Science.gov

Sample records for communication policy analysis

  1. An analysis of communication policies in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mutere, A

    1988-01-01

    Although Kenya's current 5-Year National Development Plan cites communications as a public policy issue in terms of the establishment of basic infrastructural facilities, little attention has been given to this area. At the national level, a more specific approach to communication policy demands the formulation of coherent policies and their implementation through adequate institutional bodies. However, most policymakers are poorly equipped to deal with communication questions since they are interdisciplinary, technically complex, and politically sensitive. Policymaking must be based on a database that allows a minimal level of resource assessment, an inventory of locally available resources, a projection of needs for imported resources, and a scenario for resource development. The institutional location and accountability of communication need to be defined. Moreover, in promoting the strategies of self-reliance and decentralization, communication policy must consider the 4 aspects of a national information system: function, resource inventory, structure content, an control. The 1st task is to carry out a needs assessment exercise that determines what is required from a communications policy. A related task is audience analysis. Also essential is the analysis of policies that guide and constrain system development and the distribution and nature of political and economic power. Finally, feedback mechanisms must be devised for the determination of policy impact. Methods helpful in analyzing policy impact include systems analysis, resource assessment, trend extrapolation, the Delphi technique, and brainstorming. PMID:12281810

  2. Communication Policies in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szecsko, Tamas; Fodor, Gabor

    This book is one of a series of studies--undertaken as part of the program adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO--related to the analysis of communication policies as they exist at the public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Discussed in this book about Hungary's communication policies are such topics as mass…

  3. Communication Policies in Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekovic, Zdravko; Bjelica, Mihalo

    This report on communication policies in Yugoslavia is part of a larger project, sponsored by UNESCO and intended to analyze communication policies as they exist at public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Included in this report are: (1) the premise of Yugoslavian communication policy; (2) historical development of…

  4. Information and Communication Technologies in International Education: A Canadian Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aucoin, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    The rhetoric surrounding the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in international education speaks of providing education access for all. However, an examination of actual policies reveals an emphasis not on creating an educated population, but on improving economic opportunities using discourses such as globalization,…

  5. Integrating Information and Communication Technology for Health Information System Strengthening: A Policy Analysis.

    PubMed

    Marzuki, Nuraidah; Ismail, Saimy; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Ehsan, Fauziah Z; Chan, Chee-Khoon; Ng, Chiu-Wan

    2015-11-01

    Despite the high costs involved and the lack of definitive evidence of sustained effectiveness, many low- and middle-income countries had begun to strengthen their health information system using information and communication technology in the past few decades. Following this international trend, the Malaysian Ministry of Health had been incorporating Telehealth (National Telehealth initiatives) into national health policies since the 1990s. Employing qualitative approaches, including key informant interviews and document review, this study examines the agenda-setting processes of the Telehealth policy using Kingdon's framework. The findings suggested that Telehealth policies emerged through actions of policy entrepreneurs within the Ministry of Health, who took advantage of several simultaneously occurring opportunities--official recognition of problems within the existing health information system, availability of information and communication technology to strengthen health information system and political interests surrounding the national Multimedia Super Corridor initiative being developed at the time. The last was achieved by the inclusion of Telehealth as a component of the Multimedia Super Corridor. PMID:26085477

  6. Environmental policy, assessment and communication

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, D.; Krampen, M.; Stea, D.

    1988-01-01

    This second volume in the Gower ethnoscapes Series explores the realm of environmental policy and presents analysis of three major public policy issues: growing public concern over environmental factors; growing awareness of the relationship between environment, crime and adolescent development; and increased environmental awareness in relation to population growth and housing needs (especially housing for the elderly and mass housing for third world nations).

  7. Basis for a Waste Management Public Communication Policy: Actual Situation Analysis and Implementation of Corrective Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Jolivet, L. A.; Maset, E. R.

    2002-02-28

    Argentina will require new sites for the location of radioactive waste final disposal systems. It is currently mandatory to have social and political consensus to obtain the corresponding agreements. The experience obtained with the cancellation of the project ''Feasibility Study and Engineering Project--Repository for High Level Radioactive Waste'', reinforces even more the necessity to count with the acceptance of the public to carry out projects of this kind. The first phase of the former was developed in the 80's: geological, geophysical and hydrogeological studies were performed in a compact granitic rock located in Sierra del Medio, Chubut province. This project had to be called off in the early 90's due to strong social rejection. This decision was closely related to the poor attention given to social communication issues. The governmental decision-makers in charge underwent a lot of pressure from social groups claiming for the cancellation of the project due to the lack of information and the fear it triggered. Thus, the lesson learnt: ''social communication activities must be carefully undertaken in order to achieve the appropriate management of the radioactive waste produced in our country.'' The same as in other countries, the specific National Law demands the formulation of a Strategic Plan which will not only include the research into radioactive waste, but the design of a Social Communication Programme as well. The latter will be in charge of informing the population clearly and objectively about the latest scientific and technological advances in the issue. A tentative perception-attitude pattern of the Argentine society about the overall nuclear issue is outlined in this paper. It is meant to contribute to the understanding of the public's adverse reaction to this kind of project. A communication programme is also presented. Its objective is to install the waste management topic in the public's opinion with a positive real outlook.

  8. Nepal's communication policy then and now.

    PubMed

    Rai, L D

    1987-01-01

    An embryonic national communications policy emerged in Nepal in the 1951-61 period in response to the country's revolutionary political process. Interpersonal communications channels were strengthened and the mass media expanded in both public and private sectors. After 1961, communications policy began to orientate toward the emerging context of the Panchayat polity, with emphasis on democratization and indigenization. The new power structure perceived the relationship of communications to the national goals of stability, security, and development. A new Ministry dealing exclusively with information and broadcasting was established and Radio Nepal expanded both its reach and programming. It was not until 1971, however, that a National Communications Plan was designed. As a result of the sectoral communications policies and programs of the 3 economic 5-Year Plans between 1970-85, the infrastructure and technology of the national system of communication have been further strengthened to conform to the national need for a self-reliant economy. Computer-assisted communication and the emergence of a framework for regional cooperation have introduced new elements to Nepalese national communications policy planning. The establishment of a national communications planning commission within the National Development Council may represent a next step toward developing future communications structure and strategy. PMID:12281459

  9. Communication Policy and Theory: Current Perspectives on Mass Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Carl R.; Cahn, Dudley D.

    The integration of American and European mass communication research models would provide a broader sociocultural framework for formulating communication policy. Emphasizing a functional approach, the American diffusionist model assumes that society is a system of interrelated parts naturally tending toward a state of dynamic equilibrium. The…

  10. Communication Analysis of Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

    This textbook was developed for use in a Concordia University (Quebec) course entitled "Communication Analysis of Environment." Designed as a practical application of information theory and cybernetics in the field of communication studies, the course is intended to be a self-instructional process, whereby each student chooses one information…

  11. MIT Research Program on Communications Policy; First Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge. Research Program on Communications Policy.

    The first year's activities of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Research Program on Communication Policy are described. Among the projects undertaken were studies of: (1) land mobile radio systems, (2) direct satellite broadcasting in foreign countries, (3) communications regulation policy, (4) international data communication, and…

  12. National Communication Systems; Some Policy Issues and Options. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication No. 74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerlad, E. Lloyd

    To assist policy-makers with the establishment of national communications policies and the harmonization of institutional policies as part of national development planning, policy issues and options are identified and discussed. The functions of communication in society are defined and the structure of the system detailed, with descriptions of…

  13. From Data to Policy: An Undergraduate Program in Research and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuoco, Rebecca; Blum, Arlene; Peaslee, Graham F.

    2012-01-01

    To bridge the gap between science and policy, future scientists should receive training that incorporates policy implications into the design, analysis, and communication of research. We present a student Science and Policy course for undergraduate science majors piloted at the University of California, Berkeley in the summer of 2011. During this…

  14. Communication Network Analysis Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farace, Richard V.; Mabee, Timothy

    This paper reviews a variety of analytic procedures that can be applied to network data, discussing the assumptions and usefulness of each procedure when applied to the complexity of human communication. Special attention is paid to the network properties measured or implied by each procedure. Factor analysis and multidimensional scaling are among…

  15. The monetary value of human milk in Francophone west Africa: a PROFILES analysis for nutrition policy communication.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Ross, Jay

    2002-06-01

    Using a simple and conservative methodology, we estimated the volume and monetary value of the human milk produced by lactating women in Francophone West Africa. In that region, children zero to 35.9 months old consume over 1.1 billion liters of human milk per year. However, suboptimal breastfeeding practices account for the loss of 175 million liters of human milk annually. If the human milk consumed by children zero to 35.9 months old were to be adequately replaced using commercial breastmilk substitutes, an annual expenditure of about 2 billion US dollars would be needed. At the household level, the annual replacement cost of human milk would amount to US$412 per infant. This is beyond the reach of most families in West Africa, where as many as 61% of families in some countries live on less than one US dollar per day. Appropriate policies to foster breastfeeding need to be developed and adequately implemented. Such policy action is more likely to occur if decision makers fully appreciate the monetary value of human milk. PMID:12094665

  16. [Public policy analysis].

    PubMed

    Subirats, J

    2001-01-01

    This article presents to public health professionals concepts and perspectives from political science relevant for creating a healthier public policy. Currently, there is no uniform vision of what constitutes public interest and the decisions of public administrations tend to be based on compromise. In public debate, what is paramount is the capacity to persuade. From the perspective of public policy analysis, the crucial issue is definition: the final decision depends on the definition of the problem that has emerged triumphant in the public debate among competing actors with different definitions of the problem. From a policy analysis perspective, the problems entering the agenda of public administration does not necessarily correspond to their severity, as competing actors try to impose their point of view. Because of its historical evolution, the Spanish political system has specific traits. The relatively weak democratic tradition tends to make the decision process less visibles, with strong technocratic elements and weaker social articulation. Both the juridical tradition and liberal rhetoric portray lobbying as contrary to public interest, when in fact it is constantly performed by powerful vested interest groups, through both personal contacts and economic connections. Regulatory policies, with concentrated costs and diffuse benefits, seem to be moving from Spain to the European Union. To promote healthier public policies, the development of civil society initiatives and the building of coalitions will play an increasingly greater role in the future. PMID:11423032

  17. Education Policy Analysis 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This volume is the companion to the 1997 collection of international education indicators from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), "Education at a Glance--OECD Indicators." It aims to deepen the analysis of current policy issues and facilitate interpretation of data using selected indicators of particular relevance to…

  18. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostow, Eugene V.

    The final report of the President's Task Force on Communications Policy recommends strengthened federal powers to form public policy in telecommunications. Such planned policy would enable the private sector to reach its full capacities in the field by improving regulation when it is necessary and removing unnecessary regulation. Monopoly of…

  19. 75 FR 27857 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy The Department of State's Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy (ACICIP) will hold a..., social and legal issues and problems in international communications and information policy,...

  20. Advanced Placement: Model Policy Components. Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinth, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP), launched in 1955 by the College Board as a program to offer gifted high school students the opportunity to complete entry-level college coursework, has since expanded to encourage a broader array of students to tackle challenging content. This Education Commission of the State's Policy Analysis identifies key components of…

  1. 77 FR 50543 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy The Department of State's Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy (ACICIP) will hold a... information policy, especially as these issues and problems involve users of information and...

  2. 75 FR 881 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy The Department of State's Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy (ACICIP) will hold a... economic, social and legal issues and problems in ] international communications and information...

  3. 75 FR 80105 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... major economic, social and legal issues and problems in international communications and information... of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy The Department of State's Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy (ACICIP) will hold...

  4. 76 FR 28843 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... major economic, social and legal issues and problems in international communications and information... of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy The Department of State's Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy (ACICIP) will hold...

  5. Foreign Policy Communication Dramas: How Mediated Rhetoric Played in Peoria in Campaign '76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragan, John F.; Shields, Donald C.

    A message-centered dramatistic theory of communication was used in conjunction with Q-sort technique and factor analysis to build and test a message-centered foreign-policy inventory that contained three dramatic interpretations of U.S. involvement in foreign affairs: cold war, power politics, and neo-isolationism. Analysis of results from two…

  6. Nurses’ policy influence: A concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    Arabi, Akram; Rafii, Forough; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nurses’ influence on health policy protects the quality of care by access to required recourses and opportunities. This is a new and important concept for nursing; however, research studies on policy influence of nurses in health care sector are lacking a basic conceptual understanding of what this concept represents. The aim of this paper is to clarify the concept of nurses’ policy influence and to propose the definition of this concept, considering the context of Iran. Materials and Methods: The eight stages of Walker and Avant approach was used to guide this concept analysis. Various databases and internet engines were searched to find all related information about the concept. Textbooks were also searched manually. English language literature reports published between 1990 and 2012 were reviewed. Results: Based on the analysis undertaken, nurses’ policy influence is nurses’ ability in influencing decisions and affairs related to health through political knowledge, effective communication, and collaboration with other members of the health team, which results in the improvement of nurses’ job environment and increases patient outcomes. This is a dynamic process situated on a spectrum and is accompanied with nurses’ knowledge, competency, power, and advocacy, and also their ability to change. Conclusions: Nurses have individual views on health care issues and influence health care policies in different ways. With a common understanding of nurses’ policy influence as a concept, nurses will recognize the importance of policy making in the health sector and their influence on this process and also on patients’ outcomes. PMID:24949073

  7. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Domestic Applications of Communication Satellite Technology. Staff Paper Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Task Force on Communications Policy, Washington, DC.

    A staff paper to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy examines the feasibility of a domestic communications satellite system. Although, with expected technological advancement, satellites may play a significant role in domestic transmission and are economically feasible right now, a number of remaining questions make the…

  8. Gender and communication policy in Asia. Special report.

    PubMed

    Pandian, H

    1997-01-01

    This report was prepared as background information for a regional conference of the World Association for Christian Communication. It provides information on gender issues related to communication structures in Australia, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. For each country, a brief description of the policy environment is followed by: 1) a summary of pertinent legislation, policies, and self-regulation efforts; and 2) a discussion of the role of existing mass media councils and monitoring organizations. PMID:12178281

  9. A supervisory control policy over an acoustic communication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, Alireza; Dumon, Jonathan; Canudas-de-Wit, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a supervisory multi-agent control policy over an acoustic communication network subject to imperfections (packet dropout and transmission delay) for localisation of an underwater flow source (e.g., source of chemical pollution, fresh water, etc.) with an unknown location at the bottom of the ocean. A two-loop control policy combined with a coding strategy for reliable communication is presented to perform the above task. A simulator is developed and used to evaluate the trade-offs between quality of communication, transmission delay and control for a fleet of autonomous underwater vehicles supervised over a noisy acoustic communication network by an autonomous surface vessel. It is illustrated that without compensation of the effects of severe random packet dropout, localisation of an unknown underwater flow source is not possible for the condition simulated just by implementing a two-loop control policy. But a two-loop control policy combined with a strategy for reliable communication locates the unknown location of flow source.

  10. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of the 2000 edition of the "Education Policy Analysis Archives." The papers include: (1) "Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence" (Linda Darling-Hammond); (2) "America Y2K: The Obsolescence of Educational Reforms" (Sherman Dorn); (3) "Forces for Change in Mathematics Education: The Case of…

  11. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the 19 articles published in the Electronic Journal "Education Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 1996: (1) "The Achievement Crisis Is Real: A Review of 'The Manufactured Crisis'" (Lawrence C. Stedman); (2) "Staff Development Policy: Fuzzy Choices in an Imperfect Market" (Robert T. Stout); (3) "Making Molehills out of…

  12. Pitfalls in Health Communication: Healthcare Policy, Institution, Structure, & Process

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, José L; Beltrán, Robert A

    2004-01-01

    The state of health communication for a given population is a function of several tiers of structure and process: government policy, healthcare directives, healthcare structure and process, and the ethnosocial realities of a multicultural society. Common yet specific to these tiers of health communication is the interpersonal and intergroup use of language in all its forms. Language is the most common behavior exhibited by humankind. Its use at all tiers determines quality of healthcare and quality of life for healthcare consumers: patients and their families. Of note, at the consumer end, mounting evidence demonstrates that barriers to health communication contribute to poorer access to care, quality of care, and health outcomes. The lack of comprehensible and usable written and spoken language is a major barrier to health communication targeting primary and secondary disease prevention and is a major contributor to the misuse of healthcare, patient noncompliance, rising healthcare costs. In this paper, we cursorily examine the relationship among government policy, institutional directives, and healthcare structure and process and its influence on the public health, especially vulnerable populations. We conclude that limited health communication in the context of changing healthcare environments and diverse populations is an important underpinning of rising healthcare costs and sustained health disparities. More research is needed to improve communication about health at all tiers and to develop health communication interventions that are usable by all population groups. PMID:15208522

  13. Misinformation in eating disorder communications: Implications for science communication policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radford, Benjamin

    Though eating disorders are a serious public health threat, misinformation about these potentially deadly diseases is widespread. This study examines eating disorder information from a wide variety of sources including medical journals, news reports, and popular social activist authors. Examples of misinformation were identified, and three aspects of eating disorders (prevalence, mortality, and etiology) were chosen as key indicators of scientific illiteracy about those illnesses. A case study approach was then adopted to trace examples of misinformation to their original sources whenever possible. A dozen examples include best-selling books, national eating disorder information clearinghouses; the news media; documentary feature films; and a PBS television Nova documentary program. The results provide an overview of the ways in which valid information becomes flawed, including poor journalism, lack of fact-checking, plagiarism, and typographical errors. Less obvious---and perhaps even more important---much of the misinformation results from scientific research being co-opted to promote specific sociopolitical agendas. These results highlight a significant gap in science communication between researchers, the medical community, and the public regarding these diseases, and recommendations to address the problem are offered.

  14. Communicating the Needs of Climate Change Policy Makers to Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Lovell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will describe the challenges that earth scientists face in developing science data products relevant to decision maker and policy needs, and will describe strategies that can improve the two-way communication between the scientist and the policy maker. Climate change policy and decision making happens at a variety of scales - from local government implementing solar homes policies to international negotiations through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Scientists can work to provide data at these different scales, but if they are not aware of the needs of decision makers or understand what challenges the policy maker is facing, they are likely to be less successful in influencing policy makers as they wished. This is because the science questions they are addressing may be compelling, but not relevant to the challenges that are at the forefront of policy concerns. In this chapter we examine case studies of science-policy partnerships, and the strategies each partnership uses to engage the scientist at a variety of scales. We examine three case studies: the global Carbon Monitoring System pilot project developed by NASA, a forest biomass mapping effort for Silvacarbon project, and a forest canopy cover project being conducted for forest management in Maryland. In each of these case studies, relationships between scientists and policy makers were critical for ensuring the focus of the science as well as the success of the decision-making.

  15. Attendance Policies, Instructor Communication, Student Attendance, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jason; Frank, Lisa A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The authors utilized a quasiexperimental design across five sections of a managerial communication course (N = 150) to test the role of course policies and student perceptions of the instructor in influencing student absenteeism and three indicators of student learning: grades, affective learning, and cognitive learning. The experimental group…

  16. Effective Communication in Legal and Public Policy Hearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Jim; Sonsteng, John; Thorstad, Linda

    2014-04-01

    Scientists play a special role in legal debates and public policy decisions. The challenge for scientists who serve as expert witnesses is to communicate effectively in various legal forums, including litigation and legislative hearings. Expert witnesses must not advocate for one side or the other but must be able to convey the meaning as well as the quality and accuracy of their work.

  17. Beliefs Underlying the Decision to Eat Breakfast: The Role of Theory-based Behavioral Analysis in the Development of Policy, Communication and Educational Interventions for Healthy Eating.

    PubMed

    Middlestadt, Susan E; Stevenson, Laurel D; Hung, Chia-Ling; Roditis, Maria Leia; Fly, Alyce D; Sheats, Jylana L

    2011-01-01

    Policy, communication, and education efforts to influence any social or health outcome are more effective if based on an understanding of the underlying behaviors and their determinants. This conceptual paper outlines how behavioral theory can help design interventions for one healthy eating behavior, eating breakfast. More specifically, the paper illustrates how a prominent health behavior theory, the Reasoned Action Approach, can be used to guide formative research to identify factors underlying people's decisions. Select findings are presented from three studies of beliefs underlying eating breakfast: online surveys with 1185 undergraduates from a large university in Indiana; in-depth interviews with 61 adults from four Indiana worksites; and 63 in-depth interviews with students from three middle schools in rural Indiana. Analyses of data from the undergraduates demonstrated the role of self-efficacy. Analyses of data from the working adults revealed the importance of normative beliefs about what employers believed. Analyses comparing consequences perceived by adults with those perceived by middle school students found that both groups believed that eating breakfast would provide energy but only middle school students believed that eating breakfast would improve alertness. For each finding, the theory is presented, the finding is described, implications for interventions are suggested, and the need for additional research is outlined. In sum, theory-based behavioral research can help develop interventions at intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental levels that are warranted to encourage healthy eating. PMID:24089658

  18. Development communication, environment and Sahelian Africa: role, problems and policies.

    PubMed

    Domatob, J K

    1999-06-01

    Sahelian Africans face major environmental, socioeconomic, and development challenges, as the Sahel is currently severely saddled with catastrophic environmental degradation and pollution. While the desert encroaches upon the region, rivers and streams dry up, and sand dunes replace lush vegetation. Areas where trees and forests used to flourish have now degenerated into arid lands. The author discusses development communication and environmental decay in the Sahel. Beginning with consideration of the Sahel's development and environmental disaster, the paper examines to what extent the situation in the Sahel affect Africans and overall humanity, how development communication can help, which problems impede development communication in solving Sahelian environmental challenges, and which development communication policies Africans and the international community should adopt to effectively address the Sahel's problems. PMID:12349163

  19. 7 CFR 3022.8 - Communication of research misconduct policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Communication of research misconduct policies and...-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.8 Communication of research misconduct policies... effectively communicate to their staffs policies and procedures relating to research misconduct, including...

  20. 7 CFR 3022.8 - Communication of research misconduct policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communication of research misconduct policies and...-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.8 Communication of research misconduct policies... effectively communicate to their staffs policies and procedures relating to research misconduct, including...

  1. 7 CFR 3022.8 - Communication of research misconduct policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communication of research misconduct policies and...-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.8 Communication of research misconduct policies... effectively communicate to their staffs policies and procedures relating to research misconduct, including...

  2. 7 CFR 3022.8 - Communication of research misconduct policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Communication of research misconduct policies and...-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.8 Communication of research misconduct policies... effectively communicate to their staffs policies and procedures relating to research misconduct, including...

  3. Succeeding in Science Communication amid Contentious Public Policy Debates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, A.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists are often hesitant to engage in public dialogues about their work, especially when their research has bearing on contentious public policy issues. The Union of Concerned Scientists has conducted dozens of workshops to assist its members in communicating science fairly, accurately and effectively to audiences with mixed opinions about relevant public policy. While public polling indicates that people admire scientists and support scientific research, public understanding lags behind scientific understanding on a variety of issues, from climate change to evolution to vaccination. In many cases, people reject or discount scientific evidence when they perceive their ideology, beliefs or policy preferences as being in conflict with that evidence. These biases make it difficult for scientists to convey their research to many audiences. Based on reviews of social science literature and interactions with its members, the Union of Concerned Scientists has explored methods for surmounting public ideological biases while staying true to the science. In particular, scientists have found success with communicating based on shared values, asking audience members questions about their reactions to science, avoiding unintentional invocation of ideological biases and partnering with non-scientist speakers who can address contentious public policy questions. These methods can allow scientists to more effectively collaborate with stakeholders interested in their research and can build public support for science.

  4. Policies for control of communicable disease in day care centres.

    PubMed Central

    Chouillet, A; Maguire, H; Kurtz, Z

    1992-01-01

    A survey was carried out to identify the availability and quality of guidelines for the prevention and control of communicable disease and procedures in use in child day care centres within the South West Thames Regional Health Authority. A sample of 50 day care centres was investigated including those funded by social services and privately funded day care centres. Policies for the prevention and control of communicable disease for children and staff showed a wide variation between different centres. Exclusion criteria were unclear especially in relation to carriers of the hepatitis B virus and HIV positive children. Channels for reporting and seeking advice were inconsistent. It is recommended that clear and up to date written guidelines on the prevention and control of communicable diseases should be available in all day care centres with clear indications of good practice and channels for reporting and advice. It is desirable that guidelines are agreed by the different health and local authorities throughout the region. PMID:1417054

  5. Structural Analysis of Communication Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conville, Richard L.

    This paper discusses the question of the legitimacy of applying structural analysis to actual human behavior and illustrates its legitimacy by using the reasoning in an essay by Paul Ricoeur. It then asks if the principles of communication development (obliqueness, exchange, and dying) derived from Helen Keller's experience of communication…

  6. Technology Assessment and Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majone, Giandomenico

    1977-01-01

    Argues that the application of policy analysis to technology assessment requires the abandonment of stereotyped approaches and a reformulation of analytical paradigms to include consideration of institutional constraints. Available from: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Box 211, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, single copies available.…

  7. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the 21 articles published in the electronic journal "Education Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 1996. The articles are: (1) "The Political Legacy of School Accountability Systems" (Sherman Dorn); (2) "Review of Stephen Arons's 'Short Route to Chaos'" (Charles L. Glenn); (3) "Planting Land Mines in Common Ground: A…

  8. Rhetorical Analysis in Critical Policy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Rhetorical analysis, an approach to critical discourse analysis, is presented as a useful method for critical policy analysis and its effort to understand the role policies play in perpetuating inequality. A rhetorical analysis of Character "Matters!", the character education policy of a school board in Ontario, Canada, provides an…

  9. Communicating Geosciences with Policy-makers: a Grand Challenge for Academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, W. J.; Walls, M. R.; Boland, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists interested in the broader societal impacts of their research can make a meaningful contribution to policy making in our changing world. Nevertheless, policy and public decision making are the least frequently cited Broader Impacts in proposals and funded projects within NSF's Geosciences Directorate. Academic institutions can play a lead role by introducing this societal dimension of our profession to beginning students, and by enabling interdisciplinary research and promoting communication pathways for experienced career geoscientists. Within the academic environment, the public interface of the geosciences can be presented through curriculum content and creative programs. These include undergraduate minors in economics or public policy designed for scientists and engineers, and internships with policy makers. Federal research institutions and other organizations provide valuable policy-relevant experiences for students. Academic institutions have the key freedom of mission to tackle interdisciplinary research challenges at the interface of geoscience and policy. They develop long-standing relationships with research partners, including national laboratories and state geological surveys, whose work may support policy development and analysis at local, state, regional, and national levels. CSM's Payne Institute for Earth Resources awards mini-grants for teams of researchers to develop collaborative research efforts between engineering/science and policy researchers. Current work in the areas of nuclear generation and the costs of climate policy and on policy alternatives for capturing fugitive methane emissions are examples of work at the interface between the geosciences and public policy. With academic engagement, geoscientists can steward their intellectual output when non-scientists translate geoscience information and concepts into action through public policies.

  10. Institutional analysis for energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Cole, R.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.

  11. A Practical Method of Policy Analysis by Simulating Policy Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, James L.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on a method of policy analysis that has evolved from the previous articles in this issue. The first section, "Toward a Theory of Educational Production," identifies concepts from science and achievement production to be incorporated into this policy analysis method. Building on Kuhn's (1970) discussion regarding paradigms, the…

  12. Guidelines for Communicable Disease Control Policies in Montana Schools: A Guide and Model Policy for Communicable Diseases Including HIV Infected Students and Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This guide was developed to help local school districts review existing policies or establish new policies to address communicable diseases. Based on current scientific and medical information about the safety in allowing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected students and staff to remain at school, it contains a suggested policy for local…

  13. 75 FR 18940 - Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy; Notice of Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Committee on International Communications and Information Policy; Notice of Committee Renewal The Department... Information Policy (ACICIP) for an additional two years. The Committee serves the Department of State in a... information policy. ACICIP members are private sector communications and information technology...

  14. 77 FR 24758 - Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy; Notice of Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Committee on International Communications and Information Policy; Notice of Committee Renewal The Department... Information Policy (ACICIP) for a period of two years. The Committee serves the Department of State in a... information policy. ACICIP members are private sector communications and information technology...

  15. 75 FR 70262 - Statement of Policy Regarding Communications in Connection With Collection of a Decedent's Debt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ..., the Commission published (75 FR 62389) a notice of proposed statement of enforcement policy regarding... Statement of Policy Regarding Communications in Connection With Collection of a Decedent's Debt AGENCY... response to its proposed Statement of Policy Regarding Communications in Connection with Collection of...

  16. NASA's Agency-Wide Strategy for Environmental Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scroggins, Sharon; Duda, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA's risk analysis communication programs associated with changing environmental policies. The topics include: 1) NASA Program Transition; 2) Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC); and 3) Regulatory Tracking and Communication Process.

  17. Public policies and communication affecting forest cover in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami Savaget, E.; Batistella, M.; Aguiar, A. P. D.

    2014-12-01

    The research program Amazalert was based on information delivered by the IPCC through its 2007 report, which indicates forest degradation processes in the Amazonian region as a consequence of anthropogenic actions. Such processes affecting the structural and functional characteristics of ecosystems would harm environmental services that guarantee, for example, the regulation of climate and the provision of fresh water. A survey was organized, through a multidisciplinary perspective, on the main policies and programs that can affect forest cover in the Amazon. These rules and norms seek to regulate societal actions by defining a developmental model for the region. Although deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon have decreased significantly since 2004, some locations maintain high levels of deforestation. In 2013, for example, the municipalities of Monte Alegre, Óbidos, Alenquer, Oriximiná, Curuá and Almeirin, in the northern region of the state of Para, showed the highest rates of deforestation in the Amazon. Managers and stakeholders within these areas are being interviewed to provide insights on how policies are interpreted and applied locally. There is an understanding delay between discourses normalized by federal governmental institutions and claims of local societies. The possible lack of clarity in official discourses added to the absence of a local communicative dynamics cause the phenomenon of incomplete information. Conflicts often occur in local institutional arenas resulting in violence and complex social and historical dissonances, enhanced by other public policies idealized in different temporal and spatial conditions.

  18. Population Analysis: Communicating in Context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

    2008-01-01

    Providing accommodation to a widely varying user population presents a challenge to engineers and designers. It is often even difficult to quantify who is accommodated and who is not accommodated by designs, especially for equipment with multiple critical anthropometric dimensions. An approach to communicating levels of accommodation referred to as population analysis applies existing human factors techniques in novel ways. This paper discusses the definition of population analysis as well as major applications and case studies. The major applications of population analysis consist of providing accommodation information for multivariate problems and enhancing the value of feedback from human-in-the-loop testing. The results of these analyses range from the provision of specific accommodation percentages of the user population to recommendations of design specifications based on quantitative data. Such feedback is invaluable to designers and results in the design of products that accommodate the intended user population.

  19. The Internet and U.S. Communication Policy-Making in Historical and Critical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McChesney, Robert W.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the extent that the emerging communication technological revolution, particularly the Internet, can override the anti-democratic implications of the media marketplace. Shows how corporate control of communication has been removed from communication policy debates. Argues that the new communication technologies are the product of a global…

  20. Policy analysis from first principles

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Scott

    2002-01-01

    The argument of this paper is predicated on the view that social science should start with observation and the specification of a problem to be solved. On that basis, the appropriate properties and conditions of application of relevant tools of analysis should be defined. Evidence is adduced from data for sales volumes and values of a disparate range of goods to show that frequency distributions are commonly fat-tailed. This result implies that any stable population distribution will generally have infinite variance and perhaps undefined mean. Models with agents that reason about their behavior and are influenced by, but do not imitate, other agents known to them will typically generate fat-tailed time series data. A simulation model of intermediated exchange is reported that is populated by such agents and yields the same type of fat-tailed time series and cross-sectional data that is found in data for fast moving consumer goods and for retail outlets. This result supports the proposition that adaptive agent models of markets with agents that reason and are socially embedded have the same statistical signatures as real markets. Whereas this statistical signature precludes any conventional hypothesis testing or forecasting, these models do offer unique opportunities for validation on the basis of domain expertise and qualitative data. Perhaps the most striking conclusion is that neither current social theory nor any similar construct will ever support an effective policy analysis. However, adaptive agent modeling is an effective substitute when embedded in a wider policy analysis procedure. PMID:12011405

  1. Are migrants health policies aimed at improving access to quality healthcare? An analysis of Spanish policies.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, María Luisa; Terraza-Núñez, Rebeca; S-Hernández, Silvia; Vargas, Ingrid; Bosch, Lola; González, Andrea; Pequeño, Sandra; Cantos, Raquel; Martínez, Juan Ignacio; López, Luís Andrés

    2013-12-01

    Although until April 2012, all Spanish citizens regardless of their origin, residence status and work situation were entitled to health care, available evidence suggested inadequate access for immigrants. Following the Aday and Andersen model, we conducted an analysis of policy elements that affect immigrants' access to health care in Spain, based on documentary analysis of national policies and selected regional policies related to migrant health care. Selected documents were (a) laws and plans in force at the time containing migrant health policies and (b) evaluations. The analysis included policy principles, objectives, strategies and evaluations. Results show that the national and regional policies analyzed are based on the principle that health care is a right granted to immigrants by law. These policies include strategies to facilitate access to health care, reducing barriers for entry to the system, for example simplifying requirements and raising awareness, but mostly they address the necessary qualities for services to be able to attend to a more diverse population, such as the adaptation of resources and programs, or improved communication and training. However, limited planning was identified in terms of their implementation, necessary resources and evaluation. In conclusion, the policies address relevant barriers of access for migrants and signal improvements in the health system's responsiveness, but reinforcement is required in order for them to be effectively implemented. PMID:23850165

  2. Science Based Policies: How Can Scientist Communicate their Points Across?

    SciTech Connect

    Elnakat, A. C.

    2002-02-28

    With the complexity of environmental problems faced today, both scientists and policymakers are striving to combine policy and administration with the physical and natural sciences in order to mitigate and prevent environmental degradation. Nevertheless, communicating science to policymakers has been difficult due to many barriers. Even though scientists and policymakers share the blame in the miscommunication. This paper will provide recommendations targeted to the scientific arena. Establishing guidelines for the cooperation of scientists and policymakers can be an unattainable goal due to the complexity and diversity of political policymaking and environmental issues. However, the recommendations provided in this paper are simple enough to be followed by a wide variety of audiences and institutions in the scientific fields. This will aid when trying to fill the gap that has prevented the enhancement of scientific policymaking strategies, which decide on the critical issue s such as the disposal, transportation and production of hazardous waste.

  3. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (81st, Baltimore, Maryland, August 5-8, 1998). Communication Tech and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Communication Tech and Policy section of the Proceedings contains the following 14 papers: "Interactivity Reexamined: An Analysis of Business Web Sites" (Louisa Ha and E. Lincoln James); "Newspaper Size as a Factor in Use of Computer-Assisted Reporting" (Bruce Garrison); "The Rural-Urban Gap in Community Newspaper Editors' Use of Information…

  4. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (85th, Miami, Florida, August 5-8, 2002). Communication Technology & Policy Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The Communication Technology & Policy Division of the proceedings contains the following 7 papers: "Current Status of the Direct Broadcast Satellite Industry: Is DBS a True Alternative to Cable?" (Ju-Yong Ha); "An Analysis of the Characteristics of Early Internet Adopters" (Tien-tsung Lee, Linda Li-Shuan Wang and Paul Bolls); "Digital 'En…

  5. 26 CFR 1.1071-1 - Gain from sale or exchange to effectuate policies of Federal Communications Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... F.c.c. Policy § 1.1071-1 Gain from sale or exchange to effectuate policies of Federal Communications... necessary or appropriate to effectuate a change in a policy of, or the adoption of a new policy by,...

  6. 76 FR 78327 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy The Department of State's Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy (ACICIP) will hold a public meeting on January 12, 2012 from 9 a.m. to...

  7. Wyoming Career and Technical Education Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MPR Associates, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    This policy analysis was produced for the Wyoming Department of Administration and Information by MPR Associates, Inc. Its purpose was to examine federal and state policy related to career and technical education (CTE) to determine whether existing policy (in the form of statutes, rules, regulations, and guidance) could either promote or impede…

  8. The Intellectual Landscape of Critical Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diem, Sarah; Young, Michelle D.; Welton, Anjalé D.; Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Lee, Pei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    What counts as critical policy analysis in education? Over the past 30 years, a tightening of national educational policies can be seen in the USA and across the globe. Over this same period of time, a growing number of educational policy scholars, dissatisfied with traditional frameworks, have used critical frameworks in their analyses. Their…

  9. Policy analysis: a framework for nurse managers.

    PubMed

    Hewison, Alistair

    2007-10-01

    The lack of involvement of nurses in the policy process is an issue of concern which has resulted in calls for nurses to become more active in this area of activity. However, what is often less clear is precisely how this can be done. This paper presents a template for policy analysis which can be used by nurse managers. The nature of policy and policy analysis is explored to provide a broad context for the discussion and the need for managers and nurse managers in particular to be 'policy competent' is established, as a prerequisite for effective management. There is also an examination of policy analysis in nursing which demonstrates why a range of approaches to the analysis of policy is needed. Based on this, a particular framework for policy analysis which can be used by nurse managers is presented. The overall purpose of the paper is to encourage debate in this area and contribute to the development of a specific tool for policy analysis that may help ensure a nursing management perspective informs policy formation and implementation. PMID:17897145

  10. Future Opportunities for Television. Part I. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Staff Paper Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostow, Eugene V.

    A staff paper to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy examines the future of broadcast television. The central question in formulating broadcast policy is how to mesh traditional policies with new technology to exploit fully the potential value of television. Two areas are stressed--the basic structure of TV broadcasting in the…

  11. Toward A Social Policy Analysis Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimson, John; Stimson, Ardyth

    An eight-course curriculum in social policy analysis which follows a policy analysis paradigm is proposed. The undergraduate curriculum concentrates on the ability to appreciate and operate under uncertainty; anticipation of interrelated, unexpected ramifications of new stimuli; understanding of the social construction of problems and their cures;…

  12. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This electronic journal covers a variety of issues related to educational policy. The 22 articles (issues) of Volume 5 analyze aspects of policy in the United States and other countries for elementary, secondary, and higher education. Articles include: (1) "Markets and Myths: Autonomy in Public and Private schools" (Glass); (2) "Where Have All the…

  13. Communicating Scientific Findings to Lawyers, Policy-Makers, and the Public (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W.; Velsko, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation will summarize the authors' collaborative research on inferential errors, bias and communication difficulties that have arisen in the area of WMD forensics. This research involves analysis of problems that have arisen in past national security investigations, interviews with scientists from various disciplines whose work has been used in WMD investigations, interviews with policy-makers, and psychological studies of lay understanding of forensic evidence. Implications of this research for scientists involved in nuclear explosion monitoring will be discussed. Among the issues covered will be: - Potential incompatibilities between the questions policy makers pose and the answers that experts can provide. - Common misunderstandings of scientific and statistical data. - Advantages and disadvantages of various methods for describing and characterizing the strength of scientific findings. - Problems that can arise from excessive hedging or, alternatively, insufficient qualification of scientific conclusions. - Problems that can arise from melding scientific and non-scientific evidence in forensic assessments.

  14. Communications satellite systems capacity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browne, L.; Hines, T.; Tunstall, B.

    1982-01-01

    Analog and digital modulation techniques are compared with regard to efficient use of the geostationary orbit by communications satellites. Included is the definition of the baseline systems (both space and ground segments), determination of interference susceptibility, calculation of orbit spacing, and evaluation of relative costs. It is assumed that voice or TV is communicated at 14/11 GHz using either FM or QPSK modulation. Both the Fixed-Satellite Service and the Broadcasting-Satellite Service are considered. For most of the cases examined the digital approach requires a satellite spacing less than or equal to that required by the analog approach.

  15. Exploring Early Years Educators' Ownership of Language and Communication Knowledge and Skills: A Review of Key Policy and Initial Reflections on "Every Child a Talker" and Its Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    This article examines four significant policy documents that have informed the Department for Children School and Families (DCSF)' s "Every Child a Talker" (ECaT). The analysis focuses on where the ownership of knowledge in relation to communication and language lies as part of policy implementation and training processes. The article then…

  16. Population Analysis: Communicating About Anthropometry in Context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Sherry; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of communications about anthropometry and population analysis in particular for the design of aerospace systems. The difficulty of providing anthropometric accomodation an entire range of the population is reviewed, and the importance of communication of the issues with human system integration is emphasized, and the analysis of population as it applies to existing human factors methodologies is a novel way to assist with the communication. The issues of space suit design and anthropometry is reviewed as an example.

  17. Analysis of Academic Staffing Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Stefan D.

    1980-01-01

    Large-scale Markov chain models and Monte Carlo simulation, two types of models useful for academic managers to analyze academic staffing policies, are described. Their relative advantages and disadvantages regarding technical requirements and performance, as well as managerial usefulness at different levels of the university, are discussed.…

  18. Policy Writers' Conceptions of Language and Communication within one Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philpott, Carey

    2013-01-01

    Ball argues that "policy authors do make concerted efforts to assert control [of readings] by the means at their disposal … [and that] we need to understand those efforts" (Ball, 1994, p. 16). Efforts by policy authors to control readings are influenced by their own assumptions about the nature of language, texts and communication. This…

  19. Building Public Awareness of Development: Communicators, Educators and Evaluation. Policy Brief No. 35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheunpflug, Annette; McDonnell, Ida

    2008-01-01

    Using evaluation to improve performance has become a priority for Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) policy makers and practitioners in the field of public information/communication and education about development. This Policy Brief is an introduction to evaluation, with proposals on how official donors and civil society…

  20. A Comparative Study of Information and Communications Technology Policy in Primary Education in Two Small Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuereb, Kay

    2006-01-01

    Research into small island states emerged during the period of decolonisation with comparative case studies making a valuable contribution. This study was undertaken to evaluate information and communications technology (ICT) policies in primary education in Malta and Jamaica and to consider the influence of small island status on policy and its…

  1. The Domestic Telecommunications Carrier Industry. Part I. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Staff Paper Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostow, Eugene V.

    A staff paper submitted to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy recommends that public policy ensure an integrated structure in the telecommunications industry, while fostering limited competition to keep the system responsive to new technology and to consumer demands. The present system of regulated monopoly for companies supplying…

  2. The Texas State Library Communication Network, Policy and Procedure Manual. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Library, Austin.

    The goal of the Texas State Library Communication Network (TSLCN) is service to the library patrons of the state. Acceptable policies and procedures contribute to efficient network operation. Although the goal of the TSLCN is unchanged, this second edition of the "Policy and Procedure Manual" refines and improves a functioning system. The steady…

  3. Policy Issues in Planning for Distance Education Using a Domestic Communication Satellite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, J. Eric; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Considers important political and practical issues within the field of distance education raised by the decision for Australia to have its own communications satellite. The experiences of other countries are examined and the importance of communication policy and planning, educational needs-assessment, cost-effectiveness studies, resource…

  4. Anonymous Communication Policies for the Internet: Results and Recommendations of the AAAS Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Al; Frankel, Mark S.; Kling, Rob; Lee, Yaching

    1999-01-01

    Reports the results of a conference on the Internet and anonymous communication organized by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Discusses how anonymous communications can be shaped by the law, education, and public awareness, and highlights the importance of involving all affected interests in policy development.…

  5. Toward a Policy for Managing the Use of Computer Mediated Communication in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Douglas J.

    Noting that there has been tremendous growth in the number of businesses and not-for-profit organizations which have become equipped with computers and have empowered workers to communicate with them, this paper sheds light on policy issues related to managing the use of computer mediated communication (CMC). The paper first summarizes CMC's…

  6. Why Communications Policy Is Passing "Mass Communication" By: Political Economy as the Missing Link (Review and Criticism).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Milton

    1995-01-01

    Argues that communications scholarship has had no significant impact on public policy. Argues that classical political economy offers an intellectual tradition with which the field ought to connect, and shows how certain problems can be approached in an integrated manner. Criticizes the field's failure to recognize multiple versions of critical…

  7. Adaptive Optics Communications Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Vilnrotter, V.; Troy, M.; Wilson, K.

    2004-01-01

    The performance improvement obtained through the use of adaptive optics for deep-space communications in the presence of atmospheric turbulence is analyzed. Using simulated focal-plane signal-intensity distributions, uncoded pulse-position modulation (PPM) bit-error probabilities are calculated assuming the use of an adaptive focal-plane detector array as well as an adaptively sized single detector. It is demonstrated that current practical adaptive optics systems can yield performance gains over an uncompensated system ranging from approximately 1 dB to 6 dB depending upon the PPM order and background radiation level.

  8. Communication analysis for the expendable explorer spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This report provides the results of communication analysis for the baseline and enhanced performance spacecraft designs proposed for Expendable Explorer Spacecraft (EES) series of missions. Five classes of orbits (Geosynchronous, Circular-28 degree inclination, Polar-90 degree inclination, Sunsynchronous-97 degree inclination, Molniya orbit) and a set of candidate instrument payloads provided by the ESS Study Manager were used to formulate the basis for the ESS Communications Study. The study was performed to assess the feasibility of using Space Network or ground stations for supporting the communications, tracking and data handling of the candidate instruments that are proposed to be launched into the desired orbit.

  9. Performance analysis of instrumentation system management policies

    SciTech Connect

    Waheed, A.; Melfi, V.F.; Rover, D.T.

    1995-12-01

    Run-time trace data helps to debug and analyze the parallel programs. Obtaining and managing this data during run-time is the responsibility of an instrumentation system that incurs overhead. In its worst case, this overhead can result in severe perturbation of the behavior of the actual program. This paper presents a queuing model for an instrumentation system. The purpose is to provide a rigorous mathematical tool that could allow the analysis of the overhead of program behavior due to the instrumentation system management policies. We summarize the effects of two management policies: FOF and FAOF policies.

  10. Communicating Prevention Messages to Policy Makers: The Role of Stories in Promoting Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakis, Katherine A.; McBride, Timothy D.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2014-01-01

    Background While effective interventions to promote physical activity have been identified, efforts to translate these interventions into policy have lagged behind. In order to improve the translation of evidence into policy, researchers and public health practitioners need to consider new ways for communicating health promoting messages to state and local policymakers. Methods In this article, we describe issues related to the translation of evidence supporting physical activity promotion, and offer some communication approaches and tools that are likely to be beneficial in translating research to policy. Results We discuss the use of narrative (i.e., stories) and describe its potential role in improving communication of research in policy-making settings. In addition, we provide an outline for the development and design of policy briefs on physical activity, and for how to target these briefs effectively to policy-oriented audiences. Conclusions Improvements in researchers' and practitioners' abilities to translate the evidence they generate into high-quality materials for policy makers can greatly enhance efforts to enact policies that promote physical activity. PMID:20440020

  11. Science Communication: Recognizing the Obligation to Effectively Inform Management and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, M. H.

    2006-12-01

    Society, managers and policy makers are increasingly calling upon the role of science to inform the development of sound and effective policy decisions. This growing recognition of the potential contributions of science is reflected in the recent frequency in which "science- based" decision making is required by policy recommendations and legislative acts. This endorsement of science-based decision making is motivated both by the ability of scientific information to guide relevant decisions, and by the perception of science as an objective mediator of contentious decisions in a political process. Only by active participation of scientists that are both objective and truly knowledgeable in the relevant science can science inform management and policy decisions effectively. Only by participation and effective communication of multiple scientific perspectives can science inform policy objectively. For society and policy makers to maintain and increase how much they value science in policy making, it is essential that scientists recognize the necessity, the obligation, to develop skills to effectively communicate scientific information to non-scientific audiences. I draw from recent personal experiences on the science advisory team to California's Marine Life Protection Act to provide examples of both the difficulty and necessity in participating and communicating effectively in policy making processes.

  12. [Policy, management and participation in health: a reflection based on Habermas' theory of communicative action].

    PubMed

    Müller Neto, Júlio Strubing; Artmann, Elizabeth

    2012-12-01

    The article discusses the appropriation of the theory developed by Habermas to analyze health policies and management. The fundamental concepts of the discursive theory of democracy as a deliberative policy, procedural democracy, the public sphere and civil society are analyzed. An attempt is made to demonstrate that the concepts of deliberative policies are grounded on basic theoretical categories of Habermas's conception of language, namely the theory of communicative action (TCA): lifeworld and system; communicative action and discourse; the ideal speech situation. The possibility of translating the categories presented in analytical categories, such as the experiences of social participation in deliberative forums and the results for the formulation and implementation of policies and health management is discussed. The conclusion drawn is that the theoretical categories reveal great explanatory potential and analytical categories are important provided that they are mediated and contextualized. PMID:23175416

  13. The Department of Communications: A Plan and Policy for the Abolition of the Federal Communications Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Michael; Atkin, David

    This paper, maintaining that few areas of federal oversight have been as inconsistently addressed as that involving the regulation of broadcast and wire communication, presents and evaluates a proposal to abolish the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and National Telecommunications and Information Administration in favor of a cabinet-level…

  14. An Extended Analysis of Communications Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Paul

    Quantitative techniques of content analysis were used on documentary and mass communication material from Communist China as a means of identifying and accounting for social, political, and economic change in that society. Articles from "The People's Daily" and the "China Youth Post," radio dispatches, wall posters, terms, and slogans were coded…

  15. Board Adds Two New Members With Expertise in Communication and Science Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Christine W.

    2010-11-01

    AGU's Board of Directors approved two new members during a special teleconference on 8 November. The appointments are related to AGU's strategic plan goal of addressing science and society. Specifically, they add to AGU's expertise in science communication and policy outreach. Author Chris Mooney and policy advisor Floyd DesChamps join AGU's Board of Directors immediately and will serve the remainder of the 2010-2012 term.

  16. Design And Analysis Of Optical Communication Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, J. R.; Marshall, W. K.; Katz, J.

    1989-01-01

    To convey to prospective designers intuitive understanding based on unique characteristics of optical communication systems, report presents method of design and analysis of outer-space optical communication link using pulse-position modulation (PPM) and in which received signal sufficiently weak to require detection by photomultiplier operating in photon-counting mode. Step 1 requires some knowledge or assumptions about parameters of transmitter and receiver. Step 2 determination of average number of background-noise photons detected during PPM timeslot. Step 3 average number, Ps of signal photons detected per signal pulse compared with average number, Pn of noise pulses detected per PPM timeslot.

  17. Assessing and communicating data quality in policy-relevant research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanza, Robert; Funtowicz, Silvio O.; Ravetz, Jerome R.

    1992-01-01

    The quality of scientific information in policy-relevant fields of research is difficult to assess, and quality control in these important areas is correspondingly difficult to maintain. Frequently there are insufficient high-quality measurements for the presentation of the statistical uncertainty in the numerical estimates that are crucial to policy decisions. We propose and develop a grading system for numerical estimates that can deal with the full range of data quality—from statistically valid estimates to informed guesses. By analyzing the underlying quality of numerical estimates, summarized as spread and grade, we are able to provide simple rules whereby input data can be coded for quality, and these codings carried through arithmetical calculations for assessing the quality of model results. For this we use the NUSAP (numeral, unit, spread, assessment, pedigree) notational system. It allows the more quantitative and the more qualitative aspects of data uncertainty to be managed separately. By way of example, we apply the system to an ecosystem valuation study that used several different models and data of widely varying quality to arrive at a single estimate of the economic value of wetlands. The NUSAP approach illustrates the major sources of uncertainty in this study and can guide new research aimed at the improvement of the quality of outputs and the efficiency of the procedures.

  18. Recontextualizing Information and Communication Technologies: The Discourse of Educational Policies in Brazil (1995-2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreto, Raquel Goulart

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how Information and Communication Technologies (henceforth ICT) have been recontextualized in Brazilian educational policies, between 1995 and 2007, from a discourse analytical perspective, focusing on the dialectic relations between structures and strategies, especially as far as teacher education is concerned. It is divided…

  19. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Staff Paper Five. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Task Force on Communications Policy, Washington, DC.

    The second part of a staff paper to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy dealing with the domestic telecommunications carrier industry consists of the final two appendices. In the first, the history, structure, present services, and future plans of the Western Union Telegraph Company are discussed. Evidence is given that by allowing…

  20. The Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Script Policy in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Premaratne, Dilhara D.

    2009-01-01

    Information and communication technology appears to have had a profound impact on language use in Japan. An important issue arising from this is said to be the increase in the use of Chinese characters (kanji) outside the official standard. This development has made a re-appraisal of the existing script policy necessary in order to accommodate the…

  1. Legalized or Not? Poor Public Communication Causes Confusion over the New Cannabis Policy in Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelders, Dave; Van Mierlo, Jan

    2004-01-01

    During the last three years, the newly announced drug policy, specifically cannabis, has been the subject of debate between the Government and the opposition parties within the Belgian Federal Government. Public communication by the Federal Government and the competent ministers was incomplete, untimely, inconsistent, tendentious and polemical.…

  2. Communicating population issues in sub-Saharan Africa: a development policy for Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Pratt, C

    1986-01-01

    The author proposes a strategy for the development of a communication policy that would slow population growth, with particular reference to the situation in Nigeria and other African countries. The focus is on the involvement of individuals at the local level in discussion groups to create the atmosphere for developing small family norms. PMID:12280677

  3. Office of Telecommunications Policy; The White House Role in Domestic Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Network Project.

    In 1970, President Nixon created the White House Office of Telecommunications Policy (OTP) and appointed Clay T. Whitehead as its first director. This young office has attained influential power in the broad field of telecommunications and, some say, has jeopardized the independence of the public's communications custodian, the Federal…

  4. 77 FR 28655 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    .... The committee provides a formal channel for regular consultation and coordination on major economic... economic issues related to the Internet. Members of the public may submit suggestions and comments to the... of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy The Department of...

  5. The Production, Communication, and Contestation of Physical Education Policy: The Cases of Mississippi and Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Ben; Wright, Paul M.; Amis, John; Ferry, Hugh; Vardaman, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the production, communication, interpretation and contestation of new physical education (PE) and physical activity (PA) policy initiatives introduced in Mississippi and Tennessee for the academic year 2006-2007. These states provide a relevant context to study such issues, since Mississippi has the highest…

  6. An Introduction to Policy Analysis from an Hispanic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Emily G.

    Up until now Hispanics have not gotten involved in the policy analysis field. By learning to specifically assess the actual or potential impact of alternate policies or programs, it will be possible to help decision makers adopt policies which are more equitable to Hispanics. The following steps may help an individual carry out policy analysis:…

  7. Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: The Changing Emphasis in Educational Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    Stemming from my article entitled, "Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: What is Policy?," this article refers to the changing landscape of educational policy analysis. Policy influences the nature of teaching and learning and if teachers are to re-centre teachers' voices and combat the neo-liberal agenda underpinning public education, they must…

  8. The Impact of Various Definitions of "Policy" on the Nature and Outcomes of Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guba, Egon G.

    The impact of various definitions of the term "policy" on the nature and outcomes of policy analysis is illustrated by noting a variety of definitions which are implied in the literature. These definitions are applied to exemplar policy arenas to note their differential effect. The policy arenas discussed include the community corrections program…

  9. The Deregulation of U.S. Communication Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeske, Milan D.

    This analysis of government regulation of America's broadcast service provides: (1) a historical view of radio and television regulation, including the doctrines of scarcity and public trustee and other areas affected by deregulation in particular; (2) an analysis of the argument for deregulation; and (3) an assessment of the First Amendment, the…

  10. NCRP Program Area Committee 7: Radiation Education, Risk Communication, Outreach, and Policy.

    PubMed

    Becker, S M; Locke, P A

    2016-02-01

    Recognizing the central importance of effective communication, education, and policy across all of the domains of radiation safety and radiation protection, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) established a new committee in 2013. Program Area Committee 7 (PAC 7) was created to develop projects and provide guidance on "Radiation Education, Risk Communication, Outreach, and Policy." After identifying individuals with relevant expertise who were willing to serve, the Committee held its inaugural meeting in 2014. In 2015, the Committee increased its membership and began carrying out an expanded program of activities. One area of activity has involved providing input and feedback on risk communication issues to NCRP and other agencies. Another area of work has involved liaising with other NCRP committees (e.g., Council Committee 1 and PAC 3) to help incorporate psychosocial and risk communication issues into projects. Future efforts of NCRP's newest PAC are expected to include the development of authoritative reports and commentaries dealing with critical issues and challenges in radiation risk communication, education, and policy. PMID:26717162

  11. Information and Communication Technology in Teacher Education in Vietnam: From Policy to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeraer, Jef; Van Petegem, Peter

    2012-01-01

    During the school year 2008-2009, the Ministry of Education and Training of Vietnam launched the "Year of ICT" to produce a breakthrough in educational innovation. In light of this development we have carried out a policy analysis to study the national vision on ICT in education. The policy analysis takes into account a decade of governmental…

  12. 41 CFR 105-53.141 - Office of Policy Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Analysis. 105-53.141 Section 105-53.141 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.141 Office of Policy Analysis. The Office of Policy Analysis, headed by the Associate Administrator for Policy Analysis, is responsible for providing analytical...

  13. 41 CFR 105-53.141 - Office of Policy Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Analysis. 105-53.141 Section 105-53.141 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.141 Office of Policy Analysis. The Office of Policy Analysis, headed by the Associate Administrator for Policy Analysis, is responsible for providing analytical...

  14. A Policy Analysis of Nonformal Education: The Case of Bolivia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    This document discusses policy analysis of nonformal education by defining terms and then applying them to the specific case of Bolivia. A definition of policy is proposed and policy analysis is discussed in terms of political analysis and institutional analysis. The necessity for nonformal education is explored through historical background and…

  15. Breastfeeding policy: a globally comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Raub, Amy; Earle, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the extent to which national policies guaranteeing breastfeeding breaks to working women may facilitate breastfeeding. Methods An analysis was conducted of the number of countries that guarantee breastfeeding breaks, the daily number of hours guaranteed, and the duration of guarantees. To obtain current, detailed information on national policies, original legislation as well as secondary sources on 182 of the 193 Member States of the United Nations were examined. Regression analyses were conducted to test the association between national policy and rates of exclusive breastfeeding while controlling for national income level, level of urbanization, female percentage of the labour force and female literacy rate. Findings Breastfeeding breaks with pay are guaranteed in 130 countries (71%) and unpaid breaks are guaranteed in seven (4%). No policy on breastfeeding breaks exists in 45 countries (25%). In multivariate models, the guarantee of paid breastfeeding breaks for at least 6 months was associated with an increase of 8.86 percentage points in the rate of exclusive breastfeeding (P < 0.05). Conclusion A greater percentage of women practise exclusive breastfeeding in countries where laws guarantee breastfeeding breaks at work. If these findings are confirmed in longitudinal studies, health outcomes could be improved by passing legislation on breastfeeding breaks in countries that do not yet ensure the right to breastfeed. PMID:24052676

  16. Professional development through policy advocacy: communicating and advocating for health and health equity.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Lydia Berenice; Hernandez, Kristen Eileen; Mata, Holly

    2015-03-01

    Communicating and advocating for evidence-based public health policy is a key component of health promotion practice, but public health professionals often lack experience in policy advocacy. This article provides perspectives from public health professionals who participated in successful public health policy advocacy efforts in their community. Their experiences using evidence-based research to advocate for policies that promote health equity contributed significantly to their career development, and also contributed to community capacity to reduce tobacco-related disparities. This article builds on previous work emphasizing the value of career development opportunities that enhance and diversify the public health workforce, and provides practical tips and "lessons learned" that are relevant to a wide range of public health professionals. PMID:25416310

  17. Feminist Policy Analysis: Expanding Traditional Social Work Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanenberg, Heather

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to move the methodology of policy analysis beyond the traditional and artificial position of being objective and value-free, this article is a call to those working and teaching in social work to consider a feminist policy analysis lens. A review of standard policy analysis models is presented alongside feminist models. Such a…

  18. [Integrated model system for environmental policy analysis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lin

    2006-05-01

    An integrated model system for environmental policy analysis is built up with a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model as a core model, which is linked with an environmental model, air dispersion model, and health effect model (exposure-response functions) in an explicit way, therefore the model system is capable of evaluating the effects of policies on environment, health and economy and their interactions comprehensively. This method is used to analyze the effects of Beijing presumptive (energy) taxes on air quality, health, welfare and economic growth, and the conclusion is that sole presumptive taxes may slow down the economic growth, but the presumptive taxes with green tax reform can promote Beijing sustainable development. PMID:16850855

  19. Management and Communicator Style: A Correlational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Patricia Hayes; Baird, John E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between communicator style and managerial behavior in the organizational context and concludes that different styles of management which are typified by different styles of communication could significantly affect organizational communication practices. (MH)

  20. Cross-impacts analysis development and energy policy analysis applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Scheer, R.M.; Stacey, G.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe the cross-impact analysis process and microcomputer software developed for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPA) of DOE. First introduced in 1968, cross-impact analysis is a technique that produces scenarios of future conditions and possibilities. Cross-impact analysis has several unique attributes that make it a tool worth examining, especially in the current climate when the outlook for the economy and several of the key energy markets is uncertain. Cross-impact analysis complements the econometric, engineering, systems dynamics, or trend approaches already in use at DOE. Cross-impact analysis produces self-consistent scenarios in the broadest sense and can include interaction between the economy, technology, society and the environment. Energy policy analyses that couple broad scenarios of the future with detailed forecasting can produce more powerful results than scenario analysis or forecasts can produce alone.

  1. Design for an Analysis and Assessment of the Education Satellite Communications Demonstration: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Concepts, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A 3-month evaluation design effort developed a strategy and implementation plan for a policy level evaluation of the Educational Satellite Communications Demonstration (ESCD). The final report of the effort covers: (1) development of the evaluation strategy and plan; (2) data collection and analysis; (3) measurement of the impact of satellite TV…

  2. Educational Reform in Athletic Training: A Policy Analysis.

    PubMed

    Craig, Debbie I.

    2003-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To apply a policy-analysis framework to the athletic training educational reform policy that will be fully implemented by January 2004. DATA SOURCES: Policy analysis is not a specific science. No one framework exists for conducting all policy analyses. I used literature from the education, policy analysis, and athletic training fields as data sources to provide background and to create a framework from which to conduct the policy analysis. DATA SYNTHESIS: Once the policy-analysis framework was selected, I began data synthesis, using several athletic training sources in support of the findings. The tension among the myriad stakeholders in this policy is clear. Although many see the benefits of accreditation, some experience hardships from the imposed policy. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Of the 4 possible alternatives suggested, following the route currently under implementation (Committee on Accreditation of Health Education Programs accreditation) was the most agreeable solution. The goals as stated by the policy makers are attained by the policy. However, issues within the accreditation process itself need to be addressed. Of the many stakeholders in the reform effort, some will see little gain and have many hardships imposed on them. As the policy is implemented, unintended implications will likely arise, as with any new policy. Thus, I recommend that the National Athletic Trainers' Association develop a system dedicated solely to reducing the hardships faced by many of its members as the policy is implemented. PMID:14737218

  3. Educational Reform in Athletic Training: A Policy Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To apply a policy-analysis framework to the athletic training educational reform policy that will be fully implemented by January 2004. Data Sources: Policy analysis is not a specific science. No one framework exists for conducting all policy analyses. I used literature from the education, policy analysis, and athletic training fields as data sources to provide background and to create a framework from which to conduct the policy analysis. Data Synthesis: Once the policy-analysis framework was selected, I began data synthesis, using several athletic training sources in support of the findings. The tension among the myriad stakeholders in this policy is clear. Although many see the benefits of accreditation, some experience hardships from the imposed policy. Conclusions/Recommendations: Of the 4 possible alternatives suggested, following the route currently under implementation (Committee on Accreditation of Health Education Programs accreditation) was the most agreeable solution. The goals as stated by the policy makers are attained by the policy. However, issues within the accreditation process itself need to be addressed. Of the many stakeholders in the reform effort, some will see little gain and have many hardships imposed on them. As the policy is implemented, unintended implications will likely arise, as with any new policy. Thus, I recommend that the National Athletic Trainers' Association develop a system dedicated solely to reducing the hardships faced by many of its members as the policy is implemented. PMID:14737218

  4. Non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries: context, determinants and health policy

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. J.; Kinra, S.; Casas, J. P.; Smith, G. Davey; Ebrahim, S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The rise of non-communicable diseases and their impact in low- and middle-income countries has gained increased attention in recent years. However, the explanation for this rise is mostly an extrapolation from the history of high-income countries whose experience differed from the development processes affecting today’s low- and middle-income countries. This review appraises these differences in context to gain a better understanding of the epidemic of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Theories of developmental and degenerative determinants of non-communicable diseases are discussed to provide strong evidence for a causally informed approach to prevention. Health policies for non-communicable diseases are considered in terms of interventions to reduce population risk and individual susceptibility and the research needs for low- and middle-income countries are discussed. Finally, the need for health system reform to strengthen primary care is highlighted as a major policy to reduce the toll of this rising epidemic. PMID:18937743

  5. “…still waiting for chloroquine”: the challenge of communicating changes in first-line treatment policy for uncomplicated malaria in a remote Kenyan district

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Widespread parasite resistance to first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria leads to introduction of new drug interventions. Introducing such interventions is complex and sensitive because of stakeholder interests and public resistance. To enhance take up of such interventions, health policy communication strategies need to deliver accurate and accessible information to empower communities with necessary information and address problems of cultural acceptance of new interventions. Objectives To explore community understanding of policy changes in first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Kenya; to evaluate the potential role of policy communication in influencing responses to changes in first-line treatment policy. Methods Data collection involved qualitative strategies in a remote district in the Kenyan Coast: in-depth interviews (n = 29), focus group discussions (n = 14), informal conversations (n = 11) and patient narratives (n = 8). Constant comparative method was used in the analysis. Being malaria-prone and remotely located, the district offered an ideal area to investigate whether or not and how policy communication about a matter as critical as change of treatment policy reaches vulnerable populations. Results Three years after initial implementation (2009), there was limited knowledge or understanding regarding change of first-line treatment from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in the study district. The print and electronic media used to create awareness about the drug change appeared to have had little impact. Although respondents were aware of the existence of AL, the drug was known neither by name nor as the official first-line treatment. Depending on individuals or groups, AL was largely viewed negatively. The weaknesses in communication strategy surrounding the change to AL included poor choice of communication tools, confusing

  6. Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James

    2010-01-01

    NASA s communication work for the UAS Command and Control area will build upon work currently being conducted under NASA Recovery Act funds. Communication portions of UAS NextGen ConOps, Stateof- the-Art assessment, and Gap Analysis. Preliminary simulations for UAS CNPC link scalability assessment. Surrogate UAS aircraft upgrades. This work will also leverage FY10 in-guide funding for communication link model development. UAS are currently managed through exceptions and are operating using DoD frequencies for line-of-sight (LOS) and satellite-based communications links, low-power LOS links in amateur bands, or unlicensed Instrument/Scientific/Medical (ISM) frequencies. None of these frequency bands are designated for Safety and Regularity of Flight. No radio-frequency (RF) spectrum has been allocated by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) specifically for UAS command and control links, for either LOS or Beyond LOS (BLOS) communication.

  7. The Critical Policy Discourse Analysis Frame: Helping Doctoral Students Engage with the Educational Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses an issue of increasing significance in the context of taught educational doctorates and argues that this may have wider applicability for doctoral students across a range of social science disciplines. It identifies the need to engage with policy analysis as a key element of such programmes and attempts to address…

  8. The Virtual Environmental Microbiology Center - A Social Network for Enhanced Communication between Water Researchers and Policy Makers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective communication within and between organizations involved in research and policy making activities is essential. Sharing information across organizational and geographic boundaries can also facilitate coordination and collaboration, promote a better understanding of tech...

  9. Biases in the instrumental temperature record: the policy and communications context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowtan, K.; Way, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    Global surface temperature plays a significant role in the public perception of climate change. However, observations are not uniformly distributed over the surface of the planet. The lack of data for the rapidly warming Arctic in the Met Office HadCRUT4 dataset has led to a systematic underestimation of the rate of warming over the past decade and a half. Smaller biases have also been detected in other versions of the temperature record. This underestimation of recent temperature trends is one contributory factor (of several) to the apparent 'hiatus' in global warming. The use of the putative hiatus as an argument against action on global warming has created a social context in which what should have been a minor technical paper appeared to take on a much greater significance. From a scientific perspective, the apparent hiatus is irrelevant to our understanding of long term greenhouse warming, and should therefore have no bearing on policy. However the misinformation context into which science is communicated means that any scientific work can take on a policy significance which is determined not by the work itself, but by the societal context. This raises challenging ethical questions for scientists. In an information environment in which interested parties have already attached policy implications to many aspects of climate science, it becomes impossible to publish or communicate a scientific work without implicitly taking a position. Different segments of the public have different and often contradictory perceptions of the scientific context, and as a result the words of the scientist may convey completely different messages to different hearers. Communicating science in a way which does not mislead is difficult, however abandoning the effort at communication can lead to the public being more misled.

  10. Analysis of Relational Communication in Dyads: New Measurement Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, L. Edna; Farace, Richard

    Relational communication refers to the control or dominance aspects of message exchange in dyads--distinguishing it from the report or referential aspects of communication. In relational communicational analysis, messages as transactions are emphasized; major theoretical concepts which emerge are symmetry, transitoriness, and complementarity of…

  11. How do the public and policy makers communicate their perceptions of environmental risk to academics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    This paper investigates the ways that the public and policy makers talk about environmental risk to academics. The case study is heavy-metal contamination of food in Zambia, Southern Africa. In several localities in Zambia, urban agriculture is practised using heavy-metal contamination wastewater for irrigation. This leads to contaminated food crops that are subsequently consumed. One case study site where this occurs is Chunga, situated in the northwest of the Zambian capital: Lusaka. For members of the public, six focus groups were carried out at the Chunga, Zambia study site, involving a total of 48 participants. The participants were those involved in urban agriculture through cultivation, selling and consumption of food crops. Urban agriculturalist focus group participants were recruited through key field informants. Focus group discussion starter questions involved pollution awareness, health impacts of pollution in the area and who is responsible for communicating environmental contamination risks to the general population. For policy stakeholders, 39 semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals from various organisations including government ministries, non-governmental organisations, community based organisations and international institutions. Semi-structured interviews investigated the perceived major health issues in Zambia, food safety, environmental contamination and specifically heavy-metal contamination. Policy stakeholders were identified through policy mapping and organisations mentioned in focus group discussions and other interviews. The results at the Chunga study site show that members of the public perceive: (i) heavy metal pollution is not an issue in Lusaka and for their irrigation practices, (ii) dirty food can cause illness, (iii) heavy metals in foods can cause illness but they are not present at the Chunga site. Amongst urban agriculturalists the quantity of food available is the greatest issue, with some saying that they

  12. Economic analysis of nutrition interventions for chronic disease prevention: methods, research, and policy.

    PubMed

    Wong, John B; Coates, Paul M; Russell, Robert M; Dwyer, Johanna T; Schuttinga, James A; Bowman, Barbara A; Peterson, Sarah A

    2011-09-01

    Increased interest in the potential societal benefit of incorporating health economics as a part of clinical translational science, particularly nutrition interventions, led the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health to sponsor a conference to address key questions about the economic analysis of nutrition interventions to enhance communication among health economic methodologists, researchers, reimbursement policy makers, and regulators. Issues discussed included the state of the science, such as what health economic methods are currently used to judge the burden of illness, interventions, or healthcare policies, and what new research methodologies are available or needed to address knowledge and methodological gaps or barriers. Research applications included existing evidence-based health economic research activities in nutrition that are ongoing or planned at federal agencies. International and US regulatory, policy, and clinical practice perspectives included a discussion of how research results can help regulators and policy makers within government make nutrition policy decisions, and how economics affects clinical guideline development. PMID:21884133

  13. Narrative Policy Analysis and the Use of the Meta-Narrative in Participatory Policy Development within Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Narrative policy analysis is examined for its contribution to participatory policy development within higher education. Within narrative policy analysis the meta-narrative is developed by the policy analyst in order to find a way to bridge opposing narratives. This development can be combined with participants deliberating in a policy process,…

  14. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  15. Understanding interprofessional communication: a content analysis of email communications between doctors and nurses

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C. N. C.; Quan, S.D.; Morra, D.; Rossos, P.G.; Khatibi, H.; Lo, V.; Wong, H.; Wu, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical communication is recognized as a major source of errors in hospitals. The lack of documentation of communication, especially among verbal interactions, often creates hindrances and impedes improvement efforts. By providing smartphones to residents and encouraging nurses to communicate with residents by email shifted much of the communication to emails which permitted analysis of content. Objective Description on the interprofessional email communication between doctors and nurses occurring on the general internal medicine wards at two academic hospitals. Design A prospective analysis of email communications between doctors and nurses. Setting 34 out of the 67 residents who were on the general medicine clinical teaching units consented to allow analysis of their emails over a 6 month period. Main measures Statistical tabulations were performed on the volume and frequency of communications as well the response time of messages. Two physicians coded the content of randomly selected emails for urgency, emotion, language, type of interaction, and subject content. Key results A total of 13,717 emails were available for analysis. Among the emails from nurses, 39.1% were requests for a call back, 18.9% were requests for a response by email and the remaining 42.0% indicated no response was required from physicians. For the messages requesting a response by email, only 50% received an email response. Email responses had a median response time of 2.3 minutes. Content analysis revealed that messages were predominantly non-urgent. The two most frequent purposes for communications were to convey information (91%) and to request action by the physician (36%). Conclusions A smartphone-based email system facilitated the description and content analysis of a large amount of email communication between physicians and nurses. Our findings provide a picture of the communication between physicians, nurses and other healthcare professionals. This work may help inform

  16. The Reliability of Content Analysis of Computer Conference Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattleff, Pernille

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this article is the reliability of content analysis of students' computer conference communication. Content analysis is often used when researching the relationship between learning and the use of information and communications technology in educational settings. A number of studies where content analysis is used and classification…

  17. Standardizing Handoff Communication: Content Analysis of 27 Handoff Mnemonics.

    PubMed

    Nasarwanji, Mahiyar F; Badir, Aysel; Gurses, Ayse P

    2016-01-01

    This study synthesizes information contained in 27 mnemonics to identify what information should be communicated during a handoff. Clustering and content analysis resulted in 12 primary information clusters that should be communicated. Given the large amount of information identified, it would be beneficial to use a structured handoff communication tool developed using a participatory approach. In addition, we recommend local standardization of information communicated during handoffs with variation across settings. PMID:26845420

  18. Policies on Private Education: An Economics Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fengqiao, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Basic principles and analytical methods of economics are used to conduct a preliminary study of state policies for private education in China. It is evident that if public policy is to exert a positive effect on private education, the government must formulate policies at a higher level for private education and give equal attention to choice,…

  19. Policy as Practice: Toward a Comparative Sociocultural Analysis of Educational Policy. Sociocultural Studies in Educational Policy Formation and Appropriation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Margaret, Ed.; Levinson, Bradley A. U., Ed.

    Over the past 20 years, approaches to educational policy analysis have opened up to qualitative research methods and to sociocultural perspectives on schooling. This volume is a collection of studies that view educational policy from a variety of angles and at different levels of social life. It consists of 12 chapters: (1) "Are Pedagogical Ideals…

  20. Space Shuttle program communication and tracking systems interface analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, J. G.; Holmes, J. K.; Huth, G. K.; Iwasaki, R. S.; Nilsen, P. W.; Polydoros, A.; Sampaio, D. R.; Udalov, S.

    1984-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program Communications and Tracking Systems Interface Analysis began April 18, 1983. During this time, the shuttle communication and tracking systems began flight testing. Two areas of analysis documented were a result of observations made during flight tests. These analyses involved the Ku-band communication system. First, there was a detailed analysis of the interface between the solar max data format and the Ku-band communication system including the TDRSS ground station. The second analysis involving the Ku-band communication system was an analysis of the frequency lock loop of the Gunn oscillator used to generate the transmit frequency. The stability of the frequency lock loop was investigated and changes to the design were reviewed to alleviate the potential loss of data due the loop losing lock and entering the reacquisition mode. Other areas of investigation were the S-band antenna analysis and RF coverage analysis.

  1. An analysis of inpatient nursing communications needs.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David P; Coakley, Amanda; Reardon, George; Kuperman, Gilad J

    2004-01-01

    The health care environment is communications and information intensive. Nurses especially have communications as part of their routine activities, yet little is known about specific nursing communications needs and technologies that might address these needs. This project analyzed the specific communications needs of nurses at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in Boston, MA, through focus group meetings, nursing staff interviews, and direct observation of unit communications. Based on these data, an ideal requirements list for a nursing communication system was created. Data were also gathered and analyzed from units piloting cell phones as nursing communications tools. On non-cell phone units we found that the bulk of communication activity is from the front desk operations associate to the nurse through a sub-optimal overhead paging system that is often unclear or inaudible. The pilot of cellular phones has demonstrated improvements in nursing communications at MGH and there are indications that other emerging technologies will be better able to address the ideal communication needs of nurses. PMID:15361044

  2. Motor vehicle deaths: failed policy analysis and neglected policy.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Leon S

    2006-07-01

    The author of a recent book inferred that the slowed decline in U.S. vehicle fatality rates in the 1990 s relative to other industrialized countries resulted from too much emphasis on vehicle factors. He claimed that Canada had the same vehicle mix but a lower fatality rate. Actually, U.S. death rates by make and model applied to Canadian vehicle sales indicates that Canada's death rate would be the same as the U.S. if Canada had the same vehicle mix and annual miles driven. The U.S. had much greater growth in sales of large SUVs and pickup trucks that are heavier and stiffer than passenger cars, contributing to excess deaths of other road users in collisions. They are also more unstable, contributing to excess deaths of their occupants in rollovers. Lack of policy regarding these vehicle characteristics is the primary reason for the attenuated decline in vehicular fatality rates. PMID:16961196

  3. Communications satellite business ventures - Measuring the impact of technology programmes and related policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An economic evaluation and planning procedure which assesses the effects of various policies on fixed satellite business ventures is described. The procedure is based on a stochastic financial simulation model, the Domsat II, which evaluates spacecraft reliability, market performance, and cost uncertainties. The application of the Domsat II model to the assessment of NASA's ion thrusters for on-orbit propulsion and GaAs solar cell technology is discussed. The effects of insurance rates and the self-insurance option on the financial performance of communication satellite business ventures are investigated. The selection of a transportation system for placing the satellites into GEO is analyzed.

  4. Modeling and Analysis Session: Market, Value, and Policy Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, R. M.

    2008-04-01

    The Primary objectives: to provide a broad range of analytical support to the Solar Program; and to anticipate and respond to the rapidly evolving analytical needs of the Solar Program. Three broad types of analysis are being carried out under this project including: (1) Market analysis: Developing a PV market penetration model--the SolarDS model--and other tools, in order to gain insight into the factors influencing market penetration of PV technology in U.S. markets. (2) Value analysis: Providing inputs to, support for, and review of the annual GPRA benefits analysis. Also developing methods and tools for improving the quantification of the benefits and cost of solar technologies. (3) Policy analysis: Defining and carrying out analysis that meets the needs of the Solar Energy Technologies Program in a timely fashion, for example evaluating the potential role of solar in the energy economy in the long-term.

  5. Spacecraft Multiple Array Communication System Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Desilva, Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center is tasked to perform spacecraft and ground network communication system simulations, design validation, and performance verification. The CSSL has developed simulation tools that model spacecraft communication systems and the space and ground environment in which the tools operate. In this paper, a spacecraft communication system with multiple arrays is simulated. Multiple array combined technique is used to increase the radio frequency coverage and data rate performance. The technique is to achieve phase coherence among the phased arrays to combine the signals at the targeting receiver constructively. There are many technical challenges in spacecraft integration with a high transmit power communication system. The array combining technique can improve the communication system data rate and coverage performances without increasing the system transmit power requirements. Example simulation results indicate significant performance improvement can be achieved with phase coherence implementation.

  6. Communication-oriented person-organization fit as a key factor of job-seeking behaviors: millennials' social media use and attitudes toward organizational social media policies.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaehee; Park, Dong Jin; Ordonez, Zoa

    2013-11-01

    The main goal of this study was to assess how the millennial generation perceives companies that have different social media policies and how such perception influences key variables for job-seeking behaviors, including perceived person-organization fit (POF), organizational attraction, and job pursuit intention. Results from a univariate general linear model and path analysis supported all of the established hypotheses. In particular, the results revealed that millennials perceived higher POF for a company with organizational policies supporting employees' social media use. Further, organizational attractiveness significantly mediated the relationship between communication-oriented POF and job pursuit intention. PMID:23848961

  7. Lag Sequential Analysis: Taking Consultation Communication Research to the Movies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benes, Kathryn M.; Gutkin, Terry B.; Kramer, Jack J.

    1995-01-01

    Describes lag-sequential analysis and its unique contributions to research literature, addressing communication processes in school-based consultation. For purposes of demonstrating the application and potential utility of lag-sequential analysis, article analyzes the communication behaviors of two consultants. Considers directions for future…

  8. Methane Leakage from Natural Gas Systems: Comparisons, Communication, and Policy Relevance (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, C.; Clavin, C.; Mueller, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    several flaws that decrease the policy applicability of scientific results. These include inconsistent metric definitions (particularly related to the 'methane leakage' metric), inconsistent comparisons between studies with different scopes and temporal and spatial boundaries, and a failure to properly distinguish between emissions associated with oil, gas, and other co-products. We conclude that in order for policy decisions to be made in the needed timeframe given the current speed of development, scientists from different communities must work together to develop common strategies for communicating results and interpreting differences between highly different methods. This represents a significant challenge but one that is imperative for atmospheric scientists, engineers, and policy analysts to jointly solve in order to better inform national energy policy needs.

  9. The Use of Exploratory Factor Analysis and Principal Components Analysis in Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hee Sun; Dailey, Rene; Lemus, Daisy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the distinct purposes of principal components analysis (PCA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA), using two data sets as examples. Reviews the use of each technique in three major communication journals: "Communication Monographs,""Human Communication Research," and "Communication Research." Finds that the use of EFA and PCA indicates…

  10. Analysis of longitudinal data to evaluate a policy change.

    PubMed

    French, Benjamin; Heagerty, Patrick J

    2008-10-30

    Longitudinal data analysis methods are powerful tools for exploring scientific questions regarding change and are well suited to evaluate the impact of a new policy. However, there are challenging aspects of policy change data that require consideration, such as defining comparison groups, separating the effect of time from that of the policy, and accounting for heterogeneity in the policy effect. We compare currently available methods to evaluate a policy change and illustrate issues specific to a policy change analysis via a case study of laws that eliminate gun-use restrictions (shall-issue laws) and firearm-related homicide. We obtain homicide rate ratios estimating the effect of enacting a shall-issue law, which vary between 0.903 and 1.101. We conclude that in a policy change analysis it is essential to select a mean model that most accurately characterizes the anticipated effect of the policy intervention, thoroughly model temporal trends, and select methods that accommodate unit-specific policy effects. We also conclude that several longitudinal data analysis methods are useful to evaluate a policy change, but not all may be appropriate in certain contexts. Analysts must carefully decide which methods are appropriate for their application and must be aware of the differences between methods to select a procedure that generates valid inference. PMID:18618416

  11. Analysis of Longitudinal Data to Evaluate a Policy Change

    PubMed Central

    French, Benjamin; Heagerty, Patrick J

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal data analysis methods are powerful tools for exploring scientific questions regarding change and are well-suited to evaluate the impact of a new policy. However, there are challenging aspects of policy change data that require consideration, such as defining comparison groups, separating the effect of time from that of the policy, and accounting for heterogeneity in the policy effect. We compare currently available methods to evaluate a policy change and illustrate issues specific to a policy change analysis via a case study of laws that eliminate gun-use restrictions (shall-issue laws) and firearm-related homicide. We obtain homicide rate ratios estimating the effect of enacting a shall-issue law that vary between 0.903 and 1.101. We conclude that in a policy change analysis it is essential to select a mean model that most accurately characterizes the anticipated effect of the policy intervention, thoroughly model temporal trends, and select methods that accommodate unit-specific policy effects. We also conclude that several longitudinal data analysis methods are useful to evaluate a policy change, but not all may be appropriate in certain contexts. Analysts must carefully decide which methods are appropriate for their application and must be aware of the differences between methods to select a procedure that generates valid inference. PMID:18618416

  12. Tackling the Dilemma of the Science-Policy Interface in Environmental Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimorelli, Alan J.; Stahl, Cynthia H.

    2005-01-01

    Scientifically derived environmental indicators are central to environmental decision analysis. This article examines the interface between science (environmental indicators) and policy, and the dilemma of their integration. In the past, science has been shown to dominate many policy debates, usually with unfavorable results. The issue, therefore,…

  13. Reaching beyond Democracy in Educational Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Leigh

    2016-01-01

    Educational policy analyses have tended toward either the impact of policies on student achievement or the furthering of progressive ideals, regularly theorized through concepts of democracy. In this theoretical essay, I suggest that democracy has become a vehicle for cauterized projects of individualized and contingent state status rather than…

  14. Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Andre

    The following essays on communication are presented: communication as a condition of survival, communication for special purposes, the means of transmission of communication, communication within social and economic structures, the teaching of communication through the press, the teaching of modern languages, communication as a point of departure,…

  15. To What Extent Does Transnational Communication Drive Cross-National Policy Convergence? The Impact of the Bologna-Process on Domestic Higher Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voegtle, Eva M.; Knill, Christoph; Dobbins, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates if transnational communication in the context of the Bologna Process (BP) has led to the convergence of higher education (HE) policies. The country sample includes both Bologna participants and non-participants, for which systematic knowledge about the implications of the BP is absent so far. We investigate study structures…

  16. Broadcasting and Telecommunications. Yukon 2000: Toward a Communications Policy. Part I: A Background Paper. Facts, Figures and Definitions and Part II. Policy Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yukon Dept. of Community and Transportation, Whitehorse.

    These two booklets, which describe the current status of communications in the Yukon Territory and consider future policy options, focus on the broadcasting industry, including radio and television, and the telecommunications industry, which comprises telephone, telegraph, and cable systems. The first booklet, a background paper, briefly describes…

  17. Analysis of Interpersonal Communication Processes in Digital Factory Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütze, Jens; Baum, Heiko; Laue, Martin; Müller, Egon

    The paper outlines the scope of influence of digital factory on the interpersonal communication process and the exemplary description of them. On the basis of a brief description about the theoretical basic concepts of the digital factory occurs the illustration of communicative features in digital factory. Practical coherences of interpersonal communication from a human oriented view were analyzed in Volkswagen AG in Wolfsburg in a pilot project. A modeling method was developed within the process analysis. This method makes it possible to visualize interpersonal communication and its human oriented attribute in a technically focused workflow. Due to the results of a developed inquiry about communication analysis and process models of modeling methods it was possible to build the processes in a suitable way for humans and to obtain a positive implication on the communication processes.

  18. An analysis of nanoscientists as public communicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudo, Anthony; Kahlor, Leeann; Abighannam, Niveen; Lazard, Allison; Liang, Ming-Ching

    2014-10-01

    The American public remains unfamiliar with nanotechnology despite more than a decade of investment and development. Nanoscientists have an opportunity to contribute to public conversations about their work, and its potential implications, through their engagement with lay audiences and media professionals. Indeed, the leaderships of many professional scientific organizations have placed a renewed focus on the public communication of science, particularly in the light of drastic changes in the information landscape and the increasing politicization of many technological and scientific issues. However, we have a limited understanding of nanoscientists' perceptions and behaviours regarding their participation in public communication. Here, we report survey results that provide an examination of the public communication behaviours of nanoscientists affiliated with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN), an integrated partnership of US research institutions designed to facilitate nanoscale research and development. Our results suggest that nanoscientists are relatively frequent public communicators who commonly associate their communication efforts with positive impacts on their professional success. We also identify a handful of characteristics that drive nanoscientists' intentions to communicate with the public about nanotechnology.

  19. An analysis of nanoscientists as public communicators.

    PubMed

    Dudo, Anthony; Kahlor, LeeAnn; AbiGhannam, Niveen; Lazard, Allison; Liang, Ming-Ching

    2014-10-01

    The American public remains unfamiliar with nanotechnology despite more than a decade of investment and development. Nanoscientists have an opportunity to contribute to public conversations about their work, and its potential implications, through their engagement with lay audiences and media professionals. Indeed, the leaderships of many professional scientific organizations have placed a renewed focus on the public communication of science, particularly in the light of drastic changes in the information landscape and the increasing politicization of many technological and scientific issues. However, we have a limited understanding of nanoscientists' perceptions and behaviours regarding their participation in public communication. Here, we report survey results that provide an examination of the public communication behaviours of nanoscientists affiliated with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN), an integrated partnership of US research institutions designed to facilitate nanoscale research and development. Our results suggest that nanoscientists are relatively frequent public communicators who commonly associate their communication efforts with positive impacts on their professional success. We also identify a handful of characteristics that drive nanoscientists' intentions to communicate with the public about nanotechnology. PMID:25218326

  20. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU) has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010). This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA); action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames looking at investments and

  1. Strategic Sequencing for State Distributed PV Policies: A Quantitative Analysis of Policy Impacts and Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Krasko, V.A.

    2012-10-01

    State and local policymakers show increasing interest in spurring the development of customer-sited distributed generation (DG), in particular solar photovoltaic (PV) markets. Prompted by that interest, this analysis examines the use of state policy as a tool to support the development of a robust private investment market. This analysis builds on previous studies that focus on government subsidies to reduce installation costs of individual projects and provides an evaluation of the impacts of policies on stimulating private market development.

  2. Earth Sciences Changed Influence on the Public Policy Process, or How Congress Stopped Communicating with Geologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2005-12-01

    Measured in political capital, the latter third of the twentieth century was tough for geoscientists. Federal funding for geoscience research and development decreased between 1960 and 2000. Furthermore, although funds devoted to natural resources remained stable as a proportion of total federal expenditures over the same time, they declined by a factor of ten in proportion to the GDP in constant dollars. The size of the natural resource industry sector of the economy declined, as did the number of employed geologists. Geologists even disappeared as a separate category in federal statistical reports by 2000. Each of these indicators tells a portion of the story of how and why Congress stopped communicating with geologists as well as other physical scientists. Changes within the institution of Congress (e.g., lengthened careers, candidate centered politics, and the rise of conservatism) in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in economic expertise replacing the scientific. At the same time, while research and development in the geosciences required larger budgets, the practical application of the discoveries became less obvious to the public. When this was added to the rise of environmental protection in public policy geology was rendered politically vulnerable. Geologists were easily perceived by political actors as the old guard, which made them part of the problem. The hard won favored position held by geology at mid-twentieth century, built by leaders such as Powell, Nolan, and Peck evaporated as national policy shifted from resource exploitation to preservation. The language of the policy debate also shifted, with geologists moving quickly from insiders to outsiders in the policy game. Further compounding the situation, and possibly catalyzing it was the politicization of scientific expertise written into environmental preservation legislation in the 1970s. The high-level nuclear waste site selection process at Yucca Mountain is but one example of Congress passing the

  3. A Fault Tree Approach to Analysis of Organizational Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkin, Belle Ruth; Stephens, Kent G.

    Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is a method of examing communication in an organization by focusing on: (1) the complex interrelationships in human systems, particularly in communication systems; (2) interactions across subsystems and system boundaries; and (3) the need to select and "prioritize" channels which will eliminate noise in the system and…

  4. a System Design and Analysis for Satellite Communication Link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Tae-Jin; Eun, Jong-Won

    2000-12-01

    A satellite RF communication link is analyzed based on a simple fundamental equations by systematic approach in this paper. The number of variables related to a design and analysis of satellite RF link is often a dozen or more, thus it is a tedious and time-consuming task. With the given input data, the important parameters are calculated step by step and three communication characteristics such as communication channel capacity, carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) at the satellite and ground station are analyzed. It gives very useful information to the system engineers for designing and analyzing the overall satellite communication system in the conceptual design phase.

  5. Interpreting global energy and emission scenarios: Methods for understanding and communicating policy insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Leslie

    Energy scenarios for the 21st century powerfully inform perceptions and expectations in the minds of energy investors, consumers, and policy-makers. Scenarios that stabilize global warming call for large-scale energy technology transitions, fueling debates about the relative roles for a range of technologies including nuclear power, carbon sequestration, biofuels, solar power, and efficient end-use devices. In the last decade, hundreds of scenarios have been published by more than a dozen research teams using different models, baselines and mitigation targets. Despite the efforts to summarize findings in a few major assessments, a gap in understanding remains at a critical science-policy juncture between scenario analysts and the audiences their work is designed to serve. Addressing the issue requires an interdisciplinary approach that incorporates knowledge and methods from the fields of energy engineering, economics, climate science, and policy analysis. This research applies two analytical techniques to investigate the effects of an imposed climate policy on the underlying energy system. The first disentangles the effect of a policy intervention on key demographic and technology drivers of fossil fuel use, and the second decomposes reductions in emissions by specific energy technology types. Because the techniques may be applied to any energy scenario with technology detail, this study demonstrates their application to ten sample stabilization scenarios from three leading models. Revealing the importance of data and assumptions overlooked or not well disclosed in the past, the results highlight an implausibly high pressure on energy supply innovations while the potential for energy efficiency improvements is systematically underestimated. The findings are significant to both scenario analysts and the decision-makers in public policy and private investment who are influenced by their work.

  6. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 1999: Numbers 21-31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of articles 21-31 published in the electronic journal "Education Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 1999: (21) "Facing the Consequences: Identifying Limitations of How We Categorize People in Research and Policy" (Cynthia Wallat and Carolyn Steele); (22) "Teachers in Charter Schools and Traditional Schools: A Comparative…

  7. Policy Analysis of the English Graduation Benchmark in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Chih-Min

    2012-01-01

    To nudge students to study English and to improve their English proficiency, many universities in Taiwan have imposed an English graduation benchmark on their students. This article reviews this policy, using the theoretic framework for education policy analysis proposed by Haddad and Demsky (1995). The author presents relevant research findings,…

  8. A Practical Method of Policy Analysis by Estimating Effect Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The previous articles on class size and other productivity research paint a complex and confusing picture of the relationship between policy variables and student achievement. Missing is a conceptual scheme capable of combining the seemingly unrelated research and dissimilar estimates of effect size into a unified structure for policy analysis and…

  9. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2001: Numbers 12-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document consists of articles 12-22 published in the electronic journal "Educational Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 2001: (12) "Affirmative Action at Work: Performance Audit of Two Minority Graduate Fellowship Programs, Illinois IMGIP and ICEOP" (Jack McKillip); (13) "School Reform Initiatives as Balancing Acts: Policy Variation and…

  10. Constructing Bullying in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue; Tuters, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    As the prevalence and negative effects of bullying become widely known, people around the world seem desperate to solve the bullying "problem". A sizeable body of research about many aspects of bullying and a plethora of anti-bullying programmes and policies now exist. This critical policy analysis asks: how does Ontario, Canada's…

  11. Taking Legislators to the Field: Communicating with Policy Makers about Natural Resource Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawin, R. S.; Buchanan, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    Policy makers are among the most important audiences for scientific information. In particular, legislators, legislative staff, governmental agency staff, business leaders, environmental leaders, and others need accurate, objective natural-resource information to make policy decisions. This audience is busy and difficult to reach with technical information. As part of its public outreach program, the Kansas Geological Survey (a division of the University of Kansas) communicates directly with policy makers through an annual field conference. Operated since 1995, the conference presents information by combining field experiences, presentations by experts, and participant interaction. The primary objective is to give policy makers first-hand, unbiased information about the state's natural resource issues. The field conference takes policy makers to locations where natural resources are produced or used, or where there are important environmental issues, introducing them to experts and others who carry out (or are affected by) their decisions. The conference consists of three days of site visits, presentations, hands-on activities, and panel discussions. Participation is by invitation. Participants pay a small fee, but most costs are covered by co-sponsors, usually other state or local agencies, that are recruited to help defray expenses. Participants receive a guidebook before the trip. Travel is by chartered bus; lodging and meals are provided. Conferences have focused on topics (such as energy or water) or regions of the state. The most recent conference focused on cross-boundary issues and included stops in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. Written, post-conference evaluations are extremely positive. Legislators report that they regularly use conference information and contacts during the law-making process; conference information played a direct role in decisions related to underground natural-gas storage rules, water-rights by-back legislation, and sand and gravel

  12. Visualisation and communication of probabilistic climate forecasts to renewable-energy policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Sophie; Lowe, Rachel; Davis, Melanie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.; Rodó, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Despite the strong dependence on weather and climate variability of the renewable-energy industry, and the existence of several initiatives towards demonstrating the added benefits of integrating probabilistic forecasts into energy decision-making processes, weather and climate forecasts are still under-utilised within the sector. Improved communication is fundamental to stimulate the use of climate forecast information within decision-making processes, in order to adapt to a highly climate dependent renewable-energy industry. This work focuses on improving the visualisation of climate forecast information, paying special attention to seasonal time scales. This activity is central to enhance climate services for renewable energy and to optimise the usefulness and usability of inherently complex climate information. In the realm of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) initiative, and subsequent European projects: Seasonal-to-Decadal Climate Prediction for the Improvement of European Climate Service (SPECS) and the European Provision of Regional Impacts Assessment in Seasonal and Decadal Timescales (EUPORIAS), this paper investigates the visualisation and communication of seasonal forecasts with regards to their usefulness and usability, to enable the development of a European climate service. The target end user is the group of renewable-energy policy makers, who are central to enhance climate services for the energy industry. The overall objective is to promote the wide-range dissemination and exchange of actionable climate information based on seasonal forecasts from Global Producing Centres (GPCs). It examines the existing main barriers and deficits. Examples of probabilistic climate forecasts from different GPC's are used to make a catalogue of current approaches, to assess their advantages and limitations and, finally, to recommend better alternatives. Interviews have been conducted with renewable-energy stakeholders to receive feedback for the

  13. The visualisation and communication of probabilistic climate forecasts to renewable energy policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doblas-Reyes, F.; Steffen, S.; Lowe, R.; Davis, M.; Rodó, X.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the strong dependence of weather and climate variability on the renewable energy industry, and several initiatives towards demonstrating the added benefits of integrating probabilistic forecasts into energy decision making process, they are still under-utilised within the sector. Improved communication is fundamental to stimulate the use of climate forecast information within decision-making processes, in order to adapt to a highly climate dependent renewable energy industry. This paper focuses on improving the visualisation of climate forecast information, paying special attention to seasonal to decadal (s2d) timescales. This is central to enhance climate services for renewable energy, and optimise the usefulness and usability of inherently complex climate information. In the realm of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) initiative, and subsequent European projects: Seasonal-to-Decadal Climate Prediction for the Improvement of European Climate Service (SPECS) and the European Provision of Regional Impacts Assessment in Seasonal and Decadal Timescales (EUPORIAS), this paper investigates the visualisation and communication of s2d forecasts with regards to their usefulness and usability, to enable the development of a European climate service. The target end user will be renewable energy policy makers, who are central to enhance climate services for the energy industry. The overall objective is to promote the wide-range dissemination and exchange of actionable climate information based on s2d forecasts from Global Producing Centres (GPC's). Therefore, it is crucial to examine the existing main barriers and deficits. Examples of probabilistic climate forecasts from different GPC's were used to prepare a catalogue of current approaches, to assess their advantages and limitations and finally to recommend better alternatives. In parallel, interviews were conducted with renewable energy stakeholders to receive feedback for the improvement of existing

  14. [The population policy in Egypt: a case in public policy analysis].

    PubMed

    Hassan, A S

    1984-01-01

    This study, which attempts to shed some light on population policies adopted by the Egyptian government since 1962, examines 3 factors, which include: congruency of population policies with the prevalent religious beliefs; responsiveness of these policies to the actual needs of the people of Egypt; and legitimacy of the policies. 3 stages of the population policy are identified. The 1st stage started in 1962 when the Egyptian government adopted a policy which aimed at fertility reduction. The 2nd stage began in 1973 and involved a socioeconomic approach to fertility reduction, which considered 9 factors with known effects on fertility. These factors include: the socioeconomic standard of the family; education; women's status; mechanization of agriculture; industrialization; infant mortality reduction; social security; information, education, and communication (IEC); and family planning services. The 3rd stage was initiated in 1975 and involved a developmental approach to Egypt's population problem. This approach defined the problem as a reduction in the level of welfare of the people, attributable to any of the population factors such as size, distribution, and characteristics. The government took these factors into consideration when the Strategy of National Development was formulated for the 1978-82 period. In discussing family planning from the religious perspective, 2 levels should be distinguished. The first is the level of the individual family which involves its social, economic, and health conditions. The second is the level of the society as a whole, when birth control is viewed as a public policy adopted and enforced by the state. At this level, there is a consensus among Moslem Ulemas to disapprove such policies completely. The population policy failed to distinguish between these 2 levels. The agencies charged with the responsibility of policy implementation have misued the permission granted for the 1st level in propagating the cause of family planning

  15. Analysis of State Bullying Laws and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart-Cassel, Victoria; Bell, Ariana; Springer, J. Fred

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools has become widely viewed as an urgent social, health, and education concern that has moved to the forefront of public debate on school legislation and policy. The Columbine High School shooting in 1999 was the first of many high-profile incidents of violent behavior that appeared to implicate bullying as an underlying cause…

  16. Diversity Education Goals: A Policy Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Many U.S. colleges and universities have established student learning outcomes for diversity education in their general education programs. These education goals, frequently developed for assessment or other policy purposes, convey a range of possible purposes for diversity and multicultural learning. The manner in which these purposes are…

  17. Social determinants of health and health equity policy research: exploring the use, misuse, and nonuse of policy analysis theory.

    PubMed

    Embrett, Mark G; Randall, G E

    2014-05-01

    Despite a dramatic growth in SDH/HE (social determinants of health/health equity) public policy research and demonstrated government interest in promoting equity in health policies, health inequities are actually growing among some populations and there is little evidence that "healthy public policies" are being adopted and implemented. Moreover, these issues are typically failing to even reach governments' policy agendas, which is a critical step towards serious debate and the identification of policy options. This systematic review pursues three main objectives. First, is to identify barriers to SDH/HE issues reaching the government policy agenda. Second, to evaluate the characteristics of peer-reviewed research articles that utilize common policy analysis theories. And third, to determine the extent to which the SDH/HE literature utilizes common policy analysis theories. Our systematic review, conducted in June 2012, identified 6200 SDH/HE related articles in the peer-reviewed literature; however, only seven articles explicitly used a commonly recognized policy analysis theory to inform their analysis. Our analysis revealed that the SDH/HE policy literature appears to be focused on advocacy rather than analysis and that the use of policy analysis theory is extremely limited. Our results also suggest that when such theories are incorporated into an analysis they are often not comprehensively employed. We propose explanations for this non-use and misuse of policy analysis theory, and conclude that researchers may have greater influence in helping to get SDH/HE issues onto government policy agendas if they gain a greater understanding of the policy process and the value of incorporating policy analysis theories into their research. Using a policy analysis lens to help identify why healthy public policies are typically not being adopted is an important step towards moving beyond advocacy to understanding and addressing some of the political barriers to reforms. PMID

  18. Network analysis of team communication in a busy emergency department

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Emergency Department (ED) is consistently described as a high-risk environment for patients and clinicians that demands colleagues quickly work together as a cohesive group. Communication between nurses, physicians, and other ED clinicians is complex and difficult to track. A clear understanding of communications in the ED is lacking, which has a potentially negative impact on the design and effectiveness of interventions to improve communications. We sought to use Social Network Analysis (SNA) to characterize communication between clinicians in the ED. Methods Over three-months, we surveyed to solicit the communication relationships between clinicians at one urban academic ED across all shifts. We abstracted survey responses into matrices, calculated three standard SNA measures (network density, network centralization, and in-degree centrality), and presented findings stratified by night/day shift and over time. Results We received surveys from 82% of eligible participants and identified wide variation in the magnitude of communication cohesion (density) and concentration of communication between clinicians (centralization) by day/night shift and over time. We also identified variation in in-degree centrality (a measure of power/influence) by day/night shift and over time. Conclusions We show that SNA measurement techniques provide a comprehensive view of ED communication patterns. Our use of SNA revealed that frequency of communication as a measure of interdependencies between ED clinicians varies by day/night shift and over time. PMID:23521890

  19. Over the Horizon: Potential Impact of Emerging Trends in Information and Communication Technology on Disability Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderheiden, Gregg

    2006-01-01

    This policy paper explores key trends in information and communication technology, highlights the potential opportunities and problems these trends present for people with disabilities, and suggests some strategies to maximize opportunities and avoid potential problems and barriers. Specifically, this paper discusses technology trends that present…

  20. A Survey of Telecommunications Technology. Part II. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Staff Paper One, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostow, Eugene V.

    The document contains the final four appendices to a staff paper submitted to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy. "The Digital Loop" describes changes in urban telecommunications which are predicted for 1970-80, considering three possible systems: paired wires with single analog signals (present telephones), coaxial cables with…

  1. DOE Integrated Security System (DISS) preliminary communication security analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document a technical approach to improve DOE Integrated Security System (DISS) dial-up communications security and the requirements to address them. This document is not intended as a comprehensive analysis of the security aspects of the DISS computer system but rather as an analysis of the dial-up communications security as it pertains to the use of the DISS database in the new DOE Automated Visitors Access Control System (DAVACS) procedures. Current access controls into the DISS will be discussed with emphasis on the DAVACS procedures. Recommendations will be provided for increasing the dial-up communications security into DISS as it relates to the automated visit procedures. Finally a design for an encrypted dial-up communication link to DISS will be given.

  2. Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation. PMID:26450973

  3. Ad Hoc Networks: Headline 2000 Communications Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, W. D.; Reynolds, A. B.

    2002-06-01

    This report examines unit location data and terrain from Headline 2000 to investigate communications networks within the maneuver units. Within the Enhanced Combat Force timeframe, such units would be supported by a Tactical Data Distribution Sub-system (TDDS). This is envisaged as an ad hoc network changing its topology as units maneuver across the battlespace. The report describes approaches that can be applied to Headline 2000 and other data to characterize the nature of the network topology, both statically and as it changes over time, in order to explore the impact on the TDDS network capacity and hence to hence to assist in elucidating consequent requirements of a candidate TDDS.

  4. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue is devoted to discussions of early childhood policy issues. "Creating a Shared Vision: How Policy Affects Early Childhood Care and Development" (Judith L. Evans) defines policy, discusses the motivation for changing or creating national policy and the process for changing such policies, and provides a sample design for an early…

  5. Analysis of Your Professional Liability Insurance Policy

    PubMed Central

    Sadusk, Joseph F.; Hassard, Howard; Waterson, Rollen

    1958-01-01

    The most important lessons for the physician to learn in regard to his professional liability insurance coverage are the following: 1. The physician should carefully read his professional liability policy and should secure the educated aid of his attorney and his insurance broker, if they are conversant with this field. 2. He should particularly read the definition of coverage and carefully survey the exclusion clauses which may deny him coverage under certain circumstances. 3. If the physician is in partnership or in a group, he should be certain that he has contingent partnership coverage. 4. The physician should accept coverage only from an insurance carrier of sufficient size and stability that he can be sure his coverage will be guaranteed for “latent liability” claims as the years go along—certainly for his lifetime. 5. The insurance carrier offering the professional liability policy should be prepared to offer coverages up to at least $100,000/$300,000. 6. The physician should be assured that the insurance carrier has claims-handling personnel and legal counsel who are experienced and expert in the professional liability field and who are locally available for service. 7. The physician is best protected by a local or state group program, next best by a national group program, and last, by individual coverage. 8. The physician should look with suspicion on a cancellation clause in which his policy may be summarily cancelled on brief notice. 9. The physician should not buy professional liability insurance on the basis of price alone; adequacy of coverage and service and a good insurance company for his protection should be the deciding factors. PMID:13489519

  6. Analysis of your professional liability insurance policy.

    PubMed

    SADUSK, J F; HASSARD, H; WATERSON, R

    1958-01-01

    The most important lessons for the physician to learn in regard to his professional liability insurance coverage are the following:1. The physician should carefully read his professional liability policy and should secure the educated aid of his attorney and his insurance broker, if they are conversant with this field.2. He should particularly read the definition of coverage and carefully survey the exclusion clauses which may deny him coverage under certain circumstances.3. If the physician is in partnership or in a group, he should be certain that he has contingent partnership coverage.4. The physician should accept coverage only from an insurance carrier of sufficient size and stability that he can be sure his coverage will be guaranteed for "latent liability" claims as the years go along-certainly for his lifetime.5. The insurance carrier offering the professional liability policy should be prepared to offer coverages up to at least $100,000/$300,000.6. The physician should be assured that the insurance carrier has claims-handling personnel and legal counsel who are experienced and expert in the professional liability field and who are locally available for service.7. The physician is best protected by a local or state group program, next best by a national group program, and last, by individual coverage.8. The physician should look with suspicion on a cancellation clause in which his policy may be summarily cancelled on brief notice.9. The physician should not buy professional liability insurance on the basis of price alone; adequacy of coverage and service and a good insurance company for his protection should be the deciding factors. PMID:13489519

  7. Analysis of Malicious Traffic in Modbus/TCP Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tiago H.; Batista, Aguinaldo B.; Medeiros, João Paulo S.; Filho, José Macedo F.; Brito, Agostinho M.; Pires, Paulo S. Motta

    This paper presents the results of our analysis about the influence of Information Technology (IT) malicious traffic on an IP-based automation environment. We utilized a traffic generator, called MACE (Malicious trAffic Composition Environment), to inject malicious traffic in a Modbus/TCP communication system and a sniffer to capture and analyze network traffic. The realized tests show that malicious traffic represents a serious risk to critical information infrastructures. We show that this kind of traffic can increase latency of Modbus/TCP communication and that, in some cases, can put Modbus/TCP devices out of communication.

  8. A system for analysis and classification of voice communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Older, H. J.; Jenney, L. L.; Garland, L.

    1973-01-01

    A method for analysis and classification of verbal communications typically associated with manned space missions or simulations was developed. The study was carried out in two phases. Phase 1 was devoted to identification of crew tasks and activities which require voice communication for accomplishment or reporting. Phase 2 entailed development of a message classification system and a preliminary test of its feasibility. The classification system permits voice communications to be analyzed to three progressively more specific levels of detail and to be described in terms of message content, purpose, and the participants in the information exchange. A coding technique was devised to allow messages to be recorded by an eight-digit number.

  9. Chronic non-communicable diseases in Cameroon - burden, determinants and current policies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cameroon is experiencing an increase in the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which accounted for 43% of all deaths in 2002. This article reviews the published literature to critically evaluate the evidence on the frequency, determinants and consequences of NCDs in Cameroon, and to identify research, intervention and policy gaps. The rising trends in NCDs have been documented for hypertension and diabetes, with a 2-5 and a 10-fold increase in their respective prevalence between 1994 and 2003. Magnitudes are much higher in urban settings, where increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity (by 54-82%) was observed over the same period. These changes largely result from the adoption of unfavorable eating habits, physical inactivity, and a probable increasing tobacco use. These behavioral changes are driven by the economic development and social mobility, which are part of the epidemiologic transition. There is still a dearth of information on chronic respiratory diseases and cancers, as well as on all NDCs and related risk factors in children and adolescents. More nationally representative data is needed to tract risk factors and consequences of NCDs. These conditions are increasingly been recognized as a priority, mainly through locally generated evidence. Thus, national-level prevention and control programs for chronic diseases (mainly diabetes and hypertension) have been established. However, the monitoring and evaluation of these programs is necessary. Budgetary allocations data by the ministry of health would be helpful, to evaluate the investment in NCDs prevention and control. Establishing more effective national-level tobacco control measures and food policies, as well as campaigns to promote healthy diets, physical activity and tobacco cessation would probably contribute to reducing the burden of NCDs. PMID:22112686

  10. Performance Analysis for LTE Wireless Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tholhath, S.; Tiong, T. C.

    2015-04-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the new upgrade path for carrier with both GSM/UMTS networks and CDMA2000 networks. The LTE is targeting to become the first global mobile phone standard regardless of the different LTE frequencies and bands use in other countries barrier. Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) is used to increase the network capacity or downlink data rates. Various modulation types are discussed such as Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Spatial multiplexing techniques for 4×4 MIMO antenna configurations are considered. This paper has outlined various estimation techniques to increase the throughput of the LTE network by simulating the estimation techniques with various parameters in the LTE downlink mode 4 (spatial multiplexing). Three techniques i.e. channel estimation technique, estimation of channel models and MIMO receiver algorithm are simulated to provide the ideal LTE wireless communication system.

  11. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, Joyce

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  12. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  13. Classroom Communication and Instructional Processes: Advances through Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayle, Barbara Mae, Ed.; Preiss, Raymond W., Ed.; Burrell, Nancy, Ed.; Allen, Mike, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This volume offers a systematic review of the literature on communication education and instruction. Making meta-analysis findings accessible and relevant, the editors of this volume approach the topic from the perspective that meta-analysis serves as a useful tool for summarizing experiments and for determining how and why specific teaching and…

  14. Computer-Aided Communication Satellite System Analysis and Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagl, Thomas W.; And Others

    Various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. The rationale for selecting General Dynamics/Convair's Satellite Telecommunication Analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) in modified form to aid in the system costing and sensitivity analysis work in the Program on…

  15. Content Analysis as a Best Practice in Technical Communication Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Alexander; Evans, Mary; McBride, Alicia; Queen, Matt; Spyridakis, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Content analysis is a powerful empirical method for analyzing text, a method that technical communicators can use on the job and in their research. Content analysis can expose hidden connections among concepts, reveal relationships among ideas that initially seem unconnected, and inform the decision-making processes associated with many technical…

  16. Effects of Communication Partner Instruction on the Communication of Individuals using AAC: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kent-Walsh, Jennifer; Murza, Kimberly A; Malani, Melissa D; Binger, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) partner instruction intervention literature to determine (a) the overall effects of partner interventions on the communication of individuals using AAC, and (b) any possible moderating variables relating to participant, intervention, or outcome characteristics. Seventeen single-case experimental design studies (53 participants) met the inclusion criteria and were advanced to the full coding and analysis phase of the investigation. Descriptive analyses and effect size estimations using the Improvement Rate Difference (IRD) metric were conducted. Overall, communication partner interventions were found to be highly effective across a range of participants using AAC, intervention approaches, and outcome measure characteristics, with more evidence available for participants less than 12 years of age, most of whom had a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder or intellectual/developmental disability. Aided AAC modeling, expectant delay, and open-ended question asking were the most frequently targeted communication partner interaction skills. Providing a descriptive overview, instructor modeling, guided practice, and role plays were the most frequently incorporated communication partner intervention activities within the included studies. PMID:26059542

  17. Informing in the Information Age: How to Communicate Measurement Concepts to Education Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Forte, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Current educational policies rely on educational assessments. However, the technical aspects of assessments are often unknown to policy makers, which is dangerous because sound assessment policy requires knowledge of the strengths and limitations of educational tests. In this article, we discuss the importance of informing policy makers of…

  18. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2001: Numbers 46-51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document consists of articles 46 through 51 published in the electronic journal Education Policy Analysis Archives for the year 2001: (46) Second Year Analysis of a Hybrid Schedule High School (James B. Shreiber, William R. Veal, David J. Flinders, and Sherry Churchill; (47) Knowledge Management for Educational Information Systems: What Is…

  19. Incremental communication for multilayer neural networks: error analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, A A; Bhavsar, V C

    1998-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) involve a large amount of internode communications. To reduce the communication cost as well as the time of learning process in ANNs, we earlier proposed (1995) an incremental internode communication method. In the incremental communication method, instead of communicating the full magnitude of the output value of a node, only the increment or decrement to its previous value is sent to a communication link. In this paper, the effects of the limited precision incremental communication method on the convergence behavior and performance of multilayer neural networks are investigated. The nonlinear aspects of representing the incremental values with reduced (limited) precision for the commonly used error backpropagation training algorithm are analyzed. It is shown that the nonlinear effect of small perturbations in the input(s)/output of a node does not cause instability. The analysis is supported by simulation studies of two problems. The simulation results demonstrate that the limited precision errors are bounded and do not seriously affect the convergence of multilayer neural networks. PMID:18252431

  20. Comparative analysis of evaluation techniques for transport policies

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, David; Ryan, Lisa

    2011-04-15

    The objective of this paper is to examine and compare the use of a number of policy evaluation tools, which can be used to measure the impact of transport policies and programmes as part of a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) or sustainability appraisal. The evaluation tools that were examined include cost-benefit analysis (CBA), cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). It was concluded that both CEA and CBA are useful for estimating the costs and/or benefits associated with transport policies but are constrained by the difficulty in quantifying non-market impacts and monetising total costs and benefits. Furthermore, CEA is limited to identifying the most 'cost-effective policy' for achieving a single, narrowly defined objective, usually greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and is, therefore, not suitable for evaluating policy options with ancillary costs or a variety of potential benefits. Thus, CBA or CEA evaluation should be complemented by a complete environmental and socio-economic impact assessment approach such as MCDA. This method allows for participatory analysis and qualitative assessment but is subject to caveats such as subjectivity and value-laden judgments.

  1. Pitfalls of CITES implementation in Nepal: a policy gap analysis.

    PubMed

    Dongol, Yogesh; Heinen, Joel T

    2012-08-01

    Implementation of policy involves multiple agencies operating at multiple levels in facilitating processes and actions to accomplish desired results. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was developed and implemented to regulate and control international wildlife trade, but violations of the agreement are widespread and growing worldwide, including in Nepal. This study attempts to understand how domestic CITES policies are translated into action and what effect actions and processes have on compliance. In doing so, this study provides insights into the implementation and enforcement pitfalls of national legislation that explain CITES violations in Nepal. Primarily, we used 26 key informants interviews to learn opinions of experts, and the grounded theory approach for further qualitative data analysis. In addition, we used Najman's (1995) policy implementation analysis framework to explain gaps. Many interrelated variables in the content of the policy, commitment and capacity of the agencies, the roles of clients and coalitions and contextual issues were observed. Variables that emerged suggest pitfalls in the regulatory policy represented by low probability of detection, arrest and punishment. Moreover, redistributive policies in buffer zones of protected areas are needed into perpetuity to benefit locals. Also, conservation organizations' support for building public and political salience is imperative. PMID:22706477

  2. Pitfalls of CITES Implementation in Nepal: A Policy Gap Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongol, Yogesh; Heinen, Joel T.

    2012-08-01

    Implementation of policy involves multiple agencies operating at multiple levels in facilitating processes and actions to accomplish desired results. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was developed and implemented to regulate and control international wildlife trade, but violations of the agreement are widespread and growing worldwide, including in Nepal. This study attempts to understand how domestic CITES policies are translated into action and what effect actions and processes have on compliance. In doing so, this study provides insights into the implementation and enforcement pitfalls of national legislation that explain CITES violations in Nepal. Primarily, we used 26 key informants interviews to learn opinions of experts, and the grounded theory approach for further qualitative data analysis. In addition, we used Najman's (1995) policy implementation analysis framework to explain gaps. Many interrelated variables in the content of the policy, commitment and capacity of the agencies, the roles of clients and coalitions and contextual issues were observed. Variables that emerged suggest pitfalls in the regulatory policy represented by low probability of detection, arrest and punishment. Moreover, redistributive policies in buffer zones of protected areas are needed into perpetuity to benefit locals. Also, conservation organizations' support for building public and political salience is imperative.

  3. Discourse analysis of an 'observation levels' nursing policy.

    PubMed

    Horsfall, J; Cleary, M

    2000-11-01

    The practice of special observation (or constant observation) is widely used in inpatient psychiatric facilities for the care of people who are suicidal. In this study, the policy of special observation was examined using a discourse analysis method to discern prevailing ideas and practices highlighted within the policy. After reading, studying and analysing the special observation nursing policy, the authors briefly describe the document and outline the terms and phrases prevalent within the document. These recurrent ideas are then organized into five categories: professional responsibilities, suicidality, the patient's immediate context, the patient's observable behaviour and the nursing checklist. In discussion of the policy document, the invisibility of the authors, target audience and patients is noted. The authors attempt to elicit evidence for the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship in the document. In the analysis of patient, nurse and doctor roles and responsibilities, it is evident that the policy document reinforces the traditional medical hierarchy of power relations. Some assumptions that underpin the document are postulated. Questions regarding the nature of risk assessment and the evidence base for the medical prescription of special observation are raised. As well as ideas and themes evident in the document, the absence of some relevant issues is explored. While the need for succinctness and clarity in policy documents is acknowledged, the fact that patient rights, therapeutic processes and ethical dilemmas are absent is deemed significant. PMID:11115015

  4. Deciding State School Policy in Minnesota. An Analysis of Policy Participants, Influence Relationships, and Decision Processes in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzoni, Tim L.

    This report examines the process through which the Minnesota state government established school policy during the 1970s. The analysis focuses on who shaped state school policy and how they did it. The data come in part from personal interviews to determine the perceptions key participants had of the state school policy system. These interview…

  5. Economic Analysis of Nutrition Interventions for Chronic Disease Prevention: Methods, Research, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, John B.; Coates, Paul M.; Russell, Robert M.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Schuttinga, James A.; Bowman, Barbara A.; Peterson, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Increased interest in the potential societal benefit of incorporating health economics as a part of clinical translational science, particularly nutrition interventions, led the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health to sponsor a conference to address key questions about economic analysis of nutrition interventions to enhance communication among health economic methodologists, researchers, reimbursement policy makers, and regulators. Issues discussed included the state of the science, such as what health economic methods are currently used to judge the burden of illness, interventions, or health care policies, and what new research methodologies are available or needed to address knowledge and methodological gaps or barriers. Research applications included existing evidence-based health economic research activities in nutrition that are ongoing or planned at federal agencies. International and U.S. regulatory, policy and clinical practice perspectives included a discussion of how research results can help regulators and policy makers within government make nutrition policy decisions, and how economics affects clinical guideline development. PMID:21884133

  6. Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, Donald D.

    1990-01-01

    Communication in its many forms is a critical component for an effective Space Grant Program. Good communication is needed within individual Space Grant College/Consortia, for example between consortium affiliates and the consortium program office. Effective communication between the several programs, NASA Headquarters, and NASA field centers also is required. Further, communication among the above program elements, industry, local and state government, and the public also are necessary for meeting program objectives.

  7. Dynamic Analysis of Communication and Collaboration in OSS Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinzger, Martin; Gall, Harald C.

    Software repositories, such as versioning, bug reporting, and developer mailing list archives contain valuable data for analyzing the history of software projects and its dynamics. In this chapter, we focus on the analysis of the communication and collaboration in software projects and present an approach that works on software archives with social network analysis techniques. Our tool called STNA-CockpitSTNA-cockpit provides both, a meta-model to represent communication and collaboration and a graph visualization technique to interactively explore instances of the meta-model. These instances are reconstructed from CVS, Bugzilla, and mailing list data. In a case study with the Eclipse Platform Core project data we demonstrate that with STNA-Cockpit one can observe project dynamics for certain periods of time. This allows, for example, project managers to early identify communication bottlenecks, contributor and expertise networks, or to understand how newcomers can be integrated fast and efficiently into their team.

  8. Computer-aided communication satellite system analysis and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagl, T. W.; Morgan, N. H.; Morley, R. E.; Singh, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations of the various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. A satellite Telecommunication analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) for costing and sensitivity analysis work in application of communication satellites to educational development is given. The modifications made to STAMP include: extension of the six beam capability to eight; addition of generation of multiple beams from a single reflector system with an array of feeds; an improved system costing to reflect the time value of money, growth in earth terminal population with time, and to account for various measures of system reliability; inclusion of a model for scintillation at microwave frequencies in the communication link loss model; and, an updated technological environment.

  9. An analysis of aircrew communication patterns and content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oser, Randall L.; Prince, Carolyn; Morgan, Ben B., Jr.; Simpson, Steven S.

    1991-09-01

    The findings reported here represent a detailed analysis of tactical rotary-wing aircrew communication patterns and content. This research is part of an extensive effort to investigate the nature of tactical aircrew coordination and to develop effective mission-oriented aircrew coordination training. The primary objectives of this research were to answer the following questions: (1) What specific communication patterns and content are demonstrated by different helicopter crewmembers (i.e., Helicopter Aircraft Commander - HAC and Helicopter 2nd Pilot - H2P)? (2) Do tactical aircrew communication patterns and content vary as a function of the performance demands and requirements of different flight conditions (i.e., routine and non-routine)? (3) Are the communication patterns and content of more effective aircrews different from those of less effective aircrews? (4) What similarities exist between the communication patterns and content of military rotary-wing aircrews and commercial fixed-wing aircrews? and (5) Can the results of the communication analyses have an impact on aircrew coordination training?

  10. Can policy analysis theories predict and inform policy change? Reflections on the battle for legal abortion in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Surjadjaja, Claudia; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2011-01-01

    The relevance and importance of research for understanding policy processes and influencing policies has been much debated, but studies on the effectiveness of policy theories for predicting and informing opportunities for policy change (i.e. prospective policy analysis) are rare. The case study presented in this paper is drawn from a policy analysis of a contemporary process of policy debate on legalization of abortion in Indonesia, which was in flux at the time of the research and provided a unique opportunity for prospective analysis. Applying a combination of policy analysis theories, this case study provides an analysis of processes, power and relationships between actors involved in the amendment of the Health Law in Indonesia. It uses a series of practical stakeholder mapping tools to identify power relations between key actors and what strategic approaches should be employed to manage these to enhance the possibility of policy change. The findings show how the moves to legalize abortion have been supported or constrained according to the balance of political and religious powers operating in a macro-political context defined increasingly by a polarized Islamic-authoritarian—Western-liberal agenda. The issue of reproductive health constituted a battlefield where these two ideologies met and the debate on the current health law amendment became a contest, which still continues, for the larger future of Indonesia. The findings confirm the utility of policy analysis theories and stakeholder mapping tools for predicting the likelihood of policy change and informing the strategic approaches for achieving such change. They also highlight opportunities and dilemmas in prospective policy analysis and raise questions about whether research on policy processes and actors can or should be used to inform, or even influence, policies in ‘real-time’. PMID:21183461

  11. Can policy analysis theories predict and inform policy change? Reflections on the battle for legal abortion in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Surjadjaja, Claudia; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2011-09-01

    The relevance and importance of research for understanding policy processes and influencing policies has been much debated, but studies on the effectiveness of policy theories for predicting and informing opportunities for policy change (i.e. prospective policy analysis) are rare. The case study presented in this paper is drawn from a policy analysis of a contemporary process of policy debate on legalization of abortion in Indonesia, which was in flux at the time of the research and provided a unique opportunity for prospective analysis. Applying a combination of policy analysis theories, this case study provides an analysis of processes, power and relationships between actors involved in the amendment of the Health Law in Indonesia. It uses a series of practical stakeholder mapping tools to identify power relations between key actors and what strategic approaches should be employed to manage these to enhance the possibility of policy change. The findings show how the moves to legalize abortion have been supported or constrained according to the balance of political and religious powers operating in a macro-political context defined increasingly by a polarized Islamic-authoritarian-Western-liberal agenda. The issue of reproductive health constituted a battlefield where these two ideologies met and the debate on the current health law amendment became a contest, which still continues, for the larger future of Indonesia. The findings confirm the utility of policy analysis theories and stakeholder mapping tools for predicting the likelihood of policy change and informing the strategic approaches for achieving such change. They also highlight opportunities and dilemmas in prospective policy analysis and raise questions about whether research on policy processes and actors can or should be used to inform, or even influence, policies in 'real-time'. PMID:21183461

  12. SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative): a policy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fought, S.O.

    1987-01-01

    Contents include -- Foundations of Deterrence; A Model for Stability; Analysis of SDI/Stability; Related Issues; Treatment of Implementation Factors; Historical Evolution and Trends; The Strategic Choices and Flexible Response; The Planners' Perspective; The Impact of Strategic Defense on a Strategy of Flexible Response; Synthesis.

  13. Integrated communication and control systems. I - Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halevi, Yoram; Ray, Asok

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an ICCS analysis focusing on discrete-time control systems subject to time-varying delays. The present analytical technique is applicable to integrated dynamic systems such as those encountered in advanced aircraft, spacecraft, and the real-time control of robots and machine tools via a high-speed network within an autonomous manufacturing environment. The significance of data latency and missynchronization between individual system components in ICCS networks is discussed in view of the time-varying delays.

  14. Social Judgment Analysis: Methodology for Improving Interpersonal Communication and Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbaugh, John; Harmon, Joel

    Research has found the Social Judgment Analysis (SJA) approach, with its focus on judgment policy and cognitive feedback, to be a significant factor in developing group member agreement and improving member performance. A controlled experiment was designed to assess the relative quality of the judgment making process provided by SJA.…

  15. Role of Communication Networks in Behavioral Systems Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houmanfar, Ramona; Rodrigues, Nischal Joseph; Smith, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of communication networks and the role of verbal behavior in behavioral systems analysis. Our discussion highlights styles of leadership in the design and implementation of effective organizational contingencies that affect ways by which coordinated work practices are managed. We draw upon literature pertaining to…

  16. A Discourse Analysis of Student Perceptions of Their Communication Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Eugenie P.

    This paper presents the conclusions of a study of student perceptions of communication competence. Discourse analysis data was collected on students in university systems in six different American states in the East, Midwest, and South. Student discourse was analyzed for differences in the ways in which students described their perceptions of…

  17. Analysis of Multiple Manding Topographies during Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Jay W.; Wacker, David P.; Berg, Wendy K.; Winborn-Kemmerer, Lisa; Lee, John F.; Ibrahimovic, Muska

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of reinforcing multiple manding topographies during functional communication training (FCT) to decrease problem behavior for three preschool-age children. During Phase 1, a functional analysis identified conditions that maintained problem behavior for each child. During Phase 2, the children's parents taught them to…

  18. Graphic Communications--Commercial Photography. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for graphic communications--commercial photography. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the…

  19. A Semantic Network Analysis of the International Communication Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerfel, Marya L.; Barnett, George A.

    1999-01-01

    Finds that a semantic network analysis of the International Communication Association (ICA) based on paper titles presented at its 1991 conference had a high degree of correspondence with the affiliation structure. Suggests validity of the procedures employed for determining semantic networks. Interprets results in regard to this journal's…

  20. Alcohol policy in a Russian region: a stakeholder analysis

    PubMed Central

    Polikina, Olga; Koroleva, Natalia; Leon, David A.; McKee, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Male life expectancy in the Russian Federation, at 60 years, is the lowest in Europe. Several factors contribute to this situation, but hazardous consumption of alcohol is especially a key factor. Methods: We undertook a stakeholder analysis in a typical Russian region located on the western side of the Urals. Organizations with a stake in alcohol policy in the region were identified by snowball sampling and information on their position and influence on alcohol policy was elicited from interviews with key informants. Their interests and influence were mapped and their relationships plotted. Results: Twenty-nine stakeholder organizations were identified and 43 interviews were conducted with their staff. The most influential actors were the Federal and regional governments, large beer producers and manufacturers of strong alcohols. However, the majority of organizations that might be expected to play a role in developing or implementing alcohol control policies were almost entirely disengaged and fragmented. No evidence was found of an existing or emerging multi-sectoral coalition for developing alcohol policy to improve health. Organizations that might be expected to contribute to tackling hazardous drinking had little understanding of what might be effective. Conclusions: While stakeholders with an interest in maintaining or increasing alcohol consumption are engaged and influential, those who might seek to reduce it either take a very narrow perspective or are disengaged from the policy agenda. There is a need to mobilize actors who might contribute to effective policies while challenging those who can block them. PMID:20350932

  1. Analysis of Computer-Mediated Communication: Using Formal Concept Analysis as a Visualizing Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hara, Noriko

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the use of Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) as a methodology to visualize the data in computer-mediated communication. Bases FCA on a mathematical lattice theory and offers visual maps (graphs) with conceptual hierarchies, and proposes use of FCA combined with content analysis to analyze computer-mediated communication. (Author/LRW)

  2. Tobacco control in the Russian Federation- a policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Russian Federation (Russia) has one of the highest smoking rates in the world. The purpose of this study is to analyze past and current trends of the tobacco epidemic in the Russian Federation, review current tobacco control policy responses, and identify areas of opportunity for policy priorities. Methods We used a policy triangle as analytical framework to examine content, context, and processes of Russian tobacco control policy. The analysis was based on secondary data on supply and demand sides of the Russian tobacco epidemic, tobacco-related economic and health effects during Russia’s economic transition, and compliance of Russian tobacco policy with international standards and regulations. Results Tobacco-promoting strategies have specifically targeted women and youth. Russia’s approval of a “National Tobacco Control Concept” and draft for a comprehensive tobacco control bill increasingly align national legislature with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). However, several structural and cultural factors represent substantial barriers to the policy process. The influence of transnational tobacco companies on policy processes in Russia has so far impeded a full implementation of the FCTC mandates. Conclusions Several strategies have been identified as having the potential to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use in Russia and decrease tobacco-related national health and economic burden: adjusting national tobacco policy by raising tobacco tax from the current lowest level in Europe to at least 70%; consequent enforcement of a complete smoking ban in public places; marketing restrictions; and smoking cessation interventions integrated into primary care. Russia’s tobacco control efforts need to target women and youths specifically to efficiently counter industry efforts. PMID:23339756

  3. The Effect of Definitions of "Policy" on the Nature and Outcomes of Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guba, Egon G.

    1984-01-01

    Presents eight definitions of "policy" that are implied in the literature and, by applying these definitions in three policy arenas, notes their differential effects in terms of policy questions, data collected, data sources, methodology, and policy products. (MLF)

  4. Policy Analysis for Rural Development and Growth Management in Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, John S.; Duff, Mary K.

    Providing a broad analysis of Colorado's rural problems, the body of this report enumerates rural development and growth management problems; describes remedies worth study; and suggests a policy making system. The Appendix presents supporting material, including comparative socioeconomic data on each Colorado county. Opportunities and threats…

  5. A Scale Analysis of the Effects of US Federal Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandya, Jessica Zacher

    2012-01-01

    In this essay I argue that the effects of federal policy can be examined through a scale analysis that helps deconstruct the effect of the current widespread accountability movement in the US educational system. I first discuss the concept of scale, including its thus-far limited use in educational research. I define scales not only as…

  6. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 1999: Numbers 1-20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of articles 1-20 published in the electronic journal "Educational Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 1999: (1) "Ethnic Segregation in Arizona Charter Schools" (Casey D. Cobb and Gene V. Glass); (2) "Educational Research in Latin America: A Response to Akkari and Perez" (Mariano Narodowski); (3) "Effects on Students of a…

  7. Education Policy Analysis and the Rent-a-Troika Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Dale

    Educational policy analysis consists of a "troika" of major components--politics (or power), technology (ideas), and service delivery (workers). Three case studies of New York City programs illustrate how the components interact in different situations. The city's School Improvement Project aims to make schools more effective in teaching poor…

  8. A Policy Analysis of Public School Retirement Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tara; Teeter, Matt

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this policy analysis was to examine the Missouri Public School Retirement System (PSRS). The team investigated the under-funding of PSRS, relating to sustainability and the feasibility of the system's use of one lever, contribution rate, to stabilize the retirement system, and to meet actuary needs and governmental requirements. The…

  9. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2001: Numbers 23-45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document consists of articles 23-45 published in the electronic journal "Education Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 2001: (23) "La Participacion de las Minorias Nacionales dentro de Sistemas Educativas Pre-Modernos: El Caso de los Garifunas de Guatemala" (Carlos R. Ruano); (24) "'Alexander v. Sandoval': A Setback for Civil Rights"…

  10. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2002: Numbers 1-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of articles 1 through 25 published in the electronic journal Education Policy Analysis Archives for the year 2002: (1) Testing and Diversity in Postsecondary Education: The Case of California (Daniel Koretz, Michael Russell, Chingwei David Shin, Cathy Horn, and Kelly Shasby); (2) State-Mandated Testing and Teachers Beliefs…

  11. A Unified Framework for Monetary Theory and Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagos, Ricardo; Wright, Randall

    2005-01-01

    Search-theoretic models of monetary exchange are based on explicit descriptions of the frictions that make money essential. However, tractable versions of these models typically make strong assumptions that render them ill suited for monetary policy analysis. We propose a new framework, based on explicit micro foundations, within which macro…

  12. A Critical Policy Analysis of Texas' "Closing the Gaps 2015"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Thackik, Stefani Leigh

    2016-01-01

    This critical policy analysis uses critical race theory to provide a counter narrative to the P-16 initiative in Texas known as "Closing the Gaps 2015". Findings indicate that while these reforms aim to increase educational access and achievement for people of color, they fall short of addressing systemic inequities such as enduring…

  13. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2002: Numbers 26-50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    This document consists of articles 26 through 50 published in the electronic journal "Education Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 2002: (26) "Home Schooling in the United States: Trends and Characteristics" (Kurt J. Bauman); (27) "Mentoring Narratives ON-LINE: Teaching the Principalship" (Alison I. Griffith and Svitlana Taraban); (28) "Elm…

  14. Comparative Analysis, Global Policy Studies and the Human Condition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertsch, Gary K.

    This paper examines the role that comparative analysis and global policy studies can play in explaining the human condition in the contemporary world. It investigates economic well-being, one dimension of the human condition, and examines some of the attributes that represent it and some of the forces that affect it in villages, social groupings,…

  15. Content Analysis as a Foundation for Programmatic Research in Communication.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D

    2013-06-01

    Previous arguments that content analyses provide the descriptive foundation for media effects research (McLeod & Reeves, 1980) are extended to include that content analyses can provide a sound and useful foundation for programmatic research by individual communication scientists. I discuss examples from my own work and from that of colleagues in communication and related disciplines. Use of messages sampled and coded in a content analysis in combination with survey data sets or as stimuli in experiments are highlighted. The particular potential for employing larger numbers of randomly sampled messages in experimental designs, and, with use of appropriate statistical methods, being able to generalize to populations of messages, is described. PMID:23914276

  16. Tradeoff Analysis for Combat Service Support Wireless Communications Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Burnette, John R.; Thibodeau, Christopher C.; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2002-02-28

    As the Army moves toward more mobile and agile forces and continued sustainment of numerous high-cost legacy logistics management systems, the requirement for wireless connectivity and a wireless network to supporting organizations has become ever more critical. There are currently several Army communications initiatives underway to resolve this wireless connectivity issue. However, to fully appreciate and understand the value of these initiatives, a Tradeoff Analysis is needed. The present study seeks to identify and assess solutions. The analysis identified issues that impede Interim Brigade Combat Team (IBCT) communication system integration and outlined core requirements for sharing of logistics data between the field and Army battle command systems. Then, the analysis examined wireless communication alternatives as possible solutions for IBCT logistics communications problems. The current baseline system was compared with possible alternatives involving tactical radio systems, wireless/near term digital radio, cellular satellite, and third-generation (3G) wireless technologies. Cellular satellite and 3G wireless technologies offer clear advantages and should be considered for later IBCTs.

  17. Using Sentiment Analysis to Observe How Science is Communicated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, David; Illingworth, Sam

    2016-04-01

    'Citizen Science' and 'Big data' are terms that are currently ubiquitous in the field of science communication. Whilst opinions differ as to what exactly constitutes a 'citizen', and how much information is needed in order for a data set to be considered truly 'big', what is apparent is that both of these fields have the potential to help revolutionise not just the way that science is communicated, but also the way that it is conducted. However, both the generation of sufficient data, and the efficiency of then analysing the data once it has been analysed need to be taken into account. Sentiment Analysis is the process of determining whether a piece of writing is positive, negative or neutral. The process of sentiment analysis can be automated, providing that an adequate training set has been used, and that the nuances that are associated with a particular topic have been accounted for. Given the large amounts of data that are generated by social media posts, and the often-opinionated nature of these posts, they present an ideal source of data to both train with and then scrutinize using sentiment analysis. In this work we will demonstrate how sentiment analysis can be used to examine a large number of Twitter posts, and how a training set can be established to ensure consistency and accuracy in the automation. Following an explanation of the process, we will demonstrate how automated sentiment analysis can be used to categorise opinions in relation to a large-scale science festival, and will discuss if sentiment analysis can be used to tell us if there is a bias in these communications. We will also investigate if sentiment analysis can be used to replace more traditional, and invasive evaluation strategies, and how this approach can then be adopted to investigate other topics, both within scientific communication and in the wider scientific context.

  18. Development of the free-space optical communications analysis software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeganathan, Muthu; Mecherle, G. Stephen; Lesh, James R.

    1998-05-01

    The Free-space Optical Communication Analysis Software (FOCAS) was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to provide mission planners, systems engineers and communications engineers with an easy to use tool to analyze direct-detection optical communication links. The FOCAS program, implemented in Microsoft Excel, gives it all the power and flexibility built into the spreadsheet. An easy-to-use interface, developed using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), to the spreadsheet allows easy input of data and parameters. A host of pre- defined components allow an analyst to configure a link without having to know the details of the components. FOCAS replaces the over-a-decade-old FORTRAN program called OPTI widely used previously at JPL. This paper describes the features and capabilities of the Excel-spreadsheet-based FOCAS program.

  19. Best of enemies: Using social network analysis to explore a policy network in European smoke-free policy.

    PubMed

    Weishaar, Heide; Amos, Amanda; Collin, Jeff

    2015-05-01

    Networks and coalitions of stakeholders play a crucial role in the development and implementation of policies, with previous research highlighting that networks in tobacco control are characterised by an antagonism between supporters and opponents of comprehensive tobacco control policies. This UK-based study used quantitative and qualitative network analysis (drawing on 176 policy submissions and 32 interviews) to systematically map and analyse a network of actors involved in the development of European Union (EU) smoke-free policy. Policy debates were dominated by two coalitions of stakeholders with starkly opposing positions on the issue. One coalition, consisting primarily of health-related organisations, supported comprehensive EU smoke-free policy, whereas the other, led by tobacco manufacturers' organisations, opposed the policy initiative. The data suggest that, aided by strong political commitment of EU decision makers to develop smoke-free policy, advocates supporting comprehensive EU policy were able to frame policy debates in ways which challenged the tobacco industry's legitimacy. They then benefited from the stark polarisation between the two coalitions. The paper provides empirical evidence of the division between two distinct coalitions in tobacco policy debates and draws attention to the complex processes of consensus-seeking, alliance-building and strategic action which are integral to the development of EU policy. Highlighting network polarisation and industry isolation as factors which seemed to increase tobacco control success, the study demonstrates the potential significance and value of FCTC article 5.3 for tobacco control policy-making. PMID:25863723

  20. Content of the Business Communication Course: An Analysis of Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardrope, William J.; Bayless, Marsha L.

    1999-01-01

    Examines 229 responses from members of the Association for Business Communication (United States) who rated the importance of 30 business communication concepts that were divided into six categories: communication theory, written communication, oral communication, employment communication, technology, and current business communication issues.…

  1. Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys

    PubMed Central

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. Methods and analysis A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, ‘environmental equity’ indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International ‘best practice benchmarks’ will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. Dissemination This research is highly original due to the very ‘upstream’ approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to

  2. Space Shuttle Communications Coverage Analysis for Thermal Tile Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroll, Quin D.; Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Boster, John P.; Chavez, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    The space shuttle ultra-high frequency Space-to-Space Communication System has to provide adequate communication coverage for astronauts who are performing thermal tile inspection and repair on the underside of the space shuttle orbiter (SSO). Careful planning and quantitative assessment are necessary to ensure successful system operations and mission safety in this work environment. This study assesses communication systems performance for astronauts who are working in the underside, non-line-of-sight shadow region on the space shuttle. All of the space shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) transmitting antennas are blocked by the SSO structure. To ensure communication coverage at planned inspection worksites, the signal strength and link margin between the SSO/ISS antennas and the extravehicular activity astronauts, whose line-of-sight is blocked by vehicle structure, was analyzed. Investigations were performed using rigorous computational electromagnetic modeling techniques. Signal strength was obtained by computing the reflected and diffracted fields along the signal propagation paths between transmitting and receiving antennas. Radio frequency (RF) coverage was determined for thermal tile inspection and repair missions using the results of this computation. Analysis results from this paper are important in formulating the limits on reliable communication range and RF coverage at planned underside inspection and repair worksites.

  3. Using Decision Analysis to Improve Malaria Control Policy Making

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Randall; Dickinson, Katherine L.; Anderson, Richard M.; Fowler, Vance G.; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Mutero, Clifford M.; Saterson, Kathryn A.; Wiener, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria and other vector-borne diseases represent a significant and growing burden in many tropical countries. Successfully addressing these threats will require policies that expand access to and use of existing control methods, such as insecticide-treated bed nets and artemesinin combination therapies for malaria, while weighing the costs and benefits of alternative approaches over time. This paper argues that decision analysis provides a valuable framework for formulating such policies and combating the emergence and re-emergence of malaria and other diseases. We outline five challenges that policy makers and practitioners face in the struggle against malaria, and demonstrate how decision analysis can help to address and overcome these challenges. A prototype decision analysis framework for malaria control in Tanzania is presented, highlighting the key components that a decision support tool should include. Developing and applying such a framework can promote stronger and more effective linkages between research and policy, ultimately helping to reduce the burden of malaria and other vector-borne diseases. PMID:19356821

  4. Administrative Policy Analysis, Budgeting, Implementation, and Evaluation: An Overview to Policy/Program Analysis and Evaluation Techniques, Package VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneke, Gregory A.; Steiss, Alan Walter

    This overview serves as an introduction to a series of ten curriculum modules that comprise a portion of the National Training and Development Service Urban Management Curriculum Development Project. The overview was designed to provide a generalized discussion of the field of government policy/program analysis and evaluation. The training program…

  5. , Analysis of U.S. Net Metering and Interconnection Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, Rusty; Cook, Chris

    2006-07-01

    Historically, the absence of interconnection standards has been one of the primary barriers to the deployment of distributed generation (DG) in the United States. Although significant progress in the development of interconnection standards was achieved at both the federal and state levels in 2005, interconnection policy and net-metering policy continue to confound regulators, lawmakers, DG businesses, clean-energy advocates and consumers. For this reason it is critical to keep track of developments related to these issues. The North Carolina Solar Center (NCSC) is home to two Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) projects -- the National Interconnection Project and the Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy (DSIRE). This paper will present the major federal and state level policy developments in interconnection and net metering in 2005 and early 2006. It will also present conclusions based an analysis of data collected by these two projects.

  6. Developing policies and procedures for a picture archiving and communication system.

    PubMed

    Gaytos, B

    2001-06-01

    Policies and procedures (P&P) constitute the mechanism for planning, standardizing, and documenting the provision of clinical services. Upon approval by hospital management, the P&P is an official statement of hospital rules and regulations. Each P&P establishes organizational responsibility for providing services. P&P are a mechanism for communicating standard operating procedures to hospital and medical staff. P&P serve as a reference document for unusual events, as well as routine procedures. P&P are often reviewed by inspection teams from the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospital Organizations (JCAHO) to determine whether the hospital has documented systematic practices. A picture archival and communications system (PACS) provides a new vehicle for providing radiology services. P&P that were designed for conventional film-based imaging are often not appropriate for electronic imaging. Because PACS is new and not yet widespread, good examples of PACS P&P are not yet available. JCAHO has no official requirements for PACS: PACS is viewed only as a means for the hospital to accomplish its work. Successful P&P development is a team effort, drafted by personnel responsible for executing the procedure, assisted by staff proficient in PACS technology, and tested in the field. The P&P should be reviewed and approved by management personnel knowledgeable about hospital and imaging operations. P&P should be written in clear and concise language. Successful P&P development is an ongoing effort. P&P must be periodically reviewed and updated to reflect changes in PACS technology and changes in clinical operations. New P&P must be developed when a deficit is noted. PACS security is a good example of a topic worthy of P&P development, especially in the face of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) legislation of 1996. What are the provisions for access control? Does the system include a feature for automatic shut-off of the software? Are there

  7. Cost analysis of post-polio certification immunization policies.

    PubMed Central

    Sangrujee, Nalinee; Cáceres, Victor M.; Cochi, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An analysis was conducted to estimate the costs of different potential post-polio certification immunization policies currently under consideration, with the objective of providing this information to policy-makers. METHODS: We analyzed three global policy options: continued use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV); OPV cessation with optional inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV); and OPV cessation with universal IPV. Assumptions were made on future immunization policy decisions taken by low-, middle-, and high-income countries. We estimated the financial costs of each immunization policy, the number of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases, and the global costs of maintaining an outbreak response capacity. The financial costs of each immunization policy were based on estimates of the cost of polio vaccine, its administration, and coverage projections. The costs of maintaining outbreak response capacity include those associated with developing and maintaining a vaccine stockpile in addition to laboratory and epidemiological surveillance. We used the period 2005-20 as the time frame for the analysis. FINDINGS: OPV cessation with optional IPV, at an estimated cost of US$ 20,412 million, was the least costly option. The global cost of outbreak response capacity was estimated to be US$ 1320 million during 2005-20. The policy option continued use of OPV resulted in the highest number of VAPP cases. OPV cessation with universal IPV had the highest financial costs, but it also had the least number of VAPP cases. Sensitivity analyses showed that global costs were sensitive to assumptions on the cost of the vaccine. Analysis also showed that if the price per dose of IPV was reduced to US$ 0.50 for low-income countries, the cost of OPV cessation with universal IPV would be the same as the costs of continued use of OPV. CONCLUSION: Projections on the vaccine price per dose and future coverage rates were major drivers of the global costs of post

  8. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Tax Incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Doris, E.

    2009-10-01

    As a policy tool, state tax incentives can be structured to help states meet clean energy goals. Policymakers often use state tax incentives in concert with state and federal policies to support renewable energy deployment or reduce market barriers. This analysis used case studies of four states to assess the contributions of state tax incentives to the development of renewable energy markets. State tax incentives that are appropriately paired with complementary state and federal policies generally provide viable mechanisms to support renewable energy deployment. However, challenges to successful implementation of state tax incentives include serving project owners with limited state tax liability, assessing appropriate incentive levels, and differentiating levels of incentives for technologies with different costs. Additionally, state tax incentives may result in moderately higher federal tax burdens. These challenges notwithstanding, state tax incentives that consider certain policy design characteristics can support renewable energy markets and state clean energy goals.The scale of their impact though is directly related to the degree to which they support the renewable energy markets for targeted sectors and technologies. This report highlights important policy design considerations for policymakers using state tax incentives to meet clean energy goals.

  9. LACOMA- OPTICAL ANALYSIS FOR LASER HETERODYNE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S.

    1994-01-01

    LACOMA (Laser Communicator Analysis Program) was developed to predict the effects of optical aberrations on transmitters and receivers used in heterodyne communication systems. Combining the proven techniques of a previous optical program with a new approach designed to evaluate heterodyne performance, the program is a general purpose package to be used by optical and communication engineers. Two independent optical trains for the received signal and the local oscillator are specified and evaluated. A comprehensive ray trace subroutine and Fourier transform compute complex amplitude spread functions in a specified detector plane. The two functions are combined and integrated over a specific detector to determine heterodyne signal power. This power is normalized with respect to an ideal value to provide a quantitative value for receiver degradation. Values of local oscillator illumination efficiency, optical transmission, detection efficiency and phase match efficiency are also evaluated to isolate the cause of any unexpected degradations. The program has been used for a tolerance analysis of a selected system designed for space communications, and for evaluation of several other systems. This program was implemented on an IBM 360/91 and an IBM 360/95 and needs approximately 103K bytes of core.

  10. Pakistan's maternal and child health policy: analysis, lessons and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, S; Haq, I U; Ghaffar, A; Akhtar, T; Mahaini, R

    2004-07-01

    An estimated 400,000 infant and 16,500 maternal deaths occur annually in Pakistan. These translate into an infant mortality rate and maternal mortality ratio that should be unacceptable to any state. Disease states including communicable diseases and reproductive health (RH) problems, which are largely preventable account for over 50% of the disease burden. The analysis of Pakistan's maternal and child health (MCH) and family planning (FP) policy covers the period 1990-2002, and focuses on macroeconomic influences, priority programs and gaps, adequacy of resources, equity and organizational aspects, and the process of policy formulation. The overall MCH/FP policy is well directed. MCH/FP has been a priority in all policies; resource allocation, although unacceptably low, has substantially increased during the last decade; and there is a progressive shift from MCH to the reproductive health (RH) agenda. Areas in need of improvement include greater use of evidence as a basis for policy; increased priority to nutrition programs, measures to reduce neonatal and perinatal mortality, provision of emergency obstetric care, availability of skilled birth attendants, and a clear policy on integrated management of childhood illnesses. Enhanced planning capacity, development of a balanced human resource, improved governance to reduce staff absenteeism and frequent transfers, and a greater role of the private sector in the provision of services are some organizational aspects that need the governments' consideration. There are several lessons to be learnt: (i) Ministries of Health need sustained stewardship and well-documented evidence to protect cuts in resource allocation; (ii) frequent policy announcement sends inappropriate signals to managers and weakens on-going implementation; (iii) MCH/FP policies unless informed by evidence and participation of interest groups are unlikely to address gaps in programs; (iv) distributional and equity objectives of MCH/FP be addressed

  11. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (82nd, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 3-8, 1999). Communication Technology and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Communication Technology and Policy section of the Proceedings contains the following 15 papers: "The Virtual Sphere: The Internet as a Public Sphere" (Zizi Papacharissi); "Toward a Typology of Internet Users and Online Privacy Concerns" (Kim Bartel Sheehan); "Blind Spots of the Communications Decency Act Debate: A Critique of Jeffersonian…

  12. Organization of the United States International Communications Industry. Appendix. Report of the Panel on Satellites and Other Long-Haul Transmission Modes of the National Academy of Engineering. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Staff Paper Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostow, Eugene V.

    A staff paper to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy reviews the organization of the American international communications industries and recommends a consolidation of the competing international carriers. Particularly emphasized is the competition and division of ownership between the two technologies involved in international…

  13. Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue on communication includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROM and computer software, videos, books, and professional resources that deal with various methods of communication. Sidebars discuss mythology, photojournalism, sharing ideas on the Web, and songs of protest. Suggestions for class activities are also included. (LRW)

  14. Cervical cancer and the global health agenda: Insights from multiple policy-analysis frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Parkhurst, Justin O.; Vulimiri, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths for women globally, with an estimated 88% of deaths occurring in the developing world. Available technologies have dramatically reduced mortality in high-income settings, yet cervical cancer receives considerably little attention on the global health policy landscape. The authors applied four policy-analysis frameworks to literature on global cervical cancer to explore the question of why cervical cancer may not be receiving the international attention it may otherwise warrant. Each framework explores the process of agenda setting and discerns factors that either facilitate or hinder policy change in cases where there is both a clear problem and a potential effective solution. In combination, these frameworks highlight a number of crucial elements that may be needed to raise the profile of cervical cancer on global health agendas, including improving local (national or sub-national) information on the condition; increasing mobilisation of affected civil society groups; framing cervical cancer debates in ways that build upon its classification as a non-communicable disease (NCD) and an issue of women's rights; linking cervical cancer screening to well-funded services such as those for HIV treatment in some countries; and identifying key global policy windows of opportunity to promote the cervical cancer agenda, including emerging NCD global health discussions and post-2015 reviews of the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:24236409

  15. Economic analysis requirements in support of orbital debris regulatory policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    1996-10-01

    As the number of Earth orbiting objects increases so does the potential for generating orbital debris with the consequent increase in the likelihood of impacting and damaging operating satellites. Various debris remediation approaches are being considered that encompass both in-orbit and return-to-Earth schema and have varying degrees of operations, cost, international competitiveness, and safety implications. Because of the diversity of issues, concerns and long-term impacts, there is a clear need for the setting of government policies that will lead to an orderly abatement of the potential orbital debris hazards. These policies may require the establishment of a supportive regulatory regime. The Department of Transportation is likely to have regulatory responsibilities relating to orbital debris stemming from its charge to protect the public health and safety, safety of property, and national security interests and foreign policy interests of the United States. This paper describes DOT's potential regulatory role relating to orbital debris remediation, the myriad of issues concerning the need for establishing government policies relating to orbital debris remediation and their regulatory implications, the proposed technological solutions and their economic and safety implications. Particular emphasis is placed upon addressing cost-effectiveness and economic analyses as they relate to economic impact analysis in support of regulatory impact analysis.

  16. 34 CFR 477.1 - What is the State Program Analysis Assistance and Policy Studies Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ANALYSIS ASSISTANCE AND POLICY STUDIES PROGRAM General § 477.1 What is the State Program Analysis Assistance and Policy Studies Program? The State Program Analysis Assistance and Policy Studies Program... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the State Program Analysis Assistance...

  17. 34 CFR 477.1 - What is the State Program Analysis Assistance and Policy Studies Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ANALYSIS ASSISTANCE AND POLICY STUDIES PROGRAM General § 477.1 What is the State Program Analysis Assistance and Policy Studies Program? The State Program Analysis Assistance and Policy Studies Program... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the State Program Analysis Assistance...

  18. The Use and Management of the Electromagnetic Spectrum, Part I. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Staff Paper Seven, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostow, Eugene V.

    A staff paper to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy analyses the use of the electromagnetic spectrum for communications and suggests improvements. The evolution of spectrum use and its present federal management are described together with the problem of achieving efficient use in the areas of electromagnetic congestion. Criticism…

  19. New Directions in Mass Communications Policy: Implications for Citizen Education and Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Larry

    This paper, the second in a series of five on the current state of citizen education, focuses on mass communication. The following topics are discussed: communications today; the system of freedom of expression; social science research on the media (includes the audience and public information); minorities and the media; public broadcasting;…

  20. Broadcasting and Telecommunications. Yukon 2000: A Communications Policy for the Yukon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yukon Dept. of Community and Transportation, Whitehorse.

    This publication discusses the Yukon Territory government's role in communications matters at both the territorial and the national levels in Canada. The 10 sections of the report address the following topics: (1) the government's response to the demand of Yukoners for better communications services through the development of a territory-specific…

  1. Link Analysis for Space Communication Links Using ARQ Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Lau, Chi-Wung; Lee, Charles

    2014-01-01

    In space communications, standard link analysis assumes that messages are sent once. For a communication link that uses an error-correction coding scheme, bit-error-rate (BER) or frame-error-rate (FER), and link margins are common metrics that characterize the quality of a link, and they are used to determine the supportable data rate. With the advent of Automatic Repeat-reQuest (ARQ) protocols, when messages are corrupted during transmission, they can be resent multiple times automatically until they are correctly received and acknowledged. The concept of BER, FER, and link margin cannot be directly applied, and the link analysis approach for ARQ links needs to be re-examined.

  2. SYSTID - A flexible tool for the analysis of communication systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, C. T.; Tranter, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    Description of the System Time Domain Simulation (SYSTID) computer-aided analysis program which is specifically structured for communication systems analysis. The SYSTID program is user oriented so that very little knowledge of computer techniques and very little programming ability are required for proper application. The program is designed so that the user can go from a system block diagram to an accurate simulation by simply programming a single English language statement for each block in the system. The mathematical and functional models available in the SYSTID library are presented. An example problem is given which illustrates the ease of modeling communication systems. Examples of the outputs available are presented, and proposed improvements are summarized.

  3. Patterns of Communication through Interpreters: A Detailed Sociolinguistic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aranguri, Cesar; Davidson, Brad; Ramirez, Robert

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Numerous articles have detailed how the presence of an interpreter leads to less satisfactory communication with physicians; few have studied how actual communication takes place through an interpreter in a clinical setting. OBJECTIVE Record and analyze physician-interpreter-patient interactions. DESIGN Primary care physicians with high-volume Hispanic practices were recruited for a communication study. Dyslipidemic Hispanic patients, either monolingual Spanish or bilingual Spanish-English, were recruited on the day of a normally scheduled appointment and, once consented, recorded without a researcher present in the room. Separate postvisit interviews were conducted with the patient and the physician. All interactions were fully transcribed and analyzed. PARTICIPANTS Sixteen patients were recorded interacting with 9 physicians. Thirteen patients used an interpreter with 8 physicians, and 3 patients spoke Spanish with the 1 bilingual physician. APPROACH Transcript analysis based on sociolinguistic and discourse analytic techniques, including but not limited to time speaking, analysis of questions asked and answered, and the loss of semantic information. RESULTS Speech was significantly reduced and revised by the interpreter, resulting in an alteration of linguistic features such as content, meaning, reinforcement/validation, repetition, and affect. In addition, visits that included an interpreter had virtually no rapport-building “small talk,” which typically enables the physician to gain comprehensive patient history, learn clinically relevant information, and increase emotional engagement in treatment. CONCLUSIONS The presence of an interpreter increases the difficulty of achieving good physician-patient communication. Physicians and interpreters should be trained in the process of communication and interpretation, to minimize conversational loss and maximize the information and relational exchange with interpreted patients. PMID:16808747

  4. Traffic analysis of a medical multimedia communication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoupas, Vasilios; Kotsopoulos, Stavros A.; Lymberopoulos, Dimitris C.

    1993-09-01

    Within the framework of the integration of medical information environment (MIE), special groupware multimedia services (GMS) should be developed. The application of GMSs to specially designed medical communication networks (MCN) creates an integrated user collaboration scheme for supporting and handling special medical cases. The present paper deals with the study and analysis of the traffic performance of a private multimedia ISDN MCN with a dynamic bandwidth allocation.

  5. Economic-Analysis Program for a Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    Prices and profits of alternative designs compared. Objective of Land Mobile Satellite Service Finance Report (LMSS) program is to provide means for comparing alternative designs of LMSS systems. Program is Multiplan worksheet program. Labels used in worksheet chosen for satellite-based cellular communication service, but analysis not restricted to such cases. LMSS written for interactive execution with Multiplan (version 1.2) and implemented on IBM PC series computer operating under DOS (version 2.11).

  6. Performance analysis of Integrated Communication and Control System networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halevi, Y.; Ray, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents statistical analysis of delays in Integrated Communication and Control System (ICCS) networks that are based on asynchronous time-division multiplexing. The models are obtained in closed form for analyzing control systems with randomly varying delays. The results of this research are applicable to ICCS design for complex dynamical processes like advanced aircraft and spacecraft, autonomous manufacturing plants, and chemical and processing plants.

  7. Interference Analysis for an Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of aeronautical communications for airport surface applications has been identified through a NASA research program and an international collaborative future communications study. The result, endorsed by both the United States and European regulatory agencies is called AeroMACS (Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System) and is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard. Coordinated efforts to develop appropriate aviation standards for the AeroMACS system are now underway within RTCA (United States) and Eurocae (Europe). AeroMACS will be implemented in a recently allocated frequency band, 5091-5150 MHz. As this band is also occupied by fixed satellite service uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference to the fixed satellite service are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. The NASA Glenn Research Center has been involved in this analysis, and the first results of modeling and simulation efforts directed at this analysis are the subject of this presentation.

  8. Interference Analysis for an Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Kercewski, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation of aeronautical communications for airport surface applications has been identified through a NASA research program and an international collaborative future communications study. The result, endorsed by both the United States and European regulatory agencies is called AeroMACS (Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System) and is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard. Coordinated efforts to develop appropriate aviation standards for the AeroMACS system are now underway within RTCA (United States) and Eurocae (Europe). AeroMACS will be implemented in a recently allocated frequency band, 5091- 5150 MHz. As this band is also occupied by fixed satellite service uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference to the fixed satellite service are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. The NASA Glenn Research Center has been involved in this analysis, and the first results of modeling and simulation efforts directed at this analysis are the subject of this paper.12

  9. Knowledge base navigator facilitating regional analysis inter-tool communication.

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, Jeffery Wade; Chael, Eric Paul; Hart, Darren M.; Merchant, Bion John; Chown, Matthew N.

    2004-08-01

    To make use of some portions of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Knowledge Base (KB) for which no current operational monitoring applications were available, Sandia National Laboratories have developed a set of prototype regional analysis tools (MatSeis, EventID Tool, CodaMag Tool, PhaseMatch Tool, Dendro Tool, Infra Tool, etc.), and we continue to maintain and improve these. Individually, these tools have proven effective in addressing specific monitoring tasks, but collectively their number and variety tend to overwhelm KB users, so we developed another application - the KB Navigator - to launch the tools and facilitate their use for real monitoring tasks. The KB Navigator is a flexible, extensible java application that includes a browser for KB data content, as well as support to launch any of the regional analysis tools. In this paper, we will discuss the latest versions of KB Navigator and the regional analysis tools, with special emphasis on the new overarching inter-tool communication methodology that we have developed to make the KB Navigator and the tools function together seamlessly. We use a peer-to-peer communication model, which allows any tool to communicate with any other. The messages themselves are passed as serialized XML, and the conversion from Java to XML (and vice versa) is done using Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB).

  10. What is the public’s role in space policy -making? Images of the public by practitioners of ‘space’ communication in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    das Fontes Entradas, Marta Cristina

    2015-08-01

    This article analyses how practitioners involved in the communication of ‘space’ view the public and public participation in space policy-making. Findings show that contextual situations determine the way the public is conceptualized: the public is seen as sophisticated and knowledgeable enough to participate in science communication activities/citizen science; but in matters of policy, conceptualisations of a misinformed public are frequently brought up. The ‘limited’ conception of the public competes with the stated aims of scientific and political institutions for public engagement and the substantive value of public participation, leaving a limited role for the public in space policy-making.

  11. New policy and regulatory developments in satellite communications: Innovations by the German Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Christian D.

    Since the beginning of the 1990s the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications has embarked on a course in cooperation with the European Commission to further the cause of regulatory reform in telecommunications through the furtherance of competition at the national and international level. This has been particularly true in the field of satellite communications. To date, 39 foreign and domestic countries have been given licenses to engage in satellite communications in some form in Germany. Currently, there are some 2300 transmitting or receive-only earth stations in operation. As a result of this policy significant new investment in satellite communications is expected with perhaps 530 million DM or US $350 million being spent on private networks by 1998. Currently the ministry is seeking competition in satellite communications in several areas. These include: (1) competition in the earth segment, nationally and internationally; (2) competitive access to the space segment of international satellite organizations (e.g., Intelsat, Inmarsat, Eutelsat); and (3) competitive space segment offerings. This report indicates the current status of these activities and plans for the future.

  12. Priorities for the poor: a conceptual framework for policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Pleskovic, B; Sivitanides, P

    1993-04-01

    A number of poverty alleviation strategies have been developed over the last 2 decades. While these varies approaches have helped stimulate and guide policymaker consideration of the issue, poverty nonetheless remains an enormous problem in most developing countries. Budgetary and administrative constraints demand that the comprehensive basic needs of the poor not be addressed concurrently. Poverty policy and practice will instead be most effective if needs and expenditures identified by evaluating social indicators and social expenditure programs are prioritized. Applied to the case of Morocco, a conceptual framework is presented for identifying priority poverty problems and social expenditure policies. The methodology allows one to sort out critical poverty problems and analyze their causes by using aggregate, territorial, and references indicators; provides a framework for understanding and evaluating the interlinked effects of investments in social sectors; and introduces a tool for selecting cost-effective policy packages for poverty alleviation. The methodology could, however, be refined by improving the derivation of reference indicators by accounting for predetermined government objectives. The estimation of direct and indirect effects of investments in the critical poverty sectors could also be improved. Additional research is called for to determine how econometric models should be structured to aid in quantifying Morocco's SIO tables and how the estimated linkages may be used to extend and improve the cost-benefit analysis of antipoverty policies. PMID:12286577

  13. WHO guideline for brief sexuality-related communication: implications for STI/HIV policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Toskin, Igor; Cooper, Bergen; Troussier, Thierry; Klugman, Barbara; Kulier, Regina; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-11-01

    Brief sexuality-related communication (BSC) aims to identify current and potential sexual concerns and motivate those at risk to change their sexual behaviour or maintain safe sexual behaviour. BSC in primary health care can range from 5 to 60 minutes and takes into account biological, psychological and social dimensions of sexual health and wellbeing. It focuses on opportunistic rather than systematic or continuous communication and can be used in conjunction with already established prevention programs. The informational and motivational techniques of BSC enable health care providers to communicate more effectively with their patients, encouraging them to take steps to avoid HIV and sexually transmitted infections. The WHO Department of Reproductive Health and Research, following a review and assessment of existing evidence with regards to BSC, has recently published the guideline on Brief Sexuality-Related Communication: Recommendations for a Public Health Approach. PMID:26719009

  14. Second-Language Education Policy in Quebec: A Critical Analysis of the Policy of English as a Compulsory Subject at the Early Primary Level in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Gerald; Rublik, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    This is a critical policy study of language planning and policy in Quebec regarding the new policy direction requiring the compulsory teaching of English at the early primary level (grades 1-2, Cycle 1) in francophone public schools. Based on the analysis of policy documents, archives, and narratives from interviews, the goal of this policy study…

  15. Social media and communications: developing a policy to guide the flow of information.

    PubMed

    Midyette, J David; Youngkin, Andrew; Snow-Croft, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    The use of social media is ubiquitous in the daily lives of nearly three quarters of the population in the United States. This article addresses the process and results of a policy development project for a National Network of Libraries of Medicine Regional Medical Library. Content, scheduling, editing, and author responsibilities are addressed for each of the chosen media outlets, as well as the preparation of prefatory material using an online social media policy development tool. PMID:24528263

  16. Interdisciplinary Analysis of Drought Communication Through Social Media Platforms and Risk Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wygant, M.

    2015-12-01

    As droughts continue to impact businesses and communities throughout the United States, there needs to be a greater emphasis on drought communication through interdisciplinary approaches, risk communication, and digital platforms. The purpose of this research is to provide an overview of the current literature on communicating drought and suggests areas for further improvement. Specifically, this research focuses on communicating drought through social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. It also focuses on the conglomeration of theoretical frameworks within the realm of risk communication, to provide a strong foundation towards future drought communication. This research proposal provides a critical step to advocate for paradigmatic shifts within natural hazard communication.

  17. Market Related System Analysis of Satellite Communication Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshev, V. V.; Panasenkova, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    The report is devoted to the technique of effectiveness analysis of communication space system with satellites in geostationary orbit using market models. The technique is worked out in order to choose the most optimal alternative of communication space system design. The alternative considered optimal and the system effective when the maximum profit from the system with limited system costs is achieved. The key point of the technique is a wide use of market models and application of market related parameters as an integral part of the design technique in order to secure the high commercial output of the communication space system. A range of models for decisive characteristics of communication space system is synthesized in terms of the technique. Flexible market model with detailed insight into the structure of the given market sector and its trends is created. The technique enables to choose the image and key parameters of the future system such as payload and ground sector characteristics so as to make the system most cost-effective and profitable. It is shown that such factors as the choice of launch vehicle can influence the system effectiveness rather dramatically. In particular, it is shown that under certain conditions delivering the small (five hundred kg) satellite to the geostationary orbit with the help of light-weight launch vehicle and the satellite's own electro-rocket thrusters is forty per cent more cost- effective than when the satellite is delivered with the help of the medium-size launch vehicle. The latter case can lead to the significant losses due to high launch costs that are nearly two times higher for the medium size launch vehicle than for the light launce vehicle. The technique is applicable both for designing a wide range of communication space systems and is recommended for those dealing with designing commercial systems. It can also be used to update and improve the systems that are already in operation.

  18. The Red de Monitoreo de BosquesAndinos: A communication platform for science and policy in the Andean countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baez, S.; Cuesta, F. X.; Malizia, A.; Carilla, J.; Bustamante, M.; Yepes, A.

    2013-05-01

    A workshop held in October 2012 in Lima, Peru, brought together more than 40 scientists and policy makers working in Andean forest ecosystems, one of the richer and most threatened ecosystems of the world. Among the various results of the workshop, there is the formation of the network "Red de Bosques Andinos". The goals of the network include to stimulate scientific research in Andean forest ecosystems by promoting collaboration among scientists, and to serve as a platform to facilitate applied research and communication between scientists and policy makers. Current members of the network include scientists of Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Germany, Peru, USA, and representatives of Ministries of Environment and the National Climate Change Adaptation Programs of Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. The network has started to work in two critical documents for the region. The first one is an extended protocol to monitor diversity and carbon in Andean forests. This protocol, partly based on unpublished efforts, has been developed by the Instituto de Ecología Regional, Universidad de Tucuman, Argentina, and has been revised and improved by experts working in the Andes. The document describe methods to document ecological changes that take place over mid- and long periods of time. It focuses on monitoring changes on the diversity and growth of trees, shrubs and lianas, cover of herbaceous species, and carbon content in forests. This extended protocol will be a useful tool for students and researchers interested in conducting long-term ecological research. Moreover, the use of this tool will produce standardized data needed to understand ecological processes that take place at large spatial scales. The document will be freely available at www.condesan.org. The second document consists of an analysis of the dynamics of trees and carbon in the Andean region. The members of the network have contributed with data of more than 70 permanent forest plots located from

  19. Using the Kaldor-Hicks Tableau Format for Cost-Benefit Analysis and Policy Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krutilla, Kerry

    2005-01-01

    This note describes the Kaldor-Hicks (KH) tableau format as a framework for distributional accounting in cost-benefit analysis and policy evaluation. The KH tableau format can serve as a heuristic aid for teaching microeconomics-based policy analysis, and offer insight to policy analysts and decisionmakers beyond conventional efficiency analysis.

  20. Paradigmatic Drift: A Bibliographic Review of the Spread of Economic Analysis in the Literature of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kurt M.; Gandy, Oscar H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the presentation of economic arguments in 351 articles (from 1965 to 1988) that focused on some economic aspect of communication in three core journals in communications. Uses citation analysis to identify core referents for these articles. Finds that communications scholars cite other communication journals more than economic journals.…

  1. [Communication between clinicians and laboratorians in semen analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-jun; Cao, Xing-wu

    2015-05-01

    By direct communication between clinicians and laboratorians, obstacles between clinical work and laboratory diagnosis were unequivocally found at an academic conference. Many clinical physicians feel disappointed and frustrated at the laboratory diagnosis by semen analysis and frankly express their expectations, as to recognize the role and significance of laboratory diagnosis, understand the value of routine semen analysis, work out the puzzles in the analysis of sperm morphology, fulfil the requirements for the identification of cells in semen, and obtain responses from and initiate discussions among laboratorians about the relevant questions. Both laboratorians and clinicians are appealing for strengthened management and earlier establishment of national standards and operating specifications for laboratory diagnosis by semen analysis. PMID:26117933

  2. Analysis of Controller Communication in En Route Air Traffic Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seamster, Thomas L.; And Others

    To contribute to an understanding of the elements of good air traffic controller communication with the objective of providing recommendations to improve controller communication training, two studies analyzed team communication, ground-air communication, and ground-line communication. The simulated and live traffic analyses examined established…

  3. Who Are the Influentials? A Cross-State Social Network Analysis of the Reading Policy Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Mengli; Miskel, Cecil G.

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed policy actors' influence on state reading policy and compared the structure of reading policy networks across eight states. Data for the study came from structured interviews and archival documents and were analyzed using social network analysis methods. This study found that state reading policy networks were heterogeneous in…

  4. Merging Energy Policy Decision Support, Education, and Communication: The 'World Energy' Simulation Role-Playing Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney-varga, J. N.; Franck, T.; Jones, A.; Sterman, J.; Sawin, E.

    2013-12-01

    To meet international goals for climate change mitigation and adaptation, as well as energy access and equity, there is an urgent need to explore and define energy policy paths forward. Despite this need, students, citizens, and decision-makers often hold deeply flawed mental models of the energy and climate systems. Here we describe a simulation role-playing game, World Energy, that provides an immersive learning experience in which participants can create their own path forward for global energy policy and learn about the impact of their policy choices on carbon dioxide emissions, temperature rise, energy supply mix, energy prices, and energy demand. The game puts players in the decision-making roles of advisors to the United Nations Sustainable Energy for All Initiative (drawn from international leaders from industry, governments, intergovernmental organizations, and citizens groups) and, using a state-of-the-art decision-support simulator, asks them to negotiate a plan for global energy policy. We use the En-ROADS (Energy Rapid Overview and Decision Support) simulator, which runs on a laptop computer in <0.1 sec. En-ROADS enables users to specify many factors, including R&D-driven cost reductions in fossil fuel-based, renewable, or carbon-neutral energy technologies; taxes and subsidies for different energy sources; performance standards and energy efficiency; emissions prices; policies to address other greenhouse gas emissions (e.g., methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, etc.); and assumptions about GDP and population. In World Energy, participants must balance climate change mitigation goals with equity, prices and access to energy, and the political feasibility of policies. Initial results indicate participants gain insights into the dynamics of the energy and climate systems and greater understanding of the potential impacts policies.

  5. Patient-centered care, collaboration, communication, and coordination: a report from AMIA's 2013 Policy Meeting.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Patti Flatley; Valdez, Rupa; Alexander, Greg; Arora, Shifali; Bernstam, Elmer V; Edmunds, Margo; Kirienko, Nikolai; Martin, Ross D; Sim, Ida; Skiba, Diane; Rosenbloom, Trent

    2015-04-01

    In alignment with a major shift toward patient-centered care as the model for improving care in our health system, informatics is transforming patient-provider relationships and overall care delivery. AMIA's 2013 Health Policy Invitational was focused on examining existing challenges surrounding full engagement of the patient and crafting a research agenda and policy framework encouraging the use of informatics solutions to achieve this goal. The group tackled this challenge from educational, technical, and research perspectives. Recommendations include the need for consumer education regarding rights to data access, the need for consumers to access their health information in real time, and further research on effective methods to engage patients. This paper summarizes the meeting as well as the research agenda and policy recommendations prioritized among the invited experts and stakeholders. PMID:25359545

  6. Design and analysis of the satellite laser communications network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Pei-an; Qian, Fengchen; Liu, Qiang; Jin, Linlin

    2015-02-01

    A satellite laser communications network structure with two layers and multiple domains has been proposed, which performance has been simulated by OPENT. To simulation, we design several OPNET models of the network's components based on a satellite constellation with two layers and multiple domains, as network model, node model, MAC layer protocol and optical antenna model. The network model consists of core layer and access layer. The core network consists of four geostationary orbit (GEO) satellites which are uniformly distributed in the geostationary orbit. The access network consists of 6 low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites which is the walker delta (walk-δ) constellation with three orbit planes. In access layer, each plane has two satellites, and the constellation is stably. The satellite constellation presented for space laser network can meet the demand of coverage in the middle and low latitude by a few satellites. Also several terminal device models such as the space laser transmitter, receiver, protocol layer module and optical antenna have been designed according to the inter-satellite links in different orbits t from GEO to LEO or GEO to ground. The influence to network of different transmitting throughput, receiving throughput, network protocol and average time delay are simulated. Simulation results of network coverage, connectivity and traffic load performance in different scenes show that the satellite laser network presented by the paper can be fit for high-speed satellite communications. Such analysis can provide effective reference for the research of satellite laser networking and communication protocol.

  7. Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailenson, Jeremy; Buzzanell, Patrice; Deetz, Stanley; Tewksbury, David; Thompson, Robert J.; Turow, Joseph; Bichelmeyer, Barbara; Bishop, M. J.; Gayeski, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of communications were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Jeremy Bailenson, Patrice Buzzanell, Stanley Deetz, David Tewksbury, Robert J. Thompson, and…

  8. Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathorn, S.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of NASA's Thin Route satellite telecommunication project is presented. Thin Route employs applications technology satellites (ATS) in place of more costly commercial multi- transponder telecommunications satellites. This system allows remote and underdeveloped areas to communicate with the outside world for purposes of obtaining medical assistance among other things. The system represents a substantial cost saving over commercial systems.

  9. Improving Nigerian health policymakers' capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop.

    PubMed

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers' ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop. PMID:26448807

  10. Improving Nigerian health policymakers’ capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified “before and after” intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers’ ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop. PMID:26448807

  11. The inter-section of political history and health policy in Asia--the historical foundations for health policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Grundy, John; Hoban, Elizabeth; Allender, Steve; Annear, Peter

    2014-09-01

    One of the challenges for health reform in Asia is the diverse set of socio-economic and political structures, and the related variability in the direction and pace of health systems and policy reform. This paper aims to make comparative observations and analysis of health policy reform in the context of historical change, and considers the implications of these findings for the practice of health policy analysis. We adopt an ecological model for analysis of policy development, whereby health systems are considered as dynamic social constructs shaped by changing political and social conditions. Utilizing historical, social scientific and health literature, timelines of health and history for five countries (Cambodia, Myanmar, Mongolia, North Korea and Timor Leste) are mapped over a 30-50 year period. The case studies compare and contrast key turning points in political and health policy history, and examines the manner in which these turning points sets the scene for the acting out of longer term health policy formation, particularly with regard to the managerial domains of health policy making. Findings illustrate that the direction of health policy reform is shaped by the character of political reform, with countries in the region being at variable stages of transition from monolithic and centralized administrations, towards more complex management arrangements characterized by a diversity of health providers, constituency interest and financing sources. The pace of reform is driven by a country's institutional capability to withstand and manage transition shocks of post conflict rehabilitation and emergence of liberal economic reforms in an altered governance context. These findings demonstrate that health policy analysis needs to be informed by a deeper understanding and questioning of the historical trajectory and political stance that sets the stage for the acting out of health policy formation, in order that health systems function optimally along their own

  12. Performance Analysis of Visible Light Communication Using CMOS Sensors.

    PubMed

    Do, Trong-Hop; Yoo, Myungsik

    2016-01-01

    This paper elucidates the fundamentals of visible light communication systems that use the rolling shutter mechanism of CMOS sensors. All related information involving different subjects, such as photometry, camera operation, photography and image processing, are studied in tandem to explain the system. Then, the system performance is analyzed with respect to signal quality and data rate. To this end, a measure of signal quality, the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR), is formulated. Finally, a simulation is conducted to verify the analysis. PMID:26938535

  13. Performance Analysis of Visible Light Communication Using CMOS Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Do, Trong-Hop; Yoo, Myungsik

    2016-01-01

    This paper elucidates the fundamentals of visible light communication systems that use the rolling shutter mechanism of CMOS sensors. All related information involving different subjects, such as photometry, camera operation, photography and image processing, are studied in tandem to explain the system. Then, the system performance is analyzed with respect to signal quality and data rate. To this end, a measure of signal quality, the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR), is formulated. Finally, a simulation is conducted to verify the analysis. PMID:26938535

  14. Performance analysis of replication ALOHA for fading mobile communications channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Tsun-Yee; Clare, Loren P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an ALOHA random access protocol for fading communications channels. A two-state Markov model is used for the channel error process to account for the channel fading memory. The ALOHA protocol is modified to send multiple contiguous copies of a message at each transmission attempt. Both pure and slotted ALOHA channels are considered. The analysis is applicable to fading environments where the channel memory is short compared to the propagation delay. It is shown that smaller delay may be achieved using replications and, in noisy conditions, can also improve throughput.

  15. Stakeholder analysis and mapping as targeted communication strategy.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-09-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author highlights the importance of stakeholder theory and discusses how to apply the theory to conduct a stakeholder analysis. This article also provides an explanation of how to use related stakeholder mapping techniques with targeted communication strategies. PMID:22922747

  16. Information Computer Communications Policy, 2: The Usage of International Data Networks in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This study of the development of international data networks, a phenomena of the 1970's, and policy issues arising from their use is an in depth investigation of 24 private and six public European networks commissioned from Logica Limited and sponsored by the governments of France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and Sweden. The report…

  17. Communicable Diseases and the Enrolled Student: A Model Policy and Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    A model school policy provides guidelines for Iowa school systems with regard to students with AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), herpes simplex, and cytomegalovirus. The AIDS guidelines include the following: (1) Routine screening students for AIDS associated virus is not recommended. (2) Children infected with the AIDS associated virus,…

  18. The National Institute of Education's Educational Satellite Communications Demonstration: Lessons Learned and Their Federal Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Steven

    During 1975, the Educational Satellite Communications Demonstration (ESCD) used the Applications Technology Satellite #6 (ATS-6) for three distinct demonstrations in Appalachia, Alaska, and the Rocky Mountain area. The most common use of the technology was to broadcast an uninterrupted program followed by a short interaction period. Other…

  19. Communication for Development: A Personal Experience with Implications for Development Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agunga, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Communication for Development (C4D) is a new academic discipline and profession for addressing human dimension concerns in development, such as local participation, integration and capacity building, which are the main issues limiting aid effectiveness. However, my experience in Malawi, one of the poorest countries in Africa and where a…

  20. [Policy analysis: study of public policy of environmental health in a metropolis of northeastern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lyra, Tereza Maciel; Araújo Júnior, José Luiz do Amaral Correa de

    2014-09-01

    The analysis of health policies has improved in Brazil despite a plethora of different methodological approaches. Based on the model developed by Walt and Gilson in 1994, the Environmental Health Program (EHP) of Recife as a policy based on the Health Promotion principles of the Unified Health System (SUS) and Agenda 21 was analyzed. An attempt was made to understand the context during the development and implementation of the EHP, the drafting process and which actors influenced the EHP agenda content and proposal. A qualitative case study was conducted, with semi-structured interviews with key actors. In terms of context, the findings include the influence of the municipal election, the socio-sanitary characteristics of Recife, the choice of the Secretary of Health and the management teams, acceptance by the technicians and the funding increase. In terms of the process, the acceptance of the managers must be stressed. Regarding the actors, the managers, sector technicians, non-sectorial actors with viability studies stood out. The content of the EHP coincided with the SUS and Health Promotion principles. Implementation was influenced by the dengue fever epidemic (2002), and cultural institutional factors that put pressure on the order of implementation of the planned actions. PMID:25184587

  1. Rural electrification, climate change, and local economies: Facilitating communication in development policy and practice on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casillas, Christian E.

    I explore the role of information and communication in the world of institution-led development. Through a series of case studies from the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua, I present several projects and their implications for uncovering information that may lead to greater local benefit from externally-planned development projects. In order to construct policies and implement projects, development institutions collect, analyze, and simplify information, collapsing messy physical and social realities into narrow sets of metrics. In addition, local stakeholders often aren't privy to the analysis and assumptions of the "expert" planners. An evolved set of methods for dialogue and planning, which focus on sharing available information, can help facilitate outcomes that are more beneficial for targeted groups. Carbon abatement cost curves provide a clear example where the relations of complex social, economic, and environmental systems are reduced to a narrow set of metrics, specifically the cost of carbon mitigation and the total tons reduced. When the carbon abatement cost curve is applied to the community level, it reveals information and allows for conclusions obscured by aggregated national level studies. I show that there are opportunities for augmenting the limited metrics of these cost curves to include those that relate to welfare, beginning to highlight how costs and savings are distributed among stakeholders. In particular, the benefits to the most marginalized groups are heavily dependent on planners taking a pro-poor approach. However, planners typically remain blind to the priorities, capabilities, and values of the target stakeholders. There is a dearth of methods that effectively open up the development expert's black box of project designs, allowing their proposed solutions to be transparent to the target beneficiaries. I address this challenge through the presentation of a participatory modeling process that was utilized with groups of artisanal fishers

  2. State Share of Instruction Funding to Ohio Public Community Colleges: A Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated various state policies to determine their impact on the state share of instruction (SSI) funding to community colleges in the state of Ohio. To complete the policy analysis, the researcher utilized three policy analysis tools, defined by Gill and Saunders (2010) as iterative processes, intuition and judgment, and advice and…

  3. Critical Policy Sociology: Historiography, Archaeology and Genealogy as Methods of Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor

    2001-01-01

    Examines the essential characteristics of three approaches to conducting critical policy sociology of higher education: Historiography, archaeology, and genealogy. Draws on Australian higher education policy research to illustrate the use of these three methods. (Contains 65 references.) (PKP)

  4. Organizational, Business, Management, and Corporate Communication: An Analysis of Boundaries and Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelby, Annette Nevin

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes the boundaries for four communications subject areas that may be taught in business schools: organizational, business, management, and corporate communications. Provides theoretical models for such an analysis of discipline boundaries and their interrelationships. (HB)

  5. How did policy actors use mass media to influence the Scottish alcohol minimum unit pricing debate? Comparative analysis of newspapers, evidence submissions and interviews

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Shona

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To explore how policy actors attempted to deliberately frame public debate around alcohol minimum unit pricing (MUP) in the UK by comparing and contrasting their constructions of the policy in public (newspapers), semi-public (evidence submissions) and private (interviews). Methods: Content analysis was conducted on articles published in ten national newspapers between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2012. Newsprint data were contrasted with alcohol policy documents, evidence submissions to the Scottish Parliament's Health and Sport Committee and 36 confidential interviews with policy stakeholders (academics, advocates, industry representatives, politicians and civil servants). Findings: A range of policy actors exerted influence both directly (through Parliamentary institutions and political representatives) and indirectly through the mass media. Policy actors were acutely aware of mass media's importance in shaping public opinion and used it tactically to influence policy. They often framed messages in subtly different ways, depending on target audiences. In general, newspapers presented the policy debate in a “balanced” way, but this arguably over-represented hostile perspective and suggested greater disagreement around the evidence base than is the case. Conclusions: The roles of policy actors vary between public and policy spheres, and how messages are communicated in policy debates depends on perceived strategic advantage. PMID:26045639

  6. Managing Conduct: A Comparative Policy Analysis of Safe Schools Policies in Toronto, Canada and Buffalo, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Public school districts in Buffalo, USA and Toronto, Canada reviewed their safe schools policies in 2008. Revised Codes of Conduct are compared to earlier versions and each other, and a conceptual policy web is used to understand how local, state/provincial, national, and international influences affect local safe school policies. The comparison…

  7. Technology programs and related policies - Impacts on communications satellite business ventures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    The DOMSAT II stochastic communication satellite business venture financial planning simulation model is described. The specification of business scenarios and the results of several analyses are presented. In particular, the impacts of NASA on-orbit propulsion and power technology programs are described. The effects of insurance rates and self-insurance and of the use of the Space Shuttle and Ariane transportation systems on a typical fixed satellite service business venture are discussed.

  8. Defining a Communications Satellite Policy System for the 21st Century: A Model for a International Legal Framework and A New _Code of Conduct_

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    1996-02-01

    This paper addresses the changing international communications environment and explores the key elements of a new policy framework for the 21st Century. It addresses the issues related to changing markets, trade considerations, standards, regulatory changes and international institutions and law. The most important aspects will related to new international policy and regulatory frameworks and in particular to a new international code of ethics and behavior in the field of satellite communications. A new communications satellite policy framework requires systematically addressing the following points: • Multi-lateral agreements at the nation state and the operating entity level • Systematic means to access both private and public capital • Meshing ITU regulations with regional and national policy guidelines including • landing rights" and national allocation procedures. • Systematic approach to local partnerships • Resolving the issue of the relative standing of various satellite systems (i.e. GEO, MEO, and LEO systems) • Resolving the rights, duties, and priorities of satellite facility providers versus types of service prviders. Beyond this policy framework and generalized legal infrastructure there is also another need. This is a need that arises from both increased globalism and competitive international markets. This is what might quite simply be called a "code of reasonable conduct:" To provide global and international communications services effectively and well in the 21st Century will require more than meeting minimum international legal requirements. A new "code of conduct" for global satellite communications will thus likely need to address: • Privacy and surveillance • Ethics of transborder data flow • Censorship and moral values • Cultural and linguistic sensitivity • Freedom of the press and respect for journalistic standards As expanding global information and telecommunications systems grow and impact every aspect of modern

  9. An Analysis of Community Use Policies in Missouri School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyler, Amy A.; Swaller, Erin M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Joint use or community use policies are state-, district-, or school-level policies that allow for shared use of space or facilities between a school and a city or private organization. For this study, we (1) created an inventory of community use policies within Missouri school districts; (2) analyzed the policies for content, and (3)…

  10. Researching "Practiced Language Policies": Insights from Conversation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonacina-Pugh, Florence

    2012-01-01

    In language policy research, "policy" has traditionally been conceptualised as a notion separate from that of "practice". In fact, language practices were usually analysed with a view to evaluate whether a policy is being implemented or resisted to. Recently, however, Spolsky in ("Language policy". Cambridge University press, Cambridge, 2004;…

  11. Risk communication at the science-policy interface: Reflections on the effectiveness of the geosciences community in communicating with policymakers on disposition of nuclear waste (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopman, D.

    2010-12-01

    The geosciences are at the center of societal debates on climate change and nuclear waste management. These debates have yet to yield affirmative decisions on paths forward, but rather have been marked by political gridlock, and to varying degrees, skepticism about the underlying science. This talk will focus on the dynamics of the debate on nuclear waste management and the insights that can be drawn from the experiences of the scientific community thus far in informing the decisionmaking process through such bodies as the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste, and the National Research Council’s Board on Radioactive Waste Management. Scientists involved directly with the Yucca Mountain program as well as those participating in review panels were challenged to explain difficult scientific concepts to lay audiences, characterize risks of different kinds on timescales of thousands of years, and communicate high levels of uncertainty. Even more challenging, scientists were then asked to bring these ideas into policymaking processes, with participants whose understanding of scientific concepts varied widely, and where risks and benefits are measured in a few years and uncertainties are downplayed. The disconnect between these different conceptual frames is one of several factors that contributed to the present stalemate. Research could help in establishing whether emerging insights about comprehension of scientific concepts and notions of uncertainty, drawn from the behavioral science literature, could improve the explanatory and decision analytic approaches employed by the geosciences community. An hypothesis is that geoscientists could be more effective in their communications if they understood more about the conceptual starting point of decisionmakers and stakeholders and their framing of policy decisions.

  12. ‘Doing’ health policy analysis: methodological and conceptual reflections and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Walt, Gill; Shiffman, Jeremy; Schneider, Helen; Murray, Susan F; Brugha, Ruairi; Gilson, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    The case for undertaking policy analysis has been made by a number of scholars and practitioners. However, there has been much less attention given to how to do policy analysis, what research designs, theories or methods best inform policy analysis. This paper begins by looking at the health policy environment, and some of the challenges to researching this highly complex phenomenon. It focuses on research in middle and low income countries, drawing on some of the frameworks and theories, methodologies and designs that can be used in health policy analysis, giving examples from recent studies. The implications of case studies and of temporality in research design are explored. Attention is drawn to the roles of the policy researcher and the importance of reflexivity and researcher positionality in the research process. The final section explores ways of advancing the field of health policy analysis with recommendations on theory, methodology and researcher reflexivity. PMID:18701552

  13. Role of the Scientist in Formulating Public Policy: Communicating Seismic Hazard and Risk in the Central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.

    2006-12-01

    It is too often heard: ~{!0~}I am just a scientist and this is what it is.~{!1~} It is also too often heard that ~{!0~}the selection of an appropriate scientific fact for policy consideration is not really a technical question, but rather a societal one.~{!1~} Clearly, there is a gap in understanding of scientific results between the scientists who produce them and the policy-makers and the general public who use them. It is a daunting task for scientists to take the scientific facts and to try to convey them to the policy-makers and the general public. But it is essential for scientists to make very effort to convey scientific facts clearly, accurately, and understandably. Otherwise, the scientific facts would not be considered, and could even cause difficulties in formulating public policies. For example, communities in the central United States have difficulty in understanding seismic hazard or risk (scientific fact) and formulating mitigation policies. In the central Unite States, large earthquakes (M7.0-8.0), similar in magnitude to the 1811-1812 New Madrid events, have been found to have a recurrence interval of about 500 years. Consequently, the ground motions from these large earthquakes have the same recurrence interval (about 500 years). Similarly, the probability that these large earthquakes will occur in the next 50 years has been estimated to be about 10 percent (risk). Consequently, the probability that the ground motion generated at a specific site by these large earthquakes is also about 10 percent in 50 years. A range of so-called return periods, 500 years to infinity, for the ground motions has been estimated from the same earthquakes, however. The return period is an extrapolation of the recurrence intervals of earthquakes (temporal characteristics) and the probabilities of ground motions (spatial characteristics). For example, return period of 2,500 years is equal to the recurrence interval of 500 years divided by 20 percent probability that the

  14. Review of maritime transportation air emission pollution and policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Dahai; Dai, Guilin

    2009-09-01

    The study of air emission in maritime transportation is new, and the recognition of its importance has been rising in the recent decade. The emissions of CO2, SO2, NO2 and particulate matters from maritime transportation have contributed to climate change and environmental degradation. Scientifically, analysts still have controversies regarding how to calculate the emissions and how to choose the baseline and methodologies. Three methods are generally used, namely the ‘bottom up’ approach, the ‘top down’ approach and the STEEM, which produce very different results, leading to various papers with great uncertainties. This, in turn, results in great difficulties to policy makers who attempt to regulate the emissions. A recent technique, the STEEM, is intended to combine the former two methods to reduce their drawbacks. However, the regulations based on its results may increase the costs of shipping companies and cause the competitiveness of the port states and coastal states. Quite a few papers have focused on this area and provided another fresh perspective for the air emission to be incorporated in maritime transportation regulations; these facts deserve more attention. This paper is to review the literature on the debates over air emission calculation, with particular attention given to the STEEM and the refined estimation methods. It also reviews related literature on the economic analysis of maritime transportation emission regulations, and provides an insight into such analysis. At the end of this paper, based on a review and analysis of previous literature, we conclude with the policy indications in the future and work that should be done. As the related regulations in maritime transportation emissions are still at their beginning stage in China, this paper provides specific suggestions on how China should regulate emissions in the maritime transportation sector.

  15. International Commercial Remote Sensing Practices and Policies: A Comparative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryker, Timothy

    sensing satellite industry. In commissioning this study, NOAA's goal was to better understand the role that U.S. Government policies and regulations have in shaping the prospects for emerging commercial remote sensing satellite firms. The study assessed the risks against broader trends in the larger U.S. remote sensing industry and geospatial technology and effective policy implementation. The Department of Commerce is working with NOAA licensees to identify foreign actions which could restrict market access by U.S. firms, and seeking to provide a "level playing field" for U.S. service providers. The Department of Commerce has dedicated new resources to its licensing activities. In Fiscal Year 2002, the Department obtained 1.2 million in funding to support the NOAA program, through staff, equipment, technical support, constituent outreach, and market and policy studies. To better understand the market and make more well-informed licensing decisions, NOAA is participating in a broad-based market study effort under the direction of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) and NASA's Commercial Remote Sensing Program. This study is providing long-term analysis of the commercial remote sensing industry. It is being supported by interviews with industry and government experts, a web-based survey, and a thorough review and analysis of related literature. The project should more clearly determine future remote sensing needs and requirements, and maximize the industry's baselines, standards, and socio-economic potential. NOAA, through its participation in this study, has gained important new insights into the status and future trends of this industry. The study's initial findings estimate 2001 industry revenue at 2 billion, growing at 13% per year, to an approximate level of 6 billion in 2010 (in constant, calendar year 2000 dollars). Currently, across all sectors, the most active market segments are in nati onal /glo bal security, mapping

  16. Simulation and communication analysis of the monitoring system for hydraulic support pressure based on CAN bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Huawei; Luo, Ming; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In order to realize online real-time monitoring of the hydraulic bracket support, improve the existing communication system, and improve the reliability of data transmission, this paper set up the communication simulation system and platform to simulate the coal mine communication based CAN bus. Based on the design and analysis of system hardware and software, this paper completed the construction of the whole hardware and the debugging of communication system. The debug end can communicate simulate by the CAN protocol simulation device, and realized the work of the entire communication system. Experiments showed that the monitoring system can work reliably.

  17. Performance analysis of coherent wireless optical communications with atmospheric turbulence.

    PubMed

    Niu, Mingbo; Song, Xuegui; Cheng, Julian; Holzman, Jonathan F

    2012-03-12

    Coherent wireless optical communication systems with heterodyne detection are analyzed for binary phase-shift keying (BPSK), differential PSK (DPSK), and M-ary PSK over Gamma-Gamma turbulence channels. Closed-form error rate expressions are derived using a series expansion approach. It is shown that, in the special case of K-distributed turbulence channel, the DPSK incurs a 3 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) penalty compared to BPSK in the large SNR regime. The outage probability is also obtained, and a detailed outage truncation error analysis is presented and used to assess the accuracy in system performance estimation. It is shown that our series error rate expressions are simple to use and highly accurate for practical system performance estimation. PMID:22418534

  18. Complete hyperentangled-Bell-state analysis for quantum communication

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng Yubo; Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu

    2010-09-15

    It is impossible to unambiguously distinguish the four Bell states in polarization, resorting to linear optical elements only. Recently, the hyperentangled Bell state, the simultaneous entanglement in more than one degree of freedom, has been used to assist in the complete Bell-state analysis of the four Bell states. However, if the additional degree of freedom is qubitlike, one can only distinguish 7 from the group of 16 states. Here we present a way to distinguish the hyperentangled Bell states completely with the help of cross-Kerr nonlinearity. Also, we discuss its application in the quantum teleportation of a particle in an unknown state in two different degrees of freedom and in the entanglement swapping of hyperentangled states. These applications will increase the channel capacity of long-distance quantum communication.

  19. Meta-Analysis and Computer-Mediated Communication.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Alan M

    2016-04-01

    Because of the use of human participants and differing contextual variables, research in second language acquisition often produces conflicting results, leaving practitioners confused and unsure of the effectiveness of specific treatments. This article provides insight into a recent seminal meta-analysis on the effectiveness of computer-mediated communication, providing further statistical evidence of the importance of its results. The significance of the study is examined by looking at the p values included in the references, to demonstrate how results can easily be misconstrued by practitioners and researchers. Lin's conclusion regarding the research setting of the study reports is also evaluated. In doing so, other possible explanations of what may be influencing the results can be proposed. PMID:27154373

  20. Graph analysis of cortical networks reveals complex anatomical communication substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora-López, Gorka; Zhou, Changsong; Kurths, Jürgen

    2009-03-01

    Sensory information entering the nervous system follows independent paths of processing such that specific features are individually detected. However, sensory perception, awareness, and cognition emerge from the combination of information. Here we have analyzed the corticocortical network of the cat, looking for the anatomical substrate which permits the simultaneous segregation and integration of information in the brain. We find that cortical communications are mainly governed by three topological factors of the underlying network: (i) a large density of connections, (ii) segregation of cortical areas into clusters, and (iii) the presence of highly connected hubs aiding the multisensory processing and integration. Statistical analysis of the shortest paths reveals that, while information is highly accessible to all cortical areas, the complexity of cortical information processing may arise from the rich and intricate alternative paths in which areas can influence each other.

  1. Introduction of pentavalent vaccine in Indonesia: a policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hadisoemarto, Panji F; Reich, Michael R; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of pentavalent vaccine containing Haemophilus influenzae type b antigen in Indonesia’s National Immunization Program occurred nearly three decades after the vaccine was first available in the United States and 16 years after Indonesia added hepatitis B vaccine into the program. In this study, we analyzed the process that led to the decision to introduce pentavalent vaccine in Indonesia. Using process tracing and case comparison, we used qualitative data gathered through interviews with key informants and data extracted from written sources to identify four distinct but interrelated processes that were involved in the decision making: (a) pentavalent vaccine use policy process, (b) financing process, (c) domestic vaccine development process and (d) political process. We hypothesized that each process is associated with four necessary conditions that are jointly sufficient for the successful introduction of pentavalent vaccine in Indonesia, namely (a) an evidence-based vaccine use recommendation, (b) sufficient domestic financing capacity, (c) sufficient domestic vaccine manufacturing capacity and (d) political support for introduction. This analysis of four processes that led to the decision to introduce a new vaccine in Indonesia may help policy makers and other stakeholders understand and manage activities that can accelerate vaccine introduction in the future. PMID:27107293

  2. Chapter 15: Public health policy and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Goldie, Sue J

    2003-01-01

    Recent scientific advances are providing an opportunity to revisit strategies for cervical cancer prevention. How to invest health resources wisely, such that public health benefits are maximized-and opportunity costs are minimized-is a critical question in the setting of enhanced cytologic screening methods, human papillomavirus DNA testing, and vaccine development. Developing sound clinical guidelines and public health policy will require careful consideration of the incremental benefits, harms, and costs associated with new interventions compared with existing interventions, at both an individual and a population level. In addition to an intervention's effectiveness, public health decision making requires the consideration of its feasibility, sustainability, and affordability. No clinical trial or single cohort study will be able to simultaneously consider all of these components. Cost-effectiveness analysis and disease-simulation modeling, capitalizing on data from multiple sources, can serve as a valuable tool to extend the time horizon of clinical trials, to evaluate more strategies than possible in a single clinical trial, and to assess the relative costs and benefits of alternative policies to reduce mortality from cervical cancer. PMID:12807953

  3. Communicating Sustainability: A Content Analysis of Website Communications in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade, Aurali; Hassenzahl, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how institutions of higher education (IHEs) in the USA communicate sustainability through their websites. Specifically, the authors compare how and to what extent sustainability is communicated through an institution-wide sustainability website versus operational and academic department websites.…

  4. An Exploratory Analysis of Communication in Peer-Directed Educational Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, William J.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory analysis examined the nature of asynchronous, text-based communication in peer-directed educational discussions. The nature of communication changed over time and women exhibited greater tendency for epistolary communication than men. Initial posts, which were expository in nature, focused on disseminating information whereas…

  5. Communicative Spontaneity of Children with Autism: A Preliminary Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Hsu-Min

    2008-01-01

    The communicative spontaneity of children with autism who had limited spoken language in their natural environment was investigated. This naturalistic observation is a preliminary study using a continuum model to describe the nature of communicative spontaneity. The results indicate that the level of communicative spontaneity in the natural…

  6. A Case of Error Disclosure: A Communication Privacy Management Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Petronio, Sandra; Helft, Paul R.; Child, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the process of disclosing medical errors to patients, this research offers a case analysis using Petronios’s theoretical frame of Communication Privacy Management (CPM). Given the resistance clinicians often feel about error disclosure, insights into the way choices are made by the clinicians in telling patients about the mistake has the potential to address reasons for resistance. Applying the evidenced-based CPM theory, developed over the last 35 years and dedicated to studying disclosure phenomenon, to disclosing medical mistakes potentially has the ability to reshape thinking about the error disclosure process. Using a composite case representing a surgical mistake, analysis based on CPM theory is offered to gain insights into conversational routines and disclosure management choices of revealing a medical error. The results of this analysis show that an underlying assumption of health information ownership by the patient and family can be at odds with the way the clinician tends to control disclosure about the error. In addition, the case analysis illustrates that there are embedded patterns of disclosure that emerge out of conversations the clinician has with the patient and the patient’s family members. These patterns unfold privacy management decisions on the part of the clinician that impact how the patient is told about the error and the way that patients interpret the meaning of the disclosure. These findings suggest the need for a better understanding of how patients manage their private health information in relationship to their expectations for the way they see the clinician caring for or controlling their health information about errors. Significance for public health Much of the mission central to public health sits squarely on the ability to communicate effectively. This case analysis offers an in-depth assessment of how error disclosure is complicated by misunderstandings, assuming ownership and control over information

  7. Chronic disease prevention policy in British Columbia and Ontario in light of public health renewal: a comparative policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Public health strategies that focus on legislative and policy change involving chronic disease risk factors such as unhealthy diet and physical inactivity have the potential to prevent chronic diseases and improve quality of life as a whole. However, many public health policies introduced as part of public health reform have not yet been analyzed, such as in British Columbia and Ontario. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a descriptive, comparative analysis of public health policies related to the Healthy Living Core Program in British Columbia and Chronic Disease Prevention Standard in Ontario that are intended to prevent a range of chronic diseases by promoting healthy eating and physical activity, among other things. Methods Policy documents were found through Internet search engines and Ministry websites, at the guidance of policy experts. These included government documents as well as documents from non-governmental organizations that were implementing policies and programs at a provincial level. Documents (n = 31) were then analysed using thematic content analysis to classify, describe and compare policies in a systematic fashion, using the software NVivo. Results Three main categories emerged from the analysis of documents: 1) goals for chronic disease prevention in British Columbia and Ontario, 2) components of chronic disease prevention policies, and 3) expected outputs of chronic disease prevention interventions. Although there were many similarities between the two provinces, they differed somewhat in terms of their approach to issues such as evidence, equity, and policy components. Some expected outputs were adoption of healthy behaviours, use of information, healthy environments and increased public awareness. Conclusions The two provincial policies present different approaches to support the implementation of related programs. Differences may be related to contextual factors such as program delivery structures and

  8. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (84th, Washington, DC, August 5-8, 2001). Communication Technology and Policy Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Communication Technology and Policy section of the proceedings contains the following 6 selected papers: "Interactivity as a Cognitive Process" (Mark Tremayne and Sharon Dunwoody); "Breaking Up News--An Investment in the Future? Correlations among Hypertext Comfort, User Satisfaction and Perceived Credibility" (Stephanie Berger);…

  9. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (86th, Kansas City, Missouri, July 30-August 2, 2003). Communication Technology and Policy Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Communication Technology and Policy Division of the proceedings contains the following 15 papers: "Both Sides of the Digital Divide in Appalachia: Uses and Perceived Benefits of Internet Access" (Daniel Riffe); "Bridging Newsrooms and Classrooms: Preparing the Next Generation of Journalists for Converged Media" (Edgar Huang, Karen Davison,…

  10. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Communication Technology and Policy Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Communication Technology and Policy Division section of the proceedings contains the following 13 papers: "Reconceptualizing the Public Sphere: The Differential Role of Media Systems In Enabling Political Elites to set the Public Agenda" (Johnette Hawkins McCrery and John E. Newhagen); "Realizing the Potential Marketplace of Ideas: Utilizing…

  11. Prediction, Communication and Urban policies. Is there enough space for three faces on a single medal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miozzo, D.; Ferraris, L.; Altamura, M.

    2012-04-01

    There are two possible answers to the question that this session poses (why predict?): Firstly, because scientists like to play God and envisage a future where the chaotic unfolding of atmospheric physics will be reviled by numerical weather prediction models. Secondly, because policy makers realised, in the last years, that the development of our unsustainable society made it impossible to tackle the "risk reduction problem" by solving its dilemma at the root and de-constructing in favour of a cutback of risk exposure. In synthesis the desire of omnipotence of science and the excessively costly future prospected by politicians made us believe that predicting natural hazards is un indispensable tile of a much more complex jigsaw. Civil Protection (CP) measures, those for which most of the predictions are needed, are however entangled within complex societal schemes. A perfect CP system, with perfect soi-disent predictions, is useless if not applied and disseminated through a long term policy of civic education. The entire population needs to became part of this educational stream aiming to a shared and participated empowerment of society. If on the one hand we have society and science on the other hand we have economy and urban policies. The economy deriving from the construction sector is in some countries seen as an indispensable asset for national financial stability. Furthermore the current economical crisis is slowing the adoption of vital risk-reduction interventions: to the same extent as in the aftermath of the Second World War, employment and very short termed economical strategies are overtaking strict urban planning and environmental rules. Thus the availability of funds intended towards the protection of the population has greatly decreased whilst, on the other hand, more buildings are being constructed in areas of great risk. Not only our landscapes are being radically changed but, in the long term, we are exponentially augmenting the exposure of the

  12. A Policy Analysis of the Delivery of Primary and Secondary School Mathematics and Science in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohandhas, Pratheepa

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers an analysis of the development and implementation of the policy to teach Science and Mathematics in English (PPSMI) in Malaysian primary schools, commencing in 2003, in the context of the 2009 reversal of the policy. The original study focused particularly on the impact of the policy on the children of the Federal Land…

  13. A Content Analysis of School Anti-Bullying Policies: Progress and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter K.; Smith, Cherise; Osborn, Rob; Samara, Muthanna

    2008-01-01

    Schools in England are legally required to have an anti-bullying policy, but the little research so far suggests that they may lack coverage in important areas. An analysis of 142 school anti-bullying policies, from 115 primary schools and 27 secondary schools in one county was undertaken. A 31-item scoring scheme was devised to assess policy.…

  14. Reduction in Force. An Analysis of the Policies and their Implementation. Topical Paper No. 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, John

    Reduction in force (RIF) policies in community colleges are analyzed. The analysis focuses on the following topics: Regulations on Academic Freedom and Tenure (Gillis, 1971); RIF and Merit; Number of Colleges Involved in RIF; Strategies for Obviating RIF; Need for Carefully Prepared Policies and Procedures; RIF Policies; Faculty Participation;…

  15. Strengthening National Capital: A Postcolonial Analysis of Lifelong Learning Policy in St Lucia, Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob; Jn Pierre, Kentry D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a postcolonial policy analysis of the "Education Sector Development Plan: 2000-2005 and Beyond" in the small Caribbean island nation of St Lucia. The specific focus is upon the nature of the lifelong learning policy as incorporated in the Plan. This is shown to be a globalised policy discourse. Drawing on a number of…

  16. The Body Micropolitic: Where Do Women Educational Leaders Fit in the Easton Model of Policy Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raveling, Joyce S.

    This paper asks where and how women and women's styles of leadership are situated in Easton's Model of Policy Process. The Easton Model provides a means of understanding policy development from a micropolitical perspective and offers analysis of environmental influences on policy decision making and implementation, allowing the model to…

  17. Campus Sustainability Governance in Canada: A Content Analysis of Post-Secondary Institutions' Sustainability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughter, Philip; McKenzie, Marcia; Lidstone, Lauri; Wright, Tarah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of a content analysis of sustainability policies from Canadian post-secondary education institutions. The paper reports findings on the orientations to sustainability evident in the policies; references to other policies within the documents; and other key themes on how sustainability is engaged in…

  18. Uniting Secondary and Postsecondary Education: An Event History Analysis of State Adoption of Dual Enrollment Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokher, Christine G.; McLendon, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    This study, as the first empirical test of P-16 policy antecedents, reports the findings from an event history analysis of the origins of state dual enrollment policies adopted between 1976 and 2005. First, what characteristics of states are associated with the adoption of these policies? Second, to what extent do conventional theories on policy…

  19. Limitations and Analysis of FERPA Policies within Florida Public School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Sheryl D.

    2012-01-01

    The study was a policy analysis of student records policies within Florida public K-12 school districts. The researcher gathered all student records policies for the sixty-seven school districts. In addition, traditional legal research was used involving applicable federal acts, state statutes, case law, as well as legal and educational…

  20. Multiply Controlled Verbal Operants: An Analysis and Extension to the Picture Exchange Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bondy, A.; Tincani, M.; Frost, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior as a framework for understanding language acquisition in children with autism. We describe Skinner's analysis of pure and impure verbal operants and illustrate how this analysis may be applied to the design of communication training programs. The picture exchange communication system…

  1. Reverse Transfer: Paving the Pathway. ECS Education Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lexi

    2015-01-01

    States are taking several distinct approaches to implement reverse transfer policies. Although contextualized by state-specific factors, approaches to policy implementation commonly include determination of a group or regulatory body responsible for policy oversight, technology, funding and identification of students eligible to participate in…

  2. The Politics of Educational Policy Studies: A Preliminary Analysis of Leading Educational Policy Journal Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the content, analytical approaches and institutional affiliations of authors of articles published in the latest issues of two leading educational policy studies journals provide useful insights into the contested nature of educational policy studies. The paper draws upon a selection of articles published in 2007/08 issues…

  3. Contemporary Federal Education Policy and Rural Schools: A Critical Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry; Howley, Craig B.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on contemporary federal education policy as it manifests in rural schools. Rural schools differ appreciably from nonrural schools in terms of organizational systems, structures, and culture. Federal policies that drive school improvement initiatives (e.g., those regulating the functioning of schools and those managing the…

  4. Adult Basic Skills: Innovations in Measurement and Policy Analysis. Series on Literacy: Research, Policy, and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuijnman, Albert C., Ed.; Kirsch, Irwin S., Ed.; Wagner, Daniel A., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers examining innovations in measuring adults' basic skills and analyzing adult literacy policy. The following papers are included: "Series Preface" (Daniel A. Wagner); "Foreword" (Torsten Husen); "Introduction" (Albert Tuijnman); "Adult Basic Skills: Policy Issues and a Research Agenda" (David Stern, Albert Tuijnman);…

  5. Analyzing Public Discourse: Using Media Content Analysis to Understand the Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraisky, Nancy Green

    2016-01-01

    One of the most basic and obvious sources of data for education policy analysis is text. This article discusses content analysis as an important part of the methodological toolbox for elucidating patterns and trends about education policy. Focusing specifically on media, I show how media content analysis can produce nuanced insights about the ways…

  6. A Content Analysis of School Anti-Bullying Policies: A Follow-Up after Six Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter K.; Kupferberg, Allison; Mora-Merchan, Joaquin A.; Samara, Muthanna; Bosley, Sue; Osborn, Rob

    2012-01-01

    An analysis was undertaken of 217 English school anti-bullying policies, from 169 primary schools and 48 secondary schools, using a 34-item scoring scheme. Findings were compared with an analysis of 142 schools six years earlier. Overall schools in the current analysis had about 49% of the items in their policies, a modest increase over the…

  7. Language Ideology or Language Practice? An Analysis of Language Policy Documents at Swedish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björkman, Beyza

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an analysis and interpretation of language policy documents from eight Swedish universities with regard to intertextuality, authorship and content analysis of the notions of language practices and English as a lingua franca (ELF). The analysis is then linked to Spolsky's framework of language policy, namely language…

  8. The Communication Link and Error ANalysis (CLEAN) simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebel, William J.; Ingels, Frank M.; Crowe, Shane

    1993-01-01

    During the period July 1, 1993 through December 30, 1993, significant developments to the Communication Link and Error ANalysis (CLEAN) simulator were completed and include: (1) Soft decision Viterbi decoding; (2) node synchronization for the Soft decision Viterbi decoder; (3) insertion/deletion error programs; (4) convolutional encoder; (5) programs to investigate new convolutional codes; (6) pseudo-noise sequence generator; (7) soft decision data generator; (8) RICE compression/decompression (integration of RICE code generated by Pen-Shu Yeh at Goddard Space Flight Center); (9) Markov Chain channel modeling; (10) percent complete indicator when a program is executed; (11) header documentation; and (12) help utility. The CLEAN simulation tool is now capable of simulating a very wide variety of satellite communication links including the TDRSS downlink with RFI. The RICE compression/decompression schemes allow studies to be performed on error effects on RICE decompressed data. The Markov Chain modeling programs allow channels with memory to be simulated. Memory results from filtering, forward error correction encoding/decoding, differential encoding/decoding, channel RFI, nonlinear transponders and from many other satellite system processes. Besides the development of the simulation, a study was performed to determine whether the PCI provides a performance improvement for the TDRSS downlink. There exist RFI with several duty cycles for the TDRSS downlink. We conclude that the PCI does not improve performance for any of these interferers except possibly one which occurs for the TDRS East. Therefore, the usefulness of the PCI is a function of the time spent transmitting data to the WSGT through the TDRS East transponder.

  9. Responsibility, capability, and Active SETI: Policy, law, ethics, and communication with extraterrestrial intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2011-02-01

    With recently growing interest in the Active Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI), in which humankind would send intentional signals to extraterrestrial civilizations, there have been increased concerns about appropriate policy, as well as the role of space law and ethics in guiding such activities. Implicit in these discussions are notions of responsibility and capability that affect judgments about whether humans or other civilizations should initiate transmissions. Existing protocols that guide SETI research address transmissions from Earth, but there is debate over whether these guidelines should inform de novo transmissions as well. Relevant responsibilities to address include (1) looking out for the interests of humankind as a whole, (2) being truthful in interstellar messages, and (3) benefiting extraterrestrial civilizations. Our capabilities as a species and a civilization affect how well we can fulfill responsibilities, as seen when we consider whether we will be able to reach consensus about message contents (and whether that would be desirable), and whether we have the capacity to decode messages from beings that rely on different sensory modalities. The interplay of these responsibilities and capabilities suggests that humankind should place increased emphasis on Active SETI.

  10. A comparative analysis of communication about sex, health and sexual health in India and South Africa: Implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Helen; Wood, Kate

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative analysis of modes of dialogue, non-verbal communication and embodied action relating to sex and health in two contrasting countries-India and South Africa-which have the world's two most heavily HIV-affected populations (in terms of numbers of people living with HIV). Drawing on material derived from multiple studies, including ethnographic and other forms of qualitative and multi-disciplinary research, the paper identifies commonalities as well as differences in communication relating to sex and sexual health in these diverse settings. The paper considers: first, how and by whom sex is and is not talked about, in public discourse and private conversation; second, how sexual intention and desire are communicated through indirect, non-verbal means in everyday life; and third, how references to sexuality and the sexual body re-enter within a more explicit set of indigenous discourses about health (rather than 'sexual health' per se), such as semen loss in India and womb 'dirtiness' in South Africa. The concluding section reflects on the implications of a comparative analysis such as this for current policy emphases on the importance of promoting verbal communication skills as part of 'life skills' for HIV prevention. PMID:16864220

  11. Topology design and performance analysis of an integrated communication network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, V. O. K.; Lam, Y. F.; Hou, T. C.; Yuen, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    A research study on the topology design and performance analysis for the Space Station Information System (SSIS) network is conducted. It is begun with a survey of existing research efforts in network topology design. Then a new approach for topology design is presented. It uses an efficient algorithm to generate candidate network designs (consisting of subsets of the set of all network components) in increasing order of their total costs, and checks each design to see if it forms an acceptable network. This technique gives the true cost-optimal network, and is particularly useful when the network has many constraints and not too many components. The algorithm for generating subsets is described in detail, and various aspects of the overall design procedure are discussed. Two more efficient versions of this algorithm (applicable in specific situations) are also given. Next, two important aspects of network performance analysis: network reliability and message delays are discussed. A new model is introduced to study the reliability of a network with dependent failures. For message delays, a collection of formulas from existing research results is given to compute or estimate the delays of messages in a communication network without making the independence assumption. The design algorithm coded in PASCAL is included as an appendix.

  12. Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) multibeam antenna analysis and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Lagin, Alan R.; Larko, Jeffrey M.; Narvaez, Adabelle

    1992-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of a satellite communication system design is the accurate estimation of antenna performance degradation. Pointing error, end coverage gain, peak gain degradation, etc. are the main concerns. The thermal or dynamic distortions of a reflector antenna structural system can affect the far-field antenna power distribution in a least four ways. (1) The antenna gain is reduced; (2) the main lobe of the antenna can be mispointed thus shifting the destination of the delivered power away from the desired locations; (3) the main lobe of the antenna pattern can be broadened, thus spreading the RF power over a larger area than desired; and (4) the antenna pattern sidelobes can increase, thus increasing the chances of interference among adjacent beams of multiple beam antenna system or with antenna beams of other satellites. The in-house developed NASA Lewis Research Center thermal/structural/RF analysis program was designed to accurately simulate the ACTS in-orbit thermal environment and predict the RF antenna performance. The program combines well establish computer programs (TRASYS, SINDA and NASTAN) with a dual reflector-physical optics RF analysis program. The ACTS multibeam antenna configuration is analyzed and several thermal cases are presented and compared with measurements (pre-flight).

  13. Institutional Policy and Its Abuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogue, E. G.; Riggs, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews the role of institutional policy, cites frequent abuses of institutional policy, and delineates several principles of policy management (development, communication, execution and evaluation). (Author/PG)

  14. Policies to improve end-of-life decisions in Flemish hospitals: communication, training of health care providers and use of quality assessments

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence and implementation of institutional end-of-life policies has been comprehensively studied in Flanders, Belgium, a country where euthanasia was legalised in 2002. Developing end-of-life policies in hospitals is a first step towards improving the quality of medical decision-making at the end-of-life. Implementation of policies through quality assessments, communication and the training and education of health care providers is equally important in improving actual end-of-life practice. The aim of the present study is to report on the existence and nature of end-of-life policy implementation activities in Flemish acute hospitals. Methods A cross-sectional mail survey was sent to all acute hospitals (67 main campuses) in Flanders (Belgium). The questionnaire asked about hospital characteristics, the prevalence of policies on five types of end-of-life decisions: euthanasia, palliative sedation, alleviation of symptoms with possible life-shortening effect, do-not-resuscitate decision, and withdrawing or withholding of treatment, the internal and external communication of these policies, training and education on aspects of end-of-life care, and quality assessments of end-of-life care on patient and family level. Results The response rate was 55%. Results show that in 2007 written policies on most types of end-of-life decisions were widespread in acute hospitals (euthanasia: 97%, do-not-resuscitate decisions: 98%, palliative sedation: 79%). While standard communication of these policies to health care providers was between 71% and 91%, it was much lower to patients and/or family (between 17% and 50%). More than 60% of institutions trained and educated their caregivers in different aspects on end-of-life care. Assessment of the quality of these different aspects at patient and family level occurred in 25% to 61% of these hospitals. Conclusions Most Flemish acute hospitals have developed a policy on end-of-life practices. However, communication

  15. Climate change and energy security: an analysis of policy research

    SciTech Connect

    King, Marcus Dubois; Gulledge, Jay

    2013-01-01

    The literature on climate change's impacts on energy security is scattered across disparate fields of research and schools of thought. Much of this literature has been produced outside of the academy by scholars and practitioners working in "think tanks," government agencies, and international/multilateral institutions. Here we reviewed a selected set of 58 articles and reports primarily from such sources and performed textual analysis of the arguments. Our review of this literature identifies three potential mechanisms for linking climate change and energy security: Climate change may 1) create second-order effects that may exacerbate social instability and disrupt energy systems; 2) directly impact energy supply and/or systems or 3) influence energy security through the effects of climate-related policies. We identify emerging risks to energy security driven by climate mitigation tech-nology choices but find less evidence of climate change's direct physical impacts. We used both empirical and qualitative selection factors for choosing the grey literature sample. The sources we selected were published in the last 5 years, available through electronic media and were written in language accessible to general policy or academic readers. The organi-zations that published the literature had performed previous research in the general fields of energy and/or climate change with some analytical content and identified themselves as non-partisan. This literature is particularly valuable to scholars because identifies understudied relationships that can be rigorously assessed through academic tools and methodologies and informs a translational research agenda that will allow scholars to engage with practitioners to address challenges that lie at the nexus of climate change and energy security.

  16. High Prevalence of Chronic Non-Communicable Conditions Among Adult Refugees: Implications for Practice and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Katherine; Hebrank, Kelly; Graber, Lauren K.; Sullivan, Mary-Christine; Chen, Isabel; Gupta, Jhumka

    2013-01-01

    The global rise in non-communicable disease (NCD) suggests that US-based refugees are increasingly affected by chronic conditions. However, health services have focused on the detection of infectious disease, with relatively limited data on chronic NCDs. Using data from a retrospective medical record review of a refugee health program in the urban Northeast (n = 180), we examined the prevalence of chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors among adult refugees who had recently arrived in the US, with attention to region of origin and family composition. Family composition was included because low-income adults without dependent children are at high risk of becoming uninsured. We found that half of the adult refugees in this sample had at least one chronic NCD (51.1%), and 9.5% had three or more NCDs. Behavioral health diagnoses were most common (15.0%), followed by hypertension (13.3%). Half of adults were overweight or obese (54.6%). Chronic NCDs were somewhat more common among adults from Iraq, but this difference was not significant (56.8 vs. 44.6%). Chronic NCDs were common among adults with and without dependent children (61.4 vs. 44.6%, respectively), and these two groups did not significantly differ in their likelihood of having a chronic NCD after adjustment for age and gender (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.55). This study suggests that chronic NCDs are common among adult refugees in the US, including refugees at high risk for uninsurance. We propose that refugee health services accommodate screening and treatment for chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors, and that insurance outreach and enrollment programs target recently arrived refugees. PMID:22382428

  17. Received optical power calculations for optical communications link performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, W. K.; Burk, B. D.

    1986-01-01

    The factors affecting optical communication link performance differ substantially from those at microwave frequencies, due to the drastically differing technologies, modulation formats, and effects of quantum noise in optical communications. In addition detailed design control table calculations for optical systems are less well developed than corresponding microwave system techniques, reflecting the relatively less mature state of development of optical communications. Described below are detailed calculations of received optical signal and background power in optical communication systems, with emphasis on analytic models for accurately predicting transmitter and receiver system losses.

  18. Clean Energy Policies Analysis: The Role of Policy in Clean Energy Market Transformation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.

    2010-11-01

    This presentation was written and presented by Elizabeth Doris (NREL) at the November 17 TAP Webinar to provide background detail about how state policies are transforming the clean energy market in different regions of the country.

  19. Trauma-Informed Social Policy: A Conceptual Framework for Policy Analysis and Advocacy.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Elizabeth A; Murshid, Nadine Shaanta

    2016-02-01

    Trauma-informed care is a service provision model used across a range of practice settings. Drawing on an extensive body of research on trauma (broadly defined as experiences that produce enduring emotional pain and distress) and health outcomes, we have argued that the principles of trauma-informed care can be extended to social policy. Citing a variety of health-related policy examples, we have described how policy can better reflect 6 core principles of trauma-informed care: safety, trustworthiness and transparency, collaboration, empowerment, choice, and intersectionality. This framework conveys a politicized understanding of trauma, reflecting the reality that trauma and its effects are not equally distributed, and offers a pathway for public health professionals to disrupt trauma-driven health disparities through policy action. PMID:26691122

  20. Information and Communications Technologies Support for 21st-Century Teaching: An International Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, David; Rutkowski, Leslie; Sparks, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in the 1990s, national educational policies around the world have mandated massive investments in information and communications technologies (ICT) to transform teaching and learning in ways appropriate for developing "21st-century skills." Recent research indicates significant success in bringing teachers and students into contact with…

  1. Analysis of policy towards improvement of perinatal mortality in the Netherlands (2004-2011).

    PubMed

    Vos, Amber A; van Voorst, Sabine F; Steegers, Eric A P; Denktaş, Semiha

    2016-05-01

    Relatively high perinatal mortality and morbidity rates(2) in the Netherlands resulted in a process which induced policy changes regarding the Dutch perinatal healthcare system. Aims of this policy analysis are (1) to identify actors, context and process factors that promoted or impeded agenda setting and formulation of policy regarding perinatal health care reform and (2) to present an overview of the renewed perinatal health policy. The policy triangle framework for policy analysis by Walt and Gilson was applied(3). Contents of policy, actors, context factors and process factors were identified by triangulation of data from three sources: a document analysis, stakeholder analysis and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. Analysis enabled us to chronologically reconstruct the policy process in response to the perinatal mortality rates. The quantification of the perinatal mortality problem, the openness of the debate and the nature of the topic were important process factors. Main theme of policy was that change was required in the entire spectrum of perinatal healthcare. This ranged from care in the preconception phase through to the puerperium. Furthermore emphasis was placed on the importance of preventive measures and socio-environmental determinants of health. This required involvement of the preventive setting, including municipalities. The Dutch tiered perinatal healthcare system and divergent views amongst curative perinatal health care providers were important context factors. This study provides lessons which are applicable to health care professionals and policy makers in perinatal care or other multidisciplinary fields. PMID:27080065

  2. [Paradigms in the analysis of public health policies: limitations and challenges].

    PubMed

    Salas-Zapata, Walter; Ríos-Osorio, Leonardo; Gómez-Arias, Rubén Darío; Alvarez-Del Castillo, Xavier

    2012-07-01

    Research on health policies is considered essential to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of public policies. Analyses of public health policies have various objectives, including helping to solve the problems for which the policy was originated. That objective faces two large obstacles: (1) the ambiguity and heterogeneity of the models applied for the analysis of public policies, conditions that hinder the selection of analytical methods and the assessment of the scope of the objective; and (2) the traditional methodological approaches that limit the capacity of analyses to help solve the problems detected. This paper reviews the epistemology of the predominant models of public health policy analysis in order to assess their scope and limitations. It concludes that the development of new conceptual approaches could improve the quality of research on public policies and their ability to favorably impact decisions. PMID:22910729

  3. Changing fortunes: analysis of fluctuating policy space for family planning in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Policies relating to contraceptive services (population, family planning and reproductive health policies) often receive weak or fluctuating levels of commitment from national policy elites in Southern countries, leading to slow policy evolution and undermining implementation. This is true of Kenya, despite the government's early progress in committing to population and reproductive health policies, and its success in implementing them during the 1980s. This key informant study on family planning policy in Kenya found that policy space contracted, and then began to expand, because of shifts in contextual factors, and because of the actions of different actors. Policy space contracted during the mid-1990s in the context of weakening prioritization of reproductive health in national and international policy agendas, undermining access to contraceptive services and contributing to the stalling of the country's fertility rates. However, during the mid-2000s, champions of family planning within the Kenyan Government bureaucracy played an important role in expanding the policy space through both public and hidden advocacy activities. The case study demonstrates that policy space analysis can provide useful insights into the dynamics of routine policy and programme evolution and the challenge of sustaining support for issues even after they have reached the policy agenda. PMID:18653676

  4. Changing fortunes: analysis of fluctuating policy space for family planning in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Joanna

    2008-09-01

    Policies relating to contraceptive services (population, family planning and reproductive health policies) often receive weak or fluctuating levels of commitment from national policy elites in Southern countries, leading to slow policy evolution and undermining implementation. This is true of Kenya, despite the government's early progress in committing to population and reproductive health policies, and its success in implementing them during the 1980s. This key informant study on family planning policy in Kenya found that policy space contracted, and then began to expand, because of shifts in contextual factors, and because of the actions of different actors. Policy space contracted during the mid-1990s in the context of weakening prioritization of reproductive health in national and international policy agendas, undermining access to contraceptive services and contributing to the stalling of the country's fertility rates. However, during the mid-2000s, champions of family planning within the Kenyan Government bureaucracy played an important role in expanding the policy space through both public and hidden advocacy activities. The case study demonstrates that policy space analysis can provide useful insights into the dynamics of routine policy and programme evolution and the challenge of sustaining support for issues even after they have reached the policy agenda. PMID:18653676

  5. Content Analysis in Mass Communication: Assessment and Reporting of Intercoder Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombard, Matthew; Snyder-Duch, Jennifer; Bracken, Cheryl Campanella

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the importance of intercoder agreement for content analysis in mass communication research. Describes several indices for calculating this type of reliability (varying in appropriateness, complexity, and apparent prevalence of use). Presents a content analysis of content analyses reported in communication journals to establish how…

  6. Performance analysis for gigabit Ethernet communication network under various data rates and switching structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Shyh-Lin; Wu, Jun-Yi

    2004-11-01

    This paper reports recent work on gigabit Ethernet interconnection communication traffic analysis. We proposed and demonstrated the system concept of gigabit Ethernet communication. 1.25Gbps, 10Gpbs and 40Gpbs gigabit Ethernet interconnection networks are considered for computer communications. Various switching structures, such as crossbar, double crossbar (Dcrossbar), Modified Dilated Benes (MDB), General MDB (GMDB), Benes, Dilated Benes (Dbenes), Tree architecture, Simplified tree (Stree), Extended baseline network (Ebaseline) are analyzed for searching the optimal performance of gigabit Ethernet communication. The numerical results for computation information transferring can be applied to search a best strategy for gigabit Ethernet communication networks interconnections.

  7. An Issue Analysis of Citizen Concerns in Greensboro, North Carolina: Policy Implications for Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howerton, James M.

    Urban managers and legislators are faced with the task of ensuring that policy decisions really represent citizens' needs. One method of communicating with the public by government was the creation of the Community Representatives Office (CRO) by the city of Greensboro, North Carolina, in 1973. This position is similar to the office of the…

  8. Analysis of maternal and child health policies in Malawi: The methodological perspective.

    PubMed

    Daire, J; Khalil, D

    2015-12-01

    The question of why most health policies do not achieve their intended results continues to receive a considerable attention in the literature. This is in the light of the recognized gap between policy as intent and policy as practice, which calls for substantial research work to understand the factors that improve policy implementation. Although there is substantial work that explains the reasons why policies achieve or fail to achieve their intended outcomes, there are limited case studies that illustrate how to analyze policies from the methodological perspective. In this article, we report and discuss how a mixed qualitative research method was applied for analyzing maternal and child health policies in Malawi. For the purposes of this article, we do not report research findings; instead we focus our dicussion on the methodology of the study and draw lessons for policy analysis research work. We base our disusssion on our experiences from a study in which we analyzed maternal and child health policies in Malawi over the period from 1964 to 2008. Noting the multifaceted nature of maternal and child health policies, we adopted a mixed qualitative research method, whereby a number of data collection methods were employed. This approach allowed for the capturing of different perspectives of maternal and child health policies in Malawi and for strengthening of the weaknesses of each method, especially in terms of data validity. This research suggested that the multidimensional nature of maternal and child health policies, like other health policies, calls for a combination of research designs as well as a variety of methods of data collection and analysis. In addition, we suggest that, as an emerging research field, health policy analysis will benefit more from case study designs because they provide rich experiences in the actual policy context. PMID:26955434

  9. Parent-Implemented Communication Intervention: Sequential Analysis of Triadic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer A.; Woods, Juliann J.

    2016-01-01

    Collaboration with parents and caregivers to support young children's communication development is an important component to early intervention services. Coaching parents to implement communication support strategies is increasingly common in parent-implemented interventions, but few studies examine the process as well as the outcomes. We explored…

  10. Social Psychological Analysis of Facilitated Communication: Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Ruth A.; Emery, Lynnda J.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the psychological literature provides support for theoretical explanations of the rapid adoption of facilitated communication for use with individuals with severe communication disorders, despite the lack of empirical support. The influence of cognitive biases, ambiguous stimuli, biases in data, psychological influences, and social…

  11. Guidelines for the Analysis of Responsibility in Governmental Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouran, Dennis S.

    This paper discusses specific issues involving governmental conduct in communication with the public, outlines a set of conditions that frequently stimulate social interest in governmental responsibility, and develops a corresponding set of guidelines for use in the evaluation of instances of questionable governmental conduct in communication.…

  12. Analysis of synchronous digital-modulation schemes for satellite communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takhar, G. S.; Gupta, S. C.

    1975-01-01

    The multipath communication channel for space communications is modeled as a multiplicative channel. This paper discusses the effects of multiplicative channel processes on the symbol error rate for quadrature modulation (QM) digital modulation schemes. An expression for the upper bound on the probability of error is derived and numerically evaluated. The results are compared with those obtained for additive channels.

  13. A Component Analysis of Schedule Thinning during Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Alison M.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Roane, Henry S.; Mintz, Joslyn C.; Owen, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    One limitation of functional communication training (FCT) is that individuals may request reinforcement via the functional communication response (FCR) at exceedingly high rates. Multiple schedules with alternating periods of reinforcement and extinction of the FCR combined with gradually lengthening the extinction-component interval can…

  14. Analysis of routine communication in the air traffic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Herbert H.; Morrow, Daniel; Rodvoid, Michelle

    1990-01-01

    The present project has three related goals. The first is to describe the organization of routine controller-pilot communication. This includes identifying the basic units of communication and how they are organized into discourse, how controllers and pilots use language to achieve their goals, and what topics they discuss. The second goal is to identify the type and frequency of problems that interrupt routine information transfer and prompt pilots and controllers to focus on the communication itself. The authors analyze the costs of these problems in terms of communication efficiency, and the techniques used to resolve these problems. Third, the authors hope to identify factors associated with communication problems, such as deviations from conventional air traffic control procedures.

  15. Analysis of Public Policies for Sexuality Education in Germany and The Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronowitz, Teri; Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an analysis of the philosophical, historical, sociological, political, and economic perspectives reflected in the public policies about lifespan sexuality education of Germany and The Netherlands. A new conceptual framework for analysis and evaluation of sexuality education policies that integrates the…

  16. Communication about vaccinations in Italian websites: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Tafuri, Silvio; Gallone, Maria S; Gallone, Maria F; Zorico, Ivan; Aiello, Valeria; Germinario, Cinzia

    2014-01-01

    Babies' parents and people who look for information about vaccination often visit anti-vaccine movement's websites, blogs by naturopathic physicians or natural and alternative medicine practitioners. The aim of this work is to provide a quantitative analysis on the type of information available to Italian people regarding vaccination and a quality analysis of websites retrieved through our searches. A quality score was created to evaluate the technical level of websites. A research was performed through Yahoo, Google, and MSN using the keywords "vaccine" and "vaccination," with the function "OR" in order to identify the most frequently used websites. The 2 keywords were input in Italian, and the first 15 pages retrieved by each search engine were analyzed. 149 websites were selected through this methodology. Fifty-three per cent of the websites belonged to associations, groups, or scientific companies, 32.2% (n = 48) consisted of a personal blog and 14.8% (n = 22) belonged to some of the National Health System offices. Among all analyzed websites, 15.4% (n = 23) came from anti-vaccine movement groups. 37.6% reported webmaster name, 67.8% webmaster e-mail, 28.6% indicated the date of the last update and 46.6% the author's name. The quality score for government sites was higher on average than anti-vaccine websites; although, government sites don't use Web 2.0 functions, as the forums.: National Health System institutions who have to promote vaccination cannot avoid investing in web communication because it cannot be managed by private efforts but must be the result of Public Health, private and scientific association, and social movement synergy. PMID:24607988

  17. Funding for Curriculum Development: An Analysis of Some Policy Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Thomas F.

    The problem addressed in this paper is how to design a policy or set of policies suitable to guide the National Institute of Education (NIE) in allocating funds for projects on curriculum research and development. Principles are set forth for ranking curricular needs in the allocational agenda. Three circumstances are described that would call for…

  18. Analysis of National Policies for Entrepreneurship Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaozhou

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews major national policies and strategies adopted by the Chinese central government to promote entrepreneurship education and also describes the current social and economic background to reveal the motives of entrepreneurship education in mainland China. The core of this article sums up the content of national policies on…

  19. Analysis of Spanish Policies for the Integration of Immigrant Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez-Usarralde, María Jesús; Yanes-Cabrera, Cristina; Llevot-Calvet, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    The Organic Law on the Improvement of the National Education Quality ("Ley Orgánica de Reforma de la Calidad Educativa") readdressed one of the most significant educational issues: educational policies related to immigrant students. Therefore, this is an appropriate moment to evaluate these types of policies in three singular Spanish…

  20. Required Security Screenings for Researchers: A Policy Analysis and Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    After the attacks of 9/11/2001 the federal government implemented new policies intended to protect people and institutions in the United States. A surprising policy requires education researchers conducting research under contract to the U.S. Department of Education (ED) to obtain security clearances, sometimes known as security screenings.…

  1. Economic analysis of water conservation policies in the Texas Panhandle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to declining water availability from the Ogallala Aquifer, management policy alternatives for extending the life of the aquifer to sustain rural economies in the Texas Panhandle are evaluated. The study concludes that water conservation policies for the region significantly impact crop mix, reso...

  2. Toward a Multidimensional Framework for the Analysis of Social Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisler, Martin O.; Peters, B. Guy

    1977-01-01

    Pleads for a more complex conceptualization of the policy process that considers the factors of time, policy areas, level of government, and nation. Available from The American Academy of Political and Social Science, 3937 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104; $15.00 annually. (Author/IRT)

  3. Multiple Adaptation Types with Mitigation: A Framework for Policy Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective climate policy will consist of mitigation and adaptation implemented simultaneously in a policy portfolio to reduce the risks of climate change. The relative share of these responses will vary over time and will be adjusted in response to new information. Furthermore,...

  4. Effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on Communication and Speech for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flippin, Michelle; Reszka, Stephanie; Watson, Linda R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a popular communication-training program for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This meta-analysis reviews the current empirical evidence for PECS in affecting communication and speech outcomes for children with ASD. Method: A systematic review of the literature on PECS…

  5. Systematically reviewing and synthesizing evidence from conversation analytic and related discursive research to inform healthcare communication practice and policy: an illustrated guide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthcare delivery is largely accomplished in and through conversations between people, and healthcare quality and effectiveness depend enormously upon the communication practices employed within these conversations. An important body of evidence about these practices has been generated by conversation analysis and related discourse analytic approaches, but there has been very little systematic reviewing of this evidence. Methods We developed an approach to reviewing evidence from conversation analytic and related discursive research through the following procedures: • reviewing existing systematic review methods and our own prior experience of applying these • clarifying distinctive features of conversation analytic and related discursive work which must be taken into account when reviewing • holding discussions within a review advisory team that included members with expertise in healthcare research, conversation analytic research, and systematic reviewing • attempting and then refining procedures through conducting an actual review which examined evidence about how people talk about difficult future issues including illness progression and dying Results We produced a step-by-step guide which we describe here in terms of eight stages, and which we illustrate from our ‘Review of Future Talk’. The guide incorporates both established procedures for systematic reviewing, and new techniques designed for working with conversation analytic evidence. Conclusions The guide is designed to inform systematic reviews of conversation analytic and related discursive evidence on specific domains and topics. Whilst we designed it for reviews that aim at informing healthcare practice and policy, it is flexible and could be used for reviews with other aims, for instance those aiming to underpin research programmes and projects. We advocate systematically reviewing conversation analytic and related discursive findings using this approach in order to translate

  6. Fort Collins Science Center: Policy Analysis and Science Assistance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, Berton L.

    2004-01-01

    PASA's mission is to integrate biological, social, and economic research so that resource managers can use the resulting information to make informed decisions and resolve resource management conflicts. PASA scientists pursue and conduct scientific analyses that help agencies and Native American tribes to (1) identify impending policy controversies and areas where social and natural science research is needed to address future policy questions; (2) develop methods and approaches to assist researchers in preparing scientific evidence; (3) assess habitat alteration in a manner consistent with policy needs; and (4) evaluate policy options. Branch scientists also evaluate policy options (e.g., effects of different land treatments, fish and wildlife management practices, or visitor/recreation management practices) in response to specific questions faced by policymakers and managers.

  7. Analysis of the origin of predictability in human communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Yani; Wu, Ye; Xiao, Jinghua

    2014-01-01

    Human behaviors in daily life can be traced by their communications via electronic devices. E-mails, short messages and cell-phone calls can be used to investigate the predictability of communication partners’ patterns, because these three are the most representative and common behaviors in daily communications. In this paper, we show that all the three manners have apparent predictability in partners’ patterns, and moreover, the short message users’ sequences have the highest predictability among the three. We also reveal that people with fewer communication partners have higher predictability. Finally, we investigate the origin of predictability, which comes from two aspects: one is the intrinsic pattern in the partners sequence, that is, people have the preference of communicating with a fixed partner after another fixed one. The other aspect is the burst, which is communicating with the same partner several times in a row. The high burst in short message communication pattern is one of the main reasons for its high predictability, the intrinsic pattern in e-mail partners sequence is the main reason for its predictability, and the predictability of cell-phone call partners sequence comes from both aspects.

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Organizations' Communication Structure: Organizational Technology and Outcomes as Determinants of Internal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Anita C.; DeWine, Sue

    C. Perrow's research has suggested that analyzing organizations according to technology (or process) and raw material (or outcome) can provide valuable information about organizational communication behaviors and patterns. His scheme for classifying organizations suggests a continuum that places organizations with "variable" technologies…

  9. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O'Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  10. Different welfare states--different policies? An analysis of the substance of national health promotion policies in three European countries.

    PubMed

    Fosse, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This study examines healthy public policy development in three European countries representing different welfare regimes: England representing the liberal model; Norway, the social democratic model; and the Netherlands, the corporatist model. National policy documents were used for the analysis. In England and Norway, health promotion has a prominent place and there is a political focus on the broader determinants of health. However, while the Norwegian policies have an explicit focus on the social gradient, the English policies have a much clearer focus on disadvantaged groups and geographic areas. In the Netherlands, the main focus is on disease prevention and risk behaviors. In the Netherlands and England there is a strong focus on the free will of the population in changing unhealthy lifestyles. By analyzing the different policies in the light of Esping-Andersen's typology of welfare state regimes, it is possible to better understand the differences among the countries. While all types of regimes seem willing to develop targeted measures, the social democratic regime seems the most willing to also develop structural measures addressing the wider social determinants of health. PMID:21563624

  11. Fort Collins Science Center- Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch : Integrating social, behavioral, economic and biological sciences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Policy Analysis and Science Assistance (PASA) Branch is a team of approximately 22 scientists, technicians, and graduate student researchers. PASA provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and biological analyses in the context of human-natural resource interactions. Resource planners, managers, and policymakers in the U.S. Departments of the Interior (DOI) and Agriculture (USDA), State and local agencies, as well as international agencies use information from PASA studies to make informed natural resource management and policy decisions. PASA scientists' primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to advance performance in policy relevant research areas. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context, involve difficult to access populations, require knowledge of both natural/biological science in addition to social science, and require the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these difficult contexts, PASA researchers apply traditional and state-of-the-art social science methods drawing from the fields of sociology, demography, economics, political science, communications, social-psychology, and applied industrial organization psychology. Social science methods work in concert with our rangeland/agricultural management, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of PASA's research is to enhance natural resource management, agency functions, policies, and decision-making. Our research is organized into four broad areas of study.

  12. Performance Analysis and Electronics Packaging of the Optical Communications Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeganathan, M.; Monacos, S.

    1998-01-01

    The Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD), under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is a laboratory-based lasercomm terminal designed to validate several key technologies, primarily precision beam pointing, high bandwidth tracking, and beacon acquisition.

  13. Turbulence channel test and analysis for NLOS UV communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Linchao; Li, Zening; Lang, Tian; Sadler, Brian M.; Chen, Gang

    2014-10-01

    Short range non-line-of-sight (NLOS) ultraviolet (UV) communication, with its solar blind and Non-Line-of- Sight characteristic, received grant interest. However as the communication range increases, the communication performance deteriotes due to NLOS UV turbulence, even with special UV turbulence mitigation. In this work, we conducted a series of outdoor experiments to investigate the received signal energy distribution, which is the product of the complex interaction of transmitted UV radiation, by utlizing both a UV LED array and a UV laser, with the atmosphere. Separation distance, pointing angles and UV light source were taken into considerate as key parameters to affect the distribution. These experimental results will be valuable for studying NLOS UV communication performance.

  14. Analysis of communication in the standard versus automated aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veinott, Elizabeth S.; Irwin, Cheryl M.

    1993-01-01

    Past research has shown crew communication patterns to be associated with overall crew performance, recent flight experience together, low-and high-error crew performance and personality variables. However, differences in communication patterns as a function of aircraft type and level of aircraft automation have not been fully addressed. Crew communications from ten MD-88 and twelve DC-9 crews were obtained during a full-mission simulation. In addition to large differences in overall amount of communication during the normal and abnormal phases of flight (DC-9 crews generating less speech than MD-88 crews), differences in specific speech categories were also found. Log-linear analyses also generated speaker-response patterns related to each aircraft type, although in future analyses these patterns will need to account for variations due to crew performance.

  15. When Policy Instruments Combine to Promote Coherence: An Analysis of Connecticut's Policies Related to Teacher Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngs, Peter; Bell, Courtney

    2009-01-01

    This paper explicates the elements of several policy instruments used in Connecticut, the political conditions under which they were chosen, and their intended targets and expected effects on teacher quality and student learning. The purpose of the paper is to explain how the Connecticut General Assembly (CGA) and the Connecticut State Department…

  16. Clinical integration of next generation sequencing: a policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, David; Curnutte, Margaret; McGuire, Amy L

    2014-01-01

    Clinical next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are challenging existing regulatory paradigms. We advocate a coordinate policy approach, which first requires a comprehensive understanding of the existing regulatory and legal structures. This paper introduces four key policy domains - including quality assurance, insurance coverage, intellectual property management, and data sharing - that must be addressed to ensure high quality clinical NGS. In bringing these policy issues into conversation through this special issue for the Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, we hope to lay the foundation for further discussion by a range of stakeholder groups with diverse and strong interests in the governance of NGS. PMID:25298287

  17. Polyethylene recycling: Waste policy scenario analysis for the EU-27.

    PubMed

    Andreoni, Valeria; Saveyn, Hans G M; Eder, Peter

    2015-08-01

    This paper quantifies the main impacts that the adoption of the best recycling practices together with a reduction in the consumption of single-use plastic bags and the adoption of a kerbside collection system could have on the 27 Member States of the EU. The main consequences in terms of employment, waste management costs, emissions and energy use have been quantified for two scenarios of polyethylene (PE) waste production and recycling. That is to say, a "business as usual scenario", where the 2012 performances of PE waste production and recycling are extrapolated to 2020, is compared to a "best practice scenario", where the best available recycling practices are modelled together with the possible adoption of the amended Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive related to the consumption of single-use plastic bags and the implementation of a kerbside collection system. The main results show that socio-economic and environmental benefits can be generated across the EU by the implementation of the best practice scenario. In particular, estimations show a possible reduction of 4.4 million tonnes of non-recycled PE waste, together with a reduction of around €90 million in waste management costs in 2020 for the best practice scenario versus the business as usual scenario. An additional 35,622 jobs are also expected to be created. In environmental terms, the quantity of CO2 equivalent emissions could be reduced by around 1.46 million tonnes and the net energy requirements are expected to increase by 16.5 million GJ as a consequence of the reduction in the energy produced from waste. The main analysis provided in this paper, together with the data and the model presented, can be useful to identify the possible costs and benefits that the implementation of PE waste policies and Directives could generate for the EU. PMID:25976302

  18. Quantitative Synthesis and Component Analysis of Single-Participant Studies on the Picture Exchange Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tincani, Matt; Devis, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    The "Picture Exchange Communication System" (PECS) has emerged as the augmentative communication intervention of choice for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with a supporting body of single-participant studies. This report describes a meta-analysis of 16 single-participant studies on PECS with percentage of nonoverlapping data…

  19. Patterns of Change in Willingness to Communicate in Public Speaking Contexts: A Latent Growth Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodis, Georgeta M.; Bardhan, Nilanjana R.; Hodis, Flaviu A.

    2010-01-01

    This study offers a comprehensive analysis of change in willingness to communicate (WTC) in public speaking contexts (i.e., PS-WTC). The proposed conceptualization of change was tested using longitudinal data collected from a sample of 706 undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory communication course in a US university. Results of latent…

  20. Analysis of Intentional Communication in Severely Handicapped Children with Cornelia-de-Lange Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    Intentional communicative acts were assessed in 13 children (ages 2-8) with Cornelia-de-Lange syndrome with a severe mental disability and compared to children with Down and 5p syndromes. The mean number of intentional communicative acts was significantly lower. Analysis of play behaviors revealed the differences were specific for the…

  1. Shuttle/payload communications and data systems interface analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.

    1980-01-01

    The payload/orbiter functional command signal flow and telemetry signal flow are discussed. Functional descriptions of the various orbiter communication/avionic equipment involved in processing a command to a payload either from the ground through the orbiter by the payload specialist on the orbiter are included. Functional descriptions of the various orbiter communication/avionic equipment involved in processing telemetry data by the orbiter and transmitting the processed data to the ground are presented. The results of the attached payload/orbiter single processing and data handling system evaluation are described. The causes of the majority of attached payload/orbiter interface problems are delineated. A refined set of required flux density values for a detached payload to communicate with the orbiter is presented.

  2. Research in space commercialization, technology transfer and communications, vol. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, D. A.; Agnew, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    Spectrum management, models for evaluating communications systems, and implications of communications regulations for NASA are considered as major parts of communications policy. Marketing LANDSAT products in developing countries, a political systems analysis of LANDSAT, and private financing and operation of the space operations center (space station) are discussed. Investment requirements, risks, government support, and other primary business and management considerations are examined.

  3. Using Win-Win Strategies to Implement Health in All Policies: A Cross-Case Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Agnes; Renahy, Emilie; O’Campo, Patricia; Muntaner, Carles; Freiler, Alix; Shankardass, Ketan

    2016-01-01

    Background In spite of increasing research into intersections of public policy and health, little evidence shows how policy processes impact the implementation of Health in All Policies (HiAP) initiatives. Our research sought to understand how and why strategies for engaging partners from diverse policy sectors in the implementation of HiAP succeed or fail in order to uncover the underlying social mechanisms contributing to sustainable implementation of HiAP. Methods In this explanatory multiple case study, we analyzed grey and peer-review literature and key informant interviews to identify mechanisms leading to implementation successes and failures in relation to different strategies for engagement across three case studies (Sweden, Quebec and South Australia), after accounting for the role of different contextual conditions. Findings Our results yielded no support for the use of awareness-raising or directive strategies as standalone approaches for engaging partners to implement HiAP. However, we found strong evidence that mechanisms related to “win-win” strategies facilitated implementation by increasing perceived acceptability (or buy-in) and feasibility of HiAP implementation across sectors. Win-win strategies were facilitated by mechanisms related to several activities, including: the development of a shared language to facilitate communication between actors from different sectors; integrating health into other policy agendas (eg., sustainability) and use of dual outcomes to appeal to the interests of diverse policy sectors; use of scientific evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness of HiAP; and using health impact assessment to make policy coordination for public health outcomes more feasible and to give credibility to policies being developed by diverse policy sectors. Conclusion Our findings enrich theoretical understanding in an under-unexplored area of intersectoral action. They also provide policy makers with examples of HiAP across wealthy

  4. Reliability modeling and analysis of communication networks with dependent failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Y. F.; Li, V. O. K.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a new model to study the reliability of communication networks in which link failures are statistically dependent. The approach tries to identify and model explicitly the events that cause communication link failures. No conditional probabilities are needed, and so two major difficulties inherent to them, namely, an exponential number of conditional probabilities to deal with and a consistency requirement to satisfy, are avoided. For reliability computations, some existing algorithms for finding network reliability can be used with minor modifications and no significant increase in computational complexity.

  5. Megatrends in American Society: Policy Issues for State Education Agencies. An Issues Analysis Paper. Discussion Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Kenneth H.

    This paper attempts to match identified large-scale social trends (derived from the popular book "Megatrends" by John Naisbitt) to possible state education agency (SEA) policy positions. The first part of the analysis explores possible implications of these "megatrends" for SEA policy development. The trends discussed show America moving: (1) from…

  6. Uncommon Commonalities: Cosmopolitan Ethics as a Framework for Music Education Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richerme, Lauren Kapalka

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary American education policy rhetoric is problematic because its authors' assertions, particularly those about the goals of education, frequently conflict with their implied moral and/or ethical commitments. This philosophical policy analysis uses Appiah's cosmopolitan principles to examine the ethical implications of current education…

  7. Analysing Complex Policy Change in Hong Kong: What Role for Critical Discourse Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Annie Y. N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The Hong Kong government recently reformed pre-primary education with the introduction of a voucher scheme. At the time this policy caused considerable opposition from across Hong Kong Society. This paper seeks to use Fairclough's model of critical discourse analysis to explore a key policy text and seeks to assess to what extent such an…

  8. Using a Brier Score Analysis to Assess the Effectiveness of a Mathematics Placement Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesik, Sally A.; Leake, Meg

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how a Brier score analysis can be used as an evaluative tool to estimate the predictive accuracy of a course placement policy that was established based on professional or subjective judgment. The policy being evaluated uses the score received on the mathematics portion of the SAT examination as the primary mechanism to…

  9. Critical Discourse Analysis and Inclusive Educational Policies: The Power to Exclude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liasidou, Anastasia

    2008-01-01

    The legislative shift towards an inclusive education policy in Cyprus has allegedly been fragmented and contradictory. The textual hybridity of the ostensibly more inclusive policy documents prevents the realization of an inclusive discourse. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is proposed as an emancipatory research tool that has the potential to…

  10. Linking Transnational Logics: A Feminist Rhetorical Analysis of Public Policy Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingo, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the circulation and appropriation of representations of women in public policy. The author effectively mobilizes the metaphor of the network to examine the discursive intersections and transnational links between U.S. welfare programs and the World Bank gender mainstreaming policies. Her analysis reveals…

  11. Unruly Practices: What a Sociology of Translations Can Offer to Educational Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues for the utility of ANT as a philosophical and methodological approach to policy analysis. It introduces the key features of a recent educational policy reform initiative, Skills for Life and illustrates the argument by looking at three "moments" (in Callon's 1986 terminology) in the life of this initiative, applying the…

  12. Marginality and Aboriginal Educational Policy Analysis in the United States and Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Sheng Yao; Jacob, W. James

    The education of Taiwan Aborigines and U.S. American Indians is compared using eight criteria of educational policy analysis. The criteria of equity is addressed in Taiwan through policies that promote the educational quality of Aboriginal elementary and junior high schools, expand higher educational opportunities for Taiwan Aborigines,…

  13. Brief Report: Multilevel Analysis of School Smoking Policy and Pupil Smoking Behaviour in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiium, Nora; Burgess, Stephen; Moore, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    A multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from a survey involving 1941 pupils (in grades 10 and 11) and policy indicators developed from interviews with staff from 45 secondary schools in Wales examined the hypotheses that pupil smoking prevalence would be associated with: restrictive staff and pupil smoking policies; dissemination of school…

  14. School Health Promotion Policies and Adolescent Risk Behaviors in Israel: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesler, Riki; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Baron-Epel, Orna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health promotion policies targeting risk-taking behaviors are being implemented across schools in Israel. This study identified the most effective components of these policies influencing cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents. Methods: Logistic hierarchical linear model (HLM) analysis of data for 5279 students in…

  15. Responding to Self-Harm: A Documentary Analysis of Agency Policy and Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Sally; Hill, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a documentary analysis of policies and procedures relating to self-harm from a range of organisations working with young people in the UK. It identifies the extent to which policies and/or procedures relating to self-harm are available for service providers and offers a wider understanding of the concepts of…

  16. Telling the Story: A Critical Narrative Analysis of Policy and the Politics of Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouillion, Dalane E.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the implications of the absence of democracy that surrounded the policy evolution in Galena Park regarding desegregation in 1970. A brief description of narrative analysis, as methodology, is reviewed before discussing policy development. In conjunction with the Galena Park setting, the construct of…

  17. Transfer Equity for "Minoritized" Students: A Critical Policy Analysis of Seven States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Megan M.; Dowd, Alicia C.; Pazich, Loni Bordoloi; Bensimon, Estela Mara

    2014-01-01

    Using critical policy analysis focused on racial-ethnic equity, this study analyses state policy documents and accountability instruments governing transfer from 2-year colleges to 4-year institutions in the following states: California, Florida, Texas, Michigan, Minnesota, Washington, and Wisconsin. Based on data collected in 2009, the findings…

  18. The Rise of School Choice in Education Funding Reform: An Analysis of Two Policy Moments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Joel

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to the analysis of the global spread of support for school choice and to the understanding of how a particular form of policy development reflects and cements this support. It maps the growing dominance of school choice within a reconfiguration of politics, policy making, and research. To establish the nature of this…

  19. Retrospective Analysis of Communication Events - Understanding the Dynamics of Collaborative Multi-Party Discourse

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Haack, Jereme N.; McColgin, Dave W.

    2006-06-08

    This research is aimed at understanding the dynamics of collaborative multi-party discourse across multiple communication modalities. Before we can truly make sig-nificant strides in devising collaborative communication systems, there is a need to understand how typical users utilize com-putationally supported communications mechanisms such as email, instant mes-saging, video conferencing, chat rooms, etc., both singularly and in conjunction with traditional means of communication such as face-to-face meetings, telephone calls and postal mail. Attempting to un-derstand an individual’s communications profile with access to only a single modal-ity is challenging at best and often futile. Here, we discuss the development of RACE – Retrospective Analysis of Com-munications Events – a test-bed prototype to investigate issues relating to multi-modal multi-party discourse.

  20. Performance Analysis of Different Modulation Formats in Optical Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kulwinder; Singh, Maninder; Bhatia, Kamaljit Singh; Ryait, Hardeep Singh

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated the variation of different parameters with quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and differential phase shift key (DPSK) sequence generator, which generates modulated signals, in data transmission for communication and analysed that how the difference of these sequence generators effect its resonant frequency (RF) value, eye diagram and electrical constellation representation of the system.

  1. Linguistic Analysis of Natural Language Communication with Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bozena Henisz

    Interaction with computers in natural language requires a language that is flexible and suited to the task. This study of natural dialogue was undertaken to reveal those characteristics which can make computer English more natural. Experiments were made in three modes of communication: face-to-face, terminal-to-terminal, and human-to-computer,…

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Blind and Sighted Children's Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Maryon M.

    1984-01-01

    No significant differences were found between abilities of two groups of 33 blind and 33 sighted five- through 12-year-old children, matched for age, sex, and IQ, to detect communication-relevant characteristics (CRC) of listeners and construct messages adapted to the characteristics. (Author)

  3. Shuttle/payload communications and data systems interface analysis: Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Potential problems associated with interfacing payload elements with orbiter communications and data handling elements are identified. Elements include Ku-band signal processor (KuSP), payload signal processor (PSP), payload interrogator (PI), payload data interleaver (PDI) and payload recorder (PR).

  4. Comparative Analysis of Human Communication Networks in Selected Formal Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farace, Richard V.; Johnson, Jerome David

    This paper briefly describes the organization of a "data bank" containing research on communication networks, specifies the kinds of information compiled about various network properties, discusses some specific results of the work done to date, and presents some general conclusions about the overall project and its potential advantages to…

  5. Teacher Leadership Skills: An Analysis of Communication Apprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Douglas E.

    2009-01-01

    This study involved 107 teachers assessing their apprehension in communicating within group settings, one-to-one, in meetings, and in large public speaking circumstances. Those involved in the study were teachers pursuing graduate degrees in teacher leadership. School administrator's acknowledging the talents and gifts of teaching faculty, and…

  6. A Bibliometric Analysis of Communication Journals from 2002 to 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2008-01-01

    Journal impact ratings are often used by authors, promotion/hiring committees, and grant review teams as a proxy for scholarship quality. Journal citation data (2002-2005) from Social Sciences Citation Index were used to rank journals in the field of communication. A journal relatedness algorithm was applied to ascertain the 19 semantically…

  7. Analysis of the "naming game" with learning errors in communications.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong

    2015-01-01

    Naming game simulates the process of naming an objective by a population of agents organized in a certain communication network. By pair-wise iterative interactions, the population reaches consensus asymptotically. We study naming game with communication errors during pair-wise conversations, with error rates in a uniform probability distribution. First, a model of naming game with learning errors in communications (NGLE) is proposed. Then, a strategy for agents to prevent learning errors is suggested. To that end, three typical topologies of communication networks, namely random-graph, small-world and scale-free networks, are employed to investigate the effects of various learning errors. Simulation results on these models show that 1) learning errors slightly affect the convergence speed but distinctively increase the requirement for memory of each agent during lexicon propagation; 2) the maximum number of different words held by the population increases linearly as the error rate increases; 3) without applying any strategy to eliminate learning errors, there is a threshold of the learning errors which impairs the convergence. The new findings may help to better understand the role of learning errors in naming game as well as in human language development from a network science perspective. PMID:26178457

  8. Contrastive Analysis of American and Arab Nonverbal and Paralinguistic Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safadi, Michaela; Valentine, Carol Ann

    To achieve effective intercultural communication, participants must understand how behavioral differences may lead to miscommunication. Such behavioral differences can be illustrated by Arab and American nonverbal behavior. Individualism is the ideal for the American middle class, whereas Arabs are motivated by public opinion. Yet in the Arab…

  9. Pediatric primary care providers’ perspectives regarding hospital discharge communication: a mixed methods analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leyenaar, JoAnna K.; Bergert, Lora; Mallory, Leah A.; Engel, Richard; Rassbach, Caroline; Shen, Mark; Woehrlen, Tess; Cooperberg, David; Coghlin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Effective communication between inpatient and outpatient providers may mitigate risks of adverse events associated with hospital discharge. However, there is an absence of pediatric literature defining effective discharge communication strategies at both freestanding children’s hospitals and general hospitals. The objectives of this study were to assess associations between pediatric primary care providers’ (PCPs) reported receipt of discharge communication and referral hospital type, and to describe PCPs’ perspectives regarding effective discharge communication and areas for improvement. Methods We administered a questionnaire to PCPs referring to sixteen pediatric hospital medicine programs nationally. Multivariable models were developed to assess associations between referral hospital type and receipt and completeness of discharge communication. Open-ended questions asked respondents to describe effective strategies and areas requiring improvement regarding discharge communication. Conventional qualitative content analysis was performed to identify emergent themes. Results Responses were received from 201 PCPs, representing a response rate of 63%. While there were no differences between referral hospital type and PCP-reported receipt of discharge communication (RR 1.61,95%CI 0.97–2.67), PCPs referring to general hospitals more frequently reported completeness of discharge communication relative to those referring to freestanding children’s hospitals (RR 1.78,95%CI 1.26–2.51). Analysis of free text responses yielded four major themes: (i) structured discharge communication; (ii) direct personal communication; (iii) reliability and timeliness of communication; and (iv) communication for effective post-discharge care. Conclusions This study highlights potential differences in the experiences of PCPs referring to general hospitals and freestanding children’s hospitals, and presents valuable contextual data for future quality improvement

  10. Deciphering deinstitutionalization: complexities in policy and program analysis.

    PubMed

    Rose, S M

    1979-01-01

    Deinstitutionalization as a public policy promised to be a major departure from previous psychiatric practice. Decrying traditional "medical paradigms" and the custodial "warehousing" of mental patients, policy makers advanced a "bold new approach" for care in the community. Progressive humanitarian reform could go hand in hand with fiscal conservatism. Community Mental Health Centers were to be the heart of a new national effort. But the rhetoric of reform failed to coalesce the activities among competing federal and state interests and systems. Intended beneficiaries may have become unfortunate victims. PMID:114875

  11. Extended Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Health Policy Assessment: A Tutorial.

    PubMed

    Verguet, Stéphane; Kim, Jane J; Jamison, Dean T

    2016-09-01

    Health policy instruments such as the public financing of health technologies (e.g., new drugs, vaccines) entail consequences in multiple domains. Fundamentally, public health policies aim at increasing the uptake of effective and efficient interventions and at subsequently leading to better health benefits (e.g., premature mortality and morbidity averted). In addition, public health policies can provide non-health benefits in addition to the sole well-being of populations and beyond the health sector. For instance, public policies such as social and health insurance programs can prevent illness-related impoverishment and procure financial risk protection. Furthermore, public policies can improve the distribution of health in the population and promote the equalization of health among individuals. Extended cost-effectiveness analysis was developed to address health policy assessment, specifically to evaluate the health and financial consequences of public policies in four domains: (1) the health gains; (2) the financial risk protection benefits; (3) the total costs to the policy makers; and (4) the distributional benefits. Here, we present a tutorial that describes both the intent of extended cost-effectiveness analysis and its keys to allow easy implementation for health policy assessment. PMID:27374172

  12. Analysis and Comparison of Carbon Capture & Sequestration Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, E.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Reed, J.; Beyer, J. H.; Wagoner, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Several states and countries have adopted or are in the process of crafting policies to enable geologic carbon sequestration projects. These efforts reflect the recognition that existing statutory and regulatory frameworks leave ambiguities or gaps that elevate project risk for private companies considering carbon sequestration projects, and/or are insufficient to address a government’s mandate to protect the public interest. We have compared the various approaches that United States’ state and federal governments have taken to provide regulatory frameworks to address carbon sequestration. A major purpose of our work is to inform the development of any future legislation in California, should it be deemed necessary to meet the goals of Assembly Bill 1925 (2006) to accelerate the adoption of cost-effective geologic sequestration strategies for the long-term management of industrial carbon dioxide in the state. Our analysis shows a diverse issues are covered by adopted and proposed carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) legislation and that many of the new laws focus on defining regulatory frameworks for underground injection of CO2, ambiguities in property issues, or assigning legal liability. While these approaches may enable the progress of early projects, future legislation requires a longer term and broader view that includes a quantified integration of CCS into a government’s overall climate change mitigation strategy while considering potentially counterproductive impacts on CCS of other climate change mitigation strategies. Furthermore, legislation should be crafted in the context of a vision for CCS as an economically viable and widespread industry. While an important function of new CCS legislation is enabling early projects, it must be kept in mind that applying the same laws or protocols in the future to a widespread CCS industry may result in business disincentives and compromise of the public interest in mitigating GHG emissions. Protection of the

  13. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Policy and the Pursuit of Renewable Energy Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Oteri, F.; Tegen, S.; Doris, E.

    2010-02-01

    Future manufacturing of renewable energy equipment in the United States provides economic development opportunities for state and local communities. However, demand for the equipment is finite, and opportunities are limited. U.S. demand is estimated to drive total annual investments in renewable energy equipment to $14-$20 billion by 2030. Evidence from leading states in renewable energy manufacturing suggests that economic development strategies that target renewable energy sector needs by adapting existing policies attract renewable energy manufacturing more than strategies that create new policies. Literature suggests that the states that are most able to attract direct investment and promote sustained economic development can leverage diverse sets of durable assets--like human capital and modern infrastructure--as well as low barriers to market entry. State marketing strategies for acquiring renewable energy manufacturers are likely best served by an approach that: (1) is multi-faceted and long-term, (2) fits within existing broad-based economic development strategies, (3) includes specific components such as support for renewable energy markets and low barriers to renewable energy deployment, and (4) involves increased differentiation by leveraging existing assets when applicable.

  14. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA). State Policy and the Pursuit of Renewable Energy Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, Eric; Oteri, Frank; Tegen, Suzanne; Doris, Elizabeth

    2010-02-01

    Future manufacturing of renewable energy equipment in the United States provides economic development opportunities for state and local communities. However, demand for the equipment is finite, and opportunities are limited. U.S. demand is estimated to drive total annual investments in renewable energy equipment to $14-$20 billion by 2030. Evidence from leading states in renewable energy manufacturing suggests that economic development strategies that target renewable energy sector needs by adapting existing policies attract renewable energy manufacturing more than strategies that create new policies. Literature suggests that the states that are most able to attract direct investment and promote sustained economic development can leverage diverse sets of durable assets—like human capital and modern infrastructure–as well as low barriers to market entry. State marketing strategies for acquiring renewable energy manufacturers are likely best served by an approach that: (1) is multi-faceted and long-term, (2) fits within existing broad-based economic development strategies, (3) includes specific components such as support for renewable energy markets and low barriers to renewable energy deployment, and (4) involves increased differentiation by leveraging existing assets when applicable.

  15. A Critical Analysis of Collegiate Licensing Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Richard L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A review of the literature and a survey of 98 collegiate licensing programs and 6 sport licensing programs were used to develop an optimal administrative model for collegiate licensing. Specific administrative recommendations concerning staffing, inventory, trademarks, written policies, exclusivity, innovative agreements, product samples,…

  16. Intercultural Education? An Analysis of Cypriot Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajisoteriou, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the context of Cyprus' accession to the European Union (2004) and a noteworthy increase in immigration towards Cyprus, the Cypriot state was called upon to build more complete and coherent policies addressing culturally diverse educational settings. Cypriot education has historically enforced the nation-building project. However,…

  17. The Effects of Gratz and Grutter: A Public Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattox, Kari Ann

    2009-01-01

    Despite the precedent established in the "University of California Board of Regents v. Bakke," that race may be used as a factor in admissions policies at state institutions of higher education, state and federal court decisions were divided over whether the use of race in admissions decisions was a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the…

  18. Defining Quality Education: An Analysis of State Educational Policy Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Kenneth H.

    Current public demands for increased educational quality can best be met at the state education agency (SEA) level, but the SEA is faced with the fact that no single, clearly acceptable definition of educational quality exists. As a result of this lack of consensus, the SEA must examine the policy options available before taking action. First,…

  19. Tools for Education Policy Analysis [with CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingat, Alain; Tan, Jee-Peng

    This manual contains a set of tools to assist policymakers in analyzing and revamping educational policy. Its main focus is on some economic and financial aspects of education and selected features in the arrangements for service delivery. Originally offered as a series of training workshops for World Bank staff to work with clients in the…

  20. Federal Policy toward Youth Employment: An Historical and Political Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, James L.

    The development of Federal policies affecting youth employment has gone through five critical periods during the 20th century. The period began with the failure of child labor reformers to obtain Federal intervention in youth labor markets. The New Deal greatly enhanced a reversal of the trend. Development of the Great Society programs provided an…

  1. Suicide Prevention in Schools. A Center Policy Issues Analysis Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Policy makers remain in conflict over whether schools should play a institutionalized role in preventing student suicide. This brief highlights two other major related questions that are at issue: (1) Does suicide education stigmatize some students and increase that risk of suicide ideation? and (2) Should schools be involved in monitoring…

  2. Diversity Education Goals in Higher Education: A Policy Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Stuart Glen

    2013-01-01

    Many colleges and universities have established student learning outcomes for diversity education as a part of their broad undergraduate education program. These education goals, developed for assessment purposes or other policies, reflect a range of possible diversity and multicultural learning purposes. The emphasis on some purposes, and the…

  3. Welfare Reform at 15 and the State of Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpare, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and…

  4. Classical Stasis Theory and the Analysis of Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Gary Layne

    In classical Greece, there was a close tie between rhetoric and the practice and theory of public policy. Gradually, however, rhetoric became increasingly concerned with style and literary criticism, while philosophers began to debate political issues apart from the practical affairs of the polis. Because rhetoric provides a model that can still…

  5. Case Study: Using Geographic Information Systems for Education Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvenon, Sean W.; Wang, Kening; McKenzie, Sarah; Airola, Denise

    2006-01-01

    Effective exploration of spatially referenced educational achievement data can help educational researchers and policy analysts accelerate interpretation of datasets to gain valuable insights. This paper illustrates the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to analyze educational achievement gaps in Arkansas. It introduces the Geographic…

  6. Analysis of Access Control Policies in Operating Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Operating systems rely heavily on access control mechanisms to achieve security goals and defend against remote and local attacks. The complexities of modern access control mechanisms and the scale of policy configurations are often overwhelming to system administrators and software developers. Therefore, mis-configurations are common, and the…

  7. A Social Foundations Approach to Educational Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, David E.

    Educators hold varied opinions about the nature of the social foundations of education. The social-foundations perspective generally characterizes education as an integrated multidisciplinary approach to the study of education, which focuses on the relationship among social conditions, values, and educational policies. This paper supports the…

  8. A review of the technology and process on integrated circuits failure analysis applied in communications products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Zhimao; Ling, Xiaodong; Bai, Xiaoshu; Zong, Bo

    2016-02-01

    The failure analysis of integrated circuits plays a very important role in the improvement of the reliability in communications products. This paper intends to mainly introduce the failure analysis technology and process of integrated circuits applied in the communication products. There are many technologies for failure analysis, include optical microscopic analysis, infrared microscopic analysis, acoustic microscopy analysis, liquid crystal hot spot detection technology, optical microscopic analysis technology, micro analysis technology, electrical measurement, microprobe technology, chemical etching technology and ion etching technology. The integrated circuit failure analysis depends on the accurate confirmation and analysis of chip failure mode, the search of the root failure cause, the summary of failure mechanism and the implement of the improvement measures. Through the failure analysis, the reliability of integrated circuit and rate of good products can improve.

  9. Free space optical communications through clouds: analysis of signal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Binbin; Hajjarian, Zeinab; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2008-06-10

    Free space optical communications (FSOC) is a method by which one transmits a modulated beam of light through the atmosphere for broadband applications. Fundamental limitations of FSOC arise from the environment through which light propagates. This work addresses transmitted light beam dispersion (spatial, angular, and temporal dispersion) in FSOC operating as a ground-to-air link when clouds exist along the communications channel. Light signals (photons) transmitted through clouds will interact with the cloud particles. Photon-particle interaction causes dispersion of light signals, which has significant effects on signal attenuation and pulse spread. The correlation between spatial and angular dispersion is investigated as well, which plays an important role on the receiver design. Moreover, the paper indicates that temporal dispersion (pulse spread) and energy loss strongly depend on the aperture size of the receiver, the field-of-view (FOV), and the position of the receiver relative to the optical axis of the transmitter. PMID:18545290

  10. Hall Thruster Impact Analysis on Digital Satellite Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuniga, C. D.; Hallock, G. A.; Wiley, J. C.; Meyer, J. W.; Loane, J. T.

    2002-11-01

    Hall Thrusters will be used for stationkeeping of geosynchronous communications satellites. These thrusters produce an inhomogeneous plasma plume which may interfere with communications signals (1-20 GHz) to and from the satellite. The plume's effects include beam-pointing error, beam attenuation, and spectral modulation [1]. Many systems digitally modulate an RF carrier and use coherent detection methods. The plasma may degrade the performance of these systems by diminishing the SNR at the receiver by squinting the beam away and degrading the synchronization by phase modulating the signal. We simulate a receiver whose input signals have been corrupted by the plasma plume. These modified input signals are formed by using the results of a previously developed ray tracing code [1]. We will present performance measures including bit-error rates and link availability. * Work supported by Lockheed Martin Corp. and the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. [1] Hallock et al, J. Spacecraft and Rockets V. 39 No 1 pp 115-124

  11. Analysis of NASA communications (Nascom) II network protocols and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom II (NII) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System, and other projects. NII is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The authors describe various baseline protocol architectures based on current and evolving technologies. They address the internetworking issues suggested for reliable transfer of data over heterogeneous segments. They also describe the NII architecture, topology, system components, and services. A comparative evaluation of the current and evolving technologies was made, and suggestions for further study are described. It is shown that the direction of the NII configuration and the subsystem component design will clearly depend on the advances made in the area of broadband integrated services.

  12. A general analysis of anti-jam communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omura, J. K.; Levitt, B. K.

    1981-01-01

    A general error bound is derived for a general anti-jam communication system which will serve as the basis for evaluating the performance of all such complex communication systems. The two most common spread spectrum techniques, coherent DS/BPSK and noncoherent FH/MFSK, are analyzed. Pulse jamming represents the worst type of jammer for DS/BPSK systems, and several receiver structures against such a jammer are examined. It is found that for low values of chip energy-to-noise ratios of O dB or less there is little difference between having or not having jammer state knowledge with a hard decision receiver. Soft decision receivers are shown to be useless against very narrow pulses without jammer state knowledge. Partial band jammers are close to the worst case jammer for FH/MFSK systems. The conclusions found for these systems are similar to those for the DS/BPSK systems.

  13. Modeling and Analysis of Mobility Management in Mobile Communication Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ji Hyun; Kim, Chesoong

    2014-01-01

    Many strategies have been proposed to reduce the mobility management cost in mobile communication networks. This paper studies the zone-based registration methods that have been adopted by most mobile communication networks. We focus on two special zone-based registration methods, called two-zone registration (2Z) and two-zone registration with implicit registration by outgoing calls (2Zi). We provide a new mathematical model to analyze the exact performance of 2Z and 2Zi. We also present various numerical results, to compare the performance of 2Zi with those of 2Z and one-zone registration (1Z), and show that 2Zi is superior to 2Z as well as 1Z in most cases. PMID:24883368

  14. An analysis of communication in conversation in patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Rousseaux, Marc; Sève, Amandine; Vallet, Marion; Pasquier, Florence; Mackowiak-Cordoliani, Marie Anne

    2010-11-01

    Patients with degenerative dementia often show language disorders, but little is known about their verbal (VC) and non-verbal communication (NVC). Our aim was to analyse VC and NVC in patients with standard criteria of mild-moderately severe dementia (MMSE ≥14/30) resulting from Alzheimer's disease (AD; 29 cases), behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (FTD; 16), or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; 13). We used the Lille Communication Test, which addresses three domains: participation in communication (PC: greeting, attention, participation), VC (verbal comprehension, speech outflow, intelligibility, word production, syntax, verbal pragmatics and verbal feedback), and NVC (understanding gestures, affective expressivity, producing gestures, pragmatics and feedback). Patients were compared with 47 matching control subjects. AD patients were partially impaired (p≤0.01) in PC (greeting), and more definitely in VC, especially by verbal comprehension and word finding difficulties and to a much lesser degree in verbal pragmatics (responding to open questions, presenting new information), while NVC was mostly preserved. FTD patients were severely impaired in PC. VC difficulties were related to lexical-semantic, syntactic and more specifically pragmatic problems. NVC was impaired by difficulties in affective expressivity, pragmatics and feedback management. DLB patients showed modest difficulties with VC. PC, VC and NVC strongly correlated with performance in the dementia rating scale. In conclusion, the profile of communication difficulties was quite different between groups. FTD patients showed most severe difficulties in PC and verbal and non-verbal pragmatics, in relation to their frontal lesions. AD patients had prominent impairment of lexical-semantic operations. PMID:20888846

  15. Women’s Social Communication About IUDs: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Nora; Steinauer, Jody; Valente, Thomas; Koblentz, Jenna; Dehlendorf, Christine

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT Few U.S. women use an IUD, despite the method’s efficacy and ease of use. While studies have found that misconceptions about IUDs are prevalent, few have examined the influence of women’s social networks on perceptions of the method. METHODS Twenty-four interviews and three focus groups (comprising 14 participants) were conducted in 2013 with a diverse sample of women aged 15–45 recruited from family planning clinics and the community in San Francisco. Half of participants had used IUDs. Women were asked about their social communication concerning contraceptives, particularly IUDs, and about the content of the information they had received or given. Transcripts were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach to identify themes of interest. RESULTS Women reported that communication with female friends and family members was a valued means of obtaining information about contraceptives, and that negative information (which often was incorrect) was more prevalent and memorable than positive information in such communication. Women heard about negative experiences with IUDs from social contacts and television commercials; clinicians were a major source of positive information. Women who had never used IUDs expressed interest in learning about potential side effects and how IUDs feel, while users reported emphasizing to friends and family the method’s efficacy and ease of use. CONCLUSIONS Misinformation and negative information about IUDs are prevalent in social communication, and the information transmitted through social networks differs from the information never-users wish to receive. Findings support the creation of peer-led interventions to encourage IUD users to share positive personal experiences and evidence-based information. PMID:24894575

  16. Space-to-Ground Communication for Columbus: A Quantitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Uhlig, Thomas; Mannel, Thurid; Fortunato, Antonio; Illmer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The astronauts on board the International Space Station (ISS) are only the most visible part of a much larger team engaged around the clock in the performance of science and technical activities in space. The bulk of such team is scattered around the globe in five major Mission Control Centers (MCCs), as well as in a number of smaller payload operations centres. Communication between the crew in space and the flight controllers at those locations is an essential element and one of the key drivers to efficient space operations. Such communication can be carried out in different forms, depending on available technical assets and the selected operational approach for the activity at hand. This paper focuses on operational voice communication and provides a quantitative overview of the balance achieved in the Columbus program between collaborative space/ground operations and autonomous on-board activity execution. An interpretation of the current situation is provided, together with a description of potential future approaches for deep space exploration missions. PMID:26290898

  17. Space-to-Ground Communication for Columbus: A Quantitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Thomas; Mannel, Thurid; Fortunato, Antonio; Illmer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The astronauts on board the International Space Station (ISS) are only the most visible part of a much larger team engaged around the clock in the performance of science and technical activities in space. The bulk of such team is scattered around the globe in five major Mission Control Centers (MCCs), as well as in a number of smaller payload operations centres. Communication between the crew in space and the flight controllers at those locations is an essential element and one of the key drivers to efficient space operations. Such communication can be carried out in different forms, depending on available technical assets and the selected operational approach for the activity at hand. This paper focuses on operational voice communication and provides a quantitative overview of the balance achieved in the Columbus program between collaborative space/ground operations and autonomous on-board activity execution. An interpretation of the current situation is provided, together with a description of potential future approaches for deep space exploration missions. PMID:26290898

  18. Adolescent Sexual Health Communication and Condom Use: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Widman, Laura; Noar, Seth M.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Francis, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Objective Condom use is critical for the health of sexually active adolescents, and yet many adolescents fail to use condoms consistently. One interpersonal factor that may be key to condom use is sexual communication between sexual partners; however, the association between communication and condom use has varied considerably in prior studies of youth. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the growing body of research linking adolescents’ sexual communication to condom use, and to examine several moderators of this association. Methods A total of 41 independent effect sizes from 34 studies with 15,046 adolescent participants (Mage=16.8, age range=12–23) were meta-analyzed. Results Results revealed a weighted mean effect size of the sexual communication-condom use relationship of r = .24, which was statistically heterogeneous (Q=618.86, p<.001, I2 =93.54). Effect sizes did not differ significantly by gender, age, recruitment setting, country of study, or condom measurement timeframe; however, communication topic and communication format were statistically significant moderators (p<.001). Larger effect sizes were found for communication about condom use (r = .34) than communication about sexual history (r = .15) or general safer sex topics (r = .14). Effect sizes were also larger for communication behavior formats (r = .27) and self-efficacy formats (r = .28), than for fear/concern (r = .18), future intention (r = .15), or communication comfort (r = −.15) formats. Conclusions Results highlight the urgency of emphasizing communication skills, particularly about condom use, in HIV/STI prevention work for youth. Implications for the future study of sexual communication are discussed. PMID:25133828

  19. Mediatisation or PR-ization of Public--Media Communication--Analysis of Mediated Communication of Zoran Milanović.

    PubMed

    Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

    2015-12-01

    Politicians and their public relations advisors depend on the mass communication media to transmit messages dailyand communicate effectively. The development of the mass media, from traditional to new, has changed the working conditions of these professions where one inevitably affects the other. Consequently, the way of formatting information in the newshas changed, along with the way of monitoring the political developments and informs the public on political activities. Amajor role in this process, over and above the political actors, has advisers for public relations, who choose moments andevents to publicise (PR-ization). With the increasing influence of public relations to media reports, politics also changes thepicture of the media and the impact on media coverage. Similarly, the impact on the manner in which the media reportprocess, what topics will be discussed topics and what tone the given information will have. We are living in a world characterized by mediation (Mazzoleni and Schulz, 1999) of the politics and the society as a whole, because politics and publicrelations necessarily need the media to communicate with their audiences. In this regard, we can talk about PR-izationmedia as the fundamental role of public relations practitioners affect attitudes, which skillfully make careful design ofmessages and events that are not included herein are the three professions each other should one without the other does notmake sense. This paper will focus on the influence of the media on politics and on influence of the public relations as profession in the content media perception. In view of the drawn by daily public appearances of Prime Minister, Zoran Milanovi6,and as says Lali63 few politics-related phenomena have over the past twenty years engaged so many reviews by experts andscholars as the Prime Minister's rhetoric. The particular form of the political communication will be reviewed in this paper.Through the interviews and the content analysis of key

  20. Applying Transactional Analysis and Personality Assessment to Improve Patient Counseling and Communication Skills

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Lesa

    2007-01-01

    Objective To teach pharmacy students how to apply transactional analysis and personality assessment to patient counseling to improve communication. Design A lecture series for a required pharmacy communications class was developed to teach pharmacy students how to apply transactional analysis and personality assessment to patient counseling. Students were asked to apply these techniques and to report their experiences. A personality self-assessment was also conducted. Assessment After attending the lecture series, students were able to apply the techniques and demonstrated an understanding of the psychological factors that may affect patient communication, an appreciation for the diversity created by different personality types, the ability to engage patients based on adult-to-adult interaction cues, and the ability to adapt the interactive patient counseling model to different personality traits. Conclusion Students gained a greater awareness of transactional analysis and personality assessment by applying these concepts. This understanding will help students communicate more effectively with patients. PMID:17786269

  1. Prospective policy analysis: how an epistemic community informed policymaking on intentional self poisoning in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Policy analysis is often retrospective and not well suited to helping policy makers decide what to do; in contrast prospective policy analysis seeks to assist in formulating responses to challenging public policy questions. Suicide in Sri Lanka is a major public health problem, with ingestion of pesticides being the primary method. Previous policy interventions have been associated with reduced mortality through restricting access to the most toxic pesticides. Additional means of reducing access are still needed. Methods The prospective policy analysis comprised two stages. The first used a consensus activity within a well defined policy community to generate and frame policy options. The second broadened the analysis to include other stakeholders. We report the consensus activity with seven actors from agriculture, health, and academia. Policy options were identified through two rounds of discussion along with ratings by each participant on their degree of support for each option. Data were analysed quantitatively and discussions analysed with Nvivo 8 to code prominent and recurrent themes. Results The main finding was the strong support and consensus for two proposals: further regulation of pesticides and the novel idea of repackaging pesticides into non-lethal doses. Participants identified several factors that were supportive of future policy change including a strong legislative framework, good links between agriculture, health and academia, and a collaborative relationship with industry. Identified barriers and potential threats to policy change included political interference, difficulties of intersectoral collaboration, acceptability of options to the community, difficulty of implementation in rural communities and the challenge of reducing mortality. Conclusions The development and consideration of policy options within this epistemic community reflected an appreciation and understanding of many of the factors that can facilitate or thwart

  2. Analysis of International Policies In The Solar Electricity Sector: Lessons for India

    SciTech Connect

    Deshmukh, Ranjit; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Gambhir, Ashwin; Phadke, Amol

    2011-08-10

    Although solar costs are dropping rapidly, solar power is still more expensive than conventional and other renewable energy options. The solar sector still needs continuing government policy support. These policies are driven by objectives that go beyond the goal of achieving grid parity. The need to achieve multiple objectives and ensure sufficient political support for solar power makes it diffi cult for policy makers to design the optimal solar power policy. The dynamic and uncertain nature of the solar industry, combined with the constraints offered by broader economic, political and social conditions further complicates the task of policy making. This report presents an analysis of solar promotion policies in seven countries - Germany, Spain, the United States, Japan, China, Taiwan, and India - in terms of their outlook, objectives, policy mechanisms and outcomes. The report presents key insights, primarily in qualitative terms, and recommendations for two distinct audiences. The first audience consists of global policy makers who are exploring various mechanisms to increase the penetration of solar power in markets to mitigate climate change. The second audience consists of key Indian policy makers who are developing a long-term implementation plan under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission and various state initiatives.

  3. International Commercial Remote Sensing Practices and Policies: A Comparative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryker, Timothy

    In recent years, there has been much discussion about U.S. commercial remoteUnder the Act, the Secretary of Commerce sensing policies and how effectively theylicenses the operations of private U.S. address U.S. national security, foreignremote sensing satellite systems, in policy, commercial, and public interests.consultation with the Secretaries of Defense, This paper will provide an overview of U.S.State, and Interior. PDD-23 provided further commercial remote sensing laws,details concerning the operation of advanced regulations, and policies, and describe recentsystems, as well as criteria for the export of NOAA initiatives. It will also addressturnkey systems and/or components. In July related foreign practices, and the overall2000, pursuant to the authority delegated to legal context for trade and investment in thisit by the Secretary of Commerce, NOAA critical industry.iss ued new regulations for the industry. Licensing and Regulationsatellite systems. NOAA's program is The 1992 Land Remote Sensing Policy Act ("the Act"), and the 1994 policy on Foreign Access to Remote Sensing Space Capabilities (known as Presidential Decision Directive-23, or PDD-23) put into place an ambitious legal and policy framework for the U.S. Government's licensing of privately-owned, high-resolution satellite systems. Previously, capabilities afforded national security and observes the international obligations of the United States; maintain positive control of spacecraft operations; maintain a tasking record in conjunction with other record-keeping requirements; provide U.S. Government access to and use of data when required for national security or foreign policy purposes; provide for U.S. Government review of all significant foreign agreements; obtain U.S. Government approval for any encryption devices used; make available unenhanced data to a "sensed state" as soon as such data are available and on reasonable cost terms and conditions; make available unenhanced data as requested

  4. Policy Analysis: An Analysis of Institutional Admissions and State Policies in Higher Education as They Impact Undocumented Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Arcadio J., III

    2013-01-01

    The term residency and definition of that term is the driving force that acts as the foundation of many, if not all, state funded college and university admissions policies. With over 65,000 undocumented students graduating from American high schools every year, it is essential that state colleges and universities look at their admissions policies…

  5. Historical analysis of SO2 pollution control policies in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Cailing; Yin, Huaqiang; Ai, Nanshan; Huang, Zhengwen

    2009-03-01

    Coal is not only an important energy source in China but also a major source of air pollution. Because of this, China's national sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emissions have been the highest in the world for many years, and since the 1990s, the territory of China's south and southwest has become the third largest acid-rain-prone region in the world. In order to control SO(2) emissions, the Chinese government has formulated and promulgated a series of policies and regulations, but it faces great difficulties in putting them into practice. In this retrospective look at the history of SO(2) control in China, we found that Chinese SO(2) control policies have become increasingly strict and rigid. We also found that the environmental policies and regulations are more effective when central officials consistently give environmental protection top priority. Achieving China's environmental goals, however, has been made difficult by China's economic growth. Part of this is due to the practice of environmental protection appearing in the form of an ideological "campaign" or "storm" that lacks effective economic measures. More recently, better enforcement of environmental laws and regulations has been achieved by adding environmental quality to the performance assessment metrics for leaders at all levels. To continue making advances, China needs to reinforce the economic and environmental assessments for pollution control projects and work harder to integrate economic measures into environmental protection. Nonetheless, China has a long way to go before economic growth and environmental protection are balanced. PMID:19159968

  6. Risk analysis and safety policy developments in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bottelberghs, P H

    2000-01-01

    In the Netherlands, external safety policy has been developed and implemented since the early eighties on the basis of a risk-based approach involving quantitative criteria for the tolerability of risk. Good experiences have been gained with the risk policy that applies to some 4000 establishments in the Netherlands where hazardous substances are present. On the basis of these experiences, legislation is now being prepared to give the risk tolerability criteria a full legal basis. This is aimed, in particular, to balance between risk control measures at the source through the licensing system, and spatial planning instruments to protect, e.g. residential areas against major hazards. The revision of the Seveso directive (96/82/EC) leads to the implementation of an integrated form of safety reporting, evaluation and inspection. Practical tools were developed for this implementation, e.g. for facilitating the selection of establishments and for assessing risks from major hazard establishments to surface water. In the past few years, the application of risk-based safety policy has been extended to other fields than establishments, e.g. for transport of hazardous chemicals and external safety of airports. PMID:10677654

  7. Communication Policy at the Chalk Face in Scotland and Jamaica: Complexity as a New Paradigm for Understanding Language Policy Interpretation and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Beth

    2003-01-01

    Examples from upper primary classrooms in Scotland and Jamaica demonstrate the subtle ways in which teachers support or restrict the classroom use of community languages (Scots and Patwa) through their broad or narrow implementation of language policy. The metaphor of fractals, derived from complexity theory, can form a sensitive and appropriate…

  8. Performance analysis of the FAVR meteor burst communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sheldon S. L.

    The feedback adaptive variable-bit-rate system is a means of maximizing the throughput and minimizing the waiting time of a meteor-burst communication channel. It is shown that high reliability in automatic bit-rate identification can be realized with a small reduction in throughput as compared with an ideal variable bit-rate system. It is concluded that high throughput is achieved because the signal power is most effectively utilized and there is no overhead for conveying the bit-rate information. The system provides minimum waiting time because it makes use of weak bursts as well as strong bursts.

  9. Analysis of the Uniform Accident And Sickness Policy Provision Law: lessons for social work practice, policy, and research.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The Uniform Accident and Sickness Policy Provision Law (UPPL) is a state statute that allows insurance companies in 26 states to deny claims for accidents and injuries incurred by persons under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Serious repercussions can result for patients and health care professionals as states enforce this law. To examine differences within the laws that might facilitate amendments or reduce insurance companies' ability to deny claims, a content analysis was carried out of each state's UPPL law. Results showed no meaningful differences between each state's laws. These results indicate patients and health professionals share similar risk related to the UPPL regardless of state. PMID:20711944

  10. Application analysis and communication aspects for future multimedia architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de With, Peter H. N.; Jaspers, Egbert G. T.; Mietens, Stephan

    2004-11-01

    A principal challenge for reducing the cost of complex systems-on-chip is to pursue more generic systems for a broad range of products. For this purpose, we explore three new architectural concepts for state-of-the-art video applications. First, we discuss a reusable scalable hardware architecture employing a hierarchical communication network fitting with the natural hierarchy of the application. In a case study, we show that MPEG streaming in DTV occurs at high level, while subsystems communicate at lower levels. The second concept is a software design that scales over a number of processors to enable reuse over a range of VLSI process technologies. We explore this via an H.264 decoder implementation that scales nearly linearly over up to eight processors by applying data partitioning. The third concept is resource-scalability, which is required to satisfy real-time constraints in a system with a high amount of shared resources. An example complexity-scalable MPEG-2 encoder scales the required cycle budget with a factor of three, in parallel with a smooth degradation of quality.

  11. Analysis of different communication channels for promoting hygiene behaviour.

    PubMed

    Pinfold, J V

    1999-10-01

    A hygiene intervention study reduced diarrhoeal disease transmission in rural northeast Thailand by promoting hand-washing and dish-washing behaviour. Most of the target audience did not recognize a connection between these behaviours and diarrhoeal disease, and therefore a social marketing approach was used to develop a campaign promoting behaviours through a variety of communication channels keeping messages simple and in terms understood by the community. Overall, there was a strong correlation between the number of communication channels remembered by respondents and their knowledge score, with passive channels of printed media such as stickers, posters and leaflets associated with significantly higher scores than other channels. However, the same did not hold true for improvement in actual behaviour and only 'school children' were associated with significantly less fingertip contamination. In-depth interviews with conformers and non-conformers suggested that although most knew the intervention messages well enough, the importance they attached to them differed markedly. Thus dissemination of message knowledge was not consistent with the process of dissemination of actual practice. Where a strong sense of community spirit existed, friends, relatives and neighbours were more likely to discuss intervention activities with each other. PMID:10510071

  12. Communication Analysis focusing Negative Utterances in Combinatorial Thinking Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, Yoko; Ohsawa, Yukio

    We have developed a table game named Innovation Game that supports users in thinking up ideas by combining existing products. There are two kinds of players in the Innovation Game, innovators and investors. While the innovators think up ideas and propose them, the investors criticize the ideas and make decisions whether they invest money to the ideas or not. In the Innovation Game, the innovators do not only propose ideas, but also improve the ideas reflecting comments from investors that represent negative impression to the ideas. Although it has been considered that ideas invested much money might be related to negative comments from investors, the relation has not been validated. We analyzed the communications in the Innovation Game. We have found features of communication in which ideas were invested much money. After a proposal of idea by a innovator, investors give negative comments to the innovator. The innovator accepts the negative comments with positive comments and improve their ideas. Finally, the investors satisfy the idea with positive comments and invest much money to them.

  13. Analysis of adaptive algorithms for an integrated communication network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Daniel A.; Barr, Matthew; Chong-Kwon, Kim

    1985-01-01

    Techniques were examined that trade communication bandwidth for decreased transmission delays. When the network is lightly used, these schemes attempt to use additional network resources to decrease communication delays. As the network utilization rises, the schemes degrade gracefully, still providing service but with minimal use of the network. Because the schemes use a combination of circuit and packet switching, they should respond to variations in the types and amounts of network traffic. Also, a combination of circuit and packet switching to support the widely varying traffic demands imposed on an integrated network was investigated. The packet switched component is best suited to bursty traffic where some delays in delivery are acceptable. The circuit switched component is reserved for traffic that must meet real time constraints. Selected packet routing algorithms that might be used in an integrated network were simulated. An integrated traffic places widely varying workload demands on a network. Adaptive algorithms were identified, ones that respond to both the transient and evolutionary changes that arise in integrated networks. A new algorithm was developed, hybrid weighted routing, that adapts to workload changes.

  14. Historical Analysis of SO2 Pollution Control Policies in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Cailing; Yin, Huaqiang; Ai, Nanshan; Huang, Zhengwen

    2009-03-01

    Coal is not only an important energy source in China but also a major source of air pollution. Because of this, China’s national sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have been the highest in the world for many years, and since the 1990s, the territory of China’s south and southwest has become the third largest acid-rain-prone region in the world. In order to control SO2 emissions, the Chinese government has formulated and promulgated a series of policies and regulations, but it faces great difficulties in putting them into practice. In this retrospective look at the history of SO2 control in China, we found that Chinese SO2 control policies have become increasingly strict and rigid. We also found that the environmental policies and regulations are more effective when central officials consistently give environmental protection top priority. Achieving China’s environmental goals, however, has been made difficult by China’s economic growth. Part of this is due to the practice of environmental protection appearing in the form of an ideological “campaign” or “storm” that lacks effective economic measures. More recently, better enforcement of environmental laws and regulations has been achieved by adding environmental quality to the performance assessment metrics for leaders at all levels. To continue making advances, China needs to reinforce the economic and environmental assessments for pollution control projects and work harder to integrate economic measures into environmental protection. Nonetheless, China has a long way to go before economic growth and environmental protection are balanced.

  15. Psychometric Analysis of the Emotional Tone Rating Scale: A Measure of Person-Centered Communication

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristine N.; Boyle, Diane K.; Herman, Ruth E.; Coleman, Carissa K.; Hummert, Mary Lee

    2013-01-01

    Psychometric analysis of the Emotional Tone Rating Scale (ETRS) was completed using ratings of naïve listeners who evaluated staff-resident communication in three nursing homes. Interrater consistency was high with ICC (2, 1) for agreement = 0.95 and consistency = 0.95. Factor analysis revealed two factors—person-centered communication and controlling communication—that explained 84.8% of the variance. Person-centered communication included seven descriptors (items) with loadings ranging from 0.84 to 0.98 and a coefficient alpha of 0.98. Controlling communication included five items that loaded from −0.63 to .99 with a coefficient alpha of 0.94. These factors were negatively correlated p = −.64 and demonstrated good ranges, standard deviations, and high item-total correlations. Person-centered communication correlated with higher resident engagement in conversation in contrast to controlling communication. The ETRS provides a measure of person-centered communication that can be used to evaluate interactions between nursing staff and older adults who reside in long term care settings. PMID:23519545

  16. Mapping science communication scholarship in China: Content analysis on breadth, depth and agenda of published research.

    PubMed

    Xu, Linjia; Huang, Biaowen; Wu, Guosheng

    2015-11-01

    This study attempted to illuminate the cause and relation between government, scholars, disciplines, and societal aspects, presenting data from a content analysis of published research with the key word "science communication" (Symbol: see text) in the title or in the key words, including academic papers published in journals and dissertations from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database. Of these, 572 articles were coded using categories that identified science topics, theory, authorship, and methods used in each study to examine the breadth and depth that Science Communication has achieved since its inception in China. This study explored the dominance of History and Philosophy of Science scholars rather than Communication scholars. We also explored how science communication research began from theories and concepts instead of science report analysis and the difficulties of the shift from public understanding of science to public engagement in China. PMID:26328595

  17. Security Policy Configuration Analysis for Web Services on Heterogeneous Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongbin, Ji; Fengyu, Zhao; Tao, Xu

    With the rapid development of web services, message security of web services between heterogeneous platforms is increasingly prominent. As two popular web services platforms, Apache Axis2 and Microsoft .Net, have their own security module respectively (Rampart, WSE). Due to differences in platform security mechanisms, it is difficult to build a secure web services communications between different platforms. This paper firstly introduces the Apache Axis2 and. Net platforms, and then analyzes their differences of security mechanism on these two platforms. Finally, followed by a typical secure case, a series of steps are designed and tested in order to realize secure web service invocation on heterogeneous platforms.

  18. Food security and nutrition in the Russian Federation – a health policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lunze, Karsten; Yurasova, Elena; Idrisov, Bulat; Gnatienko, Natalia; Migliorini, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background In the Russian Federation (Russia), an elevated burden of premature mortality attributable to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has been observed since the country's economic transition. NCDs are largely related to preventable risk factors such as unhealthy diets. Objective This health policy study's aim was to analyze past and current food production and nutritional trends in Russia and their policy implications for Russia's NCD burden. Design We examined food security and nutrition in Russia using an analytical framework of food availability, access to food, and consumption. Results Agricultural production declined during the period of economic transition, and nutritional habits changed from high-fat animal products to starches. However, per-capita energy consumption remained stable due to increased private expenditures on food and use of private land. Paradoxically, the prevalence of obesity still increased because of an excess consumption of unsaturated fat, sugar, and salt on one side, and insufficient intake of fruit and vegetables on the other. Conclusions Policy and economic reforms in Russia were not accompanied by a food security crisis or macronutrient deprivation of the population. Yet, unhealthy diets in contemporary Russia contribute to the burden of NCDs and related avoidable mortality. Food and nutrition policies in Russia need to specifically address nutritional shortcomings and food-insecure vulnerable populations. Appropriate, evidence-informed food and nutrition policies might help address Russia's burden of NCDs on a population level. PMID:26112143

  19. Preserving Respectability or Blatant Disrespect? A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Morehouse Appropriate Attire Policy and Implications for Intersectional Approaches to Examining Campus Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Lori D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I conduct a critical discourse analysis of the Morehouse College Appropriate Attire Policy and discuss how issues of race, gender, and sexuality converge to reveal both overt and hidden meanings embedded in the policy. I also consider how power is used towards "other" black college men who neither fit neatly into…

  20. Native American Language Education as Policy-in-Practice: An Interpretative Policy Analysis of the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warhol, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an interpretive policy analysis of the development and impacts of landmark federal legislation in support of Native American languages: the 1990/1992 Native American Languages Act (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of federal Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting…

  1. One stop crisis centres: A policy analysis of the Malaysian response to intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This article aims to investigate the processes, actors and other influencing factors behind the development and the national scale-up of the One Stop Crisis Centre (OSCC) policy and the subsequent health model for violence-response. Methods Methods used included policy analysis of legal, policy and regulatory framework documents, and in-depth interviews with key informants from governmental and non-governmental organisations in two States of Malaysia. Results The findings show that women's NGOs and health professionals were instrumental in the formulation and scaling-up of the OSCC policy. However, the subsequent breakdown of the NGO-health coalition negatively impacted on the long-term implementation of the policy, which lacked financial resources and clear policy guidance from the Ministry of Health. Conclusion The findings confirm that a clearly-defined partnership between NGOs and health staff can be very powerful for influencing the legal and policy environment in which health care services for intimate partner violence are developed. It is critical to gain high level support from the Ministry of Health in order to institutionalise the violence-response across the entire health care system. Without clear operational details and resources policy implementation cannot be fully ensured and taken to scale. PMID:21693029

  2. The Policy Formation Process: A Conceptual Framework for Analysis. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, E. F.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual framework for analysis which is intended to assist both the policy analyst and the policy researcher in their empirical investigations into policy phenomena is developed. It is meant to facilitate understanding of the policy formation process by focusing attention on the basic forces shaping the main features of policy formation as a dynamic social-political-organizational process. The primary contribution of the framework lies in its capability to suggest useful ways of looking at policy formation reality. It provides the analyst and the researcher with a group of indicators which suggest where to look and what to look for when attempting to analyze and understand the mix of forces which energize, maintain, and direct the operation of strategic level policy systems. The framework also highlights interconnections, linkage, and relational patterns between and among important variables. The framework offers an integrated set of conceptual tools which facilitate understanding of and research on the complex and dynamic set of variables which interact in any major strategic level policy formation process.

  3. Globalization, Edu-Business and Network Governance: The Policy Sociology of Stephen J. Ball and Rethinking Education Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam

    2013-01-01

    This paper traces developments across Stephen J. Ball's policy sociology in education "oeuvre" and considers their implications for doing research on education policy today. It begins with an account of his policy sociology trilogy from the 1990s, which outlined his conception of the policy cycle consisting of the contexts of…

  4. Policy Scientificity 3.0: Theory and Policy Analysis in-and-for This World and Other-Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor; Gulson, Kalervo N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the epistemologies and ontologies of education policy studies. Our aim is to posit a reinvigoration of policy studies to hedge against undue ossification and co-option of critical policy studies. We do so by arguing for the need to develop new concepts for policy studies using the "posts" (e.g., post-structuralism and…

  5. General-equilibrium analysis of U. S. energy policies

    SciTech Connect

    Goulder, L.H.

    1982-01-01

    This dissertation project involves the construction and application of a large-scale simulation model designed to assess the effects of changing energy conditions and policies on the U.S. economy. The simulation model differs from most other applied energy models in combining a fully integrated, general-equilibrium treatment of energy and non-energy markets with a significant amount of industry and consumer detail. The economic equilibria described by the model result from the interaction of consumers, producers, the government and the foreign sector. The model identifies twelve household groups according to income, and determines the behavior of each group according to homothetic utility functions defined over leisure, present consumption and future consumption. The model divides US industry into five energy and four non-energy sectors. The model represents the taxation, expenditure and production roles of government in detail. Foreign trade in goods as well as international capital flows are modelled; special attention is given to the investment in the US of surplus revenues enjoyed by the oil exporting countries. With this structure the model simulates energy-economy interactions over the period 1973 to 2001. A number of energy policies are also analyzed in terms of their impacts on economic growth, the composition of output, and the level and distribution of consumer welfare. A windfall profits tax is shown to have generally favorable effects on savings and investment and to benefit capital owners.

  6. Valuing Precaution in Climate Change Policy Analysis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change calls for stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations to prevent “dangerous anthropogenic interference” (DAI) with the global environment. This treaty language emphasizes a precautionary approach to climate change policy in a setting characterized by substantial uncertainty regarding the timing, magnitude, and impacts of climate change. In the economics of climate change, however, analysts often work with deterministic models that assign best-guess values to parameters that are highly uncertain. Such models support a “policy ramp” approach in which only limited steps should be taken to reduce the future growth of greenhouse gas emissions. This presentation will explore how uncertainties related to (a) climate sensitivity and (b) climate-change damages can be satisfactorily addressed in a coupled model of climate-economy dynamics. In this model, capping greenhouse gas concentrations at ~450 ppm of carbon dioxide equivalent provides substantial net benefits by reducing the risk of low-probability, catastrophic impacts. This result formalizes the intuition embodied in the DAI criterion in a manner consistent with rational decision-making under uncertainty.

  7. Social movement heterogeneity in public policy framing: A multi-stakeholder analysis of the Keystone XL pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesley, David T. A.

    In 2011, stakeholders with differing objectives formed an alliance to oppose the Keystone XL heavy oil pipeline. The alliance, which came to be known as "Tar Sands Action," implemented various strategies, some of which were more successful than others. Tar Sands Action was a largely heterogeneous alliance that included indigenous tribes, environmentalists, ranchers, landowners, and trade unions, making it one of the more diverse social movement organizations in history. Each of these stakeholder categories had distinct demographic structures, representing an array of racial, ethnic, educational, occupational, and political backgrounds. Participants also had differing policy objectives that included combating climate change and protecting jobs, agricultural interests, water resources, wildlife, and human health. The current dissertation examines the Tar Sands Action movement to understand how heterogeneous social movement organizations mobilize supporters, maintain alliances, and create effective frames to achieve policy objectives. A multi-stakeholder analysis of the development, evolution and communication of frames concerning the Keystone XL controversy provides insight into the role of alliances, direct action, and the news media in challenging hegemonic frames. Previous research has ignored the potential value that SMO heterogeneity provides by treating social movements as culturally homogenous. However, diversity has been shown to affect performance in business organizations. The current study demonstrates that under some circumstances, diversity can also improve policy outcomes. Moreover, policy frames are shown to be more effective in sustaining news media and public interest through a process the author calls dynamic frame sequencing (DFS). DFS refers to a process implementing different stakeholder frames at strategically opportune moments. Finally, Tar Sands Action was one of the first SMOs to rely heavily on social media to build alliances, disseminate

  8. Environmental cost-effectiveness analysis in intertemporal natural resource policy: evaluation of selective fishing gear.

    PubMed

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Vestergaard, Niels

    2013-12-15

    In most decision-making involving natural resources, the achievements of a given policy (e.g., improved ecosystem or biodiversity) are rather difficult to measure in monetary units. To address this problem, the current paper develops an environmental cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) to include intangible benefits in intertemporal natural resource problems. This approach can assist managers in prioritizing management actions as least cost solutions to achieve quantitative policy targets. The ECEA framework is applied to a selective gear policy case in Danish mixed trawl fisheries in Kattegat and Skagerrak. The empirical analysis demonstrates how a policy with large negative net benefits might be justified if the intangible benefits are included. PMID:24184529

  9. An analysis of communications blackout for Pioneer Venus entry probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grose, W. L.; Falanga, R. A.; Sutton, K.

    1975-01-01

    Estimates of the maximum duration of communications blackout are presented for a proposed Pioneer Venus mission involving a multiprobe entry targeted to individual impact sites. Calculations of the inviscid flow about the probes have been made using both finite-rate chemistry and equilibrium chemistry computer codes. Equilibrium boundary-layer calculations including ablation are also presented both with and without the presence of alkali metal contaminants from the heat shield. Methods are described for estimating maximum electron density in the inviscid wake and the recirculation region at the base of the probes. The results presented provide a conservative basis for planning for storage and subsequent telemetry of data during the entry phase of the mission.

  10. Negative reactions to depressive behaviors: a communication theories analysis.

    PubMed

    Segrin, C; Abramson, L Y

    1994-11-01

    Interpersonal aspects of depression have received considerable research attention in the past 2 decades. This work often has been guided by J. C. Coyne's (1976b) interactional model of depression or P. M. Lewinsohn's (1974) social skill deficit theory of depression. A review of this research indicates that depressed people reliably experience rejection from those in their social environment and that depression generally is associated with impairments in social behavior. However, this research does not explain exactly what depressed people do to elicit rejection, or exactly why others react negatively to them. Research derived from communication theories on responsiveness, politeness, and expectations for nonverbal involvement illuminates the interpersonal cycle in depression. The role of these impairments in the cause, symptoms, course, subtypes, and therapy of depression is discussed. PMID:7822566

  11. Analysis of data reliability and stability in HR-SDN communication module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Dong-Hee; Shin, Jin-Chul; Park, Hong-Seong

    2007-12-01

    Profibus is open industrial communication system for wide range of applications in manufacturing and process automation. In Profibus, FDL service use to need hard real-time system. In these systems required data reliability and stability and real-time feature. Profibus fieldbus networks used in many industrial fields because of it supports real-time industrial communication. So we analyze of data reliability and stabilization in profibus network. In this paper, there was to a station for communication which uses FDL from in the communication module which is used a data transfer possibility at once, and from communication period (ex. 10ms) it analyzed the system effect which it follows in transmission lag occurrence element and a data transfer error ratio it analyzed. Like this analytical result it led and there were from transmission for reliability and data stability they confirmed to HR-SDN communication modules and a guarantee yes or no. In this paper, we try to analysis of transmission delay ability for satisfaction data reliability and stability in specific system, which requested real-time feature. And, we analysis system reconstruction time and data delay time according to data/token packet loss. Packet-error occur physical layer in Profibus. As a result of above analysis, we propose method of enhancement of reliability in system which requested system reliability and stability. And, we confirm proposed method.

  12. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Ly Wane, Coudy Thierno

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children <5 years of age has been less than needed to achieve related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Therefore, several international agencies joined to 'Reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of the situational analysis are to compile, analyse and interpret available information on infant and child feeding and the nutrition situation of children <2 years of age in Senegal, as one of the six targeted countries. These findings will be used to assist in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between August and December 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Senegal were interviewed, and 157 documents were examined on the following themes: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, management of acute malnutrition, food security and hygienic practices. Nearly all of the key IYCN topics were addressed, specifically or generally, in national policy documents. Senegal reported substantial improvements since the 1990s towards reducing infant and young child mortality and underweight, and increasing exclusive breastfeeding among infants <6 months of age (34%). Senegal is one of the few countries in the region that is nearly on track for reaching related MDGs. Notable activities that may have played a role include: (1) vitamin A supplementation was expanded to nearly semi-annual national campaigns starting in 1994; (2) the Ministry of Health partnered with several national and international agencies to scale up child survival activities under the umbrella of the Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival (1994-2006); (3) a national nutrition division was developed to support a national

  13. A Factor Analysis of Peking Opera: Its Functions in Mass Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Philip H.

    The study reported in this paper examined the structure and function of Chinese opera (also known as Peking opera) as an effective communication medium of social control and change in China, a land populated by 800 million people and nourished by a 5,000-year-old civilization. The study followed structural-functional analysis, content analysis,…

  14. 75 FR 53968 - Reverb Communications, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... proposed order. This matter involves the public relations, marketing, and sales services that respondents... Reverb Communications, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal... methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in...

  15. Taiwan's Information Security Policy Enhancement: an Analysis of Patent Indicators and Patent Documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Nai-Wen; Liang-Shiuan, Jr.; Chen, Yi-Chang

    2007-12-01

    Information security policy in Taiwan stems the gap between expectation and reality. For this, the paper presents an analysis of patent indicators and patent document attempt to conclude the overview of the information security technology development. The paper also identifies the leading countries and cutting-edge areas with potential trends. Finally, several practicable and valuable strategies after this work are generalized to achieve the goals of Taiwan information security policy.

  16. Development and application of dynamic hybrid multi-region inventory analysis for macro-level environmental policy analysis: a case study on climate policy in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chia-Wei; Heijungs, Reinout; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2013-03-19

    We develop a novel inventory method called Dynamic Hybrid Multi-Region Inventory analysis (DHMRI), which integrates the EEMRIOA and Integrated Hybrid LCA and applies time-dependent environmental intervention information for inventory analysis. Consequently, DHMRI is able to quantify the change in the environmental footprint caused by a specific policy while taking structural changes and technological dynamics into consideration. DHMRI is applied to assess the change in the total CO2 emissions associated with the total final demand caused by the climate policy in Taiwan to demonstrate the practicality of this novel method. The evaluation reveals that the implementation of mitigation measures included in the existing climate policy, such as an enhancement in energy efficiency, promotion of renewable energy, and limitation of the growth of energy-intensive industries, will lead to a 28% increase in the total CO2 emissions and that the main driver is the export-oriented electronics industry. Moreover, a major increase in the total emissions is predicted to occur in Southeast Asia and China. The observations from the case study reveal that DHMRI is capable of overcoming the limitations of existing assessment tools at macro-level evaluation of environmental policies. PMID:23384247

  17. Expert assessments and content analysis of crew communication during ISS missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusupova, Anna

    During the last seven years, we have analyzed the communication patterns between ISS crewmembers and mission control personnel and identified a number of different communication styles between these two groups (Gushin et al, 2005). In this paper, we will report on an external validity check we conducted that compares our findings with those of another study using the same research material. For many years the group of psychologists at the Medical Center of Space Flight Control (TCUMOKO) at the Institute for Biomedical Problems (IBMP) in Moscow has been analyzing audio communication sessions of Russian space crews with the ground-based Mission Control during long-duration spaceflight conditions. We compared week by week texts of the standard weekly monitoring reports made by the TsUP psychological group and audiocommunication of space crews with mission control centers. Expert assessments of the crewmembers' psychological state are made by IBMP psychoneurologists on the basis of daily schedule fulfillment, video and audio materials, and psychophysiological data from board. The second approach was based on the crew-ground communication analysis. For both population of messages we applied two corresponding schemas of content analysis. All statements made in communication sessions and weekly reports were divided into three groups in terms of their communication function (Lomov, 1981): 1) informative function (e.g., demands for information, requests, professional slang); 2) socio-regulatory function (e.g., rational consent or discord, operational complaint, refusal to cooperate); and 3) affective (emotional) function (e.g., encouragement, sympathy, emotional consent or discord). Number of statements of the audiocommunication sessions correlated with corresponding functions (informative, regulatory, affective) of communication in weekly monitioring reports made by experts. Crewmembers verbal behavior expresses its psycho-emotional state which is formulated by expert

  18. Leasing policy and the rate of petroleum development: analysis with a Monte Carlo simulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, D; Bivins, R

    1982-03-01

    The study has two objectives: first, to consider whether alternative leasing systems are desirable to speed the rate of oil and gas exploration and development in frontier basins; second, to evaluate the Petroleum Activity and Decision Simulation model developed by the US Department of the Interior for economic and land use planning and for policy analysis. Analysis of the model involved structural variation of the geology, exploration, and discovery submodels and also involved a formal sensitivity analysis using the Latin Hypercube Sampling Method. We report the rate of exploration, discovery, and petroleum output under a variety of price, leasing policy, and tax regimes.

  19. National Responses to HIV/AIDS and Non-Communicable Diseases in Developing Countries: Analysis of Strategic Parallels and Differences

    PubMed Central

    Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Setswe, Geoffrey; Elliott, Julian; Oldenburg, Brian

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) epidemics may have many important similarities in their aetiology, pathogenesis and management. Evidence about the similarities and differences between the national responses HIV/AIDS and NCDs is essential for an integrated response. The objective of this study was to examine the parallels and differences between national responses to HIV/AIDS and NCDs in selected developing countries. This study applied a strategic level comparative case study approach as its study design. The main construct was national response to HIV/AIDS and NCDs. The 4 overarching themes were policy response, institutional mechanism, programmatic response and strategic information. Four countries were purposively selected as cases. Data were collected and triangulated from a multiple sources. The focus of analysis included identifying items for comparison, characteristics to be compared, degrees of similarity, and strategic importance of similarities. Analysis of data was qualitative content analysis with within-case, between-case, and across-case comparisons. While the nature of the disease and the contents of national HIV/AIDS and NCD policies are different, the policy processes involved are largely similar. Functional characteristics of programmatic response to HIV/AIDS and NCDs are similar. But the internal constituents are different. Though both HIV and NCDs require both a multi-sectorial response and a national coordination mechanism, the model and the complexity of the coordination are different. Strategic information frameworks for HIV/AIDS and NCDs use similar models. However, the indicators, targets and priorities are different. In conclusion, the national responses between HIV/AIDS and NCDs are largely similar in approaches and functions but different in content. Significance for public health This study explores the parallels and differences between national responses to HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The identified

  20. Cost Benefit Analysis of Two Policy Options for Cannabis: Status Quo and Legalisation

    PubMed Central

    Shanahan, Marian; Ritter, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Aims To date there has been limited analysis of the economic costs and benefits associated with cannabis legalisation. This study redresses this gap. A cost benefit analysis of two cannabis policy options the status quo (where cannabis use is illegal) and a legalised–regulated option was conducted. Method A cost benefit analysis was used to value the costs and benefits of the two policies in monetary terms. Costs and benefits of each policy option were classified into five categories (direct intervention costs, costs or cost savings to other agencies, benefits or lost benefits to the individual or the family, other impacts on third parties, and adverse or spill over events). The results are expressed as a net social benefit (NSB). Findings The mean NSB per annum from Monte Carlo simulations (with the 5 and 95 percentiles) for the status quo was $294.6 million AUD ($201.1 to $392.7 million) not substantially different from the $234.2 million AUD ($136.4 to $331.1 million) for the legalised–regulated model which excludes government revenue as a benefit. When government revenue is included, the NSB for legalised–regulated is higher than for status quo. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate the significant impact of educational attainment and wellbeing as drivers for the NSB result. Conclusion Examining the percentiles around the two policy options, there appears to be no difference between the NSB for these two policy options. Economic analyses are essential for good public policy, providing information about the extent to which one policy is substantially economically favourable over another. In cannabis policy, for these two options this does not appear to be the case. PMID:24755942