BACKGROUND: Excessive prescribing of antipsychotic therapy is a concern owing to their potential to cause serious adverse events. We explored variation in the use of antipsychotic therapy across nursing homes in Ontario, Canada, and determined if prescribing decisions were based on clinical indications.\\u000aMETHODS: A point-prevalence study of antipsychotic therapy use in 47 322 residents of 485 provincially regulated nursing
Paula A. Rochon; Therese A. Stukel; Susan E. Bronskill; Tara Gomes; Kathy Sykora; Walter P. Wodchis; Michael Hillmer; Alexander Kopp; Jerry H. Gurwitz; Geoffrey M. Anderson
Background Prescribing of antipsychotics (AP) to young people has increased in the last decade internationally. We aimed to characterize AP prescribing in a population of low-income youth in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods We conducted a population database study of AP prescription claims and health services utilization by young people aged 25 years and younger receiving drug benefits through the publicly funded Pharmacare program between October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2007. Results Four percent (1715/43888) of youth receiving Pharmacare benefits filled AP prescriptions. The use of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) significantly increased (p?0.0001) in all age groups except 0-5 year olds, whereas first generation antipsychotic use significantly decreased. Pharmacare beneficiaries aged 21-25 years represented 45.2% of AP users. The majority (66%) of youth filling AP prescriptions had 2 or more psychiatric diagnoses. Most youth (76%) filled prescriptions for only one type of AP during the study period. Psychotic disorders were the most common indication for AP use except with risperidone, in which ADHD was the most likely reason for use. Co-prescribing of psychotropics was prevalent with antidepressants and mood stabilizers prescribed in 42% and 27% of AP users, respectively. General practitioners (GPs) prescribed incident APs most often (72%) followed by psychiatrists (16%). The age- and gender-adjusted rate of death was higher in AP users as compared to the age-matched general population of Nova Scotia. Conclusions SGA use increased significantly over seven years in a cohort of 0 to 25 years olds receiving Pharmacare benefits. Off-label use of APs was prevalent with ADHD and other non-psychotic disorders being common reasons for AP use. GPs initiated most AP prescriptions. Co-prescribing of other psychotropics, especially antidepressants and mood stabilizers, was prevalent even in younger age strata. This study raises further questions about AP prescribing in those 25 years of age and under, especially given the range of diagnoses and psychotropic co-prescribing.
To ensure that veterans with mental disorders receive the most appropriate yet cost-effective drug, VA issued a guideline in July 2001 for prescribing atypical antipsychotic drugs for newly diagnosed patients or for patients not responding favorably to th...
The Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of antipsychotic medications in some children and adolescents with severe emotional and behavioral disorders. However, recent national data show a dramatic rise in off-label and Food and Drug Administration–approved uses of these medications. Of particular note is a twofold to fivefold increase in the use of antipsychotic medications in preschool children, despite little information on their long-term effects. This article describes the trend in pediatric antipsychotic medication use, possible explanations for the increase, implications for children’s health, and recommendations for pediatric providers who work with parents of children and adolescents who seek or receive antipsychotic medication treatments.
Harrison, Joyce Nolan; Cluxton-Keller, Fallon; Gross, Deborah
The treatment of pediatric depression is controversial because it includes substantial prescribing of drugs for uses that have not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration ("off label") and are not evidence based. Some academic medical centers (AMCs) restrict "detailing" by pharmaceutical sales representatives, or the promoting of drugs directly to physicians via sales calls, to reduce the effect of such marketing on physician prescribing. With data from thirty-one geographically diverse AMCs and their affiliated hospitals, we used a difference-in-differences model to estimate the effect of anti-detailing policies on off-label prescribing of antidepressants and antipsychotics by pediatricians and by child and adolescent psychiatrists in the period January 2006-June 2009. We found that after the introduction of such policies, prescriptions for off-label use of promoted drugs fell by 11 percent, consistent with the ongoing presence of off-label marketing to physicians. Prescriptions for on-label use of promoted drugs fell by 34 percent after the adoption of the policies. Conversely, prescriptions for on-label use of nonpromoted drugs rose by 14 percent, and those for off-label use of nonpromoted drugs rose by 35 percent. These results suggest that pharmaceutical sales representatives promoted drugs not approved for pediatric use and that policies that restrict detailing by those representatives reduced such off-label prescribing. PMID:24889951
Larkin, Ian; Ang, Desmond; Avorn, Jerry; Kesselheim, Aaron S
Poor medication adherence is well documented for patients with severe and persistent mental illness. The State of Missouri implemented an early alert system to notify caregivers when patients fail to refill essential prescriptions in a timely manner and as an educational resource for providers on best practices for improving treatment adherence. Missouri Medicaid patients who were prescribed at least 1 of 9 orally-administered antipsychotic medications and who had at least 1 medication possession ratio (MPR) score below 0.8 were included in the adherence intervention group. Their prescribing clinicians and case managers were messaged electronically 2 times per week at the point that failure to refill the targeted prescription was identified. Notification occurred when the prescription had lapsed at 7 days, 30 days, and 45 days, and occurred in real time. In addition, MPR scores were provided monthly for the most recent 6-month period. Change in MPR scores was measured for the intervention group and for a matched control group. Trends in MPR scores were analyzed for both groups pre, during, and post intervention. In both the intervention and postintervention periods, there was a significant difference in the MPR scores between the two groups. The intervention group had a significantly greater increase in MPR score between preintervention and intervention periods. After the conclusion of the intervention, the MPR score decreased somewhat but was still higher than during the preintervention period. Results suggest that clinicians and patients need specific data about adherence in order to address the issue. PMID:20879908
Patel, Urvashi B; Ni, Quanhong; Clayton, Carol; Lam, Peter; Parks, Joseph
Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine psychiatrists' attitudes and practices in prescribing second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) to children and adolescents (referred to here as "children") and identify factors associated with off-label SGA use. Methods: A survey was mailed to a national, randomly selected sample of 1600 child and adolescent psychiatrists identified by the American Medical Association. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors, including psychiatrists' characteristics, practice characteristics, and psychiatrists' attitudes, that are associated with off-label SGA use (i.e., SGAs used in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, or nonbipolar mood disorders). Results: The final sample included 340 psychiatrists. Overall, respondents reported higher use and appropriateness of SGAs for United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved disorders, symptoms of aggression, and older child age. More than one third (36%) of respondents reported some off-label SGA use. Significant predictors of off-label use were: Practicing at inpatient/residential facilities (odds ratio [OR]=4.2, p=0.001); white/non-Hispanic race/ethnicity (OR=0.3, p<0.0001), agreeing that SGAs should be used for ADHD with aggression (OR=7.1, p<0.0001); and agreeing that SGAs should be used for severe delinquent behaviors (OR=1.9, p=0.03). Conclusions: Psychiatrists' attitudes about prescribing SGAs to children exhibiting aggressive symptoms were associated with off-label SGA use. Research is needed to understand the construct of aggression, potential interaction effects of aggression with diagnostic criteria, and their impact on SGA use. PMID:24679174
Rodday, Angie Mae; Parsons, Susan K; Correll, Christoph U; Robb, Adelaide S; Zima, Bonnie T; Saunders, Tully S; Leslie, Laurel K
Background Shared decision making represents a clinical consultation model where both clinician and service user are conceptualised as experts; information is shared bilaterally and joint treatment decisions are reached. Little previous research has been conducted to assess experience of this model in psychiatric practice. The current project therefore sought to explore the attitudes and experiences of consultant psychiatrists relating to shared decision making in the prescribing of antipsychotic medications. Methods A qualitative research design allowed the experiences and beliefs of participants in relation to shared decision making to be elicited. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants from a range of clinical backgrounds and with varying length of clinical experience. A semi-structured interview schedule was utilised and was adapted in subsequent interviews to reflect emergent themes. Data analysis was completed in parallel with interviews in order to guide interview topics and to inform recruitment. A directed analysis method was utilised for interview analysis with themes identified being fitted to a framework identified from the research literature as applicable to the practice of shared decision making. Examples of themes contradictory to, or not adequately explained by, the framework were sought. Results A total of 26 consultant psychiatrists were interviewed. Participants expressed support for the shared decision making model, but also acknowledged that it was necessary to be flexible as the clinical situation dictated. A number of potential barriers to the process were perceived however: The commonest barrier was the clinician’s beliefs regarding the service users’ insight into their mental disorder, presented in some cases as an absolute barrier to shared decision making. In addition factors external to the clinician - service user relationship were identified as impacting on the decision making process, including; environmental factors, financial constraints as well as societal perceptions of mental disorder in general and antipsychotic medication in particular. Conclusions This project has allowed identification of potential barriers to shared decision making in psychiatric practice. Further work is necessary to observe the decision making process in clinical practice and also to identify means in which the identified barriers, in particular ‘lack of insight’, may be more effectively managed.
Sudden cardiac death has become a significant clinical concern when prescribing antipsychotic drugs, especially to older people with dementia. Sudden death syndrome has been known for decades to occur in association with taking first-generation antipsychotic medications, but it has become more prominent recently due to safety reviews about the use of second-generation antipsychotic medications. In 2005, the United States Food and Drug Administration disseminated information about cardiac fatalities, which led to black box warnings in second-generation, antipsychotic, drug-prescribing literature about higher mortality when administering to elderly persons with dementia-related psychoses. In this population, treatment results in death rates of 4.5 percent, as compared to 2.6 percent in subjects taking a placebo. Actually, patients treated with both the first- and second-generation versions experienced an increased incidence of fatalities. Before utilizing these agents, a careful workup must be completed. The presence of a psychosis or mania should be the only conventional indication for prescribing first- and second-generation antipsychotic medications. Physicians should always evaluate patients for comorbid conditions, especially heart disease and metabolic abnormalities, and all currently used medications to assure a risk-to-benefit ratio favoring the application of an antipsychotic medication. An electrocardiogram is a part of the evaluation of the cardiac status and determines the base line QT interval. While prescribing these medications in elderly patients, physicians must provide individualized clinical, electrocardiographic, and pharmaceutical monitoring.
Narang, Puneet; El-Refai, Mostafa; Parlapalli, Roop; Danilov, Lilia; Manda, Sainath; Kaur, Gagandeep
Background The research goal is to better understand prescriber, patient, and caregiver perspectives about long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic therapy and how these perspectives affect LAI use. Addressing these perspectives in the clinic may lead to greater success in achieving therapeutic goals for the patient with schizophrenia. Methods Ethnographic information was collected from a non-random sample of 69 prescriber-patient conversations (60 with community mental health center [CMHC] psychiatrists; 9 with nurse-practitioners) recorded during treatment visits from August 2011 to February 2012, transcribed and analyzed. Discussions were categorized according to 11 predetermined CMHC topics. In-person observations were also conducted at 4 CMHCs, including home visits by researchers (n?=?15 patients) prior to the CMHC visit and observations of patients receiving injections and interacting with staff. Telephone in-depth interviews with psychiatrists, patients, and caregivers to gather additional information on LAI discussion, prescription, or use were conducted. Results Antipsychotic treatment decisions were made without patient or caregiver input in 40 of 60 (67%) of psychiatrist-patient conversations. Involvement of patients or caregivers in treatment decisions was greater when discussing LAI (15 of 60 [25%]) vs oral antipsychotic treatment (5 of 60 [8%]). LAIs were not discussed by psychiatrists in 11 of 22 (50%) patients taking oral antipsychotics. When offered, more LAI-naïve patients expressed neutral (9 of 19 [47%]) rather than favorable (3 of 19 [16%]) or unfavorable (7 of 19 [37%]) responses. Prescribers were most concerned about potentially damaging the therapeutic relationship and side-effects when discussing LAIs while patient resistance was often related to negative feelings about injections. Psychiatrists had some success in overcoming patient objections to LAIs by addressing and decomposing initial resistance. More than half (11 of 19 [58%]) of LAI-naïve patients agreed to start LAI treatment following office visits. Patient-described benefits of LAIs vs orals included perceived rapid symptom improvement and greater overall efficacy. Conclusions In this study, many psychiatrists did not offer LAIs and most patients and caregivers were not involved in antipsychotic treatment decision making. Opportunities to increase active patient engagement, address resistances, guide patient drug-formulation selection, and provide better LAI-relevant information for more individualized approaches to treating the patient with schizophrenia were present.
Since the unexpected discovery of the antipsychotic activity of chlorpromazine, a variety of therapeutic agents have been developed for the treatment of schizophrenia. Despite differences in their activities at various neurotransmitter systems, all clinically effective antipsychotics share the ability to interact with D2 class dopamine receptors (D2R). D2R mediate their physiological effects via both G protein-dependent and independent (?-arrestin 2-dependent) signaling, but the role of these D2R-mediated signaling events in the actions of antipsychotics remains unclear. We demonstrate here that while different classes of antipsychotics have complex pharmacological profiles at G protein-dependent D2R long isoform (D2LR) signaling, they share the common property of antagonizing dopamine-mediated interaction of D2LR with ?-arrestin 2. Using two cellular assays based on a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) approach, we demonstrate that a series of antipsychotics including haloperidol, clozapine, aripiprazole, chlorpromazine, quetiapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone all potently antagonize the ?-arrestin 2 recruitment to D2LR induced by quinpirole. However, these antipsychotics have various effects on D2LR mediated Gi/o protein activation ranging from inverse to partial agonists and antagonists with highly variable efficacies and potencies at quinpirole-induced cAMP inhibition. These results suggest that the different classes of clinically effective antipsychotics share a common molecular mechanism involving inhibition of D2LR/?-arrestin 2 mediated signaling. Thus, selective targeting of D2LR/?-arrestin 2 interaction and related signaling pathways may provide new opportunities for antipsychotic development.
Masri, Bernard; Salahpour, Ali; Didriksen, Michael; Ghisi, Valentina; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Gainetdinov, Raul R.; Caron, Marc G.
Objective To assess risks of mortality associated with use of individual antipsychotic drugs in elderly residents in nursing homes. Design Population based cohort study with linked data from Medicaid, Medicare, the Minimum Data Set, the National Death Index, and a national assessment of nursing home quality. Setting Nursing homes in the United States. Participants 75?445 new users of antipsychotic drugs (haloperidol, aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone). All participants were aged ?65, were eligible for Medicaid, and lived in a nursing home in 2001-5. Main outcome measures Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare 180 day risks of all cause and cause specific mortality by individual drug, with propensity score adjustment to control for potential confounders. Results Compared with risperidone, users of haloperidol had an increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio 2.07, 95% confidence interval 1.89 to 2.26) and users of quetiapine a decreased risk (0.81, 0.75 to 0.88). The effects were strongest shortly after the start of treatment, remained after adjustment for dose, and were seen for all causes of death examined. No clinically meaningful differences were observed for the other drugs. There was no evidence that the effect measure modification in those with dementia or behavioural disturbances. There was a dose-response relation for all drugs except quetiapine. Conclusions Though these findings cannot prove causality, and we cannot rule out the possibility of residual confounding, they provide more evidence of the risk of using these drugs in older patients, reinforcing the concept that they should not be used in the absence of clear need. The data suggest that the risk of mortality with these drugs is generally increased with higher doses and seems to be highest for haloperidol and least for quetiapine.
Background: Olanzapine and risperidone are two commonly prescribed atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia. Prior studies have shown inconsistent results in terms of advantage in cost saving in prescribing these agents. Our preliminary analysis showed that a small percentage of intensive healthcare utilizers had substantial impact on healthcare costs. This study analysed the cost effects of olanzapine and risperidone among those who
Wei Yu; Xinhua S. Ren; Austin F. Lee; Lawrence Herz; Yu-Hui Huang; Lewis E. Kazis
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic monotherapy is recognized as the treatment of choice for patients with schizophrenia. Simultaneous treatment with multiple antipsychotics (polypharmacy) is suggested by some expert consensus guidelines as the last resort after exhausting monotherapy alternatives. This study assessed the annual rate and duration of antipsychotic monotherapy and its inverse, antipsychotic polypharmacy, among schizophrenia patients initiated on commonly used atypical antipsychotic
Douglas Faries; Haya Ascher-Svanum; Baojin Zhu; Christoph Correll; John Kane
Results: Overall, 8425 patients were assessed in our survey. Of these, 905 patients (10.7%) received a diagnosis of schizophrenic psychoses, of whom 733 details on antipsychotic treatment were docu- mented. 73.1% of these patients received second- generation antipsychotics. Most private psychia- trists prescribed antipsychotic monotherapy and maintained antipsychotic treatment according to recommendation from international guidelines. Almost half of these patients
Andor E. Simon; Manuela Peter; Lorenzo Hess; Claude Valterio
Weight gain is a frequent adverse effect of many second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) drugs. Although a number of candidate gene studies have focused on SGA-related weight gain, a clinical benefit for pharmacotherapy has not been achieved as yet. Genome-wide association studies offer great potential of identifying novel candidate genes and help to complete the search for relevant polygenetic risk factors. A polymorphism near the human melanocortin 4 receptor gene (MC4R) was associated with overweight and body mass index in recent studies. Owing to the central role of the MC4R receptor in energy homeostasis, we investigated the influence of the rs17782313 polymorphism on SGA-related weight gain. Three hundred forty-five white inpatients receiving different atypical antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, paliperidone, quetiapine, or amisulpride) were included in a naturalistic design. After 4 weeks of treatment, patients homozygous for the rs17782313 C-allele had a significantly higher risk of weight gain and body mass index increase, with a dose effect of the C-allele. In a subpopulation without additional weight gain-inducing comedication, the 106 TT-allele carriers gained on average 1.09% of their baseline weight within the 4 weeks of treatment, whereas the 57 CT-allele carriers and the 9 CC-allele carriers gained 3.28% and 5.47% (P = 0.003). Our findings indicate that the rs17782313 polymorphism could increase the amount of SGA-related weight gain and may influence MC4R expression, which could result in an imbalance of energy homeostasis. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to elucidate the role and mechanism of this polymorphism. PMID:23277235
Czerwensky, Fabian; Leucht, Stefan; Steimer, Werner
Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease agent worldwide, enters a viable, non-dividing and non-infectious state (historically termed persistence and more recently referred to as the chlamydial stress response) when exposed to penicillin G in culture. Notably, penicillin G-exposed chlamydiae can reenter the normal developmental cycle upon drug removal and are resistant to azithromycin-mediated killing. Because penicillin G is less frequently prescribed than other ?-lactams, the clinical relevance of penicillin G-induced chlamydial persistence/stress has been questioned. The goal of this study was to determine whether more commonly used penicillins also induce C. trachomatis serovar E persistence/stress. All penicillins tested, as well as clavulanic acid, induced formation of aberrant, enlarged reticulate bodies (RB) (called aberrant bodies or AB) characteristic of persistent/stressed chlamydiae. Exposure to the penicillins and clavulanic acid also reduced chlamydial infectivity by >95%. None of the drugs tested significantly reduced chlamydial unprocessed 16S rRNA or genomic DNA accumulation, indicating that the organisms were viable, though non-infectious. Finally, recovery assays demonstrated that chlamydiae rendered essentially non-infectious by exposure to ampicillin, amoxicillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin, penicillin V, and clavulanic acid recovered infectivity after antibiotic removal. These data definitively demonstrate that several commonly used penicillins induce C. trachomatis persistence/stress at clinically relevant concentrations. PMID:24783061
Kintner, Jennifer; Lajoie, Dawn; Hall, Jennifer; Whittimore, Judy; Schoborg, Robert V
Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease agent worldwide, enters a viable, non-dividing and non-infectious state (historically termed persistence and more recently referred to as the chlamydial stress response) when exposed to penicillin G in culture. Notably, penicillin G-exposed chlamydiae can reenter the normal developmental cycle upon drug removal and are resistant to azithromycin-mediated killing. Because penicillin G is less frequently prescribed than other ?-lactams, the clinical relevance of penicillin G-induced chlamydial persistence/stress has been questioned. The goal of this study was to determine whether more commonly used penicillins also induce C. trachomatis serovar E persistence/stress. All penicillins tested, as well as clavulanic acid, induced formation of aberrant, enlarged reticulate bodies (RB) (called aberrant bodies or AB) characteristic of persistent/stressed chlamydiae. Exposure to the penicillins and clavulanic acid also reduced chlamydial infectivity by >95%. None of the drugs tested significantly reduced chlamydial unprocessed 16S rRNA or genomic DNA accumulation, indicating that the organisms were viable, though non-infectious. Finally, recovery assays demonstrated that chlamydiae rendered essentially non-infectious by exposure to ampicillin, amoxicillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin, penicillin V, and clavulanic acid recovered infectivity after antibiotic removal. These data definitively demonstrate that several commonly used penicillins induce C. trachomatis persistence/stress at clinically relevant concentrations.
Kintner, Jennifer; Lajoie, Dawn; Hall, Jennifer; Whittimore, Judy; Schoborg, Robert V.
Psychotropic medications are now a well-established and evidenced based treatment for increasing number of child mental health disorders prescribed at increasing frequencies and by increasing number of professional groups. Clinicians' perceived levels of competence and standardised monitoring lag behind prescribing practice and should be addressed by regular continuous professional development. A study specific questionnaire on psychotropic prescribing practice in children was mailed to all child psychiatrists and paediatricians working in Ireland and GPs from a selected Dublin CAMHS catchment area. Of the 116 who replied, (39% response rate), antidepressants (58.7%), antipsychotics (57.1%) and ADHD medications (36.5%) were most commonly prescribed. Results suggest increasing trends of monitoring amongst Irish clinicians over time, but with some lack of specificity. Commensurate with the wish of clinicians, ongoing training in paediatric psychopharmacology is considered essential in order to benefit from the increasing advances in pharmacology. PMID:24654480
McNicholas, F; Orakwue, N
This study sought to determine whether the presence of in vitro anticholinergic activity (AA) among different drugs is associated with reporting of neuropsychiatric adverse events (NPAEs) and whether age affects this relationship. Retrospective case/noncase analyses using Australia's spontaneous Adverse Drug Reaction System (ADRS) database containing 150 475 reports determined crude and adjusted reporting odds ratios (RORs) for NPAEs for 23 drugs with various reported in vitro AA. Covariates were age (treated as a dichotomous variable [> or =65 years]), gender, and concomitant use of antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants, and drugs with recognized inherent anticholinergic properties (anticholinergic drugs). The interaction effect between these covariates and each drug exposure category was examined. Age (> or =65 years) has a significant association with greater odds relative to younger age for reporting NPAEs. Drugs with reported significant AA in vitro were not always associated with RORs greater than 1 for reporting NPAEs, highlighting a dissonance between the in vitro AA index and ADRS observations. Significant interactions were observed between age (> or =65 years) and exposure to cimetidine, anticholinergic drugs, antipsychotics, and tricyclic antidepressants in modifying odds for reporting NPAEs, reinforcing the need for cautious use and monitoring of drugs with AA in older people. PMID:19783711
Nishtala, Prasad S; Fois, Romano A; McLachlan, Andrew J; Bell, J Simon; Kelly, Patrick J; Chen, Timothy F
Background To analyse the extent and profile of outpatient regular dispensation of antipsychotics, both in combination and monotherapy, in the Barcelona Health Region (Spain), focusing on the use of clozapine and long-acting injections (LAI). Methods Antipsychotic drugs dispensed for people older than 18 and processed by the Catalan Health Service during 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. First and second generation antipsychotic drugs (FGA and SGA) from the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification (ATC) code N05A (except lithium) were included. A patient selection algorithm was designed to identify prescriptions regularly dispensed. Variables included were age, gender, antipsychotic type, route of administration and number of packages dispensed. Results A total of 117,811 patients were given any antipsychotic, of whom 71,004 regularly received such drugs. Among the latter, 9,855 (13.9%) corresponded to an antipsychotic combination, 47,386 (66.7%) to monotherapy and 13,763 (19.4%) to unspecified combinations. Of the patients given antipsychotics in association, 58% were men. Olanzapine (37.1%) and oral risperidone (36.4%) were the most common dispensations. Analysis of the patients dispensed two antipsychotics (57.8%) revealed 198 different combinations, the most frequent being the association of FGA and SGA (62.0%). Clozapine was dispensed to 2.3% of patients. Of those who were receiving antipsychotics in combination, 6.6% were given clozapine, being clozapine plus amisulpride the most frequent association (22.8%). A total of 3.800 patients (5.4%) were given LAI antipsychotics, and 2.662 of these (70.1%) were in combination. Risperidone was the most widely used LAI. Conclusions The scant evidence available regarding the efficacy of combining different antipsychotics contrasts with the high number and variety of combinations prescribed to outpatients, as well as with the limited use of clozapine.
Background Depression is among the most common chronic illnesses in the US elderly Medicare population, affecting approximately 11.5% of beneficiaries with estimated costs of about US$65 billion annually. Patients with depression are typically treated with antidepressants - most commonly the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs). SSRIs vary substantially in their costs, side effect profiles and convenience of use. All these factors might affect medication adherence and subsequently down-stream medical costs. Aims of Study To assess the comparative-effectiveness of three antidepressants (escitalopram, citalopram, sertraline) commonly-prescribed for depression in Medicare. Methods We used pharmacy and medical claims data for a 5 percent national random sample of Medicare beneficiaries who were diagnosed with depression in 2008 and followed until 12/31/2009. Key measures included drug spending, medication adherence to antidepressants, down-stream non-drug medical costs at three levels: all, psychiatric and depression related costs. Three methods were conducted to test robustness: generalized linear regression (GLM), propensity score matching, and instrumental variables (IV) approach. For the instrumental variables approach, we used a two-stage residual inclusion model, using geographic variation in the use of the various drugs as instruments. Specifically, we calculated the ratio of the number of individuals who used each drug to the total number of individuals using any antidepressants at the 306 Dartmouth hospital-referral regions. Results The regression and the propensity score matching method each showed that patients using escitalopram had significantly worse adherence, higher drug costs, and higher medical costs than patients using either citalopram or sertraline. However, our IV analysis yielded different results. While drug costs remained significantly higher for escitalopram patients, we found that escitalopram users had lower non-drug medical spending than patients who used citalopram, which was enough to offset the higher drug costs. The instrumental variables results also suggested that sertraline users had lower non-drug medical costs than citalopram users. The differences between sertraline and escitalopram were not statistically significant for medical spending, but sertraline users had lower drug costs and better adherence than escitalopram users. Discussion The IV method yielded somewhat different results than the GLM regressions and the propensity score matching methods. Once we controlled for selection bias using the instrumental variables, we found that escitalopram is actually associated with lower medical spending. One interpretation is that the IV approach mitigates selection biases due to unobserved factors that are not controlled in regular regressions. However, one conclusion remains the same: in every model, we found that sertraline was at least as cost-effective as or more cost-effective than the other drugs. Limitations Potential unobserved factors affecting the choice of three antidepressants are possible. Implications for Health Policies All methods indicated that sertraline is the most cost-effective drug to treat depression. Substantial savings to Medicare could be realized by using more cost-effective antidepressants such as sertraline. Implications for Further Research Geographic variation in the use of prescription drugs has been underutilized as an instrumental variable in comparative-effectiveness research. Our study demonstrates that it can help to control for selection biases in observational data.
Kaplan, Cameron; Zhang, Yuting
Scant information exists to guide pharmacological treatment of early-onset schizophrenia. We examine variation across commonly prescribed second-generation antipsychotic medications in medication discontinuation and psychiatric hospital admission among children and adolescents clinically diagnosed with schizophrenia. A 45-state Medicaid claims file (2001–2005) was analyzed focusing on outpatients, aged 6–17 years, diagnosed with schizophrenia or a related disorder prior to starting a new episode of antipsychotic monotherapy with risperidone (n = 805), olanzapine (n = 382), quetiapine (n = 260), aripiprazole (n = 173), or ziprasidone (n = 125). Cox proportional hazard regressions estimated adjusted hazard ratios of 180-day antipsychotic medication discontinuation and 180-day psychiatric hospitalization for patients treated with each medication. During the first 180 days following antipsychotic initiation, most youth treated with quetiapine (70.7%), ziprasidone (73.3%), olanzapine (73.7%), risperidone (74.7%), and aripirazole (76.5%) discontinued their medication (?2 = 1.69, df = 4, P = .79). Compared with risperidone, the adjusted hazards of antipsychotic discontinuation did not significantly differ for any of the 4-comparator medications. The percentages of youth receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment while receiving their initial antipsychotic medication ranged from 7.19% (aripiprazole) to 9.89% (quetiapine) (?2 = 0.79, df = 4, P = .94). As compared with risperidone, the adjusted hazard ratio of psychiatric hospital admission was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.57–1.61) for olanzapine, 1.03 (95% CI: 0.59–1.81) for quetiapine, 0.85 (95% CI: 0.43–1.70) for aripiprazole, and 1.22 (95% CI: 0.60–2.51) for ziprasidone. The results suggest that rapid antipsychotic medication discontinuation and psychiatric hospital admission are common in the community treatment of early-onset schizophrenia. No significant differences were detected in risk of either adverse outcome across 5 commonly prescribed second-generation antipsychotic medications.
Olfson, Mark; Gerhard, Tobias; Huang, Cecilia; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Bobo, William V.; Crystal, Stephen
Scant information exists to guide pharmacological treatment of early-onset schizophrenia. We examine variation across commonly prescribed second-generation antipsychotic medications in medication discontinuation and psychiatric hospital admission among children and adolescents clinically diagnosed with schizophrenia. A 45-state Medicaid claims file (2001-2005) was analyzed focusing on outpatients, aged 6-17 years, diagnosed with schizophrenia or a related disorder prior to starting a new episode of antipsychotic monotherapy with risperidone (n = 805), olanzapine (n = 382), quetiapine (n = 260), aripiprazole (n = 173), or ziprasidone (n = 125). Cox proportional hazard regressions estimated adjusted hazard ratios of 180-day antipsychotic medication discontinuation and 180-day psychiatric hospitalization for patients treated with each medication. During the first 180 days following antipsychotic initiation, most youth treated with quetiapine (70.7%), ziprasidone (73.3%), olanzapine (73.7%), risperidone (74.7%), and aripirazole (76.5%) discontinued their medication (?(2) = 1.69, df = 4, P = .79). Compared with risperidone, the adjusted hazards of antipsychotic discontinuation did not significantly differ for any of the 4-comparator medications. The percentages of youth receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment while receiving their initial antipsychotic medication ranged from 7.19% (aripiprazole) to 9.89% (quetiapine) (?(2) = 0.79, df = 4, P = .94). As compared with risperidone, the adjusted hazard ratio of psychiatric hospital admission was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.57-1.61) for olanzapine, 1.03 (95% CI: 0.59-1.81) for quetiapine, 0.85 (95% CI: 0.43-1.70) for aripiprazole, and 1.22 (95% CI: 0.60-2.51) for ziprasidone. The results suggest that rapid antipsychotic medication discontinuation and psychiatric hospital admission are common in the community treatment of early-onset schizophrenia. No significant differences were detected in risk of either adverse outcome across 5 commonly prescribed second-generation antipsychotic medications. PMID:21307041
Olfson, Mark; Gerhard, Tobias; Huang, Cecilia; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Bobo, William V; Crystal, Stephen
This study compares the first-generation antipsychotic (FGA) flupentixol to haloperidol and common second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) as to drug utilization and severe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in clinical treatment of schizophrenia inpatients using data from the drug safety program Arzneimittelsicherheit in der Psychiatrie (AMSP). AMSP drug utilization and reported ADR data were analyzed. Type and frequency of severe ADRs attributed to flupentixol were compared with haloperidol, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and amisulpride in a total of 56,861 schizophrenia inpatients exposed to these drugs. In spite of increasing prescription of SGAs, flupentixol was consistently used in schizophrenic inpatients (about 5 %) over time. Reporting rates of severe ADR ranged from 0.38 to 1.20 % for the individual antipsychotics (drugs imputed alone); flupentixol ranked lowest. The type of ADR differed considerably; as to severe EPMS, flupentixol (0.27 %), such as risperidone (0.28 %), held an intermediate position between haloperidol/amisulpride (0.55/0.52 %) and olanzapine/quetiapine (<0.1 %). The study is a heuristic approach, not a confirmatory test. Flupentixol has a stable place in the treatment of schizophrenia in spite of the introduction of different SGAs. Comparative ADR profiles suggest an intermediate position between FGAs and SGAs for flupentixol in clinical practice. PMID:23835526
Grohmann, R; Engel, R R; Möller, H-J; Rüther, E; van der Velden, J W; Stübner, S
Delusions, hallucinations and other psychotic symptoms can accompany a number of conditions in late life. As such, elderly patients are commonly prescribed antipsychotic medications for the treatment of psychosis in both acute and chronic conditions. Those conditions include schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and dementia. Elderly patients are at an increased risk of adverse events from antipsychotic medications because of age-related pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic changes as well as polypharmacy. Drug selection should be individualized to the patient’s previous history of antipsychotic use, current medical conditions, potential drug interactions, and potential side effects of the antipsychotic. Specifically, metabolic side effects should be closely monitored in this population. This paper provides a review of aripiprazole, a newer second generation antipsychotic agent, for its use in a variety of psychiatric disorders in the elderly including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, dementia, Parkinson’s disease and depression. We will review the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of aripiprazole as well as dosing, diagnostic indications, efficacy studies, and tolerability including its metabolic profile. We will also detail patient focused perspectives including quality of life, patient satisfaction and adherence.
Kohen, Izchak; Lester, Paula E; Lam, Sum
Community treatment orders (CTOs) are a form of compulsory treatment of individuals with a mental illness in the community. The objectives of this study were to determine the demographic, clinical, and treatment plan factors associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy and high-dose antipsychotics among individuals issued with a CTO. This was a secondary analysis of all 377 individuals who were prescribed an antipsychotic, extracted from a retrospective study of 378 individuals issued with a CTO by the New South Wales Mental Health Review Tribunal in Australia in 2009. Deidentified information relating to individuals' treatment plans, demographic, and clinical details were systematically extracted. Of the 377 individuals, 121 (32%) were prescribed antipsychotic polypharmacy and 101 (27%) high-dose antipsychotics. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for factors associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy and high-dose antipsychotics were computed using binary logistic regression. There was a strong association between the use of antipsychotic polypharmacy and high-dose antipsychotics (P < 0.001). Only treatment plan factors were associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy and high-dose antipsychotics in adjusted models. Although first-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics and clozapine were associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy (adjusted OR, 9.12; 95% CI, 4.21-19.74; adjusted OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 2.93-21.72), oral second-generation antipsychotics and risperidone long-acting injection were associated with high-dose antipsychotics (adjusted OR, 5.67; 95% CI, 2.89-11.12; adjusted OR, 8.14; 95% CI, 3.22-20.53). Therefore, the use of antipsychotic polypharmacy and high-dose antipsychotics among individuals issued with CTOs is associated only with the drugs prescribed in their treatment plans and not their individual demographic and clinical characteristics. PMID:24717256
Gisev, Natasa; Bell, J Simon; Chen, Timothy F
The safety of medication use in primary care is an area of increasing concern for health systems internationally. Systematic reviews estimate that 3–4% of all unplanned hospital admissions are due to preventable drug-related morbidity, the majority of which have been attributed to shortcomings in the prescribing and monitoring stages of the medication use process. We define high-risk prescribing as medication prescription by professionals, for which there is evidence of significant risk of harm to patients, and which should therefore either be avoided or (if avoidance is not possible) closely monitored and regularly reviewed for continued appropriateness. Although prevalence estimates vary depending on the instrument used, cross-sectional studies conducted in primary care equivocally show that it is common and there is evidence that it can be reduced. Quality improvement strategies, such as clinical decision support, performance feedback and pharmacist-led interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing prescribing outcomes but evidence of improved patient outcomes remains limited. The increasing implementation of electronic medical records in primary care offer new opportunities to combine different strategies to improve medication safety in primary care and to integrate services provided by different stakeholders. In this review article, we describe the spectrum of high-risk medication use in primary care, review approaches to its measurement and summarize research into its prevalence. Based on previously developed interventions to change professional practice, we propose a systematic approach to improve the safety of medication use in primary care and highlight areas for future research.
The study was carried out on 60 school going children (dft/DMFT 2-5) aged 8-13 years randomly distributed into six age groups of ten subjects each. One group acted as a control in which subjects rinsed with 10% sucrose while in the other five groups, the subjects rinsed with 5 commonly prescribed syrup medications for 10 seconds. Plaque samples were collected before rinsing and at 5,10,20,30 min. intervals post rinsing and plaque pH was measured extraorally. All the 5 groups showed drop in the plaque pH, similar to control group 10% sucrose solution, but not to the extent of critical pH (5.5). PMID:9522741
Srinivas, N; Reddy, V V
Background Antipsychotic medications are commonly prescribed to nursing home residents despite their well-established adverse event profiles. Because little is known about their use in Veterans Administration(VA) nursing homes (i.e., Community Living Centers(CLCs)), we assessed the prevalence and risk factors for their use in older residents of VA CLCs. Methods This cross-sectional study included 3,692 Veterans ?age 65 who were admitted between January 2004-June 2005 to one of 133 VA CLCs and had a stay of ?90 days. We used VA Pharmacy Benefits Management data to examine antipsychotic use and VA Medical SAS datasets and the Minimum Data Set to identify evidence-based indications for antipsychotic use (e.g., schizophrenia, dementia with psychosis). We used multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to identify factors independently associated with antipsychotic use. Results Overall, 948/3,692(25.7%) residents used an antipsychotic, of which 59.3% had an evidence-based indication for use. Residents with aggressive behavior (odds ratio[OR]=2.74, 95% confidence interval[CI]=2.04-3.67) and polypharmacy (9+ drugs; OR=1.84, 95%CI=1.41-2.40) were more likely to receive antipsychotics, as were users of antidepressants (OR=1.37, 95%CI=1.14-1.66), anxiolytic/hypnotics (OR=2.30, 95%CI=1.64-3.23) or drugs for dementia (OR=1.52, 95%CI=1.21-1.92). Those residing in Alzheimer's/dementia special care units were also more likely to use an antipsychotic (OR=1.66, 95%CI=1.26-2.21). Veterans with dementia but no documented psychosis were as likely as those with an evidence-based indication to receive an antipsychotic (OR=1.10, 95%CI=0.82-1.47). Conclusions Antipsychotic use is common in older VA CLC residents, including those without a documented evidence-based indication for use. Further quality improvement efforts are needed to reduce potentially inappropriate antipsychotic prescribing.
Gellad, WF; Aspinall, SL; Handler, SM; Stone, RA; Castle, N; Semla, TP; Good, CB; Fine, MJ; Dysken, M; Hanlon, JT
Special consideration is required when prescribing antipsychotic drugs for patients with an existing diagnosis of breast cancer. The package inserts of all approved antipsychotics contain precautions regarding their administration in this patient group. These drugs are well known to elevate serum prolactin levels to varying degrees. Overexpression of the prolactin receptor is seen in more than 95% of human breast cancers. Many genes that are activated by the prolactin receptor are associated with tumorigenesis and cancer cell proliferation. The authors discuss the pathophysiology, clinical implications, and pertinent preclinical data and make specific recommendations regarding the use of antipsychotics in patients with breast cancer. PMID:24880509
Rahman, Tahir; Clevenger, Charles V; Kaklamani, Virginia; Lauriello, John; Campbell, Austin; Malwitz, Kari; Kirkland, Robert S
Antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP), which is common in adults with psychotic disorders, is of unproven efficacy and raises safety concerns. Although youth are increasingly prescribed antipsychotics, little is known about APP in this population. We performed a systematic PubMed search (last update 26 January 2013) of studies reporting the prevalence of APP in antipsychotic-treated youth. Summary statistics and statistical tests were calculated at the study level and not weighted by sample size. Fifteen studies (n = 58 041, range 68-23 183) reported on APP in youth [mean age = 13.4 ± 1.7 yr, 67.1 ± 10.2% male, 77.9 ± 27.4% treated with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs)]. Data collected in these studies covered 1993-2008. The most common diagnoses were attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; 39.9 ± 23.5%) and conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder (CD/ODD; 33.6 ± 24.8). In studies including predominantly children (mean age = <13 yr, N = 5), the most common diagnosis were ADHD (50.6 ± 25.4%) and CD/ODD (39.5 ± 27.5%); while in studies with predominantly adolescents (mean age = ?13 yr, N = 7) the most common diagnoses were schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (28.6 ± 23.8%), anxiety disorders (26.9 ± 14.9%) and bipolar-spectrum disorders (26.6 ± 7.0%), followed closely by CD/ODD (25.8 ± 17.7). The prevalence of APP among antipsychotic-treated youth was 9.6 ± 7.2% (5.9 ± 4.5% in child studies, 12.0 ± 7.9% in adolescent studies, p = 0.15). Higher prevalence of APP was correlated with a bipolar disorder or schizophrenia diagnosis (p = 0.019) and APP involving SGA+SGA combinations (p = 0.0027). No correlation was found with APP definition [?1 d (N = 10) vs. >30-?90 d (N = 5), p = 0.88]. Despite lacking safety and efficacy data, APP in youth is not uncommon, even in samples predominantly consisting of non-psychotic patients. The duration, clinical motivations and effectiveness of this practice require further study. PMID:23673334
Toteja, Nitin; Gallego, Juan A; Saito, Ema; Gerhard, Tobias; Winterstein, Almut; Olfson, Mark; Correll, Christoph U
Antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP), which is common in adults with psychotic disorders, is of unproven efficacy and raises safety concerns. Although youth are increasingly prescribed antipsychotics, little is known about APP in this population. We performed a systematic PubMed search (last update 26 January 2013) of studies reporting the prevalence of APP in antipsychotic-treated youth. Summary statistics and statistical tests were calculated at the study level and not weighted by sample size. Fifteen studies (n=58 041, range 68–23 183) reported on APP in youth [mean age=13.4±1.7 yr, 67.1±10.2% male, 77.9±27.4% treated with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs)]. Data collected in these studies covered 1993–2008. The most common diagnoses were attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; 39.9±23.5%) and conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder (CD/ODD; 33.6±24.8). In studies including predominantly children (mean age=<13 yr, N=5), the most common diagnosis were ADHD (50.6±25.4%) and CD/ODD (39.5±27.5%); while in studies with predominantly adolescents (mean age =?13 yr, N=7) the most common diagnoses were schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (28.6±23.8%), anxiety disorders (26.9±14.9%) and bipolar-spectrum disorders (26.6±7.0%), followed closely by CD/ODD (25.8±17.7). The prevalence of APP among antipsychotic-treated youth was 9.6±7.2% (5.9±4.5% in child studies, 12.0±7.9% in adolescent studies, p=0.15). Higher prevalence of APP was correlated with a bipolar disorder or schizophrenia diagnosis (p=0.019) and APP involving SGA+SGA combinations (p=0.0027). No correlation was found with APP definition [?1 d (N=10) vs. >30–?90 d (N=5), p=0.88]. Despite lacking safety and efficacy data, APP in youth is not uncommon, even in samples predominantly consisting of non-psychotic patients. The duration, clinical motivations and effectiveness of this practice require further study.
Toteja, Nitin; Gallego, Juan A.; Saito, Ema; Gerhard, Tobias; Winterstein, Almut; Olfson, Mark; Correll, Christoph U.
Background Information about antibiotic use and resistance patterns of common microorganisms are lacking in hospitals in Western Nepal. Excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics contributes to the development of bacterial resistance. The parameter: Defined daily dose/100 bed-days, provides an estimate of consumption of drugs among hospital in-patients. This study was carried out to collect relevant demographic information, antibiotic prescribing patterns and the common organisms isolated including their antibiotic sensitivity patterns. Methods The study was carried out over a 3-month period (01.04.2002 to 30.06.2002) at the Manipal Teaching Hospital, Western Nepal. The median number of days of hospitalization and mean ± SD cost of antibiotics prescribed during hospital stay were calculated. The use of antibiotics was classified for prophylaxis, bacteriologically proven infection or non-bacteriologically proven infection. Sensitivity patterns of the common organisms were determined. Defined daily dose/100 bed-days of the ten most commonly prescribed antibiotics were calculated. Results 203 patients were prescribed antibiotics; 112 were male. Median duration of hospitalization was 5 days. 347 antibiotics were prescribed. The most common were ampicillin, amoxicillin, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and benzylpenicillin. Mean ± SD cost of antibiotics was 16.5 ± 13.4 US$. Culture and sensitivity testing was carried out in 141 patients. The common organisms isolated were H. influenzae, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus. Conclusions Antibiotic resistance is becoming a problem in the Internal Medicine ward. Formulation of a policy for hospital antibiotic use and an educational programme especially for junior doctors is required.
Shankar, Ravi Pathiyil; Partha, Praveen; Shenoy, Nagesh Kumar; Easow, Joshy Maducolil; Brahmadathan, Kottallur Narayanan
Treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) has changed in the past few years with researchers advocating empiric treatment for shorter periods of time without the use of cultures. Researchers report that antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli (E coli) to commonly prescribed antibiotics in uncomplicated UTIs has been increasing.…
Ansbach, Robert K.; Dybus, Karen; Bergeson, Rachel
Objectives To document the extent and appropriateness of use of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines among nursing home residents using a nationally representative survey. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey. Bivariate and multivariate analyses examined relationships between resident and facility characteristics and antipsychotic and benzodiazepine use by appropriateness classification among residents aged 60 years and older (N = 12,090). Resident diagnoses and information about behavioral problems were used to categorize antipsychotic and benzodiazepine use as appropriate, potentially appropriate, or having no appropriate indication. Results More than one quarter (26%) of nursing home residents used an antipsychotic medication, 40% of whom had no appropriate indication for such use. Among the 13% of residents who took benzodiazepines, 42% had no appropriate indication. In adjusted analyses, the odds of residents taking an antipsychotic without an appropriate indication were highest for residents with diagnoses of depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12–1.53), dementia (OR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.52–2.18), and with behavioral symptoms (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.56–2.50). The odds of potentially inappropriate antipsychotic use increased as the percentage of Medicaid residents in a facility increased (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.02–1.15) and decreased as the percentage of Medicare residents increased (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.25–0.83). The odds of taking a benzodiazepine without an appropriate indication were highest among residents who were female (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.18–1.75), white (OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.47–2.60), and had behavioral symptoms (OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.41–2.01). Conclusion Antipsychotics and benzodiazepines seem to be commonly prescribed to residents lacking an appropriate indication for their use.
Stevenson, David G.; Decker, Sandra L.; Dwyer, Lisa L.; Huskamp, Haiden A.; Grabowski, David C.; Metzger, Eran D.; Mitchell, Susan L.
Introduction High-risk prescribing in primary care is common and causes considerable harm. Feedback interventions to improve care are attractive because they are relatively cheap to widely implement. There is good evidence that feedback has small to moderate effects, but the most recent Cochrane review called for more high-quality, large trials that explicitly test different forms of feedback. Methods and analysis The study is a three-arm cluster-randomised trial with general practices being randomised and outcomes measured at patient level. 262 practices in three Scottish Health Board areas have been randomised (94% of all possible practices). The two active arms receive different forms of prescribing safety data feedback, with rates of high-risk prescribing compared with a ‘usual care’ arm. Sample size estimation used baseline data from participating practices. With 85 practices randomised to each arm, then there is 93% power to detect a 25% difference in the percentage of high-risk prescribing (from 6.1% to 4.5%) between the usual care arm and each intervention arm. The primary outcome is a composite of six high-risk prescribing measures (antipsychotic prescribing to people aged ?75?years; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) prescribing to people aged ?75 without gastroprotection; NSAID prescribing to people prescribed aspirin/clopidogrel without gastroprotection; NSAID prescribing to people prescribed an ACE inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker and a diuretic; NSAID prescription to people prescribed an oral anticoagulant without gastroprotection; aspirin/clopidogrel prescription to people prescribed an oral anticoagulant without gastroprotection). The primary analysis will use multilevel modelling to account for repeated measurement of outcomes in patients clustered within practices. Ethics and dissemination The study was reviewed and approved by the NHS Tayside Committee on Medical Research Ethics B (11/ES/0001). The study will be disseminated via a final report to the funder with a publicly available research summary, and peer reviewed publications. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, dossier number NCT01602705.
Guthrie, Bruce; Treweek, Shaun; Petrie, Dennis; Barnett, Karen; Ritchie, Lewis D; Robertson, Chris; Bennie, Marion
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed to treat depression and a broad range of other comorbidities. The increased use of SSRIs in patients with various comorbidities treated with different drugs engenders the risk of pharmacokinetic drug interactions via cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes inhibition. In the present review, we provide an overview of documented clinically significant drug interactions between SSRIs and other drugs co-prescribed in psychiatric patients for the same or other diseases. We further discuss the significance of drug interactions in the era of pharmacogenomics to underline the need for using information on both genotype and drug interactions towards implementing better clinical outcomes through personalized medicine. PMID:22718622
Manolopoulos, Vangelis G; Ragia, Georgia; Alevizopoulos, Georgios
Objective Although antipsychotic polypharmacy is widely used in the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia, its effectiveness is controversial. In particular, clinicians tend to avoid switching to monotherapy in patients who have been prescribed polypharmacy. In the present study, the authors investigate whether there is difference in time to discontinuation of antipsychotics between patients on previous monotherapy or polypharmacy. Methods Pooled analysis was conducted on two 24-week, multicenter, open-label, non-comparative studies that were originally designed to investigate the effectiveness of switching to paliperidone extended-release (ER) in patients with schizophrenia. Patients were divided into two groups according to previously prescribed antipsychotics, that is, to a polypharmacy group or a monotherapy group. The primary outcome measure was time to discontinuation of paliperidone ER. In addition, the authors sought to identify clinical variables that influence time to discontinuation. Results Before switching to paliperidone ER, 535 of 673 (79.5%) patients were prescribed antipsychotic monotherapy, and the remaining 138 (20.5%) patients were prescribed antipsychotic polypharmacy. No significant differences in time to discontinuation of paliperidone ER were observed between the polypharmacy and monotherapy groups. Personal and social performance scale score was the only factor found to influence time to discontinuation of paliperidone ER. No differences in psychopathology or adverse effects were found between the monotherapy and polypharmacy groups. Conclusion Our results suggest that number of antipsychotics prescribed before switching to monotherapy does not influence clinical prognosis in patients with schizophrenia.
Lee, Hee-Won; Na, Kyoung-Sae; Jung, Seung-Ho; Kang, Min-Hee; Lee, Jeong Seop; Bae, Jae-Nam; Kim, Hee-Yun
Appropriate prescribing for older adults presents unique challenges to the prescriber. An understanding of the scale of the problems and contributing factors is essential when designing interventions to improve patient safety. The altered pharmacology of ageing, the existence of multiple medical conditions and the exclusion of elderly patients from many trials render this subgroup of the population particularly vulnerable to underprescribing and overprescribing. Adverse drug events are common, causing significant morbidity and mortality as well as having economic implications. ‘High-risk’ medications such as opioids, anticoagulants and antipsychotics can have benefits in this group of patients but strategies to optimize their safety are required. Tools exist that help to identify those at risk of adverse drug reactions and to screen for inappropriate prescribing. Developments in information technology are ongoing, and it is hoped that these may enhance the process of medication reconciliation across healthcare transitions and alert the prescriber to potential adverse drug events. This review addresses commonly encountered issues when prescribing for older people, considers strategies to improve medication safety and offers a list of ‘top tips’ to aid the clinician.
Anathhanam, Sujo; Powis, Rachel A.; Robson, Jeremy
Antipsychotic polypharmacy remains prevalent; it has probably increased for the treatment of schizophrenia in real-world clinical settings. The current evidence suggests some clinical benefits of antipsychotic polypharmacy, such as better symptom control with clozapine plus another antipsychotic, and a reversal of metabolic side-effects with a concomitant use of aripiprazole. On the other hand, the interpretation of findings in the literature should be made conservatively in light of the paucity of good studies and potentially serious side-effects. Also, although the available data are still limited, two smaller-scale clinical trials provide preliminary evidence that converting antipsychotic polypharmacy to monotherapy could be a valid and reasonable treatment option. Several studies have explored strategies to change physicians' antipsychotic polypharmacy prescribing behaviours. These have revealed that, while the impact of purely educational interventions may be limited, more aggressive procedures such as directly notifying physicians by letters or phone calls can be more effective in reducing antipsychotic polypharmacy. In conclusion, antipsychotic polypharmacy can work for some clinically difficult conditions; however, it should be the exception rather than the rule and may be avoidable in many patients. More importantly, the paucity of the data clearly emphasizes the need for further investigations on not only advantages and disadvantages of antipsychotic polypharmacy, but also regarding effective interventions in already prescribed polypharmacy regimens. PMID:22717078
Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Uchida, Hiroyuki
Primary care physicians are increasingly likely to care for patients taking antipsychotics. Here's what you need to know about the common adverse effects, major risks, and monitoring required. PMID:24701600
Moore, Richard; DeJoseph, Daniel; Simmons, B Brent
Context: Junior doctors are reported to make most of the prescribing errors in the hospital setting. Aims: The aim of the following study is to determine the knowledge intern doctors have about prescribing errors and circumstances contributing to making them. Settings and Design: A structured questionnaire was distributed to intern doctors in National Hospital Abuja Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Respondents gave information about their experience with prescribing medicines, the extent to which they agreed with the definition of a clinically meaningful prescribing error and events that constituted such. Their experience with prescribing certain categories of medicines was also sought. Statistical Analysis Used: Data was analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 17 (SPSS Inc Chicago, Ill, USA). Chi-squared analysis contrasted differences in proportions; P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The response rate was 90.9% and 27 (90%) had <1 year of prescribing experience. 17 (56.7%) respondents totally agreed with the definition of a clinically meaningful prescribing error. Most common reasons for prescribing mistakes were a failure to check prescriptions with a reference source (14, 25.5%) and failure to check for adverse drug interactions (14, 25.5%). Omitting some essential information such as duration of therapy (13, 20%), patient age (14, 21.5%) and dosage errors (14, 21.5%) were the most common types of prescribing errors made. Respondents considered workload (23, 76.7%), multitasking (19, 63.3%), rushing (18, 60.0%) and tiredness/stress (16, 53.3%) as important factors contributing to prescribing errors. Interns were least confident prescribing antibiotics (12, 25.5%), opioid analgesics (12, 25.5%) cytotoxics (10, 21.3%) and antipsychotics (9, 19.1%) unsupervised. Conclusions: Respondents seemed to have a low awareness of making prescribing errors. Principles of rational prescribing and events that constitute prescribing errors should be taught in the practice setting.
Ajemigbitse, Adetutu A.; Omole, Moses Kayode; Ezike, Nnamdi Chika; Erhun, Wilson O.
The advent of atypical antipsychotics greatly changed the treatment pattern for mental illnesses worldwide. This study was designed to determine the trend in prevalence, prescribing pattern, and cost of antipsychotic agents in Taiwan from 1997 to 2001. Data were obtained from claims completed for a random sample of 200,000 people registered with the National Health Insurance program. The antipsychotics monitored included all group N05A drugs in the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system (version 2000). Conventional and atypical antipsychotics were handled separately. Of the 195,971 eligible registrants, 37,441 (19.1%) received any kind of antipsychotic during this 5-year period, but only 713 (0.4%) used atypical antipsychotics. The prevalence of conventional antipsychotic use during each successive year of this study was 5.2%, 5.7%, 6.6%, 6.2%, and 6.1% and 0.1%, 0.1%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3% for atypical agents. Although far fewer registrants used them, atypicals comprised 19.1% of all prescribed amounts measured in defined daily doses and 56.1% of the cost for all antipsychotics in 2001. During the 5-year study period, atypical antipsychotics were prescribed for 405 (57%) patients with schizophrenia, 132 (19%) with affective disorder, 128 (18%) with other psychiatric disorders, and 48 (7%) with a nonpsychiatric disorder. With the loosening of reimbursement restrictions in 2002, continued growth of atypical antipsychotic use in Taiwan might be expected. PMID:15058752
I have defined prescribing as a series of steps designed to improve patient well-being. Not all the steps in the process towards better prescribing have been examined; some have been accepted as being satisfactory, and some have been challenged which might normally have been accepted without comment. I have emphasized the need to provide information to doctors about drugs and also suggested what physicians might do to improve patient compliance. I have concentrated on providing practical ideas that the practising family physician can carry out in his daily practice, or within his College of Family Practice, to improve patient care through better prescribing.
Heffernan, Michael W.
Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate which antipsychotics (classical versus atypical) are prescribed in a psychiatric hospital and which determinants affect the choice for one of these two classes of antipsychotics in newly admitted patients. Methods. In a retrospective cohort design, 522 newly admitted patients were followed from the date of admission until discharge from the hospital.
Gerard W. K. Hugenholtz; Joost J. Stolker; Eibert R. Heerdink; Willem A. Nolen; Hubert G. M. Leufkens
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Antipsychotic use in children is increasing. The purpose of the present article was to provide guidance to clinicians on the clinical management of extrapyramidal side effects of second-generation antipsychotics. METHODS: Published literature, key informant interviews, and discussions with panel members and stakeholder partners were used to identify key clinical areas of guidance and preferences on format for the present recommendations. Draft recommendations were presented to a guideline panel. Members of the guideline panel evaluated the information gathered from the systematic review of the literature and used a nominal group process to reach a consensus on treatment recommendations. A description of the neurological abnormalities commonly seen with antipsychotic medications is provided, as well as recommendations on how to examine and quantify these abnormalities. A stepwise approach to the management of neurological abnormalities is provided. RESULTS: Several different types of extrapyramidal symptoms can be seen secondary to antipsychotic use in children including neuroleptic-induced acute dystonia, neuroleptic-induced akathisia, neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism, neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia, tardive dystonia and tardive akathisia, and withdrawal dyskinesias. The overwhelming majority of evidence on the treatment of antipsychotic-induced movement disorders comes from adult patients with schizophrenia. Given the scarcity of paediatric data, recommendations were made with reference to both the adult and paediatric literature. Given the limitations in the generalizability of data from adult subjects to children, these recommendations should be considered on the basis of expert opinion, rather than evidence based. CONCLUSION: Clinicians must be aware of the potential of second-generation antipsychotics to induce neurological side effects, and should exercise a high degree of vigilance when prescribing these medications.
Pringsheim, Tamara; Doja, Asif; Belanger, Stacey; Patten, Scott
The goal of antipsychotic drug development efforts over the past 10 years has been to develop agents with increased efficacy and safety and fewer of the side effects commonly associated with the older antipsychotic medications. The newer agents, often called atypical antipsychotics, are effective in treating both the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and are associated with fewer neurological- and endocrine-related side effects compared to the older agents. As a result, patients are likely to remain on therapy longer, preventing relapses and costly hospitalizations. Quetiapine fumarate (Seroquel) is the most recently introduced atypical antipsychotic and is indicated for the management of the manifestations of psychotic disorders and schizophrenia. Quetiapine, like clozapine (the archetypal atypical antipsychotic), interacts with a broad range of neurotransmitter receptors and has a higher affinity for serotonin (5-HT(2A)) receptors relative to dopamine (D(2)) receptors in the brain. Further, quetiapine's pharmacological effects appear selective for the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine systems, which are believed to be the areas of the brain responsible for the therapeutic effects of antipsychotics. In contrast to most standard antipsychotics and some atypical antipsychotics, quetiapine's effects on the nigrostriatal dopamine system, which is responsible for the extrapyramidal (or motor) side effects, are minimal. Quetiapine also has minimal activity on dopamine receptors in the tuberoinfundibular dopamine system, thereby avoiding the problem of hyperprolactinemia, common with the standard antipsychotics and some atypical antipsychotics. Because of these properties, quetiapine is an effective antipsychotic agent with a relatively benign side effect profile. Several large, placebo- and active-controlled, multicenter trials have shown quetiapine to be effective against both positive (e.g., hallucinations, delusions) and negative symptoms (e.g., emotional withdrawal, apathy) and to have benefits in reducing hostility, aggression and affective symptoms. Patients on long-term treatment report high compliance, good satisfaction, increased ability to function and improvements consistent with a better quality of life. Because of quetiapine's excellent tolerability profile, its use is particularly appropriate in patients especially sensitive to adverse effects, e.g., elderly patients with psychotic symptoms and other neurological disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:12973385
Goldstein, J M
Objective To examine physician adoption of second-generation antipsychotic medications and identify physician-level factors associated with early adoption. Methods Using IMS Health Xponent™ data, which captures over 70% of all prescriptions filled in the U.S., and AMA Masterfile data on prescriber characteristics for each of 9 second-generation antipsychotics introduced from 1996–2008 for 30,369 physicians who prescribed antipsychotics, we estimate drug-specific Cox proportional hazards models of time to adoption and conduct descriptive analysis of the total number of agents prescribed. Results On average, physicians waited two or more years before prescribing new second-generation antipsychotics, but there was substantial heterogeneity across products in time to adoption. General practitioners were much slower to adopt second-generation antipsychotics than psychiatrists (hazard ratios (HRs) ranged from 0.10–0.35); solo practitioners were slower to adopt most products than group practitioners (HRs ranged from 0.77–0.89). Physicians in the highest quartile of antipsychotic prescribing volume adopted second-generation antipsychotics much faster than physicians in the lowest quartile (HRs ranged from 0.15–0.39). Psychiatrists tended to prescribe a broader set of antipsychotics (median of 6) than other specialties (median of 2 for general practitioners and neurologists and 1 for pediatricians). Conclusions Policymakers are searching for ways to control rapid health spending growth, which is driven primarily by use of new technologies such as second-generation antipsychotics. Understanding the factors that influence physician adoption of new medications will be crucial in the implementation of efforts aimed at maximizing value of care received by individuals with mental disorders as well as efforts to improve medication safety.
Huskamp, Haiden; O'Malley, A. James; Horvitz-Lennon, Marcela; Taub, Anna Levine; Berndt, Ernest; Donohue, Julie
Mechanisms underlying antipsychotic cardiometabolic adverse effects are incompletely understood. This hampers the identification of high-risk patients, low-risk antipsychotics and preventive/ameliorative treatments. Recent clinical, molecular, and genetic data suggest that i) antipsychotic-naïve samples provide the greatest power for mechanistic studies; ii) weight and metabolic effects can be discordant, pointing to overlapping and distinct mechanisms; iii) antipsychotics affect satiety and energy homeostasis signaling; iv) the specific peptides mediating these effects are unknown but likely overlap with those involved in idiopathic obesity; and v) single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding known neurotransmitter receptors and metabolic proteins are promising pharmacogenomic targets for countering adverse affects. However, sophisticated molecular studies and genome-wide association studies, ideally in antipsychotic-naïve/first episode samples, are needed to further advance the field.
Correll, Christoph U.; Lencz, Todd; Malhotra, Anil K.
Antipsychotic drugs are the most frequently prescribed of the psychotropic drugs among the intellectually disabled (ID) population. Given their widespread use, efforts to systematically assess and report side effects are warranted. Specific scaling methods such as the "Matson Evaluation of Side Effects" ("MEDS"), the "Abnormal Inventory Movement…
Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara
Many antipsychotic medications carry a substantial liability for weight gain, and one mechanism common to all antipsychotics is binding to the dopamine D2 receptor. We therefore examined the relationship between ?141C Ins/Del (rs1799732), a functional promoter region polymorphism in DRD2, and antipsychotic-induced weight gain in 58 first episode schizophrenia patients enrolled in a randomized trial of risperidone (RIS) vs. olanzapine (OLZ). Carriers of the deletion allele (n=29) were compared to Ins/Ins homozygotes (non-carriers, n=29) in a mixed model encompassing 10 weight measurements over 16 weeks. Deletion allele carriers demonstrated significantly more weight gain after 6 weeks of treatment regardless of assigned medication. While deletion carriers were prescribed higher doses of OLZ (but not RIS), dose did not appear to account for the genotype effects on weight gain. Given previous evidence that deletion carriers demonstrate reduced symptom response to medication, additional study of appropriate treatment options for these patients appears warranted.
Lencz, Todd; Robinson, Delbert G.; Napolitano, Barbara; Sevy, Serge; Kane, John M.; Goldman, David; Malhotra, Anil K.
Objective: To determine whether physician willingness to prescribe drugs for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is influenced\\u000a by information about the resultant life-expectancy gains (presented in one of two formats) and about drug costs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods: Mailed survey (four versions randomly allocated) asking physicians to assess hypothetical preventive interventions with\\u000a outcomes expressed either as averaged or as stratified gains
Janet E. Hux; Carey M. Levinton; C. David Naylor
Synchronized separation of seven medications representing most commonly prescribed antihypertensive classes by using reversed-phase liquid chromatography: Application for analysis in their combined formulations.
A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide, along with six drugs representing the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive pharmacological classes such as atenolol, a selective ?1 blocker, amlodipine besylate, a calcium channel blocker, moexipril hydrochloride, an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, valsartan and candesartan cilexetil, which are angiotensin II receptor blockers, and aliskiren hemifumarate, a renin inhibitor, using irbesartan as an internal standard. The chromatographic separation was achieved using acetonitrile/sodium phosphate dibasic buffer (0.02 M, pH 5.5) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min in gradient elution mode at ambient temperature on a stationary phase composed of an Eclipse XDB-C18 (4.6 × 150 mm, 5 ?m) column. UV detection was carried out at 220 nm. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines. Linearity, accuracy, and precision were satisfactory over the concentration ranges of 2-40 ?g/mL for hydrochlorothiazide and candesartan cilexetil, 20-120, 10-160, 5-40, 20-250, and 5-50 ?g/mL for atenolol, valsartan, moexipril hydrochloride, aliskiren hemifumarate, and amlodipine besylate, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the determination of each of the studied drugs in their combined formulations with hydrochlorothiazide. The developed method is suitable for the quality control and routine analysis of the cited drugs in their pharmaceutical dosage forms. PMID:24482404
Ebeid, Walid M; Elkady, Ehab F; El-Zaher, Asmaa A; El-Bagary, Ramzia I; Patonay, Gabor
A recent survey of clinicians' opinions suggested that antipsychotic polypharmacy is reserved for particularly severe cases, and that it is intended to avoid high doses of a single drug. In the present study, we tested these clinicians' reasons for antipsychotic polypharmacy in a sample of Italian psychiatric inpatients. During a 6-year recruitment period, all psychiatric patients receiving antipsychotic therapy at discharge from an inpatient facility were included. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected, and the 18-item version of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale was administered on admission and before discharge. At discharge, data on length of inpatient stay, psychotropic drug therapy and treatment adherence were collected. Prescribed daily doses were converted into multiples of the defined daily doses. A total of 354 inpatients receiving antipsychotic treatment at discharge were included. Of these, 100 (28%) were discharged with two or more antipsychotic drugs. After background group differences were controlled for, positive symptoms, manic/hostility symptoms and polypharmacy on admission were predictors of polypharmacy at discharge. The risk of high-dose antipsychotics in patients receiving polypharmacy at discharge was 10-fold higher than that in patients receiving one antipsychotic (odds ratio 10.70, 95% confidence interval 4.78-23.97, P<0.001). The perception of clinicians is to reserve antipsychotic polypharmacy for severe, persistent and difficult-to-treat cases, and this was confirmed by the finding that patients discharged on two or more antipsychotic agents were more severely ill on admission. Conversely, the theoretical advantage of avoiding a high dose of a single drug is counterbalanced by the documented disadvantage of administering high total doses. PMID:16192838
Biancosino, Bruno; Barbui, Corrado; Marmai, Luciana; Donà, Silvia; Donà, Silna; Grassi, Luigi
Background\\/Aims: To evaluate whether dementia patients prescribed antipsychotic drugs have a higher mortality compared to unexposed patients, and to investigate whether there are differences in mortality associated with exposure to conventional versus atypical antipsychotic drugs. Methods: Retrospective population cohort study with information gathered from the Italian Health Information System. All 4,369 residents of Milan (Italy) aged 60 years or older
Massimo Musicco; Katie Palmer; Antonio Russo; Carlo Caltagirone; Fulvio Adorni; Carla Pettenati; Luigi Bisanti
With the increasingly widespread use of antipsychotics in bipolar disorder (BD), switching among these agents and between antipsychotics and mood stabilizers has become more common, in particular, since the introduction of the novel atypical antipsychotics with mood stabilizer properties. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive update of the current literature in BD about the switching of antipsychotics, among them and between them and mood stabilizers, in acute and maintenance treatment. We conducted a comprehensive, computerized literature search using terms related to antipsychotic switching in BD in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL database; the Cochrane Library and; the Clinicaltrials.gov web up to January 9th, 2013 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. The search returned 4160 articles. After excluding duplications, reviews, case reports and studies that did not fulfil the selection criteria, 8 studies were included. Not only have few articles on antipsychotic switching been published but also recruitment in most studies included mixed samples of patients. In general, antipsychotic switching, regardless of the route of drug administration, was well tolerated and no interference was shown in antipsychotic effectiveness during the interchange of drugs. Metabolic improvement was perceived when the switch involved antipsychotics with a low metabolic risk profile. The evidence-base for antipsychotic switching in BD is scant, and little controlled data is available. Switch from quetiapine to lithium and from risperidone to olanzapine has proven successful. Switching to antipsychotics with low metabolic risk had some positive impact on several safety measures. In stabilized patients, the plateau cross-taper switch may be preferred. PMID:24139622
Grande, Iria; Bernardo, Miquel; Bobes, Julio; Saiz-Ruiz, Jerónimo; Álamo, Cecilio; Vieta, Eduard
Background Despite concerns over the potential for severe adverse events, antipsychotic medications remain the mainstay of treatment of behaviour disorders and psychosis in elderly patients. Second-generation antipsychotic agents (SGAs; e.g., risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine) have generally shown a better safety profile compared to the first-generation agents (FGAs; e.g., haloperidol and phenothiazines), particularly in terms of a lower potential for involuntary movement disorders. Risperidone, the only SGA with an official indication for the management of inappropriate behaviour in dementia, has emerged as the antipsychotic most commonly prescribed to older patients. Most clinical trials evaluating the risk of movement disorders in elderly patients receiving antipsychotic therapy have been of limited sample size and/or of relatively short duration. A few observational studies have produced inconsistent results. Methods A population-based retrospective cohort study of all residents of the Canadian province of Manitoba aged 65 and over, who were dispensed antipsychotic medications for the first time during the time period from April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2007, was conducted using Manitoba's Department of Health's administrative databases. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the risk of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in new users of risperidone compared to new users of FGAs. Results After controlling for potential confounders (demographics, comorbidity and medication use), risperidone use was associated with a lower risk of EPS compared to FGAs at 30, 60, 90 and 180 days (adjusted hazard ratios [HR] 0.38, 95% CI: 0.22–0.67; 0.45, 95% CI: 0.28–0.73; 0.50, 95% CI: 0.33–0.77; 0.65, 95% CI: 0.45–0.94, respectively). At 360 days, the strength of the association weakened with an adjusted HR of 0.75, 95% CI: 0.54–1.05. Conclusions In a large population of elderly patients the use of risperidone was associated with a lower risk of EPS compared to FGAs.
Vasilyeva, Irina; Biscontri, Robert G.; Enns, Murray W.; Metge, Colleen J.; Alessi-Severini, Silvia
Schizophrenia is one of the most common global mental diseases, with prevalence of 1%. Patients with schizophrenia are predisposed to diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis, than the normal. In comparison with the metabolic syndrome, for instance, there are little reports about osteoporosis which occurs secondary to antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia. There are extensive recent works of literature indicating that osteoporosis is associated with schizophrenia particularly in patients under psychotropic medication therapy. As osteoporotic fractures cause significantly increased morbidity and mortality, it is quite necessary to raise the awareness and understanding of the impact of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia on physical health in schizophrenia. In this paper, we will review the relationship between schizophrenia, antipsychotic medication, hyperprolactinaemia, and osteoporosis.
Wu, Haishan; Deng, Lu; Zhao, Lipin; Zhao, Jingping; Li, Lehua; Chen, Jindong
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disfiguring side-effect of antipsychotic medications that is potentially irreversible in affected patients. Newer atypical antipsychotics are felt by many to have a lower risk of TD. As a result, many clinicians may have developed a false sense of security when prescribing these medications. We report five cases of patients taking atypical antipsychotics who developed TD, review the risk of TD, its potential etiologic mechanisms, and treatment options available. The goal of this paper is to alert the reader to continue to be diligent in obtaining informed consent and monitoring for the onset of TD in patients taking atypical antipsychotics.
Kim, Jungjin; MacMaster, Eric; Schwartz, Thomas L
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disfiguring side-effect of antipsychotic medications that is potentially irreversible in affected patients. Newer atypical antipsychotics are felt by many to have a lower risk of TD. As a result, many clinicians may have developed a false sense of security when prescribing these medications. We report five cases of patients taking atypical antipsychotics who developed TD, review the risk of TD, its potential etiologic mechanisms, and treatment options available. The goal of this paper is to alert the reader to continue to be diligent in obtaining informed consent and monitoring for the onset of TD in patients taking atypical antipsychotics. PMID:24991222
Kim, Jungjin; MacMaster, Eric; Schwartz, Thomas L
Resistance to adoption has been identified as one of the major barriers to successful implementation of technological systems in hospitals. Acceptance of an electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) system is expected to occur if prescribers perceive a need for e-prescribing systems to reduce prescribing errors. We set out to examine doctors' perceptions of their prescribing competency and to identify perceived advantages and disadvantages of using an e-prescribing system, with the objective of determining the value doctors ascribed to the e-prescribing system. This study was conducted at a teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. Sixteen prescribers participated in a 20-minute semi-structured interview where they were asked to comment on prescribing errors (their own errors and errors they believed to be common) and advantages and disadvantages of the e-prescribing system. Prescribers held the view that they rarely made prescribing errors. Although users recognised advantages and disadvantages of using the e-prescribing system, most preferred paper to electronic prescribing. Prescribers most likely overestimated their prescribing competency and so failed to see the value of an e-prescribing system to reduce prescribing errors. E-prescribing system implementation is a challenging task for any hospital. These results suggest that keeping prescribers informed about their prescribing errors and the quality improvement benefits of e-prescribing may lead to greater acceptance of and satisfaction with an e-prescribing system. PMID:22797011
Baysari, Melissa T; Westbrook, Johanna I; Day, Richard O
In elderly persons, antipsychotic drugs are clinically prescribed off-label for a number of disorders outside of their Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved indications (schizophrenia and bipolar disorder). The largest number of antipsychotic prescriptions in older adults is for behavioral disturbances associated with dementia. In April 2005, the FDA, based on a meta-analysis of 17 double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trials among elderly
Dilip V Jeste; Dan Blazer; Daniel Casey; Thomas Meeks; Carl Salzman; Lon Schneider; Pierre Tariot; Kristine Yaffe
The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective 'titanic'. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the 'Seven C's'. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm. PMID:22738396
Routledge, Philip A
The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective ‘titanic’. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the ‘Seven C's’. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm.
Routledge, Philip A
This study aimed to analyze the patterns of antipsychotic prescription to patients with schizophrenia in Korea. Using the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service-National Patients Sample (HIRA-NPS), which was a stratified sampling from the entire population under the Korean national health security system (2009), descriptive statistics for the patterns of the monopharmacy and polypharmacy, neuropsychiatric co-medications, and prescribed individual antipsychotic for patients with schizophrenia were performed. Comparisons of socioeconomic and clinical factors were performed among patients prescribed only with first- and second-generation antipsychotics. Of 126,961 patients with schizophrenia (age 18-80 yr), 13,369 were prescribed with antipsychotic monopharmacy and the rest 113,592 with polypharmacy. Two or more antipsychotics were prescribed to 31.34% of the patients. Antiparkinson medications (66.60%), anxiolytics (65.42%), mood stabilizers (36.74%), and antidepressants (25.90%) were co-medicated. Patients who were prescribed only with first-generation antipsychotics (n=26,254) were characterized by significantly older age, greater proportion of male, higher proportion of medicaid, higher total medical cost, lower self-payment cost, and higher co-medication rates of antiparkinson agents and anxiolytics than those who were prescribed only with second-generation antipsychotics (n=67,361). In this study, it has been reported substantial prescription rates of first-generation antipsychotics and antipsychotic polypharmacy and relatively small prescription rate of clozapine to patients with schizophrenia. Since this study has firstly presented the patterns of antipsychotic prescription to schizophrenic patients in Korean national population, the findings of this study can be compared with those of later investigations about this theme. PMID:24851031
Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Myung-Soo; Kang, Seung-Gul; Lee, Seung-Hwan
In 2012, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) established a partnership among stakeholders to decrease the percentage of residents in nursing homes receiving an antipsychotic agent by 15 percent. This goal emanated from concerns including the large percentage of residents taking antipsychotic agents, the questionable use of antipsychotics (e.g., off-label use), the high cost of inappropriate antipsychotic use, and toxicity in patients with dementia (e.g., black box warning regarding mortality). The successful achievement of this goal is evaluated via quality measures, which are greatly influenced by changes in exclusion of residents from the population examined. The partnership is focused on optimizing use of antipsychotic agents by training clinicians on nonpharmacologic approaches, educating on the dangers of antipsychotic medication use and sharing data on antipsychotic medications. In South Dakota, these efforts have yielded a 12 percent relative reduction (21.3 percent to 18.7 percent) in the percent of residents prescribed antipsychotic agents from the second quarter of 2012 to the second quarter of 2013. Future efforts in South Dakota include a Nursing Home Quality Care Collaborative that involves the majority of facilities across the state learning from peers and national experts. The South Dakota Dementia Coalition includes 17 stakeholders who guide education activities and communicate these opportunities to their constituents. PMID:24624602
Mort, Jane R; Sailor, Ryan; Hintz, Lori
Background. Prior studies of antipsychotic use in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are limited because administrative data lacks information on why providers choose particular medications. Methods. This study examined 2613 provider surveys completed at the time any second generation antipsychotic (SGA) was prescribed over a 20-month period at a single Veterans Affairs medical center. Clinical correlates and reasons for SGA selection among individuals with PTSD compared to those with other psychiatric disorders were identified using chi-square. Results. PTSD was the sole diagnosis in n = 339 (13%) and one of several psychiatric diagnoses in n = 236 (9%) surveys. 'Efficacy' was the most common reason given for the prescriptions of SGAs in all surveys (51%) and among individuals with PTSD (46%). 'Sleep/sedation' was the only reason cited, significantly more frequently among those with PTSD (39% with PTSD only, 35% with PTSD plus another diagnosis, and 31% without PTSD [? 2 = 12.86, p < 0.0016)]. The proportion identifying 'efficacy' as a reason for SGA use was smaller in patients with PTSD (44% with PTSD only, 49% with PTSD and another diagnosis, and 53% without PTSD [? 2 = 8.78, p < 0.0125)]. Quetiapine was the most frequently prescribed SGA in the entire sample and among veterans with PTSD (47%). Conclusions. Clinician use of SGAs is often driven by efficacy, for which there is limited evidence, and distinctly driven by the goal of sedation among patients with PTSD. PMID:24007653
Hermes, E; Sernyak, M; Rosenheck, R
\\u000a As late as 1993, 85% of psychotic inpatients at a major university psychiatric referral centre in the United States were found\\u000a to be receiving antipsychotic drugs that had been available for some three decades or more, most commonly perphenazine and\\u000a haloperidol, with an additional 2% receiving loxapine and 13% receiving clozapine . Since the identification in the 1950s of chlorpromazine
John L. Waddington; John F. Quinn
Objectives: To assess the differences in antipsychotic drug prescription rates in residents with dementia in dementia special care units (SCUs) of Dutch nursing homes, considering the differences in patient characteristics.Method: As part of the Waalbed-II study, the data on antipsychotic drug use in 290 patients were collected and the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) stage, type of dementia and behaviour (Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI)) were measured in 14 SCUs in nine nursing homes. A multilevel logistic regression model was used to assess the difference in antipsychotic drug prescription rates between dementia SCUs adjusted for age, gender, GDS stage, type of dementia and CMAI factor scores.Results: Two hundred and ninety residents met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-two per cent were prescribed an antipsychotic drug. Antipsychotic drugs were more often prescribed in patients with physically aggressive and non-aggressive behaviour and in patients with mixed dementia (vascular/Alzheimer's) than in patients with other types of dementia. Antipsychotic drug prescriptions significantly differed among the dementia SCUs. The odds of antipsychotic drug use for patients in the SCU with the highest prevalence of drug use were 2.76 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-6.69) times as high as for the SCU with the lowest prevalence of drug use, taking the patient characteristics into account.Conclusion: Antipsychotic drug use in nursing home residents with dementia is not only predicted by the type of dementia and patient behaviour, but it is independently associated with the dementia SCU at which the patient resides. This result indicates that antipsychotic drugs are not only prescribed for their clinical indications (agitation/aggression) but are associated with environmental factors that may reflect a specific nursing home prescribing culture. PMID:24506695
van der Putten, M J G; Wetzels, R B; Bor, H; Zuidema, S U; Koopmans, R T C M
Prescribing of medicines for older people who live in nursing homes is a very common intervention. Undoubtedly, medicines have contributed to longevity and improved health outcomes in the population, but they are not without their side effects and can give rise to adverse events. The nursing home population is particularly at risk as residents have multiple comorbidities and receive multiple medications. Moreover, the quality of prescribing has been criticised with long-standing concerns about inappropriate prescribing, particularly overuse of medications which are not clinically indicated or which are no longer required. It has been suggested that pharmacists could use their skills to improve prescribing in the nursing home population and this review paper outlines the evidence for this type of intervention. The studies which have been included were rigorously designed and conducted. A number of interventions consisted of medication reviews, which often focused on specific drugs, notably antipsychotics, hypnotics and anxiolytics. In some cases, the pharmacist was solely responsible for the delivery of the intervention while in others a multidisciplinary approach was taken involving other key healthcare professionals. A number of outcome measures were employed to assess the impact of the intervention, ranging from a change in the number of inappropriate medications to differences in hospitalizations or health-related quality of life. Owing to the variation across studies, it is difficult to be definitive about the impact of pharmacy interventions in this setting. In an older, frail population such as nursing home residents, consideration needs to be given to appropriate and relevant outcome measures including a reduction in inappropriate prescribing, optimization of prescribing, reduced costs and improved health-related quality of life. Pharmacists and other healthcare professionals should continue to strive to meet these challenges in this particular demographic.
Lapane, Kate L.
Summary Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare, life-threatening adverse reaction to antipsychotic medication that typically includes high-fever, extrapyramidal symptoms, autonomic nervous system dysfunction and disturbances in consciousness. Though reported to be more common following use of the older, first generation antipsychotic medications, it can also occur in patients taking the newer, second generation antipsychotic medications. This report discusses the clinical presentation, possible etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of two cases of NMS that occurred in elderly patients after taking atypical antipsychotics. With the increasing use of atypical antipsychotic medication in elderly patients – who may be more susceptible to this adverse reaction – there is a need to increase clinical vigilance about this condition, particularly among internists and gerontologists who may be unfamiliar with this rare complication to antipsychotic medication.
Feng, Yuhui; Yang, Xianhong; Huang, Yanyan
Many dementia patients exhibit behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD), including psychosis and depression. Although antipsychotics are frequently prescribed off-label, they can have marked side effects. In addition, comparative preclinical studies of their effects are surprisingly scarce, and strategies for discovery of novel pharmacotherapeutics are lacking. We therefore compared eight antipsychotics in rat behavioral tests of psychosis, antidepressant-like activity, and cognitive impairment as a basis for preclinical evaluation of new drug candidates. The methods used in this study include inhibition of MK-801-induced hyperactivity, forced swim test (FST), passive avoidance (PA), spontaneous locomotor activity, and catalepsy. The drugs exhibited antipsychotic-like activity in the MK-801 test but with diverse profiles in the other models. Risperidone impaired PA performance, but with some dose separation versus its actions in the MK-801 test. In contrast, clozapine, olanzapine, lurasidone, and asenapine showed little or no dose separation in these tests. Aripiprazole did not impair PA performance but was poorly active in the MK-801 test. Diverse effects were also observed in the FST: chlorpromazine was inactive and most other drugs reduced immobility over narrow dose ranges, whereas clozapine reduced immobility over a wider dose range, overlapping with antipsychotic activity. Although the propensity of second-generation antipsychotics to produce catalepsy was lower, they all elicited pronounced sedation. Consistent with clinical data, most currently available second-generation antipsychotics induced cognitive and motor side effects with little separation from therapeutic-like doses. This study provides a uniform in vivo comparative basis on which to evaluate future early-stage drug candidates intended for potential pharmacotherapy of BPSD. PMID:24599316
Ko?aczkowski, Marcin; Mierzejewski, Pawe?; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw; Weso?owska, Anna; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian
Depot formulations are not widely used in everyday practice. This study aimed to assess psychiatrists' attitudes toward the use of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics in schizophrenia. We interviewed 113 French psychiatrists about the factors that influenced their prescription of LAI antipsychotics. Multidimensional and cluster analyses were used to detect correlations. The most important factor against the use of LAI antipsychotics is a sufficient estimated compliance with the oral formulation. For first-generation LAI, the main factor is the risk for extrapyramidal symptoms; and for second-generation LAI, it is the unavailability of the equivalent oral formulation. Four factors incite the psychiatrists to prescribe LAI. Two different clusters of patients can also be identified. Most factors influencing the clinicians' attitudes toward the use of LAI antipsychotics are shared in many countries. Conversely, some attitudes related to organizational aspects, particularly the relevance of health care costs, may vary from one country to another. PMID:23817151
Samalin, Ludovic; Charpeaud, Thomas; Blanc, Olivier; Heres, Stephan; Llorca, Pierre-Michel
Antipsychotic medications are important for the successful management of schizophrenia. Continuous treatment with medication is superior in relapse prevention and non-adherence to antipsychotic medication is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) that can guarantee adherence to a treatment regimen could be a useful treatment option. With the introduction of second-generation atypical antipsychotics-long acting injection (SGA-LAI), the risks for extrapyramidal adverse events are decreased. The indications for SGA-LAI have been extended from chronic, stabilized patients to acute psychotic patients. Some studies investigated the use of LAI in first-episode schizophrenia patients and raised the possibility of prescribing LAI as a treatment option. However, there is still limited research using LAI in first-episode schizophrenia. More well-designed, randomized, controlled clinical trials using SGA-LAIs in first episode schizophrenia are needed. Additionally, studies on side effects of SGA-LAI in long-term use are required prior to recommending LAI for patients with first episode schizophrenia.
Background Antipsychotic-induced subjective inner restlessness is one of the common and distressing adverse effects associated with antipsychotics; however, its underlying neurobiological basis is not well understood. We examined the relationship between antipsychotic-induced subjective inner restlessness and autonomic neurocardiac function. Methods Twenty-two schizophrenia patients with antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness, 28 schizophrenia patients without antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness, and 28 matched healthy control subjects were evaluated. Assessments of the linear and nonlinear complexity measures of heart rate dynamics were performed. Multivariate analysis of variance and correlation analysis were conducted. Results The mean interbeat (RR) interval value was significantly higher in control subjects than in patients with and without antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness (P < 0.05). The low frequency/high frequency ratio was significantly higher in patients with antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness than in control subjects and in patients without antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness (P < 0.05), while the approximate entropy value was significantly lower in patients with antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness than in control subjects and in patients without antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness (P < 0.05). Correlation analyses controlling for psychotic symptom severity showed that the degree of antipsychotic-induced restlessness had a significant negative correlation with the value of approximate entropy (P < 0.05). Conclusion The results indicate that antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness is associated with altered heart rate dynamics parameters, particularly the nonlinear complexity measure, suggesting that it might adversely affect autonomic neurocardiac integrity. Further prospective research is necessary to elucidate the precise interrelationships and causality.
Kim, Jong-Hoon; Ann, Jun-Hyung; Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Mee-Hee; Han, Ah-Young
Introduction Antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP), the concomitant use of ?2antipsychotics, is common in clinical practice. Prior reviews have focused on the efficacy of APP, but no systematic review exists regarding the safety and tolerability of this practice. Areas covered in this review We conducted a systematic review of adverse effects associated with APP. Case series with ?2 patients, chart reviews, naturalistic, data base, cohort and randomized studies that reported on the association between APP in general or specific APP combinations and global or specific adverse effect were included. We discuss methodological limitations of available studies and provide recommendations for clinicians and future research. Expert Opinion Across mostly small and uncontrolled studies, APP has been associated with increased global side effect burden, rates of Parkinsonian side effects, anticholinergic use, hyperprolactinemia, sexual dysfunction, hypersalivation, sedation/somnolence, cognitive impairment, and diabetes. Effects on akathisia and mortality were inconclusive. Although some combinations, particularly aripiprazole augmentation of an agent with greater side effect burden, may reduce weight gain, dyslipidemia, hyperprolactinemia and sexual dysfunction, APP should remain a last resort treatment option after monotherapy, switching and non-antipsychotic combinations have failed. More and high quality data are needed to further inform the individualized risk-benefit evaluation of APP.
Gallego, Juan A.; Nielsen, Jimmi; De Hert, Marc; Kane, John M.; Correll, Christoph U.
Objectives to determine whether antipsychotic medication initiation is associated with subsequent fracture in nursing home residents, whether fracture rates differ between first-generation versus second-generation antipsychotic use, and whether fracture rates differ among users of haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine. Design time-to-event analyses were conducted in a retrospective cohort using linked Medicaid, Medicare, Minimum Data Set and Online Survey, Certification and Reporting data sets. Setting and Participants nursing home residents aged ? 65 years in CA, FL, MO, NJ and PA. Measurements fracture outcomes (any fracture; hip fracture) in first-versus second-generation antipsychotic users, and specifically among users of haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine. Comparisons incorporated propensity scores that included patient-level variables (demographics, comorbidity, diagnoses, weight, fall history, concomitant medications, cognitive performance, physical function, aggressivebehavior) and facility-level variables (nursing home size, ownership factors, staffing levels). Results Among 8,262 subjects (within 4,131 pairs), 4.3% suffered any fracture during observation with 1% having a hip fracture during an average follow up period of 93 ± 71 days; range 1 to 293 days). Antipsychotic initiation was associated with any fracture (hazard ratio (HR) 1.39, p=0.004) and with hip fracture (HR 1.76, p=0.024). The highest risk was found for hip fracture when antipsychotic use was adjusted for dose(HR=2.96; p=0.008). However, no differences in time-to-fracture were found in first-versus second-generation agents or across competing individual drugs. Conclusion Antipsychotic initiation is associated with fracture in nursing home residents, but risk does not differ across commonly used antipsychotics.
Rigler, Sally K.; Shireman, Theresa I.; Cook-Wiens, Galen J.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Whittle, Jeffrey C.; Mehr, David R.; Mahnken, Jonathan D.
The last decade has seen developments in nonmedical prescribing, with the introduction of prescribing rights for healthcare professionals. In this article, we focus on the education, training and practice of nonmedical prescribers in the UK. There are around 20 000 nurse independent prescribers, 2400 pharmacist supplementary/independent prescribers, several hundred allied health professional supplementary prescribers and almost 100 optometrist supplementary/independent prescribers. Many are active prescribers, managing chronic conditions or acute episodes of infections and minor ailments. Key aims of nonmedical prescribing are as follows: to improve patient care; to increase patient choice in accessing medicines; and to make better use of the skills of health professionals. Education and training are provided by higher education institutions accredited by UK professional bodies/regulators,namely, the Nursing and Midwifery Council, General Pharmaceutical Council, Health Professions Council and General Optical Council. The programme comprises two main components: a university component equivalent to 26 days full-time education and a period of learning in practice of 12 days minimum under the supervision of a designated medical practitioner. Course content focuses on the following factors: consultation, decision making, assessment and review; psychology of prescribing; prescribing in team context; applied therapeutics; evidence-based practice and clinical governance; legal, policy, professional and ethical aspects; and prescribing in the public health context. Nonmedical prescribers must practise within their competence, demonstrating continuing professional development to maintain the quality engendered during training. Despite the substantial progress, there are several issues of strategy, capacity, sustainability and a research evidence base which require attention to fully integrate nonmedical prescribing within healthcare.
Stewart, Derek; MacLure, Katie; George, Johnson
This contribution initially describes some traditional tools that are commonly used to measure drug tolerability, including measures that take into considerations both clinicians' and patients' views. Subsequently, it highlights a few studies that compared the patient and clinician's perspective in the evaluation of drug tolerability, trying to understand whether health care providers and patients perceive antipsychotic tolerability in different ways,
M. Nosè; MICHELA NOSÈ
Sexual dysfunction is a common condition in patients taking antipsychotics, and is the most bothersome symptom and adverse drug effect, resulting in a negative effect on treatment compliance. It is known that hyperprolactinemia is a major cause of sexual dysfunction. Based on the blockade of dopamine D2 receptors, haloperidol, risperidone, and amisulpride are classed as prolactin-elevating antipsychotics, while olanzapine, clozapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole are classed as prolactin-sparing drugs. Risperidone and the other typical antipsychotics are associated with a high rate of sexual dysfunction as compared to olanzapine, clozapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole. With regard to treatment in patients suffering from sexual dysfunction, sildenafil was associated with significantly more erections sufficient for penetration as compared to a placebo. Subsequent studies are needed in order to provide physicians with a better understanding of this problem, thereby leading toward efficacious and safe solutions.
Park, Yeon Won; Kim, Yooseok
The purpose of this article is to determine prescribing rates and adherence to guidelines with regard to antipsychotic polypharmacy, high-dose prescribing, and sedative use in an outpatient population. A prospective case-note audit involving 250 consecutive attendees of an outpatient clinic was carried out. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods. Differences between the groups were estimated using t test and chi(2) where applicable. Results showed that the rate of polypharmacy was 17.4%. Reasons for polypharmacy were documented in 53% of cases. High-dose antipsychotics were used in 2.5% of the monotherapy group and in 38% of the polypharmacy group. An ECG was done in 35% of patients on high-dose antipsychotic therapy. In the monotherapy group, 6.2% versus 26.5% in the polypharmacy group of patients were on at least 1 sedative or hypnotic (odds ratio [OR], 5.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.02-14.82; P < .001). Forty-two percent of patients prescribed sedatives had schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and none of the patients were diagnosed with anxiety disorders. The current study confirms that despite repeated recommendations against the practice, polypharmacy rates remain consistent at the 20% level. Thorough documentation, calculating the total antipsychotic dose, and obtaining an ECG would constitute good practice. PMID:20056801
Ranceva, Nadezda; Ashraf, Wasim; Odelola, Deji
Objective. – (1) determine which antipsychotic side effects (SE) schizophrenic patients consider the most distressing during treatment with typical antipsychotics, (2) measure the impact of actual and past SE on patients' attitude toward antipsychotics and (3) assess the influence of both on adherence.Methods. – The 213 schizophrenics, treated with conventional antipsychotics, were recruited in two psychiatric hospitals in Hamburg. Subjects were
M. Lambert; P. Conus; P. Eide; R. Mass; A. Karow; S. Moritz; D. Golks; D. Naber
The typicality of atypical antipsychotic drugs remains debatable. Preclinical studies and findings from randomized, controlled and open trials of clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, sertindole, ziprasidone and a substituted benzamide were examined. A MEDLINE search was conducted using key words, including "extrapyramidal side effects," "cognition," "schizophrenia" and the generic drug names. Over 140 articles from peer-reviewed journals were reviewed, some of which were based on a meta-analysis. New-generation neuroleptic agents were found to have greater efficacy on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and to cause fewer unwanted extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) than the traditional antipsychotic drugs. On one hand, atypical neuroleptic agents could be strictly defined as any neuroleptic agent with antipsychotic effects at a dosage that does not cause extrapyramidal side effects. Thus, clozapine is regarded as the "standard" atypical antipsychotic drug. On the other hand, typicality is about dimension rather than category, and we suggest the use of the term "spectrum of atypicality." For example, an emphasis is placed on quetiapine to illustrate where a new compound fits in this spectrum. Although dose-related, atypicality may be more a question of prescription attitude than of a specific characteristic of a compound. The degree to which a new compound is clinically superior to another atypical antipsychotic drug, in terms of improving positive, negative or affective symptoms, cognitive function and long-term outcome, will require further a priori hypotheses based on conceptual frameworks that are clinically meaningful. In addition, the results from industry-sponsored trials should be more comparable to those obtained from investigator-leading trials. Finally, the patient characteristics that define a patient's response to a specific antipsychotic drug are unknown.
The National Interagency Fire Center (NIFC) is the support center for wild land firefighting in the US located in Boise, ID. One of the many activities that the NIFC coordinates is prescribed burns. Prescribed burns are one of NIFC’smanagement tools to help prevent major forest fires by burning undergrowth and they also help with maintaining and improving habitat. Recently, NIFC
Brett Alspach; Xander Harmon; Kyle Vogel; Matt Murdock
?? The importance of learning from medical error has recently received increasing emphasis. This paper focuses on prescribing errors and argues that, while learning from prescribing errors is a laudable goal, there are currently barriers that can prevent this occurring. Learning from errors can take place on an individual level, at a team level, and across an organisation. Barriers to learning from prescribing errors include the non-discovery of many prescribing errors, lack of feedback to the prescriber when errors are discovered by other healthcare professionals, and a culture that does not encourage reflection on errors together with why they occurred and how they can be prevented. Changes are needed in both systems and culture to provide an environment in which lessons can be learnt from errors and put into practice.
Balancing efficacy with tolerability and safety of prescribed treatments is critical to optimizing antipsychotic treatment outcomes in the mentally ill. Symptom control, symptom remission, and functional recovery are only realistic goals when treatments are both effective and well tolerated. The consideration of predictable differences in antipsychotic adverse-effect profiles is central to successful illness management. Minimizing adverse effects on alertness, motivation, cognition, sexual/reproductive functioning, and physical health enhances mental health outcomes, partly through improving treatment adherence. Neuroendocrine and metabolic side effects of antipsychotics for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality need to be addressed proactively and aggressively. In view of the widespread lack of primary care engagement and the adverse effects of psychotropic medications on cardiovascular health, psychiatric care providers should function as key facilitators of an integrated mental and physical health management approach. In addition to psychoeducation and healthy lifestyle counseling, clinicians can improve psychiatric and physical health by selecting medications carefully, routinely screening and monitoring for reversible cardiovascular risk factors, and playing an active role in the prevention and interdisciplinary management of cardiovascular risk factors and medical illness in the vulnerable mentally ill. PMID:17934385
Correll, Christoph U
Hyperprolactinaemia is a common finding in patients treated with antipsychotics. A complete cohort of 194 schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients receiving antipsychotics in a single community mental health trust in Halifax UK underwent routine prolactin screening in the absence of any reLevant symptomatoLogy. Values above the upper limit of normal were measured in 38% of the cohort and were more
Chris Bushe; Michael Shaw
Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder with a complex pathophysiology and requires treatment that includes long term administration of antipsychotics that is said to be associated with metabolic syndrome. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of seven different antipsychotics prescribed to schizophrenic patients, on development of metabolic syndrome in the patients. A total of 210 patients with schizophrenia (30 patients in each drug therapy group) were recruited according to ICD-10 criteria and were assigned to receive the drug for 16 weeks. Measurement of anthropometric (body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure) and biochemical parameters (glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, LDL, HDL) was done and the patients were subjected to ATP-III defined criteria for metabolic syndrome. Patients undergoing treatment with olanzapine were more prone to metabolic syndrome as the drug induces weight gain after 16 weeks of treatment. It also induces dyslipidemia (P < 0.001) and hyperglycemia (P < 0.01). Clozapine was found to be second most potent drug in inducing metabolic syndrome as the weight in clozapine treated patients increased after 16 weeks, along with a significant increase in glycemic (P < 0.001) and lipid parameters (P < 0.01). Aripriazole and amisulphride are comparatively safer drugs as their role in inducing metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenic patients was insignificant, although the impact of long term administration of these drugs needs to be explored. It is clear from the study that antipsychotic treatment induces metabolic syndrome so, it becomes important that the metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors should be surveillance regularly in schizophrenic patients undergoing antipsychotic treatment. PMID:24757302
Gupta, Aditi; Dadheech, Gora; Yadav, Dharamveer; Sharma, Praveen; Gautam, Shiv
Pediatric behavioral and affective disorders often require antipsychotic therapy, in combination with psychotherapeutic interventions, for their treatment and stabilization. Although pharmacotherapy can include either typical or atypical antipsychotics, the latter are generally preferred because of their apparently lower risk of adverse effects. Recent controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of some of these agents (including aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone) in adolescent schizophrenia and children or adolescent bipolar mania, or to treat severe aggression and self-injury in the context of autism in children and adolescents. Although few studies have systematically monitored their short- and, more importantly, long-term safety, current evidence indicates that sedation, hyperprolactinemia, and metabolic abnormalities such as excess weight gain, diabetes, and related cardiovascular effects were clinically relevant adverse effects in young patients, with the individual agents differing in their propensity to induce these effects. When prescribing antipsychotics for children and adolescents, physicians should therefore be aware of the specific adverse effect profiles and patients should be closely monitored for the short- and long-term development of adverse events. In pediatric patients, the starting dose, titration plan, and maintenance dose of antipsychotics must be based on their pharmacokinetics and metabolism, as in adults. Because there are significant individual differences in drug and active metabolite(s) pharmacokinetics and metabolism, which may be further affected by a number of confounding factors (including demographic variables, phenotype and drug interactions), therapeutic drug monitoring may be a valid tool for individualizing dosage, but its interpretation should also take account of changes in pharmacodynamic sensitivity with the development during childhood and adolescence. PMID:23588704
The value of medication for some patients in psychoanalysis serves to highlight the potential challenges of the medical analyst and invites exploration into possible motivations for assuming the prescribing role. Prescribing medication is one way in which the medical analyst integrates the dual identities of physician and analyst while dealing with significant cultural influences and intrapsychic tensions. Technical challenges posed by assuming the prescribing role are explored, as are the potential benefits of split treatment. The educational implications of this argument are discussed in relation to identity formation for candidates who are physicians. PMID:24470366
Sandberg, Larry S
This study examined the impact of race and arrest history on the likelihood of being prescribed, and maintaining an atypical antipsychotic prescription for 90 or more days among patients with schizophrenia in the community. Participants were 224 adults with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders receiving services in public-sector mental health systems in North Carolina. The data used for this report were from a
Richard A. Van Dorn; Jeffrey W. Swanson; Marvin S. Swartz; Eric B. Elbogen
The optimal treatment of schizophrenia poses a challenge to develop more effective treatments and safer drugs, to overcome poor compliance, discontinuation and frequent switching with available antipsychotics. Iloperidone is a new dopamine type 2/serotonin type 2A (D2/5-HT2A) antagonist structurally related to risperidone, expected to give better efficacy with less extrapyramidal symptoms than D2 receptor antagonist antipsychotics. In double-blind phase III trials iloperidone reduced the symptoms of schizophrenia at oral doses from 12 to 24 mg. It was more effective than placebo in reducing positive and negative syndrome total score and Brief Psychiatric Rating scale scores; it was as effective as haloperidol and risperidone in post-hoc analysis. Its long-term efficacy was equivalent to that of haloperidol. The most common adverse events were dizziness, dry mouth, dyspepsia and somnolence, with few extrapyramidal symptoms and metabolic changes in short- and long-term studies in adults. Akathisia was rare, but prolongation of the corrected QT (QTc) interval was comparable to haloperidol and ziprasidone, which is of particular concern. Further comparative studies are needed to clarify the benefit/risk profile of iloperidone and its role in the treatment of schizophrenia.
Caccia, Silvio; Pasina, Luca; Nobili, Alessandro
Objective: To review the consequences of nonadherence to antipsychotic pharmacotherapy in patients with schizophrenia, as well as associated risk factors for nonadherence and methods of improving adherence. Methods: Review of the literature based on a MEDLINE search on the terms schizophrenia and adherence or compliance, limited to the English language, supplemented by the author's own knowledge of the topic. Results:
Prakash S. Masand; Meera Narasimhan
Although concern has been raised about antipsychotic prescribing to youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the available database is limited to individual studies. Therefore, in order to provide a synthesis of prevalences and time trends, we conducted a systematic review and pooled analysis of pharmaco-epidemiologic data on antipsychotic use in ADHD youth. Of 1806 hits, 21 studies (N) were retained that reported analyzable data for three separate populations: 1) antipsychotic-treated youth (N=15, n=341,586); 2) ADHD youth (N=9, n=6,192,368), and 3) general population youth (N=5, n=14,284,916). Altogether, 30.5±18.5% of antipsychotic-treated youth had ADHD. In longitudinal studies, this percentage increased over time (1998-2007) from 21.7±7.1% to 27.7±7.7%, ratio=1.3±0.4. Furthermore, 11.5±17.5% of ADHD youth received antipsychotics. In longitudinal studies, this percentage also increased (1998-2006) from 5.5±2.6% to 11.4±6.7%, ratio=2.1±0.6. Finally, 0.12±0.07% of youth in the general population were diagnosed with ADHD and received antipsychotics. Again, in longitudinal studies, this percentage increased over time (1993-2007): 0.13±0.09% to 0.44±0.49%, ratio=3.1±2.2. Taken together, these data indicate that antipsychotics are used by a clinically relevant and increasing number of youth with ADHD. Reasons for and risk/benefit ratios of this practice with little evidence base require further investigation.
Birnbaum, Michael L.; Saito, Ema; Gerhard, Tobias; Winterstein, Almut; Olfson, Mark; Kane, John M.; Correll, Christoph U.
Objective: To evaluate health care resource utilization in patients with schizophrenia who continued newly prescribed antipsychotic medications, compared with those switching to different treatments. Methods: Adults with schizophrenia in the California Medicaid (MediCal) database who initiated treatment with index medications in 1998–2001, were classified as having: 1) abandoned antipsychotic medications; 2) switched to another medication; or 3) continued with the index antipsychotic, for up to 6 months after the index date. Results: Of 2300 patients meeting eligibility criteria, 1382 (60.1%) continued index medications, 480 (20.9%) switched, and 438 (19.0%) abandoned antipsychotic treatment. Utilization in several resource categories occurred significantly more frequently among patients whose regimens were switched (vs those continuing index medications). These included using psychiatric (24.2% vs 14.5%; P < 0.001) or nonpsychiatric (31.5% vs 24.3%; P < 0.05) emergency services; being admitted to a hospital (10.6% vs 7.4%; P < 0.05); making nonpsychiatric outpatient hospital visits (43.3% vs 36.4%; P < 0.05) or nonpsychiatric physician visits (62.7% vs 56.4%; P < 0.05); and using other outpatient psychiatric (53.3% vs 40.7%; P < 0.001) or nonpsychiatric (82.7% vs 74.6%; P < 0.001) services. Conclusions: Switching antipsychotic medications is associated with significantly increased health care resource utilization (vs continuing treatment).
Noordsy, Douglas L; Phillips, Glenn A; Ball, Daniel E; Linde-Zwirble, Walter T
Background Several clinical studies suggested that antipsychotic-based medications could ameliorate cognitive functions impaired in certain schizophrenic patients. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of various dopaminergic receptor antagonists – including atypical antipsychotics that are prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia – in a model of toxicity using cultured hippocampal neurons, the hippocampus being a region of particular relevance to cognition. Results Hippocampal cell death induced by deprivation of growth medium constituents was strongly blocked by drugs including antipsychotics (10-10-10-6 M) that display nM affinities for D2 and/or D4 receptors (clozapine, haloperidol, (±)-sulpiride, domperidone, clozapine, risperidone, chlorpromazine, (+)-butaclamol and L-741,742). These effects were shared by some caspases inhibitors and were not accompanied by inhibition of reactive oxygen species. In contrast, (-)-raclopride and remoxipride, two drugs that preferentially bind D2 over D4 receptors were ineffective, as well as the selective D3 receptor antagonist U 99194. Interestingly, (-)-raclopride (10-6 M) was able to block the neuroprotective effect of the atypical antipsychotic clozapine (10-6 M). Conclusion Taken together, these data suggest that D2-like receptors, particularly the D4 subtype, mediate the neuroprotective effects of antipsychotic drugs possibly through a ROS-independent, caspase-dependent mechanism.
Bastianetto, Stephane; Danik, Marc; Mennicken, Francoise; Williams, Sylvain; Quirion, Remi
CONTEXT Prescribing errors involving medication dose formulations have been reported to occur frequently in hospitals. No systematic evaluations of the characteristics of errors related to medication dosage formulation have been performed. OBJECTIVE To quantify the characteristics, frequency, and potential adverse patient effects of prescribing errors involving medication dosage forms . DESIGN Evaluation of all detected medication prescribing errors involving or related to medication dosage forms in a 631-bed tertiary care teaching hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Type, frequency, and potential for adverse effects of prescribing errors involving or related to medication dosage forms. RESULTS A total of 1,115 clinically significant prescribing errors involving medication dosage forms were detected during the 60-month study period. The annual number of detected errors increased throughout the study period. Detailed analysis of the 402 errors detected during the last 16 months of the study demonstrated the most common errors to be: failure to specify controlled release formulation (total of 280 cases; 69.7%) both when prescribing using the brand name (148 cases; 36.8%) and when prescribing using the generic name (132 cases; 32.8%); and prescribing controlled delivery formulations to be administered per tube (48 cases; 11.9%). The potential for adverse patient outcome was rated as potentially “fatal or severe” in 3 cases (0.7%), and “serious” in 49 cases (12.2%). Errors most commonly involved cardiovascular agents (208 cases; 51.7%). CONCLUSIONS Hospitalized patients are at risk for adverse outcomes due to prescribing errors related to inappropriate use of medication dosage forms. This information should be considered in the development of strategies to prevent adverse patient outcomes resulting from such errors.
Lesar, Timothy S
Background Switching between antipsychotic medications is common in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, data on clinical and economic outcomes from antipsychotic switching, in particular acute care service use, is fairly limited. The goal of this research was to assess the clinical and economic ramifications of switching antipsychotics during outpatient management of schizophrenia. Methods Data from a 1-year randomized, open-label cost-effectiveness study involving typical and atypical antipsychotics were assessed. The study protocol permitted switching of antipsychotics when clinically warranted. The risk of crisis-related events, use of acute-care services, and the time to the initial use of such services were determined in outpatients who switched antipsychotics compared with those who continued with their initial medications. Health care resource utilization data were abstracted from medical records and other sources (e.g., patient self-report), and direct costs were estimated using previously published benchmarks. Results Almost one-third of patients (29.3%) underwent a switch from their initial antipsychotic agent, with an average duration of 100 days before such treatment alterations. Compared with their counterparts who remained on their initial therapies, individuals who switched antipsychotics experienced a significantly higher risk of acute-care services, including hospitalization (p = .013) and crisis services (p = .011). Patients undergoing medication switches also used acute-care services significantly sooner (p = .004) and accrued an additional $3,000 (a 25% increase) in annual total health care costs per patient, most of which was due to acute-care expenditures. Conclusion Switching antipsychotic medications was found to be associated with considerably poorer clinical and economic outcomes, as reflected by, more frequent and more rapid use of acute-care services compared with persons remaining on their initial treatments. Trial Registration Trial ID 2325 in LillyTrials.com (also accessible via ClinicalStudyResults.org).
Faries, Douglas E; Ascher-Svanum, Haya; Nyhuis, Allen W; Kinon, Bruce J
Studies of novel antipsychotics in healthy volunteers are traditionally concerned with kinetics and tolerability, but useful information may also be obtained from biomarkers of clinical endpoints. A useful biomarker should meet the following requirements: a consistent response across studies and antipsychotics; a clear response of the biomarker to a therapeutic dose; a dose–response relationship; a plausible relationship between biomarker, pharmacology and pathogenesis. In the current review, all individual tests found in studies of neuroleptics in healthy volunteers since 1966 were progressively evaluated for compliance with these requirements. A MedLine search yielded 65 different studies, investigating the effects of 23 different neuroleptics on 101 different (variants of) neuropsychological tests, which could be clustered into seven neuropsychological domains. Subjective and objective measures of alertness, and of visual-visuomotor-auditory and motor skills were most sensitive to antipsychotics, although over half of all the studies failed to show statistically significant differences from placebo. The most consistent effects were observed using prolactin response and saccadic eye movements, where 96% and 83% of all studies resp. showed statistically significant effects. The prolactin inducing dose equivalencies relative to haloperidol of 19 different antipsychotic agents correlated with the lowest recommended daily maintenance dose (r2 = 0.52). This relationship could reflect the clinical practice of aiming for maximum tolerated levels, or it could represent a common basis behind prolactin release and antipsychotic activity (probably D2-receptor antagonism). The number of tests used in human psychopharmacology appears to be excessive. Future studies should look for the most specific and sensitive test within each of the domains that are most susceptible to neuroleptics.
de Visser, S J; van der Post, J; Pieters, M S M; Cohen, A F; van Gerven, J M A
Because antidepressants and antipsychotics are commonly described in combination with drugs used to treat comorbid psychiatric or somatic disorders (e.g. anxiolytics, mood stabilizers, cardiovascular drugs, antimicrobial agents), they may be involved in drug interactions. Furthermore, agents such as lithium and atypical antipsychotics may be used to augment the antidepressant response in cases of refractory depression. Based on their mechanisms, drug-drug interactions can be classified either as pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic in nature. The well-documented risk of potentially harmful pharmacodynamic drug interactions with first-generation anti-depressants, e.g. monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), with regard to the induction of the serotonin syndrome, has contributed to a gradual decline in their use in clinical practise. Second- and third-generation antidepressants have gradually replaced tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and MAOIs, mainly because of their improved tolerability and safety profile. The second- and third-generation antidepressants include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and other compounds with different mechanisms of action. These drugs and also the majority of antipsychotics are metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system. Therefore, the use of these compounds may be associated with clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interactions with other medications. The knowledge about the CYP metabolism of drugs may be used to guide the selection of an antidepressant or an anti-psychotic with a low drug-drug interaction potential for an individual patient. The aim of the present article is to review drug-interaction potentials with specific focus on second-generation antidepressants (SSRIs), newer antidepressants (SNRIs: venlafaxine and duloxetine; bupropion, mirtazapine, trazodone), novel atypical antidepressants (agomelatine), as well as new generation atypical antipsychotics (aripiprazole, paliperidone). PMID:19496045
The aim of this review was to determine the spectrum and severity of effects of unintentional antipsychotic poisoning in children. A computerised literature search of MEDLINE (1966 to February 2005) and EMBASE (1980 to February 2005) was undertaken. The Internet was searched using URL: www.google.com. The proceedings of the North American Congress of Clinical Toxicology (NACCT) and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT) were hand searched. All cases of unintentional antipsychotic (all classes) poisoning in children aged 0-6 years were included. The data extracted included the age, weight, antipsychotic, dose, clinical effects, treatment and outcomes. The toxic dose was estimated as the lowest dose causing objective adverse effects.Sixty-eight reports were identified. Few contained all of the required information. Most of the case series included multiple antipsychotics with limited information on individual drugs or all ages with limited paediatric information. For most antipsychotics the ingestion of one tablet caused symptoms that were sometimes severe and usually lasted from 1 to 3 days. Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) were often delayed for up to 12-24 hours. Chlorpromazine caused CNS depression, hypotension and miosis; EPS and cardiac effects were rare, and the toxic dose was estimated to be 15 mg/kg. Haloperidol caused drowsiness (rarely coma) and over one-half of patients had neuromuscular effects (mainly EPS), with a toxic dose estimated at 0.15 mg/kg. Thioridazine caused CNS depression and potentially cardiac effects, with a toxic dose of 1.4 mg/kg. Atypical antipsychotics caused significant CNS depression (except risperidone); EPS were less common. Toxic doses were clozapine 2.5 mg/kg, olanzapine 0.5 mg/kg and aripiprazole 3 mg/kg. EPS responded to anticholinergic drug treatment. In summary, unintentional antipsychotic ingestion in children can cause severe effects that last 1-3 days, often with one tablet. Children potentially ingesting a toxic dose or who are symptomatic should be considered for assessment in hospital. Most cases resolve with good supportive care. Toxic doses are only estimates that are based on limited data and should be used with caution until prospective studies are undertaken. PMID:16231955
Isbister, Geoffrey K; Balit, Corrine R; Kilham, Henry A
It is a routine matter for undergraduates to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a given matrix. But the converse problem of finding a matrix with prescribed eigenvalues and eigenvectors is rarely discussed in elementary texts on linear algebra. This problem is related to the "spectral" decomposition of a matrix and has important technical…
Background Many women diagnosed with varying psychiatric disorders take antipsychotic medications during pregnancy. The safety of antipsychotic medications in pregnancy is largely unknown. Methods We established the National Register of Antipsychotic Medications in Pregnancy in 2005. Women who are pregnant and taking an antipsychotic medication are interviewed every 6 weeks during pregnancy and then followed until their babies are one year old. The baby's progress is closely followed for the first year of life. Findings As of April 18 2012, 147 pregnancies had been followed through to completion. There were 142 live births and data is available for 100 one year old babies. 18% of babies were born preterm, with a higher dose of antipsychotic medication correlating to an increased likelihood of premature delivery; 43% of babies required special care nursery or intensive care after birth; 37% had any degree of respiratory distress and 15% of babies developed withdrawal symptoms. Congenital anomalies were seen in eight babies. Most pregnancies resulted in the birth of live, healthy babies. The use of mood stabilisers or higher doses of antipsychotics during pregnancy increased the likelihood of babies experiencing respiratory distress or admission to Special Care Nursery or Neonatal Intensive Care Units. Conclusion There is a great need for safety and efficacy information about the use of antipsychotic medications in pregnancy. Live, healthy babies are the most common outcome following the use of antipsychotic medication in pregnancy, but clinicians should be particularly mindful of neonatal problems such as respiratory distress.
Kulkarni, Jayashri; Worsley, Roisin; Gilbert, Heather; Gavrilidis, Emorfia; Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E.; Wang, Wei; McCauley, Kay; Fitzgerald, Paul
Background:The use of systemic corticosteroids is discouraged in major psoriasis treatment guidelines.Purpose:Our objective was to assess how often systemic corticosteroids are prescribed for psoriasis and trends in their use over time.Methods:We used National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) data to determine the systemic medications prescribed for psoriasis from 1989 to 2010. We confirmed the findings by analysis of 2003-2007 MarketScan Medicaid data.Results:Systemic corticosteroids were prescribed at 650,000 (95% CI 380,000-920,000) of 21,000,000 psoriasis visits; 93% of these visits were to dermatologists. Of the top nine systemic medications listed at psoriasis visits, three of them were corticosteroids. Corticosteroids were the second most commonly prescribed systemic medication for psoriasis. No significant change in the use of systemic corticosteroids for psoriasis over time was observed (p ?=? .27). In the MarketScan data, prednisone was prescribed more commonly than either methotrexate or etanercept.Limitations:Corticosteroid doses and the length of treatment were not recorded in the NAMCS data.Conclusions:Systemic corticosteroids are among the most common systemic treatments used for psoriasis despite current guidelines. Data are acutely needed on the risks and benefits so that physicians and patients can make evidence-based decisions about their use. PMID:24518679
Al-Dabagh, Amir; Al-Dabagh, Rana; Davis, Scott A; Taheri, Arash; Lin, Hsien-Chang; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Feldman, Steven R
Background:The use of systemic corticosteroids is discouraged in major psoriasis treatment guidelines.Purpose:Our objective was to assess how often systemic corticosteroids are prescribed for psoriasis and trends in their use over time.Methods:We used National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) data to determine the systemic medications prescribed for psoriasis from 1989 to 2010. We confirmed the findings by analysis of 2003-2007 MarketScan Medicaid data.Results:Systemic corticosteroids were prescribed at 650,000 (95% CI 380,000-920,000) of 21,000,000 psoriasis visits; 93% of these visits were to dermatologists. Of the top nine systemic medications listed at psoriasis visits, three of them were corticosteroids. Corticosteroids were the second most commonly prescribed systemic medication for psoriasis. No significant change in the use of systemic corticosteroids for psoriasis over time was observed (p ?=? .27). In the MarketScan data, prednisone was prescribed more commonly than either methotrexate or etanercept.Limitations:Corticosteroid doses and the length of treatment were not recorded in the NAMCS data.Conclusions:Systemic corticosteroids are among the most common systemic treatments used for psoriasis despite current guidelines. Data are acutely needed on the risks and benefits so that physicians and patients can make evidence-based decisions about their use. PMID:24800708
Al-Dabagh, Amir; Al-Dabagh, Rana; Davis, Scott A; Taheri, Arash; Lin, Hsien-Chang; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Feldman, Steven R
We report the successful surgical intervention in a case of constrictive pericarditis after long-term use of atypical antipsychotics. Pericarditis developed in our patient with a longstanding history of schizophrenia treated with atypical antipsychotics. Pericardiectomy was undertaken, and the patient's presenting symptom of shortness of breath resolved subsequently with an uneventful postoperative course.
Chen, Kuan-chin Jean; Goela, Aashish; Teefy, Patrick; Guo, L. Ray
Recently, there has been increased concern about the occurrence of diabetes associated with the use of atypical antipsychotic (AAP) drugs. The relationship between diabetes, schizophrenia, and antipsychotic drugs is complex and intriguing, as untreated patients with schizophrenia are known to suffer from diabetes more often than the general population. Thirty individual case reports of clozapine-, 26 cases of olanzapine- and
Jambur Ananth; Ravi Venkatesh; Karl Burgoyne; Sarath Gunatilake
Summary This report summarizes the preliminary results of a study in progress, a survey of 200 women with schizophrenia in long-term treatment with antipsychotic medication. In the context of providing clinical service to these women (Seeman, 1997; Seeman and Cohen, 1998), we have begun to investigate the possibility of an association among related factors: type of antipsychotic drug use, the
J. H. Zhang-Wong; M. V. Seeman
Atypical antipsychotics were a great advance in the treatment of schizophrenia. But, there is still no atypical antipsychotic with an exceptional efficacy and safety profile for all patients. Clinicians are required to draw on their experiential knowledge to examine suitable options for individual patients. Following its suspension in 1998, the safety and efficacy of sertindole have been investigated in several
With the recent Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services and stimulus package incentives for health information technology, many clinicians are expected to adopt or enhance their use of e-prescribing systems. E-prescribing has nearly eradicated medication errors resulting from prescriber handwriting interpretations, yet several other patient-care and workflow benefits still remain a promise. As prescribers select or update their e-prescribing systems (whether stand-alone or integrated with electronic health records), close attention is needed to the e-prescribing application features and level of clinical decision support to avoid clinical blind spots, including incomplete or inaccurate patient medication lists, poor drop-down menu or screen design, and lack of clinically relevant and actionable drug interaction and drug allergy alerts. This article presents three case studies that highlight common e-prescribing problems involving diabetes patients.
Smith, Marie; Dang, Devra; Lee, Jennifer
Increasingly, atypical antipsychotic drugs are prescribed for elderly patients with symptoms of psychosis and behavioral disturbances. These symptoms often occur in patients with Alzheimer's disease, other dementias, or Parkinson's disease. As the average age of Americans increases, the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease will rise accordingly. Although nonpharmacologic treatments for behavioral disturbances should be tried first, medications often are needed to enable the patient to be adequately cared for. Current guidelines recommend using risperidone and olanzapine to treat psychosis in patients with Alzheimer's dementia. Quetiapine and clozapine are recommended for treatment of psychosis in patients with Parkinson's disease. Additional research is needed for a recently approved agent, ziprasidone. To minimize side effects, these medications should be started at low dosages that are increased incrementally. Drug interactions, especially those involving the cytochrome P450 system, must be considered. Clozapine's potentially lethal side effects limit its use in the primary care setting. Informed use of atypical antipsychotic drugs allows family physicians to greatly improve quality of life in elderly patients with dementia and behavior disturbances. PMID:12800962
Motsinger, Charles D; Perron, Gregory A; Lacy, Timothy J
Abstract Objective: To document prescribing patterns in clinical practice and assess long-term outcomes related to initiation of paliperidone ER and other oral antipsychotics among patients with schizophrenia in a naturalistic setting. Research design and methods: An international, non-interventional, naturalistic study of adult patients (?18 years) with schizophrenia. Patients were assigned to the relevant treatment group (paliperidone ER or 'all other oral antipsychotics') after switching to, or initiating, oral antipsychotic treatment. Retrospective 12 month data collection was followed by 12 month prospective data collection, with 3-monthly assessments. The primary endpoint was time to all-cause discontinuation of new medication. Secondary endpoints included Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) score, Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia (CGI-SCH) score, Personal and Social Performance (PSP) score, health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) and quality of sleep, evaluation of healthcare resource utilization and patient's treatment satisfaction. Results: A total of 4051 patients were included in the intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis set. All-cause study discontinuation rates were comparable between the paliperidone ER group (16.8%) and the 'all other oral antipsychotics' group (15.5%). There was no difference in the time to discontinuation of newly initiated antipsychotic treatments between paliperidone ER and 'all other oral antipsychotics' groups. Paliperidone ER was associated with greater improvements from baseline to endpoint in both the PSP scale score (+14.2 vs +13.1, p?=?0.041) and the physical component of quality of life (SF-12 Physical scores; +3.9 vs +2.9, p?=?0.003) compared to 'all other oral antipsychotics'. Improvements in mean CGI-S score, CGI-SCH score, HR-QoL, quality of sleep and daytime drowsiness, as well as patients' treatment satisfaction were comparable between treatment groups. The incidence of adverse events was comparable between groups. Conclusions: This study provides valuable data on the prescribing habits and treatment outcomes associated with use of paliperidone ER in everyday clinical practice, and supports previous findings of the favorable functional improvement and treatment satisfaction associated with paliperidone ER. Clinical trial registration: NCT00696813; R076477SCH4015 (Register of German Association of Research-based Pharmaceutical Companies [VFA] http://www.vfa.de/de/arzneimittel-forschung/datenbanken-zu-arzneimitteln/nisdb ). PMID:24597755
Schreiner, A; Hargarter, L; Hitschfield, K; Lee, J I; Lenskaya, I; Sulaiman, A H; Diels, J
Since the 1970s, clinicians have increasingly become more familiar with hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) as a common adverse effect of antipsychotic medication, which remains the cornerstone of pharmacological treatment for patients with schizophrenia. Although treatment with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) as a group is, compared with use of the first-generation antipsychotics, associated with lower prolactin (PRL) plasma levels, the detailed effects on plasma PRL levels for each of these compounds in reports often remain incomplete or inaccurate. Moreover, at this moment, no review has been published about the effect of the newly approved antipsychotics asenapine, iloperidone and lurasidone on PRL levels. The objective of this review is to describe PRL physiology; PRL measurement; diagnosis, causes, consequences and mechanisms of HPRL; incidence figures of (new-onset) HPRL with SGAs and newly approved antipsychotics in adolescent and adult patients; and revisit lingering questions regarding this hormone. A literature search, using the MEDLINE database (1966-December 2013), was conducted to identify relevant publications to report on the state of the art of HPRL and to summarize the available evidence with respect to the propensity of the SGAs and the newly approved antipsychotics to elevate PRL levels. Our review shows that although HPRL usually is defined as a sustained level of PRL above the laboratory upper limit of normal, limit values show some degree of variability in clinical reports, making the interpretation and comparison of data across studies difficult. Moreover, many reports do not provide much or any data detailing the measurement of PRL. Although the highest rates of HPRL are consistently reported in association with amisulpride, risperidone and paliperidone, while aripiprazole and quetiapine have the most favorable profile with respect to this outcome, all SGAs can induce PRL elevations, especially at the beginning of treatment, and have the potential to cause new-onset HPRL. Considering the PRL-elevating propensity of the newly approved antipsychotics, evidence seems to indicate these agents have a PRL profile comparable to that of clozapine (asenapine and iloperidone), ziprasidone and olanzapine (lurasidone). PRL elevations with antipsychotic medication generally are dose dependant. However, antipsychotics having a high potential for PRL elevation (amisulpride, risperidone and paliperidone) can have a profound impact on PRL levels even at relatively low doses, while PRL levels with antipsychotics having a minimal effect on PRL, in most cases, can remain unchanged (quetiapine) or reduce (aripiprazole) over all dosages. Although tolerance and decreases in PRL values after long-term administration of PRL-elevating antipsychotics can occur, the elevations, in most cases, remain above the upper limit of normal. PRL profiles of antipsychotics in children and adolescents seem to be the same as in adults. The hyperprolactinemic effects of antipsychotic medication are mostly correlated with their affinity for dopamine D2 receptors at the level of the anterior pituitary lactotrophs (and probably other neurotransmitter mechanisms) and their blood-brain barrier penetrating capability. Even though antipsychotics are the most common cause of pharmacologically induced HPRL, recent research has shown that HPRL can be pre-existing in a substantial portion of antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis or at-risk mental state. PMID:24677189
Peuskens, J; Pani, L; Detraux, J; De Hert, M
This interpretive qualitative study aimed to describe and construct the meaning of the experience of living with the weight gain associated with second-generation antipsychotics. A qualitative study that incorporated the tenets of phenomenology and utilized in-depth interviews was conducted with eight mental health consumers. Thematic analysis resulted in three themes: Grappling with the weight; Living with the consequences of being overweight; and Experiencing negative emotions about the weight gain. The findings indicate that consumers struggle to manage the insatiable appetite and the related weight gain associated with second-generation antipsychotic medication, as well as the numerous associated physical and emotional issues. Adherence with prescribed second-generation antipsychotic medication was also affected and a number of the participants indicated they had ceased or considered ceasing their medication because of the weight gain associated with the drugs. PMID:23146024
Usher, K; Park, T; Foster, K
This paper explores the legal position of the off-label prescription of antipsychotic medications to people with dementia who experience behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Dementia is a challenging illness, and BPSD can be very difficult for carers to manage, with evidence that this contributes to carer strain and can result in the early institutionalisation of people with dementia. As a result, the prescription of antipsychotic and other neuroleptic medications to treat BPSD has become commonplace, in spite of these drugs being untested and unlicensed for use to treat older people with dementia. In recent years, it has become apparent through clinical trials that antipsychotic drugs increase the risk of cerebrovascular accident (stroke) and death in people with dementia. In addition, these types of medication also have other risk factors for people with dementia, including over-sedation and worsening of cognitive function. Drawing on recent questionnaire (n = 185), focus group (n = 15), and interview (n = 11) data with carers of people with dementia, this paper explores the law relating to off-label prescription, and the applicability of medical negligence law to cases where adverse events follow the use of antipsychotic medication. It is argued that the practice of off-label prescribing requires regulatory intervention in order to protect vulnerable patients. PMID:23047844
Harding, Rosie; Peel, Elizabeth
Rats discriminated the novel antipsychotic quetiapine (Seroquel). Full generalization was seen with the novel ("atypical") antipsychotics, clozapine, olanzapine, and risperidone. Generalization was not seen with the older "typical" antipsychotics, haloperidol, chlorpromazine, and loxapine, or with the novel atypical antipsychotic, amisulpride. The pattern of generalization resembled that seen in rats trained to discriminate a low dose (1.25 mg/kg) of clozapine, which dissociates most novel antipsychotics from typical antipsychotics. However, the failure of the novel antipsychotic amisulpride to generalize demonstrates that this bioassay does not detect all novel antipsychotics. These data suggest that the discrimination of antipsychotics such as quetiapine may be of value in the development of novel antipsychotics, although the relationship between the discriminative properties of such drugs and their clinical actions is unclear. PMID:12498334
Smith, Judith A; Goudie, Andrew J
Orthostatic hypotension is a common adverse effect of antipsychotics that may delay or prevent titration to a dose necessary to control psychotic symptoms. Complications of orthostatic hypotension include syncope, transient ischaemic attack, stroke, myocardial infarction and death. The risk of orthostatic hypotension associated with antipsychotic therapy is increased in patients with disorders of the autonomic nervous system, fluid imbalance and those taking concomitant drug therapy that affects haemodynamic tone. Prospective monitoring for changes in postural blood pressure is important because patients with psychotic disorders often do not articulate symptoms of orthostasis and the subjective report of dizziness does not correlate well with orthostatic blood pressure changes. Nonpharmacological strategies and patient education, most notably, slowly rising from the supine position, are crucial first steps in the prevention and treatment of both symptomatic and asymptomatic orthostatic hypotension. Pharmacological treatment is only recommended when symptomatic orthostatic hypotension persists despite proper nonpharmacological therapy and there is a compelling indication for antipsychotic treatment. Fludrocortisone is a reasonable first choice for symptomatic orthostatic hypotension. Other agents including desmopressin and midodrine may be considered in patients who do not respond favourably to a trial of fludrocortisone, but safety concerns and lack of evidence limit the utility of these agents. PMID:21790209
Gugger, James J
Objective To better understand barriers associated with the adoption and use of electronic prescribing of controlled substances (EPCS), a practice recently established by US Drug Enforcement Administration regulation. Materials and methods Prescribers of controlled substances affiliated with a regional health system were surveyed regarding current electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) activities, current prescribing of controlled substances, and expectations and barriers to the adoption of EPCS. Results 246 prescribers (response rate of 64%) represented a range of medical specialties, with 43.1% of these prescribers current users of e-prescribing for non-controlled substances. Reported issues with controlled substances included errors, pharmacy call-backs, and diversion; most prescribers expected EPCS to address many of these problems, specifically reduce medical errors, improve work flow and efficiency of practice, help identify prescription diversion or misuse, and improve patient treatment management. Prescribers expected, however, that it would be disruptive to practice, and over one-third of respondents reported that carrying a security authentication token at all times would be so burdensome as to discourage adoption. Discussion Although adoption of e-prescribing has been shown to dramatically reduce medication errors, challenges to efficient processes and errors still persist from the perspective of the prescriber, that may interfere with the adoption of EPCS. Most prescribers regarded EPCS security measures as a small or moderate inconvenience (other than carrying a security token), with advantages outweighing the burden. Conclusion Prescribers are optimistic about the potential for EPCS to improve practice, but view certain security measures as a burden and potential barrier.
Kim, Meelee; McDonald, Ann; Kreiner, Peter; Kelleher, Stephen J; Blackman, Michael B; Kaufman, Peter N; Carrow, Grant M
Introduction Delirium is an independent risk factor for prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS) and increased mortality. Several antipsychotics have been studied for the treatment of intensive care unit (ICU) delirium that has led to a high variability in prescribing patterns for these medications. We hypothesize that in clinical practice the documentation of delirium is lower than the incidence of delirium reported in prospective clinical trials. The objective of this study was to document the incidence of delirium diagnosed in ICU patients and to describe the utilization of antipsychotics in the ICU. Methods This was a retrospective, observational, cohort study conducted at 71 United States academic medical centers that reported data to the University Health System Consortium Clinical Database/Resource Manager. It included all patients 18 years of age and older admitted to the hospital between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2010 with at least one day in the ICU. Results Delirium was diagnosed in 6% (10,034 of 164,996) of hospitalizations with an ICU admission. Antipsychotics were administered to 11% (17,764 of 164,996) of patients. Of the antipsychotics studied, the most frequently used were haloperidol (62%; n = 10,958) and quetiapine (31%; n = 5,448). Delirium was associated with increased ICU LOS (5 vs. 3 days, P < 0.001) and hospital LOS (11 vs. 6 days, P < 0.001), but not in-hospital mortality (8% vs. 9%, P = 0.419). Antipsychotic exposure was associated with increased ICU LOS (8 vs. 3 days, P < 0.001), hospital LOS (14 vs. 5 days, P < 0.001) and mortality (12% vs. 8%, P < 0.001). Of patients with antipsychotic exposure in the ICU, absence of a documented mental disorder (32%, n = 5,760) was associated with increased ICU LOS (9 vs. 7 days, P < 0.001), hospital LOS (16 vs. 13 days, P < 0.001) and in-hospital mortality (19% vs. 9%, P < 0.001) compared to patients with a documented mental disorder (68%, n = 12,004). Conclusions The incidence of documented delirium in ICU patients is lower than that documented in previous prospective studies with active screening. Antipsychotics are administered to 1 in every 10 ICU patients. When administration occurs in the absence of a documented mental disorder, antipsychotic use is associated with an even higher ICU and hospital LOS, as well as in-hospital mortality.
Prescribing errors are the most common type of medical errors and can result in harm particularly in young children. Doctors were enrolled in a programme of written assessment in prescribing skills and individualized feedback. Pharmacists audited the impact. The setting was the paediatric wards and neonatal unit of a District General Hospital. 16 doctors were tested and received feedback. A total of 110 errors were identified in this test, out of a 51 were classified as major including wrong dose and frequency, and prescribing medication the patient had an allergy to. Audit of impact of this intervention revealed a reduction of errors from 47 to 21, and patients affected from 19 to 11 per 100 (P = 0.001) emergency admissions compared to an audit before the intervention. An intervention combining a comprehensive multifaceted assessment and detailed feedback can lead to reduction of prescribing errors in paediatric trainees.
Eisenhut, Michael; Sun, Blanche; Skinner, Sarah
Surveillance of physicians' prescribing patterns and the accumulation and sale of these data for pharmaceutical marketing are currently the subjects of legislation in several states and action by state and national medical associations. Contrary to common perception, the growth of the health care information organization industry has not been limited to the past decade but has been building slowly over the past 50 years, beginning in the 1940s when growth in the prescription drug market fueled industry interest in understanding and influencing prescribing patterns. The development of this surveillance system was not simply imposed on the medical profession by the pharmaceutical industry but was developed through the interactions of pharmaceutical salesmen, pharmaceutical marketers, academic researchers, individual physicians, and physician organizations. Examination of the role of physicians and physician organizations in the development of prescriber profiling is directly relevant to the contemporary policy debate surrounding this issue. PMID:17502635
Greene, Jeremy A
Long-term drug treatment of schizophrenia with conventional antipsychotics has limitations: an estimated quarter to one third of patients are treatment-resistant; conventional antipsychotics have only a modest impact upon negative symptoms (poverty of thought, social withdrawal and loss of affect); and adverse effects, particularly extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Newer, so-called atypical, antipsychotics such as olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole and clozapine (an old drug which was re-introduced in 1990) are claimed to address these limitations. Atypical agents are, at a minimum, at least as effective as conventional drugs such as haloperidol. They also cause substantially fewer extrapyramidal symptoms. However, some other adverse effects are more common than with conventional drugs. For example, clozapine carries a significant risk of serious blood disorders, for which special monitoring is mandatory; it also causes troublesome drowsiness and increased salivation more often than conventional agents. Some atypical agents cause more weight gain or QT prolongation than older agents. The choice of therapy is, therefore, not straightforward. At present, atypical agents represent an advance for patients with severe or intolerable EPS. Most published evidence exists to support the use of clozapine, which has also been shown to be effective in schizophrenia refractory to conventional agents. However, the need for compliance with blood count monitoring and its sedative properties make careful patient selection important. The extent of any additional direct benefit offered by atypical agents on negative symptoms is not yet clear. The lack of a depot formulation for atypical drugs may pose a significant practical problem. To date, only two double-blind studies in which atypical agents were compared directly have been published. Neither provides compelling evidence for the choice of one agent over another. Atypical agents are many times more expensive than conventional drugs. Although drug treatment constitutes only a small proportion of the costs of managing schizophrenia, the additional annual cost of the use of atypical agents in, say, a quarter of the likely U.K. schizophrenic population would be about £56 M. There is only limited evidence of cost-effectiveness. Atypical antipsychotics are not currently licensed for other conditions where conventional antipsychotics are commonly used, such as behaviour disturbance or dementia in the elderly. Their dose, and place in treatment in such cases have yet to be determined.
Campbell, M; Young, P I; Bateman, D N; Smith, J M; Thomas, S H L
Recent reports of antipsychotic medication use in pediatric populations describe large increases in rates of use. Much interest in the increasing use has focused on potentially inappropriate prescribing for non-Food and Drug Administration-approved uses and use amongst youth with no mental health diagnosis. Different studies of antipsychotic use have used different time periods, geographic and insurance populations of youth, and aggregations of diagnoses. We review recent estimates of use and comment on the similarities and dissimilarities in rates of use. We also report new data obtained on 11 health maintenance organizations that are members of the Mental Health Research Network in order to update and extend the knowledge base on use by diagnostic indication. Results indicate that most use in pediatric populations is for disruptive behaviors and not psychotic disorders. Differences in estimates are likely a function of differences in methodology; however, there is remarkable consistency in estimates of use by diagnosis. PMID:24258527
Penfold, Robert B; Stewart, Christine; Hunkeler, Enid M; Madden, Jeanne M; Cummings, Janet R; Owen-Smith, Ashli A; Rossom, Rebecca C; Lu, Christine Y; Lynch, Frances L; Waitzfelder, Beth E; Coleman, Karen J; Coleman, Karen A; Ahmedani, Brian K; Beck, Arne L; Zeber, John E; Simon, Gregory E
A model utilizing computerized feedback to improve physician prescribing was studied in a family medicine residency practice. The frequency of generic prescribing was monitored for two sets of commonly used drugs: 21 “feedback” drugs and 13 “silent” drugs. After a four-month baseline period, the residents and faculty physicians were randomized into two groups. The experimental group received nine monthly printouts identifying “feedback” drugs they had prescribed by brand name with estimates of cost savings that might have been realized by generic prescribing. The control group received no feedback. Neither group received feedback regarding the “silent” drugs. Between the baseline and feedback periods, the increase in generic prescribing by experimental physicians was significantly greater than for control physicians for the “feedback” drugs as well as for the “silent drugs, indicating that the physicians generalized the message to prescribe generically.
Wilkinson, William E.; Gehlbach, Stephen H.; Hammond, William E.; Clapp, Nancy E.
Tests were made for interactions between antipsychotic drugs and compounds that enhance synaptic currents mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid-type glutamate receptors ("ampakines"). Typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs decreased methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in rats; the effects of near or even subthreshold doses of the antipsychotics were greatly enhanced by the ampakines. Interactions between the ampakine CX516 and low doses of different antipsychotics were generally additive and often synergistic. The ampakine did not exacerbate neuroleptic-induced catalepsy, indicating that the interaction between the different pharmacological classes was selective. These results suggest that positive modulators of cortical glutamatergic systems may be useful adjuncts in treating schizophrenia. PMID:10087029
Johnson, S A; Luu, N T; Herbst, T A; Knapp, R; Lutz, D; Arai, A; Rogers, G A; Lynch, G
The aim of this study was to review the efficacy and safety of atypical antipsychotics, comparing within class, placebo, or compared to another active treatment for delirium. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database (1 January 1990-5 November 2012). Selection criteria for review were prospective, controlled studies (comparison studies), using validated delirium rating scales as outcome measures. A total of six prospective, randomized controlled studies were included in the review. It was found that atypical antipsychotics are effective and safe in treating delirium, even though there seemed to be no difference between each agent. In particular, comparison studies with haloperidol showed that the efficacy of atypical antipsychotics was similar to that of low-dose haloperidol. It was concluded that atypical antipsychotics appear to be effective and tolerable in the management of delirium, even though the evidence is limited. PMID:23859663
Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Bahk, Won-Myong
Background. Psychotropic medications, in particular second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) and benzodiazepines, have been associated with harm in elderly populations. Health agencies around the world have issued warnings about the risks of prescribing such medications to frail individuals affected by dementia and current guidelines recommend their use only in cases where the benefits clearly outweigh the risks. This study documents the use of psychotropic medications in the entire elderly population of a Canadian province in the context of current clinical guidelines for the treatment of behavioural disturbances. Methods. Prevalent and incident utilization of antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and related medications (zopiclone and zaleplon) were determined in the population of Manitobans over age 65 in the time period 1997/98 to 2008/09 fiscal years. Comparisons between patients living in the community and those living in personal care (nursing) homes (PCH) were conducted. Influence of sociodemographic characteristics on prescribing was assessed by generalized estimating equations. Non-optimal use was defined as the prescribing of high dose of antipsychotic medications and the use of combination therapy of a benzodiazepine (or zopiclone/zaleplon) with an antipsychotic. A decrease in intensity of use over time and lower proportions of patients treated with antipsychotics at high dose or in combination with benzodiazepines (or zopiclone/zaleplon) was considered a trend toward better prescribing. Multiple regression analysis determined predictors of non-optimal use in the elderly population. Results. A 20-fold greater prevalent utilization of SGAs was observed in PCH-dwelling elderly persons compared to those living in the community. In 2008/09, 27% of PCH-dwelling individuals received a prescription for an SGA. Patient characteristics, such as younger age, male gender, diagnoses of dementia (or use of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor) or psychosis in the year prior the prescription, were predictors of non-optimal prescribing (e.g., high dose antipsychotics). During the period 2002/3 and 2007/8, amongst new users of SGAs, 10.2% received high doses. Those receiving high dose antipsychotics did not show high levels of polypharmacy. Conclusions. Despite encouraging trends, the use of psychotropic medications remains high in elderly individuals, especially in residents of nursing homes. Clinicians caring for such patients need to carefully assess risks and benefits.
Dahl, Matthew; Schultz, Jennifer; Metge, Colleen; Raymond, Colette
Background: Given the paucity of research in this area, this study attempted to assess attitudes toward antipsychotic medications and its correlates among patients with schizophrenia, either on first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) or second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) medications. Materials and Methods: Structured assessments of attitudes to antipsychotics, psychopathology, insight and side-effects were carried out in 120 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia; 89 of these were on SGAs and 31 on FGAs. Results: Patients had predominantly positive attitudes toward antipsychotics. Severity of side-effects was the principal correlate of attitudes, explaining 19.5% of the variance, followed by greater insight (4.2% of the variance). Other factors such as younger age, male gender, employment, higher family income, urban residence and lower symptom-severity explained only a negligible proportion of the variance (0.2%) in attitudes. Patients on SGAs had more positive views of their medications than those on FGAs. They felt more normal on their medications, believed that their thoughts were clearer on medications, felt that good things about their medications outweighed the bad and believed that their medications helped them from falling ill again. In addition, they did not feel as tired and sluggish on their medications and did not believe that medications were unnatural or controlled their bodies. Conclusions: Positive attitudes toward antipsychotics were common among patients with schizophrenia. Attitudes were principally determined by severity of side-effects and insight levels. Patients on SGAs had better attitudes, possibly because of less severe side-effects and greater insight among them. The importance of exploring patients’ attitudes toward their antipsychotics is highlighted by this study.
Karthik, M. S.; Warikoo, Nisha; Chakrabarti, Subho; Grover, Sandeep; Kulhara, Parmanand
Antipsychotic medications are widely used to manage psychotic and behavioral disorders in older adults, including primary\\u000a psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, and psychosis and behavioral disturbances associated with dementia. These two broad\\u000a diagnostic indications are associated with contrasting recommended treatment durations, with the former requiring indefinite\\u000a treatment across the life span. Antipsychotic drug dosing for schizophrenia is based primarily on
Chloe Leon; Philip Gerretsen; Hiroyuki Uchida; Takefumi Suzuki; Tarek Rajji; David C. Mamo
The clinical characteristics of schizophrenia in older persons vary to some extent, depending on whether the onset of illness\\u000a was earlier or later in life. Regardless of age of onset, antipsychotic medications are the mainstay of treatment. Age-related\\u000a physiologic changes make older persons more sensitive to the therapeutic and toxic effects of antipsychotics. There is a paucity\\u000a of controlled studies
Jeremy A. Sable; Dilip V. Jeste
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... Caregivers" /> Consumer Summary – Apr. 10, 2013 Antipsychotic Medicines for Treating Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: A Review ... or hospital stays. Understanding Antipsychotics What are antipsychotic medicines? Antipsychotic medicines were made to help people who ...
The importance of medication adherence in sustaining control of schizophrenic symptoms has generated a great deal of interest in comparing levels of treatment adherence with different antipsychotic agents. However, the bulk of the research has yielded results that are often inconsistent. In this prospective, observational study, we assessed the measurement properties of 3 commonly used, pharmacy-based measures of treatment adherence with antipsychotic agents in schizophrenia using data from the Veterans Health Administration during 2000 to 2005. Patients were selected if they were on antipsychotics and diagnosed with schizophrenia (N = 18,425). A gap of >/=30 days (with no filled index medication) was used to define discontinuation of treatment as well as medication "episodes," or the number of times a patient returned to the same index agent after discontinuation of treatment within a 1-year period. The study found that the 3 existing measures differed in their approaches in measuring treatment adherence, suggesting that studies using these different measures would generate different levels of treatment adherence across antipsychotic agents. Considering the measurement problems associated with each existing approach, we offered a new, medication episode-specific approach, which would provide a fairer comparison of the levels of treatment adherence across different antipsychotic agents. PMID:19851516
Ren, Xinhua S; Herz, Lawrence; Qian, Shirley; Smith, Eric; Kazis, Lewis E
Clinical and psychosocial deterioration associated with schizophrenia occurs within the first few years following the onset of the illness. Therefore, to improve the long-term prognosis, it is important to provide schizophrenia patients with intensive treatment following their first episode. Relapse is highly associated with partial medication adherence or nonadherence in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Recent studies suggest that long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics compared with oral antipsychotics are more effective for medication adherence and relapse prevention. Moreover, some clinical guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia suggested that LAI antipsychotics should be considered when patients are nonadherent “at any stage.” Decreased compliance is a common cause of relapse during the initial stages of the disease. Therefore, LAI antipsychotics should be highly considered when treating patients with first-episode schizophrenia. In the present paper, clinical trial data and current guidelines on the use of LAI antipsychotics for first-episode schizophrenia are discussed as well as the pros and cons of this treatment option.
Kim, Borah; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Yang, Yen Kuang; Park, Jong-Il; Chung, Young-Chul
Long-acting injectable (depot) antipsychotics are one approach in the management of individuals with schizophrenia. Since the introduction of risperidone long-acting injection in 2003, three additional second-generation antipsychotics have become available in a long-acting injectable formulation: paliperidone, olanzapine and aripiprazole. Although these different depot options can help with adherence and thus encourage better treatment outcomes, they differ in terms of specific indications, approved injection sites, needle gauge, injection volume, injection interval, requirements for oral supplementation, availability of prefilled syringes, storage needs and postinjection observation period, as well as potential drug-drug interactions and commonly encountered adverse reactions. After a review of the evidence base, guidance is offered on the appropriate selection among the long-acting injectable formulations of both first and second-generation antipsychotics. PMID:23898849
A medical audit was conducted to evaluate prescriptions for diarrhea in the Ward and Clinic of the Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit of the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. The sample consisted of 54 prescriptions from the ward and 105 from the clinic, written by consultants, senior and junior residents. Organisms isolated were Shigella, Salmonella, E. coli, acid fast bacilli, Giardia and rotavirus. Nonspecific diarrhea included lactose intolerance associated with nutritional deficiencies. The sex ratio was 2:1 male:female. On the Ward the mean number of prescriptions was 4.4. 78% were treated with drugs, while 22% received oral electrolytes, diet, advice and vitamins. Average stay was 2 weeks. Generic drugs were specified for 49%, trade names for 48% and both for 39%. In the clinic 78% were treated with drugs, and 21% were given oral electrolyte solution, vitamins and advised as to diet. The average number of drugs was 2.25. 73% were prescribed trade name drugs, 20% generics and 7% both. Inappropriate drug prescriptions (1-2% of total) included choice of drugs in 13%, drug category only, e.g. antibiotics in 3%, no dose specified in 10% and duration not specified in 12% of all drugs and 17% in the clinic. The study indicated notable restraint on polypharmacy in the ward and clinic, and very appropriate choice of drugs. PMID:3220563
Nahar, S; Uppal, R; Mehta, S; Sharma, P L
Abstract Objective: Antipsychotics, especially atypical ones, are in common use in children and adolescents with psychotic or affective spectrum disorders, as well as in various other psychopathologies. The adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics in children and adolescents are similar to those seen in adults, and include weight gain, elevated blood glucose levels, and hyperlipidemia. In this retrospective chart review, we compared these adverse events in children who were treated with typical, atypical, or no antipsychotic treatment. Methods: The medical charts of 72 children, 65 boys and 7 girls, were reviewed. All children were 6-13 years old (mean age 9.5±1.7 years). In total, 48 children received antipsychotic treatment, and 24 children were in the control group. Data were extracted from the medical charts, including weight, height, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), triglycerides, total cholesterol, and glucose blood levels. We examined the values in the beginning of the antipsychotic treatment and at release from the hospital in the study group, and at admission and in the end of the drug-free period or at release from the hospital (a duration of at least 4 weeks) in the control group. Results: The average weight gain was 3.9±3.8?kg in the atypical antipsychotic treatment (AAT) group, 1.1±4.4?kg in the typical antipsychotic treatment (TAT) group, and 0.23±2.9?kg in the control group. The average increase in BMI was 15.1±22.0 percentiles in the AAT group, 6.4±14.2 percentiles in the TAT group, and 1.6±12.5 percentiles in the control group. No statistically significant difference was found in the increase in height percentile. There were no significant differences in the rates of elevated values of serum triglycerides, cholesterol, AST, ALT, or fasting blood glucose. Conclusions: We found a significant increase in both absolute weight gain and BMI percentile following atypical antipsychotic treatment. In contrast, typical antipsychotic treatment did not affect weight gain significantly, and the same was true for the control group. In addition, the rates of elevated values of biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose levels) were very low at the beginning of the study, and were not significantly altered by the various treatments. PMID:24816004
Ebert, Tanya; Midbari, Yael; Shmilovitz, Ronen; Kosov, Ira; Kotler, Moshe; Weizman, Abraham; Ram, Anca
This poster shows how prescribed burns operate, using careful planning and preparation to start a fire that will renew habitat without threatening ecosystems or homes. This image describes the steps required to prepare a prescribed burn, how fire crews set up for the burn, and how the wind is used to help control the fire.
Forestry, Florida D.; Smokeybear.com
... that health guidelines for the use of antipsychotic drugs during pregnancy should be clarified. "There's been little research on ... The potentially harmful effects of taking an antipsychotic drug in pregnancy have to be balanced against the harm of ...
Antipsychotics have provided a great improvement in the management of people with schizophrenia. The first generation antipsychotics could establish the possibility of managing many psychotic subjects in an outpatient setting. With the advent of the second (SGA) and third generation antipsychotics (TGA), other psychiatric disorders such as bipolar depression, bipolar mania, autism, and major depressive disorder have now been approved for the use of these drugs for their treatment. Also, the administration of more specific assessment tools has allowed for better delineation of the repercussions of these drugs on symptoms and the quality of life of patients who use antipsychotic agents. In general, the SGA share similar mechanisms of action to achieve these results: dopamine-2 receptor antagonism plus serotonin-2A receptor antagonism. The TGA (eg, aripiprazole) have partial agonist activity at the dopamine-2 receptor site, and are also called dopaminergic stabilizers. The pharmacological profile of SGA and TGA may provide better efficacy against negative symptoms, and are less likely to produce extrapyramidal symptoms; however, the SGA and TGA are associated with many other adverse events. The clinician has to balance the risks and benefits of these medications when choosing an antipsychotic for an individual patient.
de Araujo, Arao Nogueira; de Sena, Eduardo Ponde; de Oliveira, Irismar Reis; Juruena, Mario F
In this article, it is aimed to review the efficacies of mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics, which are used commonly in psychopharmacological treatments of bipolar and borderline personality disorders. In this context, common phenomenology between borderline personality and bipolar disorders and differential features of clinical diagnosis will be reviewed in line with the literature. Both disorders can demonstrate common features in the diagnostic aspect, and can overlap phenomenologically. Concomitance rate of both disorders is quite high. In order to differentiate these two disorders from each other, quality of mood fluctuations, impulsivity types and linear progression of disorders should be carefully considered. There are various studies in mood stabilizer use, like lithium, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, sodium valproate and lamotrigine, in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Moreover, there are also studies, which have revealed efficacies of risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine as atypical antipsychotics. It is not easy to differentiate borderline personality disorder from the bipolar disorders. An intensively careful evaluation should be performed. This differentiation may be helpful also for the treatment. There are many studies about efficacy of valproate and lamotrigine in treatment of borderline personality disorder. However, findings related to other mood stabilizers are inadequate. Olanzapine and quetiapine are reported to be more effective among atypical antipsychotics. No drug is approved for the treatment of borderline personality disorder by the entitled authorities, yet. Psychotherapeutic approaches have preserved their significant places in treatment of borderline personality disorder. Moreover, symptom based approach is recommended in use of mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics.
Belli, Hasan; Ural, Cenk; Akbudak, Mahir
In this article, it is aimed to review the efficacies of mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics, which are used commonly in psychopharmacological treatments of bipolar and borderline personality disorders. In this context, common phenomenology between borderline personality and bipolar disorders and differential features of clinical diagnosis will be reviewed in line with the literature. Both disorders can demonstrate common features in the diagnostic aspect, and can overlap phenomenologically. Concomitance rate of both disorders is quite high. In order to differentiate these two disorders from each other, quality of mood fluctuations, impulsivity types and linear progression of disorders should be carefully considered. There are various studies in mood stabilizer use, like lithium, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, sodium valproate and lamotrigine, in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Moreover, there are also studies, which have revealed efficacies of risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine as atypical antipsychotics. It is not easy to differentiate borderline personality disorder from the bipolar disorders. An intensively careful evaluation should be performed. This differentiation may be helpful also for the treatment. There are many studies about efficacy of valproate and lamotrigine in treatment of borderline personality disorder. However, findings related to other mood stabilizers are inadequate. Olanzapine and quetiapine are reported to be more effective among atypical antipsychotics. No drug is approved for the treatment of borderline personality disorder by the entitled authorities, yet. Psychotherapeutic approaches have preserved their significant places in treatment of borderline personality disorder. Moreover, symptom based approach is recommended in use of mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics. PMID:23024731
Belli, Hasan; Ural, Cenk; Akbudak, Mahir
BACKGROUND: Atypical antipsychotics are increasingly used for treatment of mental illnesses like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and considered to have fewer extrapyramidal effects than older antipsychotics. METHODS: We examined efficacy in randomised trials of bipolar disorder where the presenting episode was either depression, or manic\\/mixed, comparing atypical antipsychotic with placebo or active comparator, examined withdrawals for any cause, or due
Sheena Derry; R Andrew Moore
Objective:To analyze the trend of antipsychotic drug consumption in Spain from 1985 to 2000, and the impact of atypical antipsychotics on the overall consumption and on clozapine use. Methods: Data on antipsychotic consumption were drawn from the ECOM database of the Spanish Ministry of Health, which contains the retail community pharmacies sales of medicinal products reimbursed by the National Health
Blanca Santamaría; Magdalena Pérez; Dolores Montero; Mariano Madurga; Francisco J de Abajo
Antipsychotics have been found to induce recurrent psychotic episodes lasting minutes to hours, mostly accompanied by oculogyric crisis (OGC). To characterize this side effect, antipsychotic-induced and postencephalitic OGCs that were reported in the literature were compared to find out common characteristics of OGCs and their associated symptoms. Both postencephalitic and antipsychotic-induced OGCs were found to occur late in the day and at regular intervals, and were associated with autonomic symptoms such as profuse sweating, facial flushing, transitory hypertension and difficulty in micturition. They were often associated also with transient psychiatric episodes: visual hallucinations and illusions, auditory hallucinations, delusions, catatonic phenomena, obsessive thoughts and panic attacks. These (OGC) characteristics will be useful in recognizing antipsychotic-induced psychiatric episodes. The associated psychiatric episodes were noted to recur occasionally also without OGC in a few postencephalic cases, and during gradual dose reduction or after a switch to a novel or low-potency antipsychotic in drug-induced cases. These findings suggest that episodes with the OGC characteristics but without OGC per se, may be less severe reactions to antipsychotic medication than those with OGC, and may represent manifestations of subclinical OGC. PMID:16684678
After a wait of three years, the Home Office has finally made good on its promise to end the confusion over the range and use of controlled drugs by independent non-medical prescribers (NMPs). Since 23 April 2012, both nurse and pharmacist independent prescribers are able to prescribe a far broader range of controlled drugs as part of their practice. In a follow up to their article from November (Griffith and Tengnah, 2011) setting out the limits on prescribing controlled drugs by NMPs, Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah discuss the changes introduced by the Misuse of Drugs (Amendment No. 2) (England, Wales and Scotland) Regulations 2012 and consider the implications of the changes on practice. PMID:22584403
Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam
Background In 2003, the World Health Organization reported 50% of patients are adherent with long-term therapies. Frequently, the reason for a patient’s non-adherence is the cost of medications. Even with prescription insurance coverage, patients may not be able to afford their medication. Objective We sought to assess prescriber knowledge of the cost of commonly prescribed medications including atorvastatin, gabapentin, levofloxacin, losartan, pantoprazole, pioglitazone and quetiapine. Secondary objectives evaluated how often prescribers consult a discounted drug list and a patient’s prescription insurance coverage. Methodology One hundred prescribers from the Medical University of South Carolina were surveyed from November 2010 to January 2011. Prescribers consisted of medical residents, attending physicians, fellows, nurse practitioners, and physician’s assistants. Wholesale prices of medications were determined using the Red Book™ and prescription insurance prices from an average of the top three prescription insurance companies’ copayments. Results Medical residents made up 72% of those surveyed, fellows 3%, attendings 12%, physician’s assistants 3%, and nurse practitioners 10%. The different prescriber groups were unable to correctly determine the cost of medications of more than 50% of total possible responses. The majority of prescribers rarely asked about a patient’s prescription insurance coverage or consulted a discounted drug list before writing a prescription. Conclusions Prescribers are more likely to know the cost of medications for those patients who have prescription insurance coverage versus those who do not.
Cogdill, Brittany; Nappi, Jean M.
This qualitative study explores how recently qualified nurse prescribers describe, and rate, the safety of their prescribing. Internationally, the costs of drug errors are enormous and they can have serious implications for staff and patients. Nurses are now undertaking extended prescribing practice throughout the UK. Nurse prescribers work across different work settings and although safe prescribing is a priority in
Eleanor Bradley; Brian Hynam; Peter Nolan
ObjectivesTo determine changes in prescribing patterns in primary care of antipsychotic and mood stabiliser medication in a representative sample of patients with bipolar disorder in the United Kingdom over a fifteen year period and association with socio-demographic factors.MethodsWe identified 4700 patients in the Health Improvement Network (THIN) primary care database, who had received treatment for bipolar disorder between 1995 and
Joseph Hayes; Philip Prah; Irwin Nazareth; Michael King; Kate Walters; Irene Petersen; David Osborn
Considerable focus has been devoted to how much antipsychotic is appropriate for optimal clinical response, although how often antipsychotics need to be administered is also less than clear. Clinicians are aware of the increased risk of relapse related to antipsychotic nonadherence/discontinuation, and current practice dictates continuous antipsychotic exposure with the goal of achieving steady state-levels to maintain effectiveness and prevent relapse. Does this mean we need to (or should) administer antipsychotics at least daily? There is a body of evidence challenging this long-established clinical axiom. PMID:20650931
Remington, Gary; Kapur, Shitij
Objective. To design, implement, and evaluate an interprofessional learning workshop on pediatric prescribing. Design. An interactive workshop on pediatric prescribing was designed and delivered by pediatricians and pharmacists to fourth-year medical and pharmacy students on 3 university campus settings. Students were assigned to either interprofessional workshop groups (pharmacy and medical students) or non-interprofessional workshop groups (medical students only). Assessment. Two hundred thirty students completed the workshops and 92% returned both the pre- and post-workshop questionnaires. Attitudes toward interprofessional learning significantly improved among students in the interprofessional workshop groups (p< 0.001) and confidence in prescribing for pediatric patients significantly improved among all students (p< 0.001). Conclusions. The workshop improved medical and pharmacy students’ knowledge and confidence in pediatric prescribing and significantly improved their attitudes toward working and learning with other professionals.
Yuen, Sebastian; Hunt, Linda; Emond, Alan
Approximately 80% of patients with the first-episode schizophrenia reach symptomatic remission after antipsychotic therapy. However, within two years most of them relapse, mainly due to low levels of insight into the illness and nonadherence to their oral medication. Therefore, although the formal data available is limited, many experts recommend prescribing long-acting injectable second-generation antipsychotics (mostly risperidone or alternatively paliperidone) in the early stages of schizophrenia, particularly in patients who have benefited from the original oral molecule in the past and agree to receive long-term injectable treatment. Early application of long-acting injectable second-generation antipsychotics can significantly reduce the risk of relapse in the future and thus improve not only the social and working potential of patients with schizophrenia but also their quality of life.
Prikryl, Radovan; Prikrylova Kucerova, Hana; Vrzalova, Michaela; Ceskova, Eva
Aim To compare the blood lactate levels between patients with psychotic disorder receiving first- and those receiving second-generation antipsychotics. Methods The study was conducted at the psychiatric inpatient and outpatient clinics of the Split Clinical Hospital from June 6, 2008 to October 10, 2009. Sixty patients with psychotic disorder who were assigned to 6-month treatment were divided in two groups: 30 received haloperidol (first generation antipsychotic) and 30 received olanzapine (second generation antipsychotic). Blood lactate levels, other metabolic parameters, and scores on the extrapyramidal symptom rating scale were assessed. Results Patients receiving haloperidol had significantly higher blood lactate levels than patients receiving olanzapine (P?0.001). They also more frequently had parkinsonism, which was significantly correlated with both haloperidol treatment at 1 month (P?0.001) and 6 months (P?=?0.016) and olanzapine treatment at baseline (P?=?0.016), 3 months (P?=?0.019), and 6 months (P?=?0.021). Also, patients receiving haloperidol had significant correlation between blood lactate and dystonia at 1 month (P?0.001) and 6 months (P?=?0.012) and tardive dyskinesia at 1 month (P?=?0.032). There was a significant difference between the treatment groups in lactate levels at all points from baseline to month 6 (P?0.001). Conclusion It is important to be aware of the potential effect of haloperidol treatment on increase in blood lactate levels and occurrence of extrapyramidal side effects. Therefore, alternative antipsychotics should be prescribed with lower risk of adverse side effects. Trial identification number NCT01139463
Glavina, Trpimir; Mrass, Damir; Dodig, Tajana; Glavina, Gordana; Pranic, Shelly; Uglesic, Boran
Background:UnlikemedicinesprescribedforFoodand DrugAdministration-approvedindications,off-labeluses may lack rigorous scientific scrutiny. Despite concerns aboutpatientsafetyandcoststothehealthcaresystem,little is known about the frequency of off-label drug use or the degree of scientific evidence supporting this practice. Methods: We used nationally representative data from the 2001 IMS Health National Disease and Therapeutic Index (NDTI) to define prescribing patterns by diagno- sis for 160 commonly prescribed drugs. Each reported drug-diagnosis
David C. Radley; Stan N. Finkelstein; Randall S. Stafford
Background Little is known about the factors influencing treatment choice in psychosis, the majority of this work being conducted with specialists (consultant) in psychiatry. We sought to examine trainees' choices of treatment for psychosis if they had to prescribe it for themselves, their patients, and factors influencing decision-making. Methods Cross-sectional, semi-structured questionnaire-based study. Results Of the 726 respondents (response rate = 66%), the majority chose second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) if they had to prescribe it for themselves (n = 530, 93%) or for their patients (n = 546, 94%). The main factor influencing choice was perceived efficacy, 84.8% (n = 475) of trainees stating this was the most important factor for the patient, and 77.8% (n = 404) stating this was the most important factor for their own treatment. Trainees with knowledge of trials questioning use of SGAs (CATIE, CUtLASS, TEOSS) were more likely to choose second-generation antipsychotics than those without knowledge of these trials (?2 = 3.943; p = 0.047; O.R. = 2.11; 95% C.I. = 1.0-4.48). Regarding psychotherapy, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) was the most popular choice for self (33.1%; n = 240) and patient (30.9%; n = 224). Trainees were significantly more likely to prefer some form of psychotherapy for themselves rather than patients (?2 = 9.98; p < 0,002; O.R. = 1.54; 95% CIs = 1.18-2.0). Conclusions Trainees are more likely to choose second-generation antipsychotic medication for patients and themselves. Despite being aware of evidence that suggests otherwise, they predominantly base these choices on perceived efficacy.
Recently, there has been increased concern about the occurrence of diabetes associated with the use of atypical antipsychotic (AAP) drugs. The relationship between diabetes, schizophrenia, and antipsychotic drugs is complex and intriguing, as untreated patients with schizophrenia are known to suffer from diabetes more often than the general population. Thirty individual case reports of clozapine-, 26 cases of olanzapine- and a few others of seroquel- and risperidone-associated diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis were found by a Medline search. The case reports do not provide the incidence of diabetes in patients treated with AAP drugs, but they suggest that AAP drugs may cause hyperglycemia. Further research is needed to identify the cause of the susceptibility of the schizophrenic population, and to elucidate the mechanisms by which the antipsychotic drugs either cause diabetes or precipitate its onset. Which antipsychotic drugs have a higher and which have a lower potential to induce diabetes is not conclusively answered at present. However, the findings that 50% of the patients completely improve upon drug discontinuation, and that hyperglycemia promptly recurs upon reinstitution of the incriminated drug indicate that this side effect is reversible and is drug related. African Americans are particularly susceptible to AAP drug-induced diabetes. Until the new research data become available, AAP drug treatment of schizophrenic patients aims at prevention, institution of vigilant screening procedures, and management of hyperglycemia. PMID:12207104
Ananth, Jambur; Venkatesh, Ravi; Burgoyne, Karl; Gunatilake, Sarath
Typical antipsychotic agents produce central nervous system effects, especially extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and tardive dyskinesia (TD). Nearly every patient who receives neuroleptic therapy has one or more identifiable risk factors for TD, among the most significant of which are older age, female gender, presence of EPS, diabetes mellitus, affective disorders, and certain parameters of neuroleptic exposure (i.e. dose and duration
Daniel E. Casey
Behavioral models of antipsychotic drug (APD) action in the rat are widely used for the screening and developing APDs. Valid models are not only required to be selective and specific for APDs, but also to be able to dissociate between typical and atypical APDs. In recent years, newer models have been developed that are claimed to model processes impaired in
Ina Weiner; Inna Gaisler; Daniela Schiller; Amit Green; Lee Zuckerman; Daphna Joel
Medications are being used with greater frequency to address pediatric mental health problems, and in recent years atypical antipsychotic (AAP) prescriptions have increased more than any other class. Acute care practitioners must be aware of the pharmacology of AAPs and the conditions, on- and off-label, for which they are prescribed. This involves identifying and managing side effects that manifest both mentally and physically. Although "atypicality" confers a lower risk of movement side effects compared to conventional agents, children are more sensitive than adults to extrapyramidal reactions. Like adults, they also may present with toxic sedation, confusion, cardiovascular dysfunction, and metabolic derangements. Evaluation and management of these toxicities requires an index of suspicion, a careful symptom and medication history, physical examination, and targeted interventions. This review is designed to orient the emergency practitioner to the challenging task of recognizing and treating adverse effects related to acute and chronic atypical antipsychotic exposure in children. PMID:23471213
Rasimas, J J; Liebelt, Erica L
Patients who are taking atypical antipsychotic medications have a high incidence of metabolic complications, including increased weight, waist circumference, blood sugar, lipid levels, and blood pressure. In 2004, the American Diabetic Association and three other associations, including the American Psychiatric Association, developed guidelines to screen for metabolic syndrome, but in practice, adherence to the guidelines varies. This article describes a process to implement the guidelines in a suburban psychiatric day treatment hospital using Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations model. Measurement of waist circumference was identified as an opportunity to improve the current metabolic screening protocol. Post-intervention evaluation revealed increased adherence to the guidelines (0% pre versus 95% post). Adherence to the guidelines demonstrates the effect of the systematic application of Rogers' model on acceptance of practice change. Fully implementing the guidelines meets recommendations for the standard of practice and can improve the health and quality of life of patients prescribed atypical antipsychotic medications. PMID:23457716
Parrinello, Michael C
Background No studies have been conducted in Greece with the aim of investigating the influence of ethnicity on the prescribing and treatment outcome of voluntarily admitted inpatients. Most studies conducted in the UK and the US, both on inpatients and outpatients, focus on the dosage of antipsychotics for schizophrenic patients and many suffer from significant methodological limitations. Using a simple design, we aimed to assess negative ethnic bias in psychotropic medication prescribing by comparing discrepancies in use between native and non-native psychiatric inpatients. We also aimed to compare differences in treatment outcome between the two groups. Methods In this retrospective study, the prescribing of medication was compared between 90 Greek and 63 non-Greek inpatients which were consecutively admitted into the emergency department of a hospital covering Athens, the capital of Greece. Participants suferred from schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Overall, groups were compared with regard to 12 outcomes, six related to prescribing and six related to treatment outcome as assesed by standardised psychometric tools. Results No difference between the two ethnic groups was found in terms of improvement in treatment as measured by GAF and BPRS-E. Polypharmacy, use of first generation antipsychotics, second generation antipsychotics and use of mood stabilizers were not found to be associated with ethnicity. However, non-Greeks were less likely to receive SSRIs-SNRIs and more likely to receive benzodiazepines. Conclusions Our study found limited evidence for ethnic bias. The stronger indication for racial bias was found in benzodiazepine prescribing. We discuss alternative explanations and give arguments calling for future research that will focus on disorders other than schizophrenia and studying non-inpatient populations.
Background Poor adherence to antipsychotic medication is a widespread problem, and the largest predictor of relapse in patients with psychosis. Electronic reminders are increasingly used to improve medication adherence for a variety of medical conditions, but have received little attention in the context of psychotic disorders. We aimed to explore the feasibility and acceptability of including short message service (SMS) medication reminders in the aftercare plan of service users discharged from inpatient care on maintenance antipsychotic medication. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, trust-wide survey in the inpatient units of the Oxleas National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust in the UK between June 29 and August 3, 2012. Using a self-report questionnaire and the Drug Attitude Inventory, we examined inpatient attitudes towards antipsychotic drugs, past adherence to antipsychotic medication, frequency of mobile phone ownership, and interest in receiving SMS medication reminders upon discharge from the ward. Predictors of a patient’s interest in receiving electronic reminders were examined using simple logistic regression models. Results Of 273 inpatients, 85 met eligibility criteria for the survey, showed decisional capacity, and agreed to participate. Of the 85 respondents, over a third (31-35%) admitted to have forgotten to take/collect their antipsychotic medication in the past, and approximately half (49%) to have intentionally skipped their antipsychotics or taken a smaller dose than prescribed. Male patients (55%), those with negative attitudes towards antipsychotics (40%), and those unsatisfied with the information they received on medication (35%) were approximately 3 to 4 times more likely to report past intentional poor adherence. The large majority of respondents (80-82%) reported having a mobile phone and knowing how to use SMS, and a smaller majority (59%) expressed an interest in receiving SMS medication reminders after discharge. No variable predicted a patient’s interest in receiving electronic reminders of antipsychotics. Conclusions Automatic SMS reminders of antipsychotic medication were acceptable to the majority of the survey respondents as an optional service offered upon discharge from inpatient care. Automatic electronic reminders deserve further investigation as a flexible, minimally invasive, cost-effective and broadly applicable tool that can potentially improve antipsychotic adherence and clinical outcomes.
The provision of drugs to hospitalised patients is a complex process with the involvement of different healthcare professionals. As pharmacotherapy is (1) one of the most common medical interventions, (2) a high-risk procedure, and (3) affects the majority of hospitalised patients, medication errors have sustainable impact on patient safety. Although medication errors can occur at different stages of drug use (prescribing, dispensing, administration), they are most likely within the prescribing process. According to the Reason's model of accident causation, these errors can be divided into active failures, error-provoking conditions, and latent conditions. Commonly, the complex interaction between lacking knowledge and/or experience, rule-based mistakes, skill-based slips and memory lapses, inadequate working environment (exessive work load, fatigue) as well as poor communication and safety culture is causative for prescribing errors. Therefore, good prescribing should include the following items: Adherence to formal criteria (e. g. avoidance of abbreviations), performance of medication reconciliation, implementation of an electronic prescribing system (computerised physician order entry, CPOE) - preferably combined with a clinical decision support system (CDSS), education and training as well as the establishment of a positive error management culture. The implementation of recommendations to reduce prescribing errors is described on the basis of established processes in hospitals. PMID:24867349
Langebrake, Claudia; Melzer, Simone; Baehr, Michael
When taking antipsychotic medications, children and adolescents seem to have a higher risk than adults for experiencing adverse events such as extrapyramidal symptoms, prolactin elevation, sedation, weight gain, and metabolic effects. Side effects may be predicted by the pharmacologic binding profiles of antipsychotics to certain neuroreceptors. Data from 7 recently completed randomized placebo-controlled trials in adolescent schizophrenia and pediatric bipolar disorder that included a total of 1480 patients extend prior results and provide numbers-needed-to-harm as a clinically useful measure of risk. Results from these pediatric studies indicate that adverse effect profiles differ among commonly used antipsychotics. However, more detailed data are needed, as information is lacking regarding carryover or withdrawal effects from prior medications and regarding the masking of effects by adjunctive treatments used to treat agitation, insomnia, or extrapyramidal symptoms and akathisia in these studies. Moreover, randomized head-to-head trials and large-scale studies that investigate predictors of adverse effects as well as the safety and efficacy of interventions aimed at preventing and reversing negative effects of antipsychotics with relevant impact on psychological, psychiatric, and physical functioning are lacking. When choosing an antipsychotic treatment, patients and their families should be included in a careful risk-benefit assessment. Consideration of adverse effects, as well as dietary and lifestyle counseling, should be part of any antipsychotic treatment initiation and continuation. Routine, proactive monitoring of side effects is essential to optimize patient outcomes. In all treatment decisions, the benefits of improving often severe and debilitating manic, psychotic, and aggressive symptomatology must be balanced against the varying risks of adverse effects associated with specific antipsychotic agents in child and adolescent patients. PMID:18533766
Correll, Christoph U
Differential cognitive performances between schizophrenic responders and non-responders to antipsychotics: correlation with course of the illness, psychopathology, attitude to the treatment and antipsychotics doses.
Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that schizophrenia patients may perform worse than normal controls in several cognitive tasks. However, little is known on putative differences in cognitive functioning between schizophrenia patients responding to antipsychotics and those resistant to the treatment. In this cross-sectional study, 63 subjects (41 schizophrenia and schizoaffective patients and 22 age and sex-matched controls) were enrolled. Patients were divided in resistant (TRS, n=19) and non-resistant to pharmacological treatment (non-TRS, n=22) according to the American Psychiatric Association (APA) criteria for treatment resistance. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) was administered to patients and controls. The following rating scales were administered to schizophrenia patients: the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI) and the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptics (SWN). Statistically significant differences among non-TRS patients, TRS ones, and controls were detected at the BACS. TRS patients performed significantly worse than non-TRS ones on Verbal Memory task, exhibited higher PANSS total and subscales scores and were prescribed higher antipsychotic doses. Poorer performances at the BACS significantly correlated with more severe negative symptoms in TRS but not in non-TRS patients. These results may suggest that TRS patients suffer from a form of the disease with prominent cognitive impairment possibly related to negative symptoms. PMID:23910239
de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Balletta, Raffaele; Giordano, Sara; Buonaguro, Elisabetta Filomena; Latte, Gianmarco; Iasevoli, Felice
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and patterns of antipsychotic use in children and adolescents at the time of admission and discharge from a tertiary care inpatient psychiatric facility. This retrospective analysis included all patients 18 years and younger, who were admitted and discharged from a child and adolescent tertiary care inpatient psychiatric facility between May 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009. Data for medications at admission were obtained using a province-wide network that links all pharmacies in British Columbia, Canada to a central set of data systems, whereas data for medications at discharge were obtained using the Department of Pharmacy's (British Columbia Children's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) inpatient computer database. Apart from antipsychotics, overall drug use included antidepressants, mood stabilizers, benzodiazepines, anticholinergics, stimulants, and sleep medications. Referral and discharge diagnoses were also examined. During the study period, 335 patients were admitted and discharged from the tertiary care inpatient psychiatric facility. Significantly, more patients were prescribed with an antipsychotic at the time of discharge from hospital compared with that of the time when they were admitted to hospital (51.6% vs 30.7%; P < 0.0001). Antidepressants were most often coprescribed with an antipsychotic at admission and discharge (32.0% vs 42.2%, respectively) followed by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder medications (22.3% vs 24.9% at admission and discharge, respectively) and anticonvulsants (19.4% vs 19.1% at admission and discharge, respectively). Whether the significant increase in antipsychotic use seen from the time of admission to discharge is solely attributed to clinical worsening or other variables requires further investigation. PMID:24346744
Procyshyn, Ric M; Su, Johnny; Elbe, Dean; Liu, Angela Y; Panenka, William J; Davidson, Jana; Honer, William G; Barr, Alasdair M
Despite their widespread use, long acting antipsychotics, are often regarded with prejudice, due to fears of punishment, control and insufficient evolution towards psychosocial development of psychotic patients raised by their improper utilization. Another major shortcoming of long-acting antipsychotics is the impossibility of altering their dosage if side-effects appear. However, long-acting antipsychotics proved effective in schizophrenia and other severe psychotic disorders as a consequence of stable dose administration, leading to reduction of relapses and increased treatment adherence. Therapeutic opportunities have also risen after introduction of newer long acting second generation antipsychotics in recent years. Newer long-acting antipsychotics were developed to tackle the need for pharmacotherapy enhancing adherence in integrated rehabilitation programmes. This review is an outline of the development and introduction of older and newer long-acting antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychoses, with considerations on past and present pharmacological and therapeutic issues. PMID:23343446
De Risio, Alessandro; Lang, Antonella P
For almost 50 years, typical antipsychotics were the mainstay of pharmacological treatment for schizophrenia. However, during the last decade, the widespread use of expensive atypical antipsychotic medications has led to a dramatic increase in the proportion of the direct costs of schizophrenia being allocated for medications. Although there is evidence that the atypical antipsychotic clozapine may lead to cost savings in patients with refractory schizophrenia, the cost-effectiveness of the other atypical antipsychotics remains in question. Therefore, long-term randomised, prospective cost-effectiveness studies that compared an atypical to a typical antipsychotic have been reviewed in this paper. There were serious methodological problems with all the studies. In general, those that were based on efficacy trials showed an advantage for atypicals, whereas those based on effectiveness studies found the opposite. It seems that, to the extent that studies mimic real world conditions, they fail to support the cost-effectiveness of the atypical antipsychotics. PMID:16925502
Hanrahan, Patricia; Luchins, Daniel J; Fabian, Robert; Tolley, George
Objective To examine the effect of attending a medical school with an active policy on restricting gifts from representatives of pharmaceutical and device industries on subsequent prescribing behavior. Design Difference-in-differences approach. Setting 14 US medical schools with an active gift restriction policy in place by 2004. Participants Prescribing patterns in 2008 and 2009 of physicians attending one of the schools compared with physicians graduating from the same schools before the implementation of the policy, as well as a set of contemporary matched controls. Main outcome measure Probability that a physician would prescribe a newly marketed medication over existing alternatives of three psychotropic classes: lisdexamfetamine among stimulants, paliperidone among antipsychotics, and desvenlafaxine among antidepressants. None of these medications represented radical breakthroughs in their respective classes. Results For two of the three medications examined, attending a medical school with an active gift restriction policy was associated with reduced prescribing of the newly marketed drug. Physicians who attended a medical school with an active conflict of interest policy were less likely to prescribe lisdexamfetamine over older stimulants (adjusted odds ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.22 to 0.88; P=0.02) and paliperidone over older antipsychotics (0.25, 0.07 to 0.85; P=0.03). A significant effect was not observed for desvenlafaxine (1.54, 0.79 to 3.03; P=0.20). Among cohorts of students who had a longer exposure to the policy or were exposed to more stringent policies, prescribing rates were further reduced. Conclusion Exposure to a gift restriction policy during medical school was associated with reduced prescribing of two out of three newly introduced psychotropic medications.
The Learning Research and Development Center at the University of Pittsburgh has adopted instructional material in elementary mathematics and reading that are designed for instructing the individual pupil. The program is known as Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) and has been widely acclaimed as an important breakthrough in education. This…
Fehrle, Carl C.
Ziprasidone (Geodon), risperidone (Risperdal), and aripiprazole (Abilify) appear to be associated with a relatively low risk for hyperlipidemia, whereas quetiapine (Seroquel), olanzapine (Zyprexa), and clozapine (Clozaril) are associated with a relatively high risk for hyperlipidemia. Possible underlying causes of lipid dysregulation include weight gain, dietary changes, and glucose intolerance. Given the multiple cardiovascular risk factors reported for patients with schizophrenia, great care must be exercised to minimize the additional risk for hyperlipidemia when choosing antipsychotic therapy. It is recommended that a lipid panel be obtained at baseline for all patients with schizophrenia and annually thereafter for patients taking relatively low-risk agents or quarterly thereafter for patients taking relatively high-risk agents. Patients with persistent dyslipidemia should be referred for lipid-lowering therapy or switched to a less lipid-enhancing antipsychotic agent. PMID:15869022
Koro, Carol E; Meyer, Jonathan M
Evidence-based treatment approaches for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) comprise psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, or a combination of the two. First-line pharmacotherapy agents include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and, in certain European guidelines, pregabalin, which gained European Commission approval. Although short- and long-term efficacy have been established for these agents in controlled trials, response rates of 60-70 % are insufficient, remission rates are relatively modest, and relapse rates considerable. Moreover, questions increasingly arise regarding tolerability and side-effect profiles. As an alternative, antipsychotics have long been of interest for the treatment of anxiety disorders, but investigation had been tempered by their potential for irreversible side effects. With the improved side-effect profiles of atypical antipsychotics, these agents are increasingly being investigated across Axis I disorders. Atypical antipsychotics such as quetiapine, aripiprazole, olanzapine, and risperidone have been shown to be helpful in addressing a range of anxiety and depressive symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders, and have since been used in the treatment of a range of mood and anxiety disorders. In this article, we review the efficacy and tolerability of atypical antipsychotics as adjunctive therapy and/or monotherapy for individuals with GAD, a currently off-label indication. The most evidence has accumulated for quetiapine. Findings suggest that approximately 50 % of participants tolerate the side effects, most commonly sedation and fatigue. Among this subset, those who continue treatment demonstrate significant reductions in anxiety when used as adjunctive therapy or monotherapy. The appropriateness of the use of antipsychotics in the treatment of GAD is discussed. PMID:24794100
Hershenberg, Rachel; Gros, Daniel F; Brawman-Mintzer, Olga
Current users of typical and of atypical antipsychotic drugs had higher rates of sud- den cardiac death than did nonusers of antipsychotic drugs, with adjusted incidence- rate ratios of 1.99 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.68 to 2.34) and 2.26 (95% CI, 1.88 to 2.72), respectively. The incidence-rate ratio for users of atypical antipsychotic drugs as compared with users of typical
Wayne A. Ray; Cecilia P. Chung; Katherine T. Murray; Kathi Hall; C. Michael Stein
\\u000a Schizophrenia patients have high prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factors and high CV mortality, with increasing\\u000a concern over the contribution of antipsychotic medications to cardiometabolic risk. The design of the NIMH-sponsored Clinical\\u000a Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Schizophrenia Trial was driven by a need to understand the efficacy\\u000a and safety differences between atypical antipsychotics, and between atypical and
Jonathan M. Meyer
BACKGROUND: To identify patient characteristics and early changes in patients' clinical status that best predict subsequent switching of antipsychotic agents in the long-term treatment of schizophrenia. METHODS: This post-hoc analysis used data from a one-year randomized, open-label, multisite study of antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. The study protocol permitted switching of antipsychotics when clinically warranted after the first eight
Allen W Nyhuis; Douglas E Faries; Haya Ascher-Svanum; Virginia L Stauffer; Bruce J Kinon
Schizophrenia is a debilitating chronic disease that requires lifelong medical care and supervision. Even with treatment, the majority of patients relapse within 5 years, and suicide may occur in up to 10% of patients. Poor adherence to oral antipsychotics is the most common cause of relapse. The discontinuation rate for oral antipsychotics in schizophrenia ranges from 26% to 44%, and as many as two-thirds of patients are at least partially nonadherent, resulting in increased risk of hospitalization. A very helpful approach to improve adherence in schizophrenia is the use of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, although only a minority of patients receive these. Reasons for underutilization may include negative attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs of both patients and health care professionals. Research shows, however, significant improvements in adherence with LAIs compared with oral drugs, and this is accompanied by lower rates of discontinuation, relapse, and hospitalization. In addition, LAIs are associated with better functioning, quality of life, and patient satisfaction. A need exists to encourage broader LAI use, especially among patients with a history of nonadherence with oral antipsychotics. This paper reviews the impact of nonadherence with antipsychotic drug therapy overall, as well as specific outcomes of the schizophrenia patient, and highlights the potential benefits of LAIs.
Kaplan, Gabriel; Casoy, Julio; Zummo, Jacqueline
Objective: Non-concordance with pharmacotherapy is common in psychiatric patients. Long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic (LAI AA) medication may improve adherence but patients and clinicians may be reluctant to consider this alternative. This paper describes the application of Motivational Interviewing (MI) to the commencement of LAI AA.Method: We developed a workshop applying the principles of MI to address medication adherence through the
Steve Kisely; Loys Ligate; Marc-André Roy; Terri Lavery
Every year numerous reports on antipsychotic drug trials are being published in neuropsychiatric journals, adding new information to our knowledge in the field. The information however is often hard for the reader to interpret, sometimes contradictory to comparable available studies and leaves more questions open than it actually answers. Although the overall quality of the studies is rather good, there are manifold options for further improvement in the conception, conduct, and reporting of antipsychotic drug trials. In this survey, we address methodological challenges such as the limited generalizability of outcomes due to patient selection and sample size; the vague or even lacking definition of key outcome parameters such as response, remission or relapse, insufficient blinding techniques, the pitfalls of surrogate outcomes and their assessment tools; the varying complex statistical approaches; and the challenge of balancing various ways of reporting outcomes. The authors present practical examples to highlight the current problems and propose a concrete series of suggestions on how to further optimize antipsychotic drug trials in the future.
Leucht, Stefan; Heres, Stephan; Hamann, Johannes; Kane, John M.
A 50-year-old, white female patient was diagnosed with schizophrenia in her teens. Her illness did not respond adequately to treatment until she was placed on a combination of fluoxetine and conventional antipsychotics. She discontinued the conventional antipsychotics on a number of occasions, which caused her to become psychotic, but not manic. On two separate occasions she was placed on atypical antipsychotics that were associated with the occurrence of manic symptoms. Once the patient was restarted on conventional antipsychotics, she remained stable. PMID:23188864
This study examined associations between medications prescribed to control children's problem behaviors and levels of, and diurnal variation in, salivary cortisol (C), testosterone (T), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Saliva was collected in the morning, midday, and afternoon from 432 children ages 6-13 years. Relative to a no-medication comparison group, children taking (1) antipsychotics had higher DHEA levels and flat C diurnal rhythms, (2) Ritalin or Adderall had flat T diurnal rhythms, (3) Concerta had higher T and DHEA levels, (4) antidepressants had flat DHEA diurnal rhythms, and (5) hypotensives had flat DHEA diurnal rhythms and higher T levels. Medications prescribed to control children's problem behaviors should be monitored in studies of the endocrine correlates and consequences of developmental psychopathology. PMID:17517013
Hibel, Leah C; Granger, Douglas A; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred
Atypical antipsychotic medications are commonly used in large-scale residential care facilities for adults with developmental disabilities. While the benefits of this class of psychotropics are noted, debate exists whether the side effect profile of these medications outweigh their therapeutic benefit, especially in those who use them long-term.…
Fodstad, Jill C.; Bamburg, Jay W.; Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Hess, Julie A.; Neal, Daniene; Holloway, Jodie
Antipsychotic drugs, potent dopamine receptor antagonists, are commonly used in the treatment of psychotic and affective illness. The discovery of antagonistic interactions between A2A adenosine receptors (ARs) and D2 dopamine receptors (DRs) in the central nervous system suggests that the adenosine system may be involved in the pathogenesis of psychiatric and neurological disorders. In the present study, we demonstrated for
Claudia Martini; Daniela Tuscano; Maria Letizia Trincavelli; Elisa Cerrai; Maria Bianchi; Antonio Ciapparelli; Lucioni Alessio; Letizia Novelli; Mario Catena; Antonio Lucacchini; Giovanni Battista Cassano; Liliana Dell’Osso
PurposeIn 2009, the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) published guidance on the treatment of ocular hypertension and glaucoma. The aim of the present study was to describe the impact this guidance had on glaucoma prescribing and to describe recent prescribing trends in England.MethodPrescribing cost analysis data held by NHS Business Authority for the years 2000-2012 was analysed.ResultsThe number of prescriptions dispensed increased by 67% from 4.76 million in 2000 to 7.96 million in 2012. Over the same time period, drug costs increased by 88% from £55.2 million to £103.7 million. Prescriptions for prostaglandin analogues increased fourfold, while there was a threefold decrease in the use of beta-blockers. The most commonly prescribed glaucoma medication was latanoprost. The introduction of generic latanoprost in 2012 more than halved the cost associated with this medication. NICE guidance appeared to have had no effect on the total number of prescriptions or the classes of medications prescribed.ConclusionThe introduction of the NICE guidelines did not change glaucoma prescribing practice, although it is not clear whether this represents non-adherence to the guidelines or whether the guidelines embodied pre-existing practice. PMID:24858531
Connor, A J; Fraser, S G
With the widespread use of atypical or second-generation antipsychotics, switching treatment has become current practice and more complicated, as the pharmacological profiles of these agents differ substantially despite their similarity in being 'atypical'. All share the ability to block dopamine D? receptors, and most of them also block serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. Apart from these common features, some atypical antipsychotics are also able to block or stimulate other dopamine or serotonin receptors, as well as histaminergic, muscarinergic or adrenergic receptors. As a result of the varying receptor affinities, in switching or discontinuing compounds several possible pitfalls have to be considered, including the occurrence of withdrawal and rebound syndromes. This article reviews the pharmacological background of functional blockade or stimulation of receptors of interest in regard to atypical antipsychotics and the implicated potential withdrawal and rebound phenomena. A MEDLINE search was carried out to identify information on withdrawal or rebound syndromes occurring after discontinuation of atypical antipsychotics. Using the resulting literature, we first discuss the theoretical background to the functional consequences of atypical antipsychotic-induced blockade or stimulation of neurotransmitter receptors and, secondly, we highlight the clinical consequences of this. We then review the available clinical literature on switching between atypical antipsychotics, with respect to the occurrence of withdrawal or rebound symptoms. Finally, we offer practical recommendations based on the reviewed findings. The systematic evaluation of withdrawal or rebound phenomena using randomized controlled trials is still understudied. Knowledge of pharmacological receptor-binding profiles may help clinicians in choosing adequate switching or discontinuation strategies for each agent. Results from large switching trials indicate that switching atypical antipsychotics can be performed in a safe manner. Treatment-emergent adverse events during or after switching are not always considered to be, at least in part, associated with the pre-switch antipsychotic. Further studies are needed to substantiate the evidence gained so far on different switching strategies. The use of concomitant medication, e.g., benzodiazepines or anticholinergic drugs, may help to minimize symptoms arising from the discontinuation or switching of antipsychotic treatment. PMID:23821039
Cerovecki, Anja; Musil, Richard; Klimke, Ansgar; Seemüller, Florian; Haen, Ekkehard; Schennach, Rebecca; Kühn, Kai-Uwe; Volz, Hans-Peter; Riedel, Michael
Objective To test whether offering financial incentives to patients with psychotic disorders is effective in improving adherence to maintenance treatment with antipsychotics. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting Community mental health teams in secondary psychiatric care in the United Kingdom. Participants Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder, who were prescribed long acting antipsychotic (depot) injections but had received 75% or less of the prescribed injections. We randomly allocated 73 teams with a total of 141 patients. Primary outcome data were available for 35 intervention teams with 75 patients (96% of randomised) and for 31 control teams with 56 patients (89% of randomised). Interventions Participants in the intervention group were offered £15 (€17; $22) for each depot injection over a 12 month period. Participants in the control condition received treatment as usual. Main outcome measure The primary outcome was the percentage of prescribed depot injections given during the 12 month intervention period. Results 73 teams with 141 consenting patients were randomised, and outcomes were assessed for 131 patients (93%). Average baseline adherence was 69% in the intervention group and 67% in the control group. During the 12 month trial period adherence was 85% in the intervention group and 71% in the control group. The adjusted effect estimate was 11.5% (95% confidence interval 3.9% to 19.0%, P=0.003). A secondary outcome was an adherence of ?95%, which was achieved in 28% of the intervention group and 5% of the control group (adjusted odds ratio 8.21, 95% confidence interval 2.00 to 33.67, P=0.003). Although differences in clinician rated clinical improvement between the groups failed to reach statistical significance, patients in the intervention group had more favourable subjective quality of life ratings (?=0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.26 to 1.15, P=0.002). The number of admissions to hospital and adverse events were low in both groups and did not show substantial differences. Conclusion Offering modest financial incentives to patients with psychotic disorders is an effective method for improving adherence to maintenance treatment with antipsychotics. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN77769281.
Abstract Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are increasingly prescribed to treat psychiatric symptoms in pediatric patients infected with HIV. We examined the relationship between prescribed SGAs and physical growth in a cohort of youth with perinatally acquired HIV-1 infection. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG), Protocol 219C (P219C), a multicenter, longitudinal observational study of children and adolescents perinatally exposed to HIV, was conducted from September 2000 until May 2007. The analysis included P219C participants who were perinatally HIV-infected, 3–18 years old, prescribed first SGA for at least 1 month, and had available baseline data prior to starting first SGA. Each participant prescribed an SGA was matched (based on gender, age, Tanner stage, baseline body mass index [BMI] z score) with 1–3 controls without antipsychotic prescriptions. The main outcomes were short-term (approximately 6 months) and long-term (approximately 2 years) changes in BMI z scores from baseline. There were 236 participants in the short-term and 198 in the long-term analysis. In linear regression models, youth with SGA prescriptions had increased BMI z scores relative to youth without antipsychotic prescriptions, for all SGAs (short-term increase?=?0.192, p?=?0.003; long-term increase?=?0.350, p?0.001), and for risperidone alone (short-term?=?0.239, p?=?0.002; long-term?=?0.360, p?=?0.001). Participants receiving both protease inhibitors (PIs) and SGAs showed especially large increases. These findings suggest that growth should be carefully monitored in youth with perinatally acquired HIV who are prescribed SGAs. Future research should investigate the interaction between PIs and SGAs in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection.
Aaron, Lisa; Montepiedra, Grace; Sirois, Patricia A.; Oleske, James M.; Malee, Kathleen; Pearson, Deborah A.; Nichols, Sharon L.; Garvie, Patricia A.; Farley, John; Nozyce, Molly L.; Mintz, Mark; Williams, Paige L.
Prescribed fire is a common land management tool used to reduce undesirable shrubs, improve forage quality, and enhance wildlife habitat for game species. However, it also has impacts on nongame species. We examined whether a prescribed fire would affect the abundance of lizards and invertebrates in central Texas. In February 2004, four sites were treated with low-intensity prescribed fires; four
Nikki J. Radke; David B. Wester; Gad Perry; Sandra Rideout-Hanzak
This study assessed the association between second-generation antipsychotic medications and risk of pneumonia requiring hospitalization in patients with schizophrenia because the evidence is limited in the population. We enrolled a nationwide cohort of 33?024 inpatients with schizophrenia ranged in age from 18 to 65 years, who were derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan from 2000 to 2008. Cases (n = 1741) were defined as patients who developed pneumonia after their first psychiatric admissions. Risk set sampling was used to match each case with 4 controls by age, sex, and the year of the first admission based on nested case-control study. Antipsychotic exposure was categorized by type, duration, and daily dose, and the association between exposure and pneumonia was assessed using conditional logistic regression. We found that current use of clozapine (adjusted risk ratio = 3.18, 95% CI: 2.62–3.86, P < .001) was associated with a dose-dependent increase in the risk. Although quetiapine, olanzapine, zotepine, and risperidone were associated with increased risk, there was no clear dose-dependent relationship. Amisulpride was associated with a low risk of pneumonia. The use of clozapine combined with another drug (olanzapine, quetiapine, zotepine, risperidone, or amisulpride), as assessed separately, was associated with increased risk for pneumonia. In addition, with the exception of amisulpride, each drug was associated with increased risk for pneumonia at the beginning of treatment. Clinicians who prescribe clozapine to patients with schizophrenia should closely monitor them for pneumonia, particularly at the start of therapy and when clozapine is combined with other antipsychotics.
Yang, Shu-Yu; Liao, Ya-Tang; Chen, Wei J.; Lee, Wen-Chung; Shau, Wen-Yi; Chang, Yao-Tung; Tsai, Shang-Ying; Chen, Chiao-Chicy
This study assessed the association between second-generation antipsychotic medications and risk of pneumonia requiring hospitalization in patients with schizophrenia because the evidence is limited in the population. We enrolled a nationwide cohort of 33,024 inpatients with schizophrenia ranged in age from 18 to 65 years, who were derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan from 2000 to 2008. Cases (n = 1741) were defined as patients who developed pneumonia after their first psychiatric admissions. Risk set sampling was used to match each case with 4 controls by age, sex, and the year of the first admission based on nested case-control study. Antipsychotic exposure was categorized by type, duration, and daily dose, and the association between exposure and pneumonia was assessed using conditional logistic regression. We found that current use of clozapine (adjusted risk ratio = 3.18, 95% CI: 2.62-3.86, P < .001) was associated with a dose-dependent increase in the risk. Although quetiapine, olanzapine, zotepine, and risperidone were associated with increased risk, there was no clear dose-dependent relationship. Amisulpride was associated with a low risk of pneumonia. The use of clozapine combined with another drug (olanzapine, quetiapine, zotepine, risperidone, or amisulpride), as assessed separately, was associated with increased risk for pneumonia. In addition, with the exception of amisulpride, each drug was associated with increased risk for pneumonia at the beginning of treatment. Clinicians who prescribe clozapine to patients with schizophrenia should closely monitor them for pneumonia, particularly at the start of therapy and when clozapine is combined with other antipsychotics. PMID:22282455
Kuo, Chian-Jue; Yang, Shu-Yu; Liao, Ya-Tang; Chen, Wei J; Lee, Wen-Chung; Shau, Wen-Yi; Chang, Yao-Tung; Tsai, Shang-Ying; Chen, Chiao-Chicy
Compliance is a critical issue across all chronic conditions, including schizophrenia. Compliance is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, with a continuum from taking all medications as prescribed to partial compliance to complete noncompliance. Partial compliance is a serious problem that may result in abrupt dose changes leading to unanticipated adverse effects and can demoralize the patient. Further, there is a nearly 5-fold increase in the risk of relapse in first-episode patients when antipsychotic drug treatment is discontinued. Taken together, these data indicate that it is critical to ensure continuous delivery of antipsychotic treatment. Atypical antipsychotic medications were expected to result in better adherence, primarily because of the anticipated improved efficacy and safety profile. However, atypical agents have poor adherence, irrespective of the type of atypical medication, making it difficult to predict which patients are taking their oral medications. Long-acting injectable (LAI) agents may minimize the fluctuations in peak and overall plasma levels compared with oral agents, indicating they may allow more consistent and predictable administration. Based on clinical experience in my practice, several important observations regarding LAI use in patients with schizophrenia have been identified. First, there are potential advantages to using LAIs, including assistance in understanding reasons for poor response, the possibility of eliminating daily pill ingestion, and the elimination of the abrupt loss of medication coverage. There are also several potential obstacles to the use of LAIs, including a lack of infrastructure for the delivery and disposal of syringes and the ease of use with the oral agents. Several strategies can be used to increase patient willingness to initiate and continue LAI therapy. Strategies to improve acceptance involve presenting the option with enthusiasm, ensuring proper goal setting, educating the patient that this treatment is not equivalent to emergency injections, and repeatedly recommending LAI therapy. Adherence can be improved by ensuring samples are available in the clinical setting at all times. PMID:24919169
Bera, Rimal B
The current availability of a long-acting injectable formulation of risperidone and the potential future availability of long-acting formulations of other atypical antipsychotics (such as paliperidone) should prompt a reconsideration of at what stage in the treatment of schizophrenia such long-acting agents should be introduced. At present, long-acting formulations, particularly of conventional antipsychotics (depots), are usually reserved for patients with chronic schizophrenia who are at high-risk of noncompliance. Recent and increasing data from other patient groups, such as those with first-episode psychosis, suggest that long-acting risperidone is associated with good efficacy and tolerability leading to high patient acceptance, and treatment continuation rates that are greater than with oral antipsychotics. The benefits of an atypical antipsychotic coupled with the assurance of medication delivery in the form of a long-acting injection imply that these novel formulations should be considered in first-episode patients, for whom optimal outcome is frequently compromised by early treatment discontinuation and poor adherence. PMID:17521224
Chue, Pierre; Emsley, Robin
Introduction: Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disease, which is treated by antipsychotic drugs. These drugs are mostly D2 and 5-HT2A antagonists and have extrapyramidal side effects depending on the D2 antagonistic effect. Recently admitted antipsychotic drugs also have systemic side effects. Clozapine, which has the strongest antipsychotic effect, can cause neutropenia. A problem in the treatment of schizophrenia is poor patient compliance leading to the recurrence of psychotic symptoms. Areas covered: A search was carried out in Medline using the following terms: antipsychotic drugs, antipsychotic effect, risperidone, olanzapine, clozapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazol, asenapine, questiapine, cariprazine, lurasidone, arrythmia, diabetes mellitus, weight gain, epileptic activity, extrapyramidal symptoms, sexual activity, clinical trials and tolerability. Expert opinion: Most clinical trials describe a good antipsychotic effect of the currently used antipsychotic drugs. The efficacy and safety of the antipsychotic drugs also depend on the form of schizophrenia, for example, the chronic recurrent form of schizophrenia. Clozapine and olanzapine have the safest therapeutic effect, while the side effect of neutropenia must be controlled by 3 weekly blood controls. If schizophrenia has remitted and if patients show a good compliance, the adverse effects can be controlled. The pharmacological treatment should be combined with social therapies and psychoeducation in order to reach a good therapeutic outcome. PMID:24975932
Werner, Felix-Martin; Coveñas, Rafael
Antipsychotic medications can induce cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities (such as obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and the metabolic syndrome) that are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Controversy remains about the contribution of individual antipsychotic drugs to this increased risk and whether they cause sudden cardiac death through prolongation of the corrected QT interval. Although
Johan Detraux; Ruud van Winkel; Weiping Yu; Christoph U. Correll; Marc De Hert
Shattell and Keltner present a case for atypical antipsychotics in bipolar disorder. Moreover, they review current research that supports the effectiveness of several antipsychotics, including olanzapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone, in treating such disorder. They assert that managing symptoms through psychotropic medications can help people with mental disabilities better manage their lives.
Mona Shattell; Norman L. Keltner
Information from the Ohio Department of Mental Health (ODMH) database was reviewed retrospectively to identify patients at the Cincinnati center treated with an atypical antipsychotic and who had also been evaluated or treated for diabetes mellitus. Blood glucose levels, glucose tolerance, or other evaluations of diabetes had been conducted in 14 of the 126 patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. In
Daniel R. Wilson; Leo D'Souza; Nibar Sarkar; Michael Newton; Connie Hammond
There have been reports in the psychiatric literature of the association of glucose dysregulation and diabetes mellitus with the use of atypical and typical (conventional) antipsychotics. We present a series of 4 additional cases in which psychotic disorders (DSM-IV) were treated with atypical antipsychotics, and patients subsequently developed glucose dysregulation or diabetes mellitus. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Gupta, Sanjay; Lentz, Barbara; Lockwood, Kari; Frank, Bradford
Previous studies suggest that antipsychotic medications may alter cortical inhibition (CI). The current study was designed to determine if typical or atypical antipsychotics indeed alter CI in healthy subjects using three CI paradigms as measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), cortical silent period (CSP) and transcallosal inhibition (TCI). CI was measured before, 6 and 24 h
Zafiris J. Daskalakis; Bruce K. Christensen; Robert Chen; Paul B. Fitzgerald; Robert B. Zipursky; Shitij Kapur
Background: Case reports link antipsychotic drugs with sudden cardiac deaths, which is consistent with dose- related electrophysiologic effects. Because this associa- tion has not been confirmed in controlled studies, we con- ducted a retrospective cohort study in Tennessee Medicaid enrollees, which included many antipsychotic users; there were also computer files describing medication use and comorbidity. The study was conducted before
Wayne A. Ray; Sarah Meredith; Purushottam B. Thapa; Keith G. Meador; Katherine T. Murray
More than 50 years after the introduction of modern pharmacotherapies for schizophrenia, there remains a tremendous need for therapeutic advances. A second generation of antipsychotic drugs, introduced over the past 15 years, has provided uncertain advantages over the first-generation drugs. This paper reviews the designs of studies that evaluate the effectiveness of putative antipsychotic drugs. Data from the trials needed
Wayne M. Alves; Robert M. Hamer; Jeffrey A. Lieberman; T. Scott Stroup
Individuals with schizophrenia are at very high risk for drug abuse and addiction. Patients with a coexisting drug problem fare worse than patients who do not use drugs, and are also more difficult to treat. Current hypotheses cannot adequately account for why patients with schizophrenia so often have a co-morbid drug problem. I present here a complementary hypothesis based on evidence showing that chronic exposure to antipsychotic medications can induce supersensitivity within the brain's dopamine systems, and that this in turn can enhance the rewarding and incentive motivational effects of drugs and reward cues. At the neurobiological level, these effects of antipsychotics are potentially linked to antipsychotic-induced increases in the striatal levels of dopamine D2 receptors and D2 receptors in a high-affinity state for dopamine, particularly at postsynaptic sites. Antipsychotic-induced dopamine supersensitivity and enhanced reward function are not inevitable consequences of prolonged antipsychotic treatment. At least two parameters appear to promote these effects; the use of antipsychotics of the typical class, and continuous rather than intermittent antipsychotic exposure, such that silencing of dopaminergic neurotransmission via D2/3 receptors is unremitting. Thus, by inducing forms of neural plasticity that facilitate the ability of drugs and reward cues to gain control over behaviour, some currently used treatment strategies with typical antipsychotics might contribute to compulsive drug seeking and drug taking behaviours in vulnerable schizophrenia patients. PMID:23793001
Summary There is a long history of using antipsychotic medications in the treatment of depressive disorders. Atypical antipsychotics, which have fewer side effects than traditional antipsychotics, have been used as monotherapy or adjunctively with antidepressants to treat depressive disorders with or without psychotic symptoms. The antidepressant effect of atypical antipsychotics involves regulation of monoamine, glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), cortisol, and neurotrophic factors. To date, the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) has approved aripiprazole and quetiapine slow-release tablets as adjunctive treatment for depressive disorders, and the combination of olanzapine and fluoxetine for the treatment of treatment-resistant depression. When using atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of depressed patients, clinicians need to monitor patients for the emergence of adverse effects including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), weight gain, and hyperglycemia.
Wang, Ping; Si, Tianmei
Background Generic atypical antipsychotic drugs offer health authorities opportunities for considerable savings. However, schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are complex diseases that require tailored treatments. Consequently, generally there have been limited demand-side measures by health authorities to encourage the preferential prescribing of generics. This is unlike the situation with hypertension, hypercholaesterolaemia or acid-related stomach disorders. The objectives of this study were to compare the effect of the limited demand-side measures in Western European countries and regions on the subsequent prescribing of risperidone following generics; to utilise the findings to provide future guidance to health authorities; and where possible, to investigate the utilisation of generic versus originator risperidone and the prices for generic risperidone. Methods Principally, this was a segmented regression analysis of retrospective time-series data of the effect of the various initiatives in Belgium, Ireland, Scotland and Sweden following the introduction of generic risperidone. The study included patients prescribed at least one atypical antipsychotic drug up to 20 months before and up to 20 months after generic risperidone. In addition, retrospective observational studies were carried out in Austria and Spain (Catalonia) from 2005 to 2011 as well as one English primary care organisation (Bury Primary Care Trust (PCT)). Results There was a consistent steady reduction in risperidone as a percentage of total selected atypical antipsychotic utilisation following generics. A similar pattern was seen in Austria and Spain, with stable utilisation in one English PCT. However, there was considerable variation in the utilisation of generic risperidone, ranging from 98% of total risperidone in Scotland to only 14% in Ireland. Similarly, the price of generic risperidone varied considerably. In Scotland, generic risperidone was only 16% of pre-patent loss prices versus 72% in Ireland. Conclusion Consistent findings of no increased prescribing of risperidone post generics with limited specific demand-side measures suggests no ‘spillover’ effect from one class to another encouraging the preferential prescribing of generic atypical antipsychotic drugs. This is exacerbated by the complexity of the disease area and differences in the side-effects between treatments. There appeared to be no clinical issues with generic risperidone, and prices inversely reflected measures to enhance their utilisation.
Objective: This study was undertaken to describe physicians' views regarding ambulatory medication prescribing safety. Methods: We conducted 17 semistructured interviews among a sample of practicing physicians from 3 integrated health delivery systems. We asked about current safety practices, perceptions of ambulatory prescribing safety, and recommended approaches for improving prescribing safety. Using a content analysis approach, three investigators independently coded responses
Thomas G. Rundall; John Hsu; Jennifer Elston Lafata; Vicki Fung; Kathryn A. Paez; Jan Simpkins; Steven R. Simon; Scott B. Robinson; Connie Uratsu; Margaret J. Gunter; Stephen B. Soumerai; Joseph V. Selby
Purpose Antipsychotic monotherapy is often recommended over antipsychotic polypharmacy because of fewer adverse events, reduced treatment complexity, and lower medication cost. This study compared the rate and the duration of antipsychotic monotherapy following initiation of olanzapine or risperidone in the treatment of outpatients with schizophrenia in Japan. Methods Outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia in the Japan Medical Data Center database were identified using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, diagnosis codes. Patients were between 20 and 65 years old, initiated on olanzapine or risperidone therapy between August 2003 and July 2008, and continuously enrolled during the 6 months prior to and the 12 months following the initiation date. Antipsychotic polypharmacy was defined as concurrent use of two or more antipsychotics. The probability of monotherapy during the 12-month follow-up period was assessed using a propensity score-adjusted generalized estimating equation model. Duration of monotherapy was contrasted using a propensity score-adjusted bootstrapping model. Results After applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria, the final analytic sample consisted of 332 olanzapine- and 496 risperidone-treated outpatients. At treatment initiation, 61.5% of the olanzapine-treated patients and 45.6% of the risperidone-treated patients received antipsychotic monotherapy (P < 0.001). After correcting for background differences, monotherapy was more common among olanzapine-treated patients (P = 0.001). In addition, olanzapine was used as monotherapy for a longer duration (P = 0.006). Conclusion Consistent with prior global research, this retrospective naturalistic study of schizophrenia outpatients in Japan found that olanzapine is more likely to be used as monotherapy and to be used as monotherapy for a longer duration than risperidone.
Ye, Wenyu; Ascher-Svanum, Haya; Tanji, Yuka; Flynn, Jennifer A; Takahashi, Michihiro; Conley, Robert R
Atypical antipsychotics have become indispensable in the treatment of a variety of symptoms in autism. They are frequently used to treat irritability and associated behaviors including aggression and self injury. They may also be efficacious for hyperactivity and stereotyped behavior. This review presents the rationale for the use of this drug class in autism and reviews the most important studies published on this topic to date. Significant adverse effects, including weight gain and the possibility of tardive dyskinesia, are reviewed. Future research directions are discussed.
Posey, David J.; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Erickson, Craig A.; McDougle, Christopher J.
Purpose Given the metabolic and neurologic side effects of antipsychotics and concerns about the increased risks associated with concomitant use, antipsychotic polypharmacy is a quality concern. This study assessed the operating characteristics of a Medicaid claims-based measure of antipsychotic polypharmacy. Methods A random sample from 10 public mental health clinics and 312 patients met criteria for this study. Medical record extractors were blind to measure status. We examined the prevalence, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) in Medicaid claims, testing nine different definitions of antipsychotic polypharmacy, including >14, >60, or >90?days concurrent use of ?2 antipsychotic agents, each with allowable gaps of up to 0, 14, or 32?days in days' supply of antipsychotic medications. Results All Medicaid claims measure definitions tested had excellent specificity and PPV (>91%). Good to excellent sensitivity was dependent upon use of a 32-day gap allowance, particularly as duration of concurrent antipsychotic use increased. The proposed claims-based measure (90-day concurrent use of ?2 or more antipsychotics, allowing for a 32-day gap) had excellent specificity (99.1%, 95%CI: 98.2-99.6) and PPV (90.9%, 95%CI: 83.1-95.7) with good sensitivity (79.4%, 95%CI: 70.4-86.6). The overall level of concordance between claims and medical record-based categorization of antipsychotic polypharmacy was high (96.4%, n?=?301/312 clients, Cohen's K?=?84.7, 95%CI: 75.9-93.5). Discrepant cases were reviewed, and implications are discussed. Conclusions Administrative claims data can be used to construct valid measures of antipsychotic polypharmacy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24664793
Leckman-Westin, Emily; Kealey, Edith; Gupta, Nitin; Chen, Qingxian; Gerhard, Tobias; Crystal, Stephen; Olfson, Mark; Finnerty, Molly
Prescribing errors are common and can have a significant negative impact on patients. This article presents an audit and intervention which aimed to improve prescribing safety, documentation and handover in the emergency department. The authors identified shortcomings in the emergency department drug chart, which were subsequently confirmed by audit. To address these shortcomings, a new drug chart was designed and introduced, before repeating the audit. This intervention resulted in significantly more frequent documentation of key aspects of the prescription including date and time, and rate and volume for infusions. This low cost intervention is applicable to other emergency department settings. PMID:24022554
Barnett, Joe; Rees, Richard; Jani, Yogini; George, Marc
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine if there is improvement in medication management when pharmacists and family physicians collaborate to prescribe medication renewals requested by fax. DESIGN Prospective, non-randomized controlled trial. SETTING W est Winds Primary Health Centre, an interdisciplinary health centre that includes an academic family medicine practice, located in Saskatoon, Sask. PARTICIPANTS All patients whose pharmacies faxed the health centre requesting prescription renewals between October 2007 and February 2008 were selected to participate in the study. INTERVENTIONS Medication renewal requests were forwarded to the pharmacist (who works in the clinic part-time) on days when he was working (intervention group). The pharmacist assessed drug-therapy issues that might preclude safe and effective prescribing of the medication. The pharmacist and physician then made a collaborative decision to authorize the requested medication or to request additional interventions first (eg, perform laboratory tests). When the pharmacist was not working, the physicians managed the renewal requests independently (control group). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Medication renewals authorized with no recommendations, medication-related problems identified, new monitoring tests ordered, and new appointments scheduled with health providers. RESULTS A total of 181 renewal requests were included (94 in the control group and 87 in the intervention group). The control group had significantly more requests authorized with no recommendations (75.5% vs 52.9%, P = .001). Those in the intervention group had significantly more medication-related problems identified (26 vs 10, P = .031); medication changes made (24 vs 10, P = .044); and new appointments scheduled with their family physicians (31 vs 21, P = .049). CONCLUSION There is an improvement in medication management when a pharmacist collaborates with family physicians to prescribe medication renewals. The collaborative model created significantly more activity with each renewal request (ie, identification of medication-related problems, medication changes, and new appointments), which reflects an improvement in the process of care.
McKinnon, Angela; Jorgenson, Derek
Normalisation of prescribed dose in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is needed to facilitate combining clinical data from different centres in the world to help expedite development of the modality. The approach being pursued within the BNCT community is based upon improving precision in the measurement and specification of absorbed dose. Beam characterisations using a common method are complete as are comparative dosimetry measurements between clinical centres in Europe and the USA. Results from treatment planning systems at these centres have been compared with measurements performed by MIT, and the scale factors determined are being confirmed with independent tests using measurements in an ellipsoidal water phantom. Dose normalisations have successfully been completed and applied to retrospectively analyse treatment plans from Brookhaven National Laboratory (1994-99) so that reported doses are consistently expressed with the trials performed during 1994-2003 at Harvard-MIT. Dose response relationships for adverse events and other endpoints can now be more accurately established. PMID:17522033
Binns, P J; Riley, K J; Harling, O K; Albritton, J R; Kiger, W S
This article discusses the fire policy of several land management agencies and research done to assess public attitudes toward these policies. Biological information may provide support for a prescribed fire policy in areas managed with a preservation mandate, that alone is not sufficient justification for its implementation. Fire policy has a critical sociopolitical component, and the fact that people appear poorly informed about the outcomes of fire policy and fire effects adds controversy. The fires of 1988 and the subsequent policy reevaluation reinforce what most managers realize: modern forestry is heavily involved in educating and communicating with the public.
Manfredo, M.J.; Fishbein, M.; Haas, G.E.; Watson, A.E.
This review considers pharmacogenetics of the so called 'second-generation' antipsychotics. Findings for polymorphisms replicating in more than one study are emphasized and compared and contrasted with larger-scale candidate gene studies and genome-wide association study analyses. Variants in three types of genes are discussed: pharmacokinetic genes associated with drug metabolism and disposition, pharmacodynamic genes encoding drug targets, and pharmacotypic genes impacting disease presentation and subtype. Among pharmacokinetic markers, CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype has clear clinical significance, as it impacts dosing considerations for aripiprazole, iloperidone and risperidone, and variants of the ABCB1 gene hold promise as biomarkers for dosing for olanzapine and clozapine. Among pharmacodynamic variants, the TaqIA1 allele of the DRD2 gene, the DRD3 (Ser9Gly) polymorphism, and the HTR2C -759C/T polymorphism have emerged as potential biomarkers for response and/or side effects. However, large-scale candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies indicate that pharmacotypic genes may ultimately prove to be the richest source of biomarkers for response and side effect profiles for second-generation antipsychotics. PMID:24897292
Brennan, Mark D
Infiltration rates in undisturbed forest environments are generally high. These high infiltration rates may be reduced when forest management activities such as timber harvesting and\\/or prescribed fires are used. Post-harvest residue burning is a common site preparation treatment used in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA, to reduce forest fuels and to prepare sites for natural and artificial tree regeneration. Prescribed
P. R. Robichaud
The mammalian hippocampus continues to generate new neurons throughout life. The function of adult-generated neurons remains controversial, but adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is related to depression. Studies show that neurogenesis in the hippocampus is regulated by antidepressants in both humans and rodents, but no studies have examined the effects of age, sex, or antipsychotic exposure on the relationship between depression, antidepressant exposure, and hippocampal neurogenesis in humans. Hippocampal sections were obtained from the Stanley Medical Research Institute and were immunohistochemically labeled for the immature neuron marker doublecortin and the cell cycle arrest marker p21. We compared the number of cells in the granule cell layer and subgranular zone that expressed these proteins in brains from control subjects (n=12), patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) without psychotic symptoms (n=12), and patients with MDD and psychotic symptoms (n=12). We show here that the density of doublecortin/NeuN expression was increased in MDD patients compared with controls and MDD patients with psychosis, with the effect greater in women. Further, we show that older depressed patients without psychosis had higher levels of p21/NeuN expression and that depressed individuals prescribed antidepressants had higher levels of p21/NeuN expression, but only in older women. We show for the first time that changes in neurogenesis due to prescribed antidepressants or depression are dependent on age, sex, and the presence of antipsychotics or psychotic symptoms. PMID:23778854
Epp, Jonathan R; Beasley, Clare L; Galea, Liisa Am
Antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal adverse effects are well recognized in the context of first-generation antipsychotic drugs. However, the introduction of second-generation antipsychotics, with atypical mechanism of action, especially lower dopamine receptors affinity, was met with great expectations among clinicians regarding their potentially lower propensity to cause extrapyramidal syndrome. This review gives a brief summary of the recent literature relevant to second-generation antipsychotics and extrapyramidal syndrome. Numerous studies have examined the incidence and severity of extrapyramidal syndrome with first- and second-generation antipsychotics. The majority of these studies clearly indicate that extrapyramidal syndrome does occur with second-generation agents, though in lower rates in comparison with first generation. Risk factors are the choice of a particular second-generation agent (with clozapine carrying the lowest risk and risperidone the highest), high doses, history of previous extrapyramidal symptoms, and comorbidity. Also, in comparative studies, the choice of a first-generation comparator significantly influences the results. Extrapyramidal syndrome remains clinically important even in the era of second-generation antipsychotics. The incidence and severity of extrapyramidal syndrome differ amongst these antipsychotics, but the fact is that these drugs have not lived up to the expectation regarding their tolerability.
The goal of this study was to assess in human liver microsomes the inhibitory capacity of commonly used antipsychotics on the most prominent CYP450 drug metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A). Chlorpromazine was the only antipsychotic that inhibited CYP1A2 activity (IC50 = 9.5??M), whilst levomepromazine, chlorpromazine, and thioridazine significantly decreased CYP2D6-mediated formation of 1?-hydroxybufuralol (IC50 range, 3.5–25.5??M). Olanzapine inhibited CYP3A-catalyzed production of 1?, and 4?-hydroxymidazolam (IC50 = 14.65 and 42.20??M, resp.). In contrast, risperidone (IC50 = 20.7??M) and levomepromazine (IC50 = 30??M) showed selectivity towards the inhibition of midazolam 1?-hydroxylation reaction, and haloperidol did so towards 4?-hydroxylation (IC50 of 2.76??M). Thioridazine displayed a Ki of 1.75??M and an inhibitory potency of 1.57 on CYP2D6, suggesting a potential to induce in vivo interactions. However, with this exception, and given the observed Ki values, the potential of the assayed antipsychotics to produce clinically significant inhibitions of CYP450 isoforms in vivo seems limited.
Gervasini, Guillermo; Caballero, Maria J.; Carrillo, Juan A.; Benitez, Julio
Objective: Antipsychotic medications are the frontline treatment for the most psychotic disorders. The aim of this study is to compare the onset of action of the first and second generation antipsychotics and the rate of their side-effects in the treatment of acute psychosis. Methods: In a double-blind, controlled clinical trial, 40 acute psychotic patients were randomly allocated in four groups and treated with each of the four antipsychotics: olanzapine, risperidone, haloperidol or thiothixene. The onset of action of each drug was assessed by the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale. The data were analyzed by Wilcoxon (Gehan) survival and Log Rank analysis, using SPSS version 20.0. Findings: Initial response was observed in 97.5% (N = 39) of subjects during 2 weeks of intervention. The mean time to the first response was 6.15 ± 2.9 days and this was significantly shorter for risperidone than others. The most common side-effects were sedation and drug induced Parkinsonism. Conclusion: Risperidone represented shorter onset of action for the treatment of acute psychotic symptoms compared with olanzapine, haloperidol and thiothixene.
Mousavi, Seyed Ghafur; Rostami, Hamze; Sharbafchi, Mohammad Reza; Boroujeni, Atefeh Saeidi; Mahaki, Behzad
Medication errors are probably the most prevalent form of medical error, and prescribing errors are the most important source of medication errors. In this article we suggest interventions are needed at three levels to improve prescribing: (1) improve the training, and test the competence, of prescribers; (2) control the environment in which prescribers perform in order to standardise it, have greater controls on riskier drugs, and use technology to provide decision support; and (3) change organisational cultures, which do not support the belief that prescribing is a complex, technical, act, and that it is important to get it right. Solutions involve overt acknowledgement of this by senior clinicians and managers, and an open process of sharing and reviewing prescribing decisions.
Barber, N; Rawlins, M; Dean, F
In a prime example of finding new uses for older drugs, studies in zebrafish show that a 50-year-old antipsychotic medication called perphenazine can actively combat the cells of a difficult-to-treat form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The drug works by turning on a cancer-suppressing enzyme called PP2A and causing malignant tumor cells to self-destruct.The findings, by a team from the Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Brigham and Women's Hospital suggest that developing medications that activate PP2A, while avoiding perphenazine's psychotropic effects, could help clinicians make much-needed headway against T-cell ALL, and perhaps other tumors as well.
BACKGROUND A diagnosis of schizophrenia requires development of a pharmacotherapy regimen that balances many factors in the therapeutic decision-making process. Patient age and the presence or absence of comorbid chemical dependency represent two factors. Comorbid chemical dependency can have a profound impact on the successful treatment of schizophrenia, making patients with dual diagnoses of schizophrenia and chemical dependence a uniquely challenging population. There is little information regarding treatment of schizophrenia and chemical dependence in the pediatric population. Existing data from pediatric and adult populations may facilitate a well-guided and knowledgeable approach to treating pediatric dual diagnosis patients. METHODS A review of the literature for medication trials evaluating antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia in childhood and adolescence as well as antipsychotic use in the treatment of the dual diagnoses of schizophrenia and chemical dependence was done. Databases for Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, and PsycInfo were searched using the terms “addiction,” “adolescence,” “childhood,” “dual diagnosis,” “schizophrenia,” and “substance abuse.” Results were limited to English-language articles. RESULTS Seven articles were identified related to psychotic disorders and substance abuse in pediatric populations. Psychosis measurement instruments included the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Clinical Global Impression. Mean improvements were insignificant in most cases. Medication trials included clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and molindone. Trial safety concerns included metabolic effects, increased prolactin levels, and akathisia. One study with random assignment to olanzapine was discontinued early because of substantial weight gain without evidence of superior efficacy. Clozapine treatment was associated with more adverse drug events. CONCLUSION There is a great need for more research and use of available data to develop safe and effective treatment guidelines for childhood and adolescent dual diagnosis patients. When appropriate decisions are made regarding treatment of patients with comorbid schizophrenia and chemical dependence, both conditions may benefit with increased remission.
Price, Scott A.; Brahm, Nancy C.
Background: The literature suggests that positive results of catheter urine cultures frequently lead to unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing, which therefore represents an important target for stewardship. Objective: To assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in response to the results of urine cultures from patients with indwelling urinary catheters. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary care centre and involved adults with indwelling urinary catheters from whom urine specimens were obtained for culture. Patients with positive or negative culture results were identified from microbiology laboratory reports. The medical records of consecutive patients were screened to select a sample of 80 inpatients (40 per group). Abstracted patient histories were independently evaluated by an expert panel of 3 infectious diseases consultants blinded to the decisions of prescribers and of fellow panelists. The primary end point was concordance of each patient’s treatment decision (with respect to the indication) between the expert panel (based on majority agreement, i.e., at least 2 of the 3 expert panelists) and the prescriber. The secondary end points were unnecessary days of therapy and selected outcomes over a predefined period after urine was obtained for culture. Results: A total of 591 charts were screened to generate the targeted number of patients. Baseline demographic characteristics were comparable for the 2 groups, except antibiotic exposure before urine collection was significantly more frequent for the group with negative culture results. The treatment decision was concordant in 40% (16/40) of the patients with a positive culture result and 85% (34/40) of those with a negative culture result (p < 0.001). The most common reason for discordance was administration of antibiotics when not indicated (23 of 24 patients with a positive result and 5 of 6 patients with a negative result), which accounted for 165 and 32 unnecessary days of therapy per 1000 inpatient-days, respectively (p < 0.001). Adverse effects occurred in 2 of the 23 patients with a positive result who received antibiotics that were not indicated. Conclusions: Appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing, as measured by concordance of decisions between the expert panel and prescribers, was more common among patients with negative urine culture results than among those with positive results. However, there is an opportunity to improve prescribing for both groups through antimicrobial stewardship initiatives. Unnecessary days of therapy and adverse effects were more common in patients with a positive culture result.
Chiu, Jonathan; Thompson, G William; Austin, Thomas W; Hussain, Zafar; John, Michael; Bombassaro, Anne Marie; Connelly, Sarah E; Elsayed, Sameer
Management of bipolar disorder (BPD) may require multiple medications, including lithi- um, anticonvulsants, and antipsychotics (both conventional and atypical). Updated treatment guidelines reflect an expanded role for atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) in BPD treatment. Five AAPs—olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole—are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as monotherapy for first-line treatment of acute manic and (except for
Roy H. Perlis
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between treatment with antipsychotics (both conventional and atypical) and all-cause mortality.\\u000aDESIGN: Population-based, retrospective cohort study.\\u000aSETTING: Ontario, Canada.\\u000aPATIENTS: Older adults with dementia who were followed between 1 April 1997 and 31 March 2003.\\u000aMEASUREMENTS: The risk for death was determined at 30, 60, 120, and 180 days after the initial dispensing of antipsychotic
Sudeep S. Gill; Susan E. Bronskill; Sharon-Lise T. Normand; Geoffrey M. Anderson; Kathy Sykora; Kelvin Lam; Chaim M. Bell; Philip E. Lee; Hadas D. Fischer; Nathan Herrmann; Jerry H. Gurwitz; Paula A. Rochon
ObjectivePrevious research has shown that a better therapeutic relationship (TR) predicts more positive attitudes towards antipsychotic medication, but did not address whether it is also linked with actual adherence. This study investigated whether the TR is associated with adherence to antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia.Methods134 clinicians and 507 of their patients with schizophrenia or a related psychotic disorder participated in
Rosemarie McCabe; Jens Bullenkamp; Lars Hansson; Christoph Lauber; Rafael Martinez-Leal; Wulf Rössler; Hans Joachim Salize; Bengt Svensson; Francisco Torres-Gonzalez; Rob van den Brink; Durk Wiersma; Stefan Priebe
Results:Of 13817 patients studied, 1515 (11.0%) were hospitalized for hyperglycemia. Current antipsychotic treatment was associated with a higher risk of hypergly- cemiacomparedwithremoteantipsychoticuseinalldia- betes treatment groups (overall adjusted rate ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-1.74). The risk was in- creased among patients who were treated with atypical and typical antipsychotic agents and was extremely high among patients who were just starting
Lorraine L. Lipscombe; Linda Levesque; Andrea Gruneir; Hadas D. Fischer; David N. Juurlink; Sudeep S. Gill; Nathan Herrmann; Janet E. Hux; Geoff M. Anderson; Paula A. Rochon
. Novel antipsychotics (clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine) are effective in treating psychotic symptoms, also\\u000a in neurological disease. Hyperprolactinemia is a side effect related to antipsychotics that can cause galactorrhea, gynecomastia,\\u000a amenorrhea, anovulation, impaired spermatogenesis, decreased libido and sexual arousal, impotence, and anorgasmia, consequent\\u000a to removal of tonic dopaminergic inhibition of prolactin secretion via hypothalamic dopaminergic receptor blockade in the\\u000a tuberoinfundibolar
R. Keller; F. Mongini
Background:Weight gain and associated medical morbidity offset the reduction of extrapyramidal side effects associated with atypical antipsychotics. Efforts to control weight in antipsychotic-treated patients have yielded limited success.Methods:We studied the impact of an intensive 24-week program of diet, exercise, and counseling in 17 chronically psychotic patients (10 women, seven men) who entered at high average body weight (105.0±18.4 kg) and
F Centorrino; J J Wurtman; K A Duca; V H Fellman; K V Fogarty; J M Berry; D M Guay; M Romeling; J Kidwell; S L Cincotta; R J Baldessarini
This study aims to estimate the prevalence of and temporal trends in prenatal antipsychotic medication use within a cohort of pregnant women in the U.S. We identified live born deliveries to women aged 15-45 years in 2001-2007 from 11 U.S. health plans participating in the Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program. We ascertained prenatal exposure to antipsychotics from health plan pharmacy dispensing files, gestational age from linked infant birth certificate files, and ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes from health plan claims files. We calculated the prevalence of prenatal use of atypical and typical antipsychotics according to year of delivery, trimester of pregnancy, and mental health diagnosis. Among 585,615 qualifying deliveries, 4,223 (0.72%) were to women who received an atypical antipsychotic and 548 (0.09%) were to women receiving a typical antipsychotic any time from 60 days before pregnancy through delivery. There was a 2.5-fold increase in atypical antipsychotic use during the study period, from 0.33% (95% confidence interval: 0.29%, 0.37%) in 2001 to 0.82% (0.76%, 0.88%) in 2007, while the use of typical antipsychotics remained stable. Depression was the most common mental health diagnosis among deliveries to women with atypical antipsychotic use (63%), followed by bipolar disorder (43%) and schizophrenia (13%). The number and proportion of pregnancies exposed to atypical antipsychotics has increased dramatically in recent years. Studies are needed to examine the comparative safety and effectiveness of these medications relative to other therapeutic options in pregnancy. PMID:23389622
Toh, Sengwee; Li, Qian; Cheetham, T Craig; Cooper, William O; Davis, Robert L; Dublin, Sascha; Hammad, Tarek A; Li, De-Kun; Pawloski, Pamala A; Pinheiro, Simone P; Raebel, Marsha A; Scott, Pamela E; Smith, David H; Bobo, William V; Lawrence, Jean M; Dashevsky, Inna; Haffenreffer, Katherine; Avalos, Lyndsay A; Andrade, Susan E
Viewed in the context of ever-expanding conceptual boundaries for the diagnosis of bipolar disorder including the spectrum concept of DSM-IV, or even beyond (Akiskal and Pinto, 1999), it becomes obvious that lithium is the treatment of choice in a minority? of patients only (Bowden et al, 2000). This article reviews what additional benefit atypical antipsychotics may provide in patients with bipolar disorder. Due both to tradition and to the regulatory requirements in the USA (FDA) and European Union (EMEA), the main target of clinical trials with atypical antipsychotics has been typical manic disorder. More recently, a significant subgroup of atypical patients, e.g., with mixed states, marked psychosis, or rapid cycling, have participated in these studies to allow an estimation of the value of atypical antipsychotics in these conditions. For the purposes of filing applications for registration with the regulatory agencies, the existing evidence is probably weak, however; from a clinical perspective, it is important that most atypical antipsychotics have also been tested in combination treatments. Finally, first data are now available on long-term prophylactic efficacy of atypical antipsychotics. These combined efficacy data definitely support the use of atypical antipsychotics in bipolar disorder, and it is now the time to collect more experience with these substances in severely ill patients in clinical settings.
Grunze, H.; Moller, H.J.
Background Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children are common and often result in antibiotic prescription despite their typically self-limiting course. Aim To assess the effectiveness of primary care based interventions to reduce antibiotic prescribing for children with RTIs. Design and setting Systematic review. Method MEDLINE®, Embase, CINAHL®, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane library were searched for randomised, cluster randomised, and non-randomised studies testing educational and/or behavioural interventions to change antibiotic prescribing for children (<18 years) with RTIs. Main outcomes included change in proportion of total antibiotic prescribing or change in ‘appropriate’ prescribing for RTIs. Narrative analysis of included studies was used to identify components of effective interventions. Results Of 6301 references identified through database searching, 17 studies were included. Interventions that combined parent education with clinician behaviour change decreased antibiotic prescribing rates by between 6–21%; structuring the parent–clinician interaction during the consultation may further increase the effectiveness of these interventions. Automatic computerised prescribing prompts increased prescribing appropriateness, while passive information, in the form of waiting room educational materials, yielded no benefit. Conclusion Conflicting evidence from the included studies found that interventions directed towards parents and/or clinicians can reduce rates of antibiotic prescribing. The most effective interventions target both parents and clinicians during consultations, provide automatic prescribing prompts, and promote clinician leadership in the intervention design.
Vodicka, Talley A; Thompson, Matthew; Lucas, Patricia; Heneghan, Carl; Blair, Peter S; Buckley, David I; Redmond, Niamh; Hay, Alastair D
Background: Prescription is the written order of the physician which is conveyed to the patient. Rational prescription writing is a skill which should be mastered at the earliest. Internship is the period where undergraduate medical education can be consolidated through continued learning under the direct supervision of teachers. The attitude of interns toward rational drug use is of utmost importance. The present study aimed to explore the prescribing pattern of interns in a primary health center in India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of 2 months (June 1 2010-July 30 2010) in a primary health center attached to a medical college in India. The main outcome measure was to assess rationality of prescribing pattern of interns was measured as per World Health Organization enlisted prescribing indicators. Data analysis was done by using descriptive and inferential statistical methods: Frequencies, percentage, and mean standard deviation. Results: A total of 1968 drugs were prescribed in 760 prescriptions analyzed with an average of 2.58 drugs per prescription. Analgesic was the most commonly prescribed drug (25.78%) followed by antibiotics (22.1%), drugs used for gastrointestinal symptom (15.78%), multivitamins (11.84%), anti-malarials (8.35%), antihistaminics (6.25%), and hematinics (5.36%). Regarding prescribing indicators, in 435 prescriptions (22.4%), antibiotics were advised. A total of 688 (34.97%) drugs were prescribed by generic name, while the percentage of drugs prescribed from essential drug list of India was 58.47%. Injectables were prescribed in 89 prescriptions (4.49%). Conclusion: The present study shows that irrational prescribing practices are common among interns of the institute. The art of rational prescribing should be taught to them by medical teachers who are adequately trained in rational drug use.
Banerjee, Indranil; Bhadury, Tania
The objective of this study was to investigate the patterns in prescribing of psychotropic drugs for children and adolescents within the psychiatric department of a general hospital in China. Medical records of 878 patients (0-18 years old) were reviewed in 2000, 2005 and 2010. Patient characteristics, total psychotropic drug use and the proportionate use of each drug class (antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers and anxiolytic-hypnotic drugs) were analysed. The results indicated that there was a 19.2% increase in the overall use of psychotropic drugs during the study period. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors increased from 24.8 to 45%, whereas that of tricyclic antidepressants decreased from 17.7 to 0.5%. The use of second-generation antipsychotics increased from 56 to 80%. In contrast, the use of first-generation antipsychotic decreased from 26.2 to 6.5%. The use of valproate also increased significantly from 2.1 to 16.4%. In patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors increased from 1.2 to 18.9% and that of valproate increased from 0 to 12.6%. The increasing trends in psychotropic drug use necessitate addition research to confirm their safety and efficacy in this specific population. PMID:23587984
Song, Qing-Yun; Guo, Lan-Ting
Lonchocarpus cyanescens (LC) is a medicinal plant commonly used in combination with other recipes in the treatment of psychotic disorders in traditional medicine. This study was designed to examine whether the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of LC possess antipsychotic property in rats. The antipsychotic effects of the extracts were assessed using the amphetamine animal model of psychosis in rats. The effect of the extracts on spontaneous motor activity was also studied in the open field test in mice. The extrapyramidal side effect of catalepsy was tested based on the ability of the extracts to alter the duration of akinesia in mice placed on a vertical wrapped string. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of LC (25-400 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed stereotyped behaviour induced by amphetamine (10.0 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats, which suggest antipsychotic activity. The extracts (25-400 mg/kg, i.p.) further produced a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in spontaneous motor activity of the animals in the open field test. However, in contrast to chlorpromazine, a typical antipsychotic, the extracts did not induce cataleptic behaviour in the animals. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenetic glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, steroids and tannins in the leaves of LC. The presence of these secondary metabolites was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography. Taken together, these findings suggest that the extracts possess phytochemically active constituents with antipsychotic property. Thus, this investigation provides evidence that may justify the ethnomedicinal applications of Lonchocarpus cyanescens as the major constituent of the recipe used for the management of psychosis in Nigeria. PMID:21717088
Sonibare, Mubo A; Umukoro, Solomon; Shonibare, Esther T
Background: Most research on the use of medication focuses on adults. Children, however, use medication too, most of which is prescribed by GP's. Children also use non-prescribed medication (f.e. bought in the drugstore), but the extent to which is not known. Moreover, it is not known to what extent children's drug use (prescribed and non-prescribed) varies by sex, age, health
L. van Dijk; H. van Lindert
The Dixie National Forest has a history of a professional, safe, aggressive prescribed fire program. The Forest has one of the leading prescribed fire programs in the Region. Being on the cutting edge entails risk. In April of 2002, the Dixie National For...
Patterns of prescribing extended wear contact lenses in the UK were determined by mining through data gathered from annual contact lens fitting surveys conducted over the past 12 years. The increased rate of extended wear prescribing this century – which in 2007 had reached 7% and 19% of all soft lens new fits and refits, respectively – probably reflects the
Philip B. Morgan; Nathan Efron
Influencing clinicians' prescribing behaviour is important because inappropriate use and overuse of antibiotics are major drivers of antibiotic resistance. A systematic review of interventions for promoting prudent prescribing of antibiotics by general practitioners suggests that multifaceted interventions will maximize acceptability. This article reports how this type of approach has been used successfully in Derbyshire, UK over the last 4 years. The range of interventions that have been used includes educational meetings (both open group events and others targeted at higher prescribers in the surgery) using a supportive and guiding ethos; the provision of support materials aimed at empowering avoidance or delayed antibiotic prescribing, where appropriate, and improving patients' knowledge and confidence in self-management; and the production of different treatment guidelines incorporating key messages with evidence, indicating where antibiotics are unlikely to be of benefit. Education on antibiotics in schools was a novel approach, which was developed in North Derbyshire to increase public awareness of the appropriate treatment for common illnesses without using antibiotics. PMID:24030546
Harris, Diane J
Background Although much progress has been made on antipsychotic drug development, precise mechanisms behind the action of typical and atypical antipsychotics are poorly understood. Methods We performed genome-wide expression profiling to study effects of typical antipsychotics and atypical antipsychotics in the postmortem liver of schizophrenia patients using microarrays (Affymetrix U133 plus2.0). We classified the subjects into typical antipsychotics (n = 24) or atypical antipsychotics (n = 26) based on their medication history, and compared gene expression profiles with unaffected controls (n = 34). We further analyzed individual antipsychotic effects on gene expression by sub-classifying the subjects into four major antipsychotic groups including haloperidol, phenothiazines, olanzapine and risperidone. Results Typical antipsychotics affected genes associated with nuclear protein, stress responses and phosphorylation, whereas atypical antipsychotics affected genes associated with golgi/endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm transport. Comparison between typical antipsychotics and atypical antipsychotics further identified genes associated with lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function. Analyses on individual antipsychotics revealed a set of genes (151 transcripts, FDR adjusted p < 0.05) that are differentially regulated by four antipsychotics, particularly by phenothiazines, in the liver of schizophrenia patients. Conclusion Typical antipsychotics and atypical antipsychotics affect different genes and biological function in the liver. Typical antipsychotic phenothiazines exert robust effects on gene expression in the liver that may lead to liver toxicity. The genes found in the current study may benefit antipsychotic drug development with better therapeutic and side effect profiles.
Choi, Kwang H; Higgs, Brandon W; Weis, Serge; Song, Jonathan; Llenos, Ida C; Dulay, Jeannette R; Yolken, Robert H; Webster, Maree J
Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to describe prescribing practices in the treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder in a university practice setting. Method A retrospective chart review was performed on 53 youths diagnosed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), criteria with bipolar spectrum disorder under the active care of child psychiatrists practicing in a pediatric psychopharmacology specialty clinic. Current medications, doses, and related adverse events were recorded. Clinicians were asked to provide a target disorder (bipolar mania/mixed state, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], or anxiety) for each medication to the best of their ability. The Clinical Global Impressions–Severity (CGI-S) scale was used to measure severity of each disorder before treatment and the Clinical Global Impressions–Improvement (CGI-I) was used to quantify the magnitude of improvement with treatment. Meaningful improvement of the disorder was defined by CGI-I score of 1 or 2. Results The mean number of psychotropic medications per patient was 3.0?±?1.6. A total of 68% of patients were treated for co-morbid disorders; 23% of patients were treated with monotherapy, primarily with second-generation antipsychotics. Mania improved in 80% of cases, mixed state improved in 57% of cases, ADHD improved in 56% of cases, anxiety improved in 61% of cases, and depression improved in 90% of cases. Conclusion The management of pediatric bipolar disorder often requires multiple medications. For the treatment of mania/mixed states, clinicians prescribed second-generation antipsychotics more frequently than mood stabilizers, especially in the context of monotherapy. Co-morbidity was a frequent problem with moderate success obtained with combined pharmacotherapy approaches. Further psychosocial strategies to augment pharmacotherapy may improve outcome while reducing the medication burden in pediatric bipolar disorder.
Potter, Mona P.; Liu, Howard Y.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Henderson, Carly S.; Wozniak, Janet; Wilens, Timothy E.
Background: Antipsychotic long-acting injections (LAIs) reduce covert nonadherence with medication in the clinical management of psychotic disorders. However, they are variably utilised by clinicians, especially in the long term. Factors including poor knowledge, stigma and perceived coercion can all adversely influence LAI utilisation. Previous research has emanated almost exclusively from developed countries. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of psychiatrists and trainees in Nigeria towards LAIs. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among mental health professionals in Nigeria using a pre-existing questionnaire. Results: Participant psychiatrists (n = 128) expressed positive attitudes towards LAIs. Their knowledge concerning LAIs and its side effects was fair. The participants reported that nearly half (41.7%) of their patients with a psychotic illness were on LAIs. Those who reported a high prescribing rate for LAIs (>40%) were more likely to endorse more positive ‘patient-centred attitudes’ (p < 0.04). In contrast to previous reports, psychiatrists reported that patients were less likely to feel ashamed when on LAIs, though most endorsed the statement that force was required during LAI administration. Conclusion: The desirability of treatment by injections differs in Africa in comparison to Western cultures, possibly due to the increased potency that injections are perceived to have. This is perhaps evidenced by high rates reported for use of LAIs. Nigerian psychiatrists had positive attitudes to LAIs but their knowledge, particularly regarding side effects, was fair and needs to be improved. Providing information to patients prior to antipsychotic treatment may enhance informed consent in a country where medical paternalism is still relatively strong.
Omoaregba, Joyce O.; Okonoda, Kingsley M.; Otefe, Edebi U.; Patel, Maxine X.
Errors in prescribing of dangerous medications, such as extended release or long acting (ER/LA) opioid forlmulations, remain an important cause of patient harm. Prescribing errors often relate to the failure to note warnings regarding contraindications and drug interactions. Many prescribers utilize electronic pharmacopoeia (EP) to improve medication ordering. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of commonly used apps to provide accurate safety information about the boxed warning for ER/LA opioids. We evaluated a convenience sample of six popular EP apps available for the iPhone and an online reference for the presence of relevant safety warnings. We accessed the dosing information for each of six ER/LA medications and assessed for the presence of an easily identifiable indication that a boxed warning was present, even if the warning itself was not provided. The prominence of precautionary drug information presented to the user was assessed for each app. Provided information was classified based on the presence of the warning in the ordering pathway, located separately but within the prescribers view, or available in a separate screen of the drug information but non-highlighted. Each program provided a consistent level of warning information for each of the six ER/LA medications. Only 2/7 programs placed a warning in line with dosing information (level 1); 3/7 programs offered level 2 warning and 1/7 offered level 3 warning. One program made no mention of a boxed warning. Most EP apps isolate important safety warnings, and this represents a missed opportunity to improve prescribing practices. PMID:24081616
Lapoint, Jeff; Perrone, Jeanmarie; Nelson, Lewis S
The effect of atypical antipsychotic solian (amisulpride), binding predominantly to dopamine D2/D3-receptors, on the immune reactivity has been studied in mice of the CBA strain with different psychoemotional states (aggressive and submissive behavior). In addition, the effect of solian on the expression of various CD-markers of lymphocytes in has been analyzed in vitro for patients with schizophrenia diagnosis. Chronic (10 days) administration of solian in mice at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg resulted in a significant suppression of the immune response to T-dependent antigen (sheep red blood cells). This effect was manifested in animals with both psychoemotional states, but was more expressed in aggressive animals. In the in vitro system, solian produced opposite effects on the expression of surface CD receptors in lymphocytes of patients with schizophrenia. It is suggested that solian does not only affects immune function through D2 receptors of the brain, but also directly influences immunocompetent cells. PMID:23901463
Idova, G V; Al'perina, E L; Lobacheva, O A; Zhukova, E N; Che?do, M A; Meniavtseva, T A; Vetlugina, T P
Plantar fasciitis is an extremely common, painful injury seen among people in running and jumping sports. While prognosis for recovery with conservative care is excellent, prolonged duration of symptoms affects sports participation. Studies on treatment options show mixed results, so finding effective treatments can be challenging. A logical…
Shea, Michael; Fields, Karl B.
Background Health care policy-makers look for prescribing indicators at the population level to evaluate the performance of prescribers, improve quality and control drug costs. The aim of this research was to; (i) estimate the level of variation in potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) across prescribers in the national Irish older population using the STOPP criteria; (ii) estimate how reliably the criteria could distinguish between prescribers in terms of their proportion of PIP and; (iii) examine how PIP varies between prescribers and by patient and prescriber characteristics in a multilevel regression model. Methods 1,938 general practitioners (GPs) with 338,375 registered patients’ ?70 years were extracted from the Health Service Executive Primary Care Reimbursement Service (HSE-PCRS) pharmacy claims database. HSE-PCRS prescriptions are WHO ATC coded. Demographic data for claimants’ and prescribers’ are available. Thirty STOPP indicators were applied to prescription claims in 2007. Multilevel logistic regression examined how PIP varied between prescribers and by individual patient and prescriber level variables. Results The unadjusted variation in PIP between prescribers was considerable (median 35%, IQR 30-40%). The STOPP criteria were reliable measures of PIP (average >0.8 reliability). The multilevel regression models found that only the patient level variable, number of different repeat drug classes was strongly associated with PIP (>2 drugs v none; adjusted OR, 4.0; 95% CI 3.7, 4.3). After adjustment for patient level variables the proportion of PIP varied fourfold (0.5 to 2 times the expected proportion) between prescribers but the majority of this variation was not significant. Conclusion PIP is of concern for all prescribers. Interventions aimed at enhancing appropriateness of prescribing should target patients taking multiple medications.
Background The use of antibiotics is the single most important driver in antibiotic resistance. Nevertheless, antibiotic overuse remains common. Decline in antibiotic prescribing in the United States coincided with the launch of national educational campaigns in the 1990s and other interventions, including the introduction of routine infant immunizations with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7); however, it is unknown if these trends have been sustained through recent measurements. Methods We performed an analysis of nationally representative data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys from 2000 to 2010. Trends in population-based prescribing were examined for overall antibiotics, broad-spectrum antibiotics, antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) and antibiotics prescribed during ARTI visits. Rates were reported for three age groups: children and adolescents (<18 years), adults (18 to 64 years), and older adults (?65 years). Results An estimated 1.4 billion antibiotics were dispensed over the study period. Overall antibiotic prescribing decreased 18% (risk ratio (RR) 0.82, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.72 to 0.94) among children and adolescents, remained unchanged for adults, and increased 30% (1.30, 1.14 to 1.49) among older adults. Rates of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescriptions doubled from 2000 to 2010 (2.11, 1.81 to 2.47). Proportions of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing increased across all age groups: 79% (1.79, 1.52 to 2.11) for children and adolescents, 143% (2.43, 2.07 to 2.86) for adults and 68% (1.68, 1.45 to 1.94) for older adults. ARTI antibiotic prescribing decreased 57% (0.43, 0.35 to 0.52) among children and adolescents and 38% (0.62, 0.48 to 0.80) among adults; however, it remained unchanged among older adults. While the number of ARTI visits declined by 19%, patients with ARTI visits were more likely to receive an antibiotic (73% versus 64%; P <0.001) in 2010 than in 2000. Conclusions Antibiotic use has decreased among children and adolescents, but has increased for older adults. Broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing continues to be on the rise. Public policy initiatives to promote the judicious use of antibiotics should continue and programs targeting older adults should be developed.
Introduction. The objective of this study was to develop a decision aid that patients and clinicians might use to help the patient in the process of selecting an antipsychotic medication. In addition, we aimed to determine the antipsychotic that patients would choose given the information contained in the leaflet. Method. We designed a questionnaire for patients to appraise the contents of the leaflet, their understanding of the leaflet and the potential impact of the leaflet on compliance and therapeutic relationship between patient and doctor. Results. We recruited 30 stable patients with a diagnosis of a psychotic illness to evaluate the leaflet and to determine patient choice. Over 90% of patients felt that the leaflet improved their knowledge of antipsychotic medication. Seventy-six percent of patients agreed that the leaflet contained the right type and amount of information. Seventy percent of respondents believed the leaflet would improve the trust between them and their doctors, and almost half (47%) stated they were more likely to take their medicine after reading the leaflet. Forty percent of patients would prefer to switch antipsychotic medication, with quetiapine being the most frequently preferred option. Conclusion. The results indicate that, for patients in the stable phase of their illness, the leaflet is a useful tool in selecting an antipsychotic medication and may represent a way forward in improving outcomes in patients with psychotic disorders. A larger study examining outcomes using this tool would establish its clinical utility. PMID:24930924
Whiskey, Eromona; Taylor, David
Cognitive enhancement has become an important target for drug therapies in schizophrenia. Treatment development in this area requires assessment approaches that are sensitive to procognitive effects of antipsychotic and adjunctive treatments. Ideally, new treatments will have translational characteristics for parallel human and animal research. Previous studies of antipsychotic effects on cognition have relied primarily on paper-and-pencil neuropsychological testing. No study has directly compared neurophysiological biomarkers and neuropsychological testing as strategies for assessing cognitive effects of antipsychotic treatment early in the course of schizophrenia. Antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia were tested before treatment with risperidone and again 6 weeks later. Matched healthy participants were tested over a similar time period. Test-retest reliability, effect sizes of within-subject change, and multivariate/univariate analysis of variance were used to compare 3 neurophysiological tests (visually guided saccade, memory-guided saccade, and antisaccade) with neuropsychological tests covering 4 cognitive domains (executive function, attention, memory, and manual motor function). While both measurement approaches showed robust neurocognitive impairments in patients prior to risperidone treatment, oculomotor biomarkers were more sensitive to treatment-related effects on neurocognitive function than traditional neuropsychological measures. Further, unlike the pattern of modest generalized cognitive improvement suggested by neuropsychological measures, the oculomotor findings revealed a mixed pattern of beneficial and adverse treatment-related effects. These findings warrant further investigation regarding the utility of neurophysiological biomarkers for assessing cognitive outcomes of antipsychotic treatment in clinical trials and in early-phase drug development.
Hill, S. Kristian; Reilly, James L.; Harris, Margret S. H.; Khine, Tin; Sweeney, John A.
The depot antipsychotics are synthesized by esterification of the active drug to a long chain fatty acid and the resultant compound is then dissolved in a vegetable oil, with the exception of some molecules of new generation characterized by microcrystalline technologies. The absorption rate constant is slower than the elimination rate constant and therefore, the depot antipsychotics exhibit 'flip-flop' kinetics where the time to steady-state is a function of the absorption rate, and the concentration at steady-state is a function of the elimination rate The pharmacokinetics of depot antipsychotic medications are such that an intramuscular injection given at intervals of from 1 to 4 weeks will produce adequate plasma concentrations that are sufficient to prevent relapse over the dosage interval. Such medication is useful in patients who do not reliably take their oral medication. The pharmacokinetics and clinical actions of various depot formulations of antipsychotic drugs have been extensively studied. The clinical pharmacokinetics of the depot antipsychotics for which plasma level studies are available (i.e. fluphenazine enanthate and decanoate, haloperidol decanoate, bromperidol decanoate, clopenthixol decanoate, flupenthixol decanoate, perphenazine onanthat, pipotiazine undecylenate, pipotiazine palmitate, fluspirilene, Long-acting injectable risperidone, olanzapine pamoate, paliperidone palmitate, Long-acting iloperidone, Long-acting injectable aripiprazole) are reviewed. The proper study of these agents has been handicapped until recently by the necessity of accurately measuring subnanomolar concentrations in plasma. Their kinetic properties, the relationship of plasma concentrations to clinical effects, and conversion from oral to injectable therapy are discussed. PMID:23343447
Spanarello, Stefano; La Ferla, Teresa
Background: Few studies have compared long-acting injectable second-generation antipsychotics with oral antipsychotics. Long-acting injectable antipsychotics—developed specifically to address the problem of adherence—might have an important role to play in treating early psychosis.Objective: The effects of oral antipsychotics versus risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) were compared between 2 similar studies lasting 2 years each that were conducted at our site in South
Robin Emsley; Petrus Oosthuizen; Liezl Koen; Dana J. H. Niehaus; Rossella Medori; Jonathan Rabinowitz
Atypical antipsychotic agents offer significant advantages over older conventional antipsychotic agents. The reduction in\\u000a antipsychotic drug-associated extrapyramidal symptoms and the potential reduced risk for tardive dyskinesia, compared to conventional\\u000a drugs, are major advances in the treatment of psychotic patients. However, recent reports of hyperglycemia, new-onset diabetes\\u000a mellitus, diabetic ketoacidosis, weight gain, and lipid abnormalities associated with atypical antipsychotic agents have
David C. Henderson
This study evaluated the effect of switching outpatients with schizophrenia and antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction to open-label quetiapine treatment. Secondary objectives were to compare the antipsychotic and prolactin-related effects of quetiapine versus prestudy antipsychotic treatment. Eight patients with at least moderately severe antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction (N = 7 taking risperidone, 4–6 mg\\/d; N = 1 taking haloperidol, 10 mg\\/d) were evaluated
MATTHEW J. BYERLY; EMMELINE LESCOUFLAIR; MARY T. WEBER; RHIANNON M. BUGNO; ROBERT FISHER; THOMAS CARMODY; FEMINA VARGHESE; A. JOHN RUSH
The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that estrogen is a natural neuroprotector in women and that exogenous estrogen may have antipsychotic potential, but results of clinical studies have been inconsistent. We have recently shown using the latent inhibition (LI) model of schizophrenia that 17?-estradiol exerts antipsychotic activity in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The present study sought to extend the characterization of the antipsychotic action of 17?-estradiol (10, 50 and 150??g/kg) by testing its capacity to reverse amphetamine- and MK-801-induced LI aberrations in gonadally intact female and male rats. No-drug controls of both sexes showed LI, ie, reduced efficacy of a previously non-reinforced stimulus to gain behavioral control when paired with reinforcement, if conditioned with two but not five tone-shock pairings. In both sexes, amphetamine (1?mg/kg) and MK-801 (50??g/kg) produced disruption (under weak conditioning) and persistence (under strong conditioning) of LI, modeling positive and negative/cognitive symptoms, respectively. 17?-estradiol at 50 and 150??g/kg potentiated LI under strong conditioning and reversed amphetamine-induced LI disruption in both males and females, mimicking the action of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) in the LI model. 17?-estradiol also reversed MK-induced persistent LI, an effect mimicking atypical APDs and NMDA receptor enhancers, but this effect was observed in males and OVX females but not in intact females. These findings indicate that in the LI model, 17?-estradiol exerts a clear-cut antipsychotic activity in both sexes and, remarkably, is more efficacious in males and OVX females where it also exerts activity considered predictive of anti-negative/cognitive symptoms. PMID:20613719
Arad, Michal; Weiner, Ina
To review the literature on the pharmacologic treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with a focus on reports of antipsychotic use for this illness. A MEDLINE search (1966-Oct 2002) for English only articles about pharmacologic treatment of PTSD. Antipsychotic medications are being used with some frequency for PTSD. There are few studies and scant evidence to recommend the traditional antipsychotics.
Eileen P. Ahearn; Amy Krohn; Kathryn M. Connor; Jonathan R. T. Davidson
OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of admissions to hospital for stroke among older adults with dementia receiving atypical or typical antipsychotics. DESIGN: Population based retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Ontario, Canada. Patients 32,710 older adults (< or = 65 years) with dementia (17,845 dispensed an atypical antipsychotic and 14,865 dispensed a typical antipsychotic). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Admission to hospital with the
Sudeep S. Gill; Paula A. Rochon; Nathan Herrmann; Philip E. Lee; Kathy Sykora; Nadia Gunraj; Sharon-Lise T. Normand; Jerry H. Gurwitz; Connie Marras; Walter P. Wodchis; Muhammad M. Mamdani
BACKGROUND: Surveys on prescription patterns for antipsychotics in the Scandinavian public health system are scarce despite the prevalent use of these drugs. The clinical differences between antipsychotic drugs are mainly in the areas of safety and tolerability, and international guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia offer rational strategies to minimize the burden of side effects related to antipsychotic treatment. The
Rune A Kroken; Erik Johnsen; Torleif Ruud; Tore Wentzel-Larsen; Hugo A Jørgensen
Some, but not all, antipsychotics elevate serum prolactin. Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia is thought to account for high rates of menstrual dysfunction and diminished estrogen levels in women with schizophrenia. However, few studies have directly assessed the relationships between prolactin, menstrual function, and ovarian hormone levels in this population. Sixteen premenopausal women with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, eight treated with an antipsychotic
Carla M. Canuso; Jill M. Goldstein; Joanne Wojcik; Ree Dawson; Danielle Brandman; Anne Klibanski; Joseph J. Schildkraut; Alan I. Green
This paper reviews the evidence that antipsychotic drugs induce neuroplasticity. We outline how the synaptic changes induced by the antipsychotic drug haloperidol may help our understanding of the mechanism of action of antipsychotic drugs in general, and how they may help to elucidate the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Studies have provided compelling evidence that haloperidol induces anatomical and molecular changes in
Christine Konradi; Stephan Heckers
Atypical antipsychotics have become a common therapeutic option in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, these medications come with a high risk of metabolic side effects, particularly dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Therefore, identification of patients who are at increased risk for metabolic side effects is of great importance. The genetics of fatty acid metabolism is one area of research that may help identify such patients. Therefore, in this present study, we aimed to determine the effect of one commonly studied genetic polymorphism from both fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) and FADS2 gene on a surrogate measure of insulin resistance and lipid levels in a metabolically high-risk population of patients largely exposed to atypical antipsychotics. This study used a cross-sectional design, fasting blood draws, and genetic analysis to investigate associations between polymorphisms, haplotypes, and metabolic measures. A total of 320 subjects with schizophrenia (n = 226) or bipolar disorder (n = 94) were included in this study. The mean age of the population was 42.5 years and 45% were male. A significant association between FADS1 and FADS2 haplotypes was found with insulin resistance while controlling for confounders. Further investigation is required to replicate this finding. PMID:24455201
Burghardt, Kyle J; Gardner, Kristen N; Johnson, Joshua W; Ellingrod, Vicki L
Atypical antipsychotics have become a common therapeutic option in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, these medications come with a high risk of metabolic side effects, particularly dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Therefore, identification of patients who are at increased risk for metabolic side effects is of great importance. The genetics of fatty acid metabolism is one area of research that may help identify such patients. Therefore, in this present study, we aimed to determine the effect of one commonly studied genetic polymorphism from both fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) and FADS2 gene on a surrogate measure of insulin resistance and lipid levels in a metabolically high-risk population of patients largely exposed to atypical antipsychotics. This study used a cross-sectional design, fasting blood draws, and genetic analysis to investigate associations between polymorphisms, haplotypes, and metabolic measures. A total of 320 subjects with schizophrenia (n = 226) or bipolar disorder (n = 94) were included in this study. The mean age of the population was 42.5 years and 45% were male. A significant association between FADS1 and FADS2 haplotypes was found with insulin resistance while controlling for confounders. Further investigation is required to replicate this finding.
Burghardt, Kyle J.; Gardner, Kristen N.; Johnson, Joshua W.; Ellingrod, Vicki L.
Using data from claims files of the Tennessee Medicaid program and the state's physician licensure file, tetracycline prescribing practices were analyzed according to physician specialty and location of practice. During the two year study period 4,026 chi...
Objective: This study was undertaken to describe physicians' views regarding ambulatory medication prescribing safety. Methods: We conducted 17 semistructured interviews among a sample of practicing physicians from 3 integrated health delivery systems. We...
T. G. Rundall J. Hsu J. E. Lafata V. Fung K. A. Paez
Although antidepressant drugs do not differ much in their efficacy rates, the particular characteristics of one drug may make it a better choice in a given patient. This article provides insight into the art of prescribing antidepressants in primary care, with recommendations for prescribing for patients with chronic pain, sexual dysfunction, anxiety, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, severe insomnia, old age, diabetes, and heart problems. PMID:24085807
Shultz, Elizabeth; Malone, Donald A
This article suggests that nurse prescribers require an awareness of key concepts in ethics, such as deontology and utilitarianism to reflect on current debates and contribute to them. The principles of biomedical ethics have also been influential in the development of professional codes of conduct. Attention is drawn to the importance of the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry's code of practice for the pharmaceutical industry in regulating marketing aimed at prescribers. PMID:21500692
Patterns of prescribing extended wear contact lenses in the UK were determined by mining through data gathered from annual contact lens fitting surveys conducted over the past 12 years. The increased rate of extended wear prescribing this century - which in 2007 had reached 7% and 19% of all soft lens new fits and refits, respectively - probably reflects the superior clinical performance of silicone hydrogel lenses for this purpose. PMID:18424225
Morgan, Philip B; Efron, Nathan
There is solid evidence of negative consequences of non-adherence in schizophrenia, and recently adherence has been defined as taking more than 80% of prescribed medication. However, the clinical relevance of different degrees of adherence in adherent patients has not been studied. We evaluated sociodemographic, clinical, treatment-related and psychopathological variables in 78 adherent outpatients with schizophrenia, who were classified into two groups: full-adherence (100% adherence) and non-full adherence (80-99.9%). Adherence was evaluated using electronic monitoring (MEMS®), and the injection record in case of injectable antipsychotics. Non-full adherence patients showed more extensive delusions and guilt feelings, as well as trends toward greater somatic concern, disorientation, general psychopathology, and lower number of prior psychiatric hospitalizations. These finding suggest that the 'fullness' of adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a relevant issue, impacting the psychopathological state of adherent patients with schizophrenia. We found that a large proportion of patients can achieve full adherence, and while 'adherence' is an appropriate objective to be pursued with non-adherent patients, 'full adherence' should be the goal among adherent patients. PMID:24183886
Acosta, Francisco J; Ramallo-Fariña, Yolanda; Siris, Samuel G
Aripiprazole exhibits high affinity for dopamine D2 and D3, serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, moderate affinity for dopamine D4, serotonin 5-HT2C and 5-HT7, alpha1-adrenergic and histamine H1 receptors. The mean elimination half-lives are about 75 hours and 94 hours for aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole, respectively. Steady-state concentrations are attained within 14 days of dosing for both active moieties. At least 1 to 2 weeks, and sometimes up to 4 weeks, may pass before aripiprazole reaches its full effect. The efficacy of aripiprazole was investigated in the treatment of schizophrenia, in the treatment of acute manic episode associated with Bipolar I Disorder, and in the treatment of psychosis associated with Alzheimer's dementia. Aripiprazole has demonstrated superiority to placebo in clinical studies of the treatment of both schizophrenia and acute bipolar mania. Aripiprazole has been evaluated for safety in 5592 patients who participated in multiple dose, premarketing trials in schizophrenia, bipolar mania, and dementia of the Alzheimer's type. The recommended starting and target dose for aripiprazole is 10 or 15 mg/day administered on a once-a-day schedule without regard to meals. Aripiprazole has been systematically evaluated and shown to be effective in a dose range of 10 to 30 mg/day. Dosage increases should not be made before 2 weeks of continuous therapy, the time needed to achieve steady state. At least 1 to 2 weeks, and sometimes up to 4 weeks, may pass before aripiprazole reaches its full effect. In this presentation was given an overview of novel antipsychotic aripiprazole. PMID:16395846
Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver; Mimica, Ninoslav; Folnegovi?-Smalc, Vera
Background/Objectives Widespread use of antipsychotic medications among skilled nursing home (NH) residents for off-label indications has become a concern of clinicians and policy makers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between receiving antipsychotics and the outcomes of a cohort of NH patients with and without presumed delirium after hip fracture. Design Population based cohort study. Setting 11,119 nursing homes nationwide, from 01 January 2000 to 31 December 2007. Participants First-time NH admits with hip fracture (N=77,759). Measurements The Nursing Home Confusion Assessment Method was utilized to identify residents with no delirium, subsyndromal delirium, and full delirium. Propensity score reweighting was used with analyses stratified by delirium level. Results Among patients with no delirium symptoms, about 5 percent (n = 3,250) received antipsychotic drugs. These individuals were less likely to be discharged home (OR 0.68; P < 0.001), had a higher likelihood of death prior to nursing home discharge (OR 1.28; P = 0.03), stayed in nursing homes longer (? 2.83; P = 0.05), and had less functional improvement at discharge (? -0.47; P = 0.03). Receipt of antipsychotics among participants with mild delirium was associated with a lower likelihood of discharge home (OR 0.74; P = 0.03). Conclusion Among NH residents with hip fracture and no delirium symptoms, use of antipsychotics was associated with worse outcomes, with the exception of rehospitalization. No clear benefits were associated with antipsychotic use for those with presumed delirium.
Jung, Hye-Young; Meucci, Marissa; Unruh, Mark Aaron; Mor, Vincent; Dosa, David
Background Medication error is common and preventable cause of medical errors and occurs as a result of either human error or a system flaw. The consequences of such errors are more harmful and frequent among pediatric patients. Objective To assess medication prescribing errors and associated factors in the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital from February 17 to March 17, 2012. Data on the prescribed drugs were collected from patient charts and prescription papers among all patients who were admitted during the study period. Descriptive statistics was used to determine frequency, prevalence, means, and standard deviations. The relationship between dependent and independent variables were computed using logistic regression (with significance declared at p-value of 0.05 and 95% confidence interval). Results Out of the 384 Medication order s identified during the study, a total of 223 prescribing errors were identified. This corresponds to an overall medication prescribing error rate of 58.07%. Incomplete prescriptions and dosing errors were the two most common types of prescribing errors. Antibiotics (54.26%) were the most common classes of drugs subjected to prescribing error. Day of the week and route of administration were factors significantly associated with increased prescribing error. Conclusions Medication prescribing errors are common in the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital. Improving quick access to up to date reference materials, providing regular refresher trainings and possibly including a clinical pharmacist in the healthcare team are recommended.
Medication errors are common in public hospitals, with the majority at the prescribing stage of the medication pathway. Electronic prescribing deci- sion support (EPDS) is a rules-based computer system that can be used by clinicians to warn against such errors to improve patient safety and support staff workflows. Despite its apparent advantages, this technology has not been widely adopted in
David Bomba; Tim Land
Non-medical nurse prescribing in the UK continues to evolve with new legislative frameworks. Studies evaluating patterns of prescribing by nurses remain scarce. This secondary data analysis of national prescribing data investigated the prescribing behaviours of community-based nurses and general practitioners (GPs), using constipation as a case study. Currently, 37 683 registered nurses, midwives and health visitors are qualified to independently prescribe in the UK; however, only 16.6% of nurses prescribed items for constipation. Prescribing practices differed between nurses employed by primary care trusts (PCTs) and general practice, between nurses and GPs, and across regions. PCT-employed nurses undertook 83% of nurse prescribing although activity increased steadily among general practice-employed nurses. Pharmacological treatment choices differed between nurses and GPs. Over 60% of all nurses predominantly prescribed from one class of laxative compared with a wider range prescribed by GPs. The extent, impact and outcomes of medical prescribing need further study. PMID:17640246
Davis, Kathy; Drennan, Vari
Prescribing in the perinatal period is based on a risk-benefit analysis, in the context of a limited evidence base, composed primarily of case series and reports. Mothers with depressive illness often present first in the community and effective treatment is paramount for the wellbeing of both mother and child. We aimed at investigating current prescribing practices among general practitioners (GPs) of antidepressants to mothers presenting in first trimester of pregnancy and during breastfeeding. This qualitative study was conducted by way of postal survey to 78 GPs within South Central Edinburgh catchment area. All responses were anonymous and confidential. We discovered inconsistent prescribing patterns among GPs to both pregnant and breastfeeding mothers. Only one GP suggested consulting clinical guidelines when making prescribing choices. There was no mention of the continuation of an antidepressant from pregnancy into breastfeeding as a reason of choice. Inconsistent prescribing patterns among GPs could have implications for the wellbeing of mother and child, and may be reflective of an underlying educational need among GPs. PMID:21670136
Kean, Laura Jane; Hamilton, Jane; Shah, Premal
Weight gain is a common adverse effect associated with the use of most typical and atypical antipsychotic. Aim of this study was to investigate serum prolactin, leptin, cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoproteins, such high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD)-related psychosis during long-term medication with atypical antipsychotic. The study population comprised 40 patients, who were divided into 4 groups: olanzapine (n=10), risperidone (n=10), seroquel (n=10) monotherapy, a group of 10 patients receiving only antiparkinson drugs and a control group of 8 healthy persons. The patients were evaluated at baseline and at the sixth and twelfth week according to the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), body mass index (BMI), and fasting serum prolactin, leptin, lipids and lipoproteins levels. Treatment of patients with olanzapine caused marked increase of serum LDL, cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin levels (p<0,02). No changes in HDL concentrations. There was positive relationship between serum leptin, lipid levels and BMI. However, treatment of patients with seroquel did not cause changes in serum prolactin, leptin, lipids, and lipoproteins levels. Our results suggest that treatment of patients with PD-related psychosis with seroquel appears to have minimal influence on serum leptin, prolactin, lipids, lipoproteins and BMI compared with olanzapine and risperidone. PMID:16761509
Rustembegovic, Avdo; Sofic, Emin; Wichart, Ildiko
In the last few years, new drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia have been introduced in therapy which have noticeably improved the quality of life of many schizophrenic patients. These new "atypical" drugs have chemical, pharmacological and clinical properties which are different from those of the classical neuroleptics. The most used drugs among the "atypical" antipsychotics are clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone. Despite several differences in their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, they show some common properties: e.g. they don't cause extrapyramidal side effects, and they are active against the negative as well as positive symptoms of schizophrenia. The need for clinical monitoring of patients undergoing therapy is still evident because the onset of side effects is often related to high plasma concentrations of the drug. The clinical monitoring of patients can significantly improve the knowledge of pharmacological interactions among different CNS drugs, as well as enhance the compliance of the patients, thus leading to higher treatment efficacy. In order to carry out efficient clinical monitoring, reliable analytical methods are needed to determine the analytes even at very low concentrations and in the presence of other drugs. For this purpose, analytical techniques such as gas or liquid chromatography are often used coupled with sensitive and selective means of detection, such as fluorimetric, electrochemical or mass spectrometry detectors. The most recent studies on the determination of atypical antipsychotics will be reviewed in addition to the issue of sample pretreatment which is a critical step when the analysis of biological fluids is concerned. PMID:12143799
Raggi, M A
Antipsychotic nonadherence is an important barrier to the successful treatment of schizophrenia and can lead to clinical and economic burdens. Interventions capable of significantly improving medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia would be beneficial in maximizing treatment outcomes with antipsychotics. This article reviews recent literature reporting interventions designed to improve antipsychotic adherence in patients with schizophrenia. We searched the Medline, Healthstar, and PsycInfo electronic databases for articles published since 1980 on interventions to improve medication adherence in schizophrenia. Twenty-one studies met our selection criteria. In this review, educational, behavioral, affective, or a combination of these approaches to improve adherence were examined. A total of 23 interventions were tested, as 2 studies investigated more than 1 intervention. While study design and adherence measures varied across the trials reviewed, medication adherence was noted to moderately improve with 15 of the 23 interventions tested. Interventions of a purely educational nature were the least successful at improving antipsychotic adherence. The greatest improvement in adherence was seen with interventions employing combinations of educational, behavioral, and affective strategies with which improvements in adherence were noted in 8 out of 12 studies, with additional secondary gains such as: reduced relapse, decreased hospitalization, decreased psychopathology, improved social function, gains in medication knowledge, and improved insight into the need for treatment. Longer interventions and an alliance with therapists also appeared important for successful outcomes. The continuing development and study of successful interventions to improve medication adherence are necessary to maximize the usefulness of pharmacologic treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:12920416
Dolder, Christian R; Lacro, Jonathan P; Leckband, Susan; Jeste, Dilip V
The use of risperidone for 10 individuals with mental retardation and mental health disturbances was evaluated using a case study approach to delineate the course of substitution of more traditional antipsychotic medications with risperidone. All participants showed improvement or resolution in side effects attributed to previous medication with…
Simon, Elliott W.; And Others
Amisulpride clearly has the clinical profile of an atypical antipsychotic, characterised in particular by its lower propensity to induce extrapyramidal side effects as well as its greater efficacy in treating negative symptoms compared with classical neuroleptics. In addition to the clinical advantages over classical neuroleptics, it has also been demonstrated that the clinical profile of amisulpride is comparable to that
Rationale It is possible that amisulpride, with its unique receptor binding profile, is not associated with significant weight gain, a serious side effect of most “atypical” antipsychotic drugs. While most “atypicals” have a high affinity for both dopamine and serotonin receptors, amisulpride has only dopamine receptor action. Objectives To analyse the weight gain associated with amisulpride. Methods A pooled database
Stefan Leucht; Stefan Wagenpfeil; Johannes Hamann; Werner Kissling
Objective: A substantial gap exists between patients and their mental health providers about patient's perceived barriers, facilitators, and motivators (BFMs) for taking antipsychotic medications. This article describes how we used an intervention mapping (IM) framework coupled with qualitative and quantitative item-selection methods to…
Pyne, Jeffrey M.; Fischer, Ellen P.; Gilmore, LaNissa; McSweeney, Jean C.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Mittal, Dinesh; Bost, James E.; Valenstein, Marcia
Obesity and metabolic syndrome in association with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes are significant problems that contribute to lower life expectancy of patients with schizophrenia. Understanding the pharmacological mechanisms of the current antipsychotic treatment is clearly the key to the improvement of pharmacotherapy, to avoid or to mitigate the metabolic adverse effects.
MIRON, ILEANA CRISTINA; BAROANA, VICTORITA CATALINA; POPESCU, FLORICA; IONICA, FLORIANA
Understanding individual differences in the susceptibility to metabolic side effects as a response to antipsychotic therapy is essential to optimize the treatment of schizophrenia. Here, we perform genomewide association studies (GWAS) to search for genetic variation affecting the susceptibility to metabolic side effects. The analysis sample consisted of 738 schizophrenia patients, successfully genotyped for 492K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), from
D E Adkins; K Åberg; J L McClay; J Bukszár; Z Zhao; P Jia; T S Stroup; D Perkins; J P McEvoy; J A Lieberman; P F Sullivan; E J C G van den Oord
Pharmacological treatments for serious mental illness (SMI) can cause weight gain and adverse metabolic effects. Many second generation antipsychotics and mood stabilizers appear to be particularly problematic in this regard. Several studies have investigated interventions for antipsychotic-induced, or less commonly mood stabilizer -induced, weight gain. Both lifestyle and pharmacological interventions have demonstrated effectiveness. We systematically review randomized controlled trials of pharmacological interventions for weight gain related to these medications. We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials for the most studied agents to estimate mean weight loss: metformin (2.93 kg, 95% C.I. 0.97-4.89, p=0.003), H(2) antagonists (1.78 kg (95% C.I. -0.50-4.06, p=0.13), topiramate (3.95 kg 95% C.I. 1.77-6.12, p=0.0004), and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (1.30 kg (95% C.I. -0.06-2.66, p=0.06). Among the studied options for antipsychotic-related weight gain, metformin has the strongest evidence base and may improve vascular risk factors beyond obesity. The use of topiramate is also supported by the literature and may improve psychotic symptoms in those refractory to treatment. A marginal benefit is seen with norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and any vascular benefits from such weight loss may be counteracted by increases in blood pressure or heart rate. Pharmacological therapies may offer benefits as a means of supplementing the effects of lifestyle changes for weight loss. However, the existing evidence provides little evidence of specificity for pharmacological therapies to antipsychotic-induced weight gain and has not studied any connection between benefits and reduced incidence of diabetes mellitus or any vascular outcomes. PMID:22712004
Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Miller, Del D; Bishop, Jeffrey R; Calarge, Chadi A; Ellingrod, Vicki L; Haynes, William G
Background and Aims: With increasing resources being spent on nutritional supplements, this study sought to evaluate the effect of introducing guidelines on prescribing of supplements, by auditing practice, prior to, and after the implementation of guidelines.Methods: Prescribing practice was evaluated from patient interviews, and knowledge of health professionals examined from questionnaires from 50 GP practices. Training on the use of
M. J. GALL; J. E. HARMER; H. J. WANSTALL
In situ radiosonde measurements were obtained during multiple prescribed fires at the Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center at Ichauway, Georgia in March and July of 2008. Data were obtained from prescribed fires conducted in longleaf pine ecosystems. After significant smoke generation was observed, radiosondes were launched downwind of the fire front and rose directly into the smoke plumes. Radiosondes were also launched before each burn to obtain ambient background conditions. This provided a unique dataset of smoke plume moisture to determine how moisture enhancement from fire smoke alters the dynamics of the smoke plume. Preliminary analysis of results show moisture enhancement occurred in all smoke plumes with relative humidity values increasing by 10 to 30 percent and water vapor mixing ratios increasing by 1 to 4 g kg-1. Understanding the moisture enhancement in prescribed fire smoke plumes will help determine the convective dynamics that occur in major wildland fires and convection columns.
Kiefer, C. M.; Clements, C. B.; Potter, B. E.; Strenfel, S. J.
Preparing medical students to prescribe is a major challenge of undergraduate education. They must develop an understanding of clinical pharmacology and acquire knowledge about drugs and therapeutics, as well as the skills to prescribe for individual patients in the face of multiple variables. The task of delivering the learning required to achieve these attributes relies upon limited numbers of teachers, who have increasingly busy clinical commitments. There is evidence that training is currently insufficient to meet the demands of the workplace. e-Learning provides an opportunity to improve the learning experience. The advantages for teachers are improved distribution of learning content, ease of update, standardization and tracking of learner activities. The advantages for learners are ease of access, greater interactivity and individual choice concerning the pace and mix of learning. Important disadvantages are the considerable resource required to develop e-Learning projects and difficulties in simulating some aspects of the real world prescribing experience. Pre-requisites for developing an e-Learning programme to support prescribing include academic expertise, institutional support, learning technology services and an effective virtual learning environment. e-Learning content might range from complex interactive learning sessions through to static web pages with links. It is now possible to simulate and provide feedback on prescribing decisions and this will improve with advances in virtual reality. Other content might include a student formulary, self-assessment exercises (e.g. calculations), a glossary and an on-line library. There is some evidence for the effectiveness of e-Learning but better research is required into its potential impact on prescribing.
Maxwell, Simon; Mucklow, John
Preparing medical students to prescribe is a major challenge of undergraduate education. They must develop an understanding of clinical pharmacology and acquire knowledge about drugs and therapeutics, as well as the skills to prescribe for individual patients in the face of multiple variables. The task of delivering the learning required to achieve these attributes relies upon limited numbers of teachers, who have increasingly busy clinical commitments. There is evidence that training is currently insufficient to meet the demands of the workplace. e-Learning provides an opportunity to improve the learning experience. The advantages for teachers are improved distribution of learning content, ease of update, standardization and tracking of learner activities. The advantages for learners are ease of access, greater interactivity and individual choice concerning the pace and mix of learning. Important disadvantages are the considerable resource required to develop e-Learning projects and difficulties in simulating some aspects of the real world prescribing experience. Pre-requisites for developing an e-Learning programme to support prescribing include academic expertise, institutional support, learning technology services and an effective virtual learning environment. e-Learning content might range from complex interactive learning sessions through to static web pages with links. It is now possible to simulate and provide feedback on prescribing decisions and this will improve with advances in virtual reality. Other content might include a student formulary, self-assessment exercises (e.g. calculations), a glossary and an on-line library. There is some evidence for the effectiveness of e-Learning but better research is required into its potential impact on prescribing. PMID:22509885
Maxwell, Simon; Mucklow, John
Expenditure on drug therapy in Canada has been growing at a faster rate than spending on any other aspect of health care. Increasing societal pressure to use scarce resources more efficiently, advances in communication technology and data indicating that there is room for improvement in drug prescribing suggest that the time has come for an organized linkage of the available drug-utilization and health-outcomes data-bases across the country. A national prescribing practices network would assist prescribers, researchers and policymakers to optimize prescribing with respect to both cost effectiveness and health outcomes. The authors outline the main concerns addressed in the 1994 report to the National Pharmaceutical Strategy and present the results of discussions by the Canadian Prescribing Practices Network Project with respect to the potential users and data sources of a national network and the communications technology on which it would rely.
Holbrook, A M; MacLeod, S M; Fisher, P; Levine, M A
The delivery of holistic care should incorporate patient empowerment through the promotion of health and self-help measures, including pain relief. In this article, the author, a newly qualified independent prescriber, explains why she believes that encouraging patients to buy over-the-counter medication is morally acceptable and based on the principles of beneficence and non-malevolence. She also reflects on her prescribing decisions in the context of ethics, health economics and personal perspective for four patients with similar injuries. The author works in Wales, where prescriptions are free to residents. PMID:20527454
Background The United States (US) Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 has spurred adoption of electronic health records. The corresponding meaningful use criteria proposed by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services mandates use of computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems. Yet, adoption in the US and other Western countries is low and descriptions of successful implementations are primarily from the inpatient setting; less frequently the ambulatory setting. We describe prescriber and staff perceptions of implementation of a CPOE system for medications (electronic- or e-prescribing system) in the ambulatory setting. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, we conducted eight focus groups at three primary care sites in an independent medical group. Each site represented a unique stage of e-prescribing implementation - pre/transition/post. We used a theoretically based, semi-structured questionnaire to elicit physician (n = 17) and staff (n = 53) perceptions of implementation of the e-prescribing system. We conducted a thematic analysis of focus group discussions using formal qualitative analytic techniques (i.e. deductive framework and grounded theory). Two coders independently coded to theoretical saturation and resolved discrepancies through discussions. Results Ten themes emerged that describe perceptions of e-prescribing implementation: 1) improved availability of clinical information resulted in prescribing efficiencies and more coordinated care; 2) improved documentation resulted in safer care; 3) efficiencies were gained by using fewer paper charts; 4) organizational support facilitated adoption; 5) transition required time; resulted in workload shift to staff; 6) hardware configurations and network stability were important in facilitating workflow; 7) e-prescribing was time-neutral or time-saving; 8) changes in patient interactions enhanced patient care but required education; 9) pharmacy communications were enhanced but required education; 10) positive attitudes facilitated adoption. Conclusions Prescribers and staff worked through the transition to successfully adopt e-prescribing, and noted the benefits. Overall impressions were favorable. No one wished to return to paper-based prescribing.
To examine psychiatric prescribing in response to perinatal/neonatal death, we analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of 235 bereaved parents participating in an online support community. Of the 88 respondents prescribed medication, antidepressants were most common (n = 70, 79.5%) followed by benzodiazepines/sleep aids (n = 18, 20.5%). Many prescriptions were written shortly after the death (32.2% within 48 hr, 43.7% within a week, and 74.7% within a month). Obstetrician/gynecologists wrote most prescriptions given shortly after loss. Most respondents prescribed antidepressants took them long-term. This sample is select, but these data raise disturbing questions about prescribing practices for grieving parents. PMID:24588074
Lacasse, Jeffrey R; Cacciatore, Joanne
We retrospectively reviewed all allegations of inappropriate prescribing investigated by the Oregon Board of Medical Examiners from 1981 through 1986. Inappropriate prescription writing accounted for 51% of all investigations during this period, with controlled drugs, primarily opiates and benzodiazepines, accounting for most complaints. Of 130 physicians investigated, more than half had previous complaints; 50 were ultimately restricted or disciplined by the board. Inappropriate prescribing of controlled drugs is probably underdetected and frequently repeated. Available literature suggests that inappropriate prescribing of other drugs, especially antibiotics, is extremely common, but such problems were rarely identified by the current discovery and review processes of the Oregon board. Inappropriate prescribing will require increased attention from physician educators and licensing boards.
Kofoed, L; Bloom, J D; Williams, M H; Rhyne, C; Resnick, M
Objective: The present study aimed to review the relapse rate in patients with schizophrenia treated with orally taken atypical agents (serotonin dopamine antagonists, SDAs) and depot preparation of conventional (typical) antipsychotics. Methods: In this historical cohort study, mean relapse per month (MRM) index, duration between initiation of antipsychotic treatment and the first relapse episode, and the time gap between successive relapses were compared between 84 patients on SDAs-except clozapine (group 1) and 81 others on depot typical antipsychotics (group 2). Results: The two groups were comparable regarding mean (±SD) MRM index [0.033 (±0.004) in group1 and 0.044 (±0.05) in group 2; p = 0.345]. Mean (±SD) duration of time between initiation of maintenance treatment and the first relapse was 15.5 (±13.67) months in group 1 and 16.40 (±15.31) months in group 2, (p = 0.876). Mean (±SD) duration of remission periods between successive relapses were 17.92 (±14.2) and 15.8 (±16.9) months for group 1 and group 2, respectively (Mann-Whitney test, (p = 0.048). Conclusion: Orally taken atypical antipsychotics were able to keep the duration of remission periods between successive relapses more prolonged compared to depot conventional preparations. This could be added to their other remarkable benefits especially if the patient is expected to experience multiple relapses. Declaration of interest: None. PMID:24995032
Ahmadkhaniha, Hamid-Reza; Bani-Hashem, Shahab; Ahmadzad-Asl, Masoud
Objective: The present study aimed to review the relapse rate in patients with schizophrenia treated with orally taken atypical agents (serotonin dopamine antagonists, SDAs) and depot preparation of conventional (typical) antipsychotics. Methods: In this historical cohort study, mean relapse per month (MRM) index, duration between initiation of antipsychotic treatment and the first relapse episode, and the time gap between successive relapses were compared between 84 patients on SDAs-except clozapine (group 1) and 81 others on depot typical antipsychotics (group 2). Results: The two groups were comparable regarding mean (±SD) MRM index [0.033 (±0.004) in group1 and 0.044 (±0.05) in group 2; p = 0.345]. Mean (±SD) duration of time between initiation of maintenance treatment and the first relapse was 15.5 (±13.67) months in group 1 and 16.40 (±15.31) months in group 2, (p = 0.876). Mean (±SD) duration of remission periods between successive relapses were 17.92 (±14.2) and 15.8 (±16.9) months for group 1 and group 2, respectively (Mann-Whitney test, (p = 0.048). Conclusion: Orally taken atypical antipsychotics were able to keep the duration of remission periods between successive relapses more prolonged compared to depot conventional preparations. This could be added to their other remarkable benefits especially if the patient is expected to experience multiple relapses. Declaration of interest: None.
Ahmadkhaniha, Hamid-Reza; Bani-Hashem, Shahab; Ahmadzad-Asl, Masoud
Moving from a paper-based prescribing system to a system in which physicians prescribe directly into computers represents an important but challenging transition. This article addresses 5 issues related to computerised prescribing. The first issue is that paper-based prescribing systems do not work. Rates of errors and inappropriate prescriptions are unacceptably high. Using computers to structure and check prescriptions holds great
Gordon Schiff; David W. Bates
Background Inappropriate prescribing of primarily renally cleared medications in older patients with kidney disease can lead to adverse outcomes. Objectives To estimate the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing of 21 primarily renally cleared medications based on 2 separate estimates of renal function and to identify factors associated with this form of suboptimal prescribing in older VA nursing home (NH) patients. Design Longitudinal study Participants Participants were 1304 patients, aged 65 years or older, admitted between January 1, 2004, and June 30, 2005, for 90 days or more to 1 of 133 VA NHs. Main Measures Potentially inappropriate prescribing of primarily renally cleared medications determined by estimating creatinine clearance using the Cock-croft Gault (CG) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations and applying explicit guidelines for contraindicated medications and dosing. Key Results The median estimated creatinine clearance via CG was 67 mL/min, whereas it was 80 mL/min/1.73m2 with the MDRD. Overall, 11.89% patients via CG and only 5.98% via MDRD had evidence of potentially inappropriate prescribing of at least 1 renally cleared medication. The most commonly involved medications were ranitidine, glyburide, gabapentin, and nitrofurantoin. Factors associated with potentially inappropriate prescribing as per the CG were age older than 85 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.42–7.43), obesity (AOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14–0.50) and having multiple comorbidities (AOR 1.09 for each unit increase in the Charlson comorbidity index, 95% CI 1.01–1.19). Conclusions Potentially inappropriate prescribing of renally cleared medications is common in older VA NH patients. Intervention studies to improve the prescribing of primarily renally cleared medications in nursing homes are needed.
Hanlon, Joseph T.; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Handler, Steven M.; Weisbord, Steven; Pugh, Mary Jo; Semla, Todd; Stone, Roslyn A.; Aspinall, Sherrie L.
Risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) is the first depot preparation of the so-called atypical antipsychotics. Efficacy is well established but effectiveness and factors predicting favourable outcome have only tentatively been evaluated. Our aim was to evaluate naturalistic outcome in patients given RLAI in normal clinical practice and to uncover factors predicting favourable outcome. Prescribers provided details of all patients prescribed RLAI on starting treatment and fortnightly thereafter. Patients were followed up for 6 months or until RLAI was discontinued. Main outcome measures were continuation with RLAI at 6 months and improvement in Clinical Global Impression (CGI) score. These outcomes were compared with clinical and patient data. Of 250 patients starting RLAI, 118 (47.2%) were still receiving it at 6 months. Patients were more likely to continue treatment with RLAI to 6 months if older than 55 yr [odds ratio (OR) 3.13, 95% CI 1.32-7.40, p=0.006] and if receiving a dose of >25 mg/2 wk RLAI (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.40-3.99, p<0.001). An improvement of one point on the CGI scale (first vs. last assessment) was more likely in those prescribed RLAI because of poor prior adherence (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.35-3.86, p=0.002) and less likely in those who had previously been prescribed clozapine (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.14-0.61, p=0.001). Overall outcome of RLAI treatment is moderately good but better still when prescribed because of prior poor adherence and for more elderly patients. RLAI is less suitable for those who have previously received clozapine. PMID:16939663
Taylor, David M; Young, Corina; Patel, Maxine X
The effects of individually prescribed instruction (IPI) in reading as compared to the traditional mode of instruction are examined. The IPI model includes four components: analysis of subject matter content, diagnosis of student preinstructional behavior, sequencing of materials to facilitate learning, and evaluation strategies. Elementary…
DeRenzis, Joseph J.
Freeform lenses are playing a more and more important role in LED secondary optics design. In this study, based on the new light energy mapping relationship, edge ray principle, Snell's law and error control of surface construction, a modified discontinuous freeform lens design method was presented for rectangularly prescribed illumination, with the advantages of a flexible energy mapping relationship, accurate
Kai Wang; Sheng Liu; Fei Chen; Zong Qin; Zongyuan Liu; Xiaobing Luo
This paper compares the methods for prescribing exercise according to various contemporary authorities. The programs are compared as to their goals, the testing modalities and physiological parameters used for prescription of the initial training session, and the methods and the progression of training. Regarding goals, there is a general…
Hultgren, Philip B.; Burke, Edmund J., Jr.
This document contains 59 individually prescribed instructional modules for use in teacher aide education programs. Each module has six sections: 1) Behavioral objectives, 2) purpose, 3) performance criteria, 4) experiences, 5) resources, and 6) taxonomy. The subjects covered include the use of instructional equipment such as language master,…
Livingston Univ., AL. Coll. of Education.
An earlier report on the progress of Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) is brought up to date with summaries of known materials dealing with several aspects of IPI. Part 1 of the report provides a general description and findings of IPI to date. Part 2 provides specific subject description and reviews in abstract format and formative and…
Research for Better Schools, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.
This study investigated the effectiveness of an observational technique developed to study characteristics of the Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) system and the extent to which IPI adapts to individual student differences. Subjects for the study were students from a second grade IPI classroom of an inner-city public elementary school.…
Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI), like other reading programs, does work, but only for certain teachers and with certain youngsters. On the positive side, IPI sets up a series of steps that allow the teacher to know where the child is and in what direction he is going. It enables the teacher to know his subject matter well, and enables…
Outcome comparisons by prescribable treatment options. Mortality and morbidity of hemodialysis patients results from a number of factors, some of which are potentially under the control of the nephrologist. Dialysis dose is the most important of these factors, but other comorbid factors have been identified. These include attainment of appropriate hemoglobin concentrations, good nutrition, control of calcium and phosphorus metabolism,
Nathan W. Levin
Electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) is an important part of the nation's push to enhance the safety and quality of the prescribing process. E-prescribing allows providers in the ambulatory care setting to send prescriptions electronically to the pharmacy and can be a stand-alone system or part of an integrated electronic health record system. The methodology for this study followed the basic principles of a systematic review. A total of 47 sources were referenced. Results of this research study suggest that e-prescribing reduces prescribing errors, increases efficiency, and helps to save on healthcare costs. Medication errors have been reduced to as little as a seventh of their previous level, and cost savings due to improved patient outcomes and decreased patient visits are estimated to be between $140 billion and $240 billion over 10 years for practices that implement e-prescribing. However, there have been significant barriers to implementation including cost, lack of provider support, patient privacy, system errors, and legal issues.
Porterfield, Amber; Engelbert, Kate; Coustasse, Alberto
A 10-year hospital admissions database had demonstrated a steep decline in the prescribing of chlorpropamide, and to a lesser degree, of glibenclamide, with tolbutamide, metformin and the most recently introduced oral hypoglycaemic, gliclazide, maintaining relatively uniform levels. Glipizide was the most popular emerging agent. Interviews with 20 general practitioners (GPs) revealed that 55% had a definite first choice agent with a priority order of gliclazide, tolbutamide and glibenclamide. For the remaining GPs without a sole preference, gliclazide (30%), glipizide (30%) and glibenclamide (20%) featured as their most commonly prescribed agents. PMID:8933298
Trewin, V F; Lawrence, C J; Veitch, G B; Pearce, V
Background The increased application of eServices in health care, in general, and ePrescribing (electronic prescribing) in particular, have brought quality and interoperability to the forefront. The application of standards has been put forward as one important factor in improving interoperability. However, less focus has been placed on other factors, such as stakeholders’ involvement and the measurement of interoperability. An information system (IS) can be regarded to comprise an instrument for technology-mediated work communication. In this study, interoperability refers to the interoperation in the ePrescribing process, involving people, systems, procedures and organizations. We have focused on the quality of the ePrescription message as one component of the interoperation in the ePrescribing process. Objective The objective was to analyze how combined efforts in improving interoperability with the introduction of the new national ePrescription format (NEF) have impacted interoperability in the ePrescribing process in Sweden, with the focus on the quality of the ePrescription message. Methods Consecutive sampling of electronic prescriptions in Sweden before and after the introduction of NEF was undertaken in April 2008 (pre-NEF) and April 2009 (post-NEF). Interoperability problems were identified and classified based on message format specifications and prescription rules. Results The introduction of NEF improved the interoperability of ePrescriptions substantially. In the pre-NEF sample, a total of 98.6% of the prescriptions had errors. In the post-NEF sample, only 0.9% of the prescriptions had errors. The mean number of errors was fewer for the erroneous prescriptions: 4.8 in pre-NEF compared to 1.0 in post-NEF. Conclusions We conclude that a systematic comprehensive work on interoperability, covering technical, semantical, professional, judicial and process aspects, involving the stakeholders, resulted in an improved interoperability of ePrescriptions.
Astrand, Bengt; Petersson, Goran
Aim To investigate the sodium composition of maintenance intravenous fluids used by paediatric residents throughout the United States in common clinical scenarios of arginine vasopressin excess. Methods We distributed an online survey to paediatric residency programs asking what type of maintenance intravenous fluids (0.2%, 0.45%, 0.9% NaCl or Lactated Ringers) they would administer in four common clinical scenarios of arginine vasopressin excess (gastroenteritis, pneumonia, meningitis and post-operative) in both a 6-month-old (mo) and a 13-year-old (yo) child. Results We had 472 responses, representing 5% of the total paediatric residency population in the US. Hypotonic maintenance intravenous fluids were selected in 78% of children (88.2% of 6 mo and 68.5% of 13 yo). Isotonic maintenance intravenous fluids were selected approximately twice as often for patients with meningitis as for those without (21.4% vs 8.7% 6 mo and 42.8% vs 27.7% 13 yo; p <.0.001). Conclusions The majority of US paediatric residents would prescribe hypotonic maintenance intravenous fluids in disease states associated with arginine vasopressin excess. However, a significant number of residents are using isotonic maintenance intravenous fluids. Isotonic fluids are more likely to be prescribed in older children and children with meningitis.
Freeman, Michael A; Ayus, Juan C; Moritz, Michael L
Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups worldwide. It may be classified as mild/moderate or severe, the latter usually requiring hospitalisation. Although, there are many studies reported in relation to CAP, there is relatively little known about the treatment of CAP and its antibiotic use in Mongolia. The study aim was to evaluate prescribing practices for the treatment of mild/moderate CAP in Mongolia with respect to national prescribing guidelines. Methods Written prescriptions with a written diagnosis of CAP included were collected prospectively and sequentially for ten weeks from a purposefully selected sample of community pharmacies in rural and urban areas of Mongolia. The data collected included the patient’s age, gender, medication details, frequency and number of doses prescribed. Evaluation was with respect to the Mongolian Standard Treatment Guidelines (2005, 2008). Statistical differences between groups were tested using the Chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests. Results Prescriptions were collected from 22 pharmacies and represented the prescribing practices of 118 doctors. The study enrolled 394 (193 adults and 201 children) patients, with a median age for children of 2.0 years (range: 0.03-12) and adults of 33.0 years (range: 13–92). The most commonly prescribed drugs were aminopenicillins, vitamins, and mucolytics, with the median number of drugs being three per prescription. Inappropriate drug selection was similar for adults (57.7%) and children (56.6%), and the major reason for an overall frequency of inappropriate prescribing for adults was 89.0% and for children 78.0%. Doctors in urban areas prescribed more inappropriate drugs than those in rural areas for both children and adults, p = .0014. The proportion of prescribed injections was 28.4% for adults and 9.0% for children, and for adults was significantly higher in urban areas. The prescribing standard for non-hospitalized patients in Mongolia states that injections should not be prescribed. Conclusions The high level of inappropriate prescribing for mild/moderate CAP highlights the need to develop comprehensive and reliable procedures nationwide to improve prescribing practices in Mongolia.
Objective To review the literature on educational interventions to improve prescribing and identify educational methods that improve prescribing competency in both medical and non-medical prescribers. Design A systematic review was conducted. The databases Medline, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA), EMBASE and CINAHL were searched for articles in English published between January 1990 and July 2013. Setting Primary and secondary care. Participants Medical and non-medical prescribers. Intervention Education-based interventions to aid improvement in prescribing competency. Primary outcome Improvements in prescribing competency (knows how) or performance (shows how) as defined by Miller's competency model. This was primarily demonstrated through prescribing examinations, changes in prescribing habits or adherence to guidelines. Results A total of 47 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Studies were categorised by their method of assessment, with 20 studies assessing prescribing competence and 27 assessing prescribing performance. A wide variety of educational interventions were employed, with different outcome measures and methods of assessments. In particular, six studies demonstrated that specific prescribing training using the WHO Guide to Good Prescribing increased prescribing competency in a wide variety of settings. Continuing medical education in the form of academic detailing and personalised prescriber feedback also yielded positive results. Only four studies evaluated educational interventions targeted at non-medical prescribers, highlighting that further research is needed in this area. Conclusions A broad range of educational interventions have been conducted to improve prescribing competency. The WHO Guide to Good Prescribing has the largest body of evidence to support its use and is a promising model for the design of targeted prescribing courses. There is a need for further development and evaluation of educational methods for non-medical prescribers.
Kamarudin, Gritta; Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Moles, Rebekah
It is one of the major psychiatric dogmas that the efficacy of all antipsychotic drugs is same. This statement originated from old, narrative reviews on first-generation antipsychotics, but this old literature has never been meta-analysed. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials on the efficacy of chlorpromazine versus any other antipsychotic in the treatment of schizophrenia. If the benchmark drug chlorpromazine were significantly more or less effective than other antipsychotics, the notion of equal efficacy would have to be rejected. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group?s specialized register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychInfo and reference lists of relevant articles. The primary outcome was response to treatment. We also analyzed mean values of schizophrenia rating scales at endpoint and drop-out rates. 128, mostly small, RCTs with 10667 participants were included. Chlorpromazine was compared with 43 other antipsychotics and was more efficacious than four (butaperazine, mepazine, oxypertine and reserpine) and less efficacious than other four antipsychotics (clomacran, clozapine, olanzapine and zotepine) in the primary outcome. There were no statistically significant efficacy differences between chlorpromazine and the remaining 28 antipsychotics. The most important finding was that, due to low numbers of participants (median 50, range 8-692), most comparisons were underpowered. Thus we infer that the old antipsychotic drug literature was inconclusive and the claim for equal efficacy of antipsychotics was never evidence-based. Recent meta-analyses on second-generation antipsychotics were in a better position to address this question and small, but consistent differences between drugs were found. PMID:24766970
Samara, Myrto T; Cao, Haoyin; Helfer, Bartosz; Davis, John M; Leucht, Stefan
Whether atypical antipsychotics (AAs) can enhance smoking reduction in schizophrenic patients remains controversial because of methodological limitations in existing studies. This study explored whether certain types of antipsychotics predict smoking reduction in schizophrenic patients. Three hundred eight smoking, predominantly male schizophrenic patients (271/308 [88.9%]) participated in an 8-week open-label study with antismoking medications (high-dose, low-dose nicotine transdermal patch and bupropion). Antipsychotics were classified into (1) typical antipsychotics (TAs) and (2) AAs, including multiacting receptor-targeted antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, and quetiapine), serotonin-dopamine antagonists (risperidone), D2/D3 receptor antagonists (amisulpride), and partial dopamine receptor agonists (aripiprazole). A general linear model was used to explore whether types of antipsychotic predict changes in the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and the score of the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) while controlling for confounding factors. The type of antipsychotic (TAs or AAs) was not significantly associated with smoking cessation (n = 21; ? = 1.8; df = 4; P = 0.77). Regarding smoking reduction, the type of antipsychotic was significantly predictive of a change in the CPD (P = 0.027; partial eta square = 0.055) and FTND scores (P = 0.002; partial eta square = 0.073). The 95% confidence intervals of the estimated means of change in the CPD and FTND scores did not contain zero only among subjects on TAs or clozapine.These findings suggest that TAs and clozapine enhance smoking reduction compared with nonclozapine atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenic patients. The mechanisms underlying the effects of various antipsychotics on smoking reduction remain unclear and warrant future study. PMID:23609378
Wu, Bo-Jian; Chen, Hsing-Kang; Lee, Shin-Min
Synopsis Drug-induced movement disorders have dramatically declined with the widespread use of second generation antipsychotics but remain important in clinical practice and for understanding antipsychotic pharmacology. The diagnosis and management of dystonia, parkinsonism, akathisia, catatonia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and tardive dyskinesia are reviewed in relation to the decreased liability of the second generation antipsychotics contrasted with evidence from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Schizophrenia Trial. Data from the CATIE trial imply that advantages of second generation antipsychotics in significantly reducing extrapyramidal side effects compared with haloperidol may be diminished when compared with modest doses of lower-potency first generation drugs, that the dichotomy between first and second generation drugs may be oversimplified, and that antipsychotics could be conceptualized as a single drug class with a spectrum of risk for movement disorders depending upon receptor binding affinities and individual patient susceptibility.
Caroff, Stanley N.; Hurford, Irene; Lybrand, Janice; Campbell, E. Cabrina
We developed a systematic approach to assess the presence, severity, and management of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in patients treated with antipsychotics. Patients were evaluated by the Modified Simpson-Angus scale, Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale, and Dyskinesia Identification System: Condensed User Scale. We completed 235 sets of evaluations in 83 patients. A pharmaceutical intervention was proposed in 54% (130) of evaluations, of which 82% (107) were accepted and followed. In 93% (99) evaluations in which a recommendation was followed, clinical outcome was positive. The most common intervention was reducing the dosage or discontinuing the antidyskinetic agent, most often an anticholinergic (55% of cases). Our results show that detailed monitoring of EPS in a clinical pharmacist-operated clinic promotes rational drug therapy, limits unnecessary drugs, and improves clinical outcome of patients with EPS. PMID:10809346
Stoner, S C; Worrel, J A; Jones, M T; Farrar, C A; Ramlatchman, L V
The study aims were: 1) to test the interoperability of the initial standards with the proposed foundation standards; 2) to study the effects of ePrescribing (computerized physician order entry (CPOE) with electronic transmission) on patient safety and 3)...
J. M. Rothschild
Ever since clozapine was first synthesized and tested, it showed the unique property of having antipsychotic action but no Parkinson-like motor side effects. The antipsychotic basis of clozapine is to transiently occupy dopamine D2 receptors in the human striatum, in contrast to haloperidol and chlorpromazine, which have a prolonged occupation of D2 receptors. The chemical structure of clozapine facilitates a relatively rapid dissociation from D2 receptors. After short-term occupation of D2 receptors, peak neural activity raises synaptic dopamine, which then displaces clozapine. While clozapine also occupies other types of receptors, they may not have a significant role in preventing parkinsonism. Clozapine's transient occupation of D2 receptors permits patients to move easily and comfortably. PMID:24219174
In the field of schizophrenia research, as in other areas of psychiatry, there is a sense of frustration that greater advances have not been made over the years, calling into question existing research strategies. Arguably, many purported gains claimed by research have been “lost in translation,” resulting in limited impact on diagnosis and treatment in the clinical setting. There are exceptions; for example, we would argue that different lines of preclinical and clinical research have substantially altered how we look at antipsychotic dosing. While this story remains a work in progress, advances “found in translation” have played an important role. Detailing these changes, the present paper speaks to a body of evidence that has already shifted clinical practice and raises questions that may further alter the manner in which antipsychotics have been administered over the last 6 decades.
Remington, Gary; Fervaha, Gagan; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Turrone, Peter
In 2003, the New York State Office of Mental Health initiated a program aimed at supporting patient recovery by simplifying antipsychotic regimens. A key component of the program, which has been essential in supporting physician autonomy, was the introduction of a software program, Psychiatric Clinical Knowledge Enhancement System, termed "PSYCKES." This software program enables physicians to visualize at a glance the medication history of each of their patients as well as of their colleagues' patients, as a way of making better-informed decisions. The fiscal impact, in the direction of a significant reduction in antipsychotic polypharmacy, was not lost on policy-makers, who have included $1.3 million in the current state budget for the dissemination of this program. PMID:17522566
Tucker, William M
A series of 1-(quinoliloxypropyl)-4-aryl-piperazines has been synthesized and the target compounds evaluated for atypical antipsychotic activity in apomorphine induced mesh climbing and stereotypic behaviour in mice. The 8-hydroxyquinoline ether derivative 14 has emerged as an important lead compound showing a potential atypical antipsychotic profile. Employing appropriate physicochemical properties, the similarity of the compounds was assessed with respect to some atypical antipsychotic drugs as clozapine, ketanserine, ziprasidone and risperidone. PMID:19398330
Bali, Alka; Malhotra, Sarika; Dhir, Himjyoti; Kumar, Anil; Sharma, Ajay
It has been argued that the efficacy superiority found in meta-analyses for some of the atypical antipsychotics is an artifact of higher dropout rates due to side effects in the haloperidol group combined with last-observation- carried-forward (LOCF) analyses. We therefore reana- lyzedanumberofpivotalstudiescomparingnewgeneration antipsychotics (NGAs) and conventional antipsychotics (CAs). A total of 5 studies (n = 1271) comparing amisulpr- ide and3studies
Stefan Leucht; Rolf R. Engel; Josef Bauml; John M. Davis
Two case examples and a review of the sleep literature illustrate the potential of antipsychotic medication to trigger sleepwalking episodes in the context of schizophrenia. Causative hypotheses are briefly reviewed, as well as risk factors, differential diagnosis, and management. Sleepwalking may contribute to delusions, aggression, and accidental suicide. It is important to investigate sleep disorders in schizophrenia. They are not rare and may contribute to behavior that increases the stigma and isolation of individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:20734137
Seeman, Mary V
Impaired brain connectivity is a hallmark of schizophrenia brain dysfunction. However, the effect of drug treatment and challenges on the dysconnectivity of functional networks in schizophrenia is an understudied area. In this review, we provide an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies examining dysconnectivity in schizophrenia and discuss the few studies which have also attempted to probe connectivity changes with antipsychotic drug treatment. We conclude with a discussion of possible avenues for further investigation. PMID:23449679
Nejad, Ayna B; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Glenthøj, Birte Y; Siebner, Hartwig R
A high dose of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis) component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and\\/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models
A. W. Zuardi; J. A. S. Crippa; J. E. C. Hallak; F. A. Moreira; F. S. Guimarães
Background:Second generation antipsychotics (SGA) induce substantial weight gain but the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain speculative.Objective:To explore eating behaviors among SGA-treated patients and compare them with nonschizophrenic healthy sedentary individuals (controls).Methods and Procedures:Appetite sensations were recorded before and after a standardized breakfast using visual analog scales. Three hours after breakfast, a buffet-type meal was offered to participants to document
Mélissa Blouin; Angelo Tremblay; Marie-Eve Jalbert; Hélène Venables; Roch-Hugo Bouchard; Marc-André Roy; Natalie Alméras
Patients with schizophrenia are at increased risk for developing the metabolic syndrome or its individual components due to\\u000a their lifestyle, suspected genetic predisposition, and exposure to antipsychotic medications that can cause weight gain and\\u000a other metabolic side effects. Despite the availability of clinical guidelines, screening for and monitoring of metabolic problems\\u000a in this patient population continue to be suboptimal. We
Mehrul Hasnain; Sonja K. Fredrickson; W. Victor R. Vieweg; Anand K. Pandurangi
Functional selectivity is the term that describes drugs that cause markedly different signaling through a single receptor (e.g., full agonist at one pathway and antagonist at a second). It has been widely recognized recently that this phenomenon impacts the understanding of mechanism of action of some drugs, and has relevance to drug discovery. One of the clinical areas where this mechanism has particular importance is in the treatment of schizophrenia. Antipsychotic drugs have been grouped according to both pattern of clinical action and mechanism of action. The original antipsychotic drugs such as chlorpromazine and haloperidol have been called typical or first generation. They cause both antipsychotic actions and many side effects (extrapyramidal and endocrine) that are ascribed to their high affinity dopamine D2 receptor antagonism. Drugs such as clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone and others were then developed that avoided the neurological side effects (atypical or second generation antipsychotics). These compounds are divided mechanistically into those that are high affinity D2 and 5-HT2A antagonists, and those that also bind with modest affinity to D2, 5-HT2A, and many other neuroreceptors. There is one approved third generation drug, aripiprazole, whose actions have been ascribed alternately to either D2 partial agonism or D2 functional selectivity. Although partial agonism has been the more widely accepted mechanism, the available data are inconsistent with this mechanism. Conversely, the D2 functional selectivity hypothesis can accommodate all current data for aripiprazole, and also impacts on discovery compounds that are not pure D2 antagonists.
Mailman, Richard B.; Murthy, Vishakantha
Background: Atypical antipsychotics are widely used for psychosis and aggression in AD patients but their benefits are uncertain and safety is of concern. We assessed their effectiveness in AD outpatients. Methods: 421 AD outpatients with psychosis, aggression, or agitation were randomly assigned to olanzapine (mean, 5.5 mg\\/d), quetiapine (56.5 mg\\/d), risperidone (1.0 mg\\/d), or placebo with doses adjusted as needed
Lon S. Schneider; Pierre N. Tariot; Karen S. Dagerman; Sonia M. Davis; John K. Hsiao; M. Saleem Ismail; Barry D. Lebowitz; Constantine G. Lyketsos; J. Michael Ryan; T. Scott Stroup; David L. Sultzer; Daniel Weintraub; Jeffrey A. Lieberman
The effects of cannabidiol (CBD) were compared to those produced by haloperidol in rats submitted to experimental models predictive of antipsychotic activity. Several doses of CBD (15–480 mg\\/kg) and haloperidol (0.062–1.0 mg\\/kg) were tested in each model. First, CBD increased the effective doses 50% (or) ED50 of apomorphine for induction of the sniffing and biting stereotyped behaviors. In addition, both
A. W. Zuardi; J. Antunes Rodrigues; J. M. Cunha
\\u000a Long-acting injectable antipsychotic medication or depots are an important element in the treatment of schizophrenia. Before\\u000a assessing the pros and cons of such treatment and determining whether it has a significant impact on outcome over and above\\u000a oral medication, it may be useful to consider where the idea of depot injections came from. There is surely a history behind\\u000a this
Anthony S. David; Ayana Gibbs; Maxine X. Patel
Methods We calculated the adjusted incidence of sudden cardiac death among current users of antipsychotic drugs in a retrospective cohort study of Medicaid enrollees in Ten- nessee. The primary analysis included 44,218 and 46,089 baseline users of single typical and atypical drugs, respectively, and 186,600 matched nonusers of antipsy- chotic drugs. To assess residual confounding related to factors associated with
Wayne A. Ray; Cecilia P. Chung; Katherine T. Murray; C. Michael Stein
We aimed at studying the acute cardiotoxicity of the most commonly used antipsychotics in Egypt using QTc interval and NT-proBNP\\u000a as markers for the early detection of such cases. Eighty-two admitted patients, at El-Minia PCC (period from 1-7-2005 to 30-6-2010),\\u000a were classified into 3 groups: I: acute thioridazine overdose (n = 28), II: acute pimozide overdose (n = 23), and III: acute clozapine overdose
Mohamed A. M. Khalaf; Tarek M. AbdelRahman; Mohamed F. Abbas
An increasing number of reports suggest a link between venous thromboembolism (VTE) and the use of antipsychotics. To better understand this association the available body of evidence has been critically scrutinised. Relevant articles were identified in the databases Scopus and PubMed. Several observational studies using different methodologies show an increased risk of VTE in psychiatric patients. This elevated risk seems to be related to the use of antipsychotic medication and in particular to the use of clozapine and low-potency first-generation drugs. Many studies investigating the association have, however, methodological limitations. The biological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this possible adverse reaction are largely unknown but several hypotheses have been suggested such as drug-induced sedation, obesity, increased levels of antiphospholipid antibodies, enhanced platelet aggregation, hyperhomocysteinemia and hyperprolactinemia. The association may also be related to underlying risk factors present in psychotic patients. Physicians need to be aware of this possible adverse drug reaction. Although supporting evidence has not been published they should consider discontinuing or switching the antipsychotic treatment in patients experiencing VTE. In addition, although data is lacking, the threshold for considering prophylactic antithrombotic treatment should be low when risk situations for VTE arise, such as immobilisation, surgery and so on. PMID:19569978
Hägg, Staffan; Jönsson, Anna K; Spigset, Olav
Lower fluctuation, i.e., lower peak-to-trough plasma-concentration variation at steady-state pharmacokinetics, has several advantages for the treatment of schizophrenia with antipsychotics. The reduction of peak concentration can decrease the risk of dose-dependent side effects, such as extrapyramidal symptom and somnolence, and by contrast the increase in trough concentration can decrease the incidence of lack of efficacy due to subtherapeutic drug concentration. Using a one-compartment simulation technique with pharmacokinetic parameters of each atypical antipsychotic collected from package inserts, the fluctuation index was calculated. Among the antipsychotics, the indices varied from 0.018 to 1.9, depending on dosing regimens, formulations and several pharmacokinetic properties. The order of simulated fluctuation index is active-moiety aripiprazole (b.i.d.) Aoki, Kazuo; Sakiyama, Yojiro; Ohnishi, Takashi; Sugita, Makoto 2013-01-01
Aoki, Kazuo; Sakiyama, Yojiro; Ohnishi, Takashi; Sugita, Makoto
Lower fluctuation, i.e., lower peak-to-trough plasma-concentration variation at steady-state pharmacokinetics, has several advantages for the treatment of schizophrenia with antipsychotics. The reduction of peak concentration can decrease the risk of dose-dependent side effects, such as extrapyramidal symptom and somnolence, and by contrast the increase in trough concentration can decrease the incidence of lack of efficacy due to subtherapeutic drug concentration. Using a one-compartment simulation technique with pharmacokinetic parameters of each atypical antipsychotic collected from package inserts, the fluctuation index was calculated. Among the antipsychotics, the indices varied from 0.018 to 1.9, depending on dosing regimens, formulations and several pharmacokinetic properties. The order of simulated fluctuation index is active-moiety aripiprazole (b.i.d.) Wakamatsu, Akihide; Aoki, Kazuo; Sakiyama, Yojiro; Ohnishi, Takashi; Sugita, Makoto 2013-03-01
Wakamatsu, Akihide; Aoki, Kazuo; Sakiyama, Yojiro; Ohnishi, Takashi; Sugita, Makoto
Since the development of federal standards for drug approval, the practice of medicine has historically involved the compounding of medications based on a physician's determination that a US FDA-approved product either did not exist, or could not be used for medical reasons. Today, prescriptions for non-FDA-approved compounded drugs may be driven by fanciful and largely unregulated pharmacy advertisements to physicians and patients and/or payer reimbursement policies, thus placing prescribers in the backseat for clinical decision making. This article outlines essential differences between FDA-approved drugs and compounded drugs and reasserts the primary medical role of physicians for determining what medical circumstances may necessitate treatment with non-FDA-approved products. In addition, liability concerns when prescribing non-FDA-approved drugs are discussed. While representing a US perspective, underlying principles apply globally in the setting of magistral and extemporaneous formulations produced outside national regulatory frameworks. PMID:23039281
Sellers, Sarah; Utian, Wulf H
Objectives The aim of the study was to determine the rate of Potentially Inappropriate Medicines (PIM) and Potential Prescription Omissions (PPO) according to Screening Tool of Older Person's potentially inappropriate Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to the Right Treatment (STOPP/START) criteria. Study Design A cross-sectional survey in community pharmacy. Method A prospective cross-sectional study was performed, during March-May 2012, in five community pharmacies. Patients aged ?65 years, who collected one or more prescribed medications, were asked to participate in the study, and an interview was scheduled. Patients were asked to provide their complete medical and biochemical record from their general practitioner. Results 509 patients, mean age 74.8±6.5 years, 57.4% female, participated in the study. 164 PIM were identified in 139 patients (27.3%). The most common were: long-term use of long-acting benzodiazepines (20.7%), use of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) in patients with moderate-severe hypertension (20.1%), use of theophylline as monotherapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, 15.9%) and use of aspirin without appropriate indication (15.2%). Patients with more than four prescpritions had a higher risk for PIM (OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.97–4.14, p<0.001). There were 439 PPO, identified in 257, (50.5%) patients. Predictors for PPO were older age, presence of diabetes, myocardial infarction, osteoporosis, stroke, COPD and/or angina pectoris. Conclusion STOPP/START criteria may be useful in identifying inappropriate prescribing and improving the current prescribing practices. Pharmacists should focus more on patients with more than four medications and/or patients with gout or pain accompanied with arterial hypertension because those patient may be at higher risk of PIM. Additionlly, patients older than 74 years with diabetes, osteoporosis, myocardial infarction, stroke, angina pectoris and/or COPD may have an increased risk of PPO.
Vezmar Kovacevic, Sandra; Simisic, Mika; Stojkov Rudinski, Svetlana; Culafic, Milica; Vucicevic, Katarina; Prostran, Milica; Miljkovic, Branislava
Despite the proliferation of polymer\\/inorganic nanocomposites in academic research and the commercialization of tens of products based on such materials, their true potential still remains largely untapped. One of the major hurdles in this endeavor is to capitalize on the novel properties afforded by a true--'nano'morphology, i.e., beyond simple nanoparticulate dispersions and towards prescribed filler\\/phase arrangements and tailored filler--polymer interfaces.
E. Manias; M. J. Heidecker; J. Zhang; G. Polizos
Exercise prescription for patients with diabetes follows guidelines regarding frequency, intensity, duration, and mode of\\u000a exercise established for patients participating in a medically supervised exercise program. Physicians and health care professionals\\u000a should devise an exercise care plan that maximizes the benefits and minimizes the risks for each patient. The distinction\\u000a between prescribing exercise for patients with T1DM and patients with
Dalynn T. Badenhop
Electronic prescribing has improved the quality and safety of care. One barrier preventing widespread adoption is the potential detrimental impact on workflow. We used time-motion techniques to compare prescribing times at three ambulatory care sites that used paper-based prescribing, desktop, or laptop e-prescribing. An observer timed all prescriber (n = 27) and staff (n = 42) tasks performed during a 4-hour period. At the sites with optional e-prescribing >75% of prescription-related events were performed electronically. Prescribers at e-prescribing sites spent less time writing, but time-savings were offset by increased computer tasks. After adjusting for site, prescriber and prescription type, e-prescribing tasks took marginally longer than hand written prescriptions (12.0 seconds; -1.6, 25.6 CI). Nursing staff at the e-prescribing sites spent longer on computer tasks (5.4 minutes/hour; 0.0, 10.7 CI). E-prescribing was not associated with an increase in combined computer and writing time for prescribers. If carefully implemented, e-prescribing will not greatly disrupt workflow. PMID:17712088
Hollingworth, William; Devine, Emily Beth; Hansen, Ryan N; Lawless, Nathan M; Comstock, Bryan A; Wilson-Norton, Jennifer L; Tharp, Kathleen L; Sullivan, Sean D
Electronic medical records provide potential benefits and also drawbacks. Potential benefits include increased patient safety and efficiency. Potential drawbacks include newly introduced errors and diminished workflow efficiency. In the patient safety context, medication errors account for significant patient harm. Electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) offers the promise of automated drug interaction and dosage verification. In addition, the process of enabling e-prescriptions also provides access to an often unrecognized benefit, that of viewing the dispensed medication history. This information is often critical to understanding patient symptoms. Obtaining significant value from electronic medical records requires use of standardized terminology for both targeted decision support and population-based management. Further, generating documentation for a billable encounter requires usage of proper codes. The emergence of International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 holds promise in facilitating identification of a more precise patient code while also presenting drawbacks given its complexity. This article will focus on elements of e-prescribing and use of structured chart content, including diagnosis codes as they relate to physician office practices. PMID:23714550
Despite the proliferation of polymer/inorganic nanocomposites in academic research and the commercialization of tens of products based on such materials, their true potential still remains largely untapped. One of the major hurdles in this endeavor is to capitalize on the novel properties afforded by a true--'nano'morphology, i.e., beyond simple nanoparticulate dispersions and towards prescribed filler/phase arrangements and tailored filler--polymer interfaces. We comparatively present nanocomposites with prescribed nanomorphologies, which can be made in large, industrial-scale, quantities (e.g. composites with spatially arranged fillers: such as shear--aligned fillers in blown PE films and filler-induced compatibilization of PC/PET blends). We discuss the fundamental mechanisms of achieving the prescribed nanomorphologies and the related novel functionalities. In particular, we emphasize on extraordinary properties achieved by simultaneous control of the composite morphology and of the polymer--filler interface, such as an impressive toughening effectin PC/PET nanocomposites, and PE nanocomposites with a predetermined tensile strength by tailoring the polymer--filer interfacial adhesion.
Manias, E.; Heidecker, M. J.; Zhang, J.; Polizos, G.
Paediatric prescribing is complex. A whole range of aspects needs to be considered to achieve an efficacious and safe drug therapy for children. Legal requirements for prescribing are clearly insufficient for this purpose. Children are immature individuals under constant growth and development. Consequently, based on age and cognitive abilities of the child individual drugs and dosing regimens have to be chosen. Frequent off-label use and a lack of age-appropriate formulation worsen the situation. Additionally, not all dosage forms are similarly adequate in different age groups. Taste significantly influences patient adherence. Dose calculations based on body weight are prone to errors, putting a point on the wrong place or mixing up measuring units easily result in ten-fold dosing errors. Computer-based tools to enhance prescribing are promising but, however, not yet widely implemented in paediatrics because of missing evidence-based data sources and the hugely complex process. Communication between clinicians and pharmacists as well as with the patient remains very important. PMID:24867350
Neubert, Antje; Wimmer, Stefan
Background and Objectives Nearly one-third of nursing home residents in the US receive antipsychotic medications, yet important questions remain concerning their safety. We sought to compare the risk of major medical events in residents newly initiated on conventional or atypical antipsychotics. Design Cohort study, using linked Medicaid, Medicare, Minimum Data Set and Online Survey Certification and Reporting data. Propensity score-adjusted proportional hazards models were used to compare risks for medical events at a class and individual drug level. Setting Nursing homes in 45 US states. Participants 83,959 Medicaid eligible residents ?65 who initiated antipsychotic treatment following nursing home admission in 2001-2005. Interventions Conventional and atypical antipsychotics. Outcome measures Hospitalization for myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular events, serious bacterial infections and hip fracture within 180 days of treatment initiation. Results Risks of bacterial infections (HR = 1.25, 95%CI 1.05-1.49) and possibly myocardial infarction (1.23, 95%CI 0.81-1.86) and hip fracture (1.29, 95%CI 0.95-1.76) were higher and risks of cerebrovascular events (0.82, 95%CI 0.65-1.02) were lower among patients initiating conventional compared to atypical agents. Little variation existed among individual atypical agents, except for a somewhat lower risk of cerebrovascular events with olanzapine (0.91, 95%CI 0.81-1.02) and quetiapine (0.89, 95%CI 0.79-1.02); a lower risk of bacterial infections (0.83, 95%CI 0.73-0.94) and possibly a higher risk of hip fracture (1.17, 95%CI 0.96-1.43) with quetiapine, all compared with risperidone. Dose-response relations were observed for all events (1.12, 95%CI 1.05-1.19 for high- vs low-dose for all events combined). Conclusion These associations underscore the importance of carefully selecting the specific antipsychotic agent and dose, and monitoring their safety, especially in nursing home residents who have an array of medical illnesses and receive complex medication regimens.
Huybrechts, Krista F.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Gerhard, Tobias; Olfson, Mark; Avorn, Jerry; Levin, Raisa; Lucas, Judith A.; Crystal, Stephen
Risk and liability concerns regarding fire affect people's attitudes toward fire and have led to human-induced alterations of fire regimes. This has, in turn, contributed to brush encroachment and degradation of many grasslands and savannas. Efforts to successfully restore such degraded ecosystems at the landscape scale in regions of the United States with high proportions of private lands require the reintroduction of fire. Prescribed Burn Associations (PBA) provide training, equipment, and labor to apply fire safely, facilitating the application of this rangeland management tool and thereby reducing the associated risk. PBAs help build networks and social capital among landowners who are interested in using fire. They can also change attitudes toward fire and enhance the social acceptability of using prescribed fire as a management practice. PBAs are an effective mechanism for promoting the widespread use of prescribed fire to restore and maintain the biophysical integrity of grasslands and savannas at the landscape scale. We report findings of a project aimed at determining the human dimensions of using prescribed fire to control woody plant encroachment in three different eco-regions of Texas. Specifically, we examine membership in PBAs as it relates to land manager decisions regarding the use of prescribed fire. Perceived risk has previously been identified as a key factor inhibiting the use of prescribed fire by landowners. Our results show that perceived constraints, due to lack of skill, knowledge, and access to equipment and membership in a PBAs are more important factors than risk perceptions in affecting landowner decisions about the use of fire. This emphasizes the potential for PBAs to reduce risk perceptions regarding the application of prescribed fire and, therefore, their importance for restoring brush-encroached grasslands and savannas. PMID:24333743
Toledo, David; Kreuter, Urs P; Sorice, Michael G; Taylor, Charles A
Purpose To investigate the correlates of a clinical therapeutic response by using the parameters measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy after the administration of atypical antipsychotics. Patients and methods Twenty-five antipsychotic-naïve first-episode patients with schizophrenia were monitored for 12 months. The patients were evaluated using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression Scale of Severity, Tower of London – Drexel University, Letter–Number Span Test, Trail Making Test A, and Personal and Social Performance Scale. They were administered atypical antipsychotics, starting with quetiapine. In the absence of a therapeutic response, another antipsychotic was introduced. Results After 12 study months, the N-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr) level did not significantly change at the whole-group level. Additional analysis revealed a significant rise in the NAA/Cr level in the study group that stayed on the same antipsychotic throughout the study course (P=0.008) and a significant drop in NAA/Cr in the study group that switched antipsychotics (P=0.005). On the whole-group level, no significant correlations between NAA/Cr values and other scores were found at either baseline or after 12 study months. Conclusion One-year treatment with atypical antipsychotics administered to antipsychotic-naïve patients didn’t result in a significant rise in the NAA/Cr ratio. However, a significant rise was witnessed in the study group in which a satisfactory therapeutic response had been achieved with a single antipsychotic administration.
Grosic, Vladimir; Folnegovic Grosic, Petra; Kalember, Petra; Bajs Janovic, Maja; Rados, Marko; Mihanovic, Mate; Henigsberg, Neven
A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore general practitioners' (GPs) knowledge regarding the major therapeutic use and adverse effects of drug(s) they prescribe. Three drugs namely tablet Montelukast Sodium, tablet Somatriptan and inhaler Fluticasone Propionate were selected from the list of drugs approved by the Ministry of Health in Pakistan. GPs who had prescribed at least one of the three were inquired about the cost, therapeutic use and one common adverse effect. For each question, one correct option and three distracting options were given. Two hundred and ninety four responses of 131 GPs were included in the final analysis. The correct options for therapeutic use and adverse effect were identified by 61.2% (n = 180) and 40.8% (n = 120) respectively. A statistically significant (p < 0.01) deficit of knowledge regarding adverse effects was observed for those GPs who identified pharmaceutical advertisements as their primary source of information for new drugs and those who were less experienced. PMID:23673185
Jawaid, Ali; Rohra, Dileep Kumar; Zafar, Abdul Mueed; Jawaid, Arfat
Post-fire Pezizales fruit commonly in many forest types after fire. The objectives of this study were to determine which Pezizales appeared as sporocarps after a prescribed fire in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon, and whether species of Pezizales formed mycorrhizas on ponderosa pine, whether or not they were detected from sporocarps. Forty-two sporocarp collections in five genera (Anthracobia, Morchella,
K. E. Fujimura; J. E. Smith; T. R. Horton; N. S. Weber; J. W. Spatafora
Aims The new cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitors, celecoxib (Celebrex®) and rofecoxib (Vioxx®), have been widely prescribed since their launch. No reviews currently appear in the literature of prescribing patterns in Australia. This paper describes a self-audit of the clinical use of selective COX-2 inhibitor therapy undertaken with rural general practitioners (GPs) in Australia. Methods A structured audit form was developed and distributed to interested GPs. The form was self-administered and focused on issues about COX-2 inhibitors and the types of patients who were receiving them, e.g. indications, patient demographics, risk factors and drug interactions. Results A total of 627 patients were recruited (569 celecoxib and 58 rofecoxib). A range of doses was prescribed. Osteoarthritis was the most common indication (68.1%). Risk factors known for the nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were identified in 65.1% of patients, with the most common being advanced age, hypertension and previous peptic ulcer disease. Potential drug interactions were common. A variety of reasons for initiation of therapy was identified; these included perceived increased efficacy, safety and failure of other treatment. Conclusions These results show that COX-2 inhibitors are being prescribed for patients with multiple risk factors that may place the patient at increased risk of adverse drug reactions to a COX-2 inhibitor. The perception of improved safety and efficacy was common and is of concern. Limitations of the study include the reliance on self-reporting.
Cutts, Christopher; LaCaze, Adam; Tett, Susan
... Common Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis Reduces Risk of Death Taking methotrexate—a commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory medication—may reduce the risk of death among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), according to ...
Background Potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) in older people is associated with increases in morbidity, hospitalisation and mortality. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with PIP, among those aged ?70 years, in the United Kingdom, using a comprehensive set of prescribing indicators and comparing these to estimates obtained from a truncated set of the same indicators. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), in 2007. Participants included those aged???70 years, in CPRD. Fifty-two PIP indicators from the Screening Tool of Older Persons Potentially Inappropriate Prescriptions (STOPP) criteria were applied to data on prescribed drugs and clinical diagnoses. Overall prevalence of PIP and prevalence according to individual STOPP criteria were estimated. The relationship between PIP and polypharmacy (?4 medications), comorbidity, age, and gender was examined. A truncated, subset of 28 STOPP criteria that were used in two previous studies, were further applied to the data to facilitate comparison. Results Using 52 indicators, the overall prevalence of PIP in the study population (n?=?1,019,491) was 29%. The most common examples of PIP were therapeutic duplication (11.9%), followed by use of aspirin with no indication (11.3%) and inappropriate use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) (3.7%). PIP was strongly associated with polypharmacy (Odds Ratio 18.2, 95% Confidence Intervals, 18.0-18.4, P?0.05). PIP was more common in those aged 70–74 years vs. 85 years or more and in males. Application of the smaller subset of the STOPP criteria resulted in a lower PIP prevalence at 14.9% (95% CIs 14.8-14.9%) (n?=?151,598). The most common PIP issues identified with this subset were use of PPIs at maximum dose for?>?8 weeks, NSAIDs for?>?3 months, and use of long-term neuroleptics. Conclusions PIP was prevalent in the UK and increased with polypharmacy. Application of the comprehensive set of STOPP criteria allowed more accurate estimation of PIP compared to the subset of criteria used in previous studies. These findings may provide a focus for targeted interventions to reduce PIP.
...practice is located in an area without sufficient available pharmacies for electronic prescribing. (3 ) Registration to participate...practice is located in an area without sufficient available pharmacies for electronic prescribing. (3 ) The eligible...
...true Prescribed forms for contribution reports. 345.114 Section 345.114 Employees...EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Reporting and Collecting Contributions...114 Prescribed forms for contribution reports. Each employer's...
Physicians in an experimental group were surveyed to assess their knowledge of the effectiveness, cost, and side effects of antibiotics, and a tutorial was developed to modify some prescribing patterns. Prescribing patterns were statistically different. (Author/MLW)
Klein, Lawrence E.; And Others
There is little research on cost–effectiveness of homeopathy in General Practice. This study aimed to compare the costs of homeopathic prescribing with conventional drugs prescribing. Data were collected for 4 years on all patients who were treated homeopathically. Costs of homeopathic remedies and costs of conventional drugs which otherwise would be prescribed for these patients was calculated for the total
This study employed data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) 1995 to (1) determine the prevalence of the prescribing of psychotropic drugs for elderly patients by office-based physicians in the United States; (2) estimate the prevalence of the prescribing of potentially inappropriate psychotropic drugs in this patient population; and (3) identify any factors that predict such prescribing. For
Rajender R. Aparasu; Jane R. Mort; Scott Sitzman
Background Over the past decade, practitioners in primary health care (PHC) settings in many countries have issued written prescriptions to patients to promote increased physical activity or exercise. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse a comprehensive physical activity referral (PAR) scheme implemented in a routine PHC setting in Östergötland County. The study examines characteristics of the PARs recipients and referral practitioners, identifies reasons why practitioners opted to use PARs with their clients, and discusses prescribed activities and prescriptions in relation to PHC registries. Methods Prospective prescription data were obtained for 90% of the primary health care centres in Östergötland County, Sweden, in 2004 and 2005. The study population consisted of patients who were issued PARs after they were deemed likely to benefit from increased physical activity, as assessed by PHC staff. Results During the two-year period, a total of 6,300 patients received PARs. Two-thirds of the patients were female and half of the patients were 45–64 years. Half of the patients (50.8%) who received PARs were recommended a home-based activity, such as walking. One third (33%) of the patients issued PARs were totally inactive, reporting no days of physical activity that lasted for 30 minutes, and 29% stated that they reached this level 1–2 days per week. The number of PARs prescribed per year in relation to the number of unique individuals that visited primary health care during one year was 1.4% in 2004 and 1.2% in 2005. Two-thirds of the combined prescriptions were issued by physicians (38%) and nurses (31%). Physiotherapists and behavioural scientists issued the highest relative number of prescriptions. The most common reasons for issuing PARs were musculoskeletal disorders (39.1%) and overweight (35.4%), followed by high blood pressure (23.3%) and diabetes (23.2%). Conclusion Östergötland County's PAR scheme reached a relatively high proportion of physically inactive people visiting local PHC centres for other health reasons. PAR-related statistics, including PAR-rates by individual PHC centres and PAR- rates per health professional category, show differences in prescribing activities, both by patient categories, and by prescribing professionals.
Leijon, ME; Bendtsen, P; Nilsen, P; Ekberg, K; Stahle, A
Background Prescribing is a core activity for general practitioners, yet significant variation in the quality of prescribing has been reported. This suggests there may be room for improvement in the application of the current best research evidence. There has been substantial investment in technologies and interventions to address this issue, but effect sizes so far have been small to moderate. This suggests that prescribing is a decision-making process that is not sufficiently understood. By understanding more about prescribing processes and the implementation of research evidence, variation may more easily be understood and more effective interventions proposed. Methods An ethnographic study in three Scottish general practices with diverse organizational characteristics. Practices were ranked by their performance against Audit Scotland prescribing quality indicators, incorporating established best research evidence. Two practices of high prescribing quality and one practice of low prescribing quality were recruited. Participant observation, formal and informal interviews, and a review of practice documentation were employed. Results Practices ranked as high prescribing quality consistently made and applied macro and micro prescribing decisions, whereas the low-ranking practice only made micro prescribing decisions. Macro prescribing decisions were collective, policy decisions made considering research evidence in light of the average patient, one disease, condition, or drug. Micro prescribing decisions were made in consultation with the patient considering their views, preferences, circumstances and other conditions (if necessary). Although micro prescribing can operate independently, the implementation of evidence-based, quality prescribing was attributable to an interdependent relationship. Macro prescribing policy enabled prescribing decisions to be based on scientific evidence and applied consistently where possible. Ultimately, this influenced prescribing decisions that occur at the micro level in consultation with patients. Conclusion General practitioners in the higher prescribing quality practices made two different ‘types’ of prescribing decision; macro and micro. Macro prescribing informs micro prescribing and without a macro basis to draw upon the low-ranked practice had no effective mechanism to engage with, reflect on and implement relevant evidence. Practices that recognize these two levels of decision making about prescribing are more likely to be able to implement higher quality evidence.
In many Western jurisdictions cannabis, unlike most other psychoactive drugs, cannot be prescribed to patients even in cases where medical professionals believe that it would ease the patient's pain or anxiety. The reasons for this prohibition are mostly ideological, although medical and moral arguments have been formulated to support it. In this paper, it is argued that freedom, properly understood, provides a sound ethical reason to allow the use of cannabis in medicine. Scientific facts, appeals to harm and autonomy, and considerations of symbolic value cannot consistently justify prohibitions. PMID:15289511
Summary Objectives Prescribing is not always driven by therapeutic motives alone; social and intrinsic factors also play a part in the decision. However, most research into prescribing influences has been conducted in general practice, with very little conducted within hospitals. One potential influence is the hospital multidisciplinary team, yet little attention has been paid to how interactions between teams and team members may influence prescribing. This study investigated the effect that team interaction and structure had upon UK hospital doctors' prescribing decisions, particularly their discomfort felt prescribing. Design and setting The study used the critical incident technique and in-depth interviews. Prior to an in-depth interview, 48 doctors of varying grades from four hospitals were asked to remember any uncomfortable prescribing decisions that they had recently made. These ‘incidents’ were discussed in depth. All interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A grounded theory approach to data analysis was taken. Results There were 193 critical incidents described in the interviews. Over one-third were related to the difficulties of prescribing within a team environment. Discomfort frequently arose because of factors relating to the hierarchical structure; in particular, junior doctors described their discomfort when they were uncertain of seniors' prescribing decisions. Prescribers also adhered to rules of prescribing etiquette, including the maintenance of other doctors'/teams' prescribing decisions and adherence to prescribing norms. Discomfort also arose from a perceived pressure to prescribe from the nursing team. Doctors admitted to prescribing to maintain overall team relationships, sometimes ignoring hospital regulations and best practice to do so. Conclusion Overall, this study demonstrated that hospital doctors' prescribing decisions were strongly influenced by relationships with other team members, particularly nurses and senior doctors. Ways of reducing this discomfort should be explored and further research is advocated in this area.
Lewis, Penny J; Tully, Mary P
A significant percentage of psychiatric patients who are treated with antipsychotics are treated with more than one antipsychotic drug in the clinic. Thus, it is advantageous to use a rapid and reliable assay that is suitable for determination of multiple antipsychotic drugs in plasma in a single run. A simple and sensitive HPLC-UV method was developed and validated for simultaneous
Guodong Zhang; Alvin V. Terry; Michael G. Bartlett
OBJECTIVE: Although antipsychotics are important in the treatment of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), they have moderate efficacy and often cause adverse events. Recent safety warnings about increased frequency of cerebrovascular adverse events in elderly patients who use atypical antipsychotics mean that physicians now face a dilemma when weighing the benefits and risks of use of antipsychotics in
Marianne B van Iersel; Sytse U Zuidema; Raymond T C M Koopmans; Frans R J Verhey; Marcel G M Olde Rikkert
Background: The introduction of new antipsychotic agents in the past decade has helped alter the treatments available to 2 vulnerable populations—those with schizophrenia and related psychotic conditions and elderly individuals with dementia.Objective: After examining overall trends in antipsychotic use, this analysis reviews patterns of atypical antipsychotic use in the elderly and financially disadvantaged populations of Ontario. It identifies affected subpopulations
Carolyn S. Dewa; Gary Remington; Nathan Herrmann; Joan Fearnley; Paula Goering
Objective: To estimate prevalence rates of antipsychotic use in children and adolescents from 1996 to 2001 in three state Medicaid programs (midwestern [MM], southern [SM], and western [WM]) and one private managed care organization (MCO). Method: Prescription claims were used to evaluate antipsychotic prevalence, defined as the number of children…
Patel, Nick C.; Crismon, M. Lynn; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Johnsrud, Michael T.; Rascati, Karen L.; Wilson, James P.; Jensen, Peter S.
The last decade saw an increase in psychotropic use with pediatric populations. Antipsychotic prescriptions are used frequently in residential treatment settings, with many youth receiving antipsychotics for off-label indications. Residential treatment data from 4 states were examined to determine if regional variation exists in off-label prescription and what clinical factors predict use. The study used clinical and pharmacological data collected
Purva H. Rawal; John S. Lyons; James C. Maelntyre II; John C. Hunter
The recent introduction of several antipsychotic medications has raised expectations for better pharmacological management of schizophrenia. Although conventional and new neuroleptics (Risperidone, Olanzapine, Seroquel and soon to be released Ziprasidone) are generally comparable in terms of efficacy; the new antipsychotic medications possess a better side-effects profile and are overall, much better tolerated. The reintroduction of Clozapine as an effective antipsychotic for treatment refractoriness has also improved management for a segment of the schizophrenic population who failed to respond adequately to other antipsychotic medications. Such increased benefits from new antipsychotic medications come with a higher acquisition cost that has somewhat strained the historically low psychiatric budgets. The question then was whether the expected benefits of the new antipsychotics can offset the high cost of these medications in the long-term. In that context, quality of life assessment has provided a tool for the comparative analysis of new and conventional antipsychotic medications, particularly regarding their impact on functional status and satisfaction. In a recently concluded study, we demonstrated that the new antipsychotic medications are subjectively much better tolerated and have a more favourable impact on quality of life compared with conventional neuroleptics. The ultimate question is whether such favourable benefits can translate in the future into better compliance with medications and improved long-term outcomes. PMID:10689610
Awad, A G; Voruganti, L N
Available clinical evidence suggests that the newer antipsychotics are similar to conventional antipsychotics for positive symptom control. It has been suggested that they may also be superior for negative symptoms and side effects, but the evidence for this is unclear (Duggan et al, 1999, Kennedy et al, 1999, Srisurapanont et al, 1999, Thornley et al, 1999, Tuunainen and Gilbody, 1999,
Linda Davies; Shon Lewis
Atypical antipsychotics are a class of novel agents increasingly employed for the treatment of psychotic disorders. The pharmacodynamic properties of the atypicals appear to impact a broader spectrum of psychotic symptoms than had been appreciated with older generation antipsychotics. In addition, the atypical agents appear to have a reduced risk of neurologic side effects compared with conventional antipsychotic use. Both of these features enhance the appeal of the atypical antipsychotics and may be associated with enhanced patient compliance. The atypical antipsychotics appear to be effective for schizophrenia as well as other psychotic disorders, including schizoaffective disorder and mood disorders with psychotic features. Consequently, atypical antipsychotics are now considered to be the first-line treatment for schizophrenia, with the exception of clozapine, which is considered a second-line agent because of risks associated with its use. This review will discuss the literature on atypical antipsychotic efficacy in psychotic disorders. Issues related to antipsychotic use, dosing, adverse effects, and drug interactions are also discussed.
Leo, Raphael J.; Regno, Paula Del
OBJECTIVE: To compare the rate of relapse as a function of antipsychotic treatment (monotherapy vs. polypharmacy) in schizophrenic patients over a 2-year period. METHODS: Using data from a multicenter cohort study conducted in France, we performed a propensity-adjusted analysis to examine the association between the rate of relapse over a 2-year period and antipsychotic treatment (monotherapy vs. polypharmacy). RESULTS: Our
Aurelie Millier; Emmanuelle Sarlon; Jean-Michel Azorin; Laurent Boyer; Samuel Aballea; Pascal Auquier; Mondher Toumi
The patient's adherence to the antipsychotic medication regimen is a critical issue in the treatment of schizophrenia, because non-adherence is one of the main causes of relapse. 'Objective' factors including lack of insight and uncomfortable adverse effects are reported to contribute to non-adherence. It is also important to explore the 'subjective' meaning of taking antipsychotic medication from the patient's point
OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of antipsychotic medication adherence on outcomes among individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder. METHODS: An administrative claims database for a commercially insured population was used to identify patients with bipolar disorder who were newly initiating treatment with antipsychotics (January 2000-December 2006). Patients were included if they were aged between 18 to 64 years, had no diagnoses
Maureen J Lage; Mariam K Hassan
Antipsychotic medication is integral to the treatment of severe and enduring mental health problems (e.g. schizophrenia). Such medication is associated with significant adverse side effects that can affect treatment adherence. To date there have been few attempts to analyse qualitatively service users' experience of taking antipsychotic medication. This study, conducted in Exeter, South West England, investigates the subjective experience of
Rachael Carrick; Annie Mitchell; Richard A. Powell; Keith Lloyd
Objective: Following the presentation of a case study and an overview of current data highlighting the need for further research into the use of antipsychotic medication during pregnancy, the aim of the present paper was to outline the establishment of, and present preliminary data from, the National Register of Antipsychotic Medication in Pregnancy (NRAMP). Method: Australian women with a history
Jayashri Kulkarni; Kay McCauley-Elsom; Natasha Marston; Heather Gilbert; Caroline Gurvich; Anthony de Castella; Paul Fitzgerald
BackgroundThe effect of antipsychotics on the blood oxygen level dependent signal in schizophrenia is poorly understood. The purpose of the present investigation is to examine the effect of antipsychotic medication on independent neural networks during a motor task in a large, multi-site functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation.
C. Abbott; M. Juárez; T. White; R. L. Gollub; G. D. Pearlson; J. Bustillo; J. Lauriello; B. Ho; H. J. Bockholt; V. P. Clark; V. Magnotta; V. D. Calhoun
Clinical expectations in schizophrenia treatment have greatly increased since the introduction of new atypical antipsychotics, but the choice of therapeutic strategy has become more complex and reference guidelines are scarce. This paper summarizes the consensus of a broad range of professionals after long-term commercialization in France of an atypical antipsychotic, amisulpride. Participants were from psychiatric hospitals, private clinics, out-patients settings
Yves Lecrubier; Michel Azorin; Thierry Bottai; Jean Dalery; Gérard Garreau; Thérèse Lempérière; Agnès Lisoprawski; François Petitjean; Jean-Marie Vanelle
Background: The potential benefits of typical antipsychotic agents in bipolar disorder are offset by serious treatment-associated side effects. Despite these concerns and the availability of mood stabilizing agents, the treatment of bipolar disorder with typical antipsychotic agents appears to be widespread. Methods: A Medline search identified 16 publications that outlined medication use among 2378 bipolar disorder patients. Meta-analysis was used
Mauricio Tohen; Fan Zhang; Cindy C Taylor; Patrick Burns; Carlos Zarate; Todd Sanger; Gary Tollefson
When treating patients with psychoses, clinicians must often consider changing their treatment from one antipsychotic agent to another. The transition may be necessary because the patient experiences serious side effects or because the existing therapy no longer controls the patient's symptoms. A principal problem in changing antipsychotic agents is the potential for withdrawal symptoms resulting from discontinuation of the existing
Richard L Borison
Schizophrenia is a serious and often debilitating neuropsychiatric disease of worldwide importance. Current therapy relies on the use of typical antipsychotic medications, which specifically inhibit binding of ligand at the D2 dopamine receptor, and atypical medications which display little activity for this receptor interaction. While atypical antipsychotic agents have been shown to variably inhibit other neuroreceptor-ligand interactions, the exact mechanisms
Lorraine V. Jones-Brando; James L. Buthod; Louis E. Holland; Robert H. Yolken; E. Fuller Torrey
The pharmacoeconomic evaluation of atypical antipsychotics for patients with schizophrenia requires focus on both clinical and quality of life effects and impact on the cost of medical resources. The results of pharmacoeconomic studies help clinicians and health care decision makers identify treatments that provide the most benefit to patients at the most acceptable cost. The cost-effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs has
Dennis A Revicki
Atypical antipsychotic drugs offer several notable benefits over typical antipsychotics, including greater improvement in negative symptoms, cognitive function, prevention of deterioration, and quality of life, and fewer extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). However, concerns about EPS have been replaced by concerns about other side effects, such as weight gain, glucose dysregulation and dyslipidemia. These side effects are associated with potential long-term cardiovascular
H A Nasrallah
BACKGROUND: Previous research indicated that women are more vulnerable than men to adverse psychological consequences of weight gain. Other research has suggested that weight gain experienced during antipsychotic therapy may also psychologically impact women more negatively. This study assessed the impact of acute treatment-emergent weight gain on clinical and functional outcomes of patients with schizophrenia by patient gender and antipsychotic
Haya Ascher-Svanum; Michael Stensland; Zhongyun Zhao; Bruce J Kinon
Although atypical antipsychotics have been associated with improvements in cognitive function in schizophrenia, the neurochemical basis for such effects is not well understood. Candidate neu- rotransmitter systems primarily involve dopamine and serotonin. The current study explored this issue by examining the cognitive abilities, social function and quality of life in patients with schizo- phrenia who were medicated with atypical antipsychotics.
PHILIP J. TYSON; KEITH R. LAWS; KENNETH A. FLOWERS; AGI TYSON; ANN M. MORTIMER
Objective: This study describes recent trends and patterns in antipsychotic treatment of privately insured children aged 2 through 5 years. Method: A trend analysis is presented of antipsychotic medication use (1999-2001 versus 2007) stratified by patient characteristics. Data are analyzed from a large administrative database of privately insured…
Olfson, Mark; Crystal, Stephen; Huang, Cecilia; Gerhard, Tobias
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex provides an operational measure of sensorimotor gating. Deficits in PPI are observed in schizophrenia patients and can be modelled in animals by administration of noncompetitive NMDA antagonists such as phencyclidine (PCP) or dizocilpine (MK-801). Previous studies indicate that the atypical antipsychotic clozapine restores PPI in PCP-treated animals while the typical antipsychotic haloperidol does
Vaishali P. Bakshi; Mark A. Geyer
There is a critical need for mapping early metabolic changes in schizophrenia to capture failures in regulation of biochemical pathways and networks. This information could provide valuable insights about disease mechanisms, trajectory of disease progression, and diagnostic biomarkers. We used a lipidomics platform to measure individual lipid species in 20 drug-naïve patients with a first episode of schizophrenia (FE group), 20 patients with chronic schizophrenia that had not adhered to prescribed medications (RE group), and 29 race-matched control subjects without schizophrenia. Lipid metabolic profiles were evaluated and compared between study groups and within groups before and after treatment with atypical antipsychotics, risperidone and aripiprazole. Finally, we mapped lipid profiles to n3 and n6 fatty acid synthesis pathways to elucidate which enzymes might be affected by disease and treatment. Compared to controls, the FE group showed significant down-regulation of several n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including 20:5n3, 22:5n3, and 22:6n3 within the phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine lipid classes. Differences between FE and controls were only observed in the n3 class PUFAs; no differences where noted in n6 class PUFAs. The RE group was not significantly different from controls, although some compositional differences within PUFAs were noted. Drug treatment was able to correct the aberrant PUFA levels noted in FE patients, but changes in re patients were not corrective. Treatment caused increases in both n3 and n6 class lipids. These results supported the hypothesis that phospholipid n3 fatty acid deficits are present early in the course of schizophrenia and tend not to persist throughout its course. These changes in lipid metabolism could indicate a metabolic vulnerability in patients with schizophrenia that occurs early in development of the disease.
McEvoy, Joseph; Baillie, Rebecca A.; Zhu, Hongjie; Buckley, Peter; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Nasrallah, Henry A.; Dougherty, George G.; Yao, Jeffrey K.; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima
Background Suicide and violence often co-occur in the general population as well as in mentally ill individuals. Few studies, however, have assessed whether these suicidal behaviors are predictive of violence risk in mental illness. Aims The aim of this study is to investigate whether suicidal behaviors, including suicidal ideation, threats, and attempts, are significantly associated with increased violence risk in individuals with schizophrenia. Method Data for these analyses were obtained from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) trial, a randomized controlled trial of antipsychotic medication in 1460 adults with schizophrenia. Univariate Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for suicidal ideation, threats, and attempts. Multivariate analyses were conducted to adjust for common confounding factors, including: age, alcohol or drug misuse, major depression, antisocial personality disorder, depression, hostility, positive symptom, and poor impulse control scores. Tests of discrimination, calibration, and reclassification assessed the incremental predictive validity of suicidal behaviors for the prediction of violence risk. Results Suicidal threats and attempts were significantly associated with violence in both males and females with schizophrenia with little change following adjustment for common confounders. Only suicidal threats, however, were associated with a significant increase in incremental validity beyond age, diagnosis with a comorbid substance use disorder, and recent violent behavior. Conclusions Suicidal threats are independently associated with violence risk in both males and females with schizophrenia, and may improve violence risk prediction.
Witt, Katrina; Hawton, Keith; Fazel, Seena
Objectives Combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) are the most widely prescribed contraceptive methods in the UK; however, their use is associated with significant cardiovascular risk for women with some medical conditions and risk factors. The objective of this study was to assess the potential change in CHC prescribing among higher-risk women following publication of the UK Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (UKMEC) in 2006. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using the General Practice Research Database to analyse UK women aged 15–49 years who were prescribed CHCs during the period 2004–2010. Of women prescribed CHCs, those at higher risk of cardiovascular events (with UKMEC Category 3 or 4 risk factors) were identified. The percentage of higher-risk CHC users, among all CHC users, in 2005 (pre-UKMEC) was compared to that in 2010 (post-UKMEC). Results The percentage of higher-risk CHC users significantly decreased by 0.8% (95% CI 0.68% to 1.02%) following publication of UKMEC [8.1% (95% CI 7.98% to 8.22%) in 2005 vs 7.3% (95% CI 7.14% to 7.38%) in 2010; p<0.001]. However, an estimated 1?74?472 women in the UK were prescribed CHCs in 2010 despite having Category 3 or 4 risk factors. The most common Category 3 or 4 risk factors were body mass index ?35?kg/m2, hypertension and smoking in women aged ?35?years. Conclusions Despite the observed reduction in prescribing of CHCs to higher-risk women after publication of UKMEC, a large number of women with Category 3 or 4 risk factors are still prescribed CHCs. The increased risk of cardiovascular events is unnecessary for many of these women given the availability of alternative contraceptive methods.
Briggs, Paula Elizabeth; Praet, Cecile Aude; Humphreys, Samantha Charlotte; Zhao, Changgeng
Data from two major government-funded studies of comparative antipsychotic effectiveness in schizophrenia contradict the widely prevalent belief that the newer second-generation medications are vastly superior to the older first-generation drugs. This has caused uncertainty among patients, clinicians and policy-makers about the relative utility of first- and second- generation antipsychotic agents in its treatment. To reduce confusion and provide a contextual understanding of the new data, the World Psychiatry Association Section on Pharmacopsychiatry comprehensively reviewed the literature on the comparative effectiveness of different antipsychotic treatments for schizophrenia and developed this update. Utilizing data from the approximately 1,600 randomized controlled trials of antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia, we applied the two indirect and one direct method to comparing the effectiveness of 62 currently-available antipsychotic agents. The subclasses of 51 first-generation and 11 second-generation antipsychotics were both found to be very heterogeneous, with substantial differences in side-effect profiles among members. Second-generation antipsychotic agents were found to be inconsistently more effective than first-generation agents in alleviating negative, cognitive, and depressive symptoms and had a lower liability to cause tardive dyskinesia; these modest benefits were principally driven by the ability of second-generation antipsychotics to provide equivalent improvement in positive symptoms along with a lower risk of causing extrapyramidal side-effects. Clozapine was found to be more efficacious than other agents in treatment-refractory schizophrenia. There were no consistent differences in efficacy among other second-generation antipsychotic agents; if such differences exist, they are likely small in magnitude. Dosing was found to be a key variable in optimizing effectiveness of both first- and second- generation antipsychotic agents. There was enormous individual variability in antipsychotic response and vulnerability to various adverse effects. In contrast to their relatively similar efficacy in treating positive symptoms, there were substantial differences among both first- and second- generation antipsychotic agents with regard to their propensity to cause extrapyramidal, metabolic and other adverse effects; second-generation agents have a lower liability to cause acute extrapyramidal symptoms and tardive dyskinesia along with a tendency to cause greater metabolic side-effects than first-generation agents. Based on these data about the comparative effectiveness of different antipsychotic treatment options, we summarize elements of current best antipsychotic practice for the treatment of schizophrenia and discuss the role of government and the pharmaceutical industry in obtaining and disseminating information which can facilitate best practice. PMID:18243663
Tandon, Rajiv; Belmaker, R H; Gattaz, Wagner F; Lopez-Ibor, Juan J; Okasha, Ahmed; Singh, Bruce; Stein, Dan J; Olie, Jean-Pierre; Fleischhacker, W Wolfang; Moeller, Hans-Juergen
A series of new current procedural terminology codes have been created that allow health-care providers to code and bill for pediatric home apnea monitoring in the United States. Apnea monitors have been used at home on pediatric patients at risk for sudden death for > 30 years without the benefit of evidence-based efficacy studies. Nevertheless, new apnea monitor devices with expanded capability have been developed. Recommended indications for pediatric home apnea monitors are outdated and vague. It is important for the prescribing health-care provider to understand device function, as well as the pathophysiology of cardiorespiratory events in different disease states in order to make logical decisions about which monitor to prescribe, or whether to prescribe one at all. This article will review what apnea monitors are designed to do, common misperceptions about device indications vs device capability, and updated suggestions regarding the prescription, billing, and coding of pediatric apnea monitors for pediatric practice management. PMID:18682461
Halbower, Ann C
This study examined the association between acute aggressive behavior patterns of 145 adolescents in residential treatment facilities with use of and changes in antipsychotic medication for the chronic management of aggression. Seclusion/restraint (S/R) frequency over 12 months was used to categorize youth into none, low, moderate, and high S/R groups. Data were analyzed using longitudinal mixed effects logistic regression models that allowed for intra-subject variability over time. The high and moderate S/R groups were significantly more likely to receive antipsychotics, get higher doses, and have changes in medication compared with the none S/R group. Increases in antipsychotic dose were associated with a lower likelihood of changes in antipsychotic medication over time. Despite persistent antipsychotic use at higher doses, youth in the high and moderate S/R groups continued to be secluded/restrained frequently. The findings question the adequacy of these medications in managing aggressive behavior.
Miller, Leslie; Riddle, Mark A.; Pruitt, David; Zachik, Al
The wide scale use of expensive atypical antipsychotic medications has led to a dramatic increase in the proportion of direct costs schizophrenia being allocated for medications. Although there is evidence that the atypical antipsychotic, clozapine, may lead to cost savings in patients with refractory schizophrenia the cost-effectiveness of the other atypical antipsychotics remains in question. We therefore reviewed the published, long-term randomized, prospective cost-effectiveness treatment studies that compared an atypical to a typical antipsychotic. There were serious methodological problems with all. In general, those that were based on efficacy trials showed an advantage for atypicals while those based on effectiveness studies found the opposite. It appears that to the extent that studies mimic "real world" conditions they fail to support the cost-effectiveness of the atypical antipsychotics. PMID:16688482
Luchins, Daniel J
Non-medical prescribing is increasingly utilized in clinical care and UK Standards have been produced for this. This study was undertaken to investigate compliance with these standards which were adopted by one mental health service and to review whether any changes were necessary to existing arrangements monitoring this compliance. A questionnaire was distributed to all 24 non-medical prescribers from one UK Mental Health Trust. Participants were asked to respond to questions about demographic data and prescribing practices. We also asked them to rate their experience on a 5-point scale. In all, 83% of non-medical prescribers responded. The UK Standards were met even though there was a shortfall in the uptake of training and supervision. Non-medical prescribers from the Community Drug Team and Older People's Service prescribed a narrow range of speciality drugs than any other category of drugs, but prescribed more often. UK Standards were met by the majority of non-medical prescribers. However, concerns were noted about a shortfall in training, supervision and experience of some non-medical prescribers. Conflict with psychiatrists was reported but their availability for support when necessary was valued. Non-medical prescribers believed that their input with non-medical prescribing had benefited patients. PMID:22070189
Gumber, R; Khoosal, D; Gajebasia, N