-producing regions of South and Southeast Asia due to rising temperatures. The results of our study suggest that the often-cited 10% figure underestimates the economic implications of climate change for rice producers, thus potentially threatening future food security for global rice producers and consumers. PMID:23991056

  8. Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity: Rice versus other common cereal grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The consumption of whole cereal grains has been strongly recommended by many governmental and non-profit health organizations based on epidemiological studies associating whole-grain consumption with reduced incidences of chronic diseases. Bioactive phytochemicals, such as polyphenolic compounds, ri...

  9. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  10. Arsenic accumulation and speciation in rice grains influenced by arsenic phytotoxicity and rice genotypes grown in arsenic-elevated paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Syu, Chien-Hui; Huang, Chia-Chen; Jiang, Pei-Yu; Lee, Chia-Hsing; Lee, Dar-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Rice consumption is a major route of As exposure to human for the population of worldwide. This study investigates the effect of phytotoxicity and rice genotypes on the content and speciation of As in rice grains grown in different levels of As-elevated paddy soils from Taiwan. Three levels of As-elevated soils and six rice genotypes commonly planted in Taiwan were used for this study. The results indicate that As contents in grains of rice is not proportional to soil As concentrations and they were equal or higher in indica genotypes than japonica genotypes used in this study. It was also found that the As phytotoxicity not only reducing the grain yields but also the As concentrations in grain of rice. The predominant As species found in rice grains were dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and arsenite. The concentrations of DMA increased with total As concentrations, wherggeas the arsenite remained in a narrow range from 0.1 to 0.3 mg kg(-1). Because of the lower toxicity of DMA than inorganic As species, the health risks may not be increased through consumption of rice even when total As content in the grains is increased. PMID:25577320

  11. Constitutive expression of McCHIT1-PAT enhances resistance to rice blast and herbicide, but does not affect grain yield in transgenic glutinous rice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiao-Fang; Li, Lei; Li, Jian-Rong; Zhao, De-Gang

    2016-01-01

    To produce new rice blast- and herbicide-resistant transgenic rice lines, the McCHIT1 gene encoding the class I chitinase from Momordica charantia and the herbicide resistance gene PAT were introduced into Lailong (Oryza sativa L. ssp. Japonica), a glutinous local rice variety from Guizhou Province, People's Republic of China. Transgenic lines were identified by ß-glucuronidase (GUS) histochemical staining, PCR, and Southern blot analyses. Agronomic traits, resistance to rice blast and herbicide, chitinase activities, and transcript levels of McCHIT1 were assessed in the T2 progeny of three transgenic lines (L1, L8, and L10). The results showed that the introduction of McCHIT1-PAT into Lailong significantly enhanced herbicide and blast resistance. After infection with the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, all of the T2 progeny exhibited less severe lesion symptoms than those of wild type. The disease indices were 100% for wild type, 65.66% for T2 transgenic line L1, 59.69% for T2 transgenic line L8, and 79.80% for T2 transgenic line L10. Transgenic lines expressing McCHIT1-PAT did not show a significant difference from wild type in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the leaves. However, after inoculation with M. oryzae, transgenic plants showed significantly higher SOD and PPO activities and lower MDA contents in leaves, compared with those in wild-type leaves. The transgenic and the wild-type plants did not show significant differences in grain yield parameters including plant height, panicles per plant, seeds per panicle, and 1000-grain weight. Therefore, the transgenic plants showed increased herbicide and blast resistance, with no yield penalty. PMID:25639923

  12. Rice: The First Crop Genome.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Scott A

    2016-12-01

    Rice was the first sequenced crop genome, paving the way for the sequencing of additional and more complicated crop genomes. The impact that the genome sequence made on rice genetics and breeding research was immediate, as evidence by citations and DNA marker use. The impact on other crop genomes was evident too, particularly for those within the grass family. As we celebrate 10 years since the completion of the rice genome sequence, we look forward to new empowering tool sets that will further revolutionize research in rice genetics and breeding and result in varieties that will continue to feed a growing population. PMID:27003180

  13. Amended final report on the safety assessment of Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Oil, Oryza Sativa (rice) Germ Oil, Rice Bran Acid,Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Wax, Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax, Oryza Sativa (rice)Bran Extract, Oryza Sativa (rice) Extract, Oryza Sativa (rice) Germ Powder, Oryza Sativa (rice) Starch, Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran, Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Extract, Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Protein, Hydrolyzed Rice Extract, and Hydrolyzed Rice Protein.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses the safety of cosmetic ingredients derived from rice, Oryza sativa. Oils, Fatty Acids, and Waxes: Rice Bran Oil functions in cosmetics as a conditioning agent--occlusive in 39 formulations across a wide range of product types. Rice Germ Oil is a skin-conditioning agent--occlusive in six formulations in only four product categories. Rice Bran Acid is described as a surfactant-cleansing agent, but was not in current use. Rice Bran Wax is a skin-conditioning agent--occlusive in eight formulations in five product categories. Industry did not directly report any use of Rice Bran Wax. Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax is a binder, skin-conditioning agent--occlusive, and viscosity-increasing agent--nonaqueous in 11 formulations in six product categories. Rice Bran Oil had an oral LD50 of > 5 g/kg in white rats and Rice Wax had an oral LD50 of > 24 g/kg in male mice. A three-generation oral dosing study reported no toxic or teratologic effects in albino rats fed 10% Rice Bran Oil compared to a control group fed Peanut Oil. Undiluted Rice Bran Oil, Rice Germ Oil, and Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax were not irritants in animal skin tests. Rice Bran Oil was not a sensitizer. Rice Bran Oil, Rice Germ Oil, Rice Wax, and Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax were negative in ocular toxicity assays. A mixture of Rice Bran Oil and Rice Germ Oil had a ultraviolet (UV) absorption maximum at 315 nm, but was not phototoxic in a dermal exposure assay. Rice Bran Oil was negative in an Ames assay, and a component, gamma-oryzanol, was negative in bacterial and mammalian mutagenicity assays. Rice oils, fatty acids, and waxes were, at most, mildly irritating in clinical studies. Extracts: Rice Bran Extract is used in six formulations in four product categories. Rice Extract is a hair-conditioning agent, but was not in current use. Hydrolyzed Rice Extract is used in four formulations and current concentration of use data were provided for other uses. Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Extract, described

  14. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Rice Blast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring resistance to rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, have been under-explored. In the present study, composite interval mapping was used to identify the QTLs that condition resistance to the six out of the twelve common races IB1, IB45, IB49, IB54, IC17,...

  15. Characterization of novel blast resistant genes for US rice breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blast resistance genes, such as Pi-ta, conveying resistance up to 8 common US races of the blast pathogen (Magnaporthe oryzae), have been used for 20 years in the US rice (Oryza sativa) industry. However, Pi-ta is susceptible to two known US races of blast. Race IE-1K has caused blast outbreaks in A...

  16. Variable copy number DNA sequences in rice.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, S; Takaiwa, F; Oono, K

    1987-12-01

    We have cloned two types of variable copy number DNA sequences from the rice embryo genome. One of these sequences, which was cloned in pRB301, was amplified about 50-fold during callus formation and diminished in copy number to the embryonic level during regeneration. The other clone, named pRB401, showed the reciprocal pattern. The copy numbers of both sequences were changed even in the early developmental stage and eliminated from nuclear DNA along with growth of the plant. Sequencing analysis of the pRB301 insert revealed some open reading frames and direct repeat structures, but corresponding sequences were not identified in the EMBL and LASL DNA databases. Sequencing of the nuclear genomic fragment cloned in pRB401 revealed the presence of the 3'rps12-rps7 region of rice chloroplast DNA. Our observations suggest that during callus formation (dedifferentiation), regeneration and the growth process the copy numbers of some DNA sequences are variable and that nuclear integrated chloroplast DNA acts as a variable copy number sequence in the rice genome. Based on data showing a common sequence in mitochondria and chloroplast DNA of maize (Stern and Lonsdale 1982) and that the rps12 gene of tobacco chloroplast DNA is a divided gene (Torazawa et al. 1986), it is suggested that the sequence on the inverted repeat structure of chloroplast DNA may have the character of a movable genetic element. PMID:3481021

  17. Retention of OsNMD3 in the cytoplasm disturbs protein synthesis efficiency and affects plant development in rice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yanyun; Liu, Xiangling; Li, Rui; Gao, Yaping; Xu, Zuopeng; Zhang, Baocai; Zhou, Yihua

    2014-07-01

    The ribosome is the basic machinery for translation, and biogenesis of ribosomes involves many coordinated events. However, knowledge about ribosomal dynamics in higher plants is very limited. This study chose a highly conserved trans-factor, the 60S ribosomal subunit nuclear export adaptor NMD3, to characterize the mechanism of ribosome biogenesis in the monocot plant Oryza sativa (rice). O. sativa NMD3 (OsNMD3) shares all the common motifs and shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm via CRM1/XPO1. A dominant negative form of OsNMD3 with a truncated nuclear localization sequence (OsNMD3(ΔNLS)) was retained in the cytoplasm, consequently interfering with the release of OsNMD3 from pre-60S particles and disturbing the assembly of ribosome subunits. Analyses of the transactivation activity and cellulose biosynthesis level revealed low protein synthesis efficiency in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants. Pharmaceutical treatments demonstrated structural alterations in ribosomes in the transgenic plants. Moreover, global expression profiles of the wild-type and transgenic plants were investigated using the Illumina RNA sequencing approach. These expression profiles suggested that overexpression of OsNMD3(ΔNLS) affected ribosome biogenesis and certain basic pathways, leading to pleiotropic abnormalities in plant growth. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that OsNMD3 is important for ribosome assembly and the maintenance of normal protein synthesis efficiency. PMID:24723395

  18. Novel Phr1 mutations and the evolution of phenol reaction variation in US weedy rice (Oryza sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Briana L.; Skare, Karl J.; Olsen, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Red rice, a major agricultural weed, is phenotypically diverse and possesses traits that are similar to both wild and cultivated rice. The genetic resources available for rice make it possible to examine the molecular basis and evolution of traits characterizing this weed. Here, we assess the phenol reaction – a classical trait for distinguishing among cultivated rice varieties – in red rice at the phenotypic and molecular levels.We phenotyped more than 100 US weed samples for the phenol reaction and sequenced the underlying Phr1 locus in a subset of samples. Data were analyzed in combination with previously published Phr1 data for cultivated rice.Most weed accessions (96.3%) are positive for the phenol reaction, and samples with a negative response carry loss-of-function alleles that are rare or heretofore undocumented. One such allele may have evolved through mutational convergence of a 1-bp frameshift insertion. Haplotype sharing between red rice and US cultivars suggests occasional crop–weed hybridization.Our discovery of previously undocumented nonfunctional phr1 alleles suggests that there are likely to be other loss-of-function mutations segregating in Oryza sativa around the world. Red rice may provide a useful study system for understanding the adaptive significance of Phr1 variation in agricultural settings. PMID:19674331

  19. Single-copy gene based 50 K SNP chip for genetic studies and molecular breeding in rice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nisha; Jayaswal, Pawan Kumar; Panda, Kabita; Mandal, Paritra; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Balwant; Mishra, Shefali; Singh, Yashi; Singh, Renu; Rai, Vandna; Gupta, Anita; Raj Sharma, Tilak; Singh, Nagendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is the most abundant DNA sequence variation present in plant genomes. Here, we report the design and validation of a unique genic-SNP genotyping chip for genetic and evolutionary studies as well as molecular breeding applications in rice. The chip incorporates 50,051 SNPs from 18,980 different genes spanning 12 rice chromosomes, including 3,710 single-copy (SC) genes conserved between wheat and rice, 14,959 SC genes unique to rice, 194 agronomically important cloned rice genes and 117 multi-copy rice genes. Assays with this chip showed high success rate and reproducibility because of the SC gene based array with no sequence redundancy and cross-hybridisation problems. The usefulness of the chip in genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies of cultivated and wild rice germplasm was demonstrated. Furthermore, its efficacy was validated for analysing background recovery in improved mega rice varieties with submergence tolerance developed through marker-assisted backcross breeding. PMID:26111882

  20. Waterbird nest density and nest survival in rice fields of southwestern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierluissi, S.; King, Sammy L.; Kaller, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Rice fields in southwestern Louisiana provide breeding habitat for several waterbird species; however, little is known about nest density, nest survival and the importance of landscape context of rice fields in determining breeding activity. In 2004, 42 rice fields were searched for nests, and 40 were searched in 2005. Land uses surrounding rice fields, including irrigation canals, trees, crawfish ponds, rice, fallow and soybean fields, were examined to determine influence on nest density and survival. Nest densities were 13.5-16.0 nests/km2 for Purple Gallinules (Porphyrio martinica), 3.0-13.7 nests/km2 for Fulvous Whistling Ducks (Dendrocygna bicolor), 2.6-2.8 nests/km2 for Common Moorhens (Gallinula chloropus), 0.3-0.92 nests/km2 for Least Bitterns (Ixobrychus exilisi) and 0-0.6 nests/km2 for Mottled Ducks (Anas fulvigula). Nest survival was 52-79% for Purple Gallinules and 39-43% for Fulvous Whistling Ducks. Apparent nest success of Common Moorhens was 73-75%, 83% for Least Bitterns and 33% for Mottled Ducks. Purple Gallinule and Common Moorhen nest densities were highest in fields with a larger proportion of irrigation canals surrounding rice fields. Purple Gallinule nest densities were greater in fields devoid of trees and landscapes dominated by rice fields and pasture, rather than landscapes containing soybean fields and residential areas. Fulvous Whistling Duck nest densities were higher in agriculturally-dominated landscapes with few trees.

  1. Metabolic flux analysis of diterpene biosynthesis pathway in rice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yung-Jin; Kim, Bo-Ra; Kim, Soo-Un

    2005-09-01

    Relative transcript levels of eight rice diterpene cyclases at the branch points of gibberellins and phytoalexins biosynthesis pathway were measured by reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Metabolic flux analysis by the distribution ratio of common substrate showed that UV-irradiation of etiolated rice seedlings decreased the flux for primary metabolism of gibberellins biosynthesis by half (from 62 to 27%) and 41% of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate was used for induction of pimaradiene intermediate as the major phytoalexin. In comparison, light-illumination used almost all geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (96%) for gibberellin biosynthesis to stimulate the plant growth and strongly repressed the metabolic flux for phytoalexins biosynthesis. PMID:16215852

  2. From Early Domesticated Rice of the Middle Yangtze Basin to Millet, Rice and Wheat Agriculture: Archaeobotanical Macro-Remains from Baligang, Nanyang Basin, Central China (6700-500 BC).

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhenhua; Qin, Ling; Gao, Yu; Weisskopf, Alison Ruth; Zhang, Chi; Fuller, Dorian Q

    2015-01-01

    Baligang is a Neolithic site on a northern tributary of the middle Yangtze and provides a long archaeobotanical sequence from the Seventh Millennium BC upto the First Millennium BC. It provides evidence for developments in rice and millet agriculture influenced by shifting cultural affiliation with the north (Yangshao and Longshan) and south (Qujialing and Shijiahe) between 4300 and 1800 BC. This paper reports on plant macro-remains (seeds), from systematic flotation of 123 samples (1700 litres), producing more than 10,000 identifiable remains. The earliest Pre-Yangshao occupation of the sites provide evidence for cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa) between 6300-6700 BC. This rice appears already domesticated in on the basis of a dominance of non-shattering spikelet bases. However, in terms of grain size changes has not yet finished, as grains are still thinner than more recent domesaticated rice and are closer in grain shape to wild rices. This early rice was cultivated alongside collection of wild staple foods, especially acorns (Quercus/Lithicarpus sensu lato). In later periods the sites has evidence for mixed farming of both rice and millets (Setaria italica and Panicum miliaceum). Soybean appears on the site in the Shijiahe period (ca.2500 BC) and wheat (Triticum cf. aestivum) in the Late Longshan levels (2200-1800 BC). Weed flora suggests an intensification of rice agriculture over time with increasing evidence of wetland weeds. We interpret these data as indicating early opportunistic cultivation of alluvial floodplains and some rainfed rice, developing into more systematic and probably irrigated cultivation starting in the Yangshao period, which intensified in the Qujialing and Shijiahe period, before a shift back to an emphasis on millets with the Late Longshan cultural influence from the north. PMID:26460975

  3. From Early Domesticated Rice of the Middle Yangtze Basin to Millet, Rice and Wheat Agriculture: Archaeobotanical Macro-Remains from Baligang, Nanyang Basin, Central China (6700–500 BC)

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhenhua; Qin, Ling; Gao, Yu; Weisskopf, Alison Ruth; Zhang, Chi; Fuller, Dorian Q.

    2015-01-01

    Baligang is a Neolithic site on a northern tributary of the middle Yangtze and provides a long archaeobotanical sequence from the Seventh Millennium BC upto the First Millennium BC. It provides evidence for developments in rice and millet agriculture influenced by shifting cultural affiliation with the north (Yangshao and Longshan) and south (Qujialing and Shijiahe) between 4300 and 1800 BC. This paper reports on plant macro-remains (seeds), from systematic flotation of 123 samples (1700 litres), producing more than 10,000 identifiable remains. The earliest Pre-Yangshao occupation of the sites provide evidence for cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa) between 6300–6700 BC. This rice appears already domesticated in on the basis of a dominance of non-shattering spikelet bases. However, in terms of grain size changes has not yet finished, as grains are still thinner than more recent domesaticated rice and are closer in grain shape to wild rices. This early rice was cultivated alongside collection of wild staple foods, especially acorns (Quercus/Lithicarpus sensu lato). In later periods the sites has evidence for mixed farming of both rice and millets (Setaria italica and Panicum miliaceum). Soybean appears on the site in the Shijiahe period (ca.2500 BC) and wheat (Triticum cf. aestivum) in the Late Longshan levels (2200–1800 BC). Weed flora suggests an intensification of rice agriculture over time with increasing evidence of wetland weeds. We interpret these data as indicating early opportunistic cultivation of alluvial floodplains and some rainfed rice, developing into more systematic and probably irrigated cultivation starting in the Yangshao period, which intensified in the Qujialing and Shijiahe period, before a shift back to an emphasis on millets with the Late Longshan cultural influence from the north. PMID:26460975

  4. Comparative proteomic analysis of early salt stress-responsive proteins in roots of SnRK2 transgenic rice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The rice roots are highly salt-sensitive organ and primary root growth is rapidly suppressed by salt stress. Sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase2 (SnRK2) family is one of the key regulator of hyper-osmotic stress signalling in various plant cells. To understand early salt response of rice roots and identify SnRK2 signaling components, proteome changes of transgenic rice roots over-expressing OSRK1, a rice SnRK2 kinase were investigated. Results Proteomes were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and protein spots were identified by LC-MS/MS from wild type and OSRK1 transgenic rice roots exposed to 150 mM NaCl for either 3 h or 7 h. Fifty two early salt -responsive protein spots were identified from wild type rice roots. The major up-regulated proteins were enzymes related to energy regulation, amino acid metabolism, methylglyoxal detoxification, redox regulation and protein turnover. It is noted that enzymes known to be involved in GA-induced root growth such as fructose bisphosphate aldolase and methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase were clearly down-regulated. In contrast to wild type rice roots, only a few proteins were changed by salt stress in OSRK1 transgenic rice roots. A comparative quantitative analysis of the proteome level indicated that forty three early salt-responsive proteins were magnified in transgenic rice roots at unstressed condition. These proteins contain single or multiple potential SnRK2 recognition motives. In vitro kinase assay revealed that one of the identified proteome, calreticulin is a good substrate of OSRK1. Conclusions Our present data implicate that rice roots rapidly changed broad spectrum of energy metabolism upon challenging salt stress, and suppression of GA signaling by salt stress may be responsible for the rapid arrest of root growth and development. The broad spectrum of functional categories of proteins affected by over-expression of OSRK1 indicates that OSRK1 is an upstream regulator of

  5. Outcrossing Potential between U.S. Blackhull Red Rice and Indica Rice Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern U.S. Outcrossing between red rice and commercial tropical japonica rice cultivars has resulted in new weed biotypes that further hinder the effectiveness of weed management. In recent years, indica rice has been used increasingly as a ger...

  6. Maximum outcrossing rate and genetic compatibility between red rice (Oryza sativa) biotypes and Clearfield™ rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although red rice can be selectively controlled with imazethapyr in ClearfieldTM (CL) rice, the transfer of the imazethapyr-resistant gene from CL rice to red rice is an ecological risk. Previous experiments indicated that flowering synchronization and genetic compatibility between cultivated rice a...

  7. Screening for resistance against Pseudomonas syringae in rice-FOX Arabidopsis lines identified a putative receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase gene that confers resistance to major bacterial and fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis and rice

    PubMed Central

    Dubouzet, Joseph G; Maeda, Satoru; Sugano, Shoji; Ohtake, Miki; Hayashi, Nagao; Ichikawa, Takanari; Kondou, Youichi; Kuroda, Hirofumi; Horii, Yoko; Matsui, Minami; Oda, Kenji; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Takatsuji, Hiroshi; Mori, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 20 000 of the rice-FOX Arabidopsis transgenic lines, which overexpress 13 000 rice full-length cDNAs at random in Arabidopsis, were screened for bacterial disease resistance by dip inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). The identities of the overexpressed genes were determined in 72 lines that showed consistent resistance after three independent screens. Pst DC3000 resistance was verified for 19 genes by characterizing other independent Arabidopsis lines for the same genes in the original rice-FOX hunting population or obtained by reintroducing the genes into ecotype Columbia by floral dip transformation. Thirteen lines of these 72 selections were also resistant to the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. Eight genes that conferred resistance to Pst DC3000 in Arabidopsis have been introduced into rice for overexpression, and transformants were evaluated for resistance to the rice bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. One of the transgenic rice lines was highly resistant to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Interestingly, this line also showed remarkably high resistance to Magnaporthe grisea, the fungal pathogen causing rice blast, which is the most devastating rice disease in many countries. The causal rice gene, encoding a putative receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, was therefore designated as BROAD-SPECTRUM RESISTANCE 1. Our results demonstrate the utility of the rice-FOX Arabidopsis lines as a tool for the identification of genes involved in plant defence and suggest the presence of a defence mechanism common between monocots and dicots. PMID:20955180

  8. Control of fasciolosis in stall-fed buffaloes by managing the feeding of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Mahato, S N; Harrison, L J S

    2005-05-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by Fasciola gigantica, presents major disease and production problems, particularly in the rice producing areas of South and South-East Asia. In Nepal, buffaloes are commonly stall-fed and the most usual fodder is rice straw, which is produced in large quantities in the area. Here we describe a relatively simple way of controlling fasciolosis in these animals. We demonstrate that infectious metacercariae of F. gigantica are concentrated in the bottom part of the rice straw and that infection can be controlled by cutting the rice straw in half, and then feeding the parasite free top half of the straw first. The bottom part of the rice straw should ideally be stored for at least 4 months after harvest to allow the parasites to die before it is used as fodder. PMID:15934636

  9. miRNA: A Novel Link Between Rice Ragged Stunt Virus and Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Chen, Xiong; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Wanhong

    2016-06-01

    Rice ragged stunt disease caused leads to severe loss of rice yield. Recently, rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) were found to be increasingly common in rice-growing regions of China and Vietnam. RRSV may cause problem by interacting with microRNAs (miRNAs) of host cells and the mechanism is not clear yet. In this study we identified 11 miRNAs in response to RRSV infection and predicted their possible targets to viral RNA segments (S1-S10) through the bioinformatics analysis. Interestingly, we found that Osa-miR-168b might bind to both the CDS region and 3'UTR of S5 and S8 and target eEF-1A to inhibit the activity of host cells to facilitate RRSV replication. These results suggest that miRNAs may be a potential target for developing rice against RRSV infection. PMID:27570315

  10. Update on organic rice research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic products command a premium in the marketplace and bring greater farmgate value to growers and processors. Although total rice acreage has decreased in Texas over the last ten years, there has been an increase in rice acreage produced under organic management. USDA ARS has conducted research ...

  11. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ..., Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice standards were last revised in 1993 (58 FR 68015) and appear... technology used to harvest, process, and test rice; and also rice marketing. To ensure that standards and... learn more about Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice standardization and...

  12. Effect of steam-cooking and parboiling on phenolics and antioxidant capacities of red and purple rice cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red and purple rice cultivars contain high concentrations of phenolics, such as proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins, respectively. We investigated the effect of cooking processes on these antioxidants and antioxidant capacities of pigmented and common light-brown bran rice. The cooking processes incl...

  13. Fine mapping of the qCTS4 locus associated with seedling cold tolerance in rice (Orysa Sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice seedlings are sensitive to low temperatures ('15°C) and under prolonged or repeated exposure, yellowing and stunting are commonly observed. Damage to seedlings results in poor stand establishment and delayed maturation, which can cause significant reductions in yield. In general, japonica rice ...

  14. Nature's Cholesterol-Lowering Drug: Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Lovastatin from Red Yeast Rice-Containing Dietary Supplements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazri, Maisarah Mohd; Samat, Farah D.; Kavanagh, Pierce V.; Walsh, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Red yeast rice, produced by fermenting the fungus, "Monascus purpureus", on rice ("Oryza sativa" L. gramineae), is commonly used as a dietary supplement. It contains lovastatin, a member of the statin family of compounds, and is licensed for use as a cholesterol-lowering agent. This experiment involves the isolation and structure elucidation of…

  15. Occurrence and partitioning of cadmium, arsenic and lead in mine impacted paddy rice: Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul N; Lei, Ming; Sun, Guoxin; Huang, Qing; Lu, Ying; Deacon, Claire; Meharg, Andrew A; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2009-02-01

    Paddy rice has been likened to nictiana sp in its ability to scavenge cadmium (Cd) from soil, whereas arsenic (As) accumulation is commonly an order of magnitude higher than in other cereal crops. In areas such as those found in parts of Hunan province in south central China, base-metal mining activities and rice farming coexist. Therefore there is a considerable likelihood that lead (Pb), in addition to Cd and As, will accumulate in rice grown in parts of this region above levels suitable for human consumption. To test this hypothesis, a widespread provincial survey of rice from mine spoilt paddies (n = 100), in addition to a follow-up market grain survey (n = 122) conducted in mine impacted areas was undertaken to determine the safety of local rice supply networks. Furthermore, a specific Cd, As, and Pb biogeochemical survey of paddy soil and rice was conducted within southern China, targeting sites impacted by mining of varying intensities to calibrate rice metal(loid) transfer models and transfer factors that can be used to predict tissue loading. Results revealed a number of highly significant correlations between shoot, husk, bran, and endosperm rice tissue fractions and that rice from mining areas was enriched in Cd, As, and Pb. Sixty-five, 50, and 34% of all the mine-impacted field rice was predicted to fail national food standards for Cd, As, and Pb, respectively. Although, not as elevated as the grains from the mine-impacted field survey, it was demonstrated that metal(loid) tainted rice was entering food supply chains intended for direct human consumption. PMID:19244995

  16. The Type III Secretion System (T3SS) is a Determinant for Rice-Endophyte Colonization by Non-Photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium

    PubMed Central

    Piromyou, Pongdet; Songwattana, Pongpan; Greetatorn, Teerana; Okubo, Takashi; Kakizaki, Kaori Chiba; Prakamhang, Janpen; Tittabutr, Panlada; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Teaumroong, Neung; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2015-01-01

    Plant associations by bradyrhizobia have been detected not only in leguminous plants, but also in non-leguminous species including rice. Bradyrhizobium sp. SUTN9-2 was isolated from Aeschynomene americana L., which is a leguminous weed found in the rice fields of Thailand. This strain promoted the highest total rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivar Pathum Thani 1) dry weight among the endophytic bradyrhizobial strains tested, and was, thus, employed for the further characterization of rice-Bradyrhizobium interactions. Some known bacterial genes involved in bacteria-plant interactions were selected. The expression of the type III secretion component (rhcJ), type IV secretion component (virD4), and pectinesterase (peces) genes of the bacterium were up-regulated when the rice root exudate was added to the culture. When SUTN9-2 was inoculated into rice seedlings, the peces, rhcJ, virD4, and exopolysaccharide production (fliP) genes were strongly expressed in the bacterium 6–24 h after the inoculation. The gene for glutathione-S-transferase (gst) was slightly expressed 12 h after the inoculation. In order to determine whether type III secretion system (T3SS) is involved in bradyrhizobial infections in rice plants, wild-type SUTN9-2 and T3SS mutant strains were inoculated into the original host plant (A. americana) and a rice plant (cultivar Pathum Thani 1). The ability of T3SS mutants to invade rice tissues was weaker than that of the wild-type strain; however, their phenotypes in A. americana were not changed by T3SS mutations. These results suggest that T3SS is one of the important determinants modulating rice infection; however, type IV secretion system and peces may also be responsible for the early steps of rice infection. PMID:26582551

  17. Adsorption of paraquat using methacrylic acid-modified rice husk.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shih-Tong; Pan, Ting-Chung

    2007-12-01

    This work investigates the adsorption of paraquat from aqueous medium using a methacrylic acid (MAA)-modified rice husk. The carboxyl groups were chemically bound to the surface of the rice husk by graft copolymerization using Fenton's reagent as a redox initiator. The graft copolymerization was examined to determine the H(2)O(2) concentration and the amount of MAA monomer used. FT-IR spectra confirmed the presence of carbonyl groups on the structural units of the rice husk derivative. The MAA-modified rice husks were hydrolyzed to sodium salt and used to adsorb paraquat. The adsorption was rapid in the first few minutes and quickly reached equilibrium. Equilibrium adsorption data are more consistent with the Langmuir isotherm equation than with the Freundlich equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of modified rice husks was 317.7mg/g-adsorbent. This value clearly exceeds the 60mg/g of Fuller's earth and the 90mg/g of activated carbon, which are the most commonly used binding agents for paraquat. PMID:17303413

  18. International Consortium of Rice Mutagenesis: resources and beyond

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important crops in the world. The rice community needs to cooperate and share efforts and resources so that we can understand the functions of rice genes, especially those with a role in important agronomical traits, for application in agricultural production. Mutation is a major source of genetic variation that can be used for studying gene function. We will present here the status of mutant collections affected in a random manner by physical/chemical and insertion mutageneses. As of early September 2013, a total of 447, 919 flanking sequence tags from rice mutant libraries with T-DNA, Ac/Ds, En/Spm, Tos17, nDART/aDART insertions have been collected and publicly available. From these, 336,262 sequences are precisely positioned on the japonica rice chromosomes, and 67.5% are in gene interval. We discuss the genome coverage and preference of the insertion, issues limiting the exchange and use of the current collections, as well as new and improved resources. We propose a call to renew all mutant populations as soon as possible. We also suggest that a common web portal should be established for ordering seeds. PMID:24341871

  19. Waterbird communities in rice fields subjected to different post-harvest treatments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, J.H.; Colwell, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    In California's Sacramento Valley, the potential value of rice fields as habitat for waterbirds may vary with harvest method, post-harvest treatment of rice straw (chopped, burned, plowed), and extent of flooding. Recent changes in rice harvesting methods (i.e., use of stripper-headers) and a legislative mandate to decrease burning of rice straw after harvest may alter habitat availability and use. Thus, we investigated species richness and community composition of nonbreeding waterbirds during October-March 1993-94 and 1994-95 in rice fields of the northern Sacramento Valley. Most (85-91% of land area) rice was conventionally harvested (i.e., cutter bar), and the remainder was stripped. Rice straw was left untreated in more than half of fields (52% in 1994 and 54% in 1995), especially in stripped fields (56-70%). In fields where farmers treated straw, the most common management methods were plowing (15-21%), burning (19-24%), and chopping (3-5%). Fields became increasingly wet from October through March as seasonal precipitation accumulated and farmers flooded fields to facilitate straw decomposition and provide habitat for ducks. Species richness of waterbirds was greater (P 0.23). Species richness in stripped fields probably was low because foraging opportunities were limited by tall dense straw, decreased grain density, and infrequent flooding. We recommend that land managers wishing to provide habitat for a diverse waterbird community harvest rice using conventional methods and flood fields shallowly.

  20. Biosynthesis and emission of insect-induced methyl salicylate and methyl benzoate from rice

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Nan; Guan, Ju; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Engle, Nancy L; Chern, Mawsheng; Ronald, Pamela; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Chen, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Two benzenoid esters, methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl benzoate (MeBA), were detected from insect-damaged rice plants. By correlating metabolite production with gene expression analysis, five candidate genes encoding putative carboxyl methyltransferases were identified. Enzymatic assays with Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant proteins demonstrated that only one of the five candidates, OsBSMT1, has salicylic acid (SA) methyltransferase (SAMT) and benzoic acid (BA) methyltransferase (BAMT) activities for producing MeSA and MeBA, respectively. Whereas OsBSMT1 is phylogenetically relatively distant from dicot SAMTs, the three-dimensional structure of OsBSMT1, which was determined using homology-based structural modeling, is highly similar to those of characterized SAMTs. Analyses of OsBSMT1 expression in wild-type rice plants under various stress conditions indicate that the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating the production and emission of MeSA in rice. Further analysis using transgenic rice plants overexpressing NH1, a key component of the SA signaling pathway in rice, suggests that the SA signaling pathway also plays an important role in governing OsBSMT1 expression and emission of its products, probably through a crosstalk with the JA signaling pathway. The role of the volatile products of OsBSMT1, MeSA and MeBA, in rice defense against insect herbivory is discussed.

  1. The Birth of a Black Rice Gene and Its Local Spread by Introgression

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, Tetsuo; Maeda, Hiroaki; Oguchi, Taichi; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Tanabe, Noriko; Ebana, Kaworu; Yano, Masahiro; Izawa, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The origin and spread of novel agronomic traits during crop domestication are complex events in plant evolution. Wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) has red grains due to the accumulation of proanthocyanidins, whereas most cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) varieties have white grains induced by a defective allele in the Rc basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene. Although the events surrounding the origin and spread of black rice traits remain unknown, varieties with black grains due to anthocyanin accumulation are distributed in various locations throughout Asia. Here, we show that the black grain trait originated from ectopic expression of the Kala4 bHLH gene due to rearrangement in the promoter region. Both the Rc and Kala4 genes activate upstream flavonol biosynthesis genes, such as chalcone synthase and dihydroflavonol-4-reductase, and downstream genes, such as leucoanthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase, to produce the respective specific pigments. Genome analysis of 21 black rice varieties as well as red- and white-grained landraces demonstrated that black rice arose in tropical japonica and its subsequent spread to the indica subspecies can be attributed to the causal alleles of Kala4. The relatively small size of genomic fragments of tropical japonica origin in some indica varieties indicates that refined introgression must have occurred by natural crossbreeding in the course of evolution of the black trait in rice. PMID:26362607

  2. Gene flow from herbicide-resistant and non-resistant rice into red rice populations in U.S. rice fields: A survey of current evidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diverse red rice types infest U.S. rice fields. These infestations have remained widespread despite recent successes in controlling red rice in newly-introduced herbicide-resistant rice systems. As a result, the distribution and genetic background of red rice, and the degree to which red rice inte...

  3. 'Wild Treasure' Thornless Trailing Blackberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild Treasure is a new trailing blackberry cultivar from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University. Wild Treasure is thornless and has high quality fruit that are very small and can be mech...

  4. Facile fabrication of rice husk based silicon dioxide nanospheres loaded with silver nanoparticles as a rice antibacterial agent.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jianghu; Liang, You; Yang, Desong; Liu, Yingliang

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial leaf blight of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a major disease of rice, leading to reduction in production by 10-50%. In order to control this disease, various chemical bactericides have been used. Wide and prolonged application of chemical bactericides resulted in the resistant strain of Xoo that was isolated from rice. To address this problem, we were searching for an environmentally friendly alternative to the commonly used chemical bactericides. In this work, we demonstrate that silicon dioxide nanospheres loaded with silver nanoparticles (SiO2-Ag) can be prepared by using rice husk as base material precursor. The results of the antibacterial tests showed that SiO2-Ag composites displayed antibacterial activity against Xoo. At cellular level, the cell wall/membrane was damaged and intercellular contents were leaked out by slow-releasing of silver ions from SiO2-Ag composites. At molecular level, this composite induced reactive oxygen species production and inhibited DNA replication. Based on the results above, we proposed the potential antibacterial mechanism of SiO2-Ag composites. Moreover, the cytotoxicity assay indicated that the composites showed mild toxicity with rice cells. Thus, this work provided a new strategy to develop biocide derived from residual biomass. PMID:26888152

  5. Facile fabrication of rice husk based silicon dioxide nanospheres loaded with silver nanoparticles as a rice antibacterial agent

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jianghu; Liang, You; Yang, Desong; Liu, Yingliang

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial leaf blight of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a major disease of rice, leading to reduction in production by 10–50%. In order to control this disease, various chemical bactericides have been used. Wide and prolonged application of chemical bactericides resulted in the resistant strain of Xoo that was isolated from rice. To address this problem, we were searching for an environmentally friendly alternative to the commonly used chemical bactericides. In this work, we demonstrate that silicon dioxide nanospheres loaded with silver nanoparticles (SiO2-Ag) can be prepared by using rice husk as base material precursor. The results of the antibacterial tests showed that SiO2-Ag composites displayed antibacterial activity against Xoo. At cellular level, the cell wall/membrane was damaged and intercellular contents were leaked out by slow-releasing of silver ions from SiO2-Ag composites. At molecular level, this composite induced reactive oxygen species production and inhibited DNA replication. Based on the results above, we proposed the potential antibacterial mechanism of SiO2-Ag composites. Moreover, the cytotoxicity assay indicated that the composites showed mild toxicity with rice cells. Thus, this work provided a new strategy to develop biocide derived from residual biomass. PMID:26888152

  6. Transgressive variation for yield components measured throughout the growth cycle of Jefferson rice (Oryza sativa) x O. rufipogon introgression lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies demonstrated alleles introduced into elite rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars from the wild ancestral species, O. rufipogon, enhanced yield and yield components as a result of transgressive variation. A study was conducted to unveil phenological and agronomic mechanisms that underlie in...

  7. Overexpression of the rice AKT1 potassium channel affects potassium nutrition and rice drought tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Izhar; Mian, Afaq; Maathuis, Frans J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Potassium (K+) is the most important cationic nutrient for all living organisms and has roles in most aspects of plant physiology. To assess the impact of one of the main K+ uptake components, the K+ inward rectifying channel AKT1, we characterized both loss of function and overexpression of OsAKT1 in rice. In many conditions, AKT1 expression correlated with K+ uptake and tissue K+ levels. No salinity-related growth phenotype was observed for either loss or gain of function mutants. However, a correlation between AKT1 expression and root Na+ when the external Na/K ratio was high suggests that there may be a role for AKT1 in Na+ uptake in such conditions. In contrast to findings with Arabidopsis thaliana, we did not detect any change in growth of AKT1 loss of function mutants in the presence of NH4 +. Nevertheless, NH4 +-dependent inhibition was detected during K+ uptake assays in loss of function and wild type plants, depending on pre-growth conditions. The most prominent result of OsAKT1 overexpression was a reduction in sensitivity to osmotic/drought stress in transgenic plants: the data suggest that AKT1 overexpression improved rice osmotic and drought stress tolerance by increasing tissue levels of K+, especially in the root. PMID:26969743

  8. Ds insertion mutagenesis as an efficient tool to produce diverse variations for rice breeding.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shu-Ye; Bachmann, Doris; La, Honggui; Ma, Zhigang; Venkatesh, Prasanna Nori; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2007-11-01

    The availability of diversified germplasm resources is the most important for developing improved rice varieties with higher seed yield or tolerance to various biotic or abiotic stresses. Here we report an efficient tool to create increased variations in rice by maize Ac/Ds transposon (a gene trap system) insertion mutagenesis. We have generated around 20,000 Ds insertion rice lines of which majority are homozygous for Ds element. We subjected these lines to phenotypic and abiotic stress screens and evaluated these lines with respect to their seed yields and other agronomic traits as well as their tolerance to drought, salinity and cold. Based on this evaluation, we observed that random Ds insertions into rice genome have led to diverse variations including a range of morphological and conditional phenotypes. Such differences in phenotype among these lines were accompanied by differential gene expression revealed by GUS histochemical staining of gene trapped lines. Among the various phenotypes identified, some Ds lines showed significantly higher grain yield compared to wild-type plants under normal growth conditions indicating that rice could be improved in grain yield by disrupting certain endogenous genes. In addition, several 1,000s of Ds lines were subjected to abiotic stresses to identify conditional mutants. Subsequent to these screens, over 800 lines responsive to drought, salinity or cold stress were obtained, suggesting that rice has the genetic potential to survive under abiotic stresses when appropriate endogenous genes were suppressed. The mutant lines that have higher seed yielding potential or display higher tolerance to abiotic stresses may be used for rice breeding by conventional backcrossing combining with molecular marker-assisted selection. In addition, by exploiting the behavior of Ds to leave footprints upon remobilization, we have shown an alternative strategy to develop new rice varieties without foreign DNA sequences in their genome. PMID

  9. Evaluating the Effect of Expressing a Peanut Resveratrol Synthase Gene in Rice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shigang; Zhao, Shanchang; Li, Zhen; Wang, Qingguo; Yao, Fangyin; Yang, Lianqun; Pan, Jiaowen; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (Res) is a type of natural plant stilbenes and phytoalexins that only exists in a few plant species. Studies have shown that the Res could be biosynthesized and accumulated within plants, once the complete metabolic pathway and related enzymes, such as the key enzyme resveratrol synthase (RS), existed. In this study, a RS gene named PNRS1 was cloned from the peanut, and the activity was confirmed in E. coli. Using transgenic approach, the PNRS1 transgenic rice was obtained. In T3 generation, the Res production and accumulation were further detected by HPLC. Our data revealed that compared to the wild type rice which trans-resveratrol was undetectable, in transgenic rice, the trans-resveratrol could be synthesized and achieved up to 0.697 μg/g FW in seedlings and 3.053 μg/g DW in seeds. Furthermore, the concentration of trans-resveratrol in transgenic rice seedlings could be induced up to eight or four-fold higher by ultraviolet (UV-C) or dark, respectively. Simultaneously, the endogenous increased of Res also showed the advantages in protecting the host plant from UV-C caused damage or dark-induced senescence. Our data indicated that Res was involved in host-defense responses against environmental stresses in transgenic rice. Here the results describes the processes of a peanut resveratrol synthase gene transformed into rice, and the detection of trans-resveratrol in transgenic rice, and the role of trans-resveratrol as a phytoalexin in transgenic rice when treated by UV-C and dark. These findings present new outcomes of transgenic approaches for functional genes and their corresponding physiological functions, and shed some light on broadening available resources of Res, nutritional improvement of crops, and new variety cultivation by genetic engineering. PMID:26302213

  10. Evaluating the Effect of Expressing a Peanut Resveratrol Synthase Gene in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Qingguo; Yao, Fangyin; Yang, Lianqun; Pan, Jiaowen; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (Res) is a type of natural plant stilbenes and phytoalexins that only exists in a few plant species. Studies have shown that the Res could be biosynthesized and accumulated within plants, once the complete metabolic pathway and related enzymes, such as the key enzyme resveratrol synthase (RS), existed. In this study, a RS gene named PNRS1 was cloned from the peanut, and the activity was confirmed in E. coli. Using transgenic approach, the PNRS1 transgenic rice was obtained. In T3 generation, the Res production and accumulation were further detected by HPLC. Our data revealed that compared to the wild type rice which trans-resveratrol was undetectable, in transgenic rice, the trans-resveratrol could be synthesized and achieved up to 0.697 μg/g FW in seedlings and 3.053 μg/g DW in seeds. Furthermore, the concentration of trans-resveratrol in transgenic rice seedlings could be induced up to eight or four-fold higher by ultraviolet (UV-C) or dark, respectively. Simultaneously, the endogenous increased of Res also showed the advantages in protecting the host plant from UV-C caused damage or dark-induced senescence. Our data indicated that Res was involved in host-defense responses against environmental stresses in transgenic rice. Here the results describes the processes of a peanut resveratrol synthase gene transformed into rice, and the detection of trans-resveratrol in transgenic rice, and the role of trans-resveratrol as a phytoalexin in transgenic rice when treated by UV-C and dark. These findings present new outcomes of transgenic approaches for functional genes and their corresponding physiological functions, and shed some light on broadening available resources of Res, nutritional improvement of crops, and new variety cultivation by genetic engineering. PMID:26302213

  11. Mutation of Cellulose Synthase Gene Improves the Nutritive Value of Rice Straw

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yanjing; Zhao, Guoqi; Wei, Zhenwu; Yan, Changjie; Liu, Sujiao

    2012-01-01

    Rice straw is an important roughage resource for ruminants in many rice-producing countries. In this study, a rice brittle mutant (BM, mutation in OsCesA4, encoding cellulose synthase) and its wild type (WT) were employed to investigate the effects of a cellulose synthase gene mutation on rice straw morphological fractions, chemical composition, stem histological structure and in situ digestibility. The morphological fractions investigation showed that BM had a higher leaf sheath proportion (43.70% vs 38.21%, p<0.01) and a lower leaf blade proportion (25.21% vs 32.14%, p<0.01) than WT. Chemical composition analysis showed that BM rice straw was significantly (p<0.01) higher in CP (crude protein), hemicellulose and acid insoluble ash (AIA) contents, but lower in dry matter (DM), acid detergent fiber (ADFom) and cellulose contents when compared to WT. No significant difference (p>0.05) was detected in neutral detergent fiber (NDFom) and ADL contents for both strains. Histological structure observation indicated that BM stems had fewer sclerenchyma cells and a thinner sclerenchyma cell wall than WT. The results of in situ digestion showed that BM had higher DM, NDFom, cellulose and hemicellulose disappearance at 24 or 48 h of incubation (p<0.05). The effective digestibility of BM rice straw DM and NDFom was greater than that of WT (31.4% vs 26.7% for DM, 29.1% vs 24.3% for NDFom, p<0.05), but the rate of digestion of the slowly digested fraction of BM rice straw DM and NDF was decreased. These results indicated that the mutation in the cellulose synthase gene could improve the nutritive value of rice straw for ruminants. PMID:25049629

  12. Rice Dwarf Virus P2 Protein Hijacks Auxin Signaling by Directly Targeting the Rice OsIAA10 Protein, Enhancing Viral Infection and Disease Development.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lian; Qin, Qingqing; Wang, Yu; Pu, Yingying; Liu, Lifang; Wen, Xing; Ji, Shaoyi; Wu, Jianguo; Wei, Chunhong; Ding, Biao; Li, Yi

    2016-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin plays critical roles in regulating myriads of plant growth and developmental processes. Microbe infection can disturb auxin signaling resulting in defects in these processes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Auxin signaling begins with perception of auxin by a transient co-receptor complex consisting of an F-box transport inhibitor response 1/auxin signaling F-box (TIR1/AFB) protein and an auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) protein. Auxin binding to the co-receptor triggers ubiquitination and 26S proteasome degradation of the Aux/IAA proteins, leading to subsequent events, including expression of auxin-responsive genes. Here we report that Rice dwarf virus (RDV), a devastating pathogen of rice, causes disease symptoms including dwarfing, increased tiller number and short crown roots in infected rice as a result of reduced sensitivity to auxin signaling. The RDV capsid protein P2 binds OsIAA10, blocking the interaction between OsIAA10 and OsTIR1 and inhibiting 26S proteasome-mediated OsIAA10 degradation. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing wild-type or a dominant-negative (degradation-resistant) mutant of OsIAA10 phenocopy RDV symptoms are more susceptible to RDV infection; however, knockdown of OsIAA10 enhances the resistance of rice to RDV infection. Our findings reveal a previously unknown mechanism of viral protein reprogramming of a key step in auxin signaling initiation that enhances viral infection and pathogenesis. PMID:27606959

  13. High-Resolution Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Reveals the Contrasting Subcellular Distribution of Arsenic and Silicon in Rice Roots1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Katie L.; Schröder, Markus; Wu, Zhongchang; Martin, Barry G.H.; Hawes, Chris R.; McGrath, Steve P.; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; Feng Ma, Jian; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Grovenor, Chris R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) takes up arsenite mainly through the silicic acid transport pathway. Understanding the uptake and sequestration of arsenic (As) into the rice plant is important for developing strategies to reduce As concentration in rice grain. In this study, the cellular and subcellular distributions of As and silicon (Si) in rice roots were investigated using high-pressure freezing, high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy. Rice plants, both the lsi2 mutant lacking the Si/arsenite efflux transporter Lsi2 and its wild-type cultivar, with or without an iron plaque, were treated with arsenate or arsenite. The formation of iron plaque on the root surface resulted in strong accumulation of As and phosphorous on the epidermis. The lsi2 mutant showed stronger As accumulation in the endodermal vacuoles, where the Lsi2 transporter is located in the plasma membranes, than the wild-type line. As also accumulated in the vacuoles of some xylem parenchyma cells and in some pericycle cells, particularly in the wild-type mature root zone. Vacuolar accumulation of As is associated with sulfur, suggesting that As may be stored as arsenite-phytochelatin complexes. Si was localized in the cell walls of the endodermal cells with little apparent effect of the Lsi2 mutation on its distribution. This study reveals the vacuolar sequestration of As in rice roots and contrasting patterns of As and Si subcellular localization, despite both being transported across the plasma membranes by the same transporters. PMID:21490163

  14. Variable Nitrogen Fixation in Wild Populus.

    PubMed

    Doty, Sharon L; Sher, Andrew W; Fleck, Neil D; Khorasani, Mahsa; Bumgarner, Roger E; Khan, Zareen; Ko, Andrew W K; Kim, Soo-Hyung; DeLuca, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    The microbiome of plants is diverse, and like that of animals, is important for overall health and nutrient acquisition. In legumes and actinorhizal plants, a portion of essential nitrogen (N) is obtained through symbiosis with nodule-inhabiting, N2-fixing microorganisms. However, a variety of non-nodulating plant species can also thrive in natural, low-N settings. Some of these species may rely on endophytes, microorganisms that live within plants, to fix N2 gas into usable forms. Here we report the first direct evidence of N2 fixation in the early successional wild tree, Populus trichocarpa, a non-leguminous tree, from its native riparian habitat. In order to measure N2 fixation, surface-sterilized cuttings of wild poplar were assayed using both 15N2 incorporation and the commonly used acetylene reduction assay. The 15N label was incorporated at high levels in a subset of cuttings, suggesting a high level of N-fixation. Similarly, acetylene was reduced to ethylene in some samples. The microbiota of the cuttings was highly variable, both in numbers of cultured bacteria and in genetic diversity. Our results indicated that associative N2-fixation occurred within wild poplar and that a non-uniformity in the distribution of endophytic bacteria may explain the variability in N-fixation activity. These results point to the need for molecular studies to decipher the required microbial consortia and conditions for effective endophytic N2-fixation in trees. PMID:27196608

  15. Variable Nitrogen Fixation in Wild Populus

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Sharon L.; Sher, Andrew W.; Fleck, Neil D.; Khorasani, Mahsa; Bumgarner, Roger E.; Khan, Zareen; Ko, Andrew W. K.; Kim, Soo-Hyung; DeLuca, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The microbiome of plants is diverse, and like that of animals, is important for overall health and nutrient acquisition. In legumes and actinorhizal plants, a portion of essential nitrogen (N) is obtained through symbiosis with nodule-inhabiting, N2-fixing microorganisms. However, a variety of non-nodulating plant species can also thrive in natural, low-N settings. Some of these species may rely on endophytes, microorganisms that live within plants, to fix N2 gas into usable forms. Here we report the first direct evidence of N2 fixation in the early successional wild tree, Populus trichocarpa, a non-leguminous tree, from its native riparian habitat. In order to measure N2 fixation, surface-sterilized cuttings of wild poplar were assayed using both 15N2 incorporation and the commonly used acetylene reduction assay. The 15N label was incorporated at high levels in a subset of cuttings, suggesting a high level of N-fixation. Similarly, acetylene was reduced to ethylene in some samples. The microbiota of the cuttings was highly variable, both in numbers of cultured bacteria and in genetic diversity. Our results indicated that associative N2-fixation occurred within wild poplar and that a non-uniformity in the distribution of endophytic bacteria may explain the variability in N-fixation activity. These results point to the need for molecular studies to decipher the required microbial consortia and conditions for effective endophytic N2-fixation in trees. PMID:27196608

  16. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

    2012-01-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes—the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

  17. Campylobacter populations in wild and domesticated Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    Colles, Frances M; Ali, Jan S; Sheppard, Samuel K; McCarthy, Noel D; Maiden, Martin C J

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the Campylobacter genotypes that colonize farmed and wild ducks will help to assess the proportion of human disease that is potentially attributable to the consumption of duck meat and environmental exposure to duck faeces. Comparison of temporally and geographically matched farmed and wild ducks showed that they had different Campylobacter populations in terms of: (i) prevalence, (ii) Campylobacter species and (iii) diversity of genotypes. Furthermore, 92.4% of Campylobacter isolates from farmed ducks were sequence types (STs) commonly associated with human disease, in contrast to just one isolate from the wild ducks. Only one ST, ST-45, was shared between the two sources, accounting for 0.9% of wild duck isolates and 5% of farmed duck isolates. These results indicate that domestic ‘niche’ as well as host type may affect the distribution of Campylobacter, and that husbandry practises associated with intensive agriculture may be involved in generating a reservoir of human disease associated lineages. PMID:22164198

  18. Soil Incorporation of Silica-Rich Rice Husk Decreases Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Grain.

    PubMed

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; Morris, Andrew H; Gill, Rattandeep; Kearns, Kelli A; Mann, Jessica N; Paukett, Michelle; Leskanic, Corey

    2016-05-18

    Arsenic decreases rice yield, and inorganic grain As threatens human health; thus, strategies to decrease rice As are critically needed. Increased plant-available silica (Si) can decrease rice As, yet the source of Si matters. Rice husk, an underutilized and Si-rich byproduct of rice production that contains less labile C and an order of magnitude less As than rice straw, may be an economically viable Si resource to decrease rice As, yet the impact of rice husk incorporation on As in the rice-soil nexus has not been reported. This proof-of-concept study shows that rice husk incorporation to soil (1% w/w) decreases inorganic grain As by 25-50% without negatively affecting grain Cd, yield, or dissolved CH4 levels. Rice husk is a critical yet perhaps overlooked resource to improve soil quality through enhanced nutrient availability and attenuate human health risks through consumption of As-laden grain. PMID:27109244

  19. Recent progress on the genetics and molecular breeding of brown planthopper resistance in rice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie; Xiao, Cong; He, Yuqing

    2016-12-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is the most devastating pest of rice. Host-plant resistance is the most desirable and economic strategy in the management of BPH. To date, 29 major BPH resistance genes have been identified from indica cultivars and wild rice species, and more than ten genes have been fine mapped to chromosome regions of less than 200 kb. Four genes (Bph14, Bph26, Bph17 and bph29) have been cloned. The increasing number of fine-mapped and cloned genes provide a solid foundation for development of functional markers for use in breeding. Several BPH resistant introgression lines (ILs), near-isogenic lines (NILs) and pyramided lines (PLs) carrying single or multiple resistance genes were developed by marker assisted backcross breeding (MABC). Here we review recent progress on the genetics and molecular breeding of BPH resistance in rice. Prospect for developing cultivars with durable, broad-spectrum BPH resistance are discussed. PMID:27300326

  20. The Nipponbare genome and the next-generation of rice genomics research in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Wu, Jianzhong; Itoh, Takeshi; Numa, Hisataka; Antonio, Baltazar; Sasaki, Takuji

    2016-12-01

    The map-based genome sequence of the japonica rice cultivar Nipponbare remains to date as the only monocot genome that has been sequenced to a high-quality level. It has become the reference sequence for understanding the diversity among thousands of rice cultivars and its wild relatives as well as the major cereal crops that comprised the food source for the entire human race. This review focuses on the accomplishments in rice genomics in Japan encompassing the last 10 years which have led into deeper understanding of the genome, characterization of many agronomic traits, comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome, and the map-based cloning of many genes associated with agronomic traits. PMID:27447712

  1. Identification of major rice allergen and their clinical significance in children

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, You Hoon; Oh, Se Jo; Yang, Hyeon Jong; Lee, Soo Young

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Recently, an increase in the number of patients sensitized to rice allergen with or without clinical symptoms has been reported. This study was designed to determine the major allergens in rice and their clinical significance. Methods Twenty-four children (15 boys and 9 girls; mean age, 16.3 months) with allergic disease, who were sensitized to rice antigen (by UniCAP) in the Pediatric Allergy Respiratory Center at Soonchunhyang University Hospital, were enrolled in this study. The allergenicity of various types of rice (raw, cooked, and heat-treated, simulated gastric fluid [SGF], and simulated intestinal fluid [SIF]) was investigated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) immunoblots. The patients' medical records, including laboratory data and allergy symptoms after ingestion of rice were reviewed. Results Patients were sensitized to an average of 13.5 food antigens and their mean total IgE was 6,888.7 kU/L. In SDS-PAGE, more than 16 protein bands were observed in the raw rice, whereas only 14-16 kDa and 31-35 kDa protein bands were observed in cooked rice. The common SDS-PAGE protein bands observed in SGF-, SIF-, and heat-treated rice were 9, 14, and 31 kDa. In a heated-rice IgE immunoblot, protein bands of 9, 14, and 31-33 kDa were found in 27.8%, 38.9%, and 38.9% of all sera, respectively, and in 50%, 50%, and 75%, of ser a from the 4 symptomatic patients, respectively. Conclusion The 9-, 14-, and 31-kDa protein bands appeared to be the major allergens responsible for rice allergy symptoms. PMID:22232624

  2. Ectopic Overexpression of The Transcription Factor OsGLK1 Induces Chloroplast Development in Non-Green Rice Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Hakata, Makoto; Ueno, Osamu; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Takano, Makoto; Ichikawa, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    For systematic and genome-wide analyses of rice gene functions, we took advantage of the full-length cDNA overexpresser (FOX) gene-hunting system and generated >12 000 independent FOX-rice lines from >25 000 rice calli treated with the rice-FOX Agrobacterium library. We found two FOX-rice lines generating green calli on a callus-inducing medium containing 2,4-D, on which wild-type rice calli became ivory yellow. In both lines, OsGLK1 cDNA encoding a GARP transcription factor was ectopically overexpressed. Using rice expression-microarray and northern blot analyses, we found that a large number of nucleus-encoded genes involved in chloroplast functions were highly expressed and transcripts of plastid-encoded genes, psaA, psbA and rbcL, increased in the OsGLK1-FOX calli. Transmission electron microscopy showed the existence of differentiated chloroplasts with grana stacks in OsGLK1-FOX calli cells. However, in darkness, OsGLK1-FOX calli did not show a green color or develop grana stacks. Furthermore, we found developed chloroplasts in vascular bundle and bundle sheath cells of coleoptiles and leaves from OsGLK1-FOX seedlings. The OsGLK1-FOX calli exhibited high photosynthetic activity and were able to grow on sucrose-depleted media, indicating that developed chloroplasts in OsGLK1-FOX rice calli are functional and active. We also observed that the endogenous OsGLK1 mRNA level increased synchronously with the greening of wild-type calli after transfer to plantlet regeneration medium. These results strongly suggest that OsGLK1 regulates chloroplast development under the control of light and phytohormones, and that it is a key regulator of chloroplast development. PMID:19808806

  3. In silico simulation modeling reveals the importance of the Casparian strip for efficient silicon uptake in rice roots.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Gen; Satake, Akiko; Yamaji, Naoki; Mitani-Ueno, Namiki; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Feugier, François Gabriel; Ma, Jian Feng

    2015-04-01

    Silicon (Si) uptake by the roots is mediated by two different transporters, Lsi1 (passive) and Lsi2 (active), in rice (Oryza sativa). Both transporters are polarly localized in the plasma membranes of exodermal (outer) and endodermal (inner) cells with Casparian strips. However, it is unknown how rice is able to take up large amounts of Si compared with other plants, and why rice Si transporters have a characteristic cellular localization pattern. To answer these questions, we simulated Si uptake by rice roots by developing a mathematical model based on a simple diffusion equation that also accounts for active transport by Lsi2. In this model, we calibrated the model parameters using in vivo experimental data on the Si concentrations in the xylem sap and a Monte Carlo method. In our simulation experiments, we compared the Si uptake between roots with various transporter and Casparian strip locations and estimated the Si transport efficiency of roots with different localization patterns and quantities of the Lsi transporters. We found that the Si uptake by roots that lacked Casparian strips was lower than that of normal roots. This suggests that the double-layer structure of the Casparian strips is an important factor in the high Si uptake by rice. We also found that among various possible localization patterns, the most efficient one was that of the wild-type rice; this may explain the high Si uptake capacity of rice. PMID:25673476

  4. Transgenic rice with inducible ethylene production exhibits broad-spectrum disease resistance to the fungal pathogens Magnaporthe oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, Emily E; Wang, Qin; Yang, Yinong

    2013-01-01

    Rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) are the two most devastating diseases of rice (Oryza sativa), and have severe impacts on crop yield and grain quality. Recent evidence suggests that ethylene (ET) may play a more prominent role than salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in mediating rice disease resistance. In this study, we attempt to genetically manipulate endogenous ET levels in rice for enhancing resistance to rice blast and sheath blight diseases. Transgenic lines with inducible production of ET were generated by expressing the rice ACS2 (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, a key enzyme of ET biosynthesis) transgene under control of a strong pathogen-inducible promoter. In comparison with the wild-type plant, the OsACS2-overexpression lines showed significantly increased levels of the OsACS2 transcripts, endogenous ET and defence gene expression, especially in response to pathogen infection. More importantly, the transgenic lines exhibited increased resistance to a field isolate of R. solani, as well as different races of M. oryzae. Assessment of the growth rate, generational time and seed production revealed little or no differences between wild type and transgenic lines. These results suggest that pathogen-inducible production of ET in transgenic rice can enhance resistance to necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens without negatively impacting crop productivity. PMID:23031077

  5. Rice scene radiation research plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heilman, J.

    1982-01-01

    Data requirements, tasks to be accomplished, and the technical approaches to be used in identifying the characteristics of rice for crop inventories are listed as well as methods for estimating crop development and assessing its conditions.

  6. Rice Reoviruses in Insect Vectors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Taiyun; Li, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Rice reoviruses, transmitted by leafhopper or planthopper vectors in a persistent propagative manner, seriously threaten the stability of rice production in Asia. Understanding the mechanisms that enable viral transmission by insect vectors is a key to controlling these viral diseases. This review describes current understanding of replication cycles of rice reoviruses in vector cell lines, transmission barriers, and molecular determinants of vector competence and persistent infection. Despite recent breakthroughs, such as the discoveries of actin-based tubule motility exploited by viruses to overcome transmission barriers and mutually beneficial relationships between viruses and bacterial symbionts, there are still many gaps in our knowledge of transmission mechanisms. Advances in genome sequencing, reverse genetics systems, and molecular technologies will help to address these problems. Investigating the multiple interaction systems among the virus, insect vector, insect symbiont, and plant during natural infection in the field is a central topic for future research on rice reoviruses. PMID:27296147

  7. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  8. Differentiation of weedy traits in ALS-resistant red rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice is a weedy form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) that competes aggressively with rice in the southern U.S., reduces yields and contaminates rice grains. The introduction of ClearfieldTM rice, a nontransgenic, herbicide-resistant rice cultivar a decade ago has led to increased use of imazet...

  9. Detection algorithm for multiple rice seeds images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, F.; Ying, Y. B.

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a digital image analysis algorithm for detection of multiple rice seeds images. The rice seeds used for this study involved a hybrid rice seed variety. Images of multiple rice seeds were acquired with a machine vision system for quality inspection of bulk rice seeds, which is designed to inspect rice seeds on a rotating disk with a CCD camera. Combining morphological operations and parallel processing gave improvements in accuracy, and a reduction in computation time. Using image features selected based on classification ability; a highly acceptable defects classification was achieved when the algorithm was implemented for all the samples to test the adaptability.

  10. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot.

    PubMed

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments. PMID:26422147

  11. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot

    PubMed Central

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments. PMID:26422147

  12. Resequencing Reveals Different Domestication Rate for BADH1 and BADH2 in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    PubMed Central

    He, Qiang; Yu, Jie; Kim, Tae-Sung; Cho, Yoo-Hyun; Lee, Young-Sang; Park, Yong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    BADH1 and BADH2 are two homologous genes, encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in rice. In the present study, we scanned BADHs sequences of 295 rice cultivars, and 10 wild rice accessions to determine the polymorphisms, gene functions and domestication of these two genes. A total of 16 alleles for BADH1 and 10 alleles for BADH2 were detected in transcribed region of cultivars and wild species. Association study showed that BADH1 has significant correlation with salt tolerance in rice during germination stage, the SNP (T/A) in exon 4 is highly correlated with salt tolerance index (STI) (P<10−4). While, BADH2 was only responsible for rice fragrance, of which two BADH2 alleles (8 bp deletion in exon 7 and C/T SNP in exon 13) explain 97% of aroma variation in our germplasm. Theses indicate that there are no overlapping functions between the two homologous genes. In addition, a large LD block was detected in BADH2 region, however, there was no large LD blocks in a 4-Mb region of BADH1. We found that BADH2 region only showed significant bias in Tajima’s D value from the balance. Extended haplotype homozygosity study revealed fragrant accessions had a large LD block that extended around the mutation site (8 bp deletion in exon 7) of BADH2, while both of the BADH1 alleles (T/A in exon 4) did not show large extended LD block. All these results suggested that BADH2 was domesticated during rice evolution, while BADH1 was not selected by human beings. PMID:26258482

  13. Resequencing Reveals Different Domestication Rate for BADH1 and BADH2 in Rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Yu, Jie; Kim, Tae-Sung; Cho, Yoo-Hyun; Lee, Young-Sang; Park, Yong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    BADH1 and BADH2 are two homologous genes, encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in rice. In the present study, we scanned BADHs sequences of 295 rice cultivars, and 10 wild rice accessions to determine the polymorphisms, gene functions and domestication of these two genes. A total of 16 alleles for BADH1 and 10 alleles for BADH2 were detected in transcribed region of cultivars and wild species. Association study showed that BADH1 has significant correlation with salt tolerance in rice during germination stage, the SNP (T/A) in exon 4 is highly correlated with salt tolerance index (STI) (P<10(-4)). While, BADH2 was only responsible for rice fragrance, of which two BADH2 alleles (8 bp deletion in exon 7 and C/T SNP in exon 13) explain 97% of aroma variation in our germplasm. Theses indicate that there are no overlapping functions between the two homologous genes. In addition, a large LD block was detected in BADH2 region, however, there was no large LD blocks in a 4-Mb region of BADH1. We found that BADH2 region only showed significant bias in Tajima's D value from the balance. Extended haplotype homozygosity study revealed fragrant accessions had a large LD block that extended around the mutation site (8 bp deletion in exon 7) of BADH2, while both of the BADH1 alleles (T/A in exon 4) did not show large extended LD block. All these results suggested that BADH2 was domesticated during rice evolution, while BADH1 was not selected by human beings. PMID:26258482

  14. Kennedy at Rice University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    President Kennedy speaks before a crowd of 35,000 people at Rice University in the football field. The following are excerpts from his speech. ' ...We set sail on his new sea because there is a new knowledge to be gained, and new rights to be won, and they must be won and used for the progress of all people. ...Whether it will become a force for good or ill depends on man, and only if the United States occupies a position of pre-eminence can we help decide whether this new ocean will be a sea of peace or a new terrifying theater of war. But I do say space can be explored and mastered without feeding the fires of war, without repeating the mistakes that man has made with extending his writ around this globe of ours. ...There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again. But why, some say the Moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask, why climb the highest mountian? Why - 35 years ago - why fly the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas? We choose to go to the Moon, we choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one in which we intend to win, and the others too.'

  15. Kennedy at Rice University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    President Kennedy speaks before a crowd of 35,000 people at Rice University in the football field. The following are excerpts from his speech. ' ...We set sail on his new sea because there is a new knowledge to begained, and new rights to be won, and they must be won and used for the progress of all people. Whether it will become a force for good or ill depends on man, and only if the United States occupies a position of pre-eminence can we help decide whether this new ocean will be a sea of peace or a new terrifying theater of war. But I do say space can be explored and mastered without feeding the fires of war, without repeating the mistakes that man has made with extending his wirt around this globe of ours. There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again. But why, some say the Moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask, why climb the highest mountain? Why 35 years ago why fly the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas? We choose to go to the Moon, we choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one in which we attend to win, and the others , too.'

  16. Melatonin promotes seminal root elongation and root growth in transgenic rice after germination.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangkyu; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2012-11-01

    The effect of melatonin on root growth after germination was examined in transgenic rice seedlings expressing sheep serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT). Enhanced melatonin levels were found in T(3) homozygous seedlings because of the ectopic overexpression of sheep NAT, which is believed to be the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis in animals. Compared with wild-type rice seeds, the transgenic rice seeds showed enhanced seminal root growth and an analogous number of adventitious roots 4 and 10 days after seeding on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium. The enhanced initial seminal root growth in the transgenic seedlings matched their increased root biomass well. We also found that treatment with 0.5 and 1 μM melatonin promoted seminal root growth of the wild type under continuous light. These results indicate that melatonin plays an important role in regulating both seminal root length and root growth after germination in monocotyledonous rice plants. This is the first report on the effects of melatonin on root growth in gain-of-function mutant plants that produce high levels of melatonin. PMID:22640001

  17. Outcrossing potential between U.S. red rice (Oryza sativa) and Chinese indica rice (Oryza sativa) lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice in southern U.S. rice fields remains a widespread, economically challenging problem despite nearly a decade of rice production systems that include true-breeding rice cultivars and indica-derived hybrid rice with resistance to imazethapyr. Both of these herbicide-resistant rice systems hav...

  18. Red rice (Oryza sativa L.) emergence characteristics and influence on rice (O. sativa) yield at different planting dates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated rice yield losses due to red rice infestation vary by cultivar, red rice density, and duration of interference. The competition effects of red rice could be influenced further by emergence characteristics, red rice biotype, and planting time of cultivated rice. We aimed to characterize th...

  19. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  20. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Poritosh; Orikasa, Takahiro; Okadome, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR), germinated brown rice (GBR) and partially-milled rice (PMR) contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR). Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR) seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled), and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society. PMID:21776212

  1. Pen-reared fulvous tree ducks used in movement studies of wild populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.; King, K.A.; Heyland, O.

    1973-01-01

    To obtain movement data on wild fulvous tree ducks (Dendrocygna bicolor) 165 immature pen-reared fulvous tree ducks were color-marked and released in three southeast Texas counties in July October 1969/70. Nine (5 percent) of the marked birds were recovered from 3 days to 9 months after release, and an additional 15 birds provided sight records. Many released birds apparently became integrated into the wild population; all of those observed were with wild flocks. Six birds were recovered over 50 miles from the release sites. Four released in late July to mid-September had moved eastward and two went southward in September or later. Five were still in the Texas-Louisiana rice belt (three in late November). The sixth bird was recovered in October in Veracruz, which supports the assumption that U.S. Gulf Coast nesting populations winter in southern Mexico.

  2. Molecular dynamics of interactions of rice with rice blast and sheath blight pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to develop the molecular strategies to control rice (Oryzae sativa) diseases, molecular interactions of rice with rice blast [Magnaporthe oryzae, formerly (Magnaporthe grisea] and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) fungi were analyzed. The interaction of rice with M. oryzae follows a b...

  3. Factors influencing ALS-resistant gene transfer from CL (tm) rice to red rice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice (Oryza sativa L.) is hard to control due to its genetic similarity to cultivated rice. Herbicide-resistant Clearfield ™ (CL) rice now offers an excellent option for red rice control. However, sustainability of CL technology at the producers’ level will be dictated by various factors. Promi...

  4. The impact of planting date on management of the rice water weevil in Louisiana rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus, is the most destructive insect pest of rice in the United States. Early planting of rice to avoid damaging infestations of the rice water weevil has long been suggested as a management tactic. A five-year study was conducted to characterize the influ...

  5. Diversity of global rice markets and the science required for consumer-targeted rice breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of different quality traits that make up the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice ...

  6. Genetic diversity for rice grain mineral concentrations observed among genetically and geographically giverse rice accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With about half of the world’s people dependent on rice as their main food source, improving the nutritional value of rice could have major impact on human health. While rice in the USA is often artificially fortified, natural enhancement of the rice grain’s nutritional value, i.e. from genetic impr...

  7. Volatiles induction in rice stink bug host grasses and rice plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice stink bug (RSB), Oebalus pugnax F., is an important pest of heading rice in the United States. Little is known about plant volatiles production following herbivory by the rice stink bug. RSB feeding induced volatiles production in different RSB host grasses and rice varieties, and may help expl...

  8. [Wild is not really wild: brain weight of wild domestic mammals].

    PubMed

    Röhrs, M; Ebinger, P

    1999-01-01

    Domestication leads to the reduction of brain weight, decreases reach from 8.1% in laboratory rats up to 33.6% in domesticated pigs. The question is: Do brain weights increase by feralization? We compared the brain weights of domesticated mammals (cat, dog, pig, goat, ass) with their feral forms. In none of the cases studied, brain weight is increased in wild domestic mammals. So, feral mammals do not return back to the status of their wild species. PMID:10472721

  9. Variation of grain Cd and Zn concentrations of 110 hybrid rice cultivars grown in a low-Cd paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Li, Lianqing; Pan, Genxing

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced Cd uptake and Zn depletion in rice grains and high potential for food Cd exposure by the high-yielding hybrid cultivars of China had been addressed. A field experiment was conducted in 2006 to determine the difference in grain Cd and Zn between cultivars. Total 110 cultivars including super rice and common hybrid rice cultivars were grown on a single paddy soil (Entic Haplaquept) with a neutral reaction and low total Cd content. Grain Cd and Zn concentrations were determined with graphite atomic adsorption spectrophotometer (GFAAS) and flame atomic adsorption spectrophotometer (AAS) respectively. Wide variation of Cd content in grain was found in a range of 0.004-0.057 mg/kg, while the Zn content in a range of 10.25-30.06 mg/kg among the cultivars. Higher Cd but lower Zn concentration in grains of super rice cultivars was observed compared to the common hybrid ones. A highly significant positive linear correlation of grain Cd/Zn with grain Cd was found for super rice and common hybrid cultivars, meanwhile much higher slope for these hybrid cultivars than the reported non-hybrid cultivars was also observed. Using the limit value of the Chinese chemical guidelines for foods (MOHC and SSC, 2005), calculated potential risk of food Cd exposure with "Zn hungry" through diet intake was prominent with all the studied 110 hybrid rice cultivars, possessing high potential health problems for rice production in South China using the super rice cultivars. Breeding of genotypes of rice cultivars with low grain Cd and low Cd/Zn ratio is needed for rice production in acidic red soils where Cd bioavailability is prevalently high. PMID:19402417

  10. Common Mechanism Underlies Repeated Evolution of Extreme Pollution Tolerance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human alterations to the environment can exert strong evolutionary pressures, yet contemporary adaptation to human-mediated stressors is rarely documented in wild populations. A common-garden experimental design was coupled with comparative transcriptomics to discover evolved me...

  11. Hophornbeam copperleaf, an example wild host for Helicoverpa zea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of Helicovepa zea (Boddie)and Heliothis virescens (Fabricies)were commonly found on hophornbeam copperleaf, Acalpha ostryaefolia, in Arkansas and Mississippi. From 2002-2009, more than 25 colonies of H. zea were established from collections made on the wild host plant. One colony of H...

  12. Detection and impact of BVDV in wild ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While BVDV is most commonly associated with cattle there is evidence, based on virus isolation and/or serology, that BVDV replicates in a wide variety of domesticated and wild ruminants including cervidae such as white tail deer, mule deer, fallow deer, elk, red deer, roe deer, and mousedeer and cap...

  13. [Utilizable value of wild economic plant resource--acron kernel].

    PubMed

    He, R; Wang, K; Wang, Y; Xiong, T

    2000-04-01

    Peking whites breeding hens were selected. Using true metabolizable energy method (TME) to evaluate the available nutritive value of acorn kernel, while maize and rice were used as control. The results showed that the contents of gross energy (GE), apparent metabolizable energy (AME), true metabolizable energy (TME) and crude protein (CP) in the acorn kernel were 16.53 mg/kg-1, 11.13 mg.kg-1, 11.66 mg.kg-1 and 10.63%, respectively. The apparent availability and true availability of crude protein were 45.55% and 49.83%. The gross content of 17 amino acids, essential amino acids and semiessential amino acids were 9.23% and 4.84%. The true availability of amino acid and the content of true available amino acid were 60.85% and 6.09%. The contents of tannin and hydrocyanic acid were 4.55% and 0.98% in acorn kernel. The available nutritive value of acorn kernel is similar to maize or slightly lower, but slightly higher than that of rice. Acorn kernel is a wild economic plant resource to exploit and utilize but it contains higher tannin and hydrocyanic acid. PMID:11767593

  14. GENE FLOW BETWEEN RED RICE AND RICE IN HERBICIDE RESISTANT RICE FIELDS: EVALUATING RISKS AND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Imidazolinone (IMI)-resistant rice cultivars have been increasingly adopted in the southern U.S. since their initial introduction in 2002, largely due to the newly acquired control of red rice that is now possible in these systems. It is estimated that IMI rice is being grown on 20 to 25% of the ac...

  15. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    PubMed

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Because rice feeds half of the world's population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one "rice-fish system" (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers' net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability. PMID:27349875

  16. OryzaGenome: Genome Diversity Database of Wild Oryza Species

    PubMed Central

    Ohyanagi, Hajime; Ebata, Toshinobu; Huang, Xuehui; Gong, Hao; Fujita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Takako; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Feng, Qi; Wang, Zi-Xuan; Han, Bin; Kurata, Nori

    2016-01-01

    The species in the genus Oryza, encompassing nine genome types and 23 species, are a rich genetic resource and may have applications in deeper genomic analyses aiming to understand the evolution of plant genomes. With the advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, a flood of Oryza species reference genomes and genomic variation information has become available in recent years. This genomic information, combined with the comprehensive phenotypic information that we are accumulating in our Oryzabase, can serve as an excellent genotype–phenotype association resource for analyzing rice functional and structural evolution, and the associated diversity of the Oryza genus. Here we integrate our previous and future phenotypic/habitat information and newly determined genotype information into a united repository, named OryzaGenome, providing the variant information with hyperlinks to Oryzabase. The current version of OryzaGenome includes genotype information of 446 O. rufipogon accessions derived by imputation and of 17 accessions derived by imputation-free deep sequencing. Two variant viewers are implemented: SNP Viewer as a conventional genome browser interface and Variant Table as a text-based browser for precise inspection of each variant one by one. Portable VCF (variant call format) file or tab-delimited file download is also available. Following these SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) data, reference pseudomolecules/scaffolds/contigs and genome-wide variation information for almost all of the closely and distantly related wild Oryza species from the NIG Wild Rice Collection will be available in future releases. All of the resources can be accessed through http://viewer.shigen.info/oryzagenome/. PMID:26578696

  17. Seed coating with a neonicotinoid insecticide negatively affects wild bees.

    PubMed

    Rundlöf, Maj; Andersson, Georg K S; Bommarco, Riccardo; Fries, Ingemar; Hederström, Veronica; Herbertsson, Lina; Jonsson, Ove; Klatt, Björn K; Pedersen, Thorsten R; Yourstone, Johanna; Smith, Henrik G

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on bees is vital because of reported declines in bee diversity and distribution and the crucial role bees have as pollinators in ecosystems and agriculture. Neonicotinoids are suspected to pose an unacceptable risk to bees, partly because of their systemic uptake in plants, and the European Union has therefore introduced a moratorium on three neonicotinoids as seed coatings in flowering crops that attract bees. The moratorium has been criticized for being based on weak evidence, particularly because effects have mostly been measured on bees that have been artificially fed neonicotinoids. Thus, the key question is how neonicotinoids influence bees, and wild bees in particular, in real-world agricultural landscapes. Here we show that a commonly used insecticide seed coating in a flowering crop can have serious consequences for wild bees. In a study with replicated and matched landscapes, we found that seed coating with Elado, an insecticide containing a combination of the neonicotinoid clothianidin and the non-systemic pyrethroid β-cyfluthrin, applied to oilseed rape seeds, reduced wild bee density, solitary bee nesting, and bumblebee colony growth and reproduction under field conditions. Hence, such insecticidal use can pose a substantial risk to wild bees in agricultural landscapes, and the contribution of pesticides to the global decline of wild bees may have been underestimated. The lack of a significant response in honeybee colonies suggests that reported pesticide effects on honeybees cannot always be extrapolated to wild bees. PMID:25901681

  18. The revisited levels of free and bound phenolics in rice: Effects of the extraction procedure.

    PubMed

    Alves, Gabriela Hörnke; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Vivian, Patrícia Gomes; Monks, Jander Luis Fernandes; Elias, Moacir Cardoso; Vanier, Nathan Levien; de Oliveira, Maurício

    2016-10-01

    The effects of the type of solvolytic solution and number of extraction steps on the recovery of free phenolics, anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins from different rice samples were evaluated. Moreover, bound phenolic acids were determined as a function of enzymatic and/or alkaline hydrolysis treatment of the rice residue obtained after the extraction of free phenolics. The Acetone/Water (70:30 v/v) was the most effective solvolytic solution for extracting free phenolics from pigmented rice, as well as anthocyanins from black and wild rice, and proanthocyanidins from red rice. The application of three extraction steps increased the recovery of free phenolics up to 10%. The adoption of an enzymatic treatment, with α-amylase in order to reduce the paste viscosity of the residue, increased the extractability of bound phenolics. α-Amylase at 37°C during 15min followed by an alkaline hydrolysis at 37°C was the best treatment for the recovery of bound phenolics. PMID:27132831

  19. Optimized scorpion polypeptide LMX: a pest control protein effective against rice leaf folder.

    PubMed

    Tianpei, Xiuzi; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Lepidopteran insect pests are the main class of pests causing significant damage to crop plant yields. Insecticidal scorpion peptides exhibit toxicity specific for insects. Here, we report that a peptide LMX, optimized from the insect-specific scorpion neurotoxin LqhIT2, showed high levels of activity against rice leaf folder in vitro and in planta. Oral ingestion of LMX protein led to a significant decrease in feeding on rice leaves, repression of larval growth and development, delay in molting, and increase in larval lethality. Compared with LqhIT2 protein, the stability and insecticidal efficacy of LMX was better. Meanwhile, biochemical analysis showed that LMX protein ingestion dramatically decreased ecdysone content in rice leaf folder larvae, and down-regulated enzymatic activities of the detoxification system (α-naphthyl acetate esterase and glutathione S-transferase), the digestive system (tryptase and chymotrypsin), and the antioxidant system (catalase). These changes were tightly correlated with the dosage of LMX protein. Transgene analysis showed that the rate of leaf damage, and the number of damaged tillers and leaves in the transgenic line were greatly reduced relative to wild type plants and empty vector plants. Based on these observations, we propose that the insect-specific scorpion neurotoxin peptide LMX is an attractive and effective alternative molecule for the protection of rice from rice leaf folder. PMID:24964088

  20. Sago-Type Palms Were an Important Plant Food Prior to Rice in Southern Subtropical China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Barton, Huw J.; Wan, Zhiwei; Li, Quan; Ma, Zhikun; Li, Mingqi; Zhang, Dan; Wei, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Poor preservation of plant macroremains in the acid soils of southern subtropical China has hampered understanding of prehistoric diets in the region and of the spread of domesticated rice southwards from the Yangtze River region. According to records in ancient books and archaeological discoveries from historical sites, it is presumed that roots and tubers were the staple plant foods in this region before rice agriculture was widely practiced. But no direct evidences provided to test the hypothesis. Here we present evidence from starch and phytolith analyses of samples obtained during systematic excavations at the site of Xincun on the southern coast of China, demonstrating that during 3,350–2,470 aBC humans exploited sago palms, bananas, freshwater roots and tubers, fern roots, acorns, Job's-tears as well as wild rice. A dominance of starches and phytoliths from palms suggest that the sago-type palms were an important plant food prior to the rice in south subtropical China. We also believe that because of their reliance on a wide range of starch-rich plant foods, the transition towards labour intensive rice agriculture was a slow process. PMID:23667584

  1. A mutation in the rice chalcone isomerase gene causes the golden hull and internode 1 phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hong, Lilan; Qian, Qian; Tang, Ding; Wang, Kejian; Li, Ming; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2012-07-01

    The biosynthesis of flavonoids, important secondary plant metabolites, has been investigated extensively, but few mutants of genes in this pathway have been identified in rice (Oryza sativa). The rice gold hull and internode (gh) mutants exhibit a reddish-brown pigmentation in the hull and internode and their phenotype has long been used as a morphological marker trait for breeding and genetic study. Here, we characterized that the gh1 mutant was a mutant of the rice chalcone isomerase gene (OsCHI). The result showed that gh1 had a Dasheng retrotransposon inserted in the 5′ UTR of the OsCHI gene, which resulted in the complete loss of OsCHI expression. gh1 exhibited golden pigmentation in hulls and internodes once the panicles were exposed to light. The total flavonoid content in gh1 hulls was increased threefold compared to wild type. Consistent with the gh1 phenotype, OsCHI transcripts were expressed in most tissues of rice and most abundantly in internodes. It was also expressed at high levels in panicles before heading, distributed mainly in lemmas and paleae, but its expression decreased substantially after the panicles emerged from the sheath. OsCHI encodes a protein functionally and structurally conserved to chalcone isomerases in other species. Our findings demonstrated that the OsCHI gene was indispensable for flux of the flavonoid pathway in rice. PMID:22286805

  2. Pathogenesis-related proteins in somatic hybrid rice induced by bacterial blight.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chu L; Yan, Shun P; Wang, Chang C; Hu, Hai T; Sun, Wei N; Yan, Cheng Q; Chen, Jian P; Yang, Ling

    2008-07-01

    Rice bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonasoryzae pv. Oryzae (Xoo), is one of the most serious rice diseases worldwide. The bacterial blight resistance trait from Oryza meyeriana, a wild rice species, was introduced into an elite japonica rice cultivar using asymmetric somatic hybridization. This study was carried out with the intention of understanding the molecular mechanism of incompatible interaction between Xoo and the stable somatic hybrids by using proteomic analyses. Proteins were extracted from leaves at 24, 48, and 72 h after Xoo inoculation and separated by 2-DE. A total of 77 protein spots changed their intensities significantly (p<0.05) by more than 1.5-fold at least at one time point. Sixty-four protein spots were successfully identified by MS analysis. Among them, 51 were known to be involved in photosynthesis. Up-regulation of Rubisco large subunit (RcbL) small fragments and down-regulation of RcbL big fragments indicated that intact RcbL and RcbL big fragments degraded following Xoo attack, which was further confirmed by Western blot analysis. The differential expression of proteins related to signal transduction, antioxidant defense, photosynthesis, metabolism, and protein turnover during the Xoo infection, suggests the existence of a complex regulatory network in the somatic hybrid rice that increases resistance toward Xoo infection and damage. PMID:18534637

  3. Optimized Scorpion Polypeptide LMX: A Pest Control Protein Effective against Rice Leaf Folder

    PubMed Central

    Tianpei, Xiuzi; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Lepidopteran insect pests are the main class of pests causing significant damage to crop plant yields. Insecticidal scorpion peptides exhibit toxicity specific for insects. Here, we report that a peptide LMX, optimized from the insect-specific scorpion neurotoxin LqhIT2, showed high levels of activity against rice leaf folder in vitro and in planta. Oral ingestion of LMX protein led to a significant decrease in feeding on rice leaves, repression of larval growth and development, delay in molting, and increase in larval lethality. Compared with LqhIT2 protein, the stability and insecticidal efficacy of LMX was better. Meanwhile, biochemical analysis showed that LMX protein ingestion dramatically decreased ecdysone content in rice leaf folder larvae, and down-regulated enzymatic activities of the detoxification system (α-naphthyl acetate esterase and glutathione S-transferase), the digestive system (tryptase and chymotrypsin), and the antioxidant system (catalase). These changes were tightly correlated with the dosage of LMX protein. Transgene analysis showed that the rate of leaf damage, and the number of damaged tillers and leaves in the transgenic line were greatly reduced relative to wild type plants and empty vector plants. Based on these observations, we propose that the insect-specific scorpion neurotoxin peptide LMX is an attractive and effective alternative molecule for the protection of rice from rice leaf folder. PMID:24964088

  4. Microarray analysis of genes differentially expressed in melatonin-rich transgenic rice expressing a sheep serotonin N-acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Yeong; Park, Sangkyu; Kim, Young Soon; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2013-11-01

    Transgenic rice plants overexpressing a sheep serotonin N-acetyltransferase led to an enhanced production of melatonin with various physiological effects, including seminal root elongation and resistance against cold and oxidative stress, which raises the possibility that melatonin may alter gene expression profiles in the transgenic rice. Therefore, we performed a microarray analysis to investigate the regulatory role of melatonin using the melatonin-rich transgenic rice. We identified 260 and 204 genes that were up- or downregulated in the melatonin-rich transgenic rice when compared with the wild type. Of these, 20 upregulated genes were identified in the seedlings of melatonin-rich rice at more than twice the levels in the wild type (P < 0.05), while 23 downregulated genes were also detected. The representative upregulated genes included caleosin, a Ca(2+) -binding oil-body surface protein involved in the degradation of lipids stored in oil bodies and various signaling proteins such as a cyclin F-box protein and leucine-rich repeat protein. In contrast, jasmonate-induced protein, senescence-associated protein, and polygalacturonase were included in the downregulated gene group. These results suggest that melatonin has an important role in modulating a wide range of gene expression, reflecting its pleiotropic physiological roles in plant growth and development. PMID:23889160

  5. Expression of the moss PpLEA4-20 gene in rice enhances membrane protection and client proteins stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Deng, Dandan; Chen, Xi; Wu, Baomei; Hu, Ke; Qiu, Tianhang; Cui, Suxia; Huang, Fang

    2015-05-01

    Green vegetative tissues of the moss Physcomitrella patens possess a powerful ability to tolerate severe drought stress. Proteomics analysis have revealed that a large number of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins were key players in the drought tolerance of the photosynthetic tissues. PpLEA4-20, a member of the moss LEA protein family, was selected for further function study using an ectopic expression method in rice. Through molecular identification via PCR, southern blotting and TAIL-PCR, we demonstrated that the PpLEA4-20 gene was transformed and inserted into a non-encoded region in chromosome 4 of rice and expressed stably in transgenic rice. Unexpectedly, PpLEA4-20 protein emerged as two high-expressed spots on 2-D gels generated from transgenic rice, suggesting that PpLEA4-20 proteins are complete compatible and might be modified in rice. Both growth and physiological analysis showed that seedlings of transgenic PpLEA4-20 rice displayed altered phenotypes and tolerance to salt. In addition, electrolyte leakage was reduced in transgenic PpLEA4-20 compared to wild type under stress conditions. Anti-aggregation analysis found that the PpLEA4-20 protein expressed in rice remained soluble at high temperature and in addition to some native proteins from transgenic PpLEA4-20 rice. Based on Nano LC MS/MS analysis, we identified several proteins from transgenic PpLEA4-20 rice of increased heat-stability. Our results provide evidence for a role of PpLEA4-20 in salt tolerance and stabilization of client proteins. PMID:25791479

  6. Structure and expression of OsUBP6, an ubiquitin-specific protease 6 homolog in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Moon, Yea Kyung; Hong, Jong-Pil; Cho, Young-Chan; Yang, Sae-Jun; An, Gynheung; Kim, Woo Taek

    2009-11-30

    Although the possible cellular roles of several ubiquitin-specific proteases (UBPs) were identified in Arabidopsis, almost nothing is known about UBP homologs in rice, a monocot model plant. In this report, we searched the rice genome database ( http://signal.salk.edu/cgi-bin/RiceGE ) and identified 21 putative UBP family members (OsUBPs) in the rice genome. These OsUBP genes each contain a ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase (UCH) domain with highly conserved Cys and His boxes and were subdivided into 9 groups based on their sequence identities and domain structures. RT-PCR analysis indicated that rice OsUBP genes are expressed at varying degrees in different rice tissues. We isolated a full-length cDNA clone for OsUBP6, which possesses not only a UCH domain, but also an N-terminal ubiquitin motif. Bacterially expressed OsUBP6 was capable of dismantling K48-linked tetraubiquitin chains in vitro. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR indicated that OsUBP6 is constitutively expressed in different tissues of rice plants. An in vivo targeting experiment showed that OsUBP6 is predominantly localized to the nucleus in onion epidermal cells. We also examined how knock-out of OsUBP6 affects developmental growth of rice plants. Although homozygous T3 osubp6 T-DNA insertion mutant seedlings displayed slower growth relative to wild type seedlings, mature mutant plants appeared to be normal. These results raise the possibility that loss of OsUBP6 is functionally compensated for by an as-yet unknown OsUBP homolog during later stages of development in rice plants. PMID:19855938

  7. OsPTF1, a Novel Transcription Factor Involved in Tolerance to Phosphate Starvation in Rice1[w

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Keke; Wu, Zhongchang; Zhou, Jie; Du, Liming; Guo, Longbiao; Wu, Yunrong; Wu, Ping

    2005-01-01

    We report here on a novel transcription factor with a basic helix-loop-helix domain for tolerance to inorganic phosphate (Pi) starvation in rice (Oryza sativa). The gene is designated OsPTF1. The expression of OsPTF1 is Pi starvation induced in roots while constitutively expressed in shoots, as shown by northern-blot analysis. Overexpression of OsPTF1 enhanced tolerance to Pi starvation in transgenic rice. Tillering ability, root and shoot biomass, and phosphorus content of transgenic rice plants were about 30% higher than those of the wild-type plants in Pi-deficient conditions in hydroponic experiments. In soil pot and field experiments, more than 20% increase in tiller number, panicle weight, and phosphorus content was observed in transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants at low-Pi levels. In Pi-deficient conditions, transgenic rice plants showed significantly higher total root length and root surface area, which results in a higher instantaneous Pi uptake rate over their wild-type counterparts. Microarray analysis for transgenic plants overexpressing OsPTF1 has been performed to investigate the downstream regulation of OsPTF1. PMID:16006597

  8. Microbial arsenic methylation in soil and rice rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yan; Huang, Hai; Zhong, Min; Wang, Feng-Hua; Zhang, Li-Mei; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-04-01

    Methylated arsenic (As) species are a common constituent of rice grains accounting for 10-90% of the total As. Recent studies have shown that higher plants are unlikely to methylate As in vivo suggesting that As methylation is a microbial mediated process that occurs in soils prior to plant uptake. In this study, we designed primers according to the conserved essential amino acids and structural motifs of arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase (ArsM). We report for the first time the successful amplification of the prokaryotic arsM gene in 14 tested soils with wide ranging As concentrations. The abundance and diversity of the arsM gene in the rice rhizosphere soil and roots were analyzed using the designed primers. Results showed that microbes containing arsM genes were phylogenetically diverse, as revealed by the clone library and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, and were branched into various phyla. Concentration of methylated As species in the soil solution was elevated in the rhizosphere soil and also by the addition of rice straw into the paddy soil, corresponding to the elevated abundance of the arsM gene in the soil. These results, together with evidence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of the arsM gene, suggest the genes encoding ArsM in soils are widespread. These findings demonstrate why most rice, when compared with other cereals, contains unusually high concentrations of methylated As species. PMID:23469919

  9. Silencing COI1 in Rice Increases Susceptibility to Chewing Insects and Impairs Inducible Defense

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Mao; Luo, Shi Ming; Xie, Jie Fen; Li, Yan Fang; Xu, Tao; Liu, Yang; Song, Yuan Yuan; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Zeng, Ren Sen

    2012-01-01

    The jasmonic acid (JA) pathway plays a key role in plant defense responses against herbivorous insects. CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) is an F-box protein essential for all jasmonate responses. However, the precise defense function of COI1 in monocotyledonous plants, especially in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is largely unknown. We silenced OsCOI1 in rice plants via RNA interference (RNAi) to determine the role of OsCOI1 in rice defense against rice leaf folder (LF) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, a chewing insect, and brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, a phloem-feeding insect. In wild-type rice plants (WT), the transcripts of OsCOI1 were strongly and continuously up-regulated by LF infestation and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment, but not by BPH infestation. The abundance of trypsin protease inhibitor (TrypPI), and the enzymatic activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) were enhanced in response to both LF and BPH infestation, but the activity of lipoxygenase (LOX) was only induced by LF. The RNAi lines with repressed expression of OsCOI1 showed reduced resistance against LF, but no change against BPH. Silencing OsCOI1 did not alter LF-induced LOX activity and JA content, but it led to a reduction in the TrypPI content, POD and PPO activity by 62.3%, 48.5% and 27.2%, respectively. In addition, MeJA-induced TrypPI and POD activity were reduced by 57.2% and 48.2% in OsCOI1 RNAi plants. These results suggest that OsCOI1 is an indispensable signaling component, controlling JA-regulated defense against chewing insect (LF) in rice plants, and COI1 is also required for induction of TrypPI, POD and PPO in rice defense response to LF infestation. PMID:22558386

  10. Saturated Molecular Map of the Rice Genome Based on an Interspecific Backcross Population

    PubMed Central

    Causse, M. A.; Fulton, T. M.; Cho, Y. G.; Ahn, S. N.; Chunwongse, J.; Wu, K.; Xiao, J.; Yu, Z.; Ronald, P. C.; Harrington, S. E.; Second, G.; McCouch, S. R.; Tanksley, S. D.

    1994-01-01

    A molecular map has been constructed for the rice genome comprised of 726 markers (mainly restriction fragment length polymorphisms; RFLPs). The mapping population was derived from a backcross between cultivated rice, Oryza sativa, and its wild African relative, Oryza longistaminata. The very high level of polymorphism between these species, combined with the use of polymerase chain reaction-amplified cDNA libraries, contributed to mapping efficiency. A subset of the probes used in this study was previously used to construct an RFLP map derived from an inter subspecific cross, providing a basis for comparison of the two maps and of the relative mapping efficiencies in the two crosses. In addition to the previously described PstI genomic rice library, three cDNA libraries from rice (Oryza), oat (Avena) and barley (Hordeum) were used in this mapping project. Levels of polymorphism detected by each and the frequency of identifying heterologous sequences for use in rice mapping are discussed. Though strong reproductive barriers isolate O. sativa from O. longistaminata, the percentage of markers showing distorted segregation in this backcross population was not significantly different than that observed in an intraspecific F(2) population previously used for mapping. The map contains 1491 cM with an average interval size of 4.0 cM on the framework map, and 2.0 cM overall. A total of 238 markers from the previously described PstI genomic rice library, 250 markers from a cDNA library of rice (Oryza), 112 cDNA markers from oat (Avena), and 20 cDNA markers from a barley (Hordeum) library, two genomic clones from maize (Zea), 11 microsatellite markers, three telomere markers, eleven isozymes, 26 cloned genes, six RAPD, and 47 mutant phenotypes were used in this mapping project. Applications of a molecular map for plant improvement are discussed. PMID:7896104

  11. Rice disease research in organic production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic rice production has increased significantly in the U. S. with 35,000 acres currently under production. Texas organic rice acreage has been increasing steadily over the last 10 years with acreage in 2009 reaching 16,000, accounting for approximately 10% of the total Texas rice acreage. Contro...

  12. Is ALL Rice Bran Created Equal?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of whole grain rice is increasing in the U.S. This increase is likely due to increased consumer awareness of the importance of whole grains in the diet. Whole grain rice is superior nutritionally compared to milled rice because, except for carbohyrates, it contains more phytochemicals an...

  13. Understanding rice heterosis using deep sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterosis is a complex biological phenomenon where the offspring show better performance compared to the inbred parents. Although rice breeders have used heterosis in hybrid rice production for nearly 40 years, the genetic and molecular mechanism underlying the heterosis in rice is still poorly und...

  14. Rice functionality, starch structure and the genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Through collaborative efforts among USDA scientists at Beaumont, Texas, we have gained in-depth knowledge of how rice functionality, i.e. the texture of the cooked rice, rice processing properties, and starch gelatinization temperature, are associated with starch-synthesis genes and starch structure...

  15. SHEATH BLIGHT RESISTANCE IN SOUTHERN RICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheath blight is a serious fungal disease problem in southern US rice production, making it necessary for rice farmers to diligently use fungicides for its control. There are no long grain rice varieties adapted to commercial production in the southern US that have adequate resistance to sheath bli...

  16. U.S. Rice: Enhancing human health.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A vision of the U.S. rice industry is to improve human health through the development of germplasm and technologies for products that capture the unique nutritional benefits of the rice grain. This paper gives an overview of U.S. rice production and markets. New product trends and introductions in...

  17. New market opportunities for rice grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding efforts for rice have been focusing on increasing yield and improving quality (milling yield and grain quality), while maintaining cooked rice sensory properties to meet consumer preferences. These breeding targets will no doubt continue as the main foci for the rice industry. However, the ...

  18. Complete Genome Sequences of Three Iberian Brucella suis Biovar 2 Strains Isolated from Wild Boars

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Tenreiro, Rogério; Corrêa de Sá, Maria Inácia

    2014-01-01

    Brucella suis biovar 2 is the most common biovar isolated from wild boars (Sus scrofa) associated with transmission to outdoor-reared pigs in Europe. We report here the complete and annotated genome sequences of three strains isolated from wild boars in Portugal and Spain and belonging to the Iberian clone (haplotypes 2d and 2e). PMID:24994794

  19. Constitutive expression of CaPLA1 conferred enhanced growth and grain yield in transgenic rice plants.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki Youl; Kim, Eun Yu; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipids are not only important components of cell membranes, but participate in diverse processes in higher plants. In this study, we generated Capsicum annuum phospholipiase A1 (CaPLA1) overexpressing transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants under the control of the maize ubiquitin promoter. The T4 CaPLA1-overexpressing rice plants (Ubi:CaPLA1) had a higher root:shoot mass ratio than the wild-type plants in the vegetative stage. Leaf epidermal cells from transgenic plants had more cells than wild-type plants. Genes that code for cyclin and lipid metabolic enzymes were up-regulated in the transgenic lines. When grown under typical paddy field conditions, the transgenic plants produced more tillers, longer panicles and more branches per panicle than the wild-type plants, all of which resulted in greater grain yield. Microarray analysis suggests that gene expressions that are related with cell proliferation, lipid metabolism, and redox state were widely altered in CaPLA1-overexpressing transgenic rice plants. Ubi:CaPLA1 plants had a reduced membrane peroxidation state, as determined by malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels and higher peroxidase activity than wild-type rice plants. Furthermore, three isoprenoid synthetic genes encoding terpenoid synthase, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase were up-regulated in CaPLA1-overexpressing plants. We suggest that constitutive expression of CaPLA1 conferred increased grain yield with enhanced growth in transgenic rice plants by alteration of gene activities related with cell proliferation, lipid metabolism, membrane peroxidation state and isoprenoid biosynthesis. PMID:26803502

  20. Cloning of novel rice blast resistance genes from two rapidly evolving NBS-LRR gene families in rice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Changjiang; Sun, Xiaoguang; Chen, Xiao; Yang, Sihai; Li, Jing; Wang, Long; Zhang, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Most rice blast resistance genes (R-genes) encode proteins with nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains. Our previous study has shown that more rice blast R-genes can be cloned in rapidly evolving NBS-LRR gene families. In the present study, two rapidly evolving R-gene families in rice were selected for cloning a subset of genes from their paralogs in three resistant rice lines. A total of eight functional blast R-genes were identified among nine NBS-LRR genes, and some of these showed resistance to three or more blast strains. Evolutionary analysis indicated that high nucleotide diversity of coding regions served as important parameters in the determination of gene resistance. We also observed that amino-acid variants (nonsynonymous mutations, insertions, or deletions) in essential motifs of the NBS domain contribute to the blast resistance capacity of NBS-LRR genes. These results suggested that the NBS regions might also play an important role in resistance specificity determination. On the other hand, different splicing patterns of introns were commonly observed in R-genes. The results of the present study contribute to improving the effectiveness of R-gene identification by using evolutionary analysis method and acquisition of novel blast resistance genes. PMID:26530637

  1. The copy number of rice CACTA DNA transposons carrying MIR820 does not correlate with MIR820 expression

    PubMed Central

    Nosaka, Misuzu; Ishiwata, Aiko; Shimizu-Sato, Sae; Ono, Akemi; Ishimoto, Kiyoe; Noda, Yusaku; Sato, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    miR820 is a small RNA species (22 and 24 nucleotides), produced from transcripts originated from a region inside CACTA DNA transposons in rice. Because MIR820 is a transposon gene, its expression may depend on the transposon copy number. Here, we investigated the copy number of MIR820 and its expression levels in various cultivars and wild species of rice. We found no correlation between copy number and expression level, suggesting that MIR820 transcription is regulated not by the copy dosage but by the epigenetic state of each copy. PMID:23733074

  2. Rice bran proteins: properties and food uses.

    PubMed

    Prakash, J

    1996-07-01

    Rice bran, a good source of protein and fat, is at present underutilized as a food material. The potential of producing rice bran at the global level is 27.3 million t. The presence of enzyme lipase in rice bran causes rapid deterioration of oil to free fatty acids and glycerol. Various stabilization techniques involving heat treatment, low-temperature storage, chemical treatment, control of relative humidity during storage, and simultaneous milling and extraction were evolved to inactivate lipase. Multiple forms of rice bran lipase have been identified. Fractional classification of proteins reveals a high percentage of albumins and globulins. Proteins can be extracted from full-fat or defatted rice bran by alkaline extraction and acid or heat precipitation. Extraction procedures influence the protein content of concentrates, which ranged from 19.4 to 76.1% in concentrates from full-fat rice bran and 17.5 to 85.0% in concentrates from defatted rice bran. The PER of rice bran ranges from 1.59 to 2.04 and that of protein concentrates from 1.99 to 2.19. Available lysine contents of protein concentrates ranged from 54 to 58.8%. The essential amino acid profiles of protein concentrates indicate that threonine and isoleucine are limiting amino acids. Various functional properties of rice bran protein concentrates have also been investigated that are known to be influenced by drying technique and stabilization treatment of rice bran. Rice bran has been used in food as full-fat rice bran, defatted rice bran, and in the form of rice bran oil and protein concentrates. Full-fat and defatted rice bran have been used in bakery products, breakfast cereals, wafers, as a protein supplement, binder ingredients for meats and sausages, and as a beverage base. Incorporation of protein concentrates have been studied in bread, beverages, confections, and weaning foods. PMID:8841730

  3. Rice, indica (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Hiei, Yukoh; Ishida, Yuji; Komari, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Indica varieties, which are generally recalcitrant to tissue culture and transformation, occupy 80 % of rice cultivation area in the world. Therefore, transformation method for indica rice must be improved greatly so that global rice production would take full advantage of cutting-edge biotechnology. An efficient protocol for indica transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is hereby described. Immature embryos collected from plants in a greenhouse are cocultivated with A. tumefaciens after pretreatment with heat and centrifuging. The protocol was successfully tested in many elite indica cultivars such as IR8, IR24, IR58025B, IR64, IR72, Suweon 258, and Nanjing 11, yielding between 5 and 15 of independent transgenic plants per immature embryo. The use of immature embryos is recommended because gene transfer to them could be much more efficient and much less genotype dependent than gene transfer to callus. PMID:25300838

  4. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks. PMID:24345551

  5. Iron Biofortification of Myanmar Rice

    PubMed Central

    Aung, May Sann; Masuda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Yamakawa, Takashi; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

    2013-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75 and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high-yields or high-qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high-Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II)-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs. PMID:23750162

  6. Incorporating rice residues into paddy soils affects methylmercury accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huike; Zhong, Huan; Wu, Jialu

    2016-06-01

    Paddy fields are characterized by frequent organic input (e.g., fertilization and rice residue amendment), which may affect mercury biogeochemistry and bioaccumulation. To explore potential effects of rice residue amendment on methylmercury (MMHg) accumulation in rice, a mercury-contaminated paddy soil was amended with rice root (RR), rice straw (RS) or composted rice straw (CS), and planted with rice. Incorporating RS or CS increased grain MMHg concentration by 14% or 11%. The observed increases could be attributed to the elevated porewater MMHg levels and thus enhanced MMHg uptake by plants, as well as increased MMHg translocation to grain within plants. Our results indicated for the first time that rice residue amendment could significantly affect MMHg accumulation in rice grain, which should be considered in risk assessment of MMHg in contaminated areas. PMID:26974480

  7. Differential Gene Expression Reflects Morphological Characteristics and Physiological Processes in Rice Immunity against Blast Pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Parisa; Rafii, Mohd Y; Mahmood, Maziah; Abdullah, Siti N A; Hanafi, Mohamed M; Nejat, Naghmeh; Latif, Muhammad A; Sahebi, Mahbod

    2015-01-01

    The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a serious pathogen that jeopardises the world's most important food-security crop. Ten common Malaysian rice varieties were examined for their morphological, physiological and genomic responses to this rice blast pathogen. qPCR quantification was used to assess the growth of the pathogen population in resistant and susceptible rice varieties. The chlorophyll content and photosynthesis were also measured to further understand the disruptive effects that M. oryzae has on infected plants of these varieties. Real-time PCR was used to explore the differential expression of eight blast resistance genes among the ten local varieties. Blast disease has destructive effects on the growth of rice, and the findings of our study provide evidence that the Pikh, Pi9, Pi21, and Osw45 genes are involved in defence responses in the leaves of Malaysian rice at 31 h after inoculation with M. oryzae pathotype P7.2. Both the chlorophyll content and photosynthesis were reduced, but the levels of Pikh gene expression remained constant in susceptible varieties, with a developed pathogen population and mild or severe symptoms. The Pi9, Pi21, and Osw45 genes, however, were simultaneously upregulated in infected rice plants. Therefore, the presence of the Pikh, Pi9, Pi21, and Osw45 genes in the germplasm is useful for improving the resistance of rice varieties. PMID:26001124

  8. Differential Gene Expression Reflects Morphological Characteristics and Physiological Processes in Rice Immunity against Blast Pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Maziah; Abdullah, Siti N. A.; Hanafi, Mohamed M.; Nejat, Naghmeh; Latif, Muhammad A.

    2015-01-01

    The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a serious pathogen that jeopardises the world’s most important food-security crop. Ten common Malaysian rice varieties were examined for their morphological, physiological and genomic responses to this rice blast pathogen. qPCR quantification was used to assess the growth of the pathogen population in resistant and susceptible rice varieties. The chlorophyll content and photosynthesis were also measured to further understand the disruptive effects that M. oryzae has on infected plants of these varieties. Real-time PCR was used to explore the differential expression of eight blast resistance genes among the ten local varieties. Blast disease has destructive effects on the growth of rice, and the findings of our study provide evidence that the Pikh, Pi9, Pi21, and Osw45 genes are involved in defence responses in the leaves of Malaysian rice at 31 h after inoculation with M. oryzae pathotype P7.2. Both the chlorophyll content and photosynthesis were reduced, but the levels of Pikh gene expression remained constant in susceptible varieties, with a developed pathogen population and mild or severe symptoms. The Pi9, Pi21, and Osw45 genes, however, were simultaneously upregulated in infected rice plants. Therefore, the presence of the Pikh, Pi9, Pi21, and Osw45 genes in the germplasm is useful for improving the resistance of rice varieties. PMID:26001124

  9. Suppression of Jasmonic Acid-Mediated Defense by Viral-Inducible MicroRNA319 Facilitates Virus Infection in Rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Ding, Zuomei; Wu, Kangcheng; Yang, Liang; Li, Yang; Yang, Zhen; Shi, Shan; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Shanshan; Yang, Zhirui; Wang, Yu; Zheng, Luping; Wei, Juan; Du, Zhenguo; Zhang, Aihong; Miao, Hongqin; Li, Yi; Wu, Zujian; Wu, Jianguo

    2016-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are pivotal modulators of plant development and host-virus interactions. However, the roles and action modes of specific miRNAs involved in viral infection and host susceptibility remain largely unclear. In this study, we show that Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) infection caused increased accumulation of miR319 but decreased expression of miR319-regulated TCP (TEOSINTE BRANCHED/CYCLOIDEA/PCF) genes, especially TCP21, in rice plants. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing miR319 or downregulating TCP21 exhibited disease-like phenotypes and showed significantly higher susceptibility to RRSV in comparison with the wild-type plants. In contrast, only mild disease symptoms were observed in RRSV-infected lines overexpressing TCP21 and especially in the transgenic plants overexpressing miR319-resistant TCP21. Both RRSV infection and overexpression of miR319 caused the decreased endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) levels along with downregulated expression of JA biosynthesis and signaling-related genes in rice. However, treatment of rice plants with methyl jasmonate alleviated disease symptoms caused by RRSV and reduced virus accumulation. Taken together, our results suggest that the induction of miR319 by RRSV infection in rice suppresses JA-mediated defense to facilitate virus infection and symptom development. PMID:27381440

  10. Identification of WA-type three-line hybrid rice with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y; Gao, B D; Chen, H Y; Mao, J J; Cao, A X; Zhu, J G; Zhu, S F

    2012-02-01

    A real-time fluorescent PCR (RTF-PCR) was developed to detect and quantify wild abortive (WA)-type three-line hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). The mitochondrial R₂₋₆₃₀ WA gene was reported to be closely related to male sterility in plants, and developed as a molecular maker to identify the cytoplasmic male sterility system of hybrid rice. First, we got the DNA sequence of R₂₋₆₃₀ WA gene in 17 rice species with traditional PCR. Then, a pair of specific primers (P₃, P₄) and TaqMan fluorescence probe (P₃₋₁₄) were designed based on the R₂₋₆₃₀ DNA sequence. The following RTF-PCR was performed on the 17 rice species finally. The results indicate that the probes used here are specific for three-line hybrid rice F₁ and male sterile lines. We can even identify a single hybrid seed using the probes, which confirmed that the probes can be applied to the identification and quantification of the WA-type three-line hybrid rice. In addition, the RFT-PCR system can be optimized when the annealing temperature is 60 °C and the Mg²⁺ concentration is 3.5 mmol/L. PMID:22161239

  11. Two Rice Authentic Histidine Phosphotransfer Proteins, OsAHP1 and OsAHP2, Mediate Cytokinin Signaling and Stress Responses in Rice1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lijing; Zhang, Qian; Wu, Jinxia; Zhang, Liqing; Jiao, Xuewen; Zhang, Shengwei; Zhang, Zhiguo; Sun, Daye; Lu, Tiegang; Sun, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Cytokinin plays an important role in plant development and stress tolerance. Studies of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have demonstrated that cytokinin acts through a two-component system that includes a histidine (His) kinase, a His phosphotransfer protein (HP), and a response regulator. Phylogenetic analyses have revealed the conservation of His kinases but lineage-specific expansion of HPs and response regulators in rice (Oryza sativa). However, whether the functions of rice HPs have diverged remains unknown. In this study, two rice authentic HPs (OsAHP1 and OsAHP2) were knocked down simultaneously via RNA interference (RNAi), and the transgenic OsAHP-RNAi plants exhibited phenotypes expected for a deficiency in cytokinin signaling, including dwarfism with reduced internode lengths, enhanced lateral root growth, early leaf senescence, and reduced tiller numbers and fertility under natural conditions. The OsAHP-RNAi seedlings were also hyposensitive to exogenous cytokinin. Furthermore, OsAHP-RNAi seedlings were hypersensitive to salt treatment but resistant to osmotic stress relative to wild-type plants. These results indicate that OsAHPs function as positive regulators of the cytokinin signaling pathway and play different roles in salt and drought tolerance in rice. PMID:24578505

  12. The α-subunit of the rice heterotrimeric G protein, RGA1, regulates drought tolerance during the vegetative phase in the dwarf rice mutant d1

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero-Serrano, Ángel; Assmann, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Essential in the Green Revolution was the development of high-yielding dwarf varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.), but their selection was not based on responses to water limitation. We studied physiological responses to progressive drought of the dwarf rice mutant, d1, in which the RGA1 gene, which encodes the GTP-binding α-subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein, is non-functional. Wild-type (WT) plants cease net carbon fixation 11 days after water is withheld, while d1 plants maintain net photosynthesis for an additional week. During drought, d1 plants exhibit greater stomatal conductance than the WT, but both genotypes exhibit the same transpirational water loss per unit leaf area. This is explained by a smaller driving force for water loss in d1 owing to its lower leaf temperatures, consistent with its more erect architecture. As drought becomes more severe, WT plants show an accelerated decline in photosynthesis, which may be exacerbated by the higher leaf temperatures in the WT. We thus show how a rice mutant with dwarf and erect leaves has a decreased susceptibility to water stress. Accordingly, it may be useful to incorporate RGA1 mutation in breeding or biotechnological strategies for development of drought-resistant rice. PMID:27194741

  13. The α-subunit of the rice heterotrimeric G protein, RGA1, regulates drought tolerance during the vegetative phase in the dwarf rice mutant d1.

    PubMed

    Ferrero-Serrano, Ángel; Assmann, Sarah M

    2016-05-01

    Essential in the Green Revolution was the development of high-yielding dwarf varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.), but their selection was not based on responses to water limitation. We studied physiological responses to progressive drought of the dwarf rice mutant, d1, in which the RGA1 gene, which encodes the GTP-binding α-subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein, is non-functional. Wild-type (WT) plants cease net carbon fixation 11 days after water is withheld, while d1 plants maintain net photosynthesis for an additional week. During drought, d1 plants exhibit greater stomatal conductance than the WT, but both genotypes exhibit the same transpirational water loss per unit leaf area. This is explained by a smaller driving force for water loss in d1 owing to its lower leaf temperatures, consistent with its more erect architecture. As drought becomes more severe, WT plants show an accelerated decline in photosynthesis, which may be exacerbated by the higher leaf temperatures in the WT. We thus show how a rice mutant with dwarf and erect leaves has a decreased susceptibility to water stress. Accordingly, it may be useful to incorporate RGA1 mutation in breeding or biotechnological strategies for development of drought-resistant rice. PMID:27194741

  14. The RICE MINUTE-LIKE1 (RML1) gene, encoding a ribosomal large subunit protein L3B, regulates leaf morphology and plant architecture in rice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ming; Wang, Yihua; Liu, Xi; Sun, Juan; Wang, Yunlong; Xu, Yang; Lv, Jia; Long, Wuhua; Zhu, Xiaopin; Guo, Xiuping; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Chunming; Wan, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of ribosomal proteins (RPs) are known to cause developmental abnormalities in yeast, mammals, and dicotyledonous plants; however, their effects have not been studied in rice. Here, we identifiy a ribosomal biogenesis mutant, rice minute-like1 (rml1) that displays a minute phenotype as evidenced by retarded growth and defects in the vascular system. We determine that RML1 encodes a ribosome large subunit protein 3B (RPL3B) in rice by means of map-based cloning and genetic complementation. RPL3B is abundantly expressed in all the tissues, whereas RPL3A, another RPL3 gene family member, is expressed at low levels. Notably, the expression level of RPL3A in the rml1 mutant is similar to that in the wild-type, suggesting that RPL3A provides no functional compensation for RPL3B in rml1 plants. Ribosomal profiles show that mutation of RPL3B leads to a significant reduction in free 60S ribosomal subunits and polysomes, indicating a ribosomal insufficiency in the rml1 mutant. Our results demonstrate that the ribosomal protein gene RPL3B is required for maintaining normal leaf morphology and plant architecture in rice through its regulation of ribosome biogenesis. PMID:27241493

  15. The RICE MINUTE-LIKE1 (RML1) gene, encoding a ribosomal large subunit protein L3B, regulates leaf morphology and plant architecture in rice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ming; Wang, Yihua; Liu, Xi; Sun, Juan; Wang, Yunlong; Xu, Yang; Lv, Jia; Long, Wuhua; Zhu, Xiaopin; Guo, Xiuping; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Chunming; Wan, Jianmin

    2016-05-01

    Mutations of ribosomal proteins (RPs) are known to cause developmental abnormalities in yeast, mammals, and dicotyledonous plants; however, their effects have not been studied in rice. Here, we identifiy a ribosomal biogenesis mutant, rice minute-like1 (rml1) that displays a minute phenotype as evidenced by retarded growth and defects in the vascular system. We determine that RML1 encodes a ribosome large subunit protein 3B (RPL3B) in rice by means of map-based cloning and genetic complementation. RPL3B is abundantly expressed in all the tissues, whereas RPL3A, another RPL3 gene family member, is expressed at low levels. Notably, the expression level of RPL3A in the rml1 mutant is similar to that in the wild-type, suggesting that RPL3A provides no functional compensation for RPL3B in rml1 plants. Ribosomal profiles show that mutation of RPL3B leads to a significant reduction in free 60S ribosomal subunits and polysomes, indicating a ribosomal insufficiency in the rml1 mutant. Our results demonstrate that the ribosomal protein gene RPL3B is required for maintaining normal leaf morphology and plant architecture in rice through its regulation of ribosome biogenesis. PMID:27241493

  16. Ambient insect pressure and recipient genotypes determine fecundity of transgenic crop-weed rice hybrid progeny: Implications for environmental biosafety assessment.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hui; Zhang, Hongbin; Wang, Wei; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Feng; Su, Jun; Xia, Hanbing; Xu, Kai; Cai, Xingxing; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2016-08-01

    Transgene introgression into crop weedy/wild relatives can provide natural selective advantages, probably causing undesirable environmental impact. The advantages are likely associated with factors such as transgenes, selective pressure, and genetic background of transgene recipients. To explore the role of the environment and background of transgene recipients in affecting the advantages, we estimated the fitness of crop-weed hybrid lineages derived from crosses between marker-free insect-resistant transgenic (Bt/CpTI) rice with five weedy rice populations under varied insect pressure. Multiway anova indicated the significant effect of both transgenes and weedy rice genotypes on the performance of crop-weed hybrid lineages in the high-insect environment. Increased fecundity was detected in most transgene-present F1 and F2 hybrid lineages under high-insect pressure, but varied among crop-weed hybrid lineages with different weedy rice parents. Increased fecundity of transgenic crop-weed hybrid lineages was associated with the environmental insect pressure and genotypes of their weedy rice parents. The findings suggest that the fitness effects of an insect-resistant transgene introgressed into weedy populations are not uniform across different environments and genotypes of the recipient plants that have acquired the transgene. Therefore, these factors should be considered when assessing the environmental impact of transgene flow to weedy or wild rice relatives. PMID:27468303

  17. Breeding for blast-disease-resistant and high-yield Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) mutants using low-energy ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadtanapuk, S.; Teraarusiri, W.; Phanchaisri, B.; Yu, L. D.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam was applied on mutation induction for plant breeding of blast-disease-resistant Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105). Seeds of the wild-type rice were bombarded in vacuum by nitrogen ion beam at energy of 60-80 keV to a beam fluence range of 2 × 1016-2 × 1017 ions/cm2. The ion-bombarded rice seeds were grown in soil for 2 weeks as transplanted rice in plastic pots at 1 seedling/pot. The seedlings were then screened for blast resistance by Pyricularia grisea inoculation with 106 spores/ml concentrations. The blast-resistant rice mutant was planted up to F6 generation with the consistent phenotypic variation. The high percentage of the blast-disease-resistant rice was analyzed with DNA fingerprint. The HAT-RAPD (high annealing temperature-random amplified polymorphic DNA) marker revealed the modified polymorphism fragment presenting in the mutant compared with wild type (KDML 105). The cDNA fingerprints were investigated and the polymorphism fragment was subcloned into pGEM-T easy vector and then sequenced. The sequence of this fragment was compared with those already contained in the database, and the fragment was found to be related to the Spotted leaf protein 11 (Spl11).

  18. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  19. Bee-Wild about Pollinators!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bonnie; Kil, Jenny; Evans, Elaine; Koomen, Michele Hollingsworth

    2014-01-01

    With their sunny stripes and fuzzy bodies, bees are beloved--but unfortunately, they are in trouble. Bee decline, of both wild bees as well as managed bees like honey bees, has been in the news for the last several years. Habitat loss, diseases, pests, and pesticides have made it difficult for bees to survive in many parts of our world (Walsh…

  20. Evolutionary potential in the wild: more than meets the eye.

    PubMed

    Ritland, Kermit

    2011-09-01

    The genus Aquilegia consists of 60-70 perennial plant species widely distributed throughout the northern hemisphere. Its flowers have a delicate and ornamental appearance that makes them a favourite of gardeners. In this genus, adaptive radiations for both floral and vegetative traits have occurred. These adaptive radiations, and the key phylogenetic placement of Aquilegia between Arabidopsis and rice, make this genus a 'model system' for plant evolution (Kramer 2009). In this issue, Castellanos et al. (2011) use a marker-based method to infer heritability for floral and vegetative traits in two Aquilegia species. Layered on top of this are estimates of the strength of natural selection. This novel joint estimation of heritability and selection in the wild showed that vegetative traits, compared to floral traits, have the highest evolutionarily potential. Evolutionary potential is the most important quantity to measure in wild populations. It combines inheritance and strength of selection and predicts the potential for populations to adapt to changing environments. The combination of molecular techniques with species in natural environments makes this work a model for molecular ecological investigations. PMID:21884291

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi congenital transmission in wild bats.

    PubMed

    Añez, Néstor; Crisante, Gladys; Soriano, Pascual J

    2009-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi congenital transmission in wild bats (Molossus molossus), associated with infected Rhodnius prolixus in a natural habitat from a rural locality in western Venezuela, is reported. T. cruzi blood circulating trypomastigotes in a pregnant bat were detected by parasitological methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays carried out in samples from the heart and the fetus of the same infected female, revealed the presence of T. cruzi-specific DNA in both of the tissues, demonstrating transmission of the infection from the mother to the offspring. Eighty percent of the captured bats and 100% of the examined fetuses from pregnant specimens were shown to be infected by T. cruzi, indicating that M. molossus is a very susceptible species for this parasite, and that T. cruzi congenital transmission is a common phenomenon in nature. To our knowledge, this seems to be the first report on congenital T. cruzi transmission in wild bats in Venezuela. The circulation of T. cruzi lineage I in the study area was demonstrated by typing the isolates from bats and triatomine bugs captured in the same habitat. The potential epidemiological implication of these findings in areas where Chagas disease is endemic is discussed. PMID:18823929

  2. Evolutionary ecology of pungency in wild chilies.

    PubMed

    Tewksbury, Joshua J; Reagan, Karen M; Machnicki, Noelle J; Carlo, Tomás A; Haak, David C; Peñaloza, Alejandra Lorena Calderón; Levey, Douglas J

    2008-08-19

    The primary function of fruit is to attract animals that disperse viable seeds, but the nutritional rewards that attract beneficial consumers also attract consumers that kill seeds instead of dispersing them. Many of these unwanted consumers are microbes, and microbial defense is commonly invoked to explain the bitter, distasteful, occasionally toxic chemicals found in many ripe fruits. This explanation has been criticized, however, due to a lack of evidence that microbial consumers influence fruit chemistry in wild populations. In the present study, we use wild chilies to show that chemical defense of ripe fruit reflects variation in the risk of microbial attack. Capsaicinoids are the chemicals responsible for the well known pungency of chili fruits. Capsicum chacoense is naturally polymorphic for the production of capsaicinoids and displays geographic variation in the proportion of individual plants in a population that produce capsaicinoids. We show that this variation is directly linked to variation in the damage caused by a fungal pathogen of chili seeds. We find that Fusarium fungus is the primary cause of predispersal chili seed mortality, and we experimentally demonstrate that capsaicinoids protect chili seeds from Fusarium. Further, foraging by hemipteran insects facilitates the entry of Fusarium into fruits, and we show that variation in hemipteran foraging pressure among chili populations predicts the proportion of plants in a population producing capsaicinoids. These results suggest that the pungency in chilies may be an adaptive response to selection by a microbial pathogen, supporting the influence of microbial consumers on fruit chemistry. PMID:18695236

  3. A Built-In Mechanism to Mitigate the Spread of Insect-Resistance and Herbicide-Tolerance Transgenes into Weedy Rice Populations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chengyi; Li, Jingjing; Gao, Jianhua; Shen, Zhicheng; Lu, Bao-Rong; Lin, Chaoyang

    2012-01-01

    Background The major challenge of cultivating genetically modified (GM) rice (Oryza sativa) at the commercial scale is to prevent the spread of transgenes from GM cultivated rice to its coexisting weedy rice (O. sativa f. spontanea). The strategic development of GM rice with a built-in control mechanism can mitigate transgene spread in weedy rice populations. Methodology/Principal Findings An RNAi cassette suppressing the expression of the bentazon detoxifying enzyme CYP81A6 was constructed into the T-DNA which contained two tightly linked transgenes expressing the Bt insecticidal protein Cry1Ab and the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), respectively. GM rice plants developed from this T-DNA were resistant to lepidopteran pests and tolerant to glyphosate, but sensitive to bentazon. The application of bentazon of 2000 mg/L at the rate of 40 mL/m2, which is approximately the recommended dose for the field application to control common rice weeds, killed all F2 plants containing the transgenes generated from the Crop-weed hybrids between a GM rice line (CGH-13) and two weedy rice strains (PI-63 and PI-1401). Conclusions/Significance Weedy rice plants containing transgenes from GM rice through gene flow can be selectively killed by the spray of bentazon when a non-GM rice variety is cultivated alternately in a few-year interval. The built-in control mechanism in combination of cropping management is likely to mitigate the spread of transgenes into weedy rice populations. PMID:22359609

  4. Weedy (red) rice: An emerging constraint to global rice production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ongoing increases in the human population necessitate that rice will continue to be an essential aspect of food security for the 21st century. While production must increase in the coming decades to meet demand, such increases will be accompanied by diminished natural resources and rising productio...

  5. Overexpression of Rat Neurons Nitric Oxide Synthase in Rice Enhances Drought and Salt Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wei; Liu, Wen; Wang, Wen-Shu; Fu, Zheng-Wei; Han, Tong-Tong; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to play an important role in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis mutants with lower or higher levels of endogenous NO. The exogenous application of NO donors or scavengers has also suggested an important role for NO in plant defense against environmental stress. In this study, rice plants under drought and high salinity conditions showed increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and NO levels. Overexpression of rat neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in rice increased both NOS activity and NO accumulation, resulting in improved tolerance of the transgenic plants to both drought and salt stresses. nNOS-overexpressing plants exhibited stronger water-holding capability, higher proline accumulation, less lipid peroxidation and reduced electrolyte leakage under drought and salt conditions than wild rice. Moreover, nNOS-overexpressing plants accumulated less H2O2, due to the observed up-regulation of OsCATA, OsCATB and OsPOX1. In agreement, the activities of CAT and POX were higher in transgenic rice than wild type. Additionally, the expression of six tested stress-responsive genes including OsDREB2A, OsDREB2B, OsSNAC1, OsSNAC2, OsLEA3 and OsRD29A, in nNOS-overexpressing plants was higher than that in the wild type under drought and high salinity conditions. Taken together, our results suggest that nNOS overexpression suppresses the stress-enhanced electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation and H2O2 accumulation, and promotes proline accumulation and the expression of stress-responsive genes under stress conditions, thereby promoting increased tolerance to drought and salt stresses. PMID:26121399

  6. Wild gorillas as a potential reservoir of Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Ibrahim; Forestier, Claire-Lise; Peeters, Martine; Delaporte, Eric; Raoult, Didier; Bittar, Fadi

    2015-01-15

    Vector-borne parasites of the genus Leishmania are responsible for severe human diseases. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, a common form of the disease, is most often caused by the transmission of Leishmania major to humans by female phlebotomine sand flies. Apes are increasingly being seen as a source of zoonotic diseases, including malaria and rickettsiosis. To examine whether gorillas harbor Leishmania species, we screened fecal samples from wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in Cameroon for the presence of these pathogens. Of 91 wild gorilla fecal samples, 12 contained Leishmania parasites, and 4 contained phlebotomine sand fly vectors. The molecular identity was determined by running 3 different polymerase chain reaction tests for detection of L. major. Next, fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed to visualize L. major parasites in fecal samples from the gorillas. Both promastigote and amastigote forms of the parasite were found. This work strongly suggests that wild gorillas carry pathogenic Leishmania parasites. PMID:25001460

  7. Insights into molecular mechanism of blast resistance in weedy rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy rice is a serious pest in direct-seeded rice fields in the U.S. and worldwide. Under suitable conditions, weedy rice can reduce crop yields up to 70%. However, weedy rice may carry novel disease resistance genes. Rice blast disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a major disease wo...

  8. Translational genomics-rice research in agriculture research service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the US accounts for only approximately 1.6 % of the total world rice production, it provides about 15% of the rice in world trade, and its rice is known for its high quality. Rice is a model for genomic study of monocots and thus, numerous broad-spectrum research activities involving rice ...

  9. Use of 13C isotope discrimination analysis to quantify distribution of barnyardgrass and rice roots in a four-year study of weed-suppressive rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A four-year field study was conducted to evaluate weed control potential of weed-suppressive indica rice cultivars, common commercial cultivars, and crosses between the two types. Under diverse field environments, indica cultivars produced relatively high and consistent yields and levels of weed su...

  10. Rice brans, rice bran oils, and rice hulls: composition, food and industrial uses, and bioactivities in humans, animals, and cells.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel

    2013-11-13

    Rice plants produce bioactive rice brans and hulls that have been reported to have numerous health-promoting effects in cells, animals, and humans. The main objective of this review is to consolidate and integrate the widely scattered information on the composition and the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects of rice brans from different rice cultivars, rice bran oils derived from rice brans, rice hulls, liquid rice hull smoke derived from rice hulls, and some of their bioactive compounds. As part of this effort, this paper also presents brief summaries on the preparation of health-promoting foods including bread, corn flakes, frankfurters, ice cream, noodles, pasta, tortillas, and zero-trans-fat shortening as well as industrial products such bioethanol and biodiesel fuels. Also covered are antibiotic, antiallergic, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, cardiovascular, allelochemical, and other beneficial effects and the mechanisms of the bioactivities. The results show that food-compatible and safe formulations with desirable nutritional and biological properties can be used to develop new multifunctional foods as well as bioethanol and biodiesel fuel. The overlapping aspects are expected to contribute to a better understanding of the potential impact of the described health-promoting potential of the rice-derived brans, oils, and hulls in food and medicine. Such an understanding will enhance nutrition and health and benefit the agricultural and industrial economies. PMID:24175575

  11. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits. PMID:27527154

  12. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits. PMID:27527154

  13. Aerobic salivary bacteria in wild and captive Komodo dragons.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Joel M; Gillespie, Don; Sastrawan, Putra; Fredeking, Terry M; Stewart, George L

    2002-07-01

    During the months of November 1996, August 1997, and March 1998, saliva and plasma samples were collected for isolation of aerobic bacteria from 26 wild and 13 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Twenty-eight Gram-negative and 29 Gram-positive species of bacteria were isolated from the saliva of the 39 Komodo dragons. A greater number of wild than captive dragons were positive for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The average number of bacterial species within the saliva of wild dragons was 46% greater than for captive dragons. While Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium isolated from the saliva of wild dragons, this species was not present in captive dragons. The most common bacteria isolated from the saliva of captive dragons were Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus caseolyticus, neither of which were found in wild dragons. High mortality was seen among mice injected with saliva from wild dragons and the only bacterium isolated from the blood of dying mice was Pasteurella multocida. A competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed the presence of anti-Pasteurella antibody in the plasma of Komodo dragons. Four species of bacteria isolated from dragon saliva showed resistance to one or more of 16 antimicrobics tested. The wide variety of bacteria demonstrated in the saliva of the Komodo dragon in this study, at least one species of which was highly lethal in mice and 54 species of which are known pathogens, support the observation that wounds inflicted by this animal are often associated with sepsis and subsequent bacteremia in prey animals. PMID:12238371

  14. Mixed evidence for reduced local adaptation in wild salmon resulting from interbreeding with escaped farmed salmon: complexities in hybrid fitness

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Dylan J; Cook, Adam M; Eddington, James D; Bentzen, Paul; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    Interbreeding between artificially-selected and wild organisms can have negative fitness consequences for the latter. In the Northwest Atlantic, farmed Atlantic salmon recurrently escape into the wild and enter rivers where small, declining populations of wild salmon breed. Most farmed salmon in the region derive from an ancestral source population that occupies a nonacidified river (pH 6.0–6.5). Yet many wild populations with which escaped farmed salmon might interbreed inhabit acidified rivers (pH 4.6–5.2). Using common garden experimentation, and examining two early-life history stages across two generations of interbreeding, we showed that wild salmon populations inhabiting acidified rivers had higher survival at acidified pH than farmed salmon or F1 farmed-wild hybrids. In contrast, however, there was limited evidence for reduced performance in backcrosses, and F2 farmed-wild hybrids performed better or equally well to wild salmon. Wild salmon also survived or grew better at nonacidified than acidified pH, and wild and farmed salmon survived equally well at nonacidified pH. Thus, for acid tolerance and the stages examined, we found some evidence both for and against the theory that repeated farmed-wild interbreeding may reduce adaptive genetic variation in the wild and thereby negatively affect the persistence of depleted wild populations. PMID:25567731

  15. Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB): an integrative and interactive database for rice genomics.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Lee, Sung Shin; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Numa, Hisataka; Kim, Jungsok; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Wakimoto, Hironobu; Yang, Ching-chia; Iwamoto, Masao; Abe, Takashi; Yamada, Yuko; Muto, Akira; Inokuchi, Hachiro; Ikemura, Toshimichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sasaki, Takuji; Itoh, Takeshi

    2013-02-01

    The Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB, http://rapdb.dna.affrc.go.jp/) has been providing a comprehensive set of gene annotations for the genome sequence of rice, Oryza sativa (japonica group) cv. Nipponbare. Since the first release in 2005, RAP-DB has been updated several times along with the genome assembly updates. Here, we present our newest RAP-DB based on the latest genome assembly, Os-Nipponbare-Reference-IRGSP-1.0 (IRGSP-1.0), which was released in 2011. We detected 37,869 loci by mapping transcript and protein sequences of 150 monocot species. To provide plant researchers with highly reliable and up to date rice gene annotations, we have been incorporating literature-based manually curated data, and 1,626 loci currently incorporate literature-based annotation data, including commonly used gene names or gene symbols. Transcriptional activities are shown at the nucleotide level by mapping RNA-Seq reads derived from 27 samples. We also mapped the Illumina reads of a Japanese leading japonica cultivar, Koshihikari, and a Chinese indica cultivar, Guangluai-4, to the genome and show alignments together with the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene functional annotations through a newly developed browser, Short-Read Assembly Browser (S-RAB). We have developed two satellite databases, Plant Gene Family Database (PGFD) and Integrative Database of Cereal Gene Phylogeny (IDCGP), which display gene family and homologous gene relationships among diverse plant species. RAP-DB and the satellite databases offer simple and user-friendly web interfaces, enabling plant and genome researchers to access the data easily and facilitating a broad range of plant research topics. PMID:23299411

  16. Agriculture Education. Soybeans and Rice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural education. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) soybeans, (2) rice, and (3) orientation. Each of the 17 units of instruction follows a typical format: terminal objective, specific…

  17. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  18. The impact of herbicide-resistant rice technology on phenotypic diversity and population structure of United States weedy rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of imazethapyr herbicide-resistant (HR) Clearfield® rice (Oryza sativa L.) to control weedy rice has increased in the past 12 years to comprise about 60% of rice acreage in Arkansas, where 43% of rice in the USA was planted in 2013. To assess the impact of HR cultivated rice on herbicide res...

  19. Flowering-Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) Regulates Flowering Time and Yield Potential by Affecting Histone H2B Monoubiquitination in Rice (Oryza Sativa).

    PubMed

    Du, Yiwei; He, Wei; Deng, Changwang; Chen, Xi; Gou, Lanming; Zhu, Fugui; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Jianfu; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Flowering time is a critical trait for crops cultivated under various temperature/photoperiod conditions around the world. To understand better the flowering time of rice, we used the vector pTCK303 to produce several lines of RNAi knockdown transgenic rice and investigated their flowering times and other agronomic traits. Among them, the heading date of FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice was 23-26 days earlier than that of wild-type plants. FRRP1 is a novel rice gene that encodes a C3HC4-type Really Interesting Novel Gene (RING) finger domain protein. In addition to the early flowering time, FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice caused changes on an array of agronomic traits, including plant height, panicle length and grain length. We analyzed the expression of some key genes associated with the flowering time and other agronomic traits in the FRRP1-RNAi knockdown lines and compared with that in wild-type lines. The expression of Hd3a increased significantly, which was the key factor in the early flowering time. Further experiments showed that the level of histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1) was noticeably reduced in the FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice lines compared with wild-type plants and MBP-FRRP1-F1 was capable of self-ubiquitination. The results indicate that Flowering Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) is involved in histone H2B monoubiquitination and suggest that FRRP1 functions as an E3 ligase in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, FRRP1 probably regulates flowering time and yield potential in rice by affecting histone H2B monoubiquitination, which leads to changes in gene expression in multiple processes. PMID:26934377

  20. Flowering-Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) Regulates Flowering Time and Yield Potential by Affecting Histone H2B Monoubiquitination in Rice (Oryza Sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Changwang; Chen, Xi; Gou, Lanming; Zhu, Fugui; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Jianfu; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Flowering time is a critical trait for crops cultivated under various temperature/photoperiod conditions around the world. To understand better the flowering time of rice, we used the vector pTCK303 to produce several lines of RNAi knockdown transgenic rice and investigated their flowering times and other agronomic traits. Among them, the heading date of FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice was 23–26 days earlier than that of wild-type plants. FRRP1 is a novel rice gene that encodes a C3HC4-type Really Interesting Novel Gene (RING) finger domain protein. In addition to the early flowering time, FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice caused changes on an array of agronomic traits, including plant height, panicle length and grain length. We analyzed the expression of some key genes associated with the flowering time and other agronomic traits in the FRRP1-RNAi knockdown lines and compared with that in wild-type lines. The expression of Hd3a increased significantly, which was the key factor in the early flowering time. Further experiments showed that the level of histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1) was noticeably reduced in the FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice lines compared with wild-type plants and MBP-FRRP1-F1 was capable of self-ubiquitination. The results indicate that Flowering Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) is involved in histone H2B monoubiquitination and suggest that FRRP1 functions as an E3 ligase in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, FRRP1 probably regulates flowering time and yield potential in rice by affecting histone H2B monoubiquitination, which leads to changes in gene expression in multiple processes. PMID:26934377

  1. Natural infection by endoparasites among free-living wild animals.

    PubMed

    Holsback, Luciane; Cardoso, Mauro José Lahm; Fagnani, Rafael; Patelli, Thaís Helena Constantino

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence and variety of intestinal parasites among free-living wild animals. Fecal samples from wild mammals and birds at rehabilitation centers in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo were analyzed by sedimentation and flotation-centrifugation methods. Parasite eggs, oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites were found in 71% of the samples. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were detected in fecal samples from oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus) and scaly-headed parrots (Pionus maximiliani). Giardia cysts were identified in the feces of a gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira). Among the most common parasites found, there were eggs from Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina and Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and from Cestoda. Several Enterobius sp. eggs were found in the feces of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). It can be concluded from this study that despite the small number of samples, the diversity of parasites found was noteworthy. Additional information about parasite endofauna in wild animals is needed, since their presence might suggest that there could be proximity to and interactions with domestic animals and/or humans. In addition, further studies on parasites from free-living wild animals are of prime importance for understanding the intensity of anthropic changes in wild environments. PMID:23778826

  2. Genetic variation in domestic reindeer and wild caribou in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, M.; Renecker, L.; Pierson, B. J.; Patton, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Reindeer were introduced into Alaska 100 years ago and have been maintained as semidomestic livestock. They have had contact with wild caribou herds, including deliberate cross-breeding and mixing in the wild. Reindeer have considerable potential as a domestic animal for meat or velvet antler production, and wild caribou are important to subsistence and sport hunters. Our objective was to quantify the genetic relationships of reindeer and caribou in Alaska. We identified allelic variation among five herds of wild caribou and three herds of reindeer with DNA sequencing and restriction enzymes for three loci: a DQA locus of the major histocompatibility complex (Rata-DQA1), k-casein and the D-loop of mitochondrial DNA. These loci are of interest because of their potential influence on domestic animal performance and the fitness of wild populations. There is considerable genetic variation in reindeer and caribou for all three loci, including five, three and six alleles for DQA, k-casein and D-loop respectively. Most alleles occur in both reindeer and caribou, which may be the result of recent common ancestry or genetic introgression in either direction. However, allele frequencies differ considerably between reindeer and caribou, which suggests that gene flow has been limited.

  3. Use of wild and semi-wild edible plants in nutrition and survival of people in 1430 days of siege of Sarajevo during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995).

    PubMed

    Redzić, Sulejman

    2010-06-01

    This study is a systematic overview of data on use of wild and semi-wild edible plants in nutrition of people in 1430 days of the siege of Sarajevo during aggression on Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995). The author of this study spent all that time in Sarajevo. In 1993, the author prepared a survival program for people that included usage of edible wild plants. In addition, he conducted a detailed survey, including special interviews, on 630 people of average age 37.4 years (55% residential inhabitants, the rest were refuges), 310 males and the rest were females. According to survey, 91 species of mostly wild plants and three species of fungus were used: Küchneromyces mutabilis, Armillariella mellea and Coprinus comatus. Wild vegetables included 49 species, spices 24, wild fruits 16, and 2 species of bread-plants. They belong to 26 plants communities, and grew on 24 different habitats (urban surfaces, river coasts, low forest and scrubs, meadows and rocky grasslands). The 156 plant parts (leaves, young branches, fruit, flower, seed, root and rhizome) from 91 plant species were used. Vegetables were dominant category of use (soups, pottages, sauces) with 80 ways of preparation (30.53%), then salads 41 (15.65%), spices 39 (14.89%), different beverages 38 (14.50%), sweets 21 (8.02%), nutritive teas 15 (5.73%), and other preparations. In order to improve conventional food (war pasta, rice, lentils, old beans) people used spices made from different wild plants. PMID:20698130

  4. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P < 0.01) between rice plant parameters, rice yield and soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal

  5. High level expression of Acidothermus cellulolyticus β-1, 4-endoglucanase in transgenic rice enhances the hydrolysis of its straw by cultured cow gastric fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Hong L.; Dai, Ziyu; Hsieh, Chia W.; Ku, Maurice S.

    2011-12-10

    Large-scale production of effective cellulose hydrolytic enzymes is the key to the bioconversion of agricultural residues to ethanol. The goal of this study was to develop a rice plant as a bioreactor for the large-scale production of cellulose hydrolytic enzymes via genetic transformation, and to simultaneously improve rice straw as an efficient biomass feedstock for conversion of cellulose to glucose. In this study, the cellulose hydrolytic enzyme {beta}-1, 4-endoglucanase (E1) from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus was overexpressed in rice through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The expression of the bacterial gene in rice was driven by the constitutive Mac promoter, a hybrid promoter of Ti plasmid mannopine synthetase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer with the signal peptide of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein for targeting the protein to the apoplastic compartment for storage. A total of 52 transgenic rice plants from six independent lines expressing the bacterial enzyme were obtained, which expressed the gene at high levels with a normal phenotype. The specific activities of E1 in the leaves of the highest expressing transgenic rice lines were about 20 fold higher than those of various transgenic plants obtained in previous studies and the protein amounts accounted for up to 6.1% of the total leaf soluble protein. Zymogram and temperature-dependent activity analyses demonstrated the thermostability of the enzyme and its substrate specificity against cellulose, and a simple heat treatment can be used to purify the protein. In addition, hydrolysis of transgenic rice straw with cultured cow gastric fluid yielded almost twice more reducing sugars than wild type straw. Taken together, these data suggest that transgenic rice can effectively serve as a bioreactor for large-scale production of active, thermostable cellulose hydrolytic enzymes. As a feedstock, direct expression of large amount of cellulases in

  6. Transcriptome analysis in different rice cultivars provides novel insights into desiccation and salinity stress responses.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Rama; Bhattacharjee, Annapurna; Jain, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Drought and salinity are the major environmental factors that affect rice productivity. Comparative transcriptome analysis between tolerant and sensitive rice cultivars can provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms involved in these stress responses. In this study, the comparison of transcriptomes of a drought-tolerant [Nagina 22 (N22)] and a salinity-tolerant (Pokkali) rice cultivar with IR64 (susceptible cultivar) revealed variable transcriptional responses under control and stress conditions. A total of 801 and 507 transcripts were exclusively differentially expressed in N22 and Pokkali rice cultivars, respectively, under stress conditions. Gene ontology analysis suggested the enrichment of transcripts involved in response to abiotic stress and regulation of gene expression in stress-tolerant rice cultivars. A larger number of transcripts encoding for members of NAC and DBP transcription factor (TF) families in N22 and members of bHLH and C2H2 TF families in Pokkali exhibited differential regulation under desiccation and salinity stresses, respectively. Transcripts encoding for thioredoxin and involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism were up-regulated in N22, whereas transcripts involved in wax and terpenoid metabolism were up-regulated in Pokkali. Overall, common and cultivar-specific stress-responsive transcripts identified in this study can serve as a helpful resource to explore novel candidate genes for abiotic stress tolerance in rice. PMID:27029818

  7. High vapor pressure deficit drives salt-stress-induced rice yield losses in India.

    PubMed

    Tack, Jesse; Singh, Rakesh K; Nalley, Lawton L; Viraktamath, Basavaraj C; Krishnamurthy, Saraswathipura L; Lyman, Nate; Jagadish, Krishna S V

    2015-04-01

    Flooded rice is grown across wide geographic boundaries from as far north as Manchuria and as far south as Uruguay and New South Wales, primarily because of its adaptability across diverse agronomic and climatic conditions. Salt-stress damage, a common occurrence in delta and coastal rice production zones, could be heightened by the interactions between high temperature and relative humidity (vapor pressure deficit--VPD). Using temporal and spatial observations spanning 107 seasons and 19 rice-growing locations throughout India with varying electrical conductivity (EC), including coastal saline, inland saline, and alkaline soils, we quantified the proportion of VPD inducing salinity damage in rice. While controlling for time-invariant factors such as trial locations, rice cultivars, and soil types, our regression analysis indicates that EC has a nonlinear detrimental effect on paddy rice yield. Our estimates suggest these yield reductions become larger at higher VPD. A one standard deviation (SD) increase in EC from its mean value is associated with 1.68% and 4.13% yield reductions at median and maximum observed VPD levels, respectively. Yield reductions increase roughly sixfold when the one SD increase is taken from the 75th percentile of EC. In combination, high EC and VPD generate near catastrophic crop loss as predicted yield approaches zero. If higher VPD levels driven by global warming materialize in conjunction with rising sea levels or salinity incursion in groundwater, this interaction becomes an important and necessary predictor of expected yield losses and global food security. PMID:25379616

  8. Antifungal agents against Aspergillus niger for rearing rice leaffolder larvae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on artificial diet.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianya; Wang, Ye-Cheng; Zhang, Shu-Kun; Ren, Xiu-Bei

    2014-06-01

    Mold contamination is an important issue in insect mass rearing. Frequently used antifungal agents such as sorbic acid and methylparaben have negative impact on many lepidopteran larvae, which might be one of the reasons for the difficulty in rearing rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Güenée). In this study, 19 antifungal agents, including 7 food preservatives, 6 antifungal drugs, and 6 agricultural fungicides, were screened for their inhibitory activities on Aspergillus niger in diets. The results demonstrated that most of the tested chemicals are unsuitable as mold inhibitors in the diets of the rice leaffolder, and the rice leaffolder neonate is sensitive to sorbic acid and methylparaben. These two mold inhibitors at commonly used concentrations were shown to impact the survival of rice leaffolder larvae fed on artificial diets. Among the tested mold inhibitors, natamycin was the safest for the rice leaffolder larvae. Much higher larva survival was observed for the larvae fed on diets containing natamycin as an antifungal agent (59 and 72% at 200 and 400 ppm, respectively). Two agricultural fungicides, tebuconazole and azoxystrobin, are also potent as mold inhibitors when used in insect diets. The mixed use of natamycin and sorbic acid, or methylparaben, and the mixed use of sorbic acid and azoxystrobin resulted in significantly higher larva survival than sorbic acid + methylparaben. Natamycin + azoxystrobin and sorbic acid + tebuconazole resulted in larva survival similar to that of sorbic acid + methylparaben. The ternary combination of natamycin, sorbic acid, and methylparaben was the best combination for the rearing of rice leaffolder. PMID:25026669

  9. Fungal mycoflora and mycotoxins in Korean polished rice destined for humans.

    PubMed

    Park, Je Won; Choi, Sang-Youn; Hwang, Han-Joon; Kim, Young-Bae

    2005-09-15

    Rice samples collected from the Republic of Korea were analyzed for fungal mycoflora and mycotoxins: fumonisins, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. The potential of the fungi to produce each mycotoxin was also examined, so that the fungal isolates associated with mycotoxins occurring in rice could be verified. Penicillium citrinum and Aspergillus candidus were the most prevalent species infecting the samples, while Fusarium proliferatum was found as the dominant Fusarium species. Ochratoxin A was the most commonly detected mycotoxin analyzed in the present study; moreover, its level in some samples was above the EU tolerable limit (3 ng/g). According to rice culture experiments, it was revealed that in Korea, fumonisins detected in rice were due to F. proliferatum infection, whereas the occurrence of ochratoxin A was caused by Penicillium verrucosum, though there were no symptoms of disease in rice found in any sample. Furthermore, there appears to be an uneven geographical distribution of P. verrucosum as well as ochratoxin A in that most of them are found in the rice samples produced in the northern region of Korea. PMID:16099315

  10. Transcriptome analysis in different rice cultivars provides novel insights into desiccation and salinity stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Rama; Bhattacharjee, Annapurna; Jain, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Drought and salinity are the major environmental factors that affect rice productivity. Comparative transcriptome analysis between tolerant and sensitive rice cultivars can provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms involved in these stress responses. In this study, the comparison of transcriptomes of a drought-tolerant [Nagina 22 (N22)] and a salinity-tolerant (Pokkali) rice cultivar with IR64 (susceptible cultivar) revealed variable transcriptional responses under control and stress conditions. A total of 801 and 507 transcripts were exclusively differentially expressed in N22 and Pokkali rice cultivars, respectively, under stress conditions. Gene ontology analysis suggested the enrichment of transcripts involved in response to abiotic stress and regulation of gene expression in stress-tolerant rice cultivars. A larger number of transcripts encoding for members of NAC and DBP transcription factor (TF) families in N22 and members of bHLH and C2H2 TF families in Pokkali exhibited differential regulation under desiccation and salinity stresses, respectively. Transcripts encoding for thioredoxin and involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism were up-regulated in N22, whereas transcripts involved in wax and terpenoid metabolism were up-regulated in Pokkali. Overall, common and cultivar-specific stress-responsive transcripts identified in this study can serve as a helpful resource to explore novel candidate genes for abiotic stress tolerance in rice. PMID:27029818

  11. The potential bioproduction of the pharmaceutical agent sakuranetin, a flavonoid phytoalexin in rice.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takafumi; Lin, Fengqiu; Hasegawa, Morifumi; Nojiri, Hideaki; Yamane, Hisakazu; Okada, Kazunori

    2012-01-01

    Sakuranetin, the major flavonoid phytoalexin in rice, can be induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, treatment with CuCl 2 or jasmonic acid (JA), or phytopathogenic infection. In addition to sakuranetin's biological significance on disease resistance in rice, its broad bioactivities have recently been described. Results from these studies have shown that sakuranetin is a useful compound as a plant antibiotic and a potential pharmaceutical agent. Sakuranetin is biosynthesized from naringenin, a precursor of sakuranetin, by naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase (NOMT), but the relevant gene has not yet been identified in rice. Recently, we identified the OsNOMT gene, which is involved in the final step of sakuranetin biosynthesis in rice. In previous studies, OsNOMT was purified to apparent homogeneity from UV-treated wild-type rice leaves; however, the purified protein, termed OsCOMT1, exhibited caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity, but not NOMT activity. Based on the analysis of an oscomt1 T-DNA tagged mutant, we determined that OsCOMT1 did not contribute to sakuranetin production in rice in vivo. Therefore, we took advantage of the oscomt1 mutant to purify OsNOMT. A crude protein preparation from UV-treated oscomt1 leaves was subjected to three sequential purification steps resulting in a 400-fold purification from the crude enzyme preparation with a minor band at an apparent molecular mass of 40 kDa in the purest enzyme preparation. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight analysis showed that the 40 kDa protein band included two O-methyltransferase-like proteins, but one of the proteins encoded by Os12g0240900 exhibited clear NOMT activity; thus, this gene was designated OsNOMT. Gene expression was induced by treatment with jasmonic acid in rice leaves prior to sakuranetin accumulation, and the recombinant protein showed reasonable kinetic properties to NOMT. Identification of the OsNOMT gene enables the production of

  12. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  13. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  14. SUMO Is a Critical Regulator of Salt Stress Responses in Rice1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Anjil Kumar; Zhang, Cunzin; Brown, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier) conjugation onto target proteins has emerged as a very influential class of protein modification systems. SUMO1/2 double mutant plants are nonviable, underlining the importance of SUMO conjugation to plant survival. Once covalently bound, SUMO can alter a conjugated protein’s stability and/or function. SUMO conjugation is a highly dynamic process that can be rapidly reversed by the action of SUMO proteases. The balance between the conjugated/deconjugated forms is a major determinant in the modulation of SUMO-target function. Despite the important mechanistic role of SUMO proteases in model plants, until now the identity or the function of these regulatory enzymes has not been defined in any crop plant. In this report, we reveal the ubiquitin-like protease class of SUMO protease gene family in rice (Oryza sativa) and demonstrate a critical role for OsOTS1 SUMO protease in salt stress. OsOTS-RNAi rice plants accumulate high levels of SUMO-conjugated proteins during salt stress and are highly salt sensitive; however, in non-salt conditions, they are developmentally indistinguishable from wild-type plants. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsOTS1 have increased salt tolerance and a concomitant reduction in the levels of SUMOylated proteins. We demonstrate that OsOTS1 confers salt tolerance in rice by increasing root biomass. High salinity triggers OsOTS1 degradation, indicating that increased SUMO conjugation in rice plants during salt stress is in part achieved by down-regulation of OTS1/2 activity. OsOTS1 is nuclear localized indicating a direct requirement of OsOTS1-dependent deSUMOylation activity in rice nuclei for salt tolerance. PMID:26869703

  15. Tissue Culture-Induced Heritable Genomic Variation in Rice, and Their Phenotypic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Liu, Ying; Wu, Ying; Bai, Yan; Zhang, Zhibin; Lin, Xiuyun; Dong, Yuzhu; Ou, Xiufang; Xu, Chunming; Liu, Bao

    2014-01-01

    Background Somaclonal variation generally occurs in plants regenerated from tissue culture. However, fundamental issues regarding molecular characteristics, mutation rates and mutation spectra of plant somatic variation as well as their phenotypic relevance have been addressed only recently. Moreover, these studies have reported highly discrepant results in different plant species and even in the same plant genotype. Methodology/principal findings We investigated heritable genomic variation induced by tissue culture in rice by whole genome re-sequencing of an extensively selfed somaclonal line (TC-reg-2008) and its wild type (WT) donor (cv. Hitomebore). We computed the overall mutation rate, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), small scale insertions/deletions (Indels) and mobilization of transposable elements (TEs). We assessed chromosomal distribution of the various types of genomic variations, tested correlations between SNPs and Indels, and examined concomitancy between TE activity and its cytosine methylation states. We also performed gene ontology (GO) analysis of genes containing nonsynonymous mutations and large-effect mutations, and assayed effects of the genomic variations on phenotypes under both normal growing condition and several abiotic stresses. We found that heritable somaclonal genomic variation occurred extensively in rice. The genomic variations distributed non-randomly across each of the 12 rice chromosomes, and affected a large number of functional genes. The phenotypic penetrance of the genomic variations was condition-dependent. Conclusions/significance Tissue culture is a potent means to generate heritable genetic variations in rice, which bear distinct difference at least in space (chromosomal distribution) from those occurred under natural settings. Our findings have provided new information regarding the mutation rate and spectrum as well as chromosomal distribution pattern of somaclonal variation in rice. Our data also suggest that

  16. High IgE sensitization to maize and rice pollen in the highlands of Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Ramavovololona; Sénéchal, Hélène; Andrianarisoa, Ange; Rakotoarimanana, Vololona; Godfrin, Dominique; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal; Sutra, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maize and rice are two crops constituting the main food supply in many under-developed and developing countries. Despite the large area devoted to the culture, the sensitization to the pollen from these plants is reported to be low and often considered as an occupational allergy. Methods Sixty five Malagasy pollen allergic patients were clinically and immunochemically investigated with regard to maize and rice pollen allergens. Pollen extracts were electrophoretically separated in 1 and 2 dimensions and IgE and IgG reactivities detected upon immunoblotting. Results When exploring the sensitization profile of Malagasy allergic patients to maize and rice pollen, it appears that a high proportion of these patients consulting during grass pollinating season were sensitized to both pollen as revealed by skin prick testing (62 vs. 59%) and IgE immunoblotting (85 vs. 40%). Several clinically relevant allergens were recognized by patients’ serum IgE in maize and rice pollen extracts. Conclusion The high levels of maize and rice pollen sensitization should be related, in this tropical region, to a specific environmental exposure including i) a proximity of the population to the allergenic sources and ii) a putative exacerbating effect of a highly polluted urban atmosphere on pollen allergenicity. Cross-reactivities between wild and cultivated grasses and also between rice and maize pollen are involved as well as some specific maize sensitizations. The presence of dense urban and peri-urban agriculture, in various African regions and worldwide, could be a high environmental risk factor for people sensitive to maize pollen. PMID:25870739

  17. OsWRKY74, a WRKY transcription factor, modulates tolerance to phosphate starvation in rice

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY transcription factor family has 109 members in the rice genome, and has been reported to be involved in the regulation of biotic and abiotic stress in plants. Here, we demonstrated that a rice OsWRKY74 belonging to group III of the WRKY transcription factor family was involved in tolerance to phosphate (Pi) starvation. OsWRKY74 was localized in the nucleus and mainly expressed in roots and leaves. Overexpression of OsWRKY74 significantly enhanced tolerance to Pi starvation, whereas transgenic lines with down-regulation of OsWRKY74 were sensitive to Pi starvation. Root and shoot biomass, and phosphorus (P) concentration in rice OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants were ~16% higher than those of wild-type (WT) plants in Pi-deficient hydroponic solution. In soil pot experiments, >24% increases in tiller number, grain weight and P concentration were observed in rice OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants compared to WT plants when grown in P-deficient medium. Furthermore, Pi starvation-induced changes in root system architecture were more profound in OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants than in WT plants. Expression patterns of a number of Pi-responsive genes were altered in the OsWRKY74-overexpressing and RNA interference lines. In addition, OsWRKY74 may also be involved in the response to deficiencies in iron (Fe) and nitrogen (N) as well as cold stress in rice. In Pi-deficient conditions, OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants exhibited greater accumulation of Fe and up-regulation of the cold-responsive genes than WT plants. These findings highlight the role of OsWRKY74 in modulation of Pi homeostasis and potential crosstalk between P starvation and Fe starvation, and cold stress in rice. PMID:26663563

  18. The demographic work of Sir William Wilde.

    PubMed

    Froggatt, P

    2016-05-01

    This paper argues that Sir William Wilde was indeed a pioneering demographer. It also describes the unveiling of the plaque commemorating Sir William Wilde at his home, 1, Merrion Square, Dublin on the 28 October 1971. PMID:27083459

  19. Systemic Infection of Maize, Sorghum, Rice, and Beet Seedlings with Fumonisin-Producing and Nonproducing Fusarium verticillioides Strains.

    PubMed

    Dastjerdi, Raana; Karlovsky, Petr

    2015-12-01

    Two fumonisin-nonproducing strains of Fusarium verticillioides and their fumonisin producing progenitors were tested for aggressiveness toward maize, sorghum, rice, and beetroot seedlings grown under greenhouse conditions. None of the plants showed obvious disease symptoms after root dip inoculation. Fungal biomass was determined by species-specific real-time PCR. No significant (P = 0.05) differences in systemic colonization were detected between the wild type strains and mutants not producing fumonisins. F. verticillioides was not detected in any of the non-inoculated control plants. The fungus grew from roots to the first two internodes/leaves of maize, rice and beet regardless of fumonisin production. The systemic growth of F. verticillioides in sorghum was limited. The results showed that fumonisin production was not required for the infection of roots of maize, rice and beet by F. verticillioides. PMID:26672472

  20. Systemic Infection of Maize, Sorghum, Rice, and Beet Seedlings with Fumonisin-Producing and Nonproducing Fusarium verticillioides Strains

    PubMed Central

    Dastjerdi, Raana; Karlovsky, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Two fumonisin-nonproducing strains of Fusarium verticillioides and their fumonisin producing progenitors were tested for aggressiveness toward maize, sorghum, rice, and beetroot seedlings grown under greenhouse conditions. None of the plants showed obvious disease symptoms after root dip inoculation. Fungal biomass was determined by species-specific real-time PCR. No significant (P = 0.05) differences in systemic colonization were detected between the wild type strains and mutants not producing fumonisins. F. verticillioides was not detected in any of the non-inoculated control plants. The fungus grew from roots to the first two internodes/leaves of maize, rice and beet regardless of fumonisin production. The systemic growth of F. verticillioides in sorghum was limited. The results showed that fumonisin production was not required for the infection of roots of maize, rice and beet by F. verticillioides. PMID:26672472

  1. Genome-wide response to selection and genetic basis of cold tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cold stress is an important factor limiting rice yield in many areas of high latitude and altitude. Considerable efforts have been taken to genetically dissect cold tolerance (CT) in rice using DNA markers. Because of possible epistasis and gene × environment interactions associated with identified quantitative trait loci, the results of these genetic studies have unfortunately not been directly applicable to marker-assisted selection for improved rice CT. In this study, we demonstrated the utility of a selective introgression strategy for simultaneous improvement and genetic dissection of rice seedling CT. Results A set of japonica introgression lines (ILs) with significantly improved seedling CT were developed from four backcross populations based on two rounds of selection. Genetic characterization of these cold-tolerant ILs revealed two important aspects of genome-wide responses to strong phenotypic selection for rice CT: (1) significant over-introgression of donor alleles at 57 loci in 29 functional genetic units (FGUs) across the rice genome and (2) pronounced non-random associations between or among alleles at many unlinked CT loci. Linkage disequilibrium analyses of the detected CT loci allowed us to construct putative genetic networks (multi-locus structures) underlying the seedling CT of rice. Each network consisted of a single FGU, with high introgression as the putative regulator plus two to three groups of highly associated downstream FGUs. A bioinformatics search of rice genomic regions harboring these putative regulators identified a small set of candidate regulatory genes that are known to be involved in plant stress response. Conclusions Our results suggest that CT in rice is controlled by multiple pathways. Genetic complementarity between parental-derived functional alleles at many loci within a given pathway provides an appropriate explanation for the commonly observed hidden diversity and transgressive segregation of CT and other

  2. Retrotransposon activation followed by rapid repression in introgressed rice plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Wendel, J F

    2000-10-01

    Plant retrotransposons are largely inactive during normal development, but may be activated by stresses. Both copia-like and gypsy-like retrotransposons of rice were activated by introgression of DNA from the wild species Zizania latifolia Griseb. The copy number increase was associated with cytosine methylation changes of the elements. Activity of the elements was ephemeral, as evidenced by nearly identical genomic Southern hybridization patterns among randomly chosen individuals both within and between generations for a given line, and the absence of transcripts based on Northern analysis. DNA hypermethylation, internal sequence deletion, and possibly other mechanisms are likely responsible for the rapid element repression. Implications of the retroelement dynamics on plant genome evolution are discussed. PMID:11081978

  3. Enzymatic saccharification of pretreated rice straw and biomass production

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, A.; D'Souza, J.

    1986-10-01

    A comparative study on the saccharification of pretreated rice straw was brought about by using cellulase enzyme produced by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 52430 and its mutant strain UNGI-40. The effect of enzyme and substrate concentrations on the saccharification rate at 24 and 48 were studied. A syrup with 7% sugar concentration was obtained with a 10% substrate concentration for the mutant case, whereas a syrup with 6.8% sugar concentration was obtained with 3.5 times concentrated enzyme from the wild strain. A high saccharification value was obtained with low substrate concentration; the higher the substrate concentration used, the lower the percent saccharification. The glucose content in the hydrolysate comprised 80-82% of total reducing sugars; the remainder was cellobiose and xylose together. The hydrolysate supported the growth of yeasts Candida utilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 52431. A biomass with a 48% protein content was obtained. The essential amino acid composition of yeast biomass was determined.

  4. Role of rice PPS in late vegetative and reproductive growth.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Nagato, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    The rice peter pan syndrome-1 (pps-1) mutant shows a prolonged juvenile phase and early flowering. Although the early vegetative phase and flowering time of pps-1 have been closely examined, the phenotypes in the late vegetative and reproductive phases are not yet well understood. In the ninth leaf blade of pps-1, the relative length of the midrib was comparable to the sixth leaf blade of wild-type. Moreover, pps-1 had a small inflorescence meristem and small panicles. These phenotypes indicate that in pps-1 the juvenile phase coexists with the late vegetative phase, resulting in small panicles. Gibberellin is known to promote the juvenile-adult phase transition. d18-k is dwarf and has a prolonged juvenile phase. Double mutant (d18-k pps-1) showed the same phenotype as the pps-1, indicating that PPS is upstream of GA biosynthetic genes. PMID:22301968

  5. Serobactins-mediated iron acquisition systems optimize competitive fitness of Herbaspirillum seropedicae inside rice plants.

    PubMed

    Rosconi, Federico; Trovero, María F; de Souza, Emanuel M; Fabiano, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67 is a diazotrophic endophyte able to colonize the interior of many economically relevant crops such as rice, wheat, corn and sorghum. Under iron-deficient conditions, this organism secretes serobactins, a suite of lipopetide siderophores. The role of siderophores in the interaction between endophytes and their plant hosts are not well understood. In this work, we aimed to determine the importance of serobactins-mediated iron acquisition systems in the interaction of H. seropedicae with rice plants. First we provide evidence, by using a combination of genome analysis, proteomic and genetic studies, that the Hsero_2345 gene encodes a TonB-dependent receptor involved in iron-serobactin complex internalization when iron bioavailability is low. Our results show that survival of the Hsero_2345 mutant inside rice plants was not significantly different from that of the wild-type strain. However, when plants were co-inoculated at equal ratios with the wild-type strain and with a double mutant defective in serobactins synthesis and internalization, recovery of mutant was significantly impaired after 8 days post-inoculation. These results demonstrate that serobactins-mediated iron acquisition contributes to competitive fitness of H. seropedicae inside host plants. PMID:26715074

  6. MicroRNA390 Is Involved in Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yanfei; Ye, Yaoyao; Jiang, Zhihua; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal that is toxic to plants. microRNAs (miRNAs) are 21-nucleotide RNAs that are ubiquitous regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Several plant miRNAs, such as miR390, have vital roles in plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses including heavy metal stress. In this study, the expression of mature miR390 was significantly down-regulated under Cd stress in rice. Consequently, the target gene of miR390, OsSRK was dramatically induced by Cd treatment. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing miR390 displayed reduced Cd tolerance and higher Cd accumulation compared with wild-type plants. Simultaneously, expression of OsSRK was less pronounced in 35S:MIR390 plants than in wild-type. These results indicate that miR390 was a negative regulator involved in Cd stress tolerance in rice. PMID:26973678

  7. Detection and quantification of trace elements in rice and rice products using x-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foran, Kelly A.; Fleming, David E. B.

    2015-12-01

    We used X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to examine the presence of arsenic (As) and other trace elements (manganese, iron, nickel, copper, and zinc) in rice and rice products. A portable XRF analyzer was used to test samples, and amplitudes for the analyzed elements were identified in the resulting data. The detection limit of the system was sufficiently low to detect As in some rice and rice product samples.

  8. Toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in wild and domestic animals. The present chapter reviews toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals. Coverage in wild animal species is limited to confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis, cases with parasite isolation, cases with parasite detection by PCR, and exper...

  9. PIXE analyses of cesium in rice grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Keizo; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Terakawa, Atsuki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Ishizaki, Azusa; Fujishiro, Fumito; Arai, Hirotsugu; Osada, Naoyuki; Karahashi, Masahiro; Nozawa, Yuichiro; Yamauchi, Shosei; Kikuchi, Kosuke; Koshio, Shigeki; Watanabe, Koji

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident released vast amounts of radioactive material into the environment. For instance, 134Cs and 137Cs have half-lives of about 2 and 30 years, respectively, and emit many harmful gamma rays. In 2012, rice with radioactivity >100 Bq/kg was occasionally reported in Fukushima prefecture. To determine where and how cesium accumulates in rice, we grew rice in soil containing stable cesium and investigated the distribution of cesium in rice using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This study found that cesium is accumulated in bran and germ at high concentrations, and white rice contains 40% of the cesium found in brown rice.

  10. Blackbirds and the southern rice crop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meanley, Brooke

    1971-01-01

    In the 1700's and 1800's, rice was grown in the lowlands of South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina - on the major migratory route of the bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), the historic "ricebird" of that area because of its consumption of ripening rice. By the late 1800's the rice-growing industry had largely shifted to the coastal prairies of Louisiana and Texas, which are bordered by some 5 million acres of marshland-breeding habitat for the redwinged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) and the boat-tailed grackle (Cassidix mexicanus). By 1900, rice was being grown on the Grand Prairie of eastern Arkansas, which bestrides the largest blackbird flyway in the country. In recent decades, rice culture has spread to other sections of Arkansas and thence to contiguous areas in Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennesee, and Missouri. In effect, then, man has taken the rice to the blackbirds.

  11. The organelle genomes of Hassawi rice (Oryza sativa L.) and its hybrid in saudi arabia: genome variation, rearrangement, and origins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tongwu; Hu, Songnian; Zhang, Guangyu; Pan, Linlin; Zhang, Xiaowei; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S; Yu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Hassawi rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a landrace adapted to the climate of Saudi Arabia, characterized by its strong resistance to soil salinity and drought. Using high quality sequencing reads extracted from raw data of a whole genome sequencing project, we assembled both chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the wild-type Hassawi rice (Hassawi-1) and its dwarf hybrid (Hassawi-2). We discovered 16 InDels (insertions and deletions) but no SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) is present between the two Hassawi cp genomes. We identified 48 InDels and 26 SNPs in the two Hassawi mt genomes and a new type of sequence variation, termed reverse complementary variation (RCV) in the rice cp genomes. There are two and four RCVs identified in Hassawi-1 when compared to 93-11 (indica) and Nipponbare (japonica), respectively. Microsatellite sequence analysis showed there are more SSRs in the genic regions of both cp and mt genomes in the Hassawi rice than in the other rice varieties. There are also large repeats in the Hassawi mt genomes, with the longest length of 96,168 bp and 96,165 bp in Hassawi-1 and Hassawi-2, respectively. We believe that frequent DNA rearrangement in the Hassawi mt and cp genomes indicate ongoing dynamic processes to reach genetic stability under strong environmental pressures. Based on sequence variation analysis and the breeding history, we suggest that both Hassawi-1 and Hassawi-2 originated from the Indonesian variety Peta since genetic diversity between the two Hassawi cultivars is very low albeit an unknown historic origin of the wild-type Hassawi rice. PMID:22870184

  12. Gene transfer rate from CL rice to diverse red rice biotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The future and sustainability of ClearfieldTM (CL) technology at the producers’ level will be dictated by various factors. Among many, prominent factors which affect the transfer of ALS-resistant gene from CL rice to red rice are: disparity in red rice biotypes and CL cultivars; flowering time of re...

  13. Screening and association mapping of rice blast disease resistance using a diverse collection of rice germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast, caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae B. Couch, is a very serious disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.) worldwide. Incorporation of new blast resistance genes into breeding lines is an important objective of many rice breeding programs. A diverse collection of 409 O. sativa accessions des...

  14. Influence of Water to Rice Ratio on Cooked Rice Flavor and Texture.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water to rice ratio is known to affect cooked rice texture, whereas, the effects on flavor are largely unknown. To determine the impact of the amount of water during cooking on flavor and texture descriptive attributes, three- water to rice ratios consisting of low (less than ideal), medium (ideal)...

  15. Characterizing irrigation water requirements for rice production from the Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated rice irrigation water use in the University of Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program between the years of 2003 and 2011. Irrigation water use averaged 747 mm (29.4 inches) over the nine years. A significant 40% water savings was reported for rice grown under a zero gr...

  16. Factors affecting the outcrossing rate between Clearfield rice and red rice (Oryza sativa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The commercialization of imazethapyr-resistant (Clearfield[TM], CL) rice in the southern United States has raised serious concerns about gene flow to red rice, producing imazethapyr-resistant red rice populations. Our objectives were to determine the impact of planting date, CL cultivars, and red ri...

  17. Transcriptome profiling confirmed correlations between symptoms and transcriptional changes in RDV infected rice and revealed nucleolus as a possible target of RDV manipulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rice dwarf virus (RDV) is the causal agent of rice dwarf disease, which limits rice production in many areas of south East Asia. Transcriptional changes of rice in response to RDV infection have been characterized by Shimizu et al. and Satoh et al.. Both studies found induction of defense related genes and correlations between transcriptional changes and symptom development in RDV-infected rice. However, the same rice cultivar, namely Nipponbare belonging to the Japonic subspecies of rice was used in both studies. Methods Gene expression changes of the indica subspecies of rice, namely Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica cv Yixiang2292 that show moderate resistance to RDV, in response to RDV infection were characterized using an Affymetrix Rice Genome Array. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were classified according to their Gene Ontology (GO) annotation. The effects of transient expression of Pns11 in Nicotiana benthaminana on the expression of nucleolar genes were studied using real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Results 856 genes involved in defense or other physiological processes were identified to be DEGs, most of which showed up-regulation. Ribosome- and nucleolus related genes were significantly enriched in the DEGs. Representative genes related to nucleolar function exhibited altered expression in N. benthaminana plants transiently expressing Pns11 of RDV. Conclusions Induction of defense related genes is common for rice infected with RDV. There is a co-relation between symptom severity and transcriptional alteration in RDV infected rice. Besides ribosome, RDV may also target nucleolus to manipulate the translation machinery of rice. Given the tight links between nucleolus and ribosome, it is intriguing to speculate that RDV may enhance expression of ribosomal genes by targeting nucleolus through Pns11. PMID:24885215

  18. Characterization and quantification of γ-oryzanol in grains of 16 Korean rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heon Woong; Kim, Jung Bong; Cho, Soo-Muk; Cho, Il Kyu; Li, Qing X; Jang, Hwan-Hee; Lee, Sung-Hyeon; Lee, Young-Min; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2015-03-01

    γ-Oryzanol, a mixture of ferulic acid esters of triterpene alcohols and sterols, is a nutritionally important group of rice secondary metabolites. A library of 27 γ-oryzanol was assembled from existing data and used to assist identification and quantification of γ-oryzanol isolated from 16 Korean rice varieties (11 white and 5 pigmented). γ-Oryzanol was analyzed with liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Nineteen different γ-oryzanol were observed and identified as stigmasterol, campesterol and sitosterol or common and hydroxylated triterpene alcohols. In the 16 varieties, the total γ-oryzanol content averaged 43.8 mg/100 g (range, 26.7-61.6 mg/100 g), which Josaengheugchal exhibited the highest level (61.6 mg/100 g). The Korean rice varieties were classified based on qualitative and quantitative γ-oryzanol data by multivariate statistical analysis. Clusters of specialty rice varieties exhibited higher γ-oryzanol levels than those of common rice varieties. PMID:25373930

  19. Understanding the responses of rice to environmental stress using proteomics.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raksha; Jwa, Nam-Soo

    2013-11-01

    Diverse abiotic and biotic stresses have marked effects on plant growth and productivity. To combat such stresses, plants have evolved complex but not well understood responses. Common effects upon perception of environmental stress are differential expression of the plant proteome and the synthesis of novel regulatory proteins for protection from and acclimation to stress conditions. Plants respond differently in terms of activation of stress-responsive signaling pathways depending upon the type and nature of the stresses to which they are exposed. Progress in proteomics and systems biology approaches has made it possible to identify the novel proteins and their interactions that function in abiotic stress responses. This will enable elucidation of the functions of individual proteins and their roles in signaling networks. Proteomic analysis of the responses to various stress conditions is performed most commonly using 2D gel electrophoresis and high-throughput identification by LC-MS/MS. Because of recent developments in proteomics techniques, numerous proteomics studies of rice under abiotic stress conditions have been performed. In this review, proteomics studies addressing rice responses to the major environmental stresses--including cold, heat, drought, salt, heavy metals, minerals, UV radiation, and ozone--are discussed. Unique or common protein responses to these stress conditions are summarized and interpreted according to their possible physiological responses in each stress. Additionally, proteomics studies on various plant systems under various abiotic stress conditions are compared to provide deeper understanding of specific and common proteome responses in rice and other plant systems, which will further contribute to the identification of abiotic stress tolerance factor at protein level. Functional analysis of stress-responsive proteins will provide new research objectives with the aim of achieving stable crop productivity in the face of the

  20. FT-like proteins induce transposon silencing in the shoot apex during floral induction in rice

    PubMed Central

    Tamaki, Shojiro; Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Ayana; Fujita, Akiko; Shimatani, Zenpei; Terada, Rie; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Kurata, Tetsuya; Shimamoto, Ko

    2015-01-01

    Floral induction is a crucial developmental step in higher plants. Florigen, a mobile floral activator that is synthesized in the leaf and transported to the shoot apex, was recently identified as a protein encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and its orthologs; the rice florigen is Heading date 3a (Hd3a) protein. The 14-3-3 proteins mediate the interaction of Hd3a with the transcription factor OsFD1 to form a ternary structure called the florigen activation complex on the promoter of OsMADS15, a rice APETALA1 ortholog. However, crucial information, including the spatiotemporal overlap among FT-like proteins and the components of florigen activation complex and downstream genes, remains unclear. Here, we confirm that Hd3a coexists, in the same regions of the rice shoot apex, with the other components of the florigen activation complex and its transcriptional targets. Unexpectedly, however, RNA-sequencing analysis of shoot apex from wild-type and RNA-interference plants depleted of florigen activity revealed that 4,379 transposable elements (TEs; 58% of all classifiable rice TEs) were expressed collectively in the vegetative and reproductive shoot apex. Furthermore, in the reproductive shoot apex, 214 TEs were silenced by florigen. Our results suggest a link between floral induction and regulation of TEs. PMID:25675495