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Sample records for common-cation ii-vi heterostructures

  1. Wide-gap II-VI heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunshor, R. L.; Kolodziejski, L. A.; Kobayashi, M.; Otsuka, N.; Nurmikko, A. V.

    1990-04-01

    Recent advances in the growth of II-VI/II-VI and II-VI/III-V heterostructures based on the widegap II-VI semiconductors CdTe and ZnTe are discussed. The potentially important pseudomorphic epilayer/epilayer heterojunction consisting of ZnTe on AlSb has been grown by MBE and characterized. Both microstructural and optical evaluation indicate a high degree of structural quality and the potential for future development of novel light-emitting device structures. Metastable zincblende MnTe, for which TEM and X-ray evaluation reveal the presence of only zincblende phases, has been grown by MBE. Single quantum well structures using zincblende MnTe for the barrier layers have been fabricated and found to show strong carrier confinement, further confirming the predicted zincblende MnTe bandgap at 3.2 eV.

  2. ZnTe/MnTe: A new metastable wide gap II VI heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Fu, Qiang; Pelekanos, N.; Gunshor, R. L.; Nurmikko, A. V.

    1990-04-01

    Optical characteristics of a new metastable wide-gap II-VI semiconductor heterostructure ZnTe/MnTe are reported. Single ZnTe/MnTe quantum wells show strong n = 1 exciton resonance manifesting, for example, in pronounced enhancement of the Raman cross-section. Pseudomorphic nature of the structures is inferred from strain induced shifts in the optical phonon spectrum.

  3. Removal of GaAs growth substrates from II-VI semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieker, S.; Hartmann, P. R.; Kießling, T.; Rüth, M.; Schumacher, C.; Gould, C.; Ossau, W.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2014-04-01

    We report on a process that enables the removal of II-VI semiconductor epilayers from their GaAs growth substrate and their subsequent transfer to arbitrary host environments. The technique combines mechanical lapping and layer selective chemical wet etching and is generally applicable to any II-VI layer stack. We demonstrate the non-invasiveness of the method by transferring an all-II-VI magnetic resonant tunneling diode. High resolution x-ray diffraction proves that the crystal integrity of the heterostructure is preserved. Transport characterization confirms that the functionality of the device is maintained and even improved, which is ascribed to completely elastic strain relaxation of the tunnel barrier layer.

  4. Systematic approach for simultaneously correcting the band-gap andp-dseparation errors of common cation III-V or II-VI binaries in density functional theory calculations within a local density approximation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2015-07-31

    We propose a systematic approach that can empirically correct three major errors typically found in a density functional theory (DFT) calculation within the local density approximation (LDA) simultaneously for a set of common cation binary semiconductors, such as III-V compounds, (Ga or In)X with X = N,P,As,Sb, and II-VI compounds, (Zn or Cd)X, with X = O,S,Se,Te. By correcting (1) the binary band gaps at high-symmetry points , L, X, (2) the separation of p-and d-orbital-derived valence bands, and (3) conduction band effective masses to experimental values and doing so simultaneously for common cation binaries, the resulting DFT-LDA-based quasi-first-principles methodmore » can be used to predict the electronic structure of complex materials involving multiple binaries with comparable accuracy but much less computational cost than a GW level theory. This approach provides an efficient way to evaluate the electronic structures and other material properties of complex systems, much needed for material discovery and design.« less

  5. Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}/II-VI semiconductor heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhiyi Zhao, Lukas; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia; Garcia, Thor Axtmann; Tamargo, Maria C.; Hernandez-Mainet, Luis C.; Deng, Haiming

    2014-12-15

    Surfaces of three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) have been proposed to host quantum phases at the interfaces with other types of materials, provided that the topological properties of interfacial regions remain unperturbed. Here, we report on the molecular beam epitaxy growth of II-VI semiconductor–TI heterostructures using c-plane sapphire substrates. Our studies demonstrate that Zn{sub 0.49}Cd{sub 0.51}Se and Zn{sub 0.23}Cd{sub 0.25}Mg{sub 0.52}Se layers have improved quality relative to ZnSe. The structures exhibit a large relative upward shift of the TI bulk quantum levels when the TI layers are very thin (∼6nm), consistent with quantum confinement imposed by the wide bandgap II-VI layers. Our transport measurements show that the characteristic topological signatures of the Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} layers are preserved.

  6. Spectral sensitivity of p-Cu{sub 1.8}S/n{sup -}-ZnS/n-(II-VI) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Komaschenko, V. N. Kolezhuk, K. V.; Yaroshenko, N. V.; Sheremetova, G. I.; Bobrenko, Yu. N.

    2006-03-15

    Photosensitivity of multilayered p-Cu{sub 1.8}S/n{sup -}-(II-VI)/n-(II-VI) heterostructures beyond the fundamental-absorption edge of the wide-gap component is studied experimentally, and a simple model is suggested as an explanation of this photosensitivity. It is established that an effective method for reducing the photosensitivity of the structures beyond the ultraviolet spectral region consists in decreasing the probability of dominant tunneling processes, by increasing the thickness of the wide-gap layer, giving rise to a blocking barrier for photogenerated minority charge carriers. It is shown that the p-Cu{sub 1.8}S/n{sup -}-ZnS/n-CdSe heterostructures are promising for the development of efficient 'solar-blind' detectors of ultraviolet radiation.

  7. Time-resolved optical studies of wide-gap II-VI semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong

    ZnSe and ZnSe-based quantum well and superlattice structures are potential candidates for light emitting devices and other optical devices such as switches and modulators working in the blue-green wavelength range. Carrier dynamics studies of these structures are important in evaluating device performance as well as understanding the underlying physical processes. In this thesis, a carrier dynamics investigation is conducted for temperature from 77K to 295K on CdZnSSe/ZnSSe single quantum well structure (SQW) and ZnSe/ZnSTe superlattice fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Two experimental techniques with femtosecond time resolution are used in this work: up-conversion technique for time- resolved photoluminescence (PL) and pump-probe technique for time-resolved differential absorption studies. For both heterostructures, the radiative recombination is dominated by exciton transition due to the large exciton binding energy as a result of quantum confinement effect. The measured decay time of free exciton PL in CdZnSSe/ZnSSe SQW increases linearly with increasing temperature which agrees with the theoretical prediction by considering the conservation of momentum requirement for radiative recombination. However, the recombination of free carriers is also observed in CdZnSSe/ZnSSe SQW for the whole temperature range studied. On the other hand, in ZnSe/ZnSTe superlattice structures, the non- radiative recombination processes are non-negligible even at 77K and become more important in higher temperature range. The relaxation processes such as spectral hole burning, carrier thermalization and hot-carrier cooling are observed in ZnSe/ZnSTe superlattices at room temperature (295K) by the femtosecond pump-probe measurements. A rapid cooling of the thermalized hot- carrier from 763K to 450K within 4ps is deduced. A large optical nonlinearity (i.e., the induced absorption change) around the heavy-hole exciton energy is also obtained.

  8. Systematic approach for simultaneously correcting the band-gap andp-dseparation errors of common cation III-V or II-VI binaries in density functional theory calculations within a local density approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2015-07-31

    We propose a systematic approach that can empirically correct three major errors typically found in a density functional theory (DFT) calculation within the local density approximation (LDA) simultaneously for a set of common cation binary semiconductors, such as III-V compounds, (Ga or In)X with X = N,P,As,Sb, and II-VI compounds, (Zn or Cd)X, with X = O,S,Se,Te. By correcting (1) the binary band gaps at high-symmetry points , L, X, (2) the separation of p-and d-orbital-derived valence bands, and (3) conduction band effective masses to experimental values and doing so simultaneously for common cation binaries, the resulting DFT-LDA-based quasi-first-principles method can be used to predict the electronic structure of complex materials involving multiple binaries with comparable accuracy but much less computational cost than a GW level theory. This approach provides an efficient way to evaluate the electronic structures and other material properties of complex systems, much needed for material discovery and design.

  9. General synthetic approach to heterostructured nanocrystals based on noble metals and I-VI, II-VI, and I-III-VI metal chalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Minghui; Zeng, Hua Chun

    2014-08-19

    Solid metal precursors (alloys or monometals) can serve both as a starting template and as a source material for chemical transformation to metal chalcogenides. Herein, we develop a simple solution-based strategy to obtain highly monodisperse noble-metal-based heterostructured nanocrystals from such precursor seeds. By utilizing chemical and structural inhomogeneity of these metal seeds, in this work, we have synthesized a total of five I-VI (Ag2S, Ag2Se, Ag3AuS2, Ag3AuSe2, and Cu9S5), three II-VI (CdS, CdSe, and CuSe), and four I-III-VI (AgInS2, AgInSe2, CuInS2, and CuInSe2) chalcogenides, together with their fifteen associated heterodimers (Au-Ag2S, Au-Ag2Se, Au-Ag3AuS2, Au-Ag3AuSe2, Au-AgInS2, Au-AgInSe2, Au-CdS, Au-CdSe, Ag-Ag2S, Ag-AgInS2, Au-Cu9S5, Au-CuInS2, Au-CuSe, Au-CuInSe2, and Pt-AgInS2) to affirm the process generality. Briefly, by adding elemental sulfur or selenium to AuAg alloy seeds and tuning the reaction conditions, we can readily obtain phase-pure Au-Ag2S, Au-Ag2Se, Au-Ag3AuS2, and Au-Ag3AuSe2 heterostructures. Similarly, we can also fabricate Au-AgInS2 and Au-AgInSe2 heterostructures from the AuAg seeds by adding sulfur/selenium and indium precursors. Furthermore, by partial or full conversion of Ag seeds, we can prepare both single-phase Ag chalcogenide nanocrystals and Ag-based heterostructures. To demonstrate wide applicability of this strategy, we have also synthesized Au-based binary and ternary Cu chalcogenide (Au-Cu9S5, Au-CuSe, Au-CuInS2, and Au-CuInSe2) heterostructures from alloy seeds of AuCu and Pt chalcogenides (e.g., Pt-AgInS2) from alloy seeds of PtAg. The structure and composition of the above products have been confirmed with X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods. A kinetic investigation of the formation mechanism of these heterostructures is brought forward using Au-AgInS2 and Ag-CuInS2 as model examples. PMID

  10. Atomic-Scale Characterization of II-VI Compound Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David J.

    2013-11-01

    Alloys of II-VI compound semiconductors with suitable band gap selection potentially provide broad coverage of wavelengths for photodetector applications. Achievement of high-quality epitaxial growth is, however, essential for successful development of integrated photonic and optoelectronic devices. Atomic-scale characterization of structural defects in II-VI heterostructures using electron microscopy plays an invaluable role in accomplishing this goal. This paper reviews some recent high-resolution studies of II-VI compound semiconductors with zincblende crystal structure, as grown epitaxially on commonly used substrates. Exploratory studies using aberration-corrected electron microscopes are also briefly considered.

  11. Optical Properties of Silicon-Germanium Superlattices and Wide Band Gap II-Vi Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajakarunanayake, Yasantha Nirmal

    This thesis presents the investigation of semiconductor heterostructures for optoelectronic applications, with particular emphasis on band alignment considerations, strain effects, band structure calculations and characterization by optical spectroscopy. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of novel optoelectronic properties exhibited by Si/Ge superlattices both in the near infrared (interband transitions) and far infrared (intersubband transitions) energy ranges. The second part of this thesis is concerned with establishing the merits of II-VI semiconductor heterostructures for producing visible light emitters, and investigating techniques to improve the dopability of II-VI semiconductors. In the first part of this thesis we investigate the merits of Si/Ge superlattices for optical applications. We show that the optical absorption/emission strengths for interband transitions in Si/Ge superlattices can be enhanced by six orders of magnitude over pure Si or Ge. We also investigate the intersubband absorption coefficients in doped Si/Ge superlattices. Intersubband transitions in these superlattices make them interesting candidates for long-wavelength infrared detectors. In the second part of this thesis, we describe investigations of II-VI semiconductor heterostructures for visible light emitter applications. We experimentally determine the band offsets for CdTe/ZnTe and ZnSe/ZnTe heterojunctions using optical techniques, and remark on the merits of these heterojunctions for carrier injection. We also analyze the role of external electric fields applied during growth in suppressing self-compensation in II-VI semiconductors. Our results indicate that II-VI doping efficiencies can be dramatically improved if substantial electric fields are applied during growth.

  12. Thermophysical Properties of Selected II-VI Semiconducting Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C.; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.; Scripa, R. N.; Ban, H.; Lin, B.

    2004-01-01

    Thermophysical properties are essential for the accurate predication of the crystal growth process by computational modeling. Currently, the temperature dependent thermophysical property data for the II-VI semiconductor melts are scarce. This paper reports the results of the temperature dependence of melt density, viscosity and electrical conductivity of selected II-VI compounds, including HgTe, HgCdTe and HgZnTe. The melt density was measured using a pycnometric method, and the viscosity and electrical conductivity were measured by a transient torque method. The results were compared with and showed good agreement with the existing data in the literature.

  13. Chemistry of the colloidal group II-VI nanocrystal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haitao

    In the last two decades, the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology has witnessed tremendous advancement in the synthesis and application of group II-VI colloidal nanocrystals. The synthesis based on high temperature decomposition of organometallic precursors has become one of the most successful methods of making group II-VI colloidal nanocrystals. This method is first demonstrated by Bawendi and coworkers in 1993 to prepare cadmium chalcogenide colloidal quantum dots and later extended by others to prepare other group II-VI quantum dots as well as anisotropic shaped colloidal nanocrystals, such as nanorod and tetrapod. This dissertation focuses on the chemistry of this type of nanocrystal synthesis. The synthesis of group II-VI nanocrystals was studied by characterizing the molecular structures of the precursors and products and following their time evolution in the synthesis. Based on these results, a mechanism was proposed to account for the reaction between the precursors that presumably produces monomer for the growth of nanocrystals. Theoretical study based on density functional theory calculations revealed the detailed free energy landscape of the precursor decomposition and monomer formation pathway. Based on the proposed reaction mechanism, a new synthetic method was designed that uses water as a novel reagent to control the diameter and the aspect ratio of CdSe and US nanorods.

  14. Chemistry of the Colloidal Group II-VI Nanocrystal Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Haitao

    2007-05-17

    In the last two decades, the field of nanoscience andnanotechnology has witnessed tremendous advancement in the synthesis andapplication of group II-VI colloidal nanocrystals. The synthesis based onhigh temperature decomposition of organometallic precursors has becomeone of the most successful methods of making group II-VI colloidalnanocrystals. This method is first demonstrated by Bawendi and coworkersin 1993 to prepare cadmium chalcogenide colloidal quantum dots and laterextended by others to prepare other group II-VI quantum dots as well asanisotropic shaped colloidal nanocrystals, such as nanorod and tetrapod.This dissertation focuses on the chemistry of this type of nanocrystalsynthesis. The synthesis of group II-VI nanocrystals was studied bycharacterizing the molecular structures of the precursors and productsand following their time evolution in the synthesis. Based on theseresults, a mechanism was proposed to account for the 2 reaction betweenthe precursors that presumably produces monomer for the growth ofnanocrystals. Theoretical study based on density functional theorycalculations revealed the detailed free energy landscape of the precursordecomposition and monomerformation pathway. Based on the proposedreaction mechanism, a new synthetic method was designed that uses wateras a novel reagent to control the diameter and the aspect ratio of CdSeand CdS nanorods.

  15. Chemistry of the Colloidal Group II-VI Nanocrystal Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Haitao

    2007-05-17

    In the last two decades, the field of nanoscience andnanotechnology has witnessed tremendous advancement in the synthesis andapplication of group II-VI colloidal nanocrystals. The synthesis based onhigh temperature decomposition of organometallic precursors has becomeone of the most successful methods of making group II-VI colloidalnanocrystals. This methodis first demonstrated by Bawendi and coworkersin 1993 to prepare cadmium chalcogenide colloidal quantum dots and laterextended by others to prepare other group II-VI quantum dots as well asanisotropic shaped colloidal nanocrystals, such as nanorod and tetrapod.This dissertation focuses on the chemistry of this type of nanocrystalsynthesis. The synthesis of group II-VI nanocrystals was studied bycharacterizing the molecular structures of the precursors and productsand following their time evolution in the synthesis. Based on theseresults, a mechanism was proposed to account for the 2 reaction betweenthe precursors that presumably produces monomer for the growth ofnanocrystals. Theoretical study based on density functional theorycalculations revealed the detailed free energy landscape of the precursordecomposition and monomerformation pathway. Based on the proposedreaction mechanism, a new synthetic method was designed that uses wateras a novel reagent to control the diameter and the aspect ratio of CdSeand CdS nanorods.

  16. Photothermal spectroscopy of II-VI mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrzewski, Jacek

    2005-09-01

    Wide gap II-VI semiconducting mixed crystals are extensively studied during the past few years as they are promising candidates for applications in construction photo and electrooptical devices operating in blue-green and UV spectral region. The high degree of covalent bonding of Be chalcogenides leads to increase of their lattice rigidity. For this reason, mixing of Be chalcogenides with other wide gap II-VI binary compounds would increase the resistance of the optoelectronic structure to defect generation and propagation. The photoacoustic spectroscopy has been developed to investigate the thermal and optical properties of semiconductors since it is very sensitive and complementary method to the absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The modified Jackson - Amer model is used to interpret the obtained spectra for the piezoelectric photothermal technique. From the amplitude spectra of the piezoelectric signal, the method enables computation of the optical absorption coefficient spectra and estimation of the energy gap values of the investigated samples. It also enables the determination of the thermal diffusivity values of the samples from the analysis of the piezoelectric phase signal. In special cases, the multi-layer model, developed very recently, can be applied for the interpretation of experimental spectra. The influence of the annealing process of II-VI samples in cation vapor on the amplitude photoacoustic spectra in the saturation region is shown and discussed. The values of the parameter η (efficiency of the nonradiative recombination processes) for both, as grown and annealed crystals were determined and discussed.

  17. Photophysical Properties of II-VI Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ke

    As it is well known, semiconductor nanocrystals (also called quantum dots, QDs) are being actively pursued for use in many different types of luminescent optical materials. These materials include the active media for luminescence downconversion in artificial lighting, lasers, luminescent solar concentrators and many other applications. Chapter 1 gives general introduction of QDs, which describe the basic physical properties and optical properties. Based on the experimental spectroscopic study, a semiquantitative method-effective mass model is employed to give theoretical prediction and guide. The following chapters will talks about several topics respectively. A predictive understanding of the radiative lifetimes is therefore a starting point for the understanding of the use of QDs for these applications. Absorption intensities and radiative lifetimes are fundamental properties of any luminescent material. Meantime, achievement of high efficiency with high working temperature and heterostructure fabrication with manipulation of lattice strain are not easy and need systematic investigation. To make accurate connections between extinction coefficients and radiative recombination rates, chapter 2 will consider three closely related aspects of the size dependent spectroscopy of II-VI QDs. First, it will consider the existing literature on cadmium selenide (CdSe) QD absorption spectra and extinction coefficients. From these results and fine structure considerations Boltzmann weighted radiative lifetimes are calculated. These lifetimes are compared to values measured on very high quality CdSe and CdSe coated with zinc selenide (ZnSe) shells. Second, analogous literature data are analyzed for cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanocrystals and compared to lifetimes measured for very high quality QDs. Furthermore, studies of the absorption and excitation spectra and measured radiative lifetimes for CdTe/CdSe Type-II core/shell QDs are reported. These results are also analyzed in

  18. Monolayer II-VI semiconductors: A first-principles prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hui; Li, Xian-Bin; Chen, Nian-Ke; Xie, Sheng-Yi; Tian, Wei Quan; Chen, Yuanping; Xia, Hong; Zhang, S. B.; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2015-09-01

    A systematic study of 32 honeycomb monolayer II-VI semiconductors is carried out by first-principles methods. While none of the two-dimensional (2D) structures can be energetically stable, it appears that BeO, MgO, CaO, ZnO, CdO, CaS, SrS, SrSe, BaTe, and HgTe honeycomb monolayers have a good dynamic stability. The stability of the five oxides is consistent with the work published by Zhuang et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 212102 (2013), 10.1063/1.4831972]. The rest of the compounds in the form of honeycomb are dynamically unstable, revealed by phonon calculations. In addition, according to the molecular dynamic (MD) simulation evolution from these unstable candidates, we also find two extra monolayers dynamically stable, which are tetragonal BaS [P 4 /n m m (129 ) ] and orthorhombic HgS [P 21/m (11 ) ] . The honeycomb monolayers exist in the form of either a planar perfect honeycomb or a low-buckled 2D layer, all of which possess a band gap and most of them are in the ultraviolet region. Interestingly, the dynamically stable SrSe has a gap near visible light, and displays exotic electronic properties with a flat top of the valence band, and hence has a strong spin polarization upon hole doping. The honeycomb HgTe has recently been reported to achieve a topological nontrivial phase under appropriate in-plane tensile strain and spin-orbital coupling (SOC) [J. Li et al., arXiv:1412.2528]. Some II-VI partners with less than 5 % lattice mismatch may be used to design novel 2D heterojunction devices. If synthesized, potential applications of these 2D II-VI families could include optoelectronics, spintronics, and strong correlated electronics.

  19. Activation of shallow dopants in II-VI compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Walukiewicz, W.

    1995-08-01

    The amphoteric native defect model is applied to the understanding of the variations in the dopant activation efficiency in II-VI compounds. It is shown that the location of the common energy reference, the Fermi level stabilization energy, relative to the band edges can be used to determine the doping induced reduction of the formation energy and the enhancement of the concentration of compensating native defects. The model is applied to the most extensively studied compound semiconductors as well as to ternary and quaternary alloys. The effects of the compound ionicity on the dopant activation are briefly discussed.

  20. Large area radiation detectors based on II VI thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quevedo-Lopez, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    The development of low temperature device technologies that have enabled flexible displays also present opportunities for flexible electronics and flexible integrated systems. Of particular interest are possible applications in flexible, low metal content, sensor systems for unattended ground sensors, smart medical bandages, electronic ID tags for geo-location, conformal antennas, neutron/gamma-ray/x-ray detectors, etc. In this talk, our efforts to develop novel CMOS integration schemes, circuits, memory, sensors as well as novel contacts, dielectrics and semiconductors for flexible electronics are presented. In particular, in this presentation we discuss fundamental materials properties including crystalline structure, interfacial reactions, doping, etc. defining performance and reliability of II-VI-based radiation sensors. We investigate the optimal thickness of a semiconductor diode for thin-film solid state thermal neutron detectors. Besides II-VI materials, we also evaluated several diode materials, Si, CdTe,GaAs, C (diamond), and ZnO, and two neutron converter materials,10B and 6LiF. We determine the minimum semiconductor thickness needed to achieve maximum neutron detection efficiency. By keeping the semiconductor thickness to a minimum, gamma rejection is kept as high as possible. In this way, we optimize detector performance for different thin-film semiconductor materials.

  1. AX centers in II-VI semiconductors: Hybrid functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Koushik; Du, Mao-Hua

    2012-02-01

    Group-V acceptors should be efficient hole producers in II-VI compounds as in ZnTe. However, good p-type conductivity remains elusive, for example in ZnO and ZnS. With regard to this low doping efficiency, we will discuss the dopant self-compensation in II-VI semiconductors through the formation of the AX center. These are acceptor-induced defect that acts as a donor to compensate the acceptor itself. We show that the artificially high valence band maximum in Local density approximation and Generalized gradient approximation calculations can lead to incorrect prediction on the stability of the AX center in these semiconductors. The hybrid functional calculations that correct the band gap, significantly stabilize the AX centers for selected group-V acceptor dopants in ZnO, ZnS, and ZnSe. The results on AX centers obtained by hybrid functional calculations agree well with the experimentally observed doping phenomena in ZnS and ZnSe.[1] [1] Koushik Biswas and Mao-Hua Du, Applied Physics Letters 98, 181913 (2011).

  2. II-VI Materials-Based High Performance Intersubband Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, Arvind Pawan

    Mid-infrared (mid-IR) light is of vital technological importance because of its application in trace-gas absorption spectroscopy, imaging, free-space communication or infrared countermeasures. Thus the ability to generate and detect mid-IR light at low cost and preferably, at room temperature is of utmost importance. High performance quantum cascade (QC) lasers - mid-IR light sources based on optical transitions in thin quantum wells, and intersubband infrared detectors - namely the quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) and quantum cascade detectors (QCDs), have rapidly advanced, due to excellent material quality of III-V materials. In spite of this tremendous success, there lie challenges such as lack of efficient short-wavelength emitters or broadband detectors - challenges that arise from intrinsic materials properties. As a central theme in this thesis, we look at a new class of materials, the II-VI based ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe system, to close technological gaps and develop high performance infrared light sources and detectors in the entire mid-IR regime. To that end, we first demonstrate the flexibility that the combination of II-VI materials and band structure engineering allows by developing various QWIPs, QCDs and QC emitters at different wavelengths, not easily achieved by other materials. The performance of these first-of-their-kind detectors is already comparable to existing commercial solutions. To fully realize the potential of this new material system, we also developed a room-temperature broadband infrared detector detecting between 3 and 6 mum with record responsivity. With this technology, it is now possible to monolithically integrate high performance mid-IR lasers and detectors for on-chip applications. One of the challenges with all intersubband detectors is that they do not absorb normally incident light, like most conventional detectors. In order to make intersubband detectors attractive to commercial exploration, we develop a novel method to

  3. 77 FR 27081 - II-VI, Incorporated, Infrared Optics-Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg, Pennsylvania; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... was published in the Federal Register on February 14, 2012 (77 FR 8281). The workers were engaged in... Employment and Training Administration II-VI, Incorporated, Infrared Optics--Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg... former workers of II-VI, Incorporated, Infrared Optics--Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg,...

  4. FTIR Spectroscopic Characterization Of II-VI Semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, G. L. E.; Szofran, F. R.

    1991-01-01

    Combination of commercial Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer with computer and special-purpose software constitutes highly automated facility for acquisition and processing of infrared transmission or reflection spectral image data. Intended principally to acquire transmission spectra of some compounds of elements in groups II and VI of periodic table. System used to characterize specimens of II/VI alloy semiconductors grown by directional solidification and quenching. Transmission-edge maps helpful in studies of flows, gradients of temperature, and coefficients of diffusion in solidifying melts. Data acquired by system include optical characteristics, and they both verify and complement data obtained by such other techniques as measurements of density and x-ray-dispersion analysis.

  5. Development of novel II-VI solar cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tompa, G.S.

    1990-11-01

    The epitaxial growth of novel II-VI solar cell structures was investigated. In Phase I, the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process parameters and associated growth chemistries for an epitaxial p-i-n, ZnTe/CdTe/GaAs, solar cell structure were developed. No doping was attempted in the Phase I effort. The solar cell structure was grown as a continuous structure within a single process reactor. Film thickness, compositional uniformity, and electrical properties were measured. A test solar cell was not fabricated because the material was too highly resistive to produce a useful solar cell. This high resistivity is characteristic of very pure ZnTe and CdTe material. The feasibility of this structure was demonstrated, providing a foundation for the development of a functional solar cell, by optimizing the cell structure and growth processes and by developing doping techniques.

  6. Chemical bath deposition of II-VI compound thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladeji, Isaiah Olatunde

    II-VI compounds are direct bandgap semiconductors with great potentials in optoelectronic applications. Solar cells, where these materials are in greater demand, require a low cost production technology that will make the final product more affordable. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) a low cost growth technique capable of producing good quality thin film semiconductors over large area and at low temperature then becomes a suitable technology of choice. Heterogeneous reaction in a basic aqueous solution that is responsible for the II-VI compound film growth in CBD requires a metal complex. We have identified the stability constant (k) of the metal complex compatible with CBD growth mechanism to be about 106.9. This value is low enough to ensure that the substrate adsorbed complex relax for subsequent reaction with the chalcogen precursor to take place. It is also high enough to minimize the metal ion concentration in the bath participating in the precipitation of the bulk compounds. Homogeneous reaction that leads to precipitation in the reaction bath takes place because the solubility products of bulk II-VI compounds are very low. This reaction quickly depletes the bath of reactants, limit the film thickness, and degrade the film quality. While ZnS thin films are still hard to grow by CBD because of lack of suitable complexing agent, the homogeneous reaction still limits quality and thickness of both US and ZnS thin films. In this study, the zinc tetraammine complex ([Zn(NH3) 4]2+) with k = 108.9 has been forced to acquire its unsaturated form [Zn(NH3)3]2+ with a moderate k = 106.6 using hydrazine and nitrilotriacetate ion as complementary complexing agents and we have successfully grown ZnS thin films. We have also, minimized or eliminated the homogeneous reaction by using ammonium salt as a buffer and chemical bath with low reactant concentrations. These have allowed us to increase the saturation thickness of ZnS thin film by about 400% and raise that of US film

  7. Multi-crystalline II-VI based multijunction solar cells and modules

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Brian E.; Connor, Stephen T.; Groves, James R.; Peters, Craig H.

    2015-06-30

    Multi-crystalline group II-VI solar cells and methods for fabrication of same are disclosed herein. A multi-crystalline group II-VI solar cell includes a first photovoltaic sub-cell comprising silicon, a tunnel junction, and a multi-crystalline second photovoltaic sub-cell. A plurality of the multi-crystalline group II-VI solar cells can be interconnected to form low cost, high throughput flat panel, low light concentration, and/or medium light concentration photovoltaic modules or devices.

  8. Close-spaced vapor transport of II-VI semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrier, Gerard

    1991-12-01

    The close spaced vapor transport (CSVT) is an efficient and cost-effective technique that allows the growth of polycrystalline as well as epitaxial thin layers of semiconductors. It has been applied to II-VI materials, especially to zinc and cadmium chalcogenides. A summary table including the deposition parameters, i.e., the nature of the ambient gas, the temperature of the source, the temperature difference between source and substrate, and the values of the growth rates measured on various substrates is presented for ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe, CdS, CdSe, and CdTe. Experimental results concerning the growth of ZnSe on GaAs substrates are also reported. The CSVT system uses an Ar atmosphere and the working temperature is ca. 825 degree(s)C. The temperatures of source and substrate are measured during deposition and growth rates of the ZnSe films are studied as a function of the reciprocal temperature of the substrate surface for GaAs and quartz (inert) substrates. The measured values of the growth rate are compared to the theoretical ones given by the reaction-limited model and the diffusion-limited model. The validity of the models is discussed in terms of the nature of the molecules participating in the transport.

  9. Equilibrium composition in II?VI telluride MOCVD systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Dor, L.; Greenberg, J. H.

    1999-03-01

    Thermodynamic calculations, or computer simulation of the equilibrium composition, offer an excellent possibility to reduce drastically the elaborate trial-and-error experimental efforts of finding the optimal preparation conditions for MOCVD processes (temperature T, pressure P, initial composition of the vapors X), to limit them only to the P- T- X field of existence of the solid to be prepared and an acceptable yield of the product. In this communication equilibrium composition was investigated for MOCVD processes of CdTe, ZnTe, HgTe and solid solutions Cd xZn 1- xTe and Hg xCd 1- xTe. A number of volatile organometallic compounds have been used as precursors for MOCVD growth. These are dimethylcadmium (CH 3) 2Cd, DMCd; diethylzinc (C 2H 5) 2Zn, DEZn; diisopropylzinc [CH(CH 3) 2] 2Zn, DiPZn; diethyltellurium (C 2H 5) 2Te, DETe; diisopropyltellurium [CH(CH 3) 2] 2Te, DiPTe; methylallyltellurium CH 3TeCH 2CHCH 2, MATe. A choice of the particular combination of the precursors largely depends on the desired composition of the film to be prepared, especially in cases of solid solutions Cd xZn 1- xTe and Hg xCd 1- xTe where the vapor pressure of the precursors is instrumental for the composition of the vapor in the reaction zone and, ultimately, for the composition x of the solid solution. Equilibrium composition for II-VI telluride MOCVD systems was investigated at temperatures up to 873 K in hydrogen and inert gas atmospheres at pressures up to 1 atm. P- T- X regions of existence were outlined for each of the five materials.

  10. Phase Diagrams and Electronic Structure of II-VI Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gironcoli, Stefano

    1998-03-01

    Among II-VI wide-gap semiconductor solid solutions, Zn_xMg_1-xS_ySe_1-y alloy is the most studied for its potential applications in the blue-green light-emitter technology. In spite of this enormous technological interest little is known about its fundamental thermodynamical and structural properties. In this work the structural and thermodynamical properties of the Zn_xMg_1-xS_ySe_1-y solid solutions are determined by a combination of the computational alchemy (S. de Gironcoli, P. Giannozzi, and S. Baroni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66), 2116 (1991); N. Marzari, S. de Gironcoli, and S. Baroni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 4001 (1994). and the cluster expansion (S.-H. Wei, L. G. Ferreira, and A. Zunger, Phys. Rev. B 41), 8240 (1990). methods with Monte Carlo simulations. We determine the phase diagram of the alloy and show that the system is completely mixible at the tipical growth temperatures and phase separates at lower temperatures into two or three phases. The homogeneous phase is characterized by a large amount of short-range order occurring among first-nearest neighbors. Electronic-structure calculations, performed extending the special quasi-random structures approach (A. Zunger, S.-H. Wei, L. G. Ferreira, and J. E. Bernard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65), 353 (1990). to the quaternary alloy case, indicate that the energy gap of the alloy is rather sensitive to this short-range order.

  11. MBE of wide bandgap II-VI compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunshor, R. L.; Kobayashi, M.; Kolodziejski, L. A.; Otsuka, N.; Nurmikko, A. V.

    1990-01-01

    A pseudomorphic epilayer/epilayer heterojunction consisting of ZnTe on AlSb, having potential for the development of novel visible light emitting injection devices, has been grown by MBE. A variety of microstructural and optical evaluation techniques have provided evidence of high structural quality. The nonequilibrium growth capability of the MBE technique has enabled the growth of heterostructures incorporating a previously hypothetical widegap magnetic semiconductor, the zincblende phase of MnTe. Electron diffraction measurements of cross-sectional samples reveal only zincblende phases. Double barrier structures incorporating zincblende MnTe are found to exhibit two-dimensional electron and hole confinement in CdTe and ZnTe quantum well layers, and serve to confirm the zincblende MnTe bandgap at 3.2 eV.

  12. Spectroscopic characterization of iron-doped II-VI compounds for laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Alan

    The middle Infrared (mid-IR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum between 2 and 15 ?m has many features which are of interest to a variety of fields such as molecular spectroscopy, biomedical applications, industrial process control, oil prospecting, free-space communication and defense-related applications. Because of this, there is a demand for broadly tunable, laser sources operating over this spectral region which can be easily and inexpensively produced. II-VI semiconductor materials doped with transition metals (TM) such as Co 2+, Cr2+, or Fe2+ exhibit highly favorable spectroscopic characteristics for mid-IR laser applications. Among these TM dopants, Fe2+ has absorption and emission which extend the farthest into the longer wavelength portion of the mid-IR. Fe2+:II-VI crystals have been utilized as gain elements in laser systems broadly tunable over the 3-5.5 microm range [1] and as saturable absorbers to Q -switch [2] and mode-lock [3] laser cavities operating over the 2.7-3 microm. TM:II-VI laser gain elements can be fabricated inexpensively by means of post-growth thermal diffusion with large homogeneous dopant concentration and good optical quality[4,5]. The work outlined in this dissertation will focus on the spectroscopic characterization of TM-doped II-VI semiconductors. This work can be categorized into three major thrusts: 1) the development of novel laser materials, 2) improving and extending applications of TM:II-VI crystals as saturable absorbers, and 3) fabrication of laser active bulk crystals. Because current laser sources based on TM:II-VI materials do not cover the entire mid-IR spectral region, it is necessary to explore novel laser sources to extend available emissions toward longer wavelengths. The first objective of this dissertation is the spectroscopic characterization of novel ternary host crystals doped with Fe2+ ions. Using crystal field engineering, laser materials can be prepared with emissions placed in spectral regions not

  13. 77 FR 21586 - II-VI, Incorporated, Infrared Optics-Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg, PA; Notice of Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... was published in the Federal Register on February 14, 2012 (77 FR 8281). The workers were engaged in... Employment and Training Administration II-VI, Incorporated, Infrared Optics--Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg... former workers of II-VI, Incorporated, Infrared Optics--Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg,...

  14. Modulated Binary-Ternary Dual Semiconductor Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Prusty, Gyanaranjan; Guria, Amit K; Mondal, Indranil; Dutta, Anirban; Pal, Ujjwal; Pradhan, Narayan

    2016-02-18

    A generic modular synthetic strategy for the fabrication of a series of binary-ternary group II-VI and group I-III-VI coupled semiconductor nano-heterostructures is reported. Using Ag2 Se nanocrystals first as a catalyst and then as sacrificial seeds, four dual semiconductor heterostructures were designed with similar shapes: CdSe-AgInSe2 , CdSe-AgGaSe2 , ZnSe-AgInSe2 , and ZnSe-AgGaSe2 . Among these, dispersive type-II heterostructures are further explored for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from water and these are observed to be superior catalysts than the binary or ternary semi-conductors. Details of the chemistry of this modular synthesis have been studied and the photophysical processes involved in catalysis are investigated. PMID:26800297

  15. X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray excited optical luminescence studies of II-VI semiconducting nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Michael Wayne

    2010-06-01

    Various II-VI semiconducting nanomaterials such as ZnO-ZnS nanoribbons (NRs), CdSxSe1-x nanostructures, ZnS:Mn NRs, ZnS:Mn,Eu nanoprsims (NPs), ZnO:Mn nanopowders, and ZnO:Co nanopowders were synthesized for study. These materials were characterized by techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, element dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and X-ray diffraction. The electronic and optical properties of these nanomaterials were studied by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) techniques, using tuneable soft X-rays from a synchrotron light source. The complementary nature ofthe XAFS and XEOL techniques give site, element and chemical specific measurements which allow a better understanding of the interplay and role of each element in the system. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of ZnS powder in a limited oxygen environment resulted in side-by-side biaxial ZnO-ZnS NR heterostructures. The resulting NRs contained distinct wurtzite ZnS and wurtzite ZnO components with widths of 10--100 nm and 20 --500 nm, respectively and a uniform interface region of 5-15 nm. XAFS and XEOL measurements revealed the luminescence of ZnO-ZnS NRs is from the ZnO component. The luminescence of CdSxSe1-x nanostructures is shown to be dependent on the S to Se ratio, with the band-gap emission being tunable between that of pure CdS and CdSe. Excitation of the CdSxSe 1-x nanostructures by X-ray in XEOL has revealed new de-excitation channels which show a defect emission band not seen by laser excitation. CVD of Mn2+ doped ZnS results in nanostructures with luminescence dominated by the yellow Mn2+ emission due to energy transfer from the ZnS host to the Mn dopant sites. The addition of EuCl3 to the reactants in the CVD process results in a change in morphology from NR to NP. Zn1-xMnxO and Zn1-xCOxO nanopowders were prepared by sol-gel methods at dopant concentrations

  16. Novel diffusions of interstitial atoms in II-VI compounds zinc selenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li An; Jiang, En Hai; Zhu, Xing Feng; Chen, Ling Fu

    2015-04-01

    The diffusion plays an important role in many applications when the impurities are employed to tune the semiconductor's electrical or optical properties, which make it essential to understand theoretically the microscopic mechanisms governing how dopant defects diffuse. Using first-principles calculations, we compare the diffusion behaviors and migration barriers of interstitial Cu, Ag, and Au atoms in II-VI compounds ZnSe. We consider interstitial diffusion mechanisms and calculate the corresponding activation energies. For noble atoms, we find that the interstitial mediated mechanism is the dominant one. We also find that the relative size of dopant atoms and constituent atoms of II-VI compounds is an important factor affecting the diffusion behaviors. The coupling in ZnSe between Cu d levels and unoccupied host s levels is not as strong as that in CdTe.

  17. Process for forming shaped group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Peng, Xiaogang; Manna, Liberato

    2001-01-01

    A process for the formation of shaped Group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

  18. Self-interaction and relaxation-corrected pseudopotentials for II-VI semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Dirk; Krüger, Peter; Pollmann, Johannes

    1996-08-01

    We report the construction of pseudopotentials that incorporate self-interaction corrections and electronic relaxation in an approximate but very efficient, physically well-founded, and mathematically well-defined way. These potentials are particularly useful for II-VI compounds which are distinguished by their highly localized and strongly bound cationic semicore d electrons. Self-interaction corrections to the local-density approximation (LDA) of density-functional theory are accounted for in the solids to a significant degree by constructing appropriate self-interaction-corrected (SIC) pseudopotentials that take atomic SIC contributions into account. In this way translational symmetry of the Hamiltonian is preserved. Without increasing the complexity of the numerical calculations we approximately account, in addition, for electronic relaxation in the solids by incorporating into our pseudopotentials relevant relaxation in the involved atoms. By this construction we arrive at very useful self-interaction and relaxation-corrected pseudopotentials and effective one-particle Hamiltonians which constitute the basis for ab initio LDA calculations yielding significant improvements in electronic properties of II-VI compound semiconductors and their surfaces. The procedure is computationally not more involved than any standard LDA calculation and, nevertheless, overcomes to a large extent the well-known shortcomings of ``state of the art'' LDA calculations employing standard pseudopotentials. Our results for electronic and structural properties of II-VI compounds agree with a whole body of experimental data.

  19. Crystal-Phase Control by Solution-Solid-Solid Growth of II-VI Quantum Wires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fudong; Buhro, William E

    2016-02-10

    A simple and potentially general means of eliminating the planar defects and phase alternations that typically accompany the growth of semiconductor nanowires by catalyzed methods is reported. Nearly phase-pure, defect-free wurtzite II-VI semiconductor quantum wires are grown from solid rather than liquid catalyst nanoparticles. The solid-catalyst nanoparticles are morphologically stable during growth, which minimizes the spontaneous fluctuations in nucleation barriers between zinc blende and wurtzite phases that are responsible for the defect formation and phase alternations. Growth of single-phase (in our cases the wurtzite phase) nanowires is thus favored. PMID:26731426

  20. Self-organized MBE growth of II VI epilayers on patterned GaSb substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissmann, H.; Tran Anh, T.; Rogaschewski, S.; von Ortenberg, M.

    1999-05-01

    We report on the self-organized MBE growth of II-VI epilayers on patterned and unpatterned GaSb substrates resulting in quantum wires and quantum wells, respectively. The HgSe : Fe quantum wires were grown on (0 0 1)GaSb substrates with a buffer of lattice-matched ZnTe 1- xSe x. Due to the anisotropic growth of HgSe on the A-oriented stripes roof-like overgrowth with a definite ridge was obtained. Additional Fe doping in the direct vicinity of the ridge results in a highly conductive quantum wire.

  1. Structural Fluctuations and Thermophysical Properties of Molten II-VI Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Zhu, Shen; Li, Chao; Scripa, R.; Lehoczky, Sandra L.; Kim, Y. W.; Baird, J. K.; Lin, B.; Ban, Heng; Benmore, Chris

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of the project are to conduct ground-based experimental and theoretical research on the structural fluctuations and thermophysical properties of molten II-VI compounds to enhance the basic understanding of the existing flight experiments in microgravity materials science programs as well as to study the fundamental heterophase fluctuation phenomena in these melts by: 1) conducting neutron scattering analysis and measuring quantitatively the relevant thermophysical properties of the II-VI melts (such as viscosity, electrical conductivity, thermal diffusivity and density) as well as the relaxation characteristics of these properties to advance the understanding of the structural properties and the relaxation phenomena in these melts and 2) performing theoretical analyses on the melt systems to interpret the experimental results. All the facilities required for the experimental measurements have been procured, installed and tested. It has long been recognized that liquid Te presents a unique case having properties between those of metals and semiconductors. The electrical conductivity for Te melt increases rapidly at melting point, indicating a semiconductor-metal transition. Te melts comprise two features, which are usually considered to be incompatible with each other: covalently bound atoms and metallic-like behavior. Why do Te liquids show metallic behavior? is one of the long-standing issues in liquid metal physics. Since thermophysical properties are very sensitive to the structural variations of a melt, we have conducted extensive thermophysical measurements on Te melt.

  2. Structural Fluctuation and Thermophysical Properties of Molten II-VI Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of the project is to conduct ground-based experimental and theoretical research on the structural fluctuations and thermophysical properties of molten II-VI compounds to enhance the basic understanding of the existing flight experiments in microgravity materials science programs and to study the fundamental heterophase fluctuations phenomena in these melts by: 1) Conducting neutron scattering analysis and measuring quantitatively the relevant thermophysical properties of the II-VI melts such as viscosity, electrical conductivity, thermal diffusivity and density as well as the relaxation characteristics of these properties to advance the understanding of the structural properties and the relaxation phenomena in these melts and 2) Performing theoretical analyses on the melt systems to interpret the experimental results. All the facilities required for the experimental measurements have been procured, installed and tested. A relaxation phenomenon, which shows a slow drift of the measured thermal conductivity toward the equilibrium value after cooling of the sample, was observed for the first time. An apparatus based on the transient torque induced by a rotating magnetic field has been developed to determine the viscosity and electrical conductivity of semiconducting liquids. Viscosity measurements on molten tellurium showed similar relaxation behavior as the measured diffusivity. Neutron scattering experiments were performed on the HgTe and HgZnTe melts and the results on pair distribution showed better resolution than previous reported.

  3. Fracto-mechanoluminescence induced by impulsive deformation of II-VI semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ratnesh; Dubey, Vikas; Ramrakhiani, Meera; Chandra, B P

    2015-09-01

    When II-VI semiconductors are fractured, initially the mechanoluminescence (ML) intensity increases with time, attains a maximum value Im at a time tm, at which the fracture is completed. After tm, the ML intensity decreases with time, Im increase linearly with the impact velocity v0 and IT initially increase linearly with v0 and then it attains a saturation value for a higher value of v0. For photoluminescence, the temperature dependence comes mainly from luminescence efficiency, ηo; however, for the ML excitation, there is an additional factor, rt dependent on temperature. During fracture, charged dislocations moving near the tip of moving cracks produce intense electric field, causes band bending. Consequently, tunneling of electrons from filled electron traps to the conduction band takes place, whereby the radiative electron-hole recombination give rise to the luminescence. In the proposed mechanism, expressions are derived for the rise, the time tm corresponding to the ML intensity versus time curve, the ML intensity Im corresponding to the peak of ML intensity versus time curve, the total fracto-mechanoluminescence (FML) intensity IT, and fast and slow decay of FML intensity of II-VI semiconductors. The FML plays a significant role in understanding the processes involved in biological detection, earthquake lights and mine failure. PMID:25669489

  4. Anion vacancies in II-VI chalcogenides: Review and critical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babentsov, V.; James, R. B.

    2013-09-01

    We performed critical analysis and comparison of all EPR, photo-EPR, photosensitive optical absorption, photoluminescence, and photoconductivity data taken on various Zn- and Cd-related II-VI chalcogenides compounds, such as ZnO, ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe, and CdS, CdSe, and CdTe. We developed a scheme for the electronic transitions and recombination associated with anion vacancies that is common for all these materials. This scheme explains all known facts obtained to date on quenching and excitation of the EPR signal, optical absorption, photoluminescence and photoconductivity. Based on these data we determined that the location of the energy level of the singly charged anion vacancy, VA+, is nearly equal for Zn-related II-VI materials (EC-1.0 eV) and EC+0.8 eV for Cd-related materials. For Cd-related chalcogenides most of the data were derived only from photoluminescence- and photoconductivity-spectra, so based on the available data, the position of the energy level of a singly charged anion vacancy in these materials was determined not so convincingly. Nonetheless, these materials have attracted much interest for decades because of their industrial applications as luminescent devices, laser filters and other optical elements, infrared, visible- and (X) γ-ray-detectors, solar cells, and the like.

  5. Photoluminescence quantum efficiency of various ternary II VI semiconductor solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphäling, R.; Bauer, S.; Klingshirn, C.; Reznitstsky, A.; Verbin, S.

    1998-02-01

    As a result of the spatial localization of excitons in II-VI mixed crystals the external luminescence quantum efficiency η lum is expected to be remarkably higher than in the corresponding binary compounds. To investigate this assumption we built a new experimental setup with a miniature integrating sphere fitted into a cryostat. At low temperatures in the binary systems CdS and CdSe we always found η lum ⩽ 25% in the main luminescence bands (arising from bound excitons (D 0X, A 0X) and donor—acceptor pair recombination). For the free-exciton luminescence η lum was more than two orders of magnitude less. In contrast, CdS 1- xSe x mixed crystals show η lum up to 70% in the luminescence from localized states, indicating that the nonradiative recombination is strongly suppressed for localized excitons. Other II-VI alloys (ZnSe 1- xTe x Zn 1- xCd xS and Zn 1- xCd xSe) show partly considerably lower values for η lum. The temperature dependence of η lum gives information about various activation processes to nonradiative recombination channels.

  6. Threshold in electron-beam end-pumped II-VI lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colak, S.; Khurgin, J.; Seemungal, W.; Hebling, A.

    1987-10-01

    Electron-beam end-pumped lasers from different bulk-grown II-VI compounds have been experimentally studied and compared under similar preparation and excitation conditions. The first results on electron-beam pumped CdMnTe lasers and end-pumped CdTe lasers are reported. The order of lowest to highest threshold is found to be from CdSe, ZnCdSe, CdS, CdTe, CdMnTe, and ZnSe. The comparisons between lasing conditions are used to evaluate the contribution of the intrinsic semiconductor parameters to lasing threshold. Experiments with a large number of samples indicate that the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic parameters on lasing threshold are in most cases comparable. Therefore, for most bulk II-VI lasers, the average threshold pump power density reductions with the elimination of extrinsic factors are expected to be less than several times. These findings are further supported by threshold and relative slope efficiency measurements on lasers with different output mirror couplings.

  7. Orientation-patterned II-VI semiconductor waveguides for quasi-phasematched nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, Marilyn Joy

    1999-10-01

    The ability to grow epitaxial layers of II-VI compound semiconductors on GaAs substrates, the transparency of these materials to a broad range of visible wavelengths, and their strong second order susceptibility suggest that these materials should be promising for efficient nonlinear frequency conversion by on-chip integration with III-V pump lasers. This work investigates the use of semiconductor microfabrication techniques to create II-VI waveguides with laterally-patterned crystal orientation for quasi-phasematched second harmonic generation. The fabrication of periodically-patterned <100>/<111> CdTe on <100> GaAs substrates, using epitaxial growth by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and a lithographic patterning process, is demonstrated. This process is adapted to create ZnTe/ZnSe waveguides with periodic lateral patterning of the crystal orientation. The optical properties of planar waveguides with orientation-patterned ZnTe core layers are characterized. Second harmonic generation is measured, but does not appear to be quasi-phasematched at the test wavelength. High optical losses are observed in the patterned waveguides, and the mechanism of the loss is investigated using X-ray diffractometry, atomic force microscopy, and angle-resolved scatterometry. These measurements suggest that the losses are primarily due to bulk defects in the <111>-oriented material. Waveguide patterning using <100>-oriented anti-phase domains, which have a single axis of crystal growth, is recommended in order to overcome this problem.

  8. Electrical and optical investigation on doping of II-VI compounds using radioactive isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wienecke, Marion

    2000-12-01

    Using radioactive isotopes of shallow dopants (Ag, As, Rb) as well as of native or isoelectronic elements (Se, Te, Cd, Sr) which were incorporated as host atoms and then transmuted into relevant dopants (transmutation doping) we investigated doping phenomena occurring in the wide band gap II-VI compounds CdTe, ZnTe, ZnSe and SrS by the classical methods of semiconductor physics: Hall effect, C-V and photoluminescence measurements. Thus, we could assign unambiguously defect features in electrical and photoluminescence measurements to extrinsic dopants by means of the half lives of radioactive decay. In As doped ZnSe samples we observed two states: a metastable effective mass like state and a deep state. The occurrence of the latter state is always linked with the high resistivity of As doped ZnSe crystals. The transmutation doping experiments reveal that the so-called self-compensation typical for wide band gab II-VI compounds can be overcome when the thermal treatment for dopant incorporation is time separated from its electrical activation, achieved using transmutation at room temperature. Under these conditions we found an almost one-to-one doping efficiency relative to the implanted dose. Thus, these investigations are a contribution to understanding compensation phenomena occurring due to interactions between dopants and native defects during conventional doping treatments.

  9. Bulk Growth of Wide Band Gap II-VI Compound Semiconductors by Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of physical vapor transport of II-VI semiconducting compounds was studied both theoretically, using a one-dimensional diffusion model, as well as experimentally. It was found that the vapor phase stoichiometry is critical in determining the vapor transport rate. The experimental heat treatment methods to control the vapor composition over the starting materials were investigated and the effectiveness of the heat treatments was confirmed by partial pressure measurements using an optical absorption technique. The effect of residual (foreign) gas on the transport rate was also studies theoretically by the diffusion model and confirmed experimentally by the measurements of total pressure and compositions of the residual gas. An in-situ dynamic technique for the transport rate measurements and a further extension of the technique that simultaneously measured the partial pressures and transport rates were performed and, for the first time, the experimentally determined mass fluxes were compared with those calculated, without any adjustable parameters, from the diffusion model. Using the information obtained from the experimental transport rate measurements as guideline high quality bulk crystal of wide band gap II-VI semiconductor were grown from the source materials which undergone the same heat treatment methods. The grown crystals were then extensively characterized with emphasis on the analysis of the crystalline structural defects.

  10. Growth of Wide Band Gap II-VI Compound Semiconductors by Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Sha, Yi-Gao

    1995-01-01

    The studies on the crystal growth and characterization of II-VI wide band gap compound semiconductors, such as ZnTe, CdS, ZnSe and ZnS, have been conducted over the past three decades. The research was not quite as extensive as that on Si, III-V, or even narrow band gap II-VI semiconductors because of the high melting temperatures as well as the specialized applications associated with these wide band gap semiconductors. In the past several years, major advances in the thin film technology such as Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) have demonstrated the applications of these materials for the important devices such as light-emitting diode, laser and ultraviolet detectors and the tunability of energy band gap by employing ternary or even quaternary systems of these compounds. At the same time, the development in the crystal growth of bulk materials has not advanced far enough to provide low price, high quality substrates needed for the thin film growth technology.

  11. Strong confinement effects in CdTe/MnTe quantum wells: A new strained layer binary II VI heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Q.; Pelekanos, N.; Nurmikko, A. V.; Durbin, S.; Han, J.; Sungki, O.; Menke, D.; Kobayashi, M.; Gunshor, R. L.

    1990-04-01

    A range of optical studies have been carried out on a series of single quantum wells of CdTe/MnTe. The structures appear to be nearly pseudomorphic and show evidence for robust electron-hole confinement. Exciton states have been characterized in terms of lifetime and coupling to optical phonons.

  12. Characterization of convection related defects in II-VI compound semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, August F.

    1993-01-01

    The research carried out under NAG8-913, 'Characterization of Convection Related Defects in II-VI Compound Semiconductors', was aimed at exploration of the potential of axial magnetic fields for melt stabilization when applied in Bridgman geometry to the growth of HgMnTe. The thrust of the work was directed at the experimental establishment of the limits of magnetic melt stabilization during crystal growth and at the analytical verification of the effects of stabilization on critical materials properties. The data obtained indicate noticeable stabilization effects, particularly as far as the formation of microscopic compositional inhomogeneities is concerned. The effects of magnetic fields on precipitate formation are found to be minor. Magnetic field effects were investigated for both 'Bridgman' and 'travelling heater' geometries. The research was conducted during the period from May 22 to September 30, 1992.

  13. Boîtes quantiques II-VI comme sources de photons uniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couteau, C.; Moehl, S.; Tinjod, F.; Suffczynski, J.; Romestain, R.; Vial, J.-C.; Gérard, J.-M.; Kheng, K.; Poizat, J.-P.

    2004-11-01

    Dans le cadre de l'information et de la communication quantique, la nécessité d'avoir des photons uniques monomodes et à la demande se révèle cruciale. De récents travaux théoriques ont montré la possibilité de réaliser des portes logiques quantiques n'utilisant que de l'optique linéaire. C'est dans ce contexte que s'insère notre travail sur l'élaboration et l'utilisation de boîtes quantiques semi-conductrices II-VI comme “pistolet” à photons. Des expériences de dégroupement et d'interférences à 2 photons sont les premiers pas nécessaires pour caractériser notre source.

  14. Phase transitions in Group III-V and II-VI semiconductors at high pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, S. C.; Liu, C. Y.; Spain, I. L.; Skelton, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    The structures and transition pressures of Group III-V and II-VI semiconductors and of a pseudobinary system (Ga/x/In/1-x/Sb) have been investigated. Results indicate that GaP, InSb, GaSb, GaAs and possible AlP assume Metallic structures at high pressures; a tetragonal, beta-Sn-like structure is adopted by only InSb and GaSb. The rocksalt phase is preferred in InP, InAs, AlSb, ZnO and ZnS. The model of Van Vechten (1973) gives transition pressures which are in good agreement with measured values, but must be refined to account for the occurrence of the ionic rocksalt structure in some compounds. In addition, discrepancies between the theoretical scaling values for volume changes at the semiconductor-to-metal transitions are observed.

  15. Relaxation and coherent oscillations in the spin dynamics of II-VI diluted magnetic quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungar, F.; Cygorek, M.; Tamborenea, P. I.; Axt, V. M.

    2015-10-01

    We study theoretically the ultrafast spin dynamics of II-VI diluted magnetic quantum wells in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. We extend a recent study where it was shown that the spin-orbit interaction and the exchange sd coupling in bulk and quantum wells can compete resulting in qualitatively new dynamics when they act simultaneously. We concentrate on Hg1-x-yMnxCdyTe quantum wells, which have a highly tunable Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Our calculations use a recently developed formalism which incorporates electronic correlations originating from the exchange sd-coupling. We find that the dependence of electronic spin oscillations on the excess energy changes qualitatively depending on whether or not the spin-orbit interaction dominates or is of comparable strength with the sd interaction.

  16. Mid-IR luminescence of Cr{sup 2+} : II - VI crystals in chalcogenide glass fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Mironov, Roman A; Zabezhailov, A O; Dianov, Evgenii M; Karaksina, E V; Shapashnikov, R M; Churbanov, M F

    2010-11-13

    Optical fibres have been fabricated for the first time from As{sub 2}S{sub 3} glass containing chromium-doped ZnS and ZnSe crystals, and their optical loss and luminescence spectra have been measured in the mid-IR. In the spectral range 2 - 3 {mu}m, the optical loss in the fibres is 2 - 4 dB m{sup -1}. The fibres have a broad luminescence band in the range 1.8 - 3 {mu}m, with a maximum near 1.9 {mu}m, which is due to Cr{sup 2+} {sup 5}E - {sup 5}T{sub 2} intracentre transitions in the II - VI host. (fibre optics)

  17. Crystal Growth of II-VI Semiconducting Alloys by Directional Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, Sandor L.; Szofran, Frank R.; Su, Ching-Hua; Cobb, Sharon D.; Scripa, Rosalia A.; Sha, Yi-Gao

    1999-01-01

    This research study is investigating the effects of a microgravity environment during the crystal growth of selected II-VI semiconducting alloys on their compositional, metallurgical, electrical and optical properties. The on-going work includes both Bridgman-Stockbarger and solvent growth methods, as well as growth in a magnetic field. The materials investigated are II-VI, Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Te, and Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Se, where x is between 0 and 1 inclusive, with particular emphasis on x-values appropriate for infrared detection and imaging in the 5 to 30 micron wavelength region. Wide separation between the liquidus and solidus of the phase diagrams with consequent segregation during solidification and problems associated with the high volatility of one of the components (Hg), make the preparation of homogeneous, high-quality, bulk crystals of the alloys an extremely difficult nearly an impossible task in a gravitational environment. The three-fold objectives of the on-going investigation are as follows: (1) To determine the relative contributions of gravitationally-driven fluid flows to the compositional redistribution observed during the unidirectional crystal growth of selected semiconducting solid solution alloys having large separation between the liquidus and solidus of the constitutional phase diagram; (2) To ascertain the potential role of irregular fluid flows and hydrostatic pressure effects in generation of extended crystal defects and second-phase inclusions in the crystals; and, (3) To obtain a limited amount of "high quality" materials needed for bulk crystal property characterizations and for the fabrication of various device structures needed to establish ultimate material performance limits. The flight portion of the study was to be accomplished by performing growth experiments using the Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) manifested to fly on various Spacelab missions.

  18. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells/stabilization and optimization of II-VI semiconductors. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Noufi, R.; Tench, D.; Warren, L.

    1980-05-01

    The overall goal of this program is to provide the basis for designing a practical electrochemical solar cell based on the II-VI compound semiconductors. Emphasis is on developing new electrolyte redox sytems and electrode surface modifications which will stabilize the II-VI compounds against photodissolution without seriously degrading the long-term solar response. The bulk electrode material properties are also being optimized to provide the maximum solar conversion efficiency and greatest inherent electrode stability. Stabilization of n-CdSe against photodissolution has been achieved for the methanol/tetraethylammonium ferro-ferricyanide system. No degradation of the photocurrent or the electrode surface, even in the presence of traces of water, has been observed for runs up to 700 h at 6 mA/cm/sup 2/ and approx. AM1 light intensity. With higher quality single crystal CdSe, stable sort-circuit photocurrents of 15 to 17 mA/cm/sup 2/ and an open circuit voltage of 0.7 V (tungsten-halogen illumination) have been obtained, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of about 5%. Preliminary evaluation of a series of sulfur-containing 1,2-dithiolene metal complexes for stabilization of CdX photoanodes in acetonitrile solution has been completed. For the first time, a conducting polymer film (derived from pyrrole) has been electrochemically deposited on a semiconductor electrode. This could represent a breakthrough in the use of hydrophobic films to protect semiconductor photoanodes from dissolution/degradation. Mixed CdSe-CdTe solid solution electrodes were found to exhibit a minimum in both the flatband potential and the bandgap at approx. 65% CdTe. Both of these shifts would have a detrimental effect on the solar conversion efficiency.

  19. 77 FR 36579 - II-VI, Inc., Infrared Optics-Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg, PA; Leased Workers From Adecco, Carol...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... in the Federal Register on February 14, 2012 (77 FR 8281). The workers' firm is engaged in activities... Employment and Training Administration II-VI, Inc., Infrared Optics-Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg, PA; Leased...., Infrared Optics-Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg, PA; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration...

  20. All-vapor processing of p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor and ohmic contacts thereof

    DOEpatents

    McCandless, Brian E.

    2001-06-26

    An all dry method for producing solar cells is provided comprising first heat-annealing a II-VI semiconductor; enhancing the conductivity and grain size of the annealed layer; modifying the surface and depositing a tellurium layer onto the enhanced layer; and then depositing copper onto the tellurium layer so as to produce a copper tellurium compound on the layer.

  1. Preparation and properties of solid-state substitution heterojunctions in wide-gap II VI compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosyachenko, L. A.; Makhniy, V. P.

    1991-03-01

    The preparation of ZnTe-ZnSe and CdTe-CdS heterostructures using closed-tube solid-state substitution reactions is reported. The parameters for the diffusion of Te and Cd in ZnSe and for Te and Zn in CdS have been measured. The electrical characteristics of the heterojunctions in question were found to vary significantly with temperature when single crystals were annealed under vapours of the corresponding elements. The width of the graded-gap region was also found to vary with annealing temperature, thus changing the spectral response of the heterostructures. The quantum efficiency of the heterostructures was found to be between 0.6 and 0.8 electrons/quantum. An integrated high-performance device involving a scintillator and a photosensitive p - n heterojunction is proposed.

  2. Structural Fluctuations and Thermophysical Properties of Molten II-VI Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Zhu, S.; Li, C.; Scripa, R.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Kim, Y. M.; Baird, J. K.; Lin, B.; Ban, H.; Benmore, Chris; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the project are to conduct ground-based experimental and theoretical research on the structural fluctuations and thermophysical properties of molten II-VI compounds to enhance the basic understanding of the existing flight experiments in microgravity materials science programs as well as to study the fundamental heterophase fluctuation phenomena in these melts by: 1) conducting neutron scattering analysis and measuring quantitatively the relevant thermophysical properties of the II-VI melts (such as viscosity, electrical conductivity, thermal diffusivity and density) as well as the relaxation characteristics of these properties to advance the understanding of the structural properties and the relaxation phenomena in these melts and 2) performing theoretical analyses on the melt systems to interpret the experimental results. All the facilities required for the experimental measurements have been procured, installed and tested. Thermal diffusivity of molten tellurium has been measured by a laser flash method in the temperature range of 500 C to 900 C. The measured diffusivity as a function of temperature agrees fairly well with published data. However, a relaxation phenomenon, which shows a slow drift of the measured thermal conductivity toward the equilibrium value after cooling of the melt, was observed for the first time. An apparatus based on the transient torque induced by a rotating magnetic field has been developed to determine the viscosity and electrical conductivity of semiconducting liquids. Viscosity measurements on molten tellurium showed a similar relaxation behavior to the measured diffusivity. The density and volume expansion coefficients for pure Te and HgTe melts were measured as a function of temperature using a pycnometric method. A density maximum was found for both melts but no relaxation behavior was observed. Neutron scattering experiments were performed on the HgTe and HgZnTe melts and the results on pair distribution showed

  3. Optical properties of II-VI semiconductor nanoclusters for use as phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcoxon, Jess P.; Newcomer, Paula

    2002-11-01

    The optical properties of both II-VI (direct gap) and type IV (indirect gap) nanosize semiconductors are significantly affected not only by their size, but by the nature of the chemical interface of the cluster with the embedding medium. This affects the light conversion efficiency and can alter the shape and position (i.e. the color) of the photoluminescence (PL). As the goal of our work is to embed nanoclusters into either organic or inorganic matrices for use as near UV, LED-excited phosphor thin films, understanding and controlling this interface is very important for preserving the high Q.E. of nanoclusters known for dilute solution conditions. We describe a room temperature synthesis of semiconductor nanoclusters which employs inexpensive, less toxic ionic precursors (metal salts), and simple coordinating solvents (e.g. tetrahydrofuran). This allows us to add passivating agents, ions, metal or semiconductor coatings to identical, highly dispersed bare clusters, post-synthesis. We can also increase the cluster size by heterogeneous growth on the seed nanoclusters. One of the most interesting observations for our II-VI nanomaterials is that both the absorbance excitonic features and the photoluminescence (PL) energy and intensity depend on the nature of the surface as well as the average size. In CdS, for example, the presence of electron traps (i.e Cd(II) sites) decreases the exciton absorbance peak amplitude but increases the PL nearly two-fold. Hole traps (i.e. S(II)) have the opposite effect. In the coordinating solvents used for the synthesis, the PL yield for d~2 nm, blue emitting CdSe clusters increases dramatically with sample age as the multiple absorbance features sharpen. Liquid chromatographic (LC) separation of the nanoclusters from other chemicals and different sized clusters is used to investigate the intrinsic optical properties of the purified clusters and identify which clusters are contributing most strongly to the PL. Both LC and dynamic

  4. Simulations of Liquid III-V and II-VI Semiconductors: Semiconducting versus Metallic Behavior.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlevsky, V.

    2000-03-01

    All III-V group semiconductors exhibit metallic behavior when melted. The coordination number of these materials changes from 4 in the bulk to ~ 6 in the liquid phase. With the increase of the coordination number and compositional disorder common to liquid III-V semiconductors, the covalent bonds of these materials are predominantly replaced by metallic bonds. Electron delocalization and high atomic randomization result in a large entropy change during the solidarrowliquid transition. Unlike III-V compounds, a number of II-VI semiconductors (e.g. CdTe, ZnTe and HgS) experience a semiconductorarrowsemiconductor transition upon melting. These compounds retain their fourfold coordination in the liquid phase. In our work, we perform ab initio simulations of liquid GaAs (l-GaAs) and CdTe (l-CdTe), as representatives of III-V and II-VI materials.(V. Godlevsky, J. Derby, and J.R. Chelikowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81), 4959 (1998) As opposed to the more close-packed l-GaAs, l-CdTe has an open fourfold structure. Besides the coordination number, l-CdTe also retains some of its crystalline compositional features (e.g. there are fewer ``wrong'' bond defects than in l-GaAs). In l-CdTe, the density of states has a dip at the Fermi level indicating the semiconducting character of electrical conductivity in this material. The d.c. conductivity in l-CdTe is by two orders of magnitude lower than that in l-GaAs. The small change in the structural order and electron delocalization is in good agreement with the small entropy change observed experimentally during the melting of CdTe. As the temperature increases further, l-CdTe undergoes a fourfold-sixfold transition accompanied by the disappearing of band gap. The d.c. conductivity of sixfold coordinated l-CdTe is by an order of magnitude larger than the d.c. conductivity of fourfold coordinated l-CdTe.(V. Godlevsky, M. Jain, J. Derby, and J.R. Chelikowsky, Phys. Rev. B, 60), 8640 (1999)

  5. Growth of II-VI Solid Solutions in the Presence of a Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, D. C; Motakef, S.; Dudley, M.; Matyi, R.; Volz, H.

    1999-01-01

    The application of a rotating magnetic field (RMF)in the frequency range 60-400 Hz and field strength of the order of 2-8 mT to crystal growth has received increasing attention in recent years. To take full advantage of the control of fluid flow by the forces applied by the field, the liquid column must be electrically conducting. Also, the application of RMF to the directional solidification of a column of liquid can result in complete mixing in the resultant solid. Thus, the technique of RMF is suited to solvent zones and float zones where the composition of the liquid is more readily controlled. In the work we report on, numerical modeling has been applied to II-VI systems, particularly tellurium based traveling heater techniques (THM). Results for a spectrum of field strengths and acceleration levels will be presented. These show clearly the effects of competing buoyancy forces and electromagnetic stirring. Crystals of cadmium zinc telluride and mercury cadmium telluride have been grown terrestrially from a tellurium solvent zone. The effects of the RMF during these experiments will be demonstrated with micrographs showing etch pits, white beam x-ray synchrotron topographs and triple axis x-ray diffraction.

  6. Chemical trend of exchange coupling in diluted magnetic II-VI semiconductors: Ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanier, T.; Virot, F.; Hayn, R.

    2009-05-01

    We have calculated the chemical trend of magnetic exchange parameters ( Jdd , Nα , and Nβ ) of Zn-based II-VI semiconductors ZnA ( A=O , S, Se, and Te) doped with Co or Mn. We show that a proper treatment of electron correlations by the local spin-density approximation (LSDA)+U method leads to good agreement between experimental and theoretical values of the nearest-neighbor exchange coupling Jdd between localized 3d spins in contrast to the LSDA method. The exchange couplings between localized spins and doped electrons in the conduction band Nα are in good agreement with experiment as well. But the values for Nβ (coupling to doped holes in the valence band) indicate a crossover from weak coupling (for A=Te and Se) to strong coupling (for A=O ) and a localized hole state in ZnO:Mn. This hole localization explains the apparent discrepancy between photoemission and magneto-optical data for ZnO:Mn.

  7. Syntheses and applications of Mn-doped II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Heesun; Santra, Swadeshmukul; Holloway, Paul H

    2005-09-01

    Luminescent Mn-doped II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals have been intensively investigated over the last ten years. Several semiconductor host materials such as ZnS, CdS, and ZnSe have been used for Mn-doped nanocrystals with different synthetic routes and surface passivation. Beyond studies of their fundamental properties including photoluminescence and size, these luminescent nanocrystals have now been tested for practical applications such as electroluminescent displays and biological labeling agents (biomarkers). Here, we first review ZnS:Mn, CdS:Mn/ZnS core/shell, and ZnSe:Mn nanocrystal systems in terms of their synthetic chemistries and photoluminescent properties. Second, based on ZnS:Mn and CdS:Mn/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals as electroluminescent components, direct current electroluminescent devices having a hybrid organic/inorganic multilayer structure are reviewed. Highly luminescent and photostable CdS:Mn/ZnS nanocrystals can further be used as the luminescent biomarkers and some preliminary results are also discussed here. PMID:16193951

  8. Quantum Dot Channel (QDC) FETs with Wraparound II-VI Gate Insulators: Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, F.; Lingalugari, M.; Kondo, J.; Mirdha, P.; Suarez, E.; Chandy, J.; Heller, E.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents simulations predicting the feasibility of 9-nm wraparound quantum dot channel (QDC) field-effect transistors (FETs). In particular, II-VI lattice-matched layers which reduce the density of interface states, serving as top (tunnel gate), side, and bottom gate insulators, have been simulated. Quantum simulations show FET operation with voltage swing of ~0.2 V. Incorporation of cladded quantum dots, such as SiO x -Si and GeO x -Ge, under the gate tunnel oxide results in electrical transport in one or more quantum dot layers which form a quantum dot superlattice (QDSL). Long-channel QDC FETs have experimental multistate drain current (I D)-gate voltage (V G) and drain current (I D)-drain voltage (V D) characteristics, which can be attributed to the manifestation of extremely narrow energy minibands formed in the QDSL. An approach for modeling the multistate I D-V G characteristics is reported. The multistate characteristics of QDC FETs permit design of compact two-bit multivalued logic circuits.

  9. Light emitting diodes from MOVPE-grown p- and n-doped II VI compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, W.; Hahn, B.; Stanzl, H.; Deufel, M.

    1996-02-01

    A critical review is given of the present state, the problems and the prospects of MOVPE-growth of II-VI LEDs. It is shown that MOVPE-growth on (001)GaAs substrates occurs preferentially in a three-dimensional growth mode independent of substrate preparation. ZnS xSe 1 - x grows in good quality over the whole range of composition x. Good quality of Zn xCd 1 - xSe was only obtained for low Cd-concentrations. Improvements can be expected from the use of new precursors. The n-doping of ZnSe and ZnS xSe 1 - x presents no problem when n-butylchloride is used. Carrier concentrations can be as high as n ≥ 10 18. Various nitrogen compounds have been used to achieve p-doping of ZnSe by MOVPE. We show that quite large concentrations of nitrogen can be incorporated by photoassisted MOVPE with phenylhydrazine as precursor. The nitrogen doped samples are usually highly compensated independent from the special doping procedure. Proper annealing can activate at least part of the incorporated nitrogen. The preparation of appropriate diode structures presents no special problems, however their room temperature (RT) luminescence efficiency is still low but may be considerably improved with increasing purity of precursors.

  10. General synthesis of manganese-doped II-VI and III-V semiconductor nanowires.

    PubMed

    Radovanovic, Pavle V; Barrelet, Carl J; Gradecak, Silvija; Qian, Fang; Lieber, Charles M

    2005-07-01

    A general approach for the synthesis of manganese-doped II-VI and III-V nanowires based on metal nanocluster-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition has been developed. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies of Mn-doped CdS, ZnS, and GaN nanowires demonstrate that the nanowires are single-crystal structures and homogeneously doped with controllable concentrations of manganese ions. Photoluminescence measurements of individual Mn-doped CdS and ZnS nanowires show characteristic pseudo-tetrahedral Mn2+ ((4)T1-->(6)A1) transitions that match the corresponding transitions in bulk single-crystal materials well. Photoluminescence studies of Mn-doped GaN nanowires suggest that manganese is incorporated as a neutral (Mn3+) dopant that partially quenches the GaN band-edge emission. The general and controlled synthesis of nanowires doped with magnetic metal ions opens up opportunities for fundamental physical studies and could lead to the development of nanoscale spintronic devices. PMID:16178248

  11. Benefitting from Dopant Loss and Ostwald Ripening in Mn Doping of II-VI Semiconductor Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Zhai, You; Shim, Moonsub

    2015-12-01

    Annealing or growth at high temperatures for an extended period of time is considered detrimental for most synthetic strategies for high-quality Mn-doped II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals. It can lead to the broadening of size distribution and, more importantly, to the loss of dopants. Here, we examine how ripening can be beneficial to doping in a simple "heat-up" approach, where high dopant concentrations can be achieved. We discuss the interplay of the loss of dopants, Ostwald ripening, and the clustering of Mn near the surface during nanocrystal growth. Smaller nanocrystals in a reaction batch, on average, exhibit higher undesirable band-edge photoluminescence (PL) and lower desirable dopant PL. The optimization of dopant loss and the removal of such smaller undesirable nanocrystals through Ostwald ripening along with surface exchange/passivation to remove Mn clustering lead to high Mn PL quantum yields (45 to 55 %) for ZnSxSe1-x, ZnS, CdS, and CdSxSe1-x host nanocrystals. These results provide an improved understanding of the doping process in a simple and potentially scalable synthetic strategy for achieving "pure" and bright dopant emission. PMID:26510444

  12. Benefitting from Dopant Loss and Ostwald Ripening in Mn Doping of II-VI Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, You; Shim, Moonsub

    2015-10-01

    Annealing or growth at high temperatures for an extended period of time is considered detrimental for most synthetic strategies for high-quality Mn-doped II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals. It can lead to the broadening of size distribution and, more importantly, to the loss of dopants. Here, we examine how ripening can be beneficial to doping in a simple "heat-up" approach, where high dopant concentrations can be achieved. We discuss the interplay of the loss of dopants, Ostwald ripening, and the clustering of Mn near the surface during nanocrystal growth. Smaller nanocrystals in a reaction batch, on average, exhibit higher undesirable band-edge photoluminescence (PL) and lower desirable dopant PL. The optimization of dopant loss and the removal of such smaller undesirable nanocrystals through Ostwald ripening along with surface exchange/passivation to remove Mn clustering lead to high Mn PL quantum yields (45 to 55 %) for ZnSxSe1-x, ZnS, CdS, and CdSxSe1-x host nanocrystals. These results provide an improved understanding of the doping process in a simple and potentially scalable synthetic strategy for achieving "pure" and bright dopant emission.

  13. Growth of II-VI thin-films from single-source precursors based on sterically encumbered sitel ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, J.; Seligson, A.L.; Walker, J.M.; Bourret, E.D.; Bonasia, P.J.

    1992-04-01

    We have developed a new route to MOCVD of II-VI compounds based on the use of novel single-source precursors in which the II-VI elements are combined at the molecular level in a single covalent compound. We have prepared and fully characterized a number of new derivatives of zinc, cadmium and mercury incorporating large, sterically demanding tellurolate ligands of general formula: M(sitel){sub 2} where sitel = -TeSi(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 3}. The crystalline compounds are relatively volatile and are easily manipulated under nitrogen. Several of these compounds have been tested for their suitability as precursors in the MOCVD process. Clean pyrolysis reactions and deposition of thin films were achieved. The stoichiometry of the pyrolysis reaction has been determined by analysis of the reaction by-products.

  14. Surface stability and the selection rules of substrate orientation for optimal growth of epitaxial II-VI semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Wan-Jian; Yang, Ji-Hui; Zaunbrecher, Katherine; Gessert, Tim; Barnes, Teresa; Wei, Su-Huai; Yan, Yanfa

    2015-10-05

    The surface structures of ionic zinc-blende CdTe (001), (110), (111), and (211) surfaces are systematically studied by first-principles density functional calculations. Based on the surface structures and surface energies, we identify the detrimental twinning appearing in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of II-VI compounds as the (111) lamellar twin boundaries. To avoid the appearance of twinning in MBE growth, we propose the following selection rules for choosing optimal substrate orientations: (1) the surface should be nonpolar so that there is no large surface reconstructions that could act as a nucleation center and promote the formation of twins; (2) the surface structure should have low symmetry so that there are no multiple equivalent directions for growth. These straightforward rules, in consistent with experimental observations, provide guidelines for selecting proper substrates for high-quality MBE growth of II-VI compounds.

  15. Temperature Dependence of Density, Viscosity and Electrical Conductivity for Hg-Based II-VI Semiconductor Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C.; Ban, H.; Lin, B.; Scripa, R. N.; Su, C.-H.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    The relaxation phenomenon of semiconductor melts, or the change of melt structure with time, impacts the crystal growth process and the eventual quality of the crystal. The thermophysical properties of the melt are good indicators of such changes in melt structure. Also, thermophysical properties are essential to the accurate predication of the crystal growth process by computational modeling. Currently, the temperature dependent thermophysical property data for the Hg-based II-VI semiconductor melts are scarce. This paper reports the results on the temperature dependence of melt density, viscosity and electrical conductivity of Hg-based II-VI compounds. The melt density was measured using a pycnometric method, and the viscosity and electrical conductivity were measured by a transient torque method. Results were compared with available published data and showed good agreement. The implication of the structural changes at different temperature ranges was also studied and discussed.

  16. Surface stability and the selection rules of substrate orientation for optimal growth of epitaxial II-VI semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wan-Jian; Yang, Ji-Hui; Zaunbrecher, Katherine; Gessert, Tim; Barnes, Teresa; Yan, Yanfa; Wei, Su-Huai

    2015-10-01

    The surface structures of ionic zinc-blende CdTe (001), (110), (111), and (211) surfaces are systematically studied by first-principles density functional calculations. Based on the surface structures and surface energies, we identify the detrimental twinning appearing in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of II-VI compounds as the (111) lamellar twin boundaries. To avoid the appearance of twinning in MBE growth, we propose the following selection rules for choosing optimal substrate orientations: (1) the surface should be nonpolar so that there is no large surface reconstructions that could act as a nucleation center and promote the formation of twins; (2) the surface structure should have low symmetry so that there are no multiple equivalent directions for growth. These straightforward rules, in consistent with experimental observations, provide guidelines for selecting proper substrates for high-quality MBE growth of II-VI compounds.

  17. Multi-band Bloch equations and gain spectra of highly excited II-VI semiconductor quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Girndt, A.; Jahnke, F.; Knorr, A.; Koch, S.W.; Chow, W.W.

    1997-04-21

    Quasi-equilibrium excitation dependent optical probe spectra of II-VI semiconductor quantum wells at room temperature are investigated within the framework of multi-band semiconductor Bloch equations. The calculations include correlation effects beyond the Hartree-Fock level which describe dephasing, interband Coulomb correlations and band-gap renormalization in second Born approximation. In addition to the carrier-Coulomb interaction, the influence of carrier-phonon scattering and inhomogeneous broadening is considered. The explicit calculation of single particle properties like band structure and dipole matrix elements using k {center_dot} p theory makes it possible to investigate various II-VI material combinations. Numerical results are presented for CdZnSe/ZnSe and CdZnSe/MnZnSSe semiconductor quantum-well systems.

  18. Band Offsets of III-V and II-VI Materials Studied by Temperature-Dependent Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, A. G. U.; Lao, Y. F.; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.; Krishna, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    The band offset at the interface of a heterojunction is one of the most important parameters determining the characteristics of devices constructed from heterojunction. Accurate knowledge of band offsets and their temperature dependence will allow one to simulate and predict the device performances. We present a temperature-dependent internal-photoemission spectroscopy (TDIPS) for studying the band offsets. Applications of the TDIPS into III-V and II-VI materials are discussed.

  19. II-VI compounds 1985; Proceedings of the Second International Conference, Aussois, France, March 4-8, 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marfaing, Y.; Triboulet, R.; Lunn, B.; Mullin, J. B.

    1985-08-01

    Among the topics considered concerning II-VI compounds are growth of low resistivity high-quality ZnSe, ZnS films by low-pressure metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy growth of Cd(x)Zn(1-x)S, growth of high-purity ZnSe by sublimation traveling-heater method (THM) and the characteristics of the Y and Z deep level emission line, properties of CdTe crystals grown by THM using Cd as the solvent, and liquid-phase epitaxy growth and characterization of 1.3-micron (Hg, Cd)Te layers. Also considered are the self-consistent electronic structure of vacancies in semiconductors, defects in cadmium selenide, luminescence characterization of residual impurities in CdTe grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and photoluminescence of Cd-rich Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloys with x = 0.7-1.0. Additional topics discussed are optically detected magnetic resonance studies of recombination emission in II-VI compounds, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and magnetotransport studies on the surface of CdHgTe, cadmium mercury telluride infrared detectors, and electron beam-pumped II-VI lasers.

  20. Developing Spectroscopic Ellipsometry to Study II-Vi and Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Dong

    We have constructed a rotating analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometer (RAE) to study effects of magnetic and nonmagnetic doping on the E_1 and E _1 + Delta_1 band gap energies in ZnSe-based II-VI semiconductors. To remove the natural surface oxide overlayer which distorts the intrinsic dielectric response of the sample, a chemical etching technique using dilute NH_4OH solution was developed. The successful removal of the oxide overlayer on ZnSe was confirmed via the XPS technique. For diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS), we found that the E_1 and E _1 + Delta_1 band gap energies increase with x for Zn_{1-x}Fe _{x}Se and Zn_ {1-x}Co_{x}Se, and decrease with x for Zn_{1-x} Mn_{x}Se. An sp -d direct exchange interaction model which explained the Gamma-point band gap energy of Zn _{1-x}Mn_ {x}Se was applied. The calculated band gap energies at the L-point are only consistent with Zn _{1-x}Mn_ {x}Se data. We showed that an sp-d hybridization model, which includes the location of the energy levels of the magnetic impurity d-levels can account for the concentration dependence of E_1 and E _1 + Delta_1 band gap energies of all three materials. For Zn_{x}Cd _{1-x}Se systems, all spectral features of CdSe were identified as E_0, E_0 + Delta_0, E_1, E_1 + Delta_1, E_2, and E _sp{0}{'} threshold energies from band structure calculations using a nonlocal empirical pseudopotential method. Many-body effect has to be included in the calculation of the dielectric function of CdSe to obtain good agreement with the measured spectrum. Concentration dependent spin-orbit splitting band gap Delta _1(x) is well explained by the statistical fluctuation of the alloy composition.

  1. Exciton Kinetics in Strained II-Vi Semiconductor Multiple Quantum Wells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hefetz, Yaron

    1987-09-01

    Two groups of wide gap II-VI semiconductor superlattices based on ZnSe/Zn(,1-x)Mn(,x)Se and CdTe/ZnTe were investigated using CW and time-resolved photoluminescence, excitation, reflectance, and photomodulated reflectance spectroscopy at various temperatures and under an external magnetic field. All these lattice mismatch strained layer structures were grown by MBE technique and exhibit strong excitonic photoluminescence at low temperatures. By studying the dynamics of the exciton recombination processes, the role of strain, quantum confinement and localization effects were revealed. In the CdTe/ZnTc system where the lattice mismatch is (DELTA)a/a (TURNEQ) 6% the inhomogeneously broadened ((TURN)40 mev) luminescence line is governed by excitonic localization in well width fluctuations. Exchange interactions of the carriers with the Mn('++) ions in the dilute magnetic semiconductor Zn(,1-x)Mn(,x)Se in thin film and the barrier of the MQW structures influence their optical behavior in an exernal magnetic field. "Giant" Zeeman splittings of up to (TURN)10 mev/Tesla were measured in samples with moderate Mn concentration (x = .23). Antiferromagnetic interaction reduces these splittings in samples with higher Mn concentrations. In observing the time evolution of the carrier in Zn(,1-x)Mn(,x)Se MQW we found that the capture time of these carriers into the well is on the order of 1 psec but the last stages of thermalization, exciton formations and localization is (TURN)70 ps. The fast capture of electrons and holes into the quantum wells bypass the energy transfer into the Mn internal transition that is responsible to the efficient "yellow" luminescence in ZnMnSe mixed crystals.

  2. Structural and optical properties of II-VI and III-V compound semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingyi

    This dissertation is on the study of structural and optical properties of some III-V and II-VI compound semiconductors. The first part of this dissertation is a study of the deformation mechanisms associated with nanoindentation and nanoscratching of InP, GaN, and ZnO crystals. The second part is an investigation of some fundamental issues regarding compositional fluctuations and microstructure in GaInNAs and InAlN alloys. In the first part, the microstructure of (001) InP scratched in an atomic force microscope with a small diamond tip has been studied as a function of applied normal force and crystalline direction in order to understand at the nanometer scale the deformation mechanisms in the zinc-blende structure. TEM images show deeper dislocation propagation for scratches along <110> compared to <100>. High strain fields were observed in <100> scratches, indicating hardening due to locking of dislocations gliding on different slip planes. Reverse plastic flow have been observed in <110> scratches in the form of pop-up events that result from recovery of stored elastic strain. In a separate study, nanoindentation-induced plastic deformation has been studied in c-, a-, and m-plane ZnO single crystals and c-plane GaN respectively, to study the deformation mechanism in wurtzite hexagonal structures. TEM results reveal that the prime deformation mechanism is slip on basal planes and in some cases, on pyramidal planes, and strain built up along particular directions. No evidence of phase transformation or cracking was observed in both materials. CL imaging reveals quenching of near band-edge emission by dislocations. In the second part, compositional inhomogeneity in quaternary GaInNAs and ternary InAlN alloys has been studied using TEM. It is shown that exposure to antimony during growth of GaInNAs results in uniform chemical composition in the epilayer, as antimony suppresses the surface mobility of adatoms that otherwise leads to two-dimensional growth and

  3. Exciton-Phonon Interaction Effects in II-Vi Compound Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelekanos, Nikolaos Themelis

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis, we report on two specific examples of exciton-LO phonon Frohlich interaction effects, namely, hot carrier relaxation and temperature dependent exciton linewidth broadening. These phenomena are considered in the context of quasi-two dimensional excitons in strongly polar II-VI semiconductor quantum wells. Hot-exciton luminescence phenomena are investigated in a single quantum well of ZnTe/MnTe where tunneling through thin MnTe barrier layers suppresses the formation of thermalized luminescence. For near resonant photoexcitation, the secondary emission spectrum is modulated by distinct LO-phonon peaks, which, for sufficiently high order of scattering ( >=4), behave like hot luminescence (HPL) as opposed to resonant Raman scattering. This is confirmed by time-resolved spectroscopy as well as by steady-state characteristics such as linewidth broadening and lack of polarization memory. Several novel observations are made: (1) The LO-phonon intermediated energy relaxation involves Coulomb-correlated pairs, i.e. hot excitons, as opposed to independently-relaxing free electrons and holes. (2) The additional weak disorder originating from QW thickness fluctuations plays a major role in the details of the HPL spectra. The major contribution to the ground state exciton linewidth at room temperature originates from LO phonon -intermediated exciton scattering to higher exciton states. A measure of the effect is given by the parameter Gamma_{LO} which increases with the polarity of the material and is independent of dimensionality provided that the LO phonon energy is greater than the exciton binding energy. Measurements of Gamma_{LO} are performed in two quantum well systems: CdTe/MnTe and (Zn,Cd)Se/ZnSe. In the latter system, a strong reduction of Gamma _{LO} is observed as the quantum well width becomes comparable to the three-dimensional exciton Bohr radius. This is explained in terms of a model where quasi-2D confinement effects increase the exciton binding

  4. Microwave-assisted synthesis of II-VI semiconductor micro-and nanoparticles towards sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majithia, Ravish Yogesh

    Engineering particles at the nanoscale demands a high degree of control over process parameters during synthesis. For nanocrystal synthesis, solution-based techniques typically include application of external convective heat. This process often leads to slow heating and allows decomposition of reagents or products over time. Microwave-assisted heating provides faster, localized heating at the molecular level with near instantaneous control over reaction parameters. In this work, microwave-assisted heating has been applied for the synthesis of II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals namely, ZnO nanopods and CdX (X = Se, Te) quantum dots (QDs). Based on factors such as size, surface functionality and charge, optical properties of such nanomaterials can be tuned for application as sensors. ZnO is a direct bandgap semiconductor (3.37 eV) with a large exciton binding energy (60 meV) leading to photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature. A microwave-assisted hydrothermal approach allows the use of sub-5 nm ZnO zero-dimensional nanoparticles as seeds for generation of multi-legged quasi one-dimensional nanopods via heterogeneous nucleation. ZnO nanopods, having individual leg diameters of 13-15 nm and growing along the [0001] direction, can be synthesized in as little as 20 minutes. ZnO nanopods exhibit a broad defect-related PL spanning the visible range with a peak at ~615 nm. Optical sensing based on changes in intensity of the defect PL in response to external environment (e.g., humidity) is demonstrated in this work. Microwave-assisted synthesis was also used for organometallic synthesis of CdX(ZnS) (X = Se, Te) core(shell) QDs. Optical emission of these QDs can be altered based on their size and can be tailored to specific wavelengths. Further, QDs were incorporated in Enhanced Green-Fluorescent Protein -- Ultrabithorax (EGFP-Ubx) fusion protein for the generation of macroscale composite protein fibers via hierarchal self-assembly. Variations in EGFP- Ubx˙QD composite

  5. Solidification of II-VI Compounds in a Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, D. C.; Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.; Motakef, S.; Dudley, M.; Matyi, R.

    1999-01-01

    This project is aimed at using a rotating magnetic field (RMF) to control fluid flow and transport during directional solidification of elemental and compound melts. Microgravity experiments have demonstrated that small amounts of residual acceleration of less than a micro-g can initiate and prolong fluid flow, particularly when there is a static component of the field perpendicular to the liquid solid interface. Thus a true diffusion boundary layer is not formed, and it becomes difficult to verify theories of solidification or to achieve diffusion controlled solidification. The RMF superimposes a stirring effect on an electrically conducting liquid, and with appropriate field strengths and frequencies, controlled transport of material through a liquid column can be obtained. As diffusion conditions are precluded and complete mixing conditions prevail, the technique is appropriate for traveling solvent zone or float zone growth methods in which the overall composition of the liquid can be maintained throughout the growth experiment. Crystals grown by RMF techniques in microgravity in previous, unrelated missions have shown exceptional properties. The objective of the project is two-fold, namely (1) using numerical modeling to simulate the behavior of a solvent zone with applied thermal boundary conditions and demonstrate the effects of decreasing gravity levels, or an increasing applied RMF, or both, and (2) to grow elements and II-VI compounds from traveling solvent zones both with and without applied RMFs, and to determine objectively how well the modeling predicts solidification parameters. Numerical modeling has demonstrated that, in the growth of CdTe from a tellurium solution, a rotating magnetic field can advantageously modify the shape of the liquid solid interface such that the interface is convex as seen from the liquid. Under such circumstances, the defect structure is reduced as any defects which are formed tend to grow out and not propagate. The flow

  6. Templated growth of II-VI semiconductor optical fiber devices and steps towards infrared fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazio, Pier J. A.; Sparks, Justin R.; He, Rongrui; Krishnamurthi, Mahesh; Fitzgibbons, Thomas C.; Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Baril, Neil F.; Peacock, Anna C.; Healy, Noel; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Badding, John V.

    2015-02-01

    ZnSe and other zinc chalcogenide semiconductor materials can be doped with divalent transition metal ions to create a mid-IR laser gain medium with active function in the wavelength range 2 - 5 microns and potentially beyond using frequency conversion. As a step towards fiberized laser devices, we have manufactured ZnSe semiconductor fiber waveguides with low (less than 1dB/cm at 1550nm) optical losses, as well as more complex ternary alloys with ZnSxSe(1-x) stoichiometry to potentially allow for annular heterostructures with effective and low order mode corecladding waveguiding.

  7. Ground-based research of crystal growth of II-VI compound semiconductors by physical vapor transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Gillies, D. C.; Szofran, F. R.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Su, Ching-Hua; Sha, Yi-Gao; Zhou, W.; Dudley, M.; Liu, Hao-Chieh; Brebrick, R. F.; Wang, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-based investigation of the crystal growth of II-VI semiconductor compounds, including CdTe, CdS, ZnTe, and ZnSe, by physical vapor transport in closed ampoules was performed. The crystal growth experimental process and supporting activities--preparation and heat treatment of starting materials, vapor partial pressure measurements, and transport rate measurements are reported. The results of crystal characterization, including microscopy, microstructure, optical transmission photoluminescence, synchrotron radiation topography, and chemical analysis by spark source mass spectrography, are also discussed.

  8. Quantum Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitin, Vladimir; Kochelap, Viacheslav; Stroscio, Michael A.

    1999-07-01

    Quantum Heterostructures provides a detailed description of the key physical and engineering principles of quantum semiconductor heterostructures. Blending important concepts from physics, materials science, and electrical engineering, it also explains clearly the behavior and operating features of modern microelectronic and optoelectronic devices. The authors begin by outlining the trends that have driven development in this field, most importantly the need for high-performance devices in computer, information, and communications technologies. They then describe the basics of quantum nanoelectronics, including various transport mechanisms. In the latter part of the book, they cover novel microelectronic devices, and optical devices based on quantum heterostructures. The book contains many homework problems and is suitable as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in electrical engineering, physics, or materials science. It will also be of great interest to those involved in research or development in microelectronic or optoelectronic devices.

  9. Acid-free sol-gel fabrication of glass thin films embedded with II-VI colloidal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jani, Hemang; Duan, Lingze

    2015-01-01

    II-VI colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are ideal for optical sensors thanks to their high fluorescent brightness and good size uniformity. However, embedding colloidal QDs into a glass matrix with the standard sol-gel process leads to the QDs being damaged by the acid catalyst. Here, we report an acid-free sol-gel technique, which proves to be both simple and effective in fabricating silica glass thin films embedded with commercial II-VI colloidal QDs. Octadecylamine ligands are used as a bifunctional aid to not only stabilize the QDs in solution, but also assist the formation of the SiO2 gel. We demonstrate that high-quality QD-embedded glass thin films can be developed with this technique, and our fluorescent tests indicate that, except for a small blueshift in the emission spectrum, the QDs are very well preserved through the sol-gel process. This method offers a fast and low-cost path towards thin-film QD sensors with good mechanical and thermal stabilities, which are desirable for applications involving highly focused laser beams, such as ultrafast nanophotonics.

  10. Theory of band gap bowing of disordered substitutional II-VI and III-V semiconductor alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourad, D.; Czycholl, G.

    2012-05-01

    For a wide class of technologically relevant compound III-V and II-VI semiconductor materials AC and BC mixed crystals (alloys) of the type A x B1- x C can be realized. As the electronic properties like the bulk band gap vary continuously with x, any band gap in between that of the pure AC and BC systems can be obtained by choosing the appropriate concentration x, granted that the respective ratio is miscible and thermodynamically stable. In most cases the band gap does not vary linearly with x, but a pronounced bowing behavior as a function of the concentration is observed. In this paper we show that the electronic properties of such A x B1- x C semiconductors and, in particular, the band gap bowing can well be described and understood starting from empirical tight-binding models for the pure AC and BC systems. The electronic properties of the A x B1- x C system can be described by choosing the tight-binding parameters of the AC or BC system with probabilities x and 1 - x, respectively. We demonstrate this by exact diagonalization of finite but large supercells and by means of calculations within the established coherent potential approximation (CPA) We apply this treatment to the II-VI system Cd x Zn1- x Se, to the III-V system In x Ga1- x As and to the III-nitride system Ga x Al1- x N.

  11. Monte-Carlo simulation studies of the effect of temperature and diameter variation on spin transport in II-VI semiconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishti, Sabiq; Ghosh, Bahniman; Bishnoi, Bhupesh

    2015-02-01

    We have analyzed the spin transport behaviour of four II-VI semiconductor nanowires by simulating spin polarized transport using a semi-classical Monte-Carlo approach. The different scattering mechanisms considered are acoustic phonon scattering, surface roughness scattering, polar optical phonon scattering, and spin flip scattering. The II-VI materials used in our study are CdS, CdSe, ZnO and ZnS. The spin transport behaviour is first studied by varying the temperature (4-500 K) at a fixed diameter of 10 nm and also by varying the diameter (8-12 nm) at a fixed temperature of 300 K. For II-VI compounds, the dominant mechanism is for spin relaxation; D'yakonovPerel and Elliot Yafet have been actively employed in the first order model to simulate the spin transport. The dependence of the spin relaxation length (SRL) on the diameter and temperature has been analyzed.

  12. Effect of Residual Accelerations on the Crystal Growth of II-VI Semiconductors in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, D. C.; Su, C.-H.; Szofran, F. R.; Scripa, R. N.; Cobb, S. D.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The paper compares and summarizes the effects of residual acceleration during crystal growth on the compositional variation of two II-VI solid solution binary alloys (Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te and Hg(0.84)Zn(0.16)Te). The crystals were grown by directional solidification on the second United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2) and the first United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) missions, respectively. For both alloys, changes in the direction and magnitude of the quasisteady acceleration vector (approximately 0.4- 1 mu g) caused large changes in the radial compositional distribution that demonstrates the importance of residual accelerations, even in the submicrogravity range, for large density gradients in the melt and slow solidification rates. The observed compositional variations will be correlated to changes in the radial flow velocities ahead of the solidification interface.

  13. Correlation of Schottky constants with interatomic distances of selected I-VII and II-VI compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemeier, Heribert

    2013-10-01

    The observed linear (Na-, K-halides) and near-linear (Mg-, Sr-, Zn-, Cd-, and Hg-chalcogenides) dependences of Schottky constants on reciprocal interatomic distances yield the relation logKS=((ss1/T)+is)1/d(A-B)+(si1/T)+ii, where KS is the product of metal and non-metal thermal equilibrium vacancy concentrations, and ss, is, si and ii are the group specific slope and intercept values obtained from an extended analysis of the above log KS versus 1/d(A-B) data. The previously reported linear dependences of log KS on the Born-Haber lattice energies [1] are the basis for combining the earlier results [1] with the Born-Mayer lattice energy equation to yield a new thermodynamic relationship, namely logKS=-(2.303(c(B-M)/d(A-B)-Ie), where c(B-M) is the product of the constants of the Born-Mayer equation and Ie is the metal ionization energy of the above compounds. These results establish a correlation between point defect concentrations and basic thermodynamic, coulombic, and structural solid state properties for selected I-VII and II-VI semiconductor materials.

  14. Materials and device design with III-V and II-VI compound-based diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Sato, Kazunori

    2002-03-01

    Since the discovery of the carrier induced ferromagnetism in (In, Mn)As and (Ga, Mn)As, diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) have been of much interest from the industrial viewpoint because of their potentiality as a new functional material (spintronics). In this paper, the magnetism in DMS is investigated based on the first principles calculations, and materials and device design with the DMS is proposed toward the spintronics. The electronic structure is calculated by the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method combined with the coherent potential approximation based on the local spin density approximation. We calculate the electronic structure of ferromagnetic and spin-glass DMS, and total energy difference between them is calculated to estimate whether the ferromagnetic state is stable or not. It is shown that V-, Cr- and Mn-doped III-V compounds, V- and Cr-doped II-VI compounds and Fe-, Co- and Ni-doped ZnO are promising candidates for a high-Curie temperature ferromagnet. A chemical trend in the ferromagnetism is well understood based on the double exchange mechanism [1]. Based upon this material design, some prototypes of the spintronics devices, such as a spin-FET, a photo-induced-magnetic memory and a coherent-spin-infection device, are proposed. [1] K. Sato and H. Katayama-Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39 (2000) L555, 40 (2001) L334, L485 and L651.

  15. Spectroscopy in CdTe/MnTe and ZnTe/MnTe single quantum wells; new binary wide gap II VI heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelekanos, N.; Fu, Q.; Nurmikko, A. V.; Durbin, S.; Han, J.; Sungki, O.; Menke, D.; Kobayashi, M.; Gunshor, R. L.

    1990-04-01

    With the incorporation of cubic zincblende MnTe, a range of optical studies have been carried out on single quantum wells of ZnTe/MnTe and CdTe/MnTe. By using thin MnTe barrier layers the structures appear to be nearly pseudomorphic and show evidence for good electron-hole confinement.

  16. Spectroscopy of CdTe/MnTe single quantum wells: A strained-layer II-VI heterostructure with strong electronic confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelekanos, N.; Fu, Q.; Ding, J.; Wałecki, W.; Nurmikko, A. V.; Durbin, S. M.; Han, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Gunshor, R. L.

    1990-05-01

    A range of optical studies has been carried out on a series of single quantum wells of CdTe/MnTe. The structures appear to be nearly pseudomorphic and show evidence for very effective electron-hole confinement. For thin quantum-well layers, efficient low-temperature photoluminescence up to yellow-green photon energies has been obtained. Coupling of excitons to longitudinal-optical phonons has also been measured.

  17. Vibrational properties and phase transitions in II-VI materials: lattice dynamics, ab initio studies and inelastic neutron scattering measurements.

    PubMed

    Basak, Tista; Rao, Mala N; Gupta, M K; Chaplot, S L

    2012-03-21

    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements were carried out to determine the phonon density of states of ZnSe and interpreted with lattice dynamical computations (ab initio as well as a potential model). Calculations are also reported for other II-VI compounds, ZnTe and ZnS. Vibrational (phonon spectra and Grüneisen parameters), and thermal (negative thermal expansion and non-Debye specific heat) properties have been calculated and found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. This model has been further employed to study the pressure-induced solid-solid phase transitions exhibited by these compounds and the results have been compared with experimental data. Total energy calculations for zincblende and SC16 phases of ZnSe were carried out employing the pseudopotential approach under the local density approximation (LDA) as well as the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The density functional perturbation theory is applied to study the vibrational properties of the zincblende and SC16 phases of ZnSe. An investigation of the pressure dependence of the phonon frequencies shows that the existence of the (experimentally undetected) SC16 phase as a thermodynamically stable high pressure phase is impeded due to dynamical instabilities. A detailed investigation of the polarization of phonons of different energies for the various phases of these compounds indicates that in the case of the zincblende phase the low energy modes are librational, while in the rocksalt phase the low energy modes are bending modes. Further, in ZnTe the low energy bending modes display a larger amplitude of bending than that in ZnSe and ZnS. PMID:22354098

  18. Computational structural investigation of select II-VI compounds and radtkeite (alpha-mercury(3) sulfur(2) chlorine iodine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellepack, Steven Matthew

    2000-12-01

    Computational modeling of novel materials is an increasingly powerful tool being used in the development of advanced materials and their device applications. This course of study has been undertaken to discern: (1) the present state of computational simulation of materials; (2) the present ability of computational hardware and software to model new materials; and (3) the ability to apply computational modeling to a relatively poorly studied solid state system, namely mercury(II) chalcogenide halides. Initial interest in this system was fostered by the reported tubular growth of radtkeite (alpha-Hg3S2ClI), which can display a tubular crystal habit tens of micrometers long and micrometers in diameter. To validate that the structures and energies of mercury(II) chalcogenides could be accurately modeled the pressure induced phase transitions in the HgS system were studied using ab initio DF (density functional) calculations. Select MS (M = Ca, Ba, Zn, Cd, Hg, S) compounds were modeled in the cinnabar and zinc-blende structures to discern that they could be accurately modeled. A qualitative description of the MS compounds in the cinnabar structure is provided along with reasoning concerning their relative stability. Three possible radtkeite structures were identified using a brute force methodology of powder x-ray diffraction pattern simulation and then modeled using A initio DF calculations. The cell based upon the gamma-Hg3S 2Cl2 structure was deemed as the best match. This study has validated that computational methods can be used for structural prediction of mercury(II) chalcogenides and chalcogenide halides, however certain methods produced unacceptable results. Materials application statement. This study seeks to discern halogen interactions within II--VI semiconducting materials, namely the mercury(II) chalcogenides. The strategy and methodology of the research will be to invoke computer simulations. The ultimate goal being the correlation of atomic to bulk scale

  19. Multifunctional Oxide Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Tsymbal, E Y; Dagotto, Elbio R; Eom, Professor Chang-Beom; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    This book is devoted to the rapidly developing field of oxide thin-films and heterostructures. Oxide materials combined with atomic-scale precision in a heterostructure exhibit an abundance of macroscopic physical properties involving the strong coupling between the electronic, spin, and structural degrees of freedom, and the interplay between magnetism, ferroelectricity, and conductivity. Recent advances in thin-film deposition and characterization techniques made possible the experimental realization of such oxide heterostructures, promising novel functionalities and device concepts.

  20. Molecular Model for the Radiative Dipole Strengths and Lifetimes of the Fluorescent Levels of Mn2+and Fe3+ in II-VI And III-V Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrot, R.; Boulanger, D.

    2005-06-01

    A molecular model is used to give an overall semi-phenomenological interpretation of the radiative transition probabilities (RTP) or radiative lifetimes (RL) of Mn2+ and Fe3+ in II-VI and III-V compounds. It is shown that the RTP's are primarily controlled by: (i) the mixing of the wavefunctions of the cation and of the ligands (ii) the molecular spin-orbit interaction which involves the spin-orbit coupling constants ζd of the d electrons of the cation and ζp of the p electrons of the ligands and (iii) the energies of the intermediate levels which appear in the perturbation model.

  1. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells/stabilization and optimization of II-VI semiconductors. First technical progress report, 15 April 1980-30 June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Noufi, R.; Tench, D.; Warren, L.

    1980-07-20

    The overall goal of this program is to provide the basis for designing a practical electrochemical solar cell based on the II-VI compound semiconductors. Emphasis is on developing new electrolyte redox systems and electrode surface modifications which will stabilize the II-VI compounds against photodissolution without seriously degrading the long-term solar response. The bulk electrode material properties are also being optimized to provide the maximum solar conversion efficiency and greatest inherent electrode stability. Factors limiting the short circuit current of the n-CdSe/methanol/ferro-ferricyanide system to 17.5 mA/cm/sup 2/ have been identified. The principal limiting factor is apparently specific adsorption of hexacyanoferrate species on the electrode surface which occurs at higher redox couple concentrations and slows the overall charge transfer process. Ion pairing also occurs, resulting in a low mass transport rate (smaller diffusion coefficients and increased solution viscosity), and probably enhances the degree of specific adsorption. Improvements in the performance of this system will require mitigation of the interactions between the redox species and the electrode surface, e.g., via electrolytes with reduced ion-pairing tendencies or the use of electrode surface films. Photoelectrochemically generated polypyrrole films have been shown to protect CdX photoanodes from dissolution while permitting electron exchange with the electrolyte. Current effort is directed toward improving the film adhesion and optimizing the performance characteristics.

  2. Angular dependent study on spin transport in magnetic semiconductor heterostructures with Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzanian, S. M.; Shokri, A. A.; Mikaili Agah, K.; Elahi, S. M.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate theoretically the effects of Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling (DSOC) on the spin-dependent current and shot noise through II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor/nonmagnetic semiconductor (DMS/NMS) barrier structures. The calculation of transmission probability is based on an effective mass quantum-mechanical approach in the presence of an external magnetic field applied along the growth direction of the junction and also applied voltage. We also study the dependence of spin-dependent properties on external magnetic field and relative angle between the magnetizations of two DMS layers in CdTe/CdMnTe heterostructures by including the DSOC effect. The results show that the DSOC has great different influence on transport properties of electrons with spin up and spin down in the considered system and this aspect may be utilized in designing new spintronics devices.

  3. Optical phonon modes of III-V nanoparticles and indium phosphide/II-VI core-shell nanoparticles: A Raman and infrared study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manciu, Felicia Speranta

    The prospects for realizing efficient nanoparticle light emitters in the visible/near IR for communications and bio-medical applications have benefited from progress in chemical fabrication of nanoparticles. III-V semiconductor nanopaticles such as GaP and InP are promising materials for the development of "blue" and "green" emitters, respectively, due to their large effective bandgaps. Enhanced emission efficiency has been achieved for core-shell nanoparticles, since inorganic shell materials increase electronic tunability and may decrease surface defects that often occur for nanoparticles capped with organic molecules. Also, the emission wavelength of InP nanoparticle cores can be tuned from green to red by changing the shell material in InP/II-VI core-shell nanoparticles. Investigations of phonon modes in nanocrystals are of both fundamental and applied interest. In the former case the optical phonon modes, such as surface/interface modes, are dependent on the nanoparticle dimensions, and also can provide information about dynamical properties of the nanoparticles and test the validity of various theoretical approaches. In the latter case the vibronic properties of nanoparticle emitters are controlled by confined phonons and modifications of the electron-phonon interaction by the confinement. Thus, the objective of the present thesis is the detailed study of the phonon modes of III-V nanoparticles (GaP and InP) and InP/II-VI core-shell nanoparticles by IR absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies, and an elucidation of their complex vibrational properties. With the exception of three samples (two GaP and one InP), all samples were synthesized by a novel colloidal chemistry method, which does not requires added surfactant, but rather treatment of the corresponding precursors in octadecene noncoordinative solvent. Sample quality was characterized by ED, TEM and X-ray diffraction. Based on a comparison with a dielectric continuum model, the observed features

  4. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells stabilization and optimization of II-VI semiconductors. Third technical progress report, 1 October 1980 to 31 December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Noufi, R.; Tench, D.; Warren, L.

    1981-01-20

    A program to provide the basis for designing a practical electrochemical solar cell based on the II-VI compound semiconductors is described. Emphasis is on developing new electrolyte redox systems and electrode surface modifications which will stabilize the II-VI compounds against photodissolution without seriously degrading the long-term solar response. Work on redox couple stabilization of n-CdX photoanodes has focused on fast metal-based one-electron couples in various nonaqueous solvents which represent an extension of work with the methanol/ferro-ferricyanide system, which, although stabilizing for n-CdSe photoanodes, has been found to be photolytically unstable. Very promising results which were obtained for the FeCl/sub 4//sup 1-/2-/ couple in acetonitrile suggest that related chloro-couples should be considered, including the colorless two-electron tin (II, IV) and antimony (III, V) systems. Conducting polymer films of polyrrole photoelectrochemically deposited onto n-type semiconductors were previously shown to protect these electrode materials from photodecomposition while permitting electron exchange with the electrolyte, but poor adhesion has remained a key problem. Recently, improved adhesion has been attained for roughened semiconductor surfaces. It now appears that polypyrrole films are to some extent permeable to solvent/solute species since the film stability depends on the nature of the redox electrolyte, and semiconductor decomposition products seem to form underneath the film in some cases. One possibility for circumventing this problem is to incorporate larger species, e.g., phthalocyanine dyes, within the film matrix.

  5. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells/stabilization and optimization of II-VI semiconductors. Third technical progress report, 1 October-31 December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Nouffi, R.; Tench, D.; Warren, L.

    1980-01-20

    The overall goal of this program is to provide the basis for designing a practical electrochemical solar cell based on the II-VI compound semiconductors. Emphasis is on developing new electrolyte redox systems and electrode surface modifications which will stabilize the II-VI compounds against photodissolution without seriously degrading the long-term solar response. The bulk electrode material properties are also being optimized to provide the maximum solar conversion efficiency and greatest inherent electrode stability. Stabilization of n-CdSe against photodissolution has been achieved for the methanol/tetraethylammonium ferro-ferricyanide system. No degradation of the photocurrent or the electrode surface, even in the presence of traces of water, has been observed for runs up to 700 h at 6 mA/cm/sup 2/ and AM1 light intensity. In recent studies with higher quality single crystal CdSe as well as polycrystalline CdTe-CdSe photoanodes, stable photocurrents of 7.5 mA/cm/sup 2/, corresponding to 4.4% conversion efficiency have been obtained. Through the use of highly purified ferro-ferricyanide electrolytes and/or organic dications, higher conversion efficiencies should be attainable. Preliminary evaluation of a series of sulfur-containing 1,2-dithiolene metal complexes for stabilization of CdX (X=Se, Te, or S) photoanodes in acetonitrile solution has been completed. In certain cases, effective hole capture is indicated and favorable negative shifts in the flatband potentials have been observed. A conducting polymer film (derived from pyrrole) has been electrochemically deposited on a semiconductor electrode. These electrochemically generated polymer films seem to be exceptionally stable and adherent. Studies of the cyanide ion as an electron-transfer mediator in aqueous Fe(CN)/sub 6//sup 3 -///sup 4 -/ electrolytes, and new directions for chemical modification of CdX electrodes are also discussed.

  6. EDITORIAL: Focus on Advanced Semiconductor Heterostructures for Optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Markus C.; Capasso, Federico; Larsson, Anders; Pessa, Markus

    2009-12-01

    Semiconductor heterostructures are the basic materials underlying optoelectronic devices, particularly lasers and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Made from various III-V-, II-VI-, SiGe- and other compound semiconductors, modern semiconductor devices are available for the generation, detection and modulation of light covering the entire ultra-violet to far-infrared spectral region. Recent approaches that introduced multilayer heterostructures tailored on the lower nanometre scale made possible artificial semiconductors with new properties, such as extended wavelength coverage, that enabled new applications. Together with ongoing progress on wide-gap semiconductors, the optical wavelengths accessible by semiconductor devices are steadily expanding towards the short-wavelength ultra-violet regime, as well as further into the far-infrared and terahertz spectral regions. It is the aim of this focus issue to present cutting-edge research topics on the most recent optoelectronic material and device developments in this field using advanced semiconductor heterostructures. Focus on Advanced Semiconductor Heterostructures for Optoelectronics Contents Theoretical and experimental investigations of the limits to the maximum output power of laser diodes H Wenzel, P Crump, A Pietrzak, X Wang, G Erbert and G Tränkle GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices H Machhadani, P Kandaswamy, S Sakr, A Vardi, A Wirtmüller, L Nevou, F Guillot, G Pozzovivo, M Tchernycheva, A Lupu, L Vivien, P Crozat, E Warde, C Bougerol, S Schacham, G Strasser, G Bahir, E Monroy and F H Julien Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single-quantum-well phonon extraction/injection stage Maria I Amanti, Giacomo Scalari, Romain Terazzi, Milan Fischer, Mattias Beck, Jérôme Faist, Alok Rudra, Pascal Gallo and Eli Kapon Structural and optical characteristics of GaN/ZnO coaxial nanotube heterostructure arrays for light-emitting device applications Young Joon Hong, Jong-Myeong Jeon, Miyoung

  7. Investigation of p-side contact layers for II-VI compound semiconductor optical devices fabricated on InP substrates by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamatsu, Shingo; Nomura, Ichirou; Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Kishino, Katsumi

    2015-09-01

    N-doped p-type ZnTe and ZnSeTe contact layers were investigated to evaluate which is more suitable for use in II-VI compound semiconductor optical devices on InP substrates. Contact resistances (Rc) between the contact layers and several electrode materials (Pd/Pt/Au, Pd/Au, and Au) were measured by the circular transmission line model (c-TLM) method using p-n diode samples grown on InP substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The lowest Rc (6.5×10-5 Ω cm2) was obtained in the case of the ZnTe contact and Pd/Pt/Au electrode combination, which proves that the combination is suitable for obtaining low Rc. Yellow light-emitting diode devices with a ZnTe and ZnSeTe p-contact layer were fabricated by MBE to investigate the effect of different contact layers. The devices were characterized under direct current injections at room temperature. Yellow emission at around 600 nm was observed for each device. Higher emission intensity and lower slope resistance were obtained for the device with the ZnTe contact layer and Pd/Pt/Au electrode compared with other devices. These device performances are ascribed to the low Rc of the ZnTe contact and Pd/Pt/Au electrode combination.

  8. Study by ESI-FTICRMS and ESI-FTICRMS(n) of zinc and cadmium thiophenolate complexes used as precursors for the synthesis of II-VI nanosemiconductors.

    PubMed

    Arl, Didier; Aubriet, Frédéric; Gaumet, Jean-Jacques

    2009-05-01

    [M(4)(SC(6)H(5))(10)][(CH(3))N](2), [M(10)L(4)(SC(6)H(5))(16)][(CH(3))N](4) and [Cd(17)S(4)(SC(6)H(5))(28)][(CH(3))N](2)(M = Cd or Zn, and L = S or Se) zinc and cadmium thiophenolates have been studied by electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICRMS) and tandem ESI-FTICRMS (ESI-FTICRMS(n)). ESI-FTICRMS demonstrated its ability to characterize and study such compounds, which may be used as precursors of II-VI nanomaterials. The obtained mass spectrum has been found to be highly relevant of the investigated thiophenolate and the fragmentation behavior of some of the detected ions is indicative of its stability. More specifically, it has been demonstrated that ESI in-source activation or fragmentation experiments conducted in the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS) cell induced the formation of a very stable entity, which corresponds to the general formula M(4)L(4) (M = Zn or Cd and L = S or Se). The elimination of SC(6)H(5)(-) and/or M(SC(6)H(5))(2) moieties by various activation processes from the studied thiophenolates led systematically to this structure. PMID:19165817

  9. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  10. Carrier-impurity spin transfer dynamics in paramagnetic II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductors in the presence of a wave-vector-dependent magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cygorek, M.; Tamborenea, P. I.; Axt, V. M.

    2016-05-01

    Quantum kinetic equations of motion for carrier and impurity spins in paramagnetic II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductors in a k -dependent effective magnetic field are derived, where the carrier-impurity correlations are taken into account. In the Markov limit, rates for the electron-impurity spin transfer can be derived for electron spins parallel and perpendicular to the impurity spins corresponding to measurable decay rates in Kerr experiments in Faraday and Voigt geometry. Our rigorous microscopic quantum kinetic treatment automatically accounts for the fact that, in an individual spin flip-flop scattering process, a spin flip of an electron is necessarily accompanied by a flop of an impurity spin in the opposite direction and the corresponding change of the impurity Zeeman energy influences the final energy of the electron after the scattering event. This shift in the electron energies after a spin flip-flop scattering process, which usually has been overlooked in the literature, turns out to be especially important in the case of extremely diluted magnetic semiconductors in an external magnetic field. As a specific example for a k -dependent effective magnetic field the effects of a Rashba field on the dynamics of the carrier-impurity correlations in a Hg1 -x -yCdyMnxTe quantum well are described. It is found that, although accounting for the Rashba interaction in the dynamics of the correlations leads to a modified k -space dynamics, the time evolution of the total carrier spin is not significantly influenced. Furthermore, a connection between the present theory and the description of collective carrier-impurity precession modes is presented.

  11. Pressure-induced phonon freezing in the ZnSeS II-VI mixed crystal: phonon-polaritons and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Hajj Hussein, R; Pagès, O; Polian, A; Postnikov, A V; Dicko, H; Firszt, F; Strzałkowski, K; Paszkowicz, W; Broch, L; Ravy, S; Fertey, P

    2016-05-25

    Near-forward Raman scattering combined with ab initio phonon and bond length calculations is used to study the 'phonon-polariton' transverse optical modes (with mixed electrical-mechanical character) of the II-VI ZnSe1-x S x mixed crystal under pressure. The goal of the study is to determine the pressure dependence of the poorly-resolved percolation-type Zn-S Raman doublet of the three oscillator [1  ×  (Zn-Se), 2  ×  (Zn-S)] ZnSe0.68S0.32 mixed crystal, which exhibits a phase transition at approximately the same pressure as its two end compounds (~14 GPa, zincblende  →  rocksalt), as determined by high-pressure x-ray diffraction. We find that the intensity of the lower Zn-S sub-mode of ZnSe0.68S0.32, due to Zn-S bonds vibrating in their own (S-like) environment, decreases under pressure (Raman scattering), whereas its frequency progressively converges onto that of the upper Zn-S sub-mode, due to Zn-S vibrations in the foreign (Se-like) environment (ab initio calculations). Ultimately, only the latter sub-mode survives. A similar 'phonon freezing' was earlier evidenced with the well-resolved percolation-type Be-Se doublet of Zn1-x Be x Se (Pradhan et al 2010 Phys. Rev. B 81 115207), that exhibits a large contrast in the pressure-induced structural transitions of its end compounds. We deduce that the above collapse/convergence process is intrinsic to the percolation doublet of a short bond under pressure, at least in a ZnSe-based mixed crystal, and not due to any pressure-induced structural transition. PMID:27114448

  12. Microbial toxicity of ionic species leached from the II-VI semiconductor materials, cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium selenide (CdSe).

    PubMed

    Ramos-Ruiz, Adriana; Zeng, Chao; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Teixeira, Luiz H; Field, Jim A

    2016-11-01

    This work investigated the microbial toxicity of soluble species that can potentially be leached from the II-VI semiconductor materials, cadmium telluride and cadmium selenide. The soluble ions tested included: cadmium, selenite, selenate, tellurite, and tellurate. Their toxicity towards the acetoclastic and hydrogen-consuming trophic groups in a methanogenic consortium as well as towards a bioluminescent marine bacterium, Aliivibrio fischeri (Microtox(®) test), was assessed. The acetoclastic methanogenic activity was the most affected as evidenced by the low 50% inhibiting concentrations (IC50) values obtained of 8.6 mg L(-1) for both cadmium and tellurite, 10.2 mg L(-1) for tellurate, and 24.1 mg L(-1) for selenite. Both tellurium oxyanions caused a strong inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis at low concentrations, each additional increment in concentration provided progressively less inhibition increase. In the case of the hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, cadmium followed by selenite caused the greatest inhibition with IC50 values of 2.9 and 18.0 mg L(-1), respectively. Tellurite caused a moderate effect as evidenced by a 36.8% inhibition of the methanogenic activity at the highest concentration tested, and a very mild effect of tellurate was observed. Microtox(®) analyses showed a noteworthy inhibition of cadmium, selenite, and tellurite with 50% loss in bioluminescence after 30 min of exposure of 5.5, 171.1, and 458.6 mg L(-1), respectively. These results suggest that the leaching of cadmium, tellurium and selenium ions from semiconductor materials can potentially cause microbial toxicity. PMID:27494313

  13. Preface: Heterostructure terahertz devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhii, Victor

    2008-08-01

    The terahertz (THz) range of frequencies is borderline between microwave electronics and photonics. It corresponds to the frequency bands of molecular and lattice vibrations in gases, fluids, and solids. The importance of the THz range is in part due to numerous potential and emerging applications which include imaging and characterization, detection of hazardous substances, environmental monitoring, radio astronomy, covert inter-satellite communications, as well as biological and medical applications. During the last decades marked progress has been achieved in the development, fabrication, and practical implementation of THz devices and systems. This is primarily owing to the utilization of gaseous and free electron lasers and frequency converters using nonlinear optical phenomena as sources of THz radiation. However, such devices and hence the systems based on them are fairly cumbersome. This continuously stimulates an extensive search for new compact and efficient THz sources based on semiconductor heterostructures. Despite tremendous efforts lasting several decades, the so-called THz gap unbridged by semiconductor heterostructure electron and optoelectron devices still exists providing appropriate levels of power of the generated THz radiation. The invention and realization of quantum cascade lasers made of multiple quantum-well heterostructures already resulted in the partial solution of the problem in question, namely, in the successful coverage of the high-frequency portion of the THz gap (2-3 THz and higher). Further advancement to lower frequencies meets, perhaps, fundamental difficulties. All this necessitates further extensive theoretical and experimental studies of more or less traditional and novel semiconductor heterostructures as a basis for sources of THz radiation. This special issue includes 11 excellent original papers submitted by several research teams representing 14 institutions in Europe, America, and Asia. Several device concepts which

  14. Heterostructure terahertz devices.

    PubMed

    Ryzhii, Victor

    2008-08-19

    The terahertz (THz) range of frequencies is borderline between microwave electronics and photonics. It corresponds to the frequency bands of molecular and lattice vibrations in gases, fluids, and solids. The importance of the THz range is in part due to numerous potential and emerging applications which include imaging and characterization, detection of hazardous substances, environmental monitoring, radio astronomy, covert inter-satellite communications, as well as biological and medical applications. During the last decades marked progress has been achieved in the development, fabrication, and practical implementation of THz devices and systems. This is primarily owing to the utilization of gaseous and free electron lasers and frequency converters using nonlinear optical phenomena as sources of THz radiation. However, such devices and hence the systems based on them are fairly cumbersome. This continuously stimulates an extensive search for new compact and efficient THz sources based on semiconductor heterostructures. Despite tremendous efforts lasting several decades, the so-called THz gap unbridged by semiconductor heterostructure electron and optoelectron devices still exists providing appropriate levels of power of the generated THz radiation. The invention and realization of quantum cascade lasers made of multiple quantum-well heterostructures already resulted in the partial solution of the problem in question, namely, in the successful coverage of the high-frequency portion of the THz gap (2-3 THz and higher). Further advancement to lower frequencies meets, perhaps, fundamental difficulties. All this necessitates further extensive theoretical and experimental studies of more or less traditional and novel semiconductor heterostructures as a basis for sources of THz radiation. This special issue includes 11 excellent original papers submitted by several research teams representing 14 institutions in Europe, America, and Asia. Several device concepts which

  15. Influence of the electron-phonon interaction on the temperature dependence of the phonon mode frequency in the II-VI compound solid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Woźny, M. Cebulski, J.; Sheregii, E. M.; Marcelli, A.; Piccinini, M.

    2015-01-14

    We present an experimental investigation of the temperature dependence of the TO-phonon mode frequencies for the HgTe-based II-VI semiconductor solid solutions. In the case of the ternary Hg{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te solid solution was shown a discontinuity in the temperature dependence of the HgTe-like T{sub 0}-mode and of the ZnTe-like T{sub 1}-mode, similar to the Hg{sub 0.85}Cd{sub 0.15}Te system [Sheregii et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 045504 (2009)]. A generalization of the theoretical temperature shift of the phonon mode frequency as analytic equation is derived that includes both the anharmonic contribution and the electron-phonon e-p interaction which in this case is returnable—the electron subsystem effect on the phonon one. Data show that our equation satisfactorily describes the temperature shift of both Hg{sub 0.85}Cd{sub 0.15}Te and Hg{sub 0.90}Zn{sub 0.10}Te containing Dirac point (E{sub g} ≡ Γ{sub 6} – Γ{sub 8} = 0) although one of the two constants describing the anharmonic shift of the HgTe-like mode should be positive what is abnormal too. In the case of the Hg{sub 0.80}Cd{sub 0.20}Te and Hg{sub 0.763}Zn{sub 0.237}Te solid solution, the role of the returnable e-p contribution is negligible but a positive temperature shift for the HgTe-like modes occurs. This result does not allow to explain the positive temperature shift of these modes merely by the contribution of the (e-p) interaction. Indeed, the relativistic contribution to the chemical bonds induces an abnormal temperature shift of the electron states in Hg-based semiconductors—the effect is expected since the Hg d spin-orbit split contribution to chemical bonds may lead to an abnormal temperature shift of the HgTe-like modes.

  16. Strongly-correlated heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Electronic phase behavior in correlated-electron systems is a fundamental problem of condensed matter physics. The change in the phase behavior near surfaces and interfaces, i.e., {\\em electronic reconstruction}, is therefore the fundamental issue of the correlated-electron surface or interface science. In addition to basic science, understanding of such a phase behavior is of crucial importance for potential devices exploiting the novel properties of the correlated systems. In this article, we present a general overview of the field, and then discuss the recent theoretical progress mainly focusing on the correlation effects. We illustrate the general concept of {\\em electronic reconstruction} by studying model heterostructures consisting of strongly-correlated systems. Future directions for research are also discussed.

  17. General Considerations of the Electrostatic Boundary Conditions in Oxide Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Takuya

    2011-08-19

    When the size of materials is comparable to the characteristic length scale of their physical properties, novel functionalities can emerge. For semiconductors, this is exemplified by the 'superlattice' concept of Esaki and Tsu, where the width of the repeated stacking of different semiconductors is comparable to the 'size' of the electrons, resulting in novel confined states now routinely used in opto-electronics. For metals, a good example is magnetic/non-magnetic multilayer films that are thinner than the spin-scattering length, from which giant magnetoresistance (GMR) emerged, used in the read heads of hard disk drives. For transition metal oxides, a similar research program is currently underway, broadly motivated by the vast array of physical properties that they host. This long-standing notion has been recently invigorated by the development of atomic-scale growth and probe techniques, which enables the study of complex oxide heterostructures approaching the precision idealized in Fig. 1(a). Taking the subset of oxides derived from the perovskite crystal structure, the close lattice match across many transition metal oxides presents the opportunity, in principle, to develop a 'universal' heteroepitaxial materials system. Hand-in-hand with the continual improvements in materials control, an increasingly relevant challenge is to understand the consequences of the electrostatic boundary conditions which arise in these structures. The essence of this issue can be seen in Fig. 1(b), where the charge sequence of the sublayer 'stacks' for various representative perovskites is shown in the ionic limit, in the (001) direction. To truly 'universally' incorporate different properties using different materials components, be it magnetism, ferroelectricity, superconductivity, etc., it is necessary to access and join different charge sequences, labelled here in analogy to the designations 'group IV, III-V, II-VI' for semiconductors. As we will review, interfaces between

  18. Revealing high room and low temperatures mobilities of 2D holes in a strained Ge quantum well heterostructures grown on a standard Si(0 0 1) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myronov, Maksym; Morrison, Christopher; Halpin, John; Rhead, Stephen; Foronda, Jamie; Leadley, David

    2015-08-01

    Carrier mobility is one of the most important parameters of any semiconductor material, determining its suitability for applications in a large variety of electronic devices including field effect transistors (FETs). Today the capabilities of modern planar Si FET devices are almost exhausted and researchers are seeking either new device architectures or new materials. Here we report an extremely high room temperature (at 293 K) 2D hole gas (2DHG) drift mobility of 4500 cm2 V-1 s-1 at a carrier density of 1.2 × 1011 cm-2 obtained in a compressively strained Ge quantum well (QW) heterostructure, grown by an industrial type chemical vapor deposition system on a standard Si(0 0 1) substrate. The low-temperature Hall mobility and carrier density of this structure, measured at 333 mK, are 777,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 1.9 × 1011 cm-2, respectively. These hole mobilities are the highest not only among the group-IV Si and Ge based semiconductors, but also among p-type III-V and II-VI materials. The obtained room temperature mobility is substantially higher than those reported so far in strained Ge QW heterostructures and reveals a huge potential for further applications of this material in a wide variety of electronic devices.

  19. Assembly of quasicrystalline photonic heterostructures

    DOEpatents

    Grier, David G.; Roichman, Yael; Man, Weining; Chaikin, Paul Michael; Steinhardt, Paul Joseph

    2011-07-19

    A method and system for assembling a quasicrystalline heterostructure. A plurality of particles is provided with desirable predetermined character. The particles are suspended in a medium, and holographic optical traps are used to position the particles in a way to achieve an arrangement which provides a desired property.

  20. Assembly of quasicrystalline photonic heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Grier, David G.; Roichman, Yael; Man, Weining; Chaikin, Paul Michael; Steinhardt, Paul Joseph

    2013-03-12

    A method and system for assembling a quasicrystalline heterostructure. A plurality of particles is provided with desirable predetermined character. The particles are suspended in a medium, and holographic optical traps are used to position the particles in a way to achieve an arrangement which provides a desired property.

  1. Carbon Nanotube-Nanocrystal Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, X.; Wong, S.

    2009-04-01

    The importance of generating carbon nanotube-nanoparticle heterostructures is that these composites ought to take advantage of and combine the unique physical and chemical properties of both carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles in one discrete structure. These materials have potential applicability in a range of diverse fields spanning heterogeneous catalysis to optoelectronic device development, of importance to chemists, physicists, materials scientists, and engineers. In this critical review, we present a host of diverse, complementary strategies for the reliable synthesis of carbon nanotube-nanoparticle heterostructures using both covalent as well as non-covalent protocols, incorporating not only single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes but also diverse classes of metallic and semiconducting nanoparticles.

  2. OPENING ADDRESS: Heterostructures in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmeiss, Hermann G.

    1996-01-01

    Good morning, Gentlemen! On behalf of the Nobel Foundation, I should like to welcome you to the Nobel Symposium on "Heterostructures in Semiconductors". It gives me great pleasure to see so many colleagues and old friends from all over the world in the audience and, in particular, to bid welcome to our Nobel laureates, Prof. Esaki and Prof. von Klitzing. In front of a different audience I would now commend the scientific and technological importance of heterostructures in semiconductors and emphatically emphasise that heterostructures, as an important contribution to microelectronics and, hence, information technology, have changed societies all over the world. I would also mention that information technology is one of the most important global key industries which covers a wide field of important areas each of which bears its own character. Ever since the invention of the transistor, we have witnessed a fantastic growth in semiconductor technology, leading to more complex functions and higher densities of devices. This development would hardly be possible without an increasing understanding of semiconductor materials and new concepts in material growth techniques which allow the fabrication of previously unknown semiconductor structures. But here and today I will not do it because it would mean to carry coals to Newcastle. I will therefore not remind you that heterostructures were already suggested and discussed in detail a long time before proper technologies were available for the fabrication of such structures. Now, heterostructures are a foundation in science and part of our everyday life. Though this is certainly true, it is nevertheless fair to say that not all properties of heterostructures are yet understood and that further technologies have to be developed before a still better understanding is obtained. The organisers therefore hope that this symposium will contribute not only to improving our understanding of heterostructures but also to opening new

  3. Carrier transport and recombination in MOVPE-grown CdTe/ZnTe/GaAs and ZnTe/GaAs heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizeikis, V.; Jarašiunas, K.; Lovergine, N.; Prete, P.

    2000-06-01

    The carrier dynamics in metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy-grown CdTe/ZnTe/GaAs and ZnTe/GaAs heterostructures is investigated by transient laser-induced grating (TLIG) spectroscopy. TLIG measurements were performed at room temperature for different grating periods and pump excitation intensities. By best-fitting the slower part of the TLIG decay curves with a one-dimensional model we found recombination lifetime τR=1130 ps, and carrier diffusion coefficient D=29.5 cm 2/s for CdTe/ZnTe/GaAs samples and τR=1670 ps, D=32.4 cm 2/s for ZnTe/GaAs. Whilst the above lifetime values are typical for highly excited II-VI semiconductors, the diffusion coefficients are much higher than that expected for bipolar diffusion. Our D values can be explained by unipolar (n≪p) diffusion as a result of the efficient trapping of electrons in CdTe and their fast escape into GaAs for ZnTe.

  4. Synthesis of Colloidal Nanocrystal Heterostructures for High-Efficiency Light Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yifei

    Group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals, particularly those based on ZnCdS(Se), can be synthesized using well established chemical colloidal processes, and have been a subject of extensive research over the past decade. Their optical properties can be easily tuned through size and composition variations, making them very attractive for many optoelectronic applications including light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cells. Incorporation of diverse internal heterostructures provides an additional means for tuning the optical and electronic properties of conventional ZnCdS(Se) nanocrystals. Extensive bandgap and strain engineering may be applied to the resultant nanocrystal heterostructures to achieve desirable properties and enhanced performance. Despite the high scientific and practical interests of this unique class of nanomaterials, limited efforts have been made to explore their synthesis and potential device applications. This thesis focuses on the synthesis, engineering, characterization, and device demonstration of two types of CdSe-based nanocrystal heterostructures: core/multishell quantum dots (QDs) and QD quantum wells (QDQWs). Their optical properties have been tuned by bandgap and strain engineering to achieve efficient photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL).Firstly, yellow light-emitting CdSe QDs with a strain-compensated ZnS/ZnCdS bilayer shell were synthesized using the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction technique and the effects of the shell on the luminescent properties were investigated. The core/shell/shell QDs enjoyed the benefits of excellent exciton confinement by the ZnS intermediate shell and strain compensation by the ZnCdS outer shell, and exhibited 40% stronger PL and a smaller peak redshift upon shell growth compared to conventional CdSe/ZnCdS/ZnS core/shell/shell QDs with an intermediate lattice adaptor. CdSe/ZnS/ZnCdS QD-LEDs had a luminance of 558 cd/m2 at 20 mA/cm 2, 28% higher than that of CdSe/ZnCdS/ZnS QD

  5. Spin Transport in Semiconductor heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Domnita Catalina Marinescu

    2011-02-22

    The focus of the research performed under this grant has been the investigation of spin transport in magnetic semiconductor heterostructures. The interest in these systems is motivated both by their intriguing physical properties, as the physical embodiment of a spin-polarized Fermi liquid, as well as by their potential applications as spintronics devices. In our work we have analyzed several different problems that affect the spin dynamics in single and bi-layer spin-polarized two-dimensional (2D) systems. The topics of interests ranged from the fundamental aspects of the electron-electron interactions, to collective spin and charge density excitations and spin transport in the presence of the spin-orbit coupling. The common denominator of these subjects is the impact at the macroscopic scale of the spin-dependent electron-electron interaction, which plays a much more subtle role than in unpolarized electron systems. Our calculations of several measurable parameters, such as the excitation frequencies of magneto-plasma modes, the spin mass, and the spin transresistivity, propose realistic theoretical estimates of the opposite-spin many-body effects, in particular opposite-spin correlations, that can be directly connected with experimental measurements.

  6. Multilayer heterostructures and their manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, Scott R; Reese, Matthew; Rupert, Benjamin; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Clavin; Olson, Dana; Ginley, David S

    2015-11-04

    A method of synthesizing multilayer heterostructures including an inorganic oxide layer residing on a solid substrate is described. Exemplary embodiments include producing an inorganic oxide layer on a solid substrate by a liquid coating process under relatively mild conditions. The relatively mild conditions include temperatures below 225.degree. C. and pressures above 9.4 mb. In an exemplary embodiment, a solution of diethyl aluminum ethoxide in anhydrous diglyme is applied to a flexible solid substrate by slot-die coating at ambient atmospheric pressure, and the diglyme removed by evaporation. An AlO.sub.x layer is formed by subjecting material remaining on the solid substrate to a relatively mild oven temperature of approximately 150.degree. C. The resulting AlO.sub.x layer exhibits relatively high light transmittance and relatively low vapor transmission rates for water. An exemplary embodiment of a flexible solid substrate is polyethylene napthalate (PEN). The PEN is not substantially adversely affected by exposure to 150.degree. C

  7. Infrared photodetectors in heterostructure nanowires.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, H; Trägårdh, J; Persson, A I; Landin, L; Hessman, D; Samuelson, L

    2006-02-01

    We report on spectrally resolved photocurrent measurements on single self-assembled nanowire heterostructures. The wires, typically 3 microm long with an average diameter of 85 nm, consist of InAs with a 1 microm central part of InAsP. Two different sets of wires were prepared with phosphorus contents of 15+/-3% and 35+/-3%, respectively, as determined by energy-dispersive spectroscopy measurements made in transmission electron microscopy. Ohmic contacts are fabricated to the InAs ends of the wire using e-beam lithography. The conduction band offset between the InAs and InAsP regions virtually removes the dark current through the wires at low temperature. In the optical experiments, interband excitation in the phosphorus-rich part of the wires results in a photocurrent with threshold energies of about 0.65 and 0.82 eV, respectively, in qualitative agreement with the expected band gap of the two compositions. Furthermore, a strong polarization dependence is observed with an order of magnitude larger photocurrent for light polarized parallel to the wire than for light polarized perpendicular to the wire. We believe that these wires form promising candidates as nanoscale infrared polarization-sensitive photodetectors. PMID:16464040

  8. Wafer bonded epitaxial templates for silicon heterostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, Harry A., Jr. (Inventor); Zahler, James M. (Inventor); Morral, Anna Fontcubera I (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A heterostructure device layer is epitaxially grown on a virtual substrate, such as an InP/InGaAs/InP double heterostructure. A device substrate and a handle substrate form the virtual substrate. The device substrate is bonded to the handle substrate and is composed of a material suitable for fabrication of optoelectronic devices. The handle substrate is composed of a material suitable for providing mechanical support. The mechanical strength of the device and handle substrates is improved and the device substrate is thinned to leave a single-crystal film on the virtual substrate such as by exfoliation of a device film from the device substrate. An upper portion of the device film exfoliated from the device substrate is removed to provide a smoother and less defect prone surface for an optoelectronic device. A heterostructure is epitaxially grown on the smoothed surface in which an optoelectronic device may be fabricated.

  9. Ultrahigh efficiencies in vertical epitaxial heterostructure architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fafard, S.; York, M. C. A.; Proulx, F.; Valdivia, C. E.; Wilkins, M. M.; Arès, R.; Aimez, V.; Hinzer, K.; Masson, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    Optical to electrical power converting semiconductor devices were achieved with breakthrough performance by designing a Vertical Epitaxial Heterostructure Architecture. The devices are featuring modeled and measured conversion efficiencies greater than 65%. The ultrahigh conversion efficiencies were obtained by monolithically integrating several thin GaAs photovoltaic junctions tailored with submicron absorption thicknesses and grown in a single crystal by epitaxy. The heterostructures that were engineered with a number N of such ultrathin junctions yielded an optimal external quantum efficiencies approaching 100%/N. The heterostructures are capable of output voltages that are multiple times larger than the corresponding photovoltage of the input light. The individual nanoscale junctions are each generating up to ˜1.2 V of output voltage when illuminated in the infrared. We compare the optoelectronic properties of phototransducers prepared with designs having 5 to 12 junctions and that are exhibiting voltage outputs between >5 V and >14 V.

  10. Processing, mechanisms, and applications in p-zinc sulphur selenide:nitrogen/p(+) gallium arsenide heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hyesook

    This research addresses the electrical and optical properties of II-VI compound semiconductors, namely ZnSe and the family, for applications to blue-green lasers or photodetectors. To realize such devices, forming the p-n junction is crucial. The difficulty in obtaining in-situ p-type Zn(S)Se using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) or metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) prompted N-ion implantation on undoped material to obtain the required doping into ZnSSe epilayers with various ion energy and doses to study p-type properties of ZnSSe. To activate the implanted species as acceptors for ZnSSe and remove damage from ion bombardment, an optimum post annealing condition was sought through photoluminescence, current-voltage (I-V), and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. This study showed doping concentration between 10sp{17}{-}10sp{13} cmsp{-3} from C-V measurements due to a Gaussian depth profile of ion bombardment. MBE grown p-type ZnSSe on psp +GaAs (100) substrates with RF plasma in-situ doping was studied for possible application for heterostructure devices. To study the electrical properties of this material, proper Ohmic system on the psp+GaAs side were sought due to the low thermal budget. Schottky contacts were deposited on the ZnSSe surface with various metals to extract Schottky parameters. As a device application, nitrogen implanted p-i-n devices were fabricated using the optimum post annealing condition. Nitrogen ions were implanted into the MBE grown undoped ZnSe/ZnSe:Cl/nsp+GaAs (100) substractes. A quasi-uniform p-layer doping profile was obtained, using nitrogen ions at multiple energies and ion doses. These devices exhibited a responsivity of 0.025 A/W at a wavelength of 460 nm through the top 200 A thick metal contracts. Metal semiconductor photodetectors were fabricated with undoped 0.5 mum and 2.0 mum thick ZnSe epilayers on semi-insulating GaAs substrates. A dielectric multilayer hard mask technique was employed to aid in metal

  11. Ultrafast Strain Engineering in Complex Oxide Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caviglia, A. D.; Scherwitzl, R.; Popovich, P.; Hu, W.; Bromberger, H.; Singla, R.; Mitrano, M.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Kaiser, S.; Zubko, P.; Gariglio, S.; Triscone, J.-M.; Först, M.; Cavalleri, A.

    2012-03-01

    We report on ultrafast optical experiments in which femtosecond midinfrared radiation is used to excite the lattice of complex oxide heterostructures. By tuning the excitation energy to a vibrational mode of the substrate, a long-lived five-order-of-magnitude increase of the electrical conductivity of NdNiO3 epitaxial thin films is observed as a structural distortion propagates across the interface. Vibrational excitation, extended here to a wide class of heterostructures and interfaces, may be conducive to new strategies for electronic phase control at THz repetition rates.

  12. Ultrafast strain engineering in complex oxide heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Caviglia, A D; Scherwitzl, R; Popovich, P; Hu, W; Bromberger, H; Singla, R; Mitrano, M; Hoffmann, M C; Kaiser, S; Zubko, P; Gariglio, S; Triscone, J-M; Först, M; Cavalleri, A

    2012-03-30

    We report on ultrafast optical experiments in which femtosecond midinfrared radiation is used to excite the lattice of complex oxide heterostructures. By tuning the excitation energy to a vibrational mode of the substrate, a long-lived five-order-of-magnitude increase of the electrical conductivity of NdNiO(3) epitaxial thin films is observed as a structural distortion propagates across the interface. Vibrational excitation, extended here to a wide class of heterostructures and interfaces, may be conducive to new strategies for electronic phase control at THz repetition rates. PMID:22540718

  13. Complementary junction heterostructure field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Baca, Albert G.; Drummond, Timothy J.; Robertson, Perry J.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A complimentary pair of compound semiconductor junction heterostructure field-effect transistors and a method for their manufacture are disclosed. The p-channel junction heterostructure field-effect transistor uses a strained layer to split the degeneracy of the valence band for a greatly improved hole mobility and speed. The n-channel device is formed by a compatible process after removing the strained layer. In this manner, both types of transistors may be independently optimized. Ion implantation is used to form the transistor active and isolation regions for both types of complimentary devices. The invention has uses for the development of low power, high-speed digital integrated circuits.

  14. Complementary junction heterostructure field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Baca, A.G.; Drummond, T.J.; Robertson, P.J.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-12-26

    A complimentary pair of compound semiconductor junction heterostructure field-effect transistors and a method for their manufacture are disclosed. The p-channel junction heterostructure field-effect transistor uses a strained layer to split the degeneracy of the valence band for a greatly improved hole mobility and speed. The n-channel device is formed by a compatible process after removing the strained layer. In this manner, both types of transistors may be independently optimized. Ion implantation is used to form the transistor active and isolation regions for both types of complimentary devices. The invention has uses for the development of low power, high-speed digital integrated circuits. 10 figs.

  15. ARPES studies of van der Waals heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Eryin; Lu, Xiaobo; Chen, Guorui; Fedorov, Alexei V.; Zhang, Yuanbo; Zhang, Guangyu; Zhou, Shuyun

    Van der Waals heterostructures are a novel class of ``materials by design'' which are formed by stacking different two-dimensional crystals together via van der Waals interaction. The periodic potential by the Moir é superlattice can be used as a control knob for tuning the electronic properties of two dimensional materials and can induce various novel quantum phenomena. Here we report direct electronic structure studies the of a model van der Waals heterostructure using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and Ministry of Education of China.

  16. Properties of ferroelectric/ferromagnetic thin film heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Daming; Harward, Ian; Linderman, Katie; Economou, Evangelos; Celinski, Zbigniew; Nie, Yan

    2014-05-07

    Ferroelectric/ferromagnetic thin film heterostructures, SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9}/BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (SBT/BaM), were grown on platinum-coated Si substrates using metal-organic decomposition. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed that the heterostructures contain only SBT and BaM phases. The microwave properties of these heterostructures were studied using a broadband ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectrometer from 35 to 60 GHz, which allowed us to determine gyromagnetic ratio and effective anisotropy field. The FMR linewidth is as low as140 Oe at 58 GHz. In addition, measurements of the effective permittivity of the heterostructures were carried out as a function of bias electric field. All heterostructures exhibit hysteretic behavior of the effective permittivity. These properties indicate that such heterostructures have potential for application in dual electric and magnetic field tunable resonators, filters, and phase shifters.

  17. Heterostructures based on inorganic and organic van der Waals systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Lee, Chul-Ho; Zande, Arend M. van der; Han, Minyong; Cui, Xu; Arefe, Ghidewon; Hone, James; Nuckolls, Colin; Heinz, Tony F.; Kim, Philip

    2014-09-01

    The two-dimensional limit of layered materials has recently been realized through the use of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures composed of weakly interacting layers. In this paper, we describe two different classes of vdW heterostructures: inorganic vdW heterostructures prepared by co-lamination and restacking; and organic-inorganic hetero-epitaxy created by physical vapor deposition of organic molecule crystals on an inorganic vdW substrate. Both types of heterostructures exhibit atomically clean vdW interfaces. Employing such vdW heterostructures, we have demonstrated various novel devices, including graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and MoS{sub 2} heterostructures for memory devices; graphene/MoS{sub 2}/WSe{sub 2}/graphene vertical p-n junctions for photovoltaic devices, and organic crystals on hBN with graphene electrodes for high-performance transistors.

  18. Properties of ferroelectric/ferromagnetic thin film heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daming; Harward, Ian; Linderman, Katie; Economou, Evangelos; Nie, Yan; Celinski, Zbigniew

    2014-05-01

    Ferroelectric/ferromagnetic thin film heterostructures, SrBi2Ta2O9/BaFe12O19 (SBT/BaM), were grown on platinum-coated Si substrates using metal-organic decomposition. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed that the heterostructures contain only SBT and BaM phases. The microwave properties of these heterostructures were studied using a broadband ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectrometer from 35 to 60 GHz, which allowed us to determine gyromagnetic ratio and effective anisotropy field. The FMR linewidth is as low as140 Oe at 58 GHz. In addition, measurements of the effective permittivity of the heterostructures were carried out as a function of bias electric field. All heterostructures exhibit hysteretic behavior of the effective permittivity. These properties indicate that such heterostructures have potential for application in dual electric and magnetic field tunable resonators, filters, and phase shifters.

  19. A review of nano-optics in metamaterial hybrid heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mahi R.

    2014-03-01

    We present a review for the nonlinear nano-optics in quantum dots doped in a metamaterial heterostructure. The heterostructure is formed by depositing a metamaterial on a dielectric substrate and ensemble of noninteracting quantum dots are doped near the heterostructure interface. It is shown that there is enhancement of the second harmonic generation due to the surface plasmon polaritons field present at the interface.

  20. A review of nano-optics in metamaterial hybrid heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Mahi R.

    2014-03-31

    We present a review for the nonlinear nano-optics in quantum dots doped in a metamaterial heterostructure. The heterostructure is formed by depositing a metamaterial on a dielectric substrate and ensemble of noninteracting quantum dots are doped near the heterostructure interface. It is shown that there is enhancement of the second harmonic generation due to the surface plasmon polaritons field present at the interface.

  1. Superconducting cuprate heterostructures for hot electron bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, B.; Yakobov, R.; Vitkalov, S. A.; Sergeev, A.

    2013-11-01

    Transport properties of the resistive state of quasi-two dimensional superconducting heterostructures containing ultrathin La2-xSrxCuO4 layers synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electron transport exhibits strong deviation from Ohm's law, δV ˜γI3, with a coefficient γ(T) that correlates with the temperature variation of the resistivity dρ /dT. Close to the normal state, analysis of the nonlinear behavior in terms of electron heating yields an electron-phonon thermal conductance per unit area ge -ph≈1 W/K cm2 at T = 20 K, one-two orders of magnitude smaller than in typical superconductors. This makes superconducting LaSrCuO heterostructures to be attractive candidate for the next generation of hot electron bolometers with greatly improved sensitivity.

  2. Low energy consumption spintronics using multiferroic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trassin, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    We review the recent progress in the field of multiferroic magnetoelectric heterostructures. The lack of single phase multiferroic candidates exhibiting simultaneously strong and coupled magnetic and ferroelectric orders led to an increased effort into the development of artificial multiferroic heterostructures in which these orders are combined by assembling different materials. The magnetoelectric coupling emerging from the created interface between the ferroelectric and ferromagnetic layers can result in electrically tunable magnetic transition temperature, magnetic anisotropy or magnetization reversal. The full potential of low energy consumption magnetic based devices for spintronics lies in our understanding of the magnetoelectric coupling at the scale of the ferroic domains. Although the thin film synthesis progresses resulted into the complete control of ferroic domain ordering using epitaxial strain, the local observation of magnetoelectric coupling remains challenging. The ability to imprint ferroelectric domains into ferromagnets and to manipulate those solely using electric fields suggests new technological advances for spintronics such as magnetoelectric memories or memristors.

  3. Superconducting cuprate heterostructures for hot electron bolometers

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, B.; Yakobov, R.; Vitkalov, S. A.; Sergeev, A.

    2013-11-25

    Transport properties of the resistive state of quasi-two dimensional superconducting heterostructures containing ultrathin La{sub 2−x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} layers synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electron transport exhibits strong deviation from Ohm's law, δV∼γI{sup 3}, with a coefficient γ(T) that correlates with the temperature variation of the resistivity dρ/dT. Close to the normal state, analysis of the nonlinear behavior in terms of electron heating yields an electron-phonon thermal conductance per unit area g{sub e−ph}≈1 W/K cm{sup 2} at T = 20 K, one-two orders of magnitude smaller than in typical superconductors. This makes superconducting LaSrCuO heterostructures to be attractive candidate for the next generation of hot electron bolometers with greatly improved sensitivity.

  4. Designing heterostructures -- a route towards new superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Thilo

    2013-03-01

    By now it has become technologically feasible to grow controllably transition metal oxides layer by layer. In effect, the achieved progress allows to design heterostructures with optimized electronic properties. The talk will specifically address scenarios for interface superconductivity and the possibility to raise the transition temperature of bulk superconductors by layer design. Heterostructures offer a complexity beyond that of bulk materials. The nature of the superconducting states formed in layered materials and at interfaces is a fascinating topic of recent research which will be in the focus of this presentation. This work was supported by the DFG (TRR 80). I thankfully acknowledge the collaboration with Natalia Pavlenko, Peter Hirschfeld, Cyril Stephanos, Florian Loder, Arno Kampf, and Jochen Mannhart.

  5. Mechanical strain and degradation of laser heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptashchenko, Alexander A.; Ptashchenko, Fedor A.; Maslejeva, Natalia V.; Sadova, Galina V.

    2001-02-01

    The effect of mechanical strain on degradation processes in GaAs-AlGaAs laser heterostructures (LHS) with stripe geometry and in light emitting diodes (LED) was experimentally studied. The strain was produced either by axial pressure or by indentation with a Wickers pyramid. We show that degradation affects the degree of polarization and the far-field distribution of laser emission. The effect of strain on the degradation intensity is estimated.

  6. Correlated Heterostructures for Efficient Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assmann, Elias; Aichhorn, Markus; Sangiovanni, Giorgio; Okamoto, Satoshi; Blaha, Peter; Bhandary, Sumanta; Held, Karsten

    Polar |non-polar oxide heterostructures such as LaAlO3 | SrTiO3 have become well-known for the many intriguing phenomena occurring at the interface, especially the internal potential gradient and the resulting 2d electron gas. We propose to make use of these unique systems as absorbing materials for high-efficiency solar cells. In particular, LaVO3 | SrTiO3 (i) has a direct band gap ~1.1 eV, nearly optimal for a solar cell; (ii) the internal potential gradient serves to efficiently separate the photo-generated electron-hole pairs and reduce recombination losses; (iii) the conducting interface offers a natural contact for charge-carrier extraction. Furthermore, (iv) oxide heterostructures afford the flexibility to combine layers with different gaps, e.g. LaVO3 with LaFeO3, in order to achieve even higher efficiencies with band-gap graded solar cells. We use density-functional theory and dynamical mean-field theory to study this strongly correlated heterostructure.

  7. Graphene diamond-like carbon films heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Fang; Afandi, Abdulkareem; Jackman, Richard B.

    2015-03-09

    A limitation to the potential use of graphene as an electronic material is the lack of control over the 2D materials properties once it is deposited on a supporting substrate. Here, the use of Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) interlayers between the substrate and the graphene is shown to offer the prospect of overcoming this problem. The DLC films used here, more properly known as a-C:H with ∼25% hydrogen content, have been terminated with N or F moieties prior to graphene deposition. It is found that nitrogen terminations lead to an optical band gap shrinkage in the DLC, whilst fluorine groups reduce the DLC's surface energy. CVD monolayer graphene subsequently transferred to DLC, N terminated DLC, and F terminated DLC has then been studied with AFM, Raman and XPS analysis, and correlated with Hall effect measurements that give an insight into the heterostructures electrical properties. The results show that different terminations strongly affect the electronic properties of the graphene heterostructures. G-F-DLC samples were p-type and displayed considerably higher mobility than the other heterostructures, whilst G-N-DLC samples supported higher carrier densities, being almost metallic in character. Since it would be possible to locally pattern the distribution of these differing surface terminations, this work offers the prospect for 2D lateral control of the electronic properties of graphene layers for device applications.

  8. Graphene diamond-like carbon films heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fang; Afandi, Abdulkareem; Jackman, Richard B.

    2015-03-01

    A limitation to the potential use of graphene as an electronic material is the lack of control over the 2D materials properties once it is deposited on a supporting substrate. Here, the use of Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) interlayers between the substrate and the graphene is shown to offer the prospect of overcoming this problem. The DLC films used here, more properly known as a-C:H with ˜25% hydrogen content, have been terminated with N or F moieties prior to graphene deposition. It is found that nitrogen terminations lead to an optical band gap shrinkage in the DLC, whilst fluorine groups reduce the DLC's surface energy. CVD monolayer graphene subsequently transferred to DLC, N terminated DLC, and F terminated DLC has then been studied with AFM, Raman and XPS analysis, and correlated with Hall effect measurements that give an insight into the heterostructures electrical properties. The results show that different terminations strongly affect the electronic properties of the graphene heterostructures. G-F-DLC samples were p-type and displayed considerably higher mobility than the other heterostructures, whilst G-N-DLC samples supported higher carrier densities, being almost metallic in character. Since it would be possible to locally pattern the distribution of these differing surface terminations, this work offers the prospect for 2D lateral control of the electronic properties of graphene layers for device applications.

  9. Picosecond photoresponse in van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Massicotte, M; Schmidt, P; Vialla, F; Schädler, K G; Reserbat-Plantey, A; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Tielrooij, K J; Koppens, F H L

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional crystals such as graphene and transition-metal dichalcogenides demonstrate a range of unique and complementary optoelectronic properties. Assembling different two-dimensional materials in vertical heterostructures enables the combination of these properties in one device, thus creating multifunctional optoelectronic systems with superior performance. Here, we demonstrate that graphene/WSe2/graphene heterostructures ally the high photodetection efficiency of transition-metal dichalcogenides with a picosecond photoresponse comparable to that of graphene, thereby optimizing both speed and efficiency in a single photodetector. We follow the extraction of photoexcited carriers in these devices using time-resolved photocurrent measurements and demonstrate a photoresponse time as short as 5.5 ps, which we tune by applying a bias and by varying the transition-metal dichalcogenide layer thickness. Our study provides direct insight into the physical processes governing the detection speed and quantum efficiency of these van der Waals heterostuctures, such as out-of-plane carrier drift and recombination. The observation and understanding of ultrafast and efficient photodetection demonstrate the potential of hybrid transition-metal dichalcogenide-based heterostructures as a platform for future optoelectronic devices. PMID:26436565

  10. Picosecond photoresponse in van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massicotte, M.; Schmidt, P.; Vialla, F.; Schädler, K. G.; Reserbat-Plantey, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Tielrooij, K. J.; Koppens, F. H. L.

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional crystals such as graphene and transition-metal dichalcogenides demonstrate a range of unique and complementary optoelectronic properties. Assembling different two-dimensional materials in vertical heterostructures enables the combination of these properties in one device, thus creating multifunctional optoelectronic systems with superior performance. Here, we demonstrate that graphene/WSe2/graphene heterostructures ally the high photodetection efficiency of transition-metal dichalcogenides with a picosecond photoresponse comparable to that of graphene, thereby optimizing both speed and efficiency in a single photodetector. We follow the extraction of photoexcited carriers in these devices using time-resolved photocurrent measurements and demonstrate a photoresponse time as short as 5.5 ps, which we tune by applying a bias and by varying the transition-metal dichalcogenide layer thickness. Our study provides direct insight into the physical processes governing the detection speed and quantum efficiency of these van der Waals heterostuctures, such as out-of-plane carrier drift and recombination. The observation and understanding of ultrafast and efficient photodetection demonstrate the potential of hybrid transition-metal dichalcogenide-based heterostructures as a platform for future optoelectronic devices.

  11. Voltage control of magnetism in multiferroic heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Sun, Nian X.

    2014-01-01

    Electrical tuning of magnetism is of great fundamental and technical importance for fast, compact and ultra-low power electronic devices. Multiferroics, simultaneously exhibiting ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism, have attracted much interest owing to the capability of controlling magnetism by an electric field through magnetoelectric (ME) coupling. In particular, strong strain-mediated ME interaction observed in layered multiferroic heterostructures makes it practically possible for realizing electrically reconfigurable microwave devices, ultra-low power electronics and magnetoelectric random access memories (MERAMs). In this review, we demonstrate this remarkable E-field manipulation of magnetism in various multiferroic composite systems, aiming at the creation of novel compact, lightweight, energy-efficient and tunable electronic and microwave devices. First of all, tunable microwave devices are demonstrated based on ferrite/ferroelectric and magnetic-metal/ferroelectric composites, showing giant ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) tunability with narrow FMR linewidth. Then, E-field manipulation of magnetoresistance in multiferroic anisotropic magnetoresistance and giant magnetoresistance devices for achieving low-power electronic devices is discussed. Finally, E-field control of exchange-bias and deterministic magnetization switching is demonstrated in exchange-coupled antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic/ferroelectric multiferroic hetero-structures at room temperature, indicating an important step towards MERAMs. In addition, recent progress in electrically non-volatile tuning of magnetic states is also presented. These tunable multiferroic heterostructures and devices provide great opportunities for next-generation reconfigurable radio frequency/microwave communication systems and radars, spintronics, sensors and memories. PMID:24421373

  12. Magnetoelectric Heterostructures for Spintronics and Magnetic Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Tianxiang

    Magnetoelectric heterostructures with coupled magnetization and electric polarization across their interfaces enable significantly improvement of performance of many devices such as magnetic sensors, microwave magnetic devices, and spintronics. I will first show that by utilizing a unique ferroelastic polarization switching pathway, one can achieve non-volatile electric-field-switching of magnetism in multiferroic heterostructures with different ferroelectric single crystals through a strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling. In the same system, with atomically-thin ferromagnets, the interfacial charge-mediated should also be taken into account. The charge- and strain-mediated coupling mechanisms are demonstrated and precisely quantified by the electric-field-tuning of ferromagnetic resonance. With the same technique, magnetic relaxation including intrinsic and extrinsic damping has also been shown to be strongly correlated to the strain, which is attributed to the electric-field-modification of spin-orbit coupling. Moreover, I will also show the tuning of spin-orbit torques from the spin-Hall effect with applied voltage probed with spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance and show the possible application on voltage tunable spin-Hall nano-oscillators. In the second part of my thesis, I will show an ultra-miniaturized magnetoelectric nano-electromechanical system (NEMS) resonator based on an AlN/FeGaB magnetoelectric heterostructure for detecting wide band magnetic fields. With the high Quality factor and the ultra-high resonance frequency, a low DC magnetic field detection limit of 300 pT has been demonstrated.

  13. Imaging and Spectroscopy of Graphene Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Brian

    2014-03-01

    Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is an example of a van der Waals heterostructure where the electronic properties of the composite material can be different from either individual material. The lattice mismatch and twist angle between graphene and hBN produces a moiré pattern in STM topographic images. For all angles, we have observed that the surface roughness of the graphene is reduced by at least an order of magnitude as compared to graphene on silicon oxide devices. Near the charge neutrality point, graphene breaks up into a series of electron and hole puddles due to potential fluctuations. Using scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have shown that at large twist angles the potential fluctuations are reduced by an order of magnitude by the presence of the hBN. Using heterostructures with graphite gates underneath the hBN, we have observed even further reduction in the potential fluctuations. At small twist angles, the hBN substrate produces a weak periodic potential which can have a wavelength of up to 14 nm. This periodic potential creates a new set of superlattice Dirac points at the wavevector of the potential. As the relative rotation angle between the graphene and hBN changes, the energy of this superlattice Dirac point changes. These new superlattice Dirac points have a reduced and anisotropic Fermi velocity. Using gate voltage dependent scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have observed the effect of the new Dirac points on the local density of states in graphene. Our latest results on other graphene heterostructures will also be discussed.

  14. van der Waals Heterostructures Grown by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Christopher

    In this work, we demonstrate the high-quality MBE heterostructure growth of various layered 2D materials by van der Waals epitaxy (VDWE). The coupling of different types of van der Waals materials including transition metal dichalcogenide thin films (e.g., WSe2, WTe2, HfSe2) , insulating hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and topological insulators (e.g., Bi2Se3) allows for the fabrication of novel electronic devices that take advantage of unique quantum confinement and spin-based characteristics. The relaxed lattice-matching criteria of van der Waals epitaxy has allowed for high-quality heterostructure growth with atomically abrupt interfaces, allowing us to couple these materials based primarily on their band alignment and electronic properties. We will discuss the impact of sample preparation, surface reactivity, and lattice mismatch of various substrates (sapphire, graphene, TMDs, Bi2Se3) on the growth mode and quality of the films and will discuss our studies of substrate temperature and flux rates on the resultant growth and grain size. Structural and chemical characterization was conducted via reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. Experimentally determined band alignments have been determined and compared with first-principles calculations allowing the design of novel low-power logic and magnetic memory devices. Initial results from the electrical characterization of these grown thin films and some simple devices will also be presented. These VDWE grown layered 2D materials show significant potential for fabricating novel heterostructures with tunable band alignments and magnetic properties for a variety of nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications.

  15. Photoluminescence method of testing double heterostructure wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Besomi, P.R.; Wilt, D.P.

    1984-04-10

    Under photoluminescence (PL) excitation, the lateral spreading of photo-excited carriers can suppress the photoluminescence signal from double heterostructure (DH) wafers containing a p-n junction. In any DH with a p-n junction in the active layer, PL is suppressed if the power of the excitation source does not exceed a threshold value. This effect can be advantageously used for a nondestructive optical determination of the top cladding layer sheet conductance as well as p-n junction misplacement, important parameters for injection lasers and LEDs.

  16. Pseudomorphic GeSn/Ge (001) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkikh, A. A.; Talalaev, V. G.; Werner, P.

    2013-11-15

    The synthesis of pseudomorphic GeSn heterostructures on a Ge (001) substrate by molecular-beam epitaxy is described. Investigations by transmission electron microscopy show that the GeSn layers are defect free and possess cubic diamondlike structure. Photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals interband radiative recombination in the GeSn quantum wells, which is identified as indirect transitions between the subbands of heavy electrons and heavy holes. On the basis of experimental data and modeling of the band structure of pseudomorphic GeSn compounds, the lower boundary of the bowing parameter for the indirect band gap is estimated as b{sub L} {>=} 1.47 eV.

  17. Room-temperature semiconductor heterostructure refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, K. A.; Larsson, Magnus; Mal'shukov, A. G.

    2005-07-01

    With the proper design of semiconductor tunneling barrier structures, we can inject low-energy electrons via resonant tunneling, and take out high-energy electrons via a thermionic process. This is the operation principle of our semiconductor heterostructure refrigerator (SHR) without the need of applying a temperature gradient across the device. Even for the bad thermoelectric material AlGaAs, our calculation shows that at room temperature, the SHR can easily lower the temperature by 5-7K. Such devices can be fabricated with the present semiconductor technology. Besides its use as a kitchen refrigerator, the SHR can efficiently cool microelectronic devices.

  18. Magnetocaloric Properties of Thin Film Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, H.; Bauer, C.; Kirby, B. J.; Lau, J.; Miller, C. W.

    2011-03-01

    In an effort to understand the impact of nanostructuring on the magnetocaloric (MC) effect, we have studied gadolinium in MgO/W(50 Å)/[Gd(400 Å)/W(50 Å)]8 heterostructures [Miller et al., J. Appl. Phys. 107, 09A903 (2010)]. The entropy change peaks at a temperature of 284 K with a value of 3.4 J/kg K for a 0--30 kOe field change. Polarized neutron reflectometry was used to determine the depth profile of the magnetic moment per Gd atom, m Gd in a Gd/W multilayer. Our results suggest that creating materials with Gd-ferromagnet interfaces may increase the m Gd , leading to enhanced MC properties. Therefore SiOx/Fe(50 Å)/Gd(300 Å)/Fe(50 Å) heterostructures have been investigated. This work was supported by AFOSR-YIP. Use of the Center for Nanoscale Materials was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, O?ce of Science, O?ce of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  19. Dielectric Genome of van der Waals Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Kirsten; Latini, Simone; Thygesen, Kristian S

    2015-07-01

    Vertical stacking of two-dimensional (2D) crystals, such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride, has recently lead to a new class of materials known as van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs) with unique and highly tunable electronic properties. Ab initio calculations should in principle provide a powerful tool for modeling and guiding the design of vdWHs, but in their traditional form such calculations are only feasible for commensurable structures with a few layers. Here we show that the dielectric properties of realistic, incommensurable vdWHs comprising hundreds of layers can be efficiently calculated using a multiscale approach where the dielectric functions of the individual layers (the dielectric building blocks) are computed ab initio and coupled together via the long-range Coulomb interaction. We use the method to illustrate the 2D-3D transition of the dielectric function of multilayer MoS2 crystals, the hybridization of quantum plasmons in thick graphene/hBN heterostructures, and to demonstrate the intricate effect of substrate screening on the non-Rydberg exciton series in supported WS2. The dielectric building blocks for a variety of 2D crystals are available in an open database together with the software for solving the coupled electrodynamic equations. PMID:26047386

  20. Photoresponse in Graphene Boron Nitride Vertical Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Trond; Ma, Qiong; Lui, Chun-Hung; Nair, Nityan; Gabor, Nathaniel; Young, Andrea; Fang, Wenjing; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kong, Jing; Gedik, Nuh; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2015-03-01

    Combining two-dimensional materials into vertical heterostructures reveals diverse, intriguing phenomena and provides a novel way of engineering materials with desired electronic properties. Placing graphene on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has given particularly interesting results, including enhanced mobility, opening of a band gap, and highly controllable photo-induced doping. We explore the photoresponse of vertical graphene-hBN-graphene heterostructures in a high electronic temperature regime where thermionic emission dominates. Near the charge neutral point, we observe a pronounced conductance peak, which we attribute to a cooling bottleneck that appears at low carrier density, thus suggesting hot carrier enhanced thermionic emission. To further investigate the mechanism by which current is generated, we conduct two-pulse correlation measurements and study the temporal dynamics of the system. We observe a positive correlation, implying that the hot carriers thermalize before crossing the hBN barrier. Finally, we propose an advanced, modified two-temperature model, which allows for numerical simulations that are consistent with our measurements.

  1. Heterostructures as a quantum optical klistron

    SciTech Connect

    Malov, Yu.A.

    1995-12-31

    THE beam of {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} ballistic electrons which were first obtained experimentally in (1) is considered when passing through the heterostructures consisting of two potential barriers in barriers in the presence of FEL tuning in infra-red region. In the presence of the first barrier the electron beam in the FEL electromagnetic field can either absorb or emit the field quanta. The initial electron beam may split into states n=1 (absorption of one quantum), n=0 (the beam energy unchanged), and n=-1 (emission of one quantum). The interference of the states with n=0, n=1 and n=0, n=1 results in the initiation of two traveling modulation waves at electromagnetic frequency w. Beats between these waves in the region of the of their overlapping lead to a periodic dependence of the modulation from w. It has been found that the spontaneous coherent radiation (SCR) intensity oscillates with the period depending on FEL frequency w. It is possible to increase or to decrease the spectral intensity of SCR varying w. The suggested idea of modulation on the first barrier of heterostructures and the radiation of modulated electron beam on the second barrier is a scheme of an quantum optical klistron in infra-red region.

  2. Designing heterostructures with higher-temperature superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Hur, Karyn; Chung, Chung-Hou; Paul, I.

    2011-07-01

    We propose to increase the superconducting transition temperature Tc of strongly correlated materials by designing heterostructures which exhibit a high pairing energy as a result of magnetic fluctuations. More precisely, applying an effective theory of the doped Mott insulator, we envisage a bilayer Hubbard system where both layers exhibit intrinsic intralayer (intraband) d-wave superconducting correlations. Introducing a finite asymmetry between the hole densities of the two layers such that one layer becomes slightly more underdoped and the other more overdoped, we show a visible enhancement of Tc compared to the optimally doped isolated layer. Using the bonding and antibonding band basis, we show that the mechanism behind this enhancement of Tc is the interband pairing correlation mediated by the hole asymmetry which strives to decrease the paramagnetic nodal contribution to the superfluid stiffness. For two identical layers, Tc remains comparable to that of the isolated layer until moderate values of the interlayer single-particle tunneling term. These heterostructures shed new light on fundamental questions related to superconductivity.

  3. Raman Characterization of Graphene and 2D TMD Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derby, Benjamin; Hight Walker, Angela

    2015-03-01

    We report efforts to produce and characterize graphene and two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMD) heterostructures. Using PDMS stamps, exfoliation of graphene, MoS2, h-BN, and TaS2 precedes the stacking of these mono- and few layers into heterostructures. The goal is to engineer mis-orientation to enhanced Raman signatures of various layers within the heterostructures. Previous studies have reported a Raman signal strength that is angle dependent between bi-layers. Using resonant Raman spectroscopy, we probe the quality of these constructed heterostructures. Ultimately, we plan to combine our optical measurements with an applied magnetic field to probe the complex magneto-Raman interaction. Previous studies show a magneto-phonon resonance at specific field strengths and laser excitations. Our results to date will be summarized.

  4. 2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Novoselov, K S; Mishchenko, A; Carvalho, A; Castro Neto, A H

    2016-07-29

    The physics of two-dimensional (2D) materials and heterostructures based on such crystals has been developing extremely fast. With these new materials, truly 2D physics has begun to appear (for instance, the absence of long-range order, 2D excitons, commensurate-incommensurate transition, etc.). Novel heterostructure devices--such as tunneling transistors, resonant tunneling diodes, and light-emitting diodes--are also starting to emerge. Composed from individual 2D crystals, such devices use the properties of those materials to create functionalities that are not accessible in other heterostructures. Here we review the properties of novel 2D crystals and examine how their properties are used in new heterostructure devices. PMID:27471306

  5. Equivalent Circuit of a Heterostructure with Multiple Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, V. N.; Novikov, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    Based on the consideration of physical processes in a heterostructure with quantum wells (QW), its equivalent circuit is constructed including a barrier capacitance and a differential resistance of the p-n junction, capacitance and resistance of charge relaxation in QW, and resistance of free charge carrier delivery to QW. Analytical expressions for the equivalent capacity and equivalent resistance of the heterostructure for a serial substitution circuit are derived, and behavior of the equivalent parameters attendant to changes of the test signal frequency is analyzed. Results of experimental investigation of the capacitive and resistive properties of the heterostructures with QW based on the InGaN/GaN barriers confirm the calculated dependences of their equivalent parameters and demonstrate their dependence on the special features of the kinetic properties of the heterostructures.

  6. Method and apparatus for selectively annealing heterostructures using microwave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, Harry A. (Inventor); Brain, Ruth A. (Inventor); Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for selectively annealing heterostructures using microwaves. A heterostructure, comprised of a material having higher microwave absorption and a material having lower microwave absorption, is exposed to microwaves in the cavity. The higher microwave absorbing material absorbs the microwaves and selectively heats while the lower microwave absorbing material absorbs small amounts of microwaves and minimally heats. The higher microwave absorbing material is thereby annealed onto the less absorbing material which is thermally isolated.

  7. Method and apparatus for selectively annealing heterostructures using microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, Harry A. (Inventor); Brain, Ruth A. (Inventor); Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for selectively annealing heterostructures using microwaves. A heterostructure, comprised of a material having higher microwave absorption and a material having lower microwave absorption, is exposed to microwaves in the cavity. The higher microwave absorbing material absorbs the microwaves and selectively heats while the lower microwave absorbing material absorbs small amounts of microwaves and minimally heats. The higher microwave absorbing material is thereby annealed onto the less absorbing material which is thermally isolated.

  8. Giant switchable Rashba effect in oxide heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Zhicheng; Si, Liang; Zhang, Qinfang; Yin, Wei-Guo; Yunoki, Seiji; Held, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    One of the most fundamental phenomena and a reminder of the electron’s relativistic nature is the Rashba spin splitting for broken inversion symmetry. Usually this splitting is a tiny relativistic correction. Interfacing ferroelectric BaTiO₃ and a 5d (or 4d) transition metal oxide with a large spin-orbit coupling, Ba(Os,Ir,Ru)O₃, we show that giant Rashba spin splittings are indeed possible and even controllable by an external electric field. Based on density functional theory and a microscopic tight binding understanding, we conclude that the electric field is amplified and stored as a ferroelectric Ti-O distortion which, through the network of oxygen octahedra, induces a large (Os,Ir,Ru)-O distortion. The BaTiO₃/Ba(Os,Ru,Ir)O₃ heterostructure is hence the ideal test station for switching and studying the Rashba effect and allows applications at room temperature.

  9. Giant switchable Rashba effect in oxide heterostructures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhong, Zhicheng; Si, Liang; Zhang, Qinfang; Yin, Wei-Guo; Yunoki, Seiji; Held, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    One of the most fundamental phenomena and a reminder of the electron’s relativistic nature is the Rashba spin splitting for broken inversion symmetry. Usually this splitting is a tiny relativistic correction. Interfacing ferroelectric BaTiO₃ and a 5d (or 4d) transition metal oxide with a large spin-orbit coupling, Ba(Os,Ir,Ru)O₃, we show that giant Rashba spin splittings are indeed possible and even controllable by an external electric field. Based on density functional theory and a microscopic tight binding understanding, we conclude that the electric field is amplified and stored as a ferroelectric Ti-O distortion which, through the network of oxygen octahedra, inducesmore » a large (Os,Ir,Ru)-O distortion. The BaTiO₃/Ba(Os,Ru,Ir)O₃ heterostructure is hence the ideal test station for switching and studying the Rashba effect and allows applications at room temperature.« less

  10. Vertical Transport in Ferroelectric/Superconductor Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begon-Lours, Laura; Trastoy, Juan; Bernard, Rozenn; Jacquet, Eric; Carretero, Cecile; Bouzehouane, Karim; Fusil, Stephane; Garcia, Vincent; Xavier, Stephane; Girod, Stephanie; Deranlot, Cyrile; Bibes, Manuel; Barthelemy, Agnes; Villegas, Javier E.

    2015-03-01

    We study electric field-effects in superconducting films by measuring vertical transport in ferroelectric/superconductor heterostructures. These are based on ultrathin (4 to 8 nm thick) BiFeO3-Mn grown on YBa2Cu3O7 by pulsed laser deposition. Nanoscale contacts are defined on the BiFeO3 via a series of nanofabrication steps which include e-beam lithography, metal deposition (Nb or Co capped with Pt) and lift-off. Conductive-tip atomic force microscopy and piezoresponse force microscopy are used to characterize the transport across the ferroelectric barrier as a function of its polarization (up/down). The observed electro-resistance, measured at various temperatures, allows studying the different electric-field screening in the normal and superconducting states. Work supported by DIM Oxymore.

  11. Tunnelling in van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Artem; Novoselov, Kostya; Geim, Andre; Eaves, Laurence; Falko, Vladimir

    When graphene and other conductive two-dimensional (2D) materials are separated by an atomically thin insulating 2D crystal, quantum mechanical tunnelling leads to appreciable current between two 2D conductors due to the overlap of their wavefunctions. These tunnel devices demonstrate interesting physics and potential for applications: such effects as resonant tunnelling, negative differential conductance, light emission and detection have already been demonstrated. In this presentation we will outline the current status and perspectives of tunnelling transistors based on 2D materials assembled into van der Waals heterostructures. Particularly, we will present results on mono- and bilayer graphene tunnelling, tunnelling in 2D crystal-based quantum wells, and tunnelling in superconducting 2D materials. Such effects as momentum and chirality conservation, phonon- and impurity-assisted tunnelling will also be discussed. Finally, we will ponder the implications of discovered effects for practical applications.

  12. Tunable hyperbolic metamaterials utilizing phase change heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, Harish N. S.; Menon, Vinod M.; Zhou, You; Ramanathan, Shriram; Narimanov, Evgenii

    2014-03-24

    We present a metal-free tunable anisotropic metamaterial where the iso-frequency surface is tuned from elliptical to hyperbolic dispersion by exploiting the metal-insulator phase transition in the correlated material vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}). Using VO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} heterostructures, we demonstrate the transition in the effective dielectric constant parallel to the layers to undergo a sign change from positive to negative as the VO{sub 2} undergoes the phase transition. The possibility to tune the iso-frequency surface in real time using external perturbations such as temperature, voltage, or optical pulses creates new avenues for controlling light-matter interaction.

  13. Magnetoelectric imaging of multiferroic heterostructures (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghidini, Massimo; Lesaine, Arnaud; Zhu, Bonan; Moya, Xavier; Yan, Wenjing; Crossley, Sam; Nair, Bhasi; Mansell, Rhodri; Cowburn, Russell P.; Barnes, Crispin H. W.; Kronast, Florian; Valencia, Sergio; Maccherozzi, Francesco; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S.; Mathur, Neil

    2015-09-01

    Electrical control of magnetism has been demonstrated in multiferroic compounds and ferromagnetic semiconductors, but electrical switching of a substantial net magnetization at room temperature has not been demonstrated in these materials. This goal has instead been achieved in heterostructures comprising ferromagnetic films in which electrically driven magnetic changes arise due to strain or exchange bias from ferroic substrates, or due to charge effects induced by a gate. However, previous work focused on electrical switching of an in-plane magnetization or involved the assistance of applied magnetic fields. In heterostructures made of juxtaposed ferroelectric and ferromagnetic layers, we have shown electrical control with no applied magnetic field of the perpendicular magnetization of small features [1] and of magnetic stripe domains patterns [2]. Here we investigate Ni81Fe19 films on ferroelectric substrates with and without buffer layers of Cu, whose presence precludes charge-mediated coupling. Ni81Fe19 has virtually zero magnetostriction, but sufficiently thin films show large magnetostriction, and thus, on increasing film thickness through the threshold for zero magnetostriction, we have seeked the crossover from charge- to strain-mediated coupling. We will then show that strain associated with the motion of 90°- ferroelectric domain walls in a BaTiO3 substrate, can switch the magnetization of an array of overlying single-domain Ni dots. [1] M. Ghidini, R. Pellicelli, J. L. Prieto, X. Moya, J. Soussi, J. Briscoe, S. Dunn and N. D. Mathur, Nature Communications 4 (2013) 1453. [2] M. Ghidini, F.Maccherozzi, X. Moya, L. C. Phillips, W.Yan, J. Soussi, N. Métallier, M.Vickers, , N. -J.Steinke, R. Mansell, C. H. W. Barnes, S. S. Dhesi, and N. D. Mathur, Adv. Mater.doi: 10.1002/adma.201404799 (2015).

  14. Heterostructures of Topological Insulators and Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lababidi, Mahmoud

    Topological insulators (TI), such as Bi2Se 3, are a new class of quantum materials discovered recently. They are insulating in the bulk but can conduct on the surfaces. The robust surface states of three-dimensional strong TIs form a unique two-dimensional system of massless electrons, known as a helical metal, with a linear energy-momentum dispersion and spin-momentum locking. While these surface modes alone have spurred great interest, their interaction with superconductors (S) in close proximity has opened up opportunities to engineer topological superconductivity using TI-S heterostructures. This thesis is a microscopic, self-consistent theoretical investigation of the interplay between TI and superconductors. Three types of TI-based heterostructures with increasing complexity are studied in detail. We first present a detailed study of the coupling between a metal and a topological insulator. We compute the spin-active scattering matrix for electrons coming from the metal incident on the metal-TI interface. We find that there exists a critical incident angle, where perfect spin-flip occurs as the incoming electron is reflected. We discuss the origin of this phenomena and its potential implications in spintronics. We then compute the local spectrum at the metal-TI interface, and examine its evolution from the tunneling limit (bad contact) to the strong coupling limit (good contact). The calculations are done using two complementary approaches; in a continuum model based on a k·p Hamiltonian a wave function matching approach is taken and the lattice model requires the use of lattice Green's functions. The study of metal-TI interface lays the foundation for our subsequent theory of S-TI interface. Next we carry out microscopic, self-consistent calculations of the superconducting order parameter and pairing correlations near a S-TI interface, where S is an s-wave superconductor. We discuss the suppression of the order parameter by the topological insulator and

  15. Epitaxial piezoelectric thick film heterostructures on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Min

    The significantly higher dielectric permittivity, piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical coupling coefficients of single crystal relaxor ferroelectrics make them very attractive for medical ultrasound transducers and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications. The potential impact of thin-film relaxor ferroelectrics in integrated actuators and sensor on silicon has stimulated research on the growth and characterization of epitaxial piezoelectric thin films. We have fabricated heterostructures by (1) synthesizing optimally-oriented, epitaxial thin films of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO 3 (PMN-PT) on miscut (001) Si wafers with epitaxial (001) SrTiO 3 template layers, where the single crystal form is known to have the giant piezoelectric response, and (2) nano-structuring to reduce the constraint imposed by the underlying silicon substrate. Up to now, the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33) values of PMN and PMN-PT thin films range from 50 to 200 pC/N have been reported, which are far inferior to the properties of bulk single crystals value (d33 ˜ 2000 pC/N). These might be attributed to substrate constraints, pyrochlore phases and other effects. Here, we have realized the giant d33 values by fabricating epitaxial PMN-PT thick films on silicon. When the PMN-PT film was subdivided into ˜1 mum2 capacitors by focused ion beam processing, a 4 mum thick film shows a low-field d33 of 800 pm/V that increases to over 1200 pm/V under bias, which is the highest d33 value ever realized on silicon substrates. These high piezo-reponse PMN-PT epitaxial heterostructures can be used for multilayered MEMS devices which function with low driving voltage, high frequency ultrasound transducer arrays for medical imaging, and capacitors for charge and energy storage. Since these PMN-PT films are epitaxially integrated with the silicon, they can make use of the well-developed fabrication process for patterning and micromachining of this large-area, cost

  16. Growth of Novel Semiconducting Nano and Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathi, Somilkumar J.

    This dissertation presents research findings on the three materials systems: lateral Si nanowires (SiNW), In2Se3/Bi 2Se3 heterostructures and graphene. The first part of the thesis was focused on the growth and characterization of lateral SiNW. Lateral here refers to wires growing along the plane of substrate; vertical NW on the other hand grow out of the plane of substrate. It was found, using the Au-seeded vapor -- liquid -- solid technique, that epitaxial single-crystal SiNW can be grown laterally along Si(111) substrates that have been miscut toward [11- 2]. The ratio of lateral-to-vertical NW was found to increase as the miscut angle increased and as disilane pressure and substrate temperature decreased. Based on this observation, growth parameters were identified whereby all of the deposited Au seeds formed lateral NW. Furthermore, the nanofaceted substrate guided the growth via a mechanism that involved pinning of the trijunction at the liquid/solid interface of the growing nanowire. Next, the growth of selenide heterostructures was explored. Specifically, molecular beam epitaxy was utilized to grow In2Se3 and Bi2Se3 films on h-BN, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and Si(111) substrates. Growth optimizations of In2Se3 and Bi2Se3 films were carried out by systematically varying the growth parameters. While the growth of these films was demonstrated on h-BN and HOPG surface, the majority of the effort was focused on growth on Si(111). Atomically flat terraces that extended laterally for several hundred nm, which were separated by single quintuple layer high steps characterized surface of the best In2Se3 films grown on Si(111). These In2Se3 films were suitable for subsequent high quality epitaxy of Bi2Se3 . The last part of this dissertation was focused on a recently initiated and ongoing study of graphene growth on liquid metal surfaces. The initial part of the study comprised a successful modification of an existing growth system to accommodate graphene

  17. Synthesis and Investigation of van der Waals Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreary, Kathleen; Hanbicki, Aubrey; Culbertson, James; Currie, Marc; Jonker, Berend

    2015-03-01

    The recent isolation of single layers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) has demonstrated that reducing dimensionality can alter the material properties. In particular, MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2 exhibit an abrupt transition from indirect to direct bandgap semiconductors at monolayer thickness. Monolayer TMDs are promising materials for electronic components due to their high mobility, high on/off ratio, and low standby power dissipation. Additionally, selective layer-by-layer stacking to form van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures may provide the ability to controllably engineer electronic, optic, and spintronic properties. Recently, several methods were investigated to achieve vdW heterostructures including sequential exfoliation, stacking of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown monolayers, and epitaxial growth of bilayers. We detail our CVD synthesis of the monolayer TMDs (MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2) and the subsequent fabrication and characterization of vdW heterostructures. In our heterostructures, we observe a dramatic decrease in PL intensity compared to the monolayer constituents. The Raman spectra exhibit clear and distinct differences from a superposition of monolayer spectra, demonstrating that interactions across the van der Waals interface in these heterostructures may significantly modify the net electronic properties. We find the observed behaviors are influenced by many factors, including charge transfer, substrate effects, stacking sequence, as well as intra- and inter-layer exciton formation, which will be discussed here.

  18. Lateral and Vertical Two-Dimensional Layered Topological Insulator Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanbin; Zhang, Jinsong; Zheng, Guangyuan; Sun, Yongming; Hong, Seung Sae; Xiong, Feng; Wang, Shuang; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Cui, Yi

    2015-11-24

    The heterostructured configuration between two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor materials has enabled the engineering of the band gap and the design of novel devices. So far, the synthesis of single-component topological insulator (TI) 2D materials such as Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and Sb2Te3 has been achieved through vapor phase growth and molecular beam epitaxy; however, the spatial controlled fabrication of 2D lateral heterostructures in these systems has not been demonstrated yet. Here, we report an in situ two-step synthesis process to form TI lateral heterostructures. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray mapping results show the successful spatial control of chemical composition in these as-prepared heterostructures. The edge-induced growth mechanism is revealed by the ex situ atomic force microscope measurements. Electrical transport studies demonstrate the existence of p-n junctions in Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 heterostructures. PMID:26468661

  19. Vortex jump behavior in coupled nanomagnetic heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.; Phatak, C.; Petford-Long, A. K.; Heinonen, O.

    2014-11-24

    The spin configuration and magnetic behavior in patterned nanostructures can be controlled by manipulating the interplay between the competing energy terms. This in turn requires fundamental knowledge of the magnetic interactions at the local nanometer scale. Here, we report on the spin structure and magnetization behavior of patterned discs containing exchange coupled ferromagnetic layers with additional exchange bias to an antiferromagnetic layer. The magnetization reversal was explored by direct local visualization of the domain behavior using in-situ Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, from which quantitative magnetic induction maps were reconstructed. The roles of the main competing energy terms were elucidated and the reversal mechanism was identified as a coupled phenomenon of incoherent rotation in the exchange-biased layer and localized vortex nucleation and discontinuous propagation in the free layer, including an anomalous jump in the trajectory. The observations were supported by micromagnetic simulations and modeled phase shift simulations. The work presented here provides fundamental insights into opportunities for macroscopic control of the energy landscape of magnetic heterostructures for functional applications.

  20. Geometric Hall effects in topological insulator heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, K.; Wakatsuki, R.; Morimoto, T.; Yoshimi, R.; Tsukazaki, A.; Takahashi, K. S.; Ezawa, M.; Kawasaki, M.; Nagaosa, N.; Tokura, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Geometry, both in momentum and in real space, plays an important role in the electronic dynamics of condensed matter systems. Among them, the Berry phase associated with nontrivial geometry can be an origin of the transverse motion of electrons, giving rise to various geometric effects such as the anomalous, spin and topological Hall effects. Here, we report two unconventional manifestations of Hall physics: a sign-reversal of the anomalous Hall effect, and the emergence of a topological Hall effect in magnetic/non-magnetic topological insulator heterostructures, Crx(Bi1-ySby)2-xTe3/(Bi1-ySby)2Te3. The sign-reversal in the anomalous Hall effect is driven by a Rashba splitting at the bulk bands, which is caused by the broken spatial inversion symmetry. Instead, the topological Hall effect arises in a wide temperature range below the Curie temperature, in a region where the magnetic-field dependence of the Hall resistance largely deviates from the magnetization. Its origin is assigned to the formation of a Néel-type skyrmion induced by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.

  1. Graphene/Si-nanowire heterostructure molecular sensors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungkil; Oh, Si Duk; Kim, Ju Hwan; Shin, Dong Hee; Kim, Sung; Choi, Suk-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Wafer-scale graphene/Si-nanowire (Si-NW) array heterostructures for molecular sensing have been fabricated by vertically contacting single-layer graphene with high-density Si NWs. Graphene is grown in large scale by chemical vapour deposition and Si NWs are vertically aligned by metal-assisted chemical etching of Si wafer. Graphene plays a key role in preventing tips of vertical Si NWs from being bundled, thereby making Si NWs stand on Si wafer separately from each other under graphene, a critical structural feature for the uniform Schottky-type junction between Si NWs and graphene. The molecular sensors respond very sensitively to gas molecules by showing 37 and 1280% resistance changes within 3.5/0.15 and 12/0.15 s response/recovery times under O2 and H2 exposures in air, respectively, highest performances ever reported. These results together with the sensor responses in vacuum are discussed based on the surface-transfer doping mechanism. PMID:24947403

  2. MBE HgCdTe heterostructure detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulman, Joel N.; Wu, Owen K.

    1990-01-01

    HgCdTe has been the mainstay for medium (3 to 5 micron) and long (10 to 14 micron) wavelength infrared detectors in recent years. Conventional growth and processing techniques are continuing to improve the material. However, the additional ability to tailor composition and placement of doped layers on the tens of angstroms scale using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) provides the opportunity for new device physics and concepts to be utilized. MBE-based device structures to be discussed here can be grouped into two categories: tailored conventional structures and quantum structures. The tailored conventional structures are improvements on familiar devices, but make use of the ability to create layers of varying composition, and thus band gap, at will. The heterostructure junction can be positioned independently of doping p-n junctions. This allows the small band gap region in which the absorption occurs to be separated from a larger band gap region in which the electric field is large and where unwanted tunneling can occur. Data from hybrid MBE/liquid phase epitaxy (LPE)/bulk structures are given. Quantum structures include the HgTe-CdTe superlattice, in which the band gap and transport can be controlled by alternating thin layers (tens of angstroms thick) of HgTe and CdTe. The superlattice has been shown to exhibit behavior which is non-alloy like, including very high hole mobilities, two-dimensional structure in the absorption coefficient, resonant tunneling, and anisotropic transport.

  3. Spontaneous stacking faults in van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boussinot, G.

    2016-08-01

    The rapid developments in the manipulation of two-dimensional monoatomic layers such as graphene or h-BN allow one to create heterostructures consisting of possibly many chemically different layers, stacked owing to van der Waals attraction. We propose a Frenkel-Kontorova model including a transverse degree of freedom in order to describe local deformations in these heterostructures. We study the case where two dissimilar monolayers are alternatively stacked, and find that stacking faults may emerge spontaneously for a large enough number of stacked layers as a result of the competition between adhesion and elastic energies. This symmetry-breaking transition should become of fundamental importance for the description of three-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures as soon as a precise control on the lattice orientation of the van der Waals layers is achieved.

  4. Two-dimensional heterostructures: fabrication, characterization, and application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Liu, Fucai; Fu, Wei; Fang, Zheyu; Zhou, Wu; Liu, Zheng

    2014-11-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitrides (hBN), and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs, e.g., MoS2) have attracted considerable attention in the past few years because of their novel properties and versatile potential applications. These 2D layers can be integrated into a monolayer (lateral 2D heterostructure) or a multilayer stack (vertical 2D heterostructure). The resulting artificial 2D structures provide access to new properties and applications beyond their component 2D atomic crystals and hence, they are emerging as a new exciting field of research. In this article, we review recent progress on the fabrication, characterization, and applications of various 2D heterostructures. PMID:25219598

  5. Two-dimensional heterostructures: fabrication, characterization, and application

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong; Liu, Fucai; Fu, Wei; Fang, Zheyu; Zhou, Wu; Liu, Zheng

    2014-08-13

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitrides (hBN), and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs, e.g., MoS2) have attracted considerable attention in the past few years because of their novel properties and versatile potential applications. These 2D layers can be integrated into a monolayer (lateral 2D heterostructure) or a multilayer stack (vertical 2D heterostructure). The resulting artificial 2D structures provide access to new properties and applications beyond their component 2D atomic crystals and hence, they are emerging as a new exciting field of research. Lastly, in this article, we review recent progress on the fabrication, characterization, and applications of various 2D heterostructures.

  6. Spin Transport and Giant Electroresistance in Ferromagnetic Graphene Vertical Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hee Chul; Myung, Nojoon; Lee, Seung Joo

    We investigate spin transport through ferromagnetic graphene vertical heterostructures where a sandwiched tunneling layer is either a normal or ferroelectric insulator. We show that the spin-polarization of the tunneling current is electrically controlled via gate voltages. We also demonstrate that the tunneling current of Dirac fermions can be prohibited when the spin configuration of ferromagnetic graphene sheets is opposite. Giant electroresistance can thus be developed by using the proposed heterostructure in this study. The effects of temperature on spin transport and the giant electroresistance ratio are also investigated. Our findings discover the prospect of manipulating the spin transport properties in vertical heterostructures through electric fields via gate and bias electrodes. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement No604391 Graphene Flagship, Project Code (IBS-R024-D1), and the NRF grant funded by MSIP(No. 2014-066298).

  7. Synthesis of Large Scale MoS2 -Graphene Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreary, Kathleen; Hanbicki, Aubrey; Friedman, Adam; Robinson, Jeremy; Jonker, Berend

    2014-03-01

    A rapidly progressing field involves the stacking of multiple two dimensional materials to form heterostructures. These heterosctructures have exhibited unique and interesting properties. For the most part, heterostructure devices are produced via mechanical exfoliation followed by careful aligning and stacking of the various components, limiting dimensions to micron-scale devices. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has proven to be a useful tool in the production of graphene and has very recently been investigated as a means for the growth of other 2D materials such as MoS2, hexagonal boron nitride and WS2. Using a two-step CVD process we are able to synthesize MoS2 on CVD grown graphene. AFM and Raman microscopy of the MoS2-graphene heterostructure show a uniform and continuous film on the cm scale.

  8. Postsynthesis of h‐BN/Graphene Heterostructures Inside a STEM

    PubMed Central

    Tizei, Luiz H. G.; Sato, Yohei; Lin, Yung‐Chang; Yeh, Chao‐Hui; Chiu, Po‐Wen; Terauchi, Masami; Iijima, Sumio

    2015-01-01

    Combinations of 2D materials with different physical properties can form heterostructures with modified electrical, mechanical, magnetic, and optical properties. The direct observation of a lateral heterostructure synthesis is reported by epitaxial in‐plane graphene growth from the step‐edge of hexagonal BN (h‐BN) within a scanning transmission electron microscope chamber. Residual hydrocarbon in the chamber is the carbon source. The growth interface between h‐BN and graphene is atomically identified as largely N–C bonds. This postgrowth method can form graphene nanoribbons connecting two h‐BN domains with different twisting angles, as well as isolated carbon islands with arbitrary shapes embedded in the h‐BN layer. The electronic properties of the vertically stacked h‐BN/graphene heterostructures are investigated by electron energy‐loss spectroscopy (EELS). Low‐loss EELS analysis of the dielectric response suggests a robust coupling effect between the graphene and h‐BN layers. PMID:26618896

  9. Photonic Heterostructures with Properties of Ferroelectrics and Light Polarizers

    SciTech Connect

    Palto, S. P. Draginda, Yu. A.

    2010-11-15

    The optical and electro-optical properties of a new type of photonic heterostructure composed of alternating ferroelectric molecular layers and optically anisotropic layers of another material are considered. A numerical simulation of the real prototype of this heterostructure, which can be prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett method from layers of a ferroelectric copolymer (polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) and an azo dye with photoinduced optical anisotropy, has been performed. It is shown that this heterostructure has pronounced polarization optical properties and yields a significant change in the polarization state of light at the photonic band edges in the ranges of the maximum density of photon states. The latter property can be used to obtain an enhanced electro-optic effect at small spectral shifts of the photonic band (the latter can be provided by the piezoelectric effect in ferroelectric layers).

  10. Novel engineered compound semiconductor heterostructures for advanced electronics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillman, Gregory E.; Holonyak, Nick, Jr.; Coleman, James J.

    1992-06-01

    To provide the technology base that will enable SDIO capitalization on the performance advantages offered through novel engineered multiple-lavered compound semiconductor structures, this project has focussed on three specific areas: (1) carbon doping of AlGaAs/GaAs and InP/InGaAs materials for reliable high frequency heterojunction bipolar transistors; (2) impurity induced layer disordering and the environmental degradation of AlxGal-xAs-GaAs quantum-well heterostructures and the native oxide stabilization of AlxGal-xAs-GaAs quantum well heterostructure lasers; and (3) non-planar and strained-layer quantum well heterostructure lasers and laser arrays. The accomplishments in this three year research are reported in fifty-six publications and the abstracts included in this report.

  11. Two-dimensional heterostructures: fabrication, characterization, and application

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Hong; Liu, Fucai; Fu, Wei; Fang, Zheyu; Zhou, Wu; Liu, Zheng

    2014-08-13

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitrides (hBN), and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs, e.g., MoS2) have attracted considerable attention in the past few years because of their novel properties and versatile potential applications. These 2D layers can be integrated into a monolayer (lateral 2D heterostructure) or a multilayer stack (vertical 2D heterostructure). The resulting artificial 2D structures provide access to new properties and applications beyond their component 2D atomic crystals and hence, they are emerging as a new exciting field of research. Lastly, in this article, we review recent progress on the fabrication, characterization, and applications of variousmore » 2D heterostructures.« less

  12. Electron scattering times in ZnO based polar heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Falson, J.; Kozuka, Y.; Smet, J. H.; Arima, T.; Tsukazaki, A.; Kawasaki, M.

    2015-08-24

    The remarkable historic advances experienced in condensed matter physics have been enabled through the continued exploration and proliferation of increasingly richer and cleaner material systems. In this work, we report on the scattering times of charge carriers confined in state-of-the-art MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures displaying electron mobilities in excess of 10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/V s. Through an examination of low field quantum oscillations, we obtain the effective mass of charge carriers, along with the transport and quantum scattering times. These times compare favorably with high mobility AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures, suggesting the quality of MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures now rivals that of traditional semiconductors.

  13. High-frequency dynamics of hybrid oxide Josephson heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komissinskiy, P.; Ovsyannikov, G. A.; Constantinian, K. Y.; Kislinski, Y. V.; Borisenko, I. V.; Soloviev, I. I.; Kornev, V. K.; Goldobin, E.; Winkler, D.

    2008-07-01

    We summarize our results on Josephson heterostructures Nb/Au/YBa2Cu3Ox that combine conventional (S) and oxide high- Tc superconductors with a dominant d -wave symmetry of the superconducting order parameter (D). The heterostructures were fabricated on (001) and (1 1 20) YBa2Cu3Ox films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The structural and surface studies of the (1 1 20) YBa2Cu3Ox thin films reveal nanofaceted surface structure with two facet domain orientations, which are attributed as (001) and (110)-oriented surfaces of YBa2Cu3Ox and result in S/D(001) and S/D(110) nanojunctions formed on the facets. Electrophysical properties of the Nb/Au/YBa2Cu3Ox heterostructures are investigated by the electrical and magnetic measurements at low temperatures and analyzed within the faceting scenario. The superconducting current-phase relation (CPR) of the heterostructures with finite first and second harmonics is derived from the Shapiro steps, which appear in the I-V curves of the heterostructures irradiated at frequencies up to 100 GHz. The experimental positions and amplitudes of the Shapiro steps are explained within the modified resistive Josephson junction model, where the second harmonic of the CPR and capacitance of the Josephson junctions are taken into account. We experimentally observe a crossover from a lumped to a distributed Josephson junction limit for the size of the heterostructures smaller than Josephson penetration depth. The effect is attributed to the variations of the harmonics of the superconducting CPR across the heterojunction, which may give rise to splintered vortices of magnetic flux quantum. Our investigations of parameters and phenomena that are specific for superconductors having d -wave symmetry of the superconducting order parameter may be of importance for applications such as high-frequency detectors and novel elements of a possible quantum computer.

  14. Magnetometory of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubaki, K.; Maeda, N.; Saitoh, T.; Kobayashi, N.

    2005-06-01

    AlGaN/GaN heterostructure wafers are becoming a key technology for next generation cellar-phone telecommunication system because of their potential for high-performance microwave applications. Therefore, the electronic properties of a 2DEG in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures have recently been discussed. In this paper, we performed the extraordinary Hall effect measurement and the SQUID magnetometory of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure wafer at low temperature. The AlGaN/GaN heterostructures were grown by low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapour phase epitaxy on (0001) SiC substrate using AlN buffers. The electron mobility and electron concentration at 4.2 K are 9,540cm2/V s and 6.6 × 1012cm-2, respectively. In the extraordinary Hall effect measurement of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures, the hysteresis of Hall resistance appeared below 4.5 K and disappeared above 4.5 K. On the other hand, the hysteresis of magnetometric data obtained by SQUID magnetometory appears near zero magnetic field when the temperature is lower than 4.5 K. At the temperature larger than 4.5 K, the hysteresis of magnetometric data disappears. And the slopes of magnetometric data with respect to magnetic field become lower as obeying Currie-Weiss law and the Curie temperature TC is 4.5 K. Agreement of TC measured by the extraordinary Hall effect and the SQUID magnetometory implies the ferromagnetism at the AlGaN/GaN heterojunction. However, the conformation of the ferromagnetism of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure is still difficult and the detailed physical mechanism is still unclear.

  15. Barrier inhomogeneities at vertically stacked graphene-based heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Fu; Li, Wenwu; Li, Song-Lin; Xu, Yong; Aparecido-Ferreira, Alex; Komatsu, Katsuyoshi; Sun, Huabin; Nakaharai, Shu; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito

    2013-12-01

    The integration of graphene and other atomically flat, two-dimensional materials has attracted much interest and been materialized very recently. An in-depth understanding of transport mechanisms in such heterostructures is essential. In this study, vertically stacked graphene-based heterostructure transistors were manufactured to elucidate the mechanism of electron injection at the interface. The temperature dependence of the electrical characteristics was investigated from 300 to 90 K. In a careful analysis of current-voltage characteristics, an unusual decrease in the effective Schottky barrier height and increase in the ideality factor were observed with decreasing temperature. A model of thermionic emission with a Gaussian distribution of barriers was able to precisely interpret the conduction mechanism. Furthermore, mapping of the effective Schottky barrier height is unmasked as a function of temperature and gate voltage. The results offer significant insight for the development of future layer-integration technology based on graphene-based heterostructures.The integration of graphene and other atomically flat, two-dimensional materials has attracted much interest and been materialized very recently. An in-depth understanding of transport mechanisms in such heterostructures is essential. In this study, vertically stacked graphene-based heterostructure transistors were manufactured to elucidate the mechanism of electron injection at the interface. The temperature dependence of the electrical characteristics was investigated from 300 to 90 K. In a careful analysis of current-voltage characteristics, an unusual decrease in the effective Schottky barrier height and increase in the ideality factor were observed with decreasing temperature. A model of thermionic emission with a Gaussian distribution of barriers was able to precisely interpret the conduction mechanism. Furthermore, mapping of the effective Schottky barrier height is unmasked as a function of

  16. Vertical-cavity in-plane heterostructures: Physics and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2015-11-02

    We show that in-plane (lateral) heterostructures realized in vertical cavities with high contrast grating reflectors can be used to significantly modify the anisotropic dispersion curvature, also interpreted as the photon effective mass. This design freedom enables exotic configurations of heterostructures and many interesting applications. The effects of the anisotropic photon effective mass on the mode confinement, mode spacing, and transverse modes are investigated. As a possible application, the method of boosting the speed of diode lasers by engineering the photon-photon resonance is discussed. Based on this platform, we propose a system of two laterally coupled cavities, which shows the breaking of parity-time symmetry in vertical cavity structures.

  17. Ion-implanted planar-buried-heterostructure diode laser

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, Thomas M.; Hammons, Burrell E.; Myers, David R.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1991-01-01

    A Planar-Buried-Heterostructure, Graded-Index, Separate-Confinement-Heterostructure semiconductor diode laser 10 includes a single quantum well or multi-quantum well active stripe 12 disposed between a p-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding layer 14 and an n-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding layer 16. The laser 10 includes an ion implanted n-type region 28 within the p-type cladding layer 14 and further includes an ion implanted p-type region 26 within the n-type cladding layer 16. The ion implanted regions are disposed for defining a lateral extent of the active stripe.

  18. Negative terahertz conductivity in remotely doped graphene bilayer heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhii, V.; Ryzhii, M.; Mitin, V.; Shur, M. S.; Otsuji, T.

    2015-11-14

    Injection or optical generation of electrons and holes in graphene bilayers (GBLs) can result in the interband population inversion enabling the terahertz (THz) radiation lasing. The intraband radiative processes compete with the interband transitions. We demonstrate that remote doping enhances the indirect interband generation of photons in the proposed GBL heterostructures. Therefore, such remote doping helps to surpass the intraband (Drude) absorption, and results in large absolute values of the negative dynamic THz conductivity in a wide range of frequencies at elevated (including room) temperatures. The remotely doped GBL heterostructure THz lasers are expected to achieve higher THz gain compared with previously proposed GBL-based THz lasers.

  19. Atomic Scale Chemical and Structural Characterization of Ceramic Oxide Heterostructure Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R. K.

    2003-04-16

    The research plan was divided into three tasks: (a) growth of oxide heterostructures for interface engineering using standard thin film deposition techniques, (b) atomic level characterization of oxide heterostructure using such techniques as STEM-2 combined with AFM/STM and conventional high-resolution microscopy (HRTEM), and (c) property measurements of aspects important to oxide heterostructures using standard characterization methods, including dielectric properties and dynamic cathodoluminescence measurements. Each of these topics were further classified on the basis of type of oxide heterostructure. Type I oxide heterostructures consisted of active dielectric layers, including the materials Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3} (BST), Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2}. Type II heterostructures consisted of ferroelectric active layers such as lanthanum manganate and Type III heterostructures consist of phosphor oxide active layers such as Eu-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  20. Electronic transport in graphene-based heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, J. Y.; Avsar, A.; Balakrishnan, J.; Taychatanapat, T.; O'Farrell, E. C. T.; Eda, G.; Castro Neto, A. H.; Koon, G. K. W.; Özyilmaz, B.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.

    2014-05-05

    While boron nitride (BN) substrates have been utilized to achieve high electronic mobilities in graphene field effect transistors, it is unclear how other layered two dimensional (2D) crystals influence the electronic performance of graphene. In this Letter, we study the surface morphology of 2D BN, gallium selenide (GaSe), and transition metal dichalcogenides (tungsten disulfide (WS{sub 2}) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2})) crystals and their influence on graphene's electronic quality. Atomic force microscopy analysis shows that these crystals have improved surface roughness (root mean square value of only ∼0.1 nm) compared to conventional SiO{sub 2} substrate. While our results confirm that graphene devices exhibit very high electronic mobility (μ) on BN substrates, graphene devices on WS{sub 2} substrates (G/WS{sub 2}) are equally promising for high quality electronic transport (μ ∼ 38 000 cm{sup 2}/V s at room temperature), followed by G/MoS{sub 2} (μ ∼ 10 000 cm{sup 2}/V s) and G/GaSe (μ ∼ 2200 cm{sup 2}/V s). However, we observe a significant asymmetry in electron and hole conduction in G/WS{sub 2} and G/MoS{sub 2} heterostructures, most likely due to the presence of sulphur vacancies in the substrate crystals. GaSe crystals are observed to degrade over time even under ambient conditions, leading to a large hysteresis in graphene transport making it a less suitable substrate.

  1. Coupling Magnetism to Electricity in Multiferroic Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, R

    2012-02-15

    Complex perovskite oxides exhibit a rich spectrum of functional responses, including magnetism, ferroelectricity, highly correlated electron behavior, superconductivity, etc. The basic materials physics of such materials provide the ideal playground for interdisciplinary scientific exploration. Over the past decade we have been exploring the science of such materials (for example, colossal magnetoresistance, ferroelectricity, etc) in thin-film form by creating epitaxial heterostructures and nanostructures. Among the large number of materials systems, there exists a small set of materials which exhibit multiple order parameters; these are known as multiferroics. Using our work in the field of ferroelectric and ferromagnetic oxides as the background, we are now exploring such materials as epitaxial thin films, as well as nanostructures. Specifically, we are studying the role of thin-film growth, heteroepitaxy, and processing on the basic properties as well as the magnitude of the coupling between the order parameters. In our work we are exploring the switchability of the antiferromagnetic order using this coupling. What is the importance of this work? Antiferromagnets are pervasive in the recording industry. They are used as exchange biasing layers in magnetic tunnel junctions, etc. However, to date there has been no antiferomagnet that is electrically tunable. We believe that the multiferroic BiFeO3 is one compound where this can be observed at room temperature. The next step is to explore the coupling of a ferromagnet to this antiferromagnet through the exchange biasing concept. Ultimately, this will give us the opportunity to switch the magnetic state in a ferromagnet (and therefore the spin polarization direction) by simply applying an electric field to the underlying antiferromagnetic ferroelectric. In this talk, I will describe our progress to date on this exciting possibility.

  2. Highly Mismatched, Dislocation-Free SiGe/Si Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Isa, Fabio; Salvalaglio, Marco; Dasilva, Yadira Arroyo Rojas; Meduňa, Mojmír; Barget, Michael; Jung, Arik; Kreiliger, Thomas; Isella, Giovanni; Erni, Rolf; Pezzoli, Fabio; Bonera, Emiliano; Niedermann, Philippe; Gröning, Pierangelo; Montalenti, Francesco; von Känel, Hans

    2016-02-01

    Defect-free mismatched heterostructures on Si substrates are produced by an innovative strategy. The strain relaxation is engineered to occur elastically rather than plastically by combining suitable substrate patterning and vertical crystal growth with compositional grading. Its validity is proven both experimentally and theoretically for the pivotal case of SiGe/Si(001). PMID:26829168

  3. Variable electronic properties of lateral phosphorene-graphene heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaoqing; Liu, Lin; Du, Yu; Gu, Juan; Xu, Jian-Bin; Yakobson, Boris I

    2015-12-21

    Phosphorene and graphene have a tiny lattice mismatch along the armchair direction, which can result in an atomically sharp in-plane interface. The electronic properties of the lateral heterostructures of phosphorene/graphene are investigated by the first-principles method. Here, we demonstrate that the electronic properties of this type of heterostructure can be highly tunable by the quantum size effects and the externally applied electric field (Eext). At strong Eext, Dirac Fermions can be developed with Fermi velocities around one order smaller than that of graphene. Undoped and hydrogen doped configurations demonstrate three drastically different electronic phases, which reveal the strongly tunable potential of this type of heterostructure. Graphene is a naturally better electrode for phosphorene. The transport properties of two-probe devices of graphene/phosphorene/graphene exhibit tunnelling transport characteristics. Given these results, it is expected that in-plane heterostructures of phosphorene/graphene will present abundant opportunities for applications in optoelectronic and electronic devices. PMID:26554700

  4. Ab initio simulations of pseudomorphic silicene and germanene bidimensional heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debernardi, Alberto; Marchetti, Luigi

    2016-06-01

    Among the novel two-dimensional (2D) materials, silicene and germanene, which are two honeycomb crystal structures composed of a monolayer of Si and Ge, respectively, have attracted the attention of material scientists because they combine the advantages of the new 2D ultimate-scaled electronics with their compatibility with industrial processes presently based on Si and Ge. We envisage pseudomorphic lateral heterostructures based on ribbons of silicene and germanene, which are the 2D analogs of conventional 3D Si/Ge superlattices and quantum wells. In spite of the considerable lattice mismatch (˜4 % ) between free-standing silicene and germanene, our ab initio simulations predict that, considering striped 2D lateral heterostructures made by alternating silicene and germanene ribbons of constant width, the silicene/germanene junction remains pseudomorphic—i.e., it maintains lattice-matched edges—up to critical ribbon widths that can reach some tens of nanometers. Such critical widths are one order of magnitude larger than the critical thickness measured in 3D pseudomorphic Si/Ge heterostructures and the resolution of state-of-the-art lithography, thus enabling the possibility of lithography patterned silicene/germanene junctions. We computed how the strain produced by the pseudomorphic growth modifies the crystal structure and electronic bands of the ribbons, providing a mechanism for band-structure engineering. Our results pave the way for lithography patterned lateral heterostructures that can serve as the building blocks of novel 2D electronics.

  5. Broadband Photovoltaic Detectors Based on an Atomically Thin Heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Long, Mingsheng; Liu, Erfu; Wang, Peng; Gao, Anyuan; Xia, Hui; Luo, Wei; Wang, Baigeng; Zeng, Junwen; Fu, Yajun; Xu, Kang; Zhou, Wei; Lv, Yangyang; Yao, Shuhua; Lu, Minghui; Chen, Yanfeng; Ni, Zhenhua; You, Yumeng; Zhang, Xueao; Qin, Shiqiao; Shi, Yi; Hu, Weida; Xing, Dingyu; Miao, Feng

    2016-04-13

    van der Waals junctions of two-dimensional materials with an atomically sharp interface open up unprecedented opportunities to design and study functional heterostructures. Semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides have shown tremendous potential for future applications due to their unique electronic properties and strong light-matter interaction. However, many important optoelectronic applications, such as broadband photodetection, are severely hindered by their limited spectral range and reduced light absorption. Here, we present a p-g-n heterostructure formed by sandwiching graphene with a gapless band structure and wide absorption spectrum in an atomically thin p-n junction to overcome these major limitations. We have successfully demonstrated a MoS2-graphene-WSe2 heterostructure for broadband photodetection in the visible to short-wavelength infrared range at room temperature that exhibits competitive device performance, including a specific detectivity of up to 10(11) Jones in the near-infrared region. Our results pave the way toward the implementation of atomically thin heterostructures for broadband and sensitive optoelectronic applications. PMID:26886761

  6. PT-symmetry breaking in resonant tunneling heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatsevich, A. A.; Shubin, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    We present fermionic model based on symmetric resonant tunneling heterostructure, which demonstrates spontaneous symmetry breaking in respect to combined operations of space inversion (P) and time reversal (T). PT-symmetry breaking manifests itself in resonance coalescence (collapse of resonances). We show that resonant energies are determined by eigenvalues of auxiliary pseudo-Hermitian PT-invariant Hamiltonian.

  7. Anomalous Electronic Anisotropy Triggered by Ferroelastic Coupling in Multiferroic Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Ju, Changcheng; Yang, Jan-Chi; Luo, Cheng; Shafer, Padraic; Liu, Heng-Jui; Huang, Yen-Lin; Kuo, Ho-Hung; Xue, Fei; Luo, Chih-Wei; He, Qing; Yu, Pu; Arenholz, Elke; Chen, Long-Qing; Zhu, Jinsong; Lu, Xiaomei; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2016-02-01

    The ferroelastic strain coupling in multiferroic heterostructures is explored aiming at novel physical effects and fascinating functionality. Ferroelastic domain walls in manganites induced by a stripe BiFeO3 template can modulate the electronic transfer and sufficiently block the magnetic ordering, creating a vast anisotropy. The findings suggest the great importance of ferroelastic strain engineering in material modifications. PMID:26640119

  8. II-VI Semiconductor microstructures:from physics to optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautrat, J. L.

    1994-12-01

    The tellurium compounds family displays many interesting features. The various compounds cover a very large range of bandgap energies from 0 (Cd{0.15}Hg0.85Te) to more than 3 eV (ZnTe : 2.4 eV ; MnTe : 3.2 eV ; MgTe : 3.5 eV). The lattice parameters of the various compounds are sometimes almost perfectly matched, as in the CdTe/CdxHg{1-x}Te case, or slightly enough mismatched for a coherent epitaxy to be performed. Furthermore, good quality Cd{0.96}Zn{0.04}Te substrates are now available which allow to grow a large variety of microstructures using molecular beam epitaxy. The thickness control of the deposited layers allows to design and grow sophisticated beterostructures incorporating monolayer thick features. The direct band gap of these materials makes them well-suited to many optoelectronic applications in the infrared and visible range. A few examples of applications are described in more details : i) microtip semiconductor laser based on a cold microtip electron emitter for cathodic pumping of a CdTe/CdMnTe laser cavity ; ii) multiquantum well structures showing a marked excitonic absorption band at room temperature and the disappearance of this band when an electric field is applied to the structure. Application to self electrooptic and photorefractive devices ; iii) Bragg mirrors for the infrared. In addition to the usual semiconductor properties, the manganese compounds display interesting properties which can be useful in the field of magnetooptics.

  9. Ab initio study of II-(VI)2 dichalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Olsson, P; Vidal, J; Lincot, D

    2011-10-12

    The structural stabilities of the (Zn,Cd)(S,Se,Te)(2) dichalcogenides have been determined ab initio. These compounds are shown to be stable in the pyrite phase, in agreement with available experiments. Structural parameters for the ZnTe(2) pyrite semiconductor compound proposed here are presented. The opto-electronic properties of these dichalcogenide compounds have been calculated using quasiparticle GW theory. Bandgaps, band structures and effective masses are proposed as well as absorption coefficients and refraction indices. The compounds are all indirect semiconductors with very flat conduction band dispersion and high absorption coefficients. The work functions and surface properties are predicted. The Te and Se based compounds could be of interest as absorber materials in photovoltaic applications. PMID:21937783

  10. Modeling of mechanical properties of II-VI materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, A.; Berding, M. A.; Van Schilfgaarde, M.; Chen, A.-B.; Patrick, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews some new developments in the theory of alloy correlations, order-disorder transitions, and solidus phase-transition curves. It is argued that semiconductor alloys are never truly random, and the various phenomena that drive deviations from random arrangements are introduced. Likely consequences of correlations on the ability to fine-tune the lattice match of epitaxial layers to substrates, on vacancy formation, on diffusion, and on vapor-phase crystal growth are discussed. Examples are chosen for the alloys Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Te, Cd(1-y)Zn(y)Te, and CdSe(1-y)Te(y).

  11. Diluted II-VI oxide semiconductors with multiple band gaps.

    PubMed

    Yu, K M; Walukiewicz, W; Wu, J; Shan, W; Beeman, J W; Scarpulla, M A; Dubon, O D; Becla, P

    2003-12-12

    We report the realization of a new mult-band-gap semiconductor. Zn(1-y)Mn(y)OxTe1-x alloys have been synthesized using the combination of oxygen ion implantation and pulsed laser melting. Incorporation of small quantities of isovalent oxygen leads to the formation of a narrow, oxygen-derived band of extended states located within the band gap of the Zn(1-y)Mn(y)Te host. When only 1.3% of Te atoms are replaced with oxygen in a Zn0.88Mn0.12Te crystal the resulting band structure consists of two direct band gaps with interband transitions at approximately 1.77 and 2.7 eV. This remarkable modification of the band structure is well described by the band anticrossing model. With multiple band gaps that fall within the solar energy spectrum, Zn(1-y)Mn(y)OxTe1-x is a material perfectly satisfying the conditions for single-junction photovoltaics with the potential for power conversion efficiencies surpassing 50%. PMID:14683137

  12. Analyses of compensation related defects in II-VI compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldini, A.; Cavallini, A.; Fraboni, B.; Fernandez, P.; Piqueras, J.

    1998-12-31

    The deep levels present in semiconducting CdTe and semi-insulating (SI) CdTe:Cl and Cd{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Te have been investigated by means of cathodoluminescence (CL), deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photo-DLTS (PDLTS) and photo induced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS). PICTS and PDLTS can be applied to SI materials and allowed to determine whether the observed deep levels are hole or electron traps. Among the observed deep centers, the authors have focused their attention on those involved in the compensation process such as the so called center A and the deep traps located near midgap. They have identified a deep acceptor, labelled H, and a deep donor, labelled E, the latter is peculiar to CdTe:Cl and can be a good candidate for the deep donor level needed to explain the compensation process in SI CdTe:Cl.

  13. Multiple junction II-VI compound photoelectrochemical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russak, Michael A.

    1986-12-01

    The application of concepts used in producing tandem solid state photovoltaic devices to photoelectrochemical cells has resulted in improved spectral response and photovoltaic output. As in solid state devices, the key to achieving good photovoltaic performance is optimization of the semiconductor properties in each part of the tandem arrangement. This has been done for the thin film CdS/CdSe/sulfide-polysulfide system with an improvement of over 15 percent in conversion efficiency being obtained. Preliminary results showing significant current enhancement by the addition of a CdSe backwall electrode to the CdTe/selenide-polyselenide system are also reported.

  14. Theory of exciton linewidth in II VI semiconductor mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, R.

    1990-04-01

    The disorder-induced broadening of excitons in mixed crystals is discussed, using a novel expression for the relevant exciton volume. Earlier experimental data on CdS 1-xSe x are successfully explained. The exciton broadening in quantum wells due to well-width fluctuations is obtained along similar lines.

  15. Magnetoelectric Coupling in Composite Multiferroic Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Jason

    In this work, we demonstrate a large charge-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in a PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 / La0.8 Sr0.2MnO3 (PZT/LSMO) composite structure resulting from direct control of magnetism via charge carrier density. This approach has the advantage that its physical mechanism is transparent and the size of the effect can be quantified and understood qualitatively within the double-exchange model. Direct quantification of the charge-driven magnetic changes based on electronic, magnetic, and spectroscopic measurements show that both the spin state and spin configuration of LSMO are modulated. Using a combination of advanced physical vapor deposition techniques, we have grown epitaxial PZT/LSMO bilayer heterostructures on (001) SrTiO 3 substrates with excellent crystallinity, atomically smooth surfaces, low leakage current density, and abrupt interfaces. Magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) magnetometry was used to directly interrogate the local magnetic state of the LSMO as a function of the PZT polarization state. We show direct control of magnetism via applied electric fields, including modulation of the magnetotransport behavior and magnetic-ordering temperature, on/off switching of magnetism, and hysteretic magnetization versus electric field (M-E) characteristics. The magnetoelectric coupling strength, which relates the change in magnetization to the applied electric field, is found to vary strongly with temperature, reaching a low temperature saturation value of +6 Oe cm / kV, much larger than observed in single-phase magnetoelectrics and too large to be explained by a simple band-filling model. To clarify the origin of the magnetoelectric coupling, we carried out near edge x-ray absorption measurements that revealed a well defined change in the position of the Mn absorption edge with the ferroelectric polarization, giving a direct measure of the change in Mn valency in LSMO. We explain these results in terms of an interfacial magnetic reconstruction, whereby the

  16. Photodetectors based on heterostructures for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabet, Bahram; Cola, Adriano; Cataldo, Andrea; Chen, Xiying; Quaranta, Fabio

    2002-09-01

    In this work we describe a family of optical devices based on heterojunction and heterodimensional structures and we investigate their static and dynamic properties. Such devices are good candidates, due to their high performance, for utilization as the sensing element for the realization of sensors in the fields of telecommunications, remote sensing, LIDAR and medical imaging. First, we present a Heterostructure Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (HMSM) photodetectors that employ a uniformly doped GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction for the dual purpose of barrier height enhancement and creating an internal electric field that aids in the transport and collection of the photogenerated electrons. In this first family of devices, two doping levels are compared showing the direct effect of the aiding field due to modulation doping. Subsequently, we analyze a novel Resonant-Cavity-Enhanced (RCE) HMSM photodetector in which a Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) is employed in order to reduce the thickness of the absorption layer thus achieving good responsivity and high speed as well as wavelength selectivity. Current-voltage, current-temperature, photocurrent spectra, high-speed time response, and on-wafer frequency domain measurements point out the better performance of this last family of detectors, as they can operate in tens of Giga-Hertz range with low dark current and high responsivity. Particularly, the I-V curves show a very low dark current (around 10 picoamps at operative biases); C-V measurements highlight the low geometrical capacitance values; the photocurrent spectrum shows a clear peak at 850 nm wavelength, while time response measurements give a 3 dB bandwidth of about 30 GHz. Small signal model based on frequency domain data is also extracted in order to facilitate future photoreceiver design. Furthermore, two-dimensional numerical simulations have been carried out in order to predict the electrical properties of these detectors. Combination of very low dark current and

  17. Thermoelectric properties of IV–VI-based heterostructures and superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, P.D.; Petersen, J.E.; Scolfaro, L.; Leite Alves, H.W.; Myers, T.H.

    2015-07-15

    Doping in a manner that introduces anisotropy in order to reduce thermal conductivity is a significant focus in thermoelectric research today. By solving the semiclassical Boltzmann transport equations in the constant scattering time (τ) approximation, in conjunction with ab initio electronic structure calculations, within Density Functional Theory, we compare the Seebeck coefficient (S) and figure of merit (ZT) of bulk PbTe to PbTe/SnTe/PbTe heterostructures and PbTe doping superlattices (SLs) with periodically doped planes. Bismuth and Thallium were used as the n- and p-type impurities, respectively. The effects of carrier concentration are considered via chemical potential variation in a rigid band approximation. The impurity bands near the Fermi level in the electronic structure of PbTe SLs are of Tl s- and Bi p-character, and this feature is independent of the doping concentration or the distance between impurity planes. We observe the impurity bands to have a metallic nature in the directions perpendicular to the doping planes, yet no improvement on the values of ZT is found when compared to bulk PbTe. For the PbTe/SnTe/PbTe heterostructures, the calculated S presents good agreement with recent experimental data, and an anisotropic behavior is observed for low carrier concentrations (n<10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}). A large value of ZT{sub ||} (parallel to the growth direction) of 3.0 is predicted for n=4.7×10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} and T=700 K, whereas ZT{sub p} (perpendicular to the growth direction) is found to peak at 1.5 for n=1.7×10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}. Both electrical conductivity enhancement and thermal conductivity reduction are analyzed. - Graphical abstract: Figure of merit for PbTe/SnTe/PbTe heterostructure along the [0 0 1] direction, P.D. Borges, J.E. Petersen, L. Scolfaro, H.W. Leite Alves, T.H. Myers, Improved thermoelectric properties of IV–VI-based heterostructures and superlattices. - Highlights: • Thermoelectric properties of IV

  18. Nano-scale polar-nonpolar oxide heterostructures for photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hongli; Saidi, Wissam A.; Yang, Jinlong; Zhao, Jin

    2016-03-01

    We proposed based on first principles density functional theory calculations that a nano-scale thin film based on a polar-nonpolar transition-metal oxide heterostructure can be used as a highly-efficient photocatalyst. This is demonstrated using a SrTiO3/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 sandwich-like heterostructure with photocatalytic activity in the near-infrared region. The effect of the polar nature of LaAlO3 is two-fold. First, the induced electrostatic field accelerates the photo-generated electrons and holes into opposite directions and minimizes their recombination rates. Hence, the reduction and oxidation reactions can be instigated at the SrTiO3 surfaces located on the opposite sides of the heterostructure. Second, the electric field reduces the band gap of the system making it photoactive in the infrared region. We also show that charge separation can be enhanced by using compressive strain engineering that creates ferroelectric instability in STO. The proposed setup is ideal for tandem oxide photocatalysts especially when combined with photoactive polar materials.We proposed based on first principles density functional theory calculations that a nano-scale thin film based on a polar-nonpolar transition-metal oxide heterostructure can be used as a highly-efficient photocatalyst. This is demonstrated using a SrTiO3/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 sandwich-like heterostructure with photocatalytic activity in the near-infrared region. The effect of the polar nature of LaAlO3 is two-fold. First, the induced electrostatic field accelerates the photo-generated electrons and holes into opposite directions and minimizes their recombination rates. Hence, the reduction and oxidation reactions can be instigated at the SrTiO3 surfaces located on the opposite sides of the heterostructure. Second, the electric field reduces the band gap of the system making it photoactive in the infrared region. We also show that charge separation can be enhanced by using compressive strain engineering that creates

  19. Photoelectric properties of film heterostructures based on poly-N-Epoxypropylcarbazole and merocyanine dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidenko, N. A.; Ishchenko, A. A.; Korotchenkov, O. A.; Mokrinskaya, E. V.; Podolian, A. O.; Studzinsky, S. L.; Tonkopieva, L. S.

    2012-10-01

    Heterostructures comprising a merocyanine dye (M1) film deposited onto a poly-N-epoxypropylcarbazole (PEPC) film have been created, and their photoconducting, photodielectric, and photovoltaic properties have been studied. The PEPC/M1 heterostructures exhibit the photodiode and photoelectric converter properties. It is concluded that the p- n junction in these heterostructures is ensured by the hole character of conductivity in the polymer and the bipolar conductivity of the deposited dye film.

  20. Thermal and Electrical Transport in Oxide Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, Jayakanth

    This dissertation presents a study of thermal and electrical transport phenomena in heterostructures of transition metal oxides, with specific interest in understanding and tailoring thermoelectricity in these systems. Thermoelectric energy conversion is a promising method for waste heat recovery and the efficiency of such an engine is directly related to a material dependent figure of merit, Z, given as S2sigma/kappa, where S is thermopower and sigma and kappa are electrical and thermal conductivity respectively. Achieving large figure of merit has been hampered by the coupling between these three thermoelectric coefficients, and the primary aim of this study is to understand the nature of thermoelectricity in complex oxides and identify mechanisms which can allow tuning of one or more thermoelectric coefficients in a favorable manner. Unlike the heavily studied conventional thermoelectric semiconductors, transition metals based complex oxides show conduction band characteristics dominated by d-bands, with much larger effective masses and varying degrees of electron correlations. These systems provide for exotic thermoelectric effects which are typically not explained by conventional theories and hence provide an ideal platform for exploring the limits of thermoelectricity. Meanwhile, oxides are composed of earth abundant elements and have excellent high temperature stability, thus providing compelling technological possibilities for thermoelectrics based power generation. In this dissertation, we address specific aspects of thermoelectricity in model complex oxide systems such as perovskite titanates and layered cobaltates to understand thermal and thermoelectric behavior and explore the tunability of thermoelectricity in these systems. The demonstration of band engineering as a viable method to tune physical properties of materials is explored. The model system used for this case is strontium titanate, where two dopants such as La on the Sr-site and oxygen

  1. Synthesis and applications of heterostructured semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khon, Elena

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) have been of great interest to researchers for several decades due to their unique optoelectronic properties. These nanoparticles are widely used for a variety of different applications. However, there are many unresolved issues that lower the efficiency and/or stability of devices which incorporate these NCs. Our research is dedicated to addressing these issues by identifying potential problems and resolving them, improving existing systems, generating new synthetic strategies, and/or building new devices. The general strategies for the synthesis of different nanocrystals were established in this work, one of which is the colloidal growth of gold domains onto CdS semiconductor nanocrystals. Control of shape and size was achieved simply by adjusting the temperature and the time of the reaction. Depending on the exact morphology of Au and CdS domains, fabricated nano-composites can undergo evaporation-induced self-assembly onto a substrate, which is very useful for building devices. CdS/Au heterostructures can assemble in two different ways: through end-to-end coupling of Au domains, resulting in the formation of one-dimensional chains; and via side-by-side packing of CdS nanorods, leading to the onset of two-dimensional superlattices. We investigated the nature of exciton-plasmon interactions in Au-tipped CdS nanorods using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The study demonstrated that the key optoelectronic properties of electrically coupled metal and semiconductor domains are significantly different from those observed in systems with weak inter-domain coupling. In particular, strongly-coupled nanocomposites promote mixing of electronic states at semiconductor-metal domain interfaces, which causes a significant suppression of both plasmon and exciton carrier excitations. Colloidal QDs are starting to replace organic molecules in many different applications, such as organic light emmiting diods (OLEDs), due to their

  2. System-size dependent band alignment in lateral two-dimensional heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenaerts, O.; Vercauteren, S.; Schoeters, B.; Partoens, B.

    2016-06-01

    The electronic band alignment in semiconductor heterostructures is a key factor for their use in electronic applications. The alignment problem has been intensively studied for bulk systems but is less well understood for low-dimensional heterostructures. In this work we investigate the alignment in two-dimensional lateral heterostructures. First-principles calculations are used to show that the electronic band offset depends crucially on the width and thickness of the heterostructure slab. The particular heterostructures under study consist of thin hydrogenated and fluorinated diamond slabs which are laterally joined together. Two different limits for the band offset are observed. For infinitely wide heterostructures the vacuum potential above the two materials is aligned leading to a large step potential within the heterostructure. For infinitely thick heterostructure slabs, on the other hand, there is no potential step in the heterostructure bulk, but a large potential step in the vacuum region above the heterojunction is observed. The band alignment in finite systems depends on the particular dimensions of the system. These observations are shown to result from an interface dipole at the heterojunction that tends to align the band structures.

  3. Vertical Field-Effect Transistor Based on Graphene-Transition Metal Dichalcogenides Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Jatinder; Chien, Hui-Chun; Bellus, Matthew Z.; Sicilian, David L.; Aubin, Davis St.; Chiu, Hsin-Ying; Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas Team

    2014-03-01

    The remarkable properties of graphene has made it possible to create transistors just few atoms thick. A new development was that the other two-dimensional materials can be stacked on it with atomic layer precision, creating numerous heterostructures on demand. Here, novel vertical field-effect transistor composed of graphene- transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) heterostructures is fabricated and characterized at various temperatures. Due to ultrathin nature of these transistors, they present the ultimate limit for electron transport in heterostructures. Tunneling and thermionic transport characteristics are studied among different graphene-TMDs heterostructures. Their electronic properties have been investigated and can be used in vast range of devices.

  4. Effect of scattering by native defects on electron mobility in modulation-doped heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Walukiewicz, W.; Haller, E.E. )

    1991-04-15

    The effect of scattering by native defects on carrier mobility in modulation-doped heterostructures is calculated. The concentration of the defects is determined using the amphoteric native defect model. It is shown that the Fermi level induced reduction of the defect formation energy leads to an increased incorporation of native defects and reduced mobility in AlGaAs/GaAs inverted modulation-doped heterostructures. This new mechanism explains the experimentally observed difference in the values of electron mobilities in normal and inverted modulation-doped heterostructures. The effects of native defects on the carrier mobilities in heterostructures based on other semiconductor systems are also discussed.

  5. Axial Ge/Si nanowire heterostructure tunnel FETs

    SciTech Connect

    Picraux, Sanuel T; Daych, Shadi A

    2010-01-01

    The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of semiconductor nanowires allows doping and composition modulation along their axis and the realization of axial 1 D heterostructures. This provides additional flexibility in energy band-edge engineering along the transport direction which is difficult to attain by planar materials growth and processing techniques. We report here on the design, growth, fabrication, and characterization of asymmetric heterostructure tunnel field-effect transistors (HTFETs) based on 100% compositionally modulated Si/Ge axial NWs for high on-current operation and low ambipolar transport behavior. We discuss the optimization of band-offsets and Schottky barrier heights for high performance HTFETs and issues surrounding their experimental realization. Our HTFET devices with 10 nm PECVD SiN{sub x} gate dielectric resulted in a measured current drive exceeding 100 {mu}A/{mu}m (I/{pi}D) and 10{sup 5} I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratios.

  6. An envelope function formalism for lattice-matched heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Put, Maarten L.; Vandenberghe, William G.; Magnus, Wim; Sorée, Bart

    2015-08-01

    The envelope function method traditionally employs a single basis set which, in practice, relates to a single material because the k · p matrix elements are generally only known in a particular basis. In this work, we defined a basis function transformation to alleviate this restriction. The transformation is completely described by the known inter-band momentum matrix elements. The resulting envelope function equation can solve the electronic structure in lattice matched heterostructures without resorting to boundary conditions at the interface between materials, while all unit-cell averaged observables can be calculated as with the standard envelope function formalism. In the case of two coupled bands, this heterostructure formalism is equivalent to the standard formalism while taking position dependent matrix elements.

  7. Charge transfer and emergent phenomena of oxide heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hanghui

    Charge transfer is a common phenomenon at oxide interfaces. We use first-principles calculations to show that via heterostructuring of transition metal oxides, the electronegativity difference between two dissimilar transition metal ions can lead to high level of charge transfer and induce substantial redistribution of electrons and ions. Notable examples include i) enhancing correlation effects and inducing a metal-insulator transition; ii) tailoring magnetic structures and inducing interfacial ferromagnetism; iii) engineering orbital splitting and inducing a non-cuprate single-orbital Fermi surface. Utilizing charge transfer to induce emergent electronic/magnetic/orbital properties at oxide interfaces is a robust approach. Combining charge transfer with quantum confinement and expitaxial strain provides an appealing prospect of engineering electronic structure of artificial oxide heterostructures. This research was supported by National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1120296.

  8. Novel heterostructured Ge nanowires based on polytype transformation.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Laetitia; Patriarche, Gilles; Hallais, Géraldine; Renard, Charles; Gardès, Cyrille; Troadec, David; Bouchier, Daniel

    2014-08-13

    We report on a strain-induced phase transformation in Ge nanowires under external shear stresses. The resulted polytype heterostructure may have great potential for photonics and thermoelectric applications. ⟨111⟩-oriented Ge nanowires with standard diamond structure (3C) undergo a phase transformation toward the hexagonal diamond phase referred as the 2H-allotrope. The phase transformation occurs heterogeneously on shear bands along the length of the nanowire. The structure meets the common phenomenological criteria of a martensitic phase transformation. This point is discussed to initiate an on going debate on the transformation mechanisms. The process results in unprecedented quasiperiodic heterostructures 3C/2H along the Ge nanowire. The thermal stability of those 2H domains is also studied under annealing up to 650 °C by in situ TEM. PMID:24988041

  9. Millimeter-wave and optoelectronic applications of heterostructure integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlidis, Dimitris

    1991-01-01

    The properties are reviewed of heterostructure devices for microwave-monolithic-integrated circuits (MMICs) and optoelectronic integrated circuits (OICs). Specific devices examined include lattice-matched and pseudomorphic InAlAs/InGaAs high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), mixer/multiplier diodes, and heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) developed with a number of materials. MMICs are reviewed that can be employed for amplification, mixing, and signal generation, and receiver/transmitter applications are set forth for OICs based on GaAs and InP heterostructure designs. HEMTs, HBTs, and junction-FETs can be utilized in combination with PIN, MSM, and laser diodes to develop novel communication systems based on technologies that combine microwave and photonic capabilities.

  10. Tightly Bound Trions in Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Bellus, Matthew Z; Ceballos, Frank; Chiu, Hsin-Ying; Zhao, Hui

    2015-06-23

    We report the observation of trions at room temperature in a van der Waals heterostructure composed of MoSe2 and WS2 monolayers. These trions are formed by excitons excited in the WS2 layer and electrons transferred from the MoSe2 layer. Recombination of trions results in a peak in the photoluminescence spectra, which is absent in monolayer WS2 that is not in contact with MoSe2. The trion origin of this peak is further confirmed by the linear dependence of the peak position on excitation intensity. We deduced a zero-density trion binding energy of 62 meV. The trion formation facilitates electrical control of exciton transport in transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures, which can be utilized in various optoelectronic applications. PMID:26046238

  11. Photoresponsive memory device based on Graphene/Boron Nitride heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, Salman; Velasco, Jairo, Jr.; Ju, Long; Wong, Dillon; Lee, Juwon; Tsai, Hsin Zon; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Zettl, Alex; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Recent technological advancements have allowed the stacking of two dimensional layered material in order to create van der Waals heterostructures (VDH), enabling the design of novel properties by exploiting the proximal interaction between layers with different electronic properties. We report the creation of an optoelectronic memory device using a Graphene/Boron Nitride (hBN) heterostructure. Using the photo-induced doping phenomenon, we are able to spatially ``write'' a doping profile on graphene and ``read'' the profile through electrical transport and local probe techniques. We then utilize defect engineering to enhance the optoelectronic response of graphene and explore the effect of defects in hBN. Our work introduces a simple device architecture to create an optoelectronic memory device and contributes towards understanding the proximal effects of hBN on Graphene.

  12. Characteristics of Sn segregation in Ge/GeSn heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Chang, C.; Chen, T. P.; Cheng, H. H.; Shi, Z. W.; Chen, H.

    2014-10-01

    We report an investigation of Sn segregation in Ge/GeSn heterostructures occurred during the growth by molecular beam epitaxy. The measured Sn profile in the Ge layer shows that: (a) the Sn concentration decreases rapidly near the Ge/GeSn interface, and (b) when moving away from the interface, the Sn concentration reduced with a much slower rate. The 1/e decay lengths of the present system are much longer than those of the conventional group IV system of Ge segregation in the Si overlayer because of the smaller kinetic potential as modeled by a self-limited two-state exchange scheme. The demonstration of the Sn segregation shows the material characteristics of the heterostructure, which are needed for the investigation of its optical properties.

  13. Topological properties and correlation effects in oxide heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Satoshi

    2015-03-01

    Transition-metal oxides (TMOs) have long been one of the main subjects of material science because of their novel functionalities such as high-Tc superconductivity in cuprates and the colossal magnetoresistance effect in manganites. In recent years, we have seen tremendous developments in thin film growth techniques with the atomic precision, resulting in the discovery of a variety of electronic states in TMO heterostructures. These developments motivate us to explore the possibility of novel quantum states of matter such as topological insulators (TIs) in TMO heterostructures. In this talk, I will present our systematic theoretical study on unprecedented electronic states in TMO heterostructures. An extremely simple but crucial observation is that, when grown along the [111] crystallographic axis, bilayers of perovskite TMOs form buckled honeycomb lattices of transition-metal ions, similar to graphene. Thus, with the relativistic spin-orbit coupling and proper band filling, two-dimensional TI states or spin Hall insulators are anticipated. Based on tight-binding modeling and density-functional theory calculations, possible candidate materials for TIs are identified. By means of the dynamical-mean-field theory and a slave-boson mean field theory, correlation effects, characteristics of TMOs, are also examined. I will further discuss future prospects in topological phenomena in TMO heterostructures and related systems. The author thanks D. Xiao, W. Zhu, Y. Ran, R. Arita, Y. Nomura and N. Nagaosa for their fruitful discussions and collaboration. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  14. ``Excess'' polarization of the spontaneous emission in laser heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptashchenko, A. A.; Ptashchenko, F. A.

    1996-10-01

    "Excess" polarization of the spontaneous emission (EPSE) of diode lasers at low injection levels, being more pronounced in degraded specimens, has been observed. A model of EPSE is proposed, involving tunnel radiative recombination of electrons and light holes at inhomogeneities of the p- n junction. Separating EPSE from the polarization effect caused by elastic deformation enables the strain in the active region of laser heterostructures to be determined.

  15. Method for forming monolayer graphene-boron nitride heterostructures

    DOEpatents

    Sutter, Peter Werner; Sutter, Eli Anguelova

    2016-08-09

    A method for fabricating monolayer graphene-boron nitride heterostructures in a single atomically thin membrane that limits intermixing at boundaries between graphene and h-BN, so as to achieve atomically sharp interfaces between these materials. In one embodiment, the method comprises exposing a ruthenium substrate to ethylene, exposing the ruthenium substrate to oxygen after exposure to ethylene and exposing the ruthenium substrate to borazine after exposure to oxygen.

  16. Nonadiabatic chemoelectron energy conversion in heterostructures for hydrogen power engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grankin, V. P.; Grankin, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    A relationship describing the probability of electron excitation in a solid crystal by the energy of a chemical reaction on its surface has been found. It is established that the probability of electron excitation in this reaction exponentially increases with decreasing energy of electron transition in the solid. A method of nonadiabatic chemoelectron energy conversion in heterostructures for hydrogen power engineering based on Schottky diodes is proposed and the efficiency of this method is calculated.

  17. Spatially Correlated Disorder in Epitaxial van der Waals Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laanait, Nouamane; Zhang, Zhan; Schleputz, Christian; Liu, Ying; Wojcik, Michael; Myers-Ward, Rachael; Gaskill, D. Kurt; Fenter, Paul; Li, Lian

    The structural cohesion of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures relies upon a cooperative balance between strong intra-layer bonded interactions and weak inter-layer coupling. The confinement of extended defects to within a single vdW layer and competing interactions introduced by epitaxial constraints could generate fundamentally new structural disorders. Here we report on the presence of spatially correlated and localized disorder states that coexist with the near perfect crystallographic order along the growth direction of epitaxial vdW heterostructure of Bi2Se3/graphene/SiC grown by molecular beam epitaxy. With the depth penetration of hard X-ray diffraction microscopy and high-resolution surface scattering, we imaged local structural configurations from the atomic to mesoscopic length scales, and found that these disorder states result as a confluence of atomic scale modulations in the strength of vdW layer-layer interactions and nanoscale boundary conditions imposed by the substrate. These findings reveal a vast landscape of novel disorder states that can be manifested in epitaxial vdW heterostructures. Supported by the Wigner Fellowship program at Oak Ridge Nat'l Lab.

  18. Gating of high-mobility InAs metamorphic heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Shabani, J.; McFadden, A. P.; Shojaei, B.; Palmstrøm, C. J.

    2014-12-29

    We investigate the performance of gate-defined devices fabricated on high mobility InAs metamorphic heterostructures. We find that heterostructures capped with In{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}As often show signs of parallel conduction due to proximity of their surface Fermi level to the conduction band minimum. Here, we introduce a technique that can be used to estimate the density of this surface charge that involves cool-downs from room temperature under gate bias. We have been able to remove the parallel conduction under high positive bias, but achieving full depletion has proven difficult. We find that by using In{sub 0.75}Al{sub 0.25}As as the barrier without an In{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}As capping, a drastic reduction in parallel conduction can be achieved. Our studies show that this does not change the transport properties of the quantum well significantly. We achieved full depletion in InAlAs capped heterostructures with non-hysteretic gating response suitable for fabrication of gate-defined mesoscopic devices.

  19. Mixed multilayered vertical heterostructures utilizing strained monolayer WS2.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yuewen; Xu, Wenshuo; Wang, Xiaochen; He, Zhengyu; Rong, Youmin; Warner, Jamie H

    2016-02-01

    Creating alternating layers of 2D materials forms vertical heterostructures with diverse electronic and opto-electronic properties. Monolayer WS2 grown by chemical vapour deposition can have inherent strain due to interactions with the substrate. The strain modifies the band structure and properties of monolayer WS2 and can be exploited in a wide range of applications. We demonstrate a non-aqueous transfer method for creating vertical stacks of mixed 2D layers containing a strained monolayer of WS2, with Boron Nitride and Graphene. The 2D materials are all grown by CVD, enabling large area vertical heterostructures to be formed. WS2 monolayers grown by CVD directly on Si substrates with SiO2 surface are easily washed off by water and this makes aqueous based transfer methods challenging for creating vertical stacks on the growth substrate. 2D hexagonal Boron Nitride films are used to provide an insulating layer that limits interactions with a top graphene layer and preserve the strong photoluminescence from the WS2. This transfer method is suitable for layer by layer control of 2D material vertical stacks and is shown to be possible for all CVD grown samples, which opens up pathways for the rapid large scale fabrication of vertical heterostructure systems with atomic thickness depth control and large area coverage. PMID:26758782

  20. Ultrafast Band Structure Control of a Two-Dimensional Heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Ulstrup, Søren; Čabo, Antonija Grubišić; Miwa, Jill A; Riley, Jonathon M; Grønborg, Signe S; Johannsen, Jens C; Cacho, Cephise; Alexander, Oliver; Chapman, Richard T; Springate, Emma; Bianchi, Marco; Dendzik, Maciej; Lauritsen, Jeppe V; King, Phil D C; Hofmann, Philip

    2016-06-28

    The electronic structure of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors can be significantly altered by screening effects, either from free charge carriers in the material or by environmental screening from the surrounding medium. The physical properties of 2D semiconductors placed in a heterostructure with other 2D materials are therefore governed by a complex interplay of both intra- and interlayer interactions. Here, using time- and angle-resolved photoemission, we are able to isolate both the layer-resolved band structure and, more importantly, the transient band structure evolution of a model 2D heterostructure formed of a single layer of MoS2 on graphene. Our results reveal a pronounced renormalization of the quasiparticle gap of the MoS2 layer. Following optical excitation, the band gap is reduced by up to ∼400 meV on femtosecond time scales due to a persistence of strong electronic interactions despite the environmental screening by the n-doped graphene. This points to a large degree of tunability of both the electronic structure and the electron dynamics for 2D semiconductors embedded in a van der Waals-bonded heterostructure. PMID:27267820

  1. Growth and Characterization of Graphene-Boron Nitride Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Graphene has been used to explore the fascinating properties of two-dimensional sp^2 carbon, and shows great promise for applications. Heterostructures of graphene (G) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) have the potential for extended functionality, e.g., providing high carrier mobilities in graphene devices supported on h-BN and giving rise to emergent electronic behavior near in-plane G/h-BN junctions. While significant progress has been made recently in separate graphene and boron nitride growth on transition metals, the controlled synthesis of high-quality G/h-BN heterostructures poses new challenges. We discuss the fundamental growth mechanisms underlying the synthesis of G/h-BN heterostructures, studied by a combination of in-situ surface microscopy methods. Real-time low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) provides a mesoscale view of the nucleation and growth of h-BN in the presence of graphene, and vice-versa. LEEM imaging together with diffraction and angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (micro-ARPES) gives insight into the interaction between graphene and h-BN. Scanning tunneling microscopy has been used to probe intermixing and the atomic-scale structure of interfacial boundaries. Combining real-time and atomic-resolution imaging, we identify successful approaches for achieving atomically sharp G/h-BN junctions.

  2. Magnetization Dynamics of Organic-based Magnetic Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilcote, Michael; Lu, Yu; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Fengyuan; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel

    We present temperature dependent ferromagnetic resonance measurements of both isolated magnetic films and bilayers, including all organic and organic/inorganic hybrid magnetic heterostructures. These results establish organic magnetic heterostructures as an exciting new materials platform for the exploration of the fundamental mechanisms driving magnetic ordering in organic-based materials and promise the extension of organic spintronics into the regime of dynamically-driven spin currents, such as those found in spin pumping. The low cost, low-temperature conformal deposition of organic-based thin film magnets makes them an attractive class of materials for device applications. For example, they offer the potential for novel applications in high frequency magnetoelectronics on flexible substrates. Our materials are of the form M[Acceptor]x (M = transition metal, x ~ 2), exhibit room temperature magnetic ordering, and provide the opportunity to tailor magnetic properties through the selection of the transition metal ions and organic ligands. In particular, we focus on ferrimagnetic films and heterostructures where M = vanadium and the organic ligands are tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), ethyl tricyanoethylene carboxylate (ETCEC), and methyl tricyanoethylene carboxylate (MeTCEC).

  3. Axial Ge/Si nanowire heterostructure tunnel FETs.

    SciTech Connect

    Dayeh, Shadi A.; Gin, Aaron V.; Huang, Jian Yu; Picraux, Samuel Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Axial Ge/Si heterostructure nanowires (NWs) allow energy band-edge engineering along the axis of the NW, which is the charge transport direction, and the realization of asymmetric devices for novel device architectures. This work reports on two significant advances in the area of heterostructure NWs and tunnel FETs: (i) the realization of 100% compositionally modulated Si/Ge axial heterostructure NWs with lengths suitable for device fabrication and (ii) the design and implementation of Schottky barrier tunnel FETs on these NWs for high-on currents and suppressed ambipolar behavior. Initial prototype devices with 10 nm PECVD SiN{sub x} gate dielectric resulted in a very high current drive in excess of 100 {micro}A/{micro}m (I/{pi}D) and 10{sup 5} I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratios. Prior work on the synthesis of Ge/Si axial NW heterostructures through the VLS mechanism have resulted in axial Si/Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} NW heterostructures with x{sub max} {approx} 0.3, and more recently 100% composition modulation was achieved with a solid growth catalyst. In this latter case, the thickness of the heterostructure cannot exceed few atomic layers due to the slow axial growth rate and concurrent radial deposition on the NW sidewalls leading to a mixture of axial and radial deposition, which imposes a big challenge for fabricating useful devices form these NWs in the near future. Here, we report the VLS growth of 100% doping and composition modulated axial Ge/Si heterostructure NWs with lengths appropriate for device fabrication by devising a growth procedure that eliminates Au diffusion on the NW sidewalls and minimizes random kinking in the heterostructure NWs as deduced from detailed microscopy analysis. Fig. 1 a shows a cross-sectional SEM image of epitaxial Ge/Si axial NW heterostructures grown on a Ge(111) surface. The interface abruptness in these Ge/Si heterostructure NWs is of the order of the NW diameter. Some of these NWs develop a crystallographic kink that is {approx

  4. Quantum Tunneling Sb-Heterostructures for Millimeter Wave Radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulman, Joel N.

    2003-03-01

    Imaging in the millimeter wavelength range has been making rapid progress as high speed electronics increase in frequency. Applications include viewing through adverse visibility conditions (fog, smoke, dust, precipitation) and also the relative transparency of clothing (concealed-weapons-detection) and some building materials (through-the-wall-detection). Atmospheric radiometry (climate assessment and weather prediction) already depend heavily on this wavelength range. Astronomical applications include incorporation in instruments for cosmic microwave background detection. An important ingredient is a diode that "rectifies" in a special way. It must convert input power, i.e., voltage squared, into a DC voltage output -- a "square-law" detector. We have recently found that quantum tunneling through an InAs/AlSb/GaAlSb heterostructure system provides the ideal physical mechanism for this purpose.1,2 We will present our results to date, demonstrating how a close coupling of semiconductor quantum tunneling theory with electrical engineering know-how have brought an "exotic" quantum phenomon to practical and economic application. 1. "Sb-heterostructure interband backward diodes" J.N. Schulman and D.H. Chow. IEEE Electron Device Letters 21, 353-355 (2000). 2. "High-Performance Antimonide-Based Heterostructure Backward Diodes for Millimeter-wave Detection" P. Fay, J. N. Schulman, S. Thomas III, D. H. Chow, Y. K. Boegeman, and K. S. Holabird, IEEE Electron Device Letters 23, 585-587 (2002).

  5. Structural and Electrical Investigation of C60-Graphene Vertical Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwanpyo; Lee, Tae Hoon; Santos, Elton J G; Jo, Pil Sung; Salleo, Alberto; Nishi, Yoshio; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-06-23

    Graphene, with its unique electronic and structural qualities, has become an important playground for studying adsorption and assembly of various materials including organic molecules. Moreover, organic/graphene vertical structures assembled by van der Waals interaction have potential for multifunctional device applications. Here, we investigate structural and electrical properties of vertical heterostructures composed of C60 thin film on graphene. The assembled film structure of C60 on graphene is investigated using transmission electron microscopy, which reveals a uniform morphology of C60 film on graphene with a grain size as large as 500 nm. The strong epitaxial relations between C60 crystal and graphene lattice directions are found, and van der Waals ab initio calculations support the observed phenomena. Moreover, using C60-graphene heterostructures, we fabricate vertical graphene transistors incorporating n-type organic semiconducting materials with an on/off ratio above 3 × 10(3). Our work demonstrates that graphene can serve as an excellent substrate for assembly of molecules, and attained organic/graphene heterostructures have great potential for electronics applications. PMID:26027690

  6. Heterostructure of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials with magneto-optic and electro-optic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zou, Yingyin Kevin (Inventor); Jiang, Hua (Inventor); Li, Kewen Kevin (Inventor); Guo, Xiaomei (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A heterostructure of multiferroics or magnetoelectrics (ME) was disclosed. The film has both ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties, as well as magneto-optic (MO) and electro-optic (EO) properties. Oxide buffer layers were employed to allow grown a cracking-free heterostructure a solution coating method.

  7. In situ growth of matchlike ZnO/Au plasmonic heterostructure for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mi; Chen, Wei-Jian; Shen, Yu-Hua; Huang, Fang-Zhi; Li, Chuan-Hao; Li, Shi-Kuo

    2014-09-10

    In this paper, we report a novel matchlike zinc oxide (ZnO)/gold (Au) heterostructure with plasmonic-enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) activity for solar hydrogen production. The matchlike heterostructure with Au nanoparticles coated on the tip of ZnO nanorods is in situ grown on a zinc (Zn) substrate by using a facile hydrothermal and photoreduction combined approach. This unique heterostructure exhibits plasmonic-enhanced light absorption, efficient charge separation and transportation properties with tunable Au contents. The photocurrent density of the matchlike ZnO/Au heterostructure reaches 9.11 mA/cm(2) at an applied potential of 1.0 V (vs Ag/AgCl) with an Au/Zn atomic ratio of 0.039, which is much higher than that of the pristine ZnO nanorod array (0.33 mA/cm(2)). Moreover, the solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of this special heterostructure can reach 0.48%, 16 times higher than that of the pristine ZnO nanorod array (0.03%). What is more, the efficiency could be further improved by optimizing the Au content of the heterostructure. The formation mechanism of such a unique heterostructure is proposed to explain the plasmonic-enhanced PEC performance. This study might contribute to the rational design of the visible-light-responsive plasmonic semiconductor/metal heterostructure photoanode to harvest the solar spectrum. PMID:25144940

  8. Vacuum-evaporated ferroelectric films and heterostructures of vinylidene fluoride/trifluoroethylene copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Draginda, Yu. A. Yudin, S. G.; Lazarev, V. V.; Yablonskii, S. V.; Palto, S. P.

    2012-05-15

    The potential of the vacuum method for preparing ferroelectric films and photonic heterostructures from organic materials is studied. Vacuum-evaporated films of fluoropolymers and heterostructures on their basis are obtained and their ferroelectric and spectral properties are studied. In particular, homogeneous films of the well-known piezoelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride and ferroelectric material vinylidene fluoride/trifluoroethylene copolymer (P(VDF/TFE)) are produced. Experimental studies of vacuum-evaporated P(VDF/TFE) films confirmed their ferroelectric properties. The heterostructures composed of alternating layers of P(VDF/TFE) copolymer molecules and azodye molecules are fabricated by vacuum evaporation. Owing to the controlled layer thickness and a significant difference in the refractive indices of the P(VDF/TFE) copolymer and azodyes, these heterostructures exhibit properties of photonic crystals. This finding is confirmed by the occurrence of a photonic band in the absorption spectra of the heterostructures.

  9. Spin transport properties of partially edge-hydrogenated MoS2 nanoribbon heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Li; Yao, Kailun; Zhu, Sicong; Ni, Yun; Zu, Fengxia; Wang, Shuling; Guo, Bin; Tian, Yong

    2014-06-01

    We report ab initio calculations of electronic transport properties of heterostructure based on MoS2 nanoribbons. The heterostructure consists of edge hydrogen-passivated and non-passivated zigzag MoS2 nanoribbons (ZMoS2NR-H/ZMoS2NR). Our calculations show that the heterostructure has half-metallic behavior which is independent of the nanoribbon width. The opening of spin channels of the heterostructure depends on the matching of particular electronic orbitals in the Mo-dominated edges of ZMoS2NR-H and ZMoS2NR. Perfect spin filter effect appears at small bias voltages, and large negative differential resistance and rectifying effects are also observed in the heterostructure.

  10. Gate-Tunable Spin Transport and Giant Electroresistance in Ferromagnetic Graphene Vertical Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Myoung, Nojoon; Park, Hee Chul; Lee, Seung Joo

    2016-01-01

    Controlling tunneling properties through graphene vertical heterostructures provides advantages in achieving large conductance modulation which has been known as limitation in lateral graphene device structures. Despite of intensive research on graphene vertical heterosturctures for recent years, the potential of spintronics based on graphene vertical heterostructures remains relatively unexplored. Here, we present an analytical device model for graphene-based spintronics by using ferromagnetic graphene in vertical heterostructures. We consider a normal or ferroelectric insulator as a tunneling layer. The device concept yields a way of controlling spin transport through the vertical heterostructures, resulting in gate-tunable spin-switching phenomena. Also, we revealed that a ‘giant’ resistance emerges through a ferroelectric insulating layer owing to the anti-parallel configuration of ferromagnetic graphene layers by means of electric fields via gate and bias voltages. Our findings discover the prospect of manipulating the spin transport properties in vertical heterostructures without use of magnetic fields. PMID:27126101