Science.gov

Sample records for communication policy analysis

  1. An analysis of communication policies in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mutere, A

    1988-01-01

    Although Kenya's current 5-Year National Development Plan cites communications as a public policy issue in terms of the establishment of basic infrastructural facilities, little attention has been given to this area. At the national level, a more specific approach to communication policy demands the formulation of coherent policies and their implementation through adequate institutional bodies. However, most policymakers are poorly equipped to deal with communication questions since they are interdisciplinary, technically complex, and politically sensitive. Policymaking must be based on a database that allows a minimal level of resource assessment, an inventory of locally available resources, a projection of needs for imported resources, and a scenario for resource development. The institutional location and accountability of communication need to be defined. Moreover, in promoting the strategies of self-reliance and decentralization, communication policy must consider the 4 aspects of a national information system: function, resource inventory, structure content, an control. The 1st task is to carry out a needs assessment exercise that determines what is required from a communications policy. A related task is audience analysis. Also essential is the analysis of policies that guide and constrain system development and the distribution and nature of political and economic power. Finally, feedback mechanisms must be devised for the determination of policy impact. Methods helpful in analyzing policy impact include systems analysis, resource assessment, trend extrapolation, the Delphi technique, and brainstorming. PMID:12281810

  2. Communication Policies in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szecsko, Tamas; Fodor, Gabor

    This book is one of a series of studies--undertaken as part of the program adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO--related to the analysis of communication policies as they exist at the public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Discussed in this book about Hungary's communication policies are such topics as mass…

  3. Communication Policies in Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekovic, Zdravko; Bjelica, Mihalo

    This report on communication policies in Yugoslavia is part of a larger project, sponsored by UNESCO and intended to analyze communication policies as they exist at public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Included in this report are: (1) the premise of Yugoslavian communication policy; (2) historical development of…

  4. Information and Communication Technologies in International Education: A Canadian Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aucoin, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    The rhetoric surrounding the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in international education speaks of providing education access for all. However, an examination of actual policies reveals an emphasis not on creating an educated population, but on improving economic opportunities using discourses such as globalization,…

  5. Integrating Information and Communication Technology for Health Information System Strengthening: A Policy Analysis.

    PubMed

    Marzuki, Nuraidah; Ismail, Saimy; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Ehsan, Fauziah Z; Chan, Chee-Khoon; Ng, Chiu-Wan

    2015-11-01

    Despite the high costs involved and the lack of definitive evidence of sustained effectiveness, many low- and middle-income countries had begun to strengthen their health information system using information and communication technology in the past few decades. Following this international trend, the Malaysian Ministry of Health had been incorporating Telehealth (National Telehealth initiatives) into national health policies since the 1990s. Employing qualitative approaches, including key informant interviews and document review, this study examines the agenda-setting processes of the Telehealth policy using Kingdon's framework. The findings suggested that Telehealth policies emerged through actions of policy entrepreneurs within the Ministry of Health, who took advantage of several simultaneously occurring opportunities--official recognition of problems within the existing health information system, availability of information and communication technology to strengthen health information system and political interests surrounding the national Multimedia Super Corridor initiative being developed at the time. The last was achieved by the inclusion of Telehealth as a component of the Multimedia Super Corridor. PMID:26085477

  6. Environmental policy, assessment and communication

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, D.; Krampen, M.; Stea, D.

    1988-01-01

    This second volume in the Gower ethnoscapes Series explores the realm of environmental policy and presents analysis of three major public policy issues: growing public concern over environmental factors; growing awareness of the relationship between environment, crime and adolescent development; and increased environmental awareness in relation to population growth and housing needs (especially housing for the elderly and mass housing for third world nations).

  7. Basis for a Waste Management Public Communication Policy: Actual Situation Analysis and Implementation of Corrective Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Jolivet, L. A.; Maset, E. R.

    2002-02-28

    Argentina will require new sites for the location of radioactive waste final disposal systems. It is currently mandatory to have social and political consensus to obtain the corresponding agreements. The experience obtained with the cancellation of the project ''Feasibility Study and Engineering Project--Repository for High Level Radioactive Waste'', reinforces even more the necessity to count with the acceptance of the public to carry out projects of this kind. The first phase of the former was developed in the 80's: geological, geophysical and hydrogeological studies were performed in a compact granitic rock located in Sierra del Medio, Chubut province. This project had to be called off in the early 90's due to strong social rejection. This decision was closely related to the poor attention given to social communication issues. The governmental decision-makers in charge underwent a lot of pressure from social groups claiming for the cancellation of the project due to the lack of information and the fear it triggered. Thus, the lesson learnt: ''social communication activities must be carefully undertaken in order to achieve the appropriate management of the radioactive waste produced in our country.'' The same as in other countries, the specific National Law demands the formulation of a Strategic Plan which will not only include the research into radioactive waste, but the design of a Social Communication Programme as well. The latter will be in charge of informing the population clearly and objectively about the latest scientific and technological advances in the issue. A tentative perception-attitude pattern of the Argentine society about the overall nuclear issue is outlined in this paper. It is meant to contribute to the understanding of the public's adverse reaction to this kind of project. A communication programme is also presented. Its objective is to install the waste management topic in the public's opinion with a positive real outlook.

  8. Nepal's communication policy then and now.

    PubMed

    Rai, L D

    1987-01-01

    An embryonic national communications policy emerged in Nepal in the 1951-61 period in response to the country's revolutionary political process. Interpersonal communications channels were strengthened and the mass media expanded in both public and private sectors. After 1961, communications policy began to orientate toward the emerging context of the Panchayat polity, with emphasis on democratization and indigenization. The new power structure perceived the relationship of communications to the national goals of stability, security, and development. A new Ministry dealing exclusively with information and broadcasting was established and Radio Nepal expanded both its reach and programming. It was not until 1971, however, that a National Communications Plan was designed. As a result of the sectoral communications policies and programs of the 3 economic 5-Year Plans between 1970-85, the infrastructure and technology of the national system of communication have been further strengthened to conform to the national need for a self-reliant economy. Computer-assisted communication and the emergence of a framework for regional cooperation have introduced new elements to Nepalese national communications policy planning. The establishment of a national communications planning commission within the National Development Council may represent a next step toward developing future communications structure and strategy. PMID:12281459

  9. Communication Policy and Theory: Current Perspectives on Mass Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Carl R.; Cahn, Dudley D.

    The integration of American and European mass communication research models would provide a broader sociocultural framework for formulating communication policy. Emphasizing a functional approach, the American diffusionist model assumes that society is a system of interrelated parts naturally tending toward a state of dynamic equilibrium. The…

  10. Communication Analysis of Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

    This textbook was developed for use in a Concordia University (Quebec) course entitled "Communication Analysis of Environment." Designed as a practical application of information theory and cybernetics in the field of communication studies, the course is intended to be a self-instructional process, whereby each student chooses one information…

  11. MIT Research Program on Communications Policy; First Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge. Research Program on Communications Policy.

    The first year's activities of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Research Program on Communication Policy are described. Among the projects undertaken were studies of: (1) land mobile radio systems, (2) direct satellite broadcasting in foreign countries, (3) communications regulation policy, (4) international data communication, and…

  12. National Communication Systems; Some Policy Issues and Options. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication No. 74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerlad, E. Lloyd

    To assist policy-makers with the establishment of national communications policies and the harmonization of institutional policies as part of national development planning, policy issues and options are identified and discussed. The functions of communication in society are defined and the structure of the system detailed, with descriptions of…

  13. From Data to Policy: An Undergraduate Program in Research and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuoco, Rebecca; Blum, Arlene; Peaslee, Graham F.

    2012-01-01

    To bridge the gap between science and policy, future scientists should receive training that incorporates policy implications into the design, analysis, and communication of research. We present a student Science and Policy course for undergraduate science majors piloted at the University of California, Berkeley in the summer of 2011. During this…

  14. Communication Network Analysis Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farace, Richard V.; Mabee, Timothy

    This paper reviews a variety of analytic procedures that can be applied to network data, discussing the assumptions and usefulness of each procedure when applied to the complexity of human communication. Special attention is paid to the network properties measured or implied by each procedure. Factor analysis and multidimensional scaling are among…

  15. The monetary value of human milk in Francophone west Africa: a PROFILES analysis for nutrition policy communication.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Ross, Jay

    2002-06-01

    Using a simple and conservative methodology, we estimated the volume and monetary value of the human milk produced by lactating women in Francophone West Africa. In that region, children zero to 35.9 months old consume over 1.1 billion liters of human milk per year. However, suboptimal breastfeeding practices account for the loss of 175 million liters of human milk annually. If the human milk consumed by children zero to 35.9 months old were to be adequately replaced using commercial breastmilk substitutes, an annual expenditure of about 2 billion US dollars would be needed. At the household level, the annual replacement cost of human milk would amount to US$412 per infant. This is beyond the reach of most families in West Africa, where as many as 61% of families in some countries live on less than one US dollar per day. Appropriate policies to foster breastfeeding need to be developed and adequately implemented. Such policy action is more likely to occur if decision makers fully appreciate the monetary value of human milk. PMID:12094665

  16. [Public policy analysis].

    PubMed

    Subirats, J

    2001-01-01

    This article presents to public health professionals concepts and perspectives from political science relevant for creating a healthier public policy. Currently, there is no uniform vision of what constitutes public interest and the decisions of public administrations tend to be based on compromise. In public debate, what is paramount is the capacity to persuade. From the perspective of public policy analysis, the crucial issue is definition: the final decision depends on the definition of the problem that has emerged triumphant in the public debate among competing actors with different definitions of the problem. From a policy analysis perspective, the problems entering the agenda of public administration does not necessarily correspond to their severity, as competing actors try to impose their point of view. Because of its historical evolution, the Spanish political system has specific traits. The relatively weak democratic tradition tends to make the decision process less visibles, with strong technocratic elements and weaker social articulation. Both the juridical tradition and liberal rhetoric portray lobbying as contrary to public interest, when in fact it is constantly performed by powerful vested interest groups, through both personal contacts and economic connections. Regulatory policies, with concentrated costs and diffuse benefits, seem to be moving from Spain to the European Union. To promote healthier public policies, the development of civil society initiatives and the building of coalitions will play an increasingly greater role in the future. PMID:11423032

  17. Education Policy Analysis 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This volume is the companion to the 1997 collection of international education indicators from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), "Education at a Glance--OECD Indicators." It aims to deepen the analysis of current policy issues and facilitate interpretation of data using selected indicators of particular relevance to…

  18. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostow, Eugene V.

    The final report of the President's Task Force on Communications Policy recommends strengthened federal powers to form public policy in telecommunications. Such planned policy would enable the private sector to reach its full capacities in the field by improving regulation when it is necessary and removing unnecessary regulation. Monopoly of…

  19. 75 FR 27857 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy The Department of State's Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy (ACICIP) will hold a..., social and legal issues and problems in international communications and information policy,...

  20. Advanced Placement: Model Policy Components. Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinth, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP), launched in 1955 by the College Board as a program to offer gifted high school students the opportunity to complete entry-level college coursework, has since expanded to encourage a broader array of students to tackle challenging content. This Education Commission of the State's Policy Analysis identifies key components of…

  1. 77 FR 50543 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy The Department of State's Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy (ACICIP) will hold a... information policy, especially as these issues and problems involve users of information and...

  2. 75 FR 881 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy The Department of State's Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy (ACICIP) will hold a... economic, social and legal issues and problems in ] international communications and information...

  3. 75 FR 80105 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... major economic, social and legal issues and problems in international communications and information... of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy The Department of State's Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy (ACICIP) will hold...

  4. 76 FR 28843 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... major economic, social and legal issues and problems in international communications and information... of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy The Department of State's Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy (ACICIP) will hold...

  5. Foreign Policy Communication Dramas: How Mediated Rhetoric Played in Peoria in Campaign '76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragan, John F.; Shields, Donald C.

    A message-centered dramatistic theory of communication was used in conjunction with Q-sort technique and factor analysis to build and test a message-centered foreign-policy inventory that contained three dramatic interpretations of U.S. involvement in foreign affairs: cold war, power politics, and neo-isolationism. Analysis of results from two…

  6. Nurses’ policy influence: A concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    Arabi, Akram; Rafii, Forough; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nurses’ influence on health policy protects the quality of care by access to required recourses and opportunities. This is a new and important concept for nursing; however, research studies on policy influence of nurses in health care sector are lacking a basic conceptual understanding of what this concept represents. The aim of this paper is to clarify the concept of nurses’ policy influence and to propose the definition of this concept, considering the context of Iran. Materials and Methods: The eight stages of Walker and Avant approach was used to guide this concept analysis. Various databases and internet engines were searched to find all related information about the concept. Textbooks were also searched manually. English language literature reports published between 1990 and 2012 were reviewed. Results: Based on the analysis undertaken, nurses’ policy influence is nurses’ ability in influencing decisions and affairs related to health through political knowledge, effective communication, and collaboration with other members of the health team, which results in the improvement of nurses’ job environment and increases patient outcomes. This is a dynamic process situated on a spectrum and is accompanied with nurses’ knowledge, competency, power, and advocacy, and also their ability to change. Conclusions: Nurses have individual views on health care issues and influence health care policies in different ways. With a common understanding of nurses’ policy influence as a concept, nurses will recognize the importance of policy making in the health sector and their influence on this process and also on patients’ outcomes. PMID:24949073

  7. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Domestic Applications of Communication Satellite Technology. Staff Paper Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Task Force on Communications Policy, Washington, DC.

    A staff paper to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy examines the feasibility of a domestic communications satellite system. Although, with expected technological advancement, satellites may play a significant role in domestic transmission and are economically feasible right now, a number of remaining questions make the…

  8. Gender and communication policy in Asia. Special report.

    PubMed

    Pandian, H

    1997-01-01

    This report was prepared as background information for a regional conference of the World Association for Christian Communication. It provides information on gender issues related to communication structures in Australia, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. For each country, a brief description of the policy environment is followed by: 1) a summary of pertinent legislation, policies, and self-regulation efforts; and 2) a discussion of the role of existing mass media councils and monitoring organizations. PMID:12178281

  9. A supervisory control policy over an acoustic communication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, Alireza; Dumon, Jonathan; Canudas-de-Wit, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a supervisory multi-agent control policy over an acoustic communication network subject to imperfections (packet dropout and transmission delay) for localisation of an underwater flow source (e.g., source of chemical pollution, fresh water, etc.) with an unknown location at the bottom of the ocean. A two-loop control policy combined with a coding strategy for reliable communication is presented to perform the above task. A simulator is developed and used to evaluate the trade-offs between quality of communication, transmission delay and control for a fleet of autonomous underwater vehicles supervised over a noisy acoustic communication network by an autonomous surface vessel. It is illustrated that without compensation of the effects of severe random packet dropout, localisation of an unknown underwater flow source is not possible for the condition simulated just by implementing a two-loop control policy. But a two-loop control policy combined with a strategy for reliable communication locates the unknown location of flow source.

  10. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the 19 articles published in the Electronic Journal "Education Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 1996: (1) "The Achievement Crisis Is Real: A Review of 'The Manufactured Crisis'" (Lawrence C. Stedman); (2) "Staff Development Policy: Fuzzy Choices in an Imperfect Market" (Robert T. Stout); (3) "Making Molehills out of…

  11. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of the 2000 edition of the "Education Policy Analysis Archives." The papers include: (1) "Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence" (Linda Darling-Hammond); (2) "America Y2K: The Obsolescence of Educational Reforms" (Sherman Dorn); (3) "Forces for Change in Mathematics Education: The Case of…

  12. Pitfalls in Health Communication: Healthcare Policy, Institution, Structure, & Process

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, José L; Beltrán, Robert A

    2004-01-01

    The state of health communication for a given population is a function of several tiers of structure and process: government policy, healthcare directives, healthcare structure and process, and the ethnosocial realities of a multicultural society. Common yet specific to these tiers of health communication is the interpersonal and intergroup use of language in all its forms. Language is the most common behavior exhibited by humankind. Its use at all tiers determines quality of healthcare and quality of life for healthcare consumers: patients and their families. Of note, at the consumer end, mounting evidence demonstrates that barriers to health communication contribute to poorer access to care, quality of care, and health outcomes. The lack of comprehensible and usable written and spoken language is a major barrier to health communication targeting primary and secondary disease prevention and is a major contributor to the misuse of healthcare, patient noncompliance, rising healthcare costs. In this paper, we cursorily examine the relationship among government policy, institutional directives, and healthcare structure and process and its influence on the public health, especially vulnerable populations. We conclude that limited health communication in the context of changing healthcare environments and diverse populations is an important underpinning of rising healthcare costs and sustained health disparities. More research is needed to improve communication about health at all tiers and to develop health communication interventions that are usable by all population groups. PMID:15208522

  13. Misinformation in eating disorder communications: Implications for science communication policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radford, Benjamin

    Though eating disorders are a serious public health threat, misinformation about these potentially deadly diseases is widespread. This study examines eating disorder information from a wide variety of sources including medical journals, news reports, and popular social activist authors. Examples of misinformation were identified, and three aspects of eating disorders (prevalence, mortality, and etiology) were chosen as key indicators of scientific illiteracy about those illnesses. A case study approach was then adopted to trace examples of misinformation to their original sources whenever possible. A dozen examples include best-selling books, national eating disorder information clearinghouses; the news media; documentary feature films; and a PBS television Nova documentary program. The results provide an overview of the ways in which valid information becomes flawed, including poor journalism, lack of fact-checking, plagiarism, and typographical errors. Less obvious---and perhaps even more important---much of the misinformation results from scientific research being co-opted to promote specific sociopolitical agendas. These results highlight a significant gap in science communication between researchers, the medical community, and the public regarding these diseases, and recommendations to address the problem are offered.

  14. Communicating the Needs of Climate Change Policy Makers to Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Lovell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will describe the challenges that earth scientists face in developing science data products relevant to decision maker and policy needs, and will describe strategies that can improve the two-way communication between the scientist and the policy maker. Climate change policy and decision making happens at a variety of scales - from local government implementing solar homes policies to international negotiations through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Scientists can work to provide data at these different scales, but if they are not aware of the needs of decision makers or understand what challenges the policy maker is facing, they are likely to be less successful in influencing policy makers as they wished. This is because the science questions they are addressing may be compelling, but not relevant to the challenges that are at the forefront of policy concerns. In this chapter we examine case studies of science-policy partnerships, and the strategies each partnership uses to engage the scientist at a variety of scales. We examine three case studies: the global Carbon Monitoring System pilot project developed by NASA, a forest biomass mapping effort for Silvacarbon project, and a forest canopy cover project being conducted for forest management in Maryland. In each of these case studies, relationships between scientists and policy makers were critical for ensuring the focus of the science as well as the success of the decision-making.

  15. Effective Communication in Legal and Public Policy Hearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Jim; Sonsteng, John; Thorstad, Linda

    2014-04-01

    Scientists play a special role in legal debates and public policy decisions. The challenge for scientists who serve as expert witnesses is to communicate effectively in various legal forums, including litigation and legislative hearings. Expert witnesses must not advocate for one side or the other but must be able to convey the meaning as well as the quality and accuracy of their work.

  16. Attendance Policies, Instructor Communication, Student Attendance, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jason; Frank, Lisa A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The authors utilized a quasiexperimental design across five sections of a managerial communication course (N = 150) to test the role of course policies and student perceptions of the instructor in influencing student absenteeism and three indicators of student learning: grades, affective learning, and cognitive learning. The experimental group…

  17. Beliefs Underlying the Decision to Eat Breakfast: The Role of Theory-based Behavioral Analysis in the Development of Policy, Communication and Educational Interventions for Healthy Eating.

    PubMed

    Middlestadt, Susan E; Stevenson, Laurel D; Hung, Chia-Ling; Roditis, Maria Leia; Fly, Alyce D; Sheats, Jylana L

    2011-01-01

    Policy, communication, and education efforts to influence any social or health outcome are more effective if based on an understanding of the underlying behaviors and their determinants. This conceptual paper outlines how behavioral theory can help design interventions for one healthy eating behavior, eating breakfast. More specifically, the paper illustrates how a prominent health behavior theory, the Reasoned Action Approach, can be used to guide formative research to identify factors underlying people's decisions. Select findings are presented from three studies of beliefs underlying eating breakfast: online surveys with 1185 undergraduates from a large university in Indiana; in-depth interviews with 61 adults from four Indiana worksites; and 63 in-depth interviews with students from three middle schools in rural Indiana. Analyses of data from the undergraduates demonstrated the role of self-efficacy. Analyses of data from the working adults revealed the importance of normative beliefs about what employers believed. Analyses comparing consequences perceived by adults with those perceived by middle school students found that both groups believed that eating breakfast would provide energy but only middle school students believed that eating breakfast would improve alertness. For each finding, the theory is presented, the finding is described, implications for interventions are suggested, and the need for additional research is outlined. In sum, theory-based behavioral research can help develop interventions at intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental levels that are warranted to encourage healthy eating. PMID:24089658

  18. Development communication, environment and Sahelian Africa: role, problems and policies.

    PubMed

    Domatob, J K

    1999-06-01

    Sahelian Africans face major environmental, socioeconomic, and development challenges, as the Sahel is currently severely saddled with catastrophic environmental degradation and pollution. While the desert encroaches upon the region, rivers and streams dry up, and sand dunes replace lush vegetation. Areas where trees and forests used to flourish have now degenerated into arid lands. The author discusses development communication and environmental decay in the Sahel. Beginning with consideration of the Sahel's development and environmental disaster, the paper examines to what extent the situation in the Sahel affect Africans and overall humanity, how development communication can help, which problems impede development communication in solving Sahelian environmental challenges, and which development communication policies Africans and the international community should adopt to effectively address the Sahel's problems. PMID:12349163

  19. 7 CFR 3022.8 - Communication of research misconduct policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Communication of research misconduct policies and...-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.8 Communication of research misconduct policies... effectively communicate to their staffs policies and procedures relating to research misconduct, including...

  20. 7 CFR 3022.8 - Communication of research misconduct policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communication of research misconduct policies and...-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.8 Communication of research misconduct policies... effectively communicate to their staffs policies and procedures relating to research misconduct, including...

  1. 7 CFR 3022.8 - Communication of research misconduct policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communication of research misconduct policies and...-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.8 Communication of research misconduct policies... effectively communicate to their staffs policies and procedures relating to research misconduct, including...

  2. 7 CFR 3022.8 - Communication of research misconduct policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Communication of research misconduct policies and...-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.8 Communication of research misconduct policies... effectively communicate to their staffs policies and procedures relating to research misconduct, including...

  3. Succeeding in Science Communication amid Contentious Public Policy Debates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, A.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists are often hesitant to engage in public dialogues about their work, especially when their research has bearing on contentious public policy issues. The Union of Concerned Scientists has conducted dozens of workshops to assist its members in communicating science fairly, accurately and effectively to audiences with mixed opinions about relevant public policy. While public polling indicates that people admire scientists and support scientific research, public understanding lags behind scientific understanding on a variety of issues, from climate change to evolution to vaccination. In many cases, people reject or discount scientific evidence when they perceive their ideology, beliefs or policy preferences as being in conflict with that evidence. These biases make it difficult for scientists to convey their research to many audiences. Based on reviews of social science literature and interactions with its members, the Union of Concerned Scientists has explored methods for surmounting public ideological biases while staying true to the science. In particular, scientists have found success with communicating based on shared values, asking audience members questions about their reactions to science, avoiding unintentional invocation of ideological biases and partnering with non-scientist speakers who can address contentious public policy questions. These methods can allow scientists to more effectively collaborate with stakeholders interested in their research and can build public support for science.

  4. Policies for control of communicable disease in day care centres.

    PubMed Central

    Chouillet, A; Maguire, H; Kurtz, Z

    1992-01-01

    A survey was carried out to identify the availability and quality of guidelines for the prevention and control of communicable disease and procedures in use in child day care centres within the South West Thames Regional Health Authority. A sample of 50 day care centres was investigated including those funded by social services and privately funded day care centres. Policies for the prevention and control of communicable disease for children and staff showed a wide variation between different centres. Exclusion criteria were unclear especially in relation to carriers of the hepatitis B virus and HIV positive children. Channels for reporting and seeking advice were inconsistent. It is recommended that clear and up to date written guidelines on the prevention and control of communicable diseases should be available in all day care centres with clear indications of good practice and channels for reporting and advice. It is desirable that guidelines are agreed by the different health and local authorities throughout the region. PMID:1417054

  5. Structural Analysis of Communication Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conville, Richard L.

    This paper discusses the question of the legitimacy of applying structural analysis to actual human behavior and illustrates its legitimacy by using the reasoning in an essay by Paul Ricoeur. It then asks if the principles of communication development (obliqueness, exchange, and dying) derived from Helen Keller's experience of communication…

  6. Technology Assessment and Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majone, Giandomenico

    1977-01-01

    Argues that the application of policy analysis to technology assessment requires the abandonment of stereotyped approaches and a reformulation of analytical paradigms to include consideration of institutional constraints. Available from: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Box 211, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, single copies available.…

  7. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the 21 articles published in the electronic journal "Education Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 1996. The articles are: (1) "The Political Legacy of School Accountability Systems" (Sherman Dorn); (2) "Review of Stephen Arons's 'Short Route to Chaos'" (Charles L. Glenn); (3) "Planting Land Mines in Common Ground: A…

  8. Rhetorical Analysis in Critical Policy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Rhetorical analysis, an approach to critical discourse analysis, is presented as a useful method for critical policy analysis and its effort to understand the role policies play in perpetuating inequality. A rhetorical analysis of Character "Matters!", the character education policy of a school board in Ontario, Canada, provides an…

  9. Communicating Geosciences with Policy-makers: a Grand Challenge for Academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, W. J.; Walls, M. R.; Boland, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists interested in the broader societal impacts of their research can make a meaningful contribution to policy making in our changing world. Nevertheless, policy and public decision making are the least frequently cited Broader Impacts in proposals and funded projects within NSF's Geosciences Directorate. Academic institutions can play a lead role by introducing this societal dimension of our profession to beginning students, and by enabling interdisciplinary research and promoting communication pathways for experienced career geoscientists. Within the academic environment, the public interface of the geosciences can be presented through curriculum content and creative programs. These include undergraduate minors in economics or public policy designed for scientists and engineers, and internships with policy makers. Federal research institutions and other organizations provide valuable policy-relevant experiences for students. Academic institutions have the key freedom of mission to tackle interdisciplinary research challenges at the interface of geoscience and policy. They develop long-standing relationships with research partners, including national laboratories and state geological surveys, whose work may support policy development and analysis at local, state, regional, and national levels. CSM's Payne Institute for Earth Resources awards mini-grants for teams of researchers to develop collaborative research efforts between engineering/science and policy researchers. Current work in the areas of nuclear generation and the costs of climate policy and on policy alternatives for capturing fugitive methane emissions are examples of work at the interface between the geosciences and public policy. With academic engagement, geoscientists can steward their intellectual output when non-scientists translate geoscience information and concepts into action through public policies.

  10. Institutional analysis for energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Cole, R.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.

  11. A Practical Method of Policy Analysis by Simulating Policy Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, James L.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on a method of policy analysis that has evolved from the previous articles in this issue. The first section, "Toward a Theory of Educational Production," identifies concepts from science and achievement production to be incorporated into this policy analysis method. Building on Kuhn's (1970) discussion regarding paradigms, the…

  12. NASA's Agency-Wide Strategy for Environmental Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scroggins, Sharon; Duda, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA's risk analysis communication programs associated with changing environmental policies. The topics include: 1) NASA Program Transition; 2) Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC); and 3) Regulatory Tracking and Communication Process.

  13. Guidelines for Communicable Disease Control Policies in Montana Schools: A Guide and Model Policy for Communicable Diseases Including HIV Infected Students and Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This guide was developed to help local school districts review existing policies or establish new policies to address communicable diseases. Based on current scientific and medical information about the safety in allowing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected students and staff to remain at school, it contains a suggested policy for local…

  14. 75 FR 18940 - Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy; Notice of Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Committee on International Communications and Information Policy; Notice of Committee Renewal The Department... Information Policy (ACICIP) for an additional two years. The Committee serves the Department of State in a... information policy. ACICIP members are private sector communications and information technology...

  15. 77 FR 24758 - Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy; Notice of Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Committee on International Communications and Information Policy; Notice of Committee Renewal The Department... Information Policy (ACICIP) for a period of two years. The Committee serves the Department of State in a... information policy. ACICIP members are private sector communications and information technology...

  16. 75 FR 70262 - Statement of Policy Regarding Communications in Connection With Collection of a Decedent's Debt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ..., the Commission published (75 FR 62389) a notice of proposed statement of enforcement policy regarding... Statement of Policy Regarding Communications in Connection With Collection of a Decedent's Debt AGENCY... response to its proposed Statement of Policy Regarding Communications in Connection with Collection of...

  17. Public policies and communication affecting forest cover in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami Savaget, E.; Batistella, M.; Aguiar, A. P. D.

    2014-12-01

    The research program Amazalert was based on information delivered by the IPCC through its 2007 report, which indicates forest degradation processes in the Amazonian region as a consequence of anthropogenic actions. Such processes affecting the structural and functional characteristics of ecosystems would harm environmental services that guarantee, for example, the regulation of climate and the provision of fresh water. A survey was organized, through a multidisciplinary perspective, on the main policies and programs that can affect forest cover in the Amazon. These rules and norms seek to regulate societal actions by defining a developmental model for the region. Although deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon have decreased significantly since 2004, some locations maintain high levels of deforestation. In 2013, for example, the municipalities of Monte Alegre, Óbidos, Alenquer, Oriximiná, Curuá and Almeirin, in the northern region of the state of Para, showed the highest rates of deforestation in the Amazon. Managers and stakeholders within these areas are being interviewed to provide insights on how policies are interpreted and applied locally. There is an understanding delay between discourses normalized by federal governmental institutions and claims of local societies. The possible lack of clarity in official discourses added to the absence of a local communicative dynamics cause the phenomenon of incomplete information. Conflicts often occur in local institutional arenas resulting in violence and complex social and historical dissonances, enhanced by other public policies idealized in different temporal and spatial conditions.

  18. Population Analysis: Communicating in Context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

    2008-01-01

    Providing accommodation to a widely varying user population presents a challenge to engineers and designers. It is often even difficult to quantify who is accommodated and who is not accommodated by designs, especially for equipment with multiple critical anthropometric dimensions. An approach to communicating levels of accommodation referred to as population analysis applies existing human factors techniques in novel ways. This paper discusses the definition of population analysis as well as major applications and case studies. The major applications of population analysis consist of providing accommodation information for multivariate problems and enhancing the value of feedback from human-in-the-loop testing. The results of these analyses range from the provision of specific accommodation percentages of the user population to recommendations of design specifications based on quantitative data. Such feedback is invaluable to designers and results in the design of products that accommodate the intended user population.

  19. The Internet and U.S. Communication Policy-Making in Historical and Critical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McChesney, Robert W.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the extent that the emerging communication technological revolution, particularly the Internet, can override the anti-democratic implications of the media marketplace. Shows how corporate control of communication has been removed from communication policy debates. Argues that the new communication technologies are the product of a global…

  20. Policy analysis from first principles

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Scott

    2002-01-01

    The argument of this paper is predicated on the view that social science should start with observation and the specification of a problem to be solved. On that basis, the appropriate properties and conditions of application of relevant tools of analysis should be defined. Evidence is adduced from data for sales volumes and values of a disparate range of goods to show that frequency distributions are commonly fat-tailed. This result implies that any stable population distribution will generally have infinite variance and perhaps undefined mean. Models with agents that reason about their behavior and are influenced by, but do not imitate, other agents known to them will typically generate fat-tailed time series data. A simulation model of intermediated exchange is reported that is populated by such agents and yields the same type of fat-tailed time series and cross-sectional data that is found in data for fast moving consumer goods and for retail outlets. This result supports the proposition that adaptive agent models of markets with agents that reason and are socially embedded have the same statistical signatures as real markets. Whereas this statistical signature precludes any conventional hypothesis testing or forecasting, these models do offer unique opportunities for validation on the basis of domain expertise and qualitative data. Perhaps the most striking conclusion is that neither current social theory nor any similar construct will ever support an effective policy analysis. However, adaptive agent modeling is an effective substitute when embedded in a wider policy analysis procedure. PMID:12011405

  1. Are migrants health policies aimed at improving access to quality healthcare? An analysis of Spanish policies.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, María Luisa; Terraza-Núñez, Rebeca; S-Hernández, Silvia; Vargas, Ingrid; Bosch, Lola; González, Andrea; Pequeño, Sandra; Cantos, Raquel; Martínez, Juan Ignacio; López, Luís Andrés

    2013-12-01

    Although until April 2012, all Spanish citizens regardless of their origin, residence status and work situation were entitled to health care, available evidence suggested inadequate access for immigrants. Following the Aday and Andersen model, we conducted an analysis of policy elements that affect immigrants' access to health care in Spain, based on documentary analysis of national policies and selected regional policies related to migrant health care. Selected documents were (a) laws and plans in force at the time containing migrant health policies and (b) evaluations. The analysis included policy principles, objectives, strategies and evaluations. Results show that the national and regional policies analyzed are based on the principle that health care is a right granted to immigrants by law. These policies include strategies to facilitate access to health care, reducing barriers for entry to the system, for example simplifying requirements and raising awareness, but mostly they address the necessary qualities for services to be able to attend to a more diverse population, such as the adaptation of resources and programs, or improved communication and training. However, limited planning was identified in terms of their implementation, necessary resources and evaluation. In conclusion, the policies address relevant barriers of access for migrants and signal improvements in the health system's responsiveness, but reinforcement is required in order for them to be effectively implemented. PMID:23850165

  2. Science Based Policies: How Can Scientist Communicate their Points Across?

    SciTech Connect

    Elnakat, A. C.

    2002-02-28

    With the complexity of environmental problems faced today, both scientists and policymakers are striving to combine policy and administration with the physical and natural sciences in order to mitigate and prevent environmental degradation. Nevertheless, communicating science to policymakers has been difficult due to many barriers. Even though scientists and policymakers share the blame in the miscommunication. This paper will provide recommendations targeted to the scientific arena. Establishing guidelines for the cooperation of scientists and policymakers can be an unattainable goal due to the complexity and diversity of political policymaking and environmental issues. However, the recommendations provided in this paper are simple enough to be followed by a wide variety of audiences and institutions in the scientific fields. This will aid when trying to fill the gap that has prevented the enhancement of scientific policymaking strategies, which decide on the critical issue s such as the disposal, transportation and production of hazardous waste.

  3. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (81st, Baltimore, Maryland, August 5-8, 1998). Communication Tech and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Communication Tech and Policy section of the Proceedings contains the following 14 papers: "Interactivity Reexamined: An Analysis of Business Web Sites" (Louisa Ha and E. Lincoln James); "Newspaper Size as a Factor in Use of Computer-Assisted Reporting" (Bruce Garrison); "The Rural-Urban Gap in Community Newspaper Editors' Use of Information…

  4. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (85th, Miami, Florida, August 5-8, 2002). Communication Technology & Policy Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The Communication Technology & Policy Division of the proceedings contains the following 7 papers: "Current Status of the Direct Broadcast Satellite Industry: Is DBS a True Alternative to Cable?" (Ju-Yong Ha); "An Analysis of the Characteristics of Early Internet Adopters" (Tien-tsung Lee, Linda Li-Shuan Wang and Paul Bolls); "Digital 'En…

  5. 26 CFR 1.1071-1 - Gain from sale or exchange to effectuate policies of Federal Communications Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... F.c.c. Policy § 1.1071-1 Gain from sale or exchange to effectuate policies of Federal Communications... necessary or appropriate to effectuate a change in a policy of, or the adoption of a new policy by,...

  6. 76 FR 78327 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy The Department of State's Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy (ACICIP) will hold a public meeting on January 12, 2012 from 9 a.m. to...

  7. The Intellectual Landscape of Critical Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diem, Sarah; Young, Michelle D.; Welton, Anjalé D.; Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Lee, Pei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    What counts as critical policy analysis in education? Over the past 30 years, a tightening of national educational policies can be seen in the USA and across the globe. Over this same period of time, a growing number of educational policy scholars, dissatisfied with traditional frameworks, have used critical frameworks in their analyses. Their…

  8. Wyoming Career and Technical Education Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MPR Associates, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    This policy analysis was produced for the Wyoming Department of Administration and Information by MPR Associates, Inc. Its purpose was to examine federal and state policy related to career and technical education (CTE) to determine whether existing policy (in the form of statutes, rules, regulations, and guidance) could either promote or impede…

  9. Policy analysis: a framework for nurse managers.

    PubMed

    Hewison, Alistair

    2007-10-01

    The lack of involvement of nurses in the policy process is an issue of concern which has resulted in calls for nurses to become more active in this area of activity. However, what is often less clear is precisely how this can be done. This paper presents a template for policy analysis which can be used by nurse managers. The nature of policy and policy analysis is explored to provide a broad context for the discussion and the need for managers and nurse managers in particular to be 'policy competent' is established, as a prerequisite for effective management. There is also an examination of policy analysis in nursing which demonstrates why a range of approaches to the analysis of policy is needed. Based on this, a particular framework for policy analysis which can be used by nurse managers is presented. The overall purpose of the paper is to encourage debate in this area and contribute to the development of a specific tool for policy analysis that may help ensure a nursing management perspective informs policy formation and implementation. PMID:17897145

  10. Future Opportunities for Television. Part I. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Staff Paper Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostow, Eugene V.

    A staff paper to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy examines the future of broadcast television. The central question in formulating broadcast policy is how to mesh traditional policies with new technology to exploit fully the potential value of television. Two areas are stressed--the basic structure of TV broadcasting in the…

  11. Toward A Social Policy Analysis Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimson, John; Stimson, Ardyth

    An eight-course curriculum in social policy analysis which follows a policy analysis paradigm is proposed. The undergraduate curriculum concentrates on the ability to appreciate and operate under uncertainty; anticipation of interrelated, unexpected ramifications of new stimuli; understanding of the social construction of problems and their cures;…

  12. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This electronic journal covers a variety of issues related to educational policy. The 22 articles (issues) of Volume 5 analyze aspects of policy in the United States and other countries for elementary, secondary, and higher education. Articles include: (1) "Markets and Myths: Autonomy in Public and Private schools" (Glass); (2) "Where Have All the…

  13. Communicating Scientific Findings to Lawyers, Policy-Makers, and the Public (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W.; Velsko, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation will summarize the authors' collaborative research on inferential errors, bias and communication difficulties that have arisen in the area of WMD forensics. This research involves analysis of problems that have arisen in past national security investigations, interviews with scientists from various disciplines whose work has been used in WMD investigations, interviews with policy-makers, and psychological studies of lay understanding of forensic evidence. Implications of this research for scientists involved in nuclear explosion monitoring will be discussed. Among the issues covered will be: - Potential incompatibilities between the questions policy makers pose and the answers that experts can provide. - Common misunderstandings of scientific and statistical data. - Advantages and disadvantages of various methods for describing and characterizing the strength of scientific findings. - Problems that can arise from excessive hedging or, alternatively, insufficient qualification of scientific conclusions. - Problems that can arise from melding scientific and non-scientific evidence in forensic assessments.

  14. Communications satellite systems capacity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browne, L.; Hines, T.; Tunstall, B.

    1982-01-01

    Analog and digital modulation techniques are compared with regard to efficient use of the geostationary orbit by communications satellites. Included is the definition of the baseline systems (both space and ground segments), determination of interference susceptibility, calculation of orbit spacing, and evaluation of relative costs. It is assumed that voice or TV is communicated at 14/11 GHz using either FM or QPSK modulation. Both the Fixed-Satellite Service and the Broadcasting-Satellite Service are considered. For most of the cases examined the digital approach requires a satellite spacing less than or equal to that required by the analog approach.

  15. Exploring Early Years Educators' Ownership of Language and Communication Knowledge and Skills: A Review of Key Policy and Initial Reflections on "Every Child a Talker" and Its Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    This article examines four significant policy documents that have informed the Department for Children School and Families (DCSF)' s "Every Child a Talker" (ECaT). The analysis focuses on where the ownership of knowledge in relation to communication and language lies as part of policy implementation and training processes. The article then…

  16. Population Analysis: Communicating About Anthropometry in Context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Sherry; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of communications about anthropometry and population analysis in particular for the design of aerospace systems. The difficulty of providing anthropometric accomodation an entire range of the population is reviewed, and the importance of communication of the issues with human system integration is emphasized, and the analysis of population as it applies to existing human factors methodologies is a novel way to assist with the communication. The issues of space suit design and anthropometry is reviewed as an example.

  17. Analysis of Academic Staffing Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Stefan D.

    1980-01-01

    Large-scale Markov chain models and Monte Carlo simulation, two types of models useful for academic managers to analyze academic staffing policies, are described. Their relative advantages and disadvantages regarding technical requirements and performance, as well as managerial usefulness at different levels of the university, are discussed.…

  18. Building Public Awareness of Development: Communicators, Educators and Evaluation. Policy Brief No. 35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheunpflug, Annette; McDonnell, Ida

    2008-01-01

    Using evaluation to improve performance has become a priority for Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) policy makers and practitioners in the field of public information/communication and education about development. This Policy Brief is an introduction to evaluation, with proposals on how official donors and civil society…

  19. A Comparative Study of Information and Communications Technology Policy in Primary Education in Two Small Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuereb, Kay

    2006-01-01

    Research into small island states emerged during the period of decolonisation with comparative case studies making a valuable contribution. This study was undertaken to evaluate information and communications technology (ICT) policies in primary education in Malta and Jamaica and to consider the influence of small island status on policy and its…

  20. Policy Writers' Conceptions of Language and Communication within one Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philpott, Carey

    2013-01-01

    Ball argues that "policy authors do make concerted efforts to assert control [of readings] by the means at their disposal … [and that] we need to understand those efforts" (Ball, 1994, p. 16). Efforts by policy authors to control readings are influenced by their own assumptions about the nature of language, texts and communication. This…

  1. The Texas State Library Communication Network, Policy and Procedure Manual. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Library, Austin.

    The goal of the Texas State Library Communication Network (TSLCN) is service to the library patrons of the state. Acceptable policies and procedures contribute to efficient network operation. Although the goal of the TSLCN is unchanged, this second edition of the "Policy and Procedure Manual" refines and improves a functioning system. The steady…

  2. The Domestic Telecommunications Carrier Industry. Part I. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Staff Paper Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostow, Eugene V.

    A staff paper submitted to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy recommends that public policy ensure an integrated structure in the telecommunications industry, while fostering limited competition to keep the system responsive to new technology and to consumer demands. The present system of regulated monopoly for companies supplying…

  3. Toward a Policy for Managing the Use of Computer Mediated Communication in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Douglas J.

    Noting that there has been tremendous growth in the number of businesses and not-for-profit organizations which have become equipped with computers and have empowered workers to communicate with them, this paper sheds light on policy issues related to managing the use of computer mediated communication (CMC). The paper first summarizes CMC's…

  4. Anonymous Communication Policies for the Internet: Results and Recommendations of the AAAS Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Al; Frankel, Mark S.; Kling, Rob; Lee, Yaching

    1999-01-01

    Reports the results of a conference on the Internet and anonymous communication organized by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Discusses how anonymous communications can be shaped by the law, education, and public awareness, and highlights the importance of involving all affected interests in policy development.…

  5. Policy Issues in Planning for Distance Education Using a Domestic Communication Satellite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, J. Eric; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Considers important political and practical issues within the field of distance education raised by the decision for Australia to have its own communications satellite. The experiences of other countries are examined and the importance of communication policy and planning, educational needs-assessment, cost-effectiveness studies, resource…

  6. Why Communications Policy Is Passing "Mass Communication" By: Political Economy as the Missing Link (Review and Criticism).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Milton

    1995-01-01

    Argues that communications scholarship has had no significant impact on public policy. Argues that classical political economy offers an intellectual tradition with which the field ought to connect, and shows how certain problems can be approached in an integrated manner. Criticizes the field's failure to recognize multiple versions of critical…

  7. Adaptive Optics Communications Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Vilnrotter, V.; Troy, M.; Wilson, K.

    2004-01-01

    The performance improvement obtained through the use of adaptive optics for deep-space communications in the presence of atmospheric turbulence is analyzed. Using simulated focal-plane signal-intensity distributions, uncoded pulse-position modulation (PPM) bit-error probabilities are calculated assuming the use of an adaptive focal-plane detector array as well as an adaptively sized single detector. It is demonstrated that current practical adaptive optics systems can yield performance gains over an uncompensated system ranging from approximately 1 dB to 6 dB depending upon the PPM order and background radiation level.

  8. Communication analysis for the expendable explorer spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This report provides the results of communication analysis for the baseline and enhanced performance spacecraft designs proposed for Expendable Explorer Spacecraft (EES) series of missions. Five classes of orbits (Geosynchronous, Circular-28 degree inclination, Polar-90 degree inclination, Sunsynchronous-97 degree inclination, Molniya orbit) and a set of candidate instrument payloads provided by the ESS Study Manager were used to formulate the basis for the ESS Communications Study. The study was performed to assess the feasibility of using Space Network or ground stations for supporting the communications, tracking and data handling of the candidate instruments that are proposed to be launched into the desired orbit.

  9. Performance analysis of instrumentation system management policies

    SciTech Connect

    Waheed, A.; Melfi, V.F.; Rover, D.T.

    1995-12-01

    Run-time trace data helps to debug and analyze the parallel programs. Obtaining and managing this data during run-time is the responsibility of an instrumentation system that incurs overhead. In its worst case, this overhead can result in severe perturbation of the behavior of the actual program. This paper presents a queuing model for an instrumentation system. The purpose is to provide a rigorous mathematical tool that could allow the analysis of the overhead of program behavior due to the instrumentation system management policies. We summarize the effects of two management policies: FOF and FAOF policies.

  10. Science Communication: Recognizing the Obligation to Effectively Inform Management and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, M. H.

    2006-12-01

    Society, managers and policy makers are increasingly calling upon the role of science to inform the development of sound and effective policy decisions. This growing recognition of the potential contributions of science is reflected in the recent frequency in which "science- based" decision making is required by policy recommendations and legislative acts. This endorsement of science-based decision making is motivated both by the ability of scientific information to guide relevant decisions, and by the perception of science as an objective mediator of contentious decisions in a political process. Only by active participation of scientists that are both objective and truly knowledgeable in the relevant science can science inform management and policy decisions effectively. Only by participation and effective communication of multiple scientific perspectives can science inform policy objectively. For society and policy makers to maintain and increase how much they value science in policy making, it is essential that scientists recognize the necessity, the obligation, to develop skills to effectively communicate scientific information to non-scientific audiences. I draw from recent personal experiences on the science advisory team to California's Marine Life Protection Act to provide examples of both the difficulty and necessity in participating and communicating effectively in policy making processes.

  11. Communicating Prevention Messages to Policy Makers: The Role of Stories in Promoting Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakis, Katherine A.; McBride, Timothy D.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2014-01-01

    Background While effective interventions to promote physical activity have been identified, efforts to translate these interventions into policy have lagged behind. In order to improve the translation of evidence into policy, researchers and public health practitioners need to consider new ways for communicating health promoting messages to state and local policymakers. Methods In this article, we describe issues related to the translation of evidence supporting physical activity promotion, and offer some communication approaches and tools that are likely to be beneficial in translating research to policy. Results We discuss the use of narrative (i.e., stories) and describe its potential role in improving communication of research in policy-making settings. In addition, we provide an outline for the development and design of policy briefs on physical activity, and for how to target these briefs effectively to policy-oriented audiences. Conclusions Improvements in researchers' and practitioners' abilities to translate the evidence they generate into high-quality materials for policy makers can greatly enhance efforts to enact policies that promote physical activity. PMID:20440020

  12. [Policy, management and participation in health: a reflection based on Habermas' theory of communicative action].

    PubMed

    Müller Neto, Júlio Strubing; Artmann, Elizabeth

    2012-12-01

    The article discusses the appropriation of the theory developed by Habermas to analyze health policies and management. The fundamental concepts of the discursive theory of democracy as a deliberative policy, procedural democracy, the public sphere and civil society are analyzed. An attempt is made to demonstrate that the concepts of deliberative policies are grounded on basic theoretical categories of Habermas's conception of language, namely the theory of communicative action (TCA): lifeworld and system; communicative action and discourse; the ideal speech situation. The possibility of translating the categories presented in analytical categories, such as the experiences of social participation in deliberative forums and the results for the formulation and implementation of policies and health management is discussed. The conclusion drawn is that the theoretical categories reveal great explanatory potential and analytical categories are important provided that they are mediated and contextualized. PMID:23175416

  13. An Extended Analysis of Communications Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Paul

    Quantitative techniques of content analysis were used on documentary and mass communication material from Communist China as a means of identifying and accounting for social, political, and economic change in that society. Articles from "The People's Daily" and the "China Youth Post," radio dispatches, wall posters, terms, and slogans were coded…

  14. The Department of Communications: A Plan and Policy for the Abolition of the Federal Communications Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Michael; Atkin, David

    This paper, maintaining that few areas of federal oversight have been as inconsistently addressed as that involving the regulation of broadcast and wire communication, presents and evaluates a proposal to abolish the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and National Telecommunications and Information Administration in favor of a cabinet-level…

  15. Board Adds Two New Members With Expertise in Communication and Science Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Christine W.

    2010-11-01

    AGU's Board of Directors approved two new members during a special teleconference on 8 November. The appointments are related to AGU's strategic plan goal of addressing science and society. Specifically, they add to AGU's expertise in science communication and policy outreach. Author Chris Mooney and policy advisor Floyd DesChamps join AGU's Board of Directors immediately and will serve the remainder of the 2010-2012 term.

  16. Design And Analysis Of Optical Communication Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, J. R.; Marshall, W. K.; Katz, J.

    1989-01-01

    To convey to prospective designers intuitive understanding based on unique characteristics of optical communication systems, report presents method of design and analysis of outer-space optical communication link using pulse-position modulation (PPM) and in which received signal sufficiently weak to require detection by photomultiplier operating in photon-counting mode. Step 1 requires some knowledge or assumptions about parameters of transmitter and receiver. Step 2 determination of average number of background-noise photons detected during PPM timeslot. Step 3 average number, Ps of signal photons detected per signal pulse compared with average number, Pn of noise pulses detected per PPM timeslot.

  17. Assessing and communicating data quality in policy-relevant research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanza, Robert; Funtowicz, Silvio O.; Ravetz, Jerome R.

    1992-01-01

    The quality of scientific information in policy-relevant fields of research is difficult to assess, and quality control in these important areas is correspondingly difficult to maintain. Frequently there are insufficient high-quality measurements for the presentation of the statistical uncertainty in the numerical estimates that are crucial to policy decisions. We propose and develop a grading system for numerical estimates that can deal with the full range of data quality—from statistically valid estimates to informed guesses. By analyzing the underlying quality of numerical estimates, summarized as spread and grade, we are able to provide simple rules whereby input data can be coded for quality, and these codings carried through arithmetical calculations for assessing the quality of model results. For this we use the NUSAP (numeral, unit, spread, assessment, pedigree) notational system. It allows the more quantitative and the more qualitative aspects of data uncertainty to be managed separately. By way of example, we apply the system to an ecosystem valuation study that used several different models and data of widely varying quality to arrive at a single estimate of the economic value of wetlands. The NUSAP approach illustrates the major sources of uncertainty in this study and can guide new research aimed at the improvement of the quality of outputs and the efficiency of the procedures.

  18. 77 FR 28655 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    .... The committee provides a formal channel for regular consultation and coordination on major economic... economic issues related to the Internet. Members of the public may submit suggestions and comments to the... of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy The Department of...

  19. The Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Script Policy in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Premaratne, Dilhara D.

    2009-01-01

    Information and communication technology appears to have had a profound impact on language use in Japan. An important issue arising from this is said to be the increase in the use of Chinese characters (kanji) outside the official standard. This development has made a re-appraisal of the existing script policy necessary in order to accommodate the…

  20. Legalized or Not? Poor Public Communication Causes Confusion over the New Cannabis Policy in Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelders, Dave; Van Mierlo, Jan

    2004-01-01

    During the last three years, the newly announced drug policy, specifically cannabis, has been the subject of debate between the Government and the opposition parties within the Belgian Federal Government. Public communication by the Federal Government and the competent ministers was incomplete, untimely, inconsistent, tendentious and polemical.…

  1. Communicating population issues in sub-Saharan Africa: a development policy for Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Pratt, C

    1986-01-01

    The author proposes a strategy for the development of a communication policy that would slow population growth, with particular reference to the situation in Nigeria and other African countries. The focus is on the involvement of individuals at the local level in discussion groups to create the atmosphere for developing small family norms. PMID:12280677

  2. Office of Telecommunications Policy; The White House Role in Domestic Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Network Project.

    In 1970, President Nixon created the White House Office of Telecommunications Policy (OTP) and appointed Clay T. Whitehead as its first director. This young office has attained influential power in the broad field of telecommunications and, some say, has jeopardized the independence of the public's communications custodian, the Federal…

  3. Recontextualizing Information and Communication Technologies: The Discourse of Educational Policies in Brazil (1995-2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreto, Raquel Goulart

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how Information and Communication Technologies (henceforth ICT) have been recontextualized in Brazilian educational policies, between 1995 and 2007, from a discourse analytical perspective, focusing on the dialectic relations between structures and strategies, especially as far as teacher education is concerned. It is divided…

  4. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Staff Paper Five. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Task Force on Communications Policy, Washington, DC.

    The second part of a staff paper to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy dealing with the domestic telecommunications carrier industry consists of the final two appendices. In the first, the history, structure, present services, and future plans of the Western Union Telegraph Company are discussed. Evidence is given that by allowing…

  5. The Production, Communication, and Contestation of Physical Education Policy: The Cases of Mississippi and Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Ben; Wright, Paul M.; Amis, John; Ferry, Hugh; Vardaman, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the production, communication, interpretation and contestation of new physical education (PE) and physical activity (PA) policy initiatives introduced in Mississippi and Tennessee for the academic year 2006-2007. These states provide a relevant context to study such issues, since Mississippi has the highest…

  6. An Introduction to Policy Analysis from an Hispanic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Emily G.

    Up until now Hispanics have not gotten involved in the policy analysis field. By learning to specifically assess the actual or potential impact of alternate policies or programs, it will be possible to help decision makers adopt policies which are more equitable to Hispanics. The following steps may help an individual carry out policy analysis:…

  7. The Deregulation of U.S. Communication Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeske, Milan D.

    This analysis of government regulation of America's broadcast service provides: (1) a historical view of radio and television regulation, including the doctrines of scarcity and public trustee and other areas affected by deregulation in particular; (2) an analysis of the argument for deregulation; and (3) an assessment of the First Amendment, the…

  8. The Impact of Various Definitions of "Policy" on the Nature and Outcomes of Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guba, Egon G.

    The impact of various definitions of the term "policy" on the nature and outcomes of policy analysis is illustrated by noting a variety of definitions which are implied in the literature. These definitions are applied to exemplar policy arenas to note their differential effect. The policy arenas discussed include the community corrections program…

  9. Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: The Changing Emphasis in Educational Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    Stemming from my article entitled, "Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: What is Policy?," this article refers to the changing landscape of educational policy analysis. Policy influences the nature of teaching and learning and if teachers are to re-centre teachers' voices and combat the neo-liberal agenda underpinning public education, they must…

  10. NCRP Program Area Committee 7: Radiation Education, Risk Communication, Outreach, and Policy.

    PubMed

    Becker, S M; Locke, P A

    2016-02-01

    Recognizing the central importance of effective communication, education, and policy across all of the domains of radiation safety and radiation protection, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) established a new committee in 2013. Program Area Committee 7 (PAC 7) was created to develop projects and provide guidance on "Radiation Education, Risk Communication, Outreach, and Policy." After identifying individuals with relevant expertise who were willing to serve, the Committee held its inaugural meeting in 2014. In 2015, the Committee increased its membership and began carrying out an expanded program of activities. One area of activity has involved providing input and feedback on risk communication issues to NCRP and other agencies. Another area of work has involved liaising with other NCRP committees (e.g., Council Committee 1 and PAC 3) to help incorporate psychosocial and risk communication issues into projects. Future efforts of NCRP's newest PAC are expected to include the development of authoritative reports and commentaries dealing with critical issues and challenges in radiation risk communication, education, and policy. PMID:26717162

  11. Information and Communication Technology in Teacher Education in Vietnam: From Policy to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeraer, Jef; Van Petegem, Peter

    2012-01-01

    During the school year 2008-2009, the Ministry of Education and Training of Vietnam launched the "Year of ICT" to produce a breakthrough in educational innovation. In light of this development we have carried out a policy analysis to study the national vision on ICT in education. The policy analysis takes into account a decade of governmental…

  12. 41 CFR 105-53.141 - Office of Policy Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Analysis. 105-53.141 Section 105-53.141 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.141 Office of Policy Analysis. The Office of Policy Analysis, headed by the Associate Administrator for Policy Analysis, is responsible for providing analytical...

  13. 41 CFR 105-53.141 - Office of Policy Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Analysis. 105-53.141 Section 105-53.141 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.141 Office of Policy Analysis. The Office of Policy Analysis, headed by the Associate Administrator for Policy Analysis, is responsible for providing analytical...

  14. A Policy Analysis of Nonformal Education: The Case of Bolivia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    This document discusses policy analysis of nonformal education by defining terms and then applying them to the specific case of Bolivia. A definition of policy is proposed and policy analysis is discussed in terms of political analysis and institutional analysis. The necessity for nonformal education is explored through historical background and…

  15. Breastfeeding policy: a globally comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Raub, Amy; Earle, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the extent to which national policies guaranteeing breastfeeding breaks to working women may facilitate breastfeeding. Methods An analysis was conducted of the number of countries that guarantee breastfeeding breaks, the daily number of hours guaranteed, and the duration of guarantees. To obtain current, detailed information on national policies, original legislation as well as secondary sources on 182 of the 193 Member States of the United Nations were examined. Regression analyses were conducted to test the association between national policy and rates of exclusive breastfeeding while controlling for national income level, level of urbanization, female percentage of the labour force and female literacy rate. Findings Breastfeeding breaks with pay are guaranteed in 130 countries (71%) and unpaid breaks are guaranteed in seven (4%). No policy on breastfeeding breaks exists in 45 countries (25%). In multivariate models, the guarantee of paid breastfeeding breaks for at least 6 months was associated with an increase of 8.86 percentage points in the rate of exclusive breastfeeding (P < 0.05). Conclusion A greater percentage of women practise exclusive breastfeeding in countries where laws guarantee breastfeeding breaks at work. If these findings are confirmed in longitudinal studies, health outcomes could be improved by passing legislation on breastfeeding breaks in countries that do not yet ensure the right to breastfeed. PMID:24052676

  16. Professional development through policy advocacy: communicating and advocating for health and health equity.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Lydia Berenice; Hernandez, Kristen Eileen; Mata, Holly

    2015-03-01

    Communicating and advocating for evidence-based public health policy is a key component of health promotion practice, but public health professionals often lack experience in policy advocacy. This article provides perspectives from public health professionals who participated in successful public health policy advocacy efforts in their community. Their experiences using evidence-based research to advocate for policies that promote health equity contributed significantly to their career development, and also contributed to community capacity to reduce tobacco-related disparities. This article builds on previous work emphasizing the value of career development opportunities that enhance and diversify the public health workforce, and provides practical tips and "lessons learned" that are relevant to a wide range of public health professionals. PMID:25416310

  17. Feminist Policy Analysis: Expanding Traditional Social Work Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanenberg, Heather

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to move the methodology of policy analysis beyond the traditional and artificial position of being objective and value-free, this article is a call to those working and teaching in social work to consider a feminist policy analysis lens. A review of standard policy analysis models is presented alongside feminist models. Such a…

  18. [Integrated model system for environmental policy analysis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lin

    2006-05-01

    An integrated model system for environmental policy analysis is built up with a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model as a core model, which is linked with an environmental model, air dispersion model, and health effect model (exposure-response functions) in an explicit way, therefore the model system is capable of evaluating the effects of policies on environment, health and economy and their interactions comprehensively. This method is used to analyze the effects of Beijing presumptive (energy) taxes on air quality, health, welfare and economic growth, and the conclusion is that sole presumptive taxes may slow down the economic growth, but the presumptive taxes with green tax reform can promote Beijing sustainable development. PMID:16850855

  19. Management and Communicator Style: A Correlational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Patricia Hayes; Baird, John E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between communicator style and managerial behavior in the organizational context and concludes that different styles of management which are typified by different styles of communication could significantly affect organizational communication practices. (MH)

  20. Design for an Analysis and Assessment of the Education Satellite Communications Demonstration: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Concepts, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A 3-month evaluation design effort developed a strategy and implementation plan for a policy level evaluation of the Educational Satellite Communications Demonstration (ESCD). The final report of the effort covers: (1) development of the evaluation strategy and plan; (2) data collection and analysis; (3) measurement of the impact of satellite TV…

  1. Cross-impacts analysis development and energy policy analysis applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Scheer, R.M.; Stacey, G.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe the cross-impact analysis process and microcomputer software developed for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPA) of DOE. First introduced in 1968, cross-impact analysis is a technique that produces scenarios of future conditions and possibilities. Cross-impact analysis has several unique attributes that make it a tool worth examining, especially in the current climate when the outlook for the economy and several of the key energy markets is uncertain. Cross-impact analysis complements the econometric, engineering, systems dynamics, or trend approaches already in use at DOE. Cross-impact analysis produces self-consistent scenarios in the broadest sense and can include interaction between the economy, technology, society and the environment. Energy policy analyses that couple broad scenarios of the future with detailed forecasting can produce more powerful results than scenario analysis or forecasts can produce alone.

  2. Educational Reform in Athletic Training: A Policy Analysis.

    PubMed

    Craig, Debbie I.

    2003-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To apply a policy-analysis framework to the athletic training educational reform policy that will be fully implemented by January 2004. DATA SOURCES: Policy analysis is not a specific science. No one framework exists for conducting all policy analyses. I used literature from the education, policy analysis, and athletic training fields as data sources to provide background and to create a framework from which to conduct the policy analysis. DATA SYNTHESIS: Once the policy-analysis framework was selected, I began data synthesis, using several athletic training sources in support of the findings. The tension among the myriad stakeholders in this policy is clear. Although many see the benefits of accreditation, some experience hardships from the imposed policy. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Of the 4 possible alternatives suggested, following the route currently under implementation (Committee on Accreditation of Health Education Programs accreditation) was the most agreeable solution. The goals as stated by the policy makers are attained by the policy. However, issues within the accreditation process itself need to be addressed. Of the many stakeholders in the reform effort, some will see little gain and have many hardships imposed on them. As the policy is implemented, unintended implications will likely arise, as with any new policy. Thus, I recommend that the National Athletic Trainers' Association develop a system dedicated solely to reducing the hardships faced by many of its members as the policy is implemented. PMID:14737218

  3. Educational Reform in Athletic Training: A Policy Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To apply a policy-analysis framework to the athletic training educational reform policy that will be fully implemented by January 2004. Data Sources: Policy analysis is not a specific science. No one framework exists for conducting all policy analyses. I used literature from the education, policy analysis, and athletic training fields as data sources to provide background and to create a framework from which to conduct the policy analysis. Data Synthesis: Once the policy-analysis framework was selected, I began data synthesis, using several athletic training sources in support of the findings. The tension among the myriad stakeholders in this policy is clear. Although many see the benefits of accreditation, some experience hardships from the imposed policy. Conclusions/Recommendations: Of the 4 possible alternatives suggested, following the route currently under implementation (Committee on Accreditation of Health Education Programs accreditation) was the most agreeable solution. The goals as stated by the policy makers are attained by the policy. However, issues within the accreditation process itself need to be addressed. Of the many stakeholders in the reform effort, some will see little gain and have many hardships imposed on them. As the policy is implemented, unintended implications will likely arise, as with any new policy. Thus, I recommend that the National Athletic Trainers' Association develop a system dedicated solely to reducing the hardships faced by many of its members as the policy is implemented. PMID:14737218

  4. Non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries: context, determinants and health policy

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. J.; Kinra, S.; Casas, J. P.; Smith, G. Davey; Ebrahim, S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The rise of non-communicable diseases and their impact in low- and middle-income countries has gained increased attention in recent years. However, the explanation for this rise is mostly an extrapolation from the history of high-income countries whose experience differed from the development processes affecting today’s low- and middle-income countries. This review appraises these differences in context to gain a better understanding of the epidemic of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Theories of developmental and degenerative determinants of non-communicable diseases are discussed to provide strong evidence for a causally informed approach to prevention. Health policies for non-communicable diseases are considered in terms of interventions to reduce population risk and individual susceptibility and the research needs for low- and middle-income countries are discussed. Finally, the need for health system reform to strengthen primary care is highlighted as a major policy to reduce the toll of this rising epidemic. PMID:18937743

  5. “…still waiting for chloroquine”: the challenge of communicating changes in first-line treatment policy for uncomplicated malaria in a remote Kenyan district

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Widespread parasite resistance to first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria leads to introduction of new drug interventions. Introducing such interventions is complex and sensitive because of stakeholder interests and public resistance. To enhance take up of such interventions, health policy communication strategies need to deliver accurate and accessible information to empower communities with necessary information and address problems of cultural acceptance of new interventions. Objectives To explore community understanding of policy changes in first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Kenya; to evaluate the potential role of policy communication in influencing responses to changes in first-line treatment policy. Methods Data collection involved qualitative strategies in a remote district in the Kenyan Coast: in-depth interviews (n = 29), focus group discussions (n = 14), informal conversations (n = 11) and patient narratives (n = 8). Constant comparative method was used in the analysis. Being malaria-prone and remotely located, the district offered an ideal area to investigate whether or not and how policy communication about a matter as critical as change of treatment policy reaches vulnerable populations. Results Three years after initial implementation (2009), there was limited knowledge or understanding regarding change of first-line treatment from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in the study district. The print and electronic media used to create awareness about the drug change appeared to have had little impact. Although respondents were aware of the existence of AL, the drug was known neither by name nor as the official first-line treatment. Depending on individuals or groups, AL was largely viewed negatively. The weaknesses in communication strategy surrounding the change to AL included poor choice of communication tools, confusing

  6. Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James

    2010-01-01

    NASA s communication work for the UAS Command and Control area will build upon work currently being conducted under NASA Recovery Act funds. Communication portions of UAS NextGen ConOps, Stateof- the-Art assessment, and Gap Analysis. Preliminary simulations for UAS CNPC link scalability assessment. Surrogate UAS aircraft upgrades. This work will also leverage FY10 in-guide funding for communication link model development. UAS are currently managed through exceptions and are operating using DoD frequencies for line-of-sight (LOS) and satellite-based communications links, low-power LOS links in amateur bands, or unlicensed Instrument/Scientific/Medical (ISM) frequencies. None of these frequency bands are designated for Safety and Regularity of Flight. No radio-frequency (RF) spectrum has been allocated by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) specifically for UAS command and control links, for either LOS or Beyond LOS (BLOS) communication.

  7. The Critical Policy Discourse Analysis Frame: Helping Doctoral Students Engage with the Educational Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses an issue of increasing significance in the context of taught educational doctorates and argues that this may have wider applicability for doctoral students across a range of social science disciplines. It identifies the need to engage with policy analysis as a key element of such programmes and attempts to address…

  8. The Virtual Environmental Microbiology Center - A Social Network for Enhanced Communication between Water Researchers and Policy Makers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective communication within and between organizations involved in research and policy making activities is essential. Sharing information across organizational and geographic boundaries can also facilitate coordination and collaboration, promote a better understanding of tech...

  9. Biases in the instrumental temperature record: the policy and communications context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowtan, K.; Way, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    Global surface temperature plays a significant role in the public perception of climate change. However, observations are not uniformly distributed over the surface of the planet. The lack of data for the rapidly warming Arctic in the Met Office HadCRUT4 dataset has led to a systematic underestimation of the rate of warming over the past decade and a half. Smaller biases have also been detected in other versions of the temperature record. This underestimation of recent temperature trends is one contributory factor (of several) to the apparent 'hiatus' in global warming. The use of the putative hiatus as an argument against action on global warming has created a social context in which what should have been a minor technical paper appeared to take on a much greater significance. From a scientific perspective, the apparent hiatus is irrelevant to our understanding of long term greenhouse warming, and should therefore have no bearing on policy. However the misinformation context into which science is communicated means that any scientific work can take on a policy significance which is determined not by the work itself, but by the societal context. This raises challenging ethical questions for scientists. In an information environment in which interested parties have already attached policy implications to many aspects of climate science, it becomes impossible to publish or communicate a scientific work without implicitly taking a position. Different segments of the public have different and often contradictory perceptions of the scientific context, and as a result the words of the scientist may convey completely different messages to different hearers. Communicating science in a way which does not mislead is difficult, however abandoning the effort at communication can lead to the public being more misled.

  10. Analysis of Relational Communication in Dyads: New Measurement Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, L. Edna; Farace, Richard

    Relational communication refers to the control or dominance aspects of message exchange in dyads--distinguishing it from the report or referential aspects of communication. In relational communicational analysis, messages as transactions are emphasized; major theoretical concepts which emerge are symmetry, transitoriness, and complementarity of…

  11. How do the public and policy makers communicate their perceptions of environmental risk to academics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    This paper investigates the ways that the public and policy makers talk about environmental risk to academics. The case study is heavy-metal contamination of food in Zambia, Southern Africa. In several localities in Zambia, urban agriculture is practised using heavy-metal contamination wastewater for irrigation. This leads to contaminated food crops that are subsequently consumed. One case study site where this occurs is Chunga, situated in the northwest of the Zambian capital: Lusaka. For members of the public, six focus groups were carried out at the Chunga, Zambia study site, involving a total of 48 participants. The participants were those involved in urban agriculture through cultivation, selling and consumption of food crops. Urban agriculturalist focus group participants were recruited through key field informants. Focus group discussion starter questions involved pollution awareness, health impacts of pollution in the area and who is responsible for communicating environmental contamination risks to the general population. For policy stakeholders, 39 semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals from various organisations including government ministries, non-governmental organisations, community based organisations and international institutions. Semi-structured interviews investigated the perceived major health issues in Zambia, food safety, environmental contamination and specifically heavy-metal contamination. Policy stakeholders were identified through policy mapping and organisations mentioned in focus group discussions and other interviews. The results at the Chunga study site show that members of the public perceive: (i) heavy metal pollution is not an issue in Lusaka and for their irrigation practices, (ii) dirty food can cause illness, (iii) heavy metals in foods can cause illness but they are not present at the Chunga site. Amongst urban agriculturalists the quantity of food available is the greatest issue, with some saying that they

  12. Economic analysis of nutrition interventions for chronic disease prevention: methods, research, and policy.

    PubMed

    Wong, John B; Coates, Paul M; Russell, Robert M; Dwyer, Johanna T; Schuttinga, James A; Bowman, Barbara A; Peterson, Sarah A

    2011-09-01

    Increased interest in the potential societal benefit of incorporating health economics as a part of clinical translational science, particularly nutrition interventions, led the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health to sponsor a conference to address key questions about the economic analysis of nutrition interventions to enhance communication among health economic methodologists, researchers, reimbursement policy makers, and regulators. Issues discussed included the state of the science, such as what health economic methods are currently used to judge the burden of illness, interventions, or healthcare policies, and what new research methodologies are available or needed to address knowledge and methodological gaps or barriers. Research applications included existing evidence-based health economic research activities in nutrition that are ongoing or planned at federal agencies. International and US regulatory, policy, and clinical practice perspectives included a discussion of how research results can help regulators and policy makers within government make nutrition policy decisions, and how economics affects clinical guideline development. PMID:21884133

  13. Narrative Policy Analysis and the Use of the Meta-Narrative in Participatory Policy Development within Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Narrative policy analysis is examined for its contribution to participatory policy development within higher education. Within narrative policy analysis the meta-narrative is developed by the policy analyst in order to find a way to bridge opposing narratives. This development can be combined with participants deliberating in a policy process,…

  14. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  15. The Reliability of Content Analysis of Computer Conference Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattleff, Pernille

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this article is the reliability of content analysis of students' computer conference communication. Content analysis is often used when researching the relationship between learning and the use of information and communications technology in educational settings. A number of studies where content analysis is used and classification…

  16. Understanding interprofessional communication: a content analysis of email communications between doctors and nurses

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C. N. C.; Quan, S.D.; Morra, D.; Rossos, P.G.; Khatibi, H.; Lo, V.; Wong, H.; Wu, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical communication is recognized as a major source of errors in hospitals. The lack of documentation of communication, especially among verbal interactions, often creates hindrances and impedes improvement efforts. By providing smartphones to residents and encouraging nurses to communicate with residents by email shifted much of the communication to emails which permitted analysis of content. Objective Description on the interprofessional email communication between doctors and nurses occurring on the general internal medicine wards at two academic hospitals. Design A prospective analysis of email communications between doctors and nurses. Setting 34 out of the 67 residents who were on the general medicine clinical teaching units consented to allow analysis of their emails over a 6 month period. Main measures Statistical tabulations were performed on the volume and frequency of communications as well the response time of messages. Two physicians coded the content of randomly selected emails for urgency, emotion, language, type of interaction, and subject content. Key results A total of 13,717 emails were available for analysis. Among the emails from nurses, 39.1% were requests for a call back, 18.9% were requests for a response by email and the remaining 42.0% indicated no response was required from physicians. For the messages requesting a response by email, only 50% received an email response. Email responses had a median response time of 2.3 minutes. Content analysis revealed that messages were predominantly non-urgent. The two most frequent purposes for communications were to convey information (91%) and to request action by the physician (36%). Conclusions A smartphone-based email system facilitated the description and content analysis of a large amount of email communication between physicians and nurses. Our findings provide a picture of the communication between physicians, nurses and other healthcare professionals. This work may help inform

  17. Standardizing Handoff Communication: Content Analysis of 27 Handoff Mnemonics.

    PubMed

    Nasarwanji, Mahiyar F; Badir, Aysel; Gurses, Ayse P

    2016-01-01

    This study synthesizes information contained in 27 mnemonics to identify what information should be communicated during a handoff. Clustering and content analysis resulted in 12 primary information clusters that should be communicated. Given the large amount of information identified, it would be beneficial to use a structured handoff communication tool developed using a participatory approach. In addition, we recommend local standardization of information communicated during handoffs with variation across settings. PMID:26845420

  18. Policies on Private Education: An Economics Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fengqiao, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Basic principles and analytical methods of economics are used to conduct a preliminary study of state policies for private education in China. It is evident that if public policy is to exert a positive effect on private education, the government must formulate policies at a higher level for private education and give equal attention to choice,…

  19. Policy as Practice: Toward a Comparative Sociocultural Analysis of Educational Policy. Sociocultural Studies in Educational Policy Formation and Appropriation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Margaret, Ed.; Levinson, Bradley A. U., Ed.

    Over the past 20 years, approaches to educational policy analysis have opened up to qualitative research methods and to sociocultural perspectives on schooling. This volume is a collection of studies that view educational policy from a variety of angles and at different levels of social life. It consists of 12 chapters: (1) "Are Pedagogical Ideals…

  20. Space Shuttle program communication and tracking systems interface analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, J. G.; Holmes, J. K.; Huth, G. K.; Iwasaki, R. S.; Nilsen, P. W.; Polydoros, A.; Sampaio, D. R.; Udalov, S.

    1984-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program Communications and Tracking Systems Interface Analysis began April 18, 1983. During this time, the shuttle communication and tracking systems began flight testing. Two areas of analysis documented were a result of observations made during flight tests. These analyses involved the Ku-band communication system. First, there was a detailed analysis of the interface between the solar max data format and the Ku-band communication system including the TDRSS ground station. The second analysis involving the Ku-band communication system was an analysis of the frequency lock loop of the Gunn oscillator used to generate the transmit frequency. The stability of the frequency lock loop was investigated and changes to the design were reviewed to alleviate the potential loss of data due the loop losing lock and entering the reacquisition mode. Other areas of investigation were the S-band antenna analysis and RF coverage analysis.

  1. An analysis of inpatient nursing communications needs.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David P; Coakley, Amanda; Reardon, George; Kuperman, Gilad J

    2004-01-01

    The health care environment is communications and information intensive. Nurses especially have communications as part of their routine activities, yet little is known about specific nursing communications needs and technologies that might address these needs. This project analyzed the specific communications needs of nurses at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in Boston, MA, through focus group meetings, nursing staff interviews, and direct observation of unit communications. Based on these data, an ideal requirements list for a nursing communication system was created. Data were also gathered and analyzed from units piloting cell phones as nursing communications tools. On non-cell phone units we found that the bulk of communication activity is from the front desk operations associate to the nurse through a sub-optimal overhead paging system that is often unclear or inaudible. The pilot of cellular phones has demonstrated improvements in nursing communications at MGH and there are indications that other emerging technologies will be better able to address the ideal communication needs of nurses. PMID:15361044

  2. Motor vehicle deaths: failed policy analysis and neglected policy.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Leon S

    2006-07-01

    The author of a recent book inferred that the slowed decline in U.S. vehicle fatality rates in the 1990 s relative to other industrialized countries resulted from too much emphasis on vehicle factors. He claimed that Canada had the same vehicle mix but a lower fatality rate. Actually, U.S. death rates by make and model applied to Canadian vehicle sales indicates that Canada's death rate would be the same as the U.S. if Canada had the same vehicle mix and annual miles driven. The U.S. had much greater growth in sales of large SUVs and pickup trucks that are heavier and stiffer than passenger cars, contributing to excess deaths of other road users in collisions. They are also more unstable, contributing to excess deaths of their occupants in rollovers. Lack of policy regarding these vehicle characteristics is the primary reason for the attenuated decline in vehicular fatality rates. PMID:16961196

  3. Modeling and Analysis Session: Market, Value, and Policy Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, R. M.

    2008-04-01

    The Primary objectives: to provide a broad range of analytical support to the Solar Program; and to anticipate and respond to the rapidly evolving analytical needs of the Solar Program. Three broad types of analysis are being carried out under this project including: (1) Market analysis: Developing a PV market penetration model--the SolarDS model--and other tools, in order to gain insight into the factors influencing market penetration of PV technology in U.S. markets. (2) Value analysis: Providing inputs to, support for, and review of the annual GPRA benefits analysis. Also developing methods and tools for improving the quantification of the benefits and cost of solar technologies. (3) Policy analysis: Defining and carrying out analysis that meets the needs of the Solar Energy Technologies Program in a timely fashion, for example evaluating the potential role of solar in the energy economy in the long-term.

  4. Communications satellite business ventures - Measuring the impact of technology programmes and related policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An economic evaluation and planning procedure which assesses the effects of various policies on fixed satellite business ventures is described. The procedure is based on a stochastic financial simulation model, the Domsat II, which evaluates spacecraft reliability, market performance, and cost uncertainties. The application of the Domsat II model to the assessment of NASA's ion thrusters for on-orbit propulsion and GaAs solar cell technology is discussed. The effects of insurance rates and the self-insurance option on the financial performance of communication satellite business ventures are investigated. The selection of a transportation system for placing the satellites into GEO is analyzed.

  5. Spacecraft Multiple Array Communication System Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Desilva, Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center is tasked to perform spacecraft and ground network communication system simulations, design validation, and performance verification. The CSSL has developed simulation tools that model spacecraft communication systems and the space and ground environment in which the tools operate. In this paper, a spacecraft communication system with multiple arrays is simulated. Multiple array combined technique is used to increase the radio frequency coverage and data rate performance. The technique is to achieve phase coherence among the phased arrays to combine the signals at the targeting receiver constructively. There are many technical challenges in spacecraft integration with a high transmit power communication system. The array combining technique can improve the communication system data rate and coverage performances without increasing the system transmit power requirements. Example simulation results indicate significant performance improvement can be achieved with phase coherence implementation.

  6. Communication-oriented person-organization fit as a key factor of job-seeking behaviors: millennials' social media use and attitudes toward organizational social media policies.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaehee; Park, Dong Jin; Ordonez, Zoa

    2013-11-01

    The main goal of this study was to assess how the millennial generation perceives companies that have different social media policies and how such perception influences key variables for job-seeking behaviors, including perceived person-organization fit (POF), organizational attraction, and job pursuit intention. Results from a univariate general linear model and path analysis supported all of the established hypotheses. In particular, the results revealed that millennials perceived higher POF for a company with organizational policies supporting employees' social media use. Further, organizational attractiveness significantly mediated the relationship between communication-oriented POF and job pursuit intention. PMID:23848961

  7. Lag Sequential Analysis: Taking Consultation Communication Research to the Movies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benes, Kathryn M.; Gutkin, Terry B.; Kramer, Jack J.

    1995-01-01

    Describes lag-sequential analysis and its unique contributions to research literature, addressing communication processes in school-based consultation. For purposes of demonstrating the application and potential utility of lag-sequential analysis, article analyzes the communication behaviors of two consultants. Considers directions for future…

  8. The Use of Exploratory Factor Analysis and Principal Components Analysis in Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hee Sun; Dailey, Rene; Lemus, Daisy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the distinct purposes of principal components analysis (PCA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA), using two data sets as examples. Reviews the use of each technique in three major communication journals: "Communication Monographs,""Human Communication Research," and "Communication Research." Finds that the use of EFA and PCA indicates…

  9. Methane Leakage from Natural Gas Systems: Comparisons, Communication, and Policy Relevance (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, C.; Clavin, C.; Mueller, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    several flaws that decrease the policy applicability of scientific results. These include inconsistent metric definitions (particularly related to the 'methane leakage' metric), inconsistent comparisons between studies with different scopes and temporal and spatial boundaries, and a failure to properly distinguish between emissions associated with oil, gas, and other co-products. We conclude that in order for policy decisions to be made in the needed timeframe given the current speed of development, scientists from different communities must work together to develop common strategies for communicating results and interpreting differences between highly different methods. This represents a significant challenge but one that is imperative for atmospheric scientists, engineers, and policy analysts to jointly solve in order to better inform national energy policy needs.

  10. Analysis of longitudinal data to evaluate a policy change.

    PubMed

    French, Benjamin; Heagerty, Patrick J

    2008-10-30

    Longitudinal data analysis methods are powerful tools for exploring scientific questions regarding change and are well suited to evaluate the impact of a new policy. However, there are challenging aspects of policy change data that require consideration, such as defining comparison groups, separating the effect of time from that of the policy, and accounting for heterogeneity in the policy effect. We compare currently available methods to evaluate a policy change and illustrate issues specific to a policy change analysis via a case study of laws that eliminate gun-use restrictions (shall-issue laws) and firearm-related homicide. We obtain homicide rate ratios estimating the effect of enacting a shall-issue law, which vary between 0.903 and 1.101. We conclude that in a policy change analysis it is essential to select a mean model that most accurately characterizes the anticipated effect of the policy intervention, thoroughly model temporal trends, and select methods that accommodate unit-specific policy effects. We also conclude that several longitudinal data analysis methods are useful to evaluate a policy change, but not all may be appropriate in certain contexts. Analysts must carefully decide which methods are appropriate for their application and must be aware of the differences between methods to select a procedure that generates valid inference. PMID:18618416

  11. Analysis of Longitudinal Data to Evaluate a Policy Change

    PubMed Central

    French, Benjamin; Heagerty, Patrick J

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal data analysis methods are powerful tools for exploring scientific questions regarding change and are well-suited to evaluate the impact of a new policy. However, there are challenging aspects of policy change data that require consideration, such as defining comparison groups, separating the effect of time from that of the policy, and accounting for heterogeneity in the policy effect. We compare currently available methods to evaluate a policy change and illustrate issues specific to a policy change analysis via a case study of laws that eliminate gun-use restrictions (shall-issue laws) and firearm-related homicide. We obtain homicide rate ratios estimating the effect of enacting a shall-issue law that vary between 0.903 and 1.101. We conclude that in a policy change analysis it is essential to select a mean model that most accurately characterizes the anticipated effect of the policy intervention, thoroughly model temporal trends, and select methods that accommodate unit-specific policy effects. We also conclude that several longitudinal data analysis methods are useful to evaluate a policy change, but not all may be appropriate in certain contexts. Analysts must carefully decide which methods are appropriate for their application and must be aware of the differences between methods to select a procedure that generates valid inference. PMID:18618416

  12. Tackling the Dilemma of the Science-Policy Interface in Environmental Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimorelli, Alan J.; Stahl, Cynthia H.

    2005-01-01

    Scientifically derived environmental indicators are central to environmental decision analysis. This article examines the interface between science (environmental indicators) and policy, and the dilemma of their integration. In the past, science has been shown to dominate many policy debates, usually with unfavorable results. The issue, therefore,…

  13. Reaching beyond Democracy in Educational Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Leigh

    2016-01-01

    Educational policy analyses have tended toward either the impact of policies on student achievement or the furthering of progressive ideals, regularly theorized through concepts of democracy. In this theoretical essay, I suggest that democracy has become a vehicle for cauterized projects of individualized and contingent state status rather than…

  14. Analysis of Interpersonal Communication Processes in Digital Factory Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütze, Jens; Baum, Heiko; Laue, Martin; Müller, Egon

    The paper outlines the scope of influence of digital factory on the interpersonal communication process and the exemplary description of them. On the basis of a brief description about the theoretical basic concepts of the digital factory occurs the illustration of communicative features in digital factory. Practical coherences of interpersonal communication from a human oriented view were analyzed in Volkswagen AG in Wolfsburg in a pilot project. A modeling method was developed within the process analysis. This method makes it possible to visualize interpersonal communication and its human oriented attribute in a technically focused workflow. Due to the results of a developed inquiry about communication analysis and process models of modeling methods it was possible to build the processes in a suitable way for humans and to obtain a positive implication on the communication processes.

  15. Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Andre

    The following essays on communication are presented: communication as a condition of survival, communication for special purposes, the means of transmission of communication, communication within social and economic structures, the teaching of communication through the press, the teaching of modern languages, communication as a point of departure,…

  16. To What Extent Does Transnational Communication Drive Cross-National Policy Convergence? The Impact of the Bologna-Process on Domestic Higher Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voegtle, Eva M.; Knill, Christoph; Dobbins, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates if transnational communication in the context of the Bologna Process (BP) has led to the convergence of higher education (HE) policies. The country sample includes both Bologna participants and non-participants, for which systematic knowledge about the implications of the BP is absent so far. We investigate study structures…

  17. Broadcasting and Telecommunications. Yukon 2000: Toward a Communications Policy. Part I: A Background Paper. Facts, Figures and Definitions and Part II. Policy Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yukon Dept. of Community and Transportation, Whitehorse.

    These two booklets, which describe the current status of communications in the Yukon Territory and consider future policy options, focus on the broadcasting industry, including radio and television, and the telecommunications industry, which comprises telephone, telegraph, and cable systems. The first booklet, a background paper, briefly describes…

  18. An analysis of nanoscientists as public communicators.

    PubMed

    Dudo, Anthony; Kahlor, LeeAnn; AbiGhannam, Niveen; Lazard, Allison; Liang, Ming-Ching

    2014-10-01

    The American public remains unfamiliar with nanotechnology despite more than a decade of investment and development. Nanoscientists have an opportunity to contribute to public conversations about their work, and its potential implications, through their engagement with lay audiences and media professionals. Indeed, the leaderships of many professional scientific organizations have placed a renewed focus on the public communication of science, particularly in the light of drastic changes in the information landscape and the increasing politicization of many technological and scientific issues. However, we have a limited understanding of nanoscientists' perceptions and behaviours regarding their participation in public communication. Here, we report survey results that provide an examination of the public communication behaviours of nanoscientists affiliated with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN), an integrated partnership of US research institutions designed to facilitate nanoscale research and development. Our results suggest that nanoscientists are relatively frequent public communicators who commonly associate their communication efforts with positive impacts on their professional success. We also identify a handful of characteristics that drive nanoscientists' intentions to communicate with the public about nanotechnology. PMID:25218326

  19. An analysis of nanoscientists as public communicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudo, Anthony; Kahlor, Leeann; Abighannam, Niveen; Lazard, Allison; Liang, Ming-Ching

    2014-10-01

    The American public remains unfamiliar with nanotechnology despite more than a decade of investment and development. Nanoscientists have an opportunity to contribute to public conversations about their work, and its potential implications, through their engagement with lay audiences and media professionals. Indeed, the leaderships of many professional scientific organizations have placed a renewed focus on the public communication of science, particularly in the light of drastic changes in the information landscape and the increasing politicization of many technological and scientific issues. However, we have a limited understanding of nanoscientists' perceptions and behaviours regarding their participation in public communication. Here, we report survey results that provide an examination of the public communication behaviours of nanoscientists affiliated with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN), an integrated partnership of US research institutions designed to facilitate nanoscale research and development. Our results suggest that nanoscientists are relatively frequent public communicators who commonly associate their communication efforts with positive impacts on their professional success. We also identify a handful of characteristics that drive nanoscientists' intentions to communicate with the public about nanotechnology.

  20. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU) has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010). This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA); action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames looking at investments and

  1. Strategic Sequencing for State Distributed PV Policies: A Quantitative Analysis of Policy Impacts and Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Krasko, V.A.

    2012-10-01

    State and local policymakers show increasing interest in spurring the development of customer-sited distributed generation (DG), in particular solar photovoltaic (PV) markets. Prompted by that interest, this analysis examines the use of state policy as a tool to support the development of a robust private investment market. This analysis builds on previous studies that focus on government subsidies to reduce installation costs of individual projects and provides an evaluation of the impacts of policies on stimulating private market development.

  2. Earth Sciences Changed Influence on the Public Policy Process, or How Congress Stopped Communicating with Geologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2005-12-01

    Measured in political capital, the latter third of the twentieth century was tough for geoscientists. Federal funding for geoscience research and development decreased between 1960 and 2000. Furthermore, although funds devoted to natural resources remained stable as a proportion of total federal expenditures over the same time, they declined by a factor of ten in proportion to the GDP in constant dollars. The size of the natural resource industry sector of the economy declined, as did the number of employed geologists. Geologists even disappeared as a separate category in federal statistical reports by 2000. Each of these indicators tells a portion of the story of how and why Congress stopped communicating with geologists as well as other physical scientists. Changes within the institution of Congress (e.g., lengthened careers, candidate centered politics, and the rise of conservatism) in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in economic expertise replacing the scientific. At the same time, while research and development in the geosciences required larger budgets, the practical application of the discoveries became less obvious to the public. When this was added to the rise of environmental protection in public policy geology was rendered politically vulnerable. Geologists were easily perceived by political actors as the old guard, which made them part of the problem. The hard won favored position held by geology at mid-twentieth century, built by leaders such as Powell, Nolan, and Peck evaporated as national policy shifted from resource exploitation to preservation. The language of the policy debate also shifted, with geologists moving quickly from insiders to outsiders in the policy game. Further compounding the situation, and possibly catalyzing it was the politicization of scientific expertise written into environmental preservation legislation in the 1970s. The high-level nuclear waste site selection process at Yucca Mountain is but one example of Congress passing the

  3. A Fault Tree Approach to Analysis of Organizational Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkin, Belle Ruth; Stephens, Kent G.

    Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is a method of examing communication in an organization by focusing on: (1) the complex interrelationships in human systems, particularly in communication systems; (2) interactions across subsystems and system boundaries; and (3) the need to select and "prioritize" channels which will eliminate noise in the system and…

  4. a System Design and Analysis for Satellite Communication Link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Tae-Jin; Eun, Jong-Won

    2000-12-01

    A satellite RF communication link is analyzed based on a simple fundamental equations by systematic approach in this paper. The number of variables related to a design and analysis of satellite RF link is often a dozen or more, thus it is a tedious and time-consuming task. With the given input data, the important parameters are calculated step by step and three communication characteristics such as communication channel capacity, carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) at the satellite and ground station are analyzed. It gives very useful information to the system engineers for designing and analyzing the overall satellite communication system in the conceptual design phase.

  5. Interpreting global energy and emission scenarios: Methods for understanding and communicating policy insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Leslie

    Energy scenarios for the 21st century powerfully inform perceptions and expectations in the minds of energy investors, consumers, and policy-makers. Scenarios that stabilize global warming call for large-scale energy technology transitions, fueling debates about the relative roles for a range of technologies including nuclear power, carbon sequestration, biofuels, solar power, and efficient end-use devices. In the last decade, hundreds of scenarios have been published by more than a dozen research teams using different models, baselines and mitigation targets. Despite the efforts to summarize findings in a few major assessments, a gap in understanding remains at a critical science-policy juncture between scenario analysts and the audiences their work is designed to serve. Addressing the issue requires an interdisciplinary approach that incorporates knowledge and methods from the fields of energy engineering, economics, climate science, and policy analysis. This research applies two analytical techniques to investigate the effects of an imposed climate policy on the underlying energy system. The first disentangles the effect of a policy intervention on key demographic and technology drivers of fossil fuel use, and the second decomposes reductions in emissions by specific energy technology types. Because the techniques may be applied to any energy scenario with technology detail, this study demonstrates their application to ten sample stabilization scenarios from three leading models. Revealing the importance of data and assumptions overlooked or not well disclosed in the past, the results highlight an implausibly high pressure on energy supply innovations while the potential for energy efficiency improvements is systematically underestimated. The findings are significant to both scenario analysts and the decision-makers in public policy and private investment who are influenced by their work.

  6. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 1999: Numbers 21-31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of articles 21-31 published in the electronic journal "Education Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 1999: (21) "Facing the Consequences: Identifying Limitations of How We Categorize People in Research and Policy" (Cynthia Wallat and Carolyn Steele); (22) "Teachers in Charter Schools and Traditional Schools: A Comparative…

  7. Policy Analysis of the English Graduation Benchmark in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Chih-Min

    2012-01-01

    To nudge students to study English and to improve their English proficiency, many universities in Taiwan have imposed an English graduation benchmark on their students. This article reviews this policy, using the theoretic framework for education policy analysis proposed by Haddad and Demsky (1995). The author presents relevant research findings,…

  8. A Practical Method of Policy Analysis by Estimating Effect Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The previous articles on class size and other productivity research paint a complex and confusing picture of the relationship between policy variables and student achievement. Missing is a conceptual scheme capable of combining the seemingly unrelated research and dissimilar estimates of effect size into a unified structure for policy analysis and…

  9. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2001: Numbers 12-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document consists of articles 12-22 published in the electronic journal "Educational Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 2001: (12) "Affirmative Action at Work: Performance Audit of Two Minority Graduate Fellowship Programs, Illinois IMGIP and ICEOP" (Jack McKillip); (13) "School Reform Initiatives as Balancing Acts: Policy Variation and…

  10. Constructing Bullying in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue; Tuters, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    As the prevalence and negative effects of bullying become widely known, people around the world seem desperate to solve the bullying "problem". A sizeable body of research about many aspects of bullying and a plethora of anti-bullying programmes and policies now exist. This critical policy analysis asks: how does Ontario, Canada's…

  11. Taking Legislators to the Field: Communicating with Policy Makers about Natural Resource Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawin, R. S.; Buchanan, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    Policy makers are among the most important audiences for scientific information. In particular, legislators, legislative staff, governmental agency staff, business leaders, environmental leaders, and others need accurate, objective natural-resource information to make policy decisions. This audience is busy and difficult to reach with technical information. As part of its public outreach program, the Kansas Geological Survey (a division of the University of Kansas) communicates directly with policy makers through an annual field conference. Operated since 1995, the conference presents information by combining field experiences, presentations by experts, and participant interaction. The primary objective is to give policy makers first-hand, unbiased information about the state's natural resource issues. The field conference takes policy makers to locations where natural resources are produced or used, or where there are important environmental issues, introducing them to experts and others who carry out (or are affected by) their decisions. The conference consists of three days of site visits, presentations, hands-on activities, and panel discussions. Participation is by invitation. Participants pay a small fee, but most costs are covered by co-sponsors, usually other state or local agencies, that are recruited to help defray expenses. Participants receive a guidebook before the trip. Travel is by chartered bus; lodging and meals are provided. Conferences have focused on topics (such as energy or water) or regions of the state. The most recent conference focused on cross-boundary issues and included stops in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. Written, post-conference evaluations are extremely positive. Legislators report that they regularly use conference information and contacts during the law-making process; conference information played a direct role in decisions related to underground natural-gas storage rules, water-rights by-back legislation, and sand and gravel

  12. Visualisation and communication of probabilistic climate forecasts to renewable-energy policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Sophie; Lowe, Rachel; Davis, Melanie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.; Rodó, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Despite the strong dependence on weather and climate variability of the renewable-energy industry, and the existence of several initiatives towards demonstrating the added benefits of integrating probabilistic forecasts into energy decision-making processes, weather and climate forecasts are still under-utilised within the sector. Improved communication is fundamental to stimulate the use of climate forecast information within decision-making processes, in order to adapt to a highly climate dependent renewable-energy industry. This work focuses on improving the visualisation of climate forecast information, paying special attention to seasonal time scales. This activity is central to enhance climate services for renewable energy and to optimise the usefulness and usability of inherently complex climate information. In the realm of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) initiative, and subsequent European projects: Seasonal-to-Decadal Climate Prediction for the Improvement of European Climate Service (SPECS) and the European Provision of Regional Impacts Assessment in Seasonal and Decadal Timescales (EUPORIAS), this paper investigates the visualisation and communication of seasonal forecasts with regards to their usefulness and usability, to enable the development of a European climate service. The target end user is the group of renewable-energy policy makers, who are central to enhance climate services for the energy industry. The overall objective is to promote the wide-range dissemination and exchange of actionable climate information based on seasonal forecasts from Global Producing Centres (GPCs). It examines the existing main barriers and deficits. Examples of probabilistic climate forecasts from different GPC's are used to make a catalogue of current approaches, to assess their advantages and limitations and, finally, to recommend better alternatives. Interviews have been conducted with renewable-energy stakeholders to receive feedback for the

  13. The visualisation and communication of probabilistic climate forecasts to renewable energy policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doblas-Reyes, F.; Steffen, S.; Lowe, R.; Davis, M.; Rodó, X.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the strong dependence of weather and climate variability on the renewable energy industry, and several initiatives towards demonstrating the added benefits of integrating probabilistic forecasts into energy decision making process, they are still under-utilised within the sector. Improved communication is fundamental to stimulate the use of climate forecast information within decision-making processes, in order to adapt to a highly climate dependent renewable energy industry. This paper focuses on improving the visualisation of climate forecast information, paying special attention to seasonal to decadal (s2d) timescales. This is central to enhance climate services for renewable energy, and optimise the usefulness and usability of inherently complex climate information. In the realm of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) initiative, and subsequent European projects: Seasonal-to-Decadal Climate Prediction for the Improvement of European Climate Service (SPECS) and the European Provision of Regional Impacts Assessment in Seasonal and Decadal Timescales (EUPORIAS), this paper investigates the visualisation and communication of s2d forecasts with regards to their usefulness and usability, to enable the development of a European climate service. The target end user will be renewable energy policy makers, who are central to enhance climate services for the energy industry. The overall objective is to promote the wide-range dissemination and exchange of actionable climate information based on s2d forecasts from Global Producing Centres (GPC's). Therefore, it is crucial to examine the existing main barriers and deficits. Examples of probabilistic climate forecasts from different GPC's were used to prepare a catalogue of current approaches, to assess their advantages and limitations and finally to recommend better alternatives. In parallel, interviews were conducted with renewable energy stakeholders to receive feedback for the improvement of existing

  14. [The population policy in Egypt: a case in public policy analysis].

    PubMed

    Hassan, A S

    1984-01-01

    This study, which attempts to shed some light on population policies adopted by the Egyptian government since 1962, examines 3 factors, which include: congruency of population policies with the prevalent religious beliefs; responsiveness of these policies to the actual needs of the people of Egypt; and legitimacy of the policies. 3 stages of the population policy are identified. The 1st stage started in 1962 when the Egyptian government adopted a policy which aimed at fertility reduction. The 2nd stage began in 1973 and involved a socioeconomic approach to fertility reduction, which considered 9 factors with known effects on fertility. These factors include: the socioeconomic standard of the family; education; women's status; mechanization of agriculture; industrialization; infant mortality reduction; social security; information, education, and communication (IEC); and family planning services. The 3rd stage was initiated in 1975 and involved a developmental approach to Egypt's population problem. This approach defined the problem as a reduction in the level of welfare of the people, attributable to any of the population factors such as size, distribution, and characteristics. The government took these factors into consideration when the Strategy of National Development was formulated for the 1978-82 period. In discussing family planning from the religious perspective, 2 levels should be distinguished. The first is the level of the individual family which involves its social, economic, and health conditions. The second is the level of the society as a whole, when birth control is viewed as a public policy adopted and enforced by the state. At this level, there is a consensus among Moslem Ulemas to disapprove such policies completely. The population policy failed to distinguish between these 2 levels. The agencies charged with the responsibility of policy implementation have misued the permission granted for the 1st level in propagating the cause of family planning

  15. Analysis of State Bullying Laws and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart-Cassel, Victoria; Bell, Ariana; Springer, J. Fred

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools has become widely viewed as an urgent social, health, and education concern that has moved to the forefront of public debate on school legislation and policy. The Columbine High School shooting in 1999 was the first of many high-profile incidents of violent behavior that appeared to implicate bullying as an underlying cause…

  16. Diversity Education Goals: A Policy Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Many U.S. colleges and universities have established student learning outcomes for diversity education in their general education programs. These education goals, frequently developed for assessment or other policy purposes, convey a range of possible purposes for diversity and multicultural learning. The manner in which these purposes are…

  17. Network analysis of team communication in a busy emergency department

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Emergency Department (ED) is consistently described as a high-risk environment for patients and clinicians that demands colleagues quickly work together as a cohesive group. Communication between nurses, physicians, and other ED clinicians is complex and difficult to track. A clear understanding of communications in the ED is lacking, which has a potentially negative impact on the design and effectiveness of interventions to improve communications. We sought to use Social Network Analysis (SNA) to characterize communication between clinicians in the ED. Methods Over three-months, we surveyed to solicit the communication relationships between clinicians at one urban academic ED across all shifts. We abstracted survey responses into matrices, calculated three standard SNA measures (network density, network centralization, and in-degree centrality), and presented findings stratified by night/day shift and over time. Results We received surveys from 82% of eligible participants and identified wide variation in the magnitude of communication cohesion (density) and concentration of communication between clinicians (centralization) by day/night shift and over time. We also identified variation in in-degree centrality (a measure of power/influence) by day/night shift and over time. Conclusions We show that SNA measurement techniques provide a comprehensive view of ED communication patterns. Our use of SNA revealed that frequency of communication as a measure of interdependencies between ED clinicians varies by day/night shift and over time. PMID:23521890

  18. Social determinants of health and health equity policy research: exploring the use, misuse, and nonuse of policy analysis theory.

    PubMed

    Embrett, Mark G; Randall, G E

    2014-05-01

    Despite a dramatic growth in SDH/HE (social determinants of health/health equity) public policy research and demonstrated government interest in promoting equity in health policies, health inequities are actually growing among some populations and there is little evidence that "healthy public policies" are being adopted and implemented. Moreover, these issues are typically failing to even reach governments' policy agendas, which is a critical step towards serious debate and the identification of policy options. This systematic review pursues three main objectives. First, is to identify barriers to SDH/HE issues reaching the government policy agenda. Second, to evaluate the characteristics of peer-reviewed research articles that utilize common policy analysis theories. And third, to determine the extent to which the SDH/HE literature utilizes common policy analysis theories. Our systematic review, conducted in June 2012, identified 6200 SDH/HE related articles in the peer-reviewed literature; however, only seven articles explicitly used a commonly recognized policy analysis theory to inform their analysis. Our analysis revealed that the SDH/HE policy literature appears to be focused on advocacy rather than analysis and that the use of policy analysis theory is extremely limited. Our results also suggest that when such theories are incorporated into an analysis they are often not comprehensively employed. We propose explanations for this non-use and misuse of policy analysis theory, and conclude that researchers may have greater influence in helping to get SDH/HE issues onto government policy agendas if they gain a greater understanding of the policy process and the value of incorporating policy analysis theories into their research. Using a policy analysis lens to help identify why healthy public policies are typically not being adopted is an important step towards moving beyond advocacy to understanding and addressing some of the political barriers to reforms. PMID

  19. DOE Integrated Security System (DISS) preliminary communication security analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document a technical approach to improve DOE Integrated Security System (DISS) dial-up communications security and the requirements to address them. This document is not intended as a comprehensive analysis of the security aspects of the DISS computer system but rather as an analysis of the dial-up communications security as it pertains to the use of the DISS database in the new DOE Automated Visitors Access Control System (DAVACS) procedures. Current access controls into the DISS will be discussed with emphasis on the DAVACS procedures. Recommendations will be provided for increasing the dial-up communications security into DISS as it relates to the automated visit procedures. Finally a design for an encrypted dial-up communication link to DISS will be given.

  20. A Survey of Telecommunications Technology. Part II. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Staff Paper One, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostow, Eugene V.

    The document contains the final four appendices to a staff paper submitted to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy. "The Digital Loop" describes changes in urban telecommunications which are predicted for 1970-80, considering three possible systems: paired wires with single analog signals (present telephones), coaxial cables with…

  1. Over the Horizon: Potential Impact of Emerging Trends in Information and Communication Technology on Disability Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderheiden, Gregg

    2006-01-01

    This policy paper explores key trends in information and communication technology, highlights the potential opportunities and problems these trends present for people with disabilities, and suggests some strategies to maximize opportunities and avoid potential problems and barriers. Specifically, this paper discusses technology trends that present…

  2. Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation. PMID:26450973

  3. Ad Hoc Networks: Headline 2000 Communications Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, W. D.; Reynolds, A. B.

    2002-06-01

    This report examines unit location data and terrain from Headline 2000 to investigate communications networks within the maneuver units. Within the Enhanced Combat Force timeframe, such units would be supported by a Tactical Data Distribution Sub-system (TDDS). This is envisaged as an ad hoc network changing its topology as units maneuver across the battlespace. The report describes approaches that can be applied to Headline 2000 and other data to characterize the nature of the network topology, both statically and as it changes over time, in order to explore the impact on the TDDS network capacity and hence to hence to assist in elucidating consequent requirements of a candidate TDDS.

  4. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue is devoted to discussions of early childhood policy issues. "Creating a Shared Vision: How Policy Affects Early Childhood Care and Development" (Judith L. Evans) defines policy, discusses the motivation for changing or creating national policy and the process for changing such policies, and provides a sample design for an early…

  5. Analysis of Malicious Traffic in Modbus/TCP Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tiago H.; Batista, Aguinaldo B.; Medeiros, João Paulo S.; Filho, José Macedo F.; Brito, Agostinho M.; Pires, Paulo S. Motta

    This paper presents the results of our analysis about the influence of Information Technology (IT) malicious traffic on an IP-based automation environment. We utilized a traffic generator, called MACE (Malicious trAffic Composition Environment), to inject malicious traffic in a Modbus/TCP communication system and a sniffer to capture and analyze network traffic. The realized tests show that malicious traffic represents a serious risk to critical information infrastructures. We show that this kind of traffic can increase latency of Modbus/TCP communication and that, in some cases, can put Modbus/TCP devices out of communication.

  6. A system for analysis and classification of voice communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Older, H. J.; Jenney, L. L.; Garland, L.

    1973-01-01

    A method for analysis and classification of verbal communications typically associated with manned space missions or simulations was developed. The study was carried out in two phases. Phase 1 was devoted to identification of crew tasks and activities which require voice communication for accomplishment or reporting. Phase 2 entailed development of a message classification system and a preliminary test of its feasibility. The classification system permits voice communications to be analyzed to three progressively more specific levels of detail and to be described in terms of message content, purpose, and the participants in the information exchange. A coding technique was devised to allow messages to be recorded by an eight-digit number.

  7. Analysis of Your Professional Liability Insurance Policy

    PubMed Central

    Sadusk, Joseph F.; Hassard, Howard; Waterson, Rollen

    1958-01-01

    The most important lessons for the physician to learn in regard to his professional liability insurance coverage are the following: 1. The physician should carefully read his professional liability policy and should secure the educated aid of his attorney and his insurance broker, if they are conversant with this field. 2. He should particularly read the definition of coverage and carefully survey the exclusion clauses which may deny him coverage under certain circumstances. 3. If the physician is in partnership or in a group, he should be certain that he has contingent partnership coverage. 4. The physician should accept coverage only from an insurance carrier of sufficient size and stability that he can be sure his coverage will be guaranteed for “latent liability” claims as the years go along—certainly for his lifetime. 5. The insurance carrier offering the professional liability policy should be prepared to offer coverages up to at least $100,000/$300,000. 6. The physician should be assured that the insurance carrier has claims-handling personnel and legal counsel who are experienced and expert in the professional liability field and who are locally available for service. 7. The physician is best protected by a local or state group program, next best by a national group program, and last, by individual coverage. 8. The physician should look with suspicion on a cancellation clause in which his policy may be summarily cancelled on brief notice. 9. The physician should not buy professional liability insurance on the basis of price alone; adequacy of coverage and service and a good insurance company for his protection should be the deciding factors. PMID:13489519

  8. Analysis of your professional liability insurance policy.

    PubMed

    SADUSK, J F; HASSARD, H; WATERSON, R

    1958-01-01

    The most important lessons for the physician to learn in regard to his professional liability insurance coverage are the following:1. The physician should carefully read his professional liability policy and should secure the educated aid of his attorney and his insurance broker, if they are conversant with this field.2. He should particularly read the definition of coverage and carefully survey the exclusion clauses which may deny him coverage under certain circumstances.3. If the physician is in partnership or in a group, he should be certain that he has contingent partnership coverage.4. The physician should accept coverage only from an insurance carrier of sufficient size and stability that he can be sure his coverage will be guaranteed for "latent liability" claims as the years go along-certainly for his lifetime.5. The insurance carrier offering the professional liability policy should be prepared to offer coverages up to at least $100,000/$300,000.6. The physician should be assured that the insurance carrier has claims-handling personnel and legal counsel who are experienced and expert in the professional liability field and who are locally available for service.7. The physician is best protected by a local or state group program, next best by a national group program, and last, by individual coverage.8. The physician should look with suspicion on a cancellation clause in which his policy may be summarily cancelled on brief notice.9. The physician should not buy professional liability insurance on the basis of price alone; adequacy of coverage and service and a good insurance company for his protection should be the deciding factors. PMID:13489519

  9. Chronic non-communicable diseases in Cameroon - burden, determinants and current policies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cameroon is experiencing an increase in the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which accounted for 43% of all deaths in 2002. This article reviews the published literature to critically evaluate the evidence on the frequency, determinants and consequences of NCDs in Cameroon, and to identify research, intervention and policy gaps. The rising trends in NCDs have been documented for hypertension and diabetes, with a 2-5 and a 10-fold increase in their respective prevalence between 1994 and 2003. Magnitudes are much higher in urban settings, where increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity (by 54-82%) was observed over the same period. These changes largely result from the adoption of unfavorable eating habits, physical inactivity, and a probable increasing tobacco use. These behavioral changes are driven by the economic development and social mobility, which are part of the epidemiologic transition. There is still a dearth of information on chronic respiratory diseases and cancers, as well as on all NDCs and related risk factors in children and adolescents. More nationally representative data is needed to tract risk factors and consequences of NCDs. These conditions are increasingly been recognized as a priority, mainly through locally generated evidence. Thus, national-level prevention and control programs for chronic diseases (mainly diabetes and hypertension) have been established. However, the monitoring and evaluation of these programs is necessary. Budgetary allocations data by the ministry of health would be helpful, to evaluate the investment in NCDs prevention and control. Establishing more effective national-level tobacco control measures and food policies, as well as campaigns to promote healthy diets, physical activity and tobacco cessation would probably contribute to reducing the burden of NCDs. PMID:22112686

  10. Performance Analysis for LTE Wireless Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tholhath, S.; Tiong, T. C.

    2015-04-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the new upgrade path for carrier with both GSM/UMTS networks and CDMA2000 networks. The LTE is targeting to become the first global mobile phone standard regardless of the different LTE frequencies and bands use in other countries barrier. Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) is used to increase the network capacity or downlink data rates. Various modulation types are discussed such as Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Spatial multiplexing techniques for 4×4 MIMO antenna configurations are considered. This paper has outlined various estimation techniques to increase the throughput of the LTE network by simulating the estimation techniques with various parameters in the LTE downlink mode 4 (spatial multiplexing). Three techniques i.e. channel estimation technique, estimation of channel models and MIMO receiver algorithm are simulated to provide the ideal LTE wireless communication system.

  11. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, Joyce

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  12. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  13. Classroom Communication and Instructional Processes: Advances through Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayle, Barbara Mae, Ed.; Preiss, Raymond W., Ed.; Burrell, Nancy, Ed.; Allen, Mike, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This volume offers a systematic review of the literature on communication education and instruction. Making meta-analysis findings accessible and relevant, the editors of this volume approach the topic from the perspective that meta-analysis serves as a useful tool for summarizing experiments and for determining how and why specific teaching and…

  14. Computer-Aided Communication Satellite System Analysis and Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagl, Thomas W.; And Others

    Various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. The rationale for selecting General Dynamics/Convair's Satellite Telecommunication Analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) in modified form to aid in the system costing and sensitivity analysis work in the Program on…

  15. Content Analysis as a Best Practice in Technical Communication Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Alexander; Evans, Mary; McBride, Alicia; Queen, Matt; Spyridakis, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Content analysis is a powerful empirical method for analyzing text, a method that technical communicators can use on the job and in their research. Content analysis can expose hidden connections among concepts, reveal relationships among ideas that initially seem unconnected, and inform the decision-making processes associated with many technical…

  16. Effects of Communication Partner Instruction on the Communication of Individuals using AAC: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kent-Walsh, Jennifer; Murza, Kimberly A; Malani, Melissa D; Binger, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) partner instruction intervention literature to determine (a) the overall effects of partner interventions on the communication of individuals using AAC, and (b) any possible moderating variables relating to participant, intervention, or outcome characteristics. Seventeen single-case experimental design studies (53 participants) met the inclusion criteria and were advanced to the full coding and analysis phase of the investigation. Descriptive analyses and effect size estimations using the Improvement Rate Difference (IRD) metric were conducted. Overall, communication partner interventions were found to be highly effective across a range of participants using AAC, intervention approaches, and outcome measure characteristics, with more evidence available for participants less than 12 years of age, most of whom had a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder or intellectual/developmental disability. Aided AAC modeling, expectant delay, and open-ended question asking were the most frequently targeted communication partner interaction skills. Providing a descriptive overview, instructor modeling, guided practice, and role plays were the most frequently incorporated communication partner intervention activities within the included studies. PMID:26059542

  17. Informing in the Information Age: How to Communicate Measurement Concepts to Education Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Forte, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Current educational policies rely on educational assessments. However, the technical aspects of assessments are often unknown to policy makers, which is dangerous because sound assessment policy requires knowledge of the strengths and limitations of educational tests. In this article, we discuss the importance of informing policy makers of…

  18. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2001: Numbers 46-51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document consists of articles 46 through 51 published in the electronic journal Education Policy Analysis Archives for the year 2001: (46) Second Year Analysis of a Hybrid Schedule High School (James B. Shreiber, William R. Veal, David J. Flinders, and Sherry Churchill; (47) Knowledge Management for Educational Information Systems: What Is…

  19. Incremental communication for multilayer neural networks: error analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, A A; Bhavsar, V C

    1998-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) involve a large amount of internode communications. To reduce the communication cost as well as the time of learning process in ANNs, we earlier proposed (1995) an incremental internode communication method. In the incremental communication method, instead of communicating the full magnitude of the output value of a node, only the increment or decrement to its previous value is sent to a communication link. In this paper, the effects of the limited precision incremental communication method on the convergence behavior and performance of multilayer neural networks are investigated. The nonlinear aspects of representing the incremental values with reduced (limited) precision for the commonly used error backpropagation training algorithm are analyzed. It is shown that the nonlinear effect of small perturbations in the input(s)/output of a node does not cause instability. The analysis is supported by simulation studies of two problems. The simulation results demonstrate that the limited precision errors are bounded and do not seriously affect the convergence of multilayer neural networks. PMID:18252431

  20. Comparative analysis of evaluation techniques for transport policies

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, David; Ryan, Lisa

    2011-04-15

    The objective of this paper is to examine and compare the use of a number of policy evaluation tools, which can be used to measure the impact of transport policies and programmes as part of a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) or sustainability appraisal. The evaluation tools that were examined include cost-benefit analysis (CBA), cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). It was concluded that both CEA and CBA are useful for estimating the costs and/or benefits associated with transport policies but are constrained by the difficulty in quantifying non-market impacts and monetising total costs and benefits. Furthermore, CEA is limited to identifying the most 'cost-effective policy' for achieving a single, narrowly defined objective, usually greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and is, therefore, not suitable for evaluating policy options with ancillary costs or a variety of potential benefits. Thus, CBA or CEA evaluation should be complemented by a complete environmental and socio-economic impact assessment approach such as MCDA. This method allows for participatory analysis and qualitative assessment but is subject to caveats such as subjectivity and value-laden judgments.

  1. Discourse analysis of an 'observation levels' nursing policy.

    PubMed

    Horsfall, J; Cleary, M

    2000-11-01

    The practice of special observation (or constant observation) is widely used in inpatient psychiatric facilities for the care of people who are suicidal. In this study, the policy of special observation was examined using a discourse analysis method to discern prevailing ideas and practices highlighted within the policy. After reading, studying and analysing the special observation nursing policy, the authors briefly describe the document and outline the terms and phrases prevalent within the document. These recurrent ideas are then organized into five categories: professional responsibilities, suicidality, the patient's immediate context, the patient's observable behaviour and the nursing checklist. In discussion of the policy document, the invisibility of the authors, target audience and patients is noted. The authors attempt to elicit evidence for the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship in the document. In the analysis of patient, nurse and doctor roles and responsibilities, it is evident that the policy document reinforces the traditional medical hierarchy of power relations. Some assumptions that underpin the document are postulated. Questions regarding the nature of risk assessment and the evidence base for the medical prescription of special observation are raised. As well as ideas and themes evident in the document, the absence of some relevant issues is explored. While the need for succinctness and clarity in policy documents is acknowledged, the fact that patient rights, therapeutic processes and ethical dilemmas are absent is deemed significant. PMID:11115015

  2. Pitfalls of CITES implementation in Nepal: a policy gap analysis.

    PubMed

    Dongol, Yogesh; Heinen, Joel T

    2012-08-01

    Implementation of policy involves multiple agencies operating at multiple levels in facilitating processes and actions to accomplish desired results. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was developed and implemented to regulate and control international wildlife trade, but violations of the agreement are widespread and growing worldwide, including in Nepal. This study attempts to understand how domestic CITES policies are translated into action and what effect actions and processes have on compliance. In doing so, this study provides insights into the implementation and enforcement pitfalls of national legislation that explain CITES violations in Nepal. Primarily, we used 26 key informants interviews to learn opinions of experts, and the grounded theory approach for further qualitative data analysis. In addition, we used Najman's (1995) policy implementation analysis framework to explain gaps. Many interrelated variables in the content of the policy, commitment and capacity of the agencies, the roles of clients and coalitions and contextual issues were observed. Variables that emerged suggest pitfalls in the regulatory policy represented by low probability of detection, arrest and punishment. Moreover, redistributive policies in buffer zones of protected areas are needed into perpetuity to benefit locals. Also, conservation organizations' support for building public and political salience is imperative. PMID:22706477

  3. Pitfalls of CITES Implementation in Nepal: A Policy Gap Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongol, Yogesh; Heinen, Joel T.

    2012-08-01

    Implementation of policy involves multiple agencies operating at multiple levels in facilitating processes and actions to accomplish desired results. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was developed and implemented to regulate and control international wildlife trade, but violations of the agreement are widespread and growing worldwide, including in Nepal. This study attempts to understand how domestic CITES policies are translated into action and what effect actions and processes have on compliance. In doing so, this study provides insights into the implementation and enforcement pitfalls of national legislation that explain CITES violations in Nepal. Primarily, we used 26 key informants interviews to learn opinions of experts, and the grounded theory approach for further qualitative data analysis. In addition, we used Najman's (1995) policy implementation analysis framework to explain gaps. Many interrelated variables in the content of the policy, commitment and capacity of the agencies, the roles of clients and coalitions and contextual issues were observed. Variables that emerged suggest pitfalls in the regulatory policy represented by low probability of detection, arrest and punishment. Moreover, redistributive policies in buffer zones of protected areas are needed into perpetuity to benefit locals. Also, conservation organizations' support for building public and political salience is imperative.

  4. Deciding State School Policy in Minnesota. An Analysis of Policy Participants, Influence Relationships, and Decision Processes in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzoni, Tim L.

    This report examines the process through which the Minnesota state government established school policy during the 1970s. The analysis focuses on who shaped state school policy and how they did it. The data come in part from personal interviews to determine the perceptions key participants had of the state school policy system. These interview…

  5. Dynamic Analysis of Communication and Collaboration in OSS Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinzger, Martin; Gall, Harald C.

    Software repositories, such as versioning, bug reporting, and developer mailing list archives contain valuable data for analyzing the history of software projects and its dynamics. In this chapter, we focus on the analysis of the communication and collaboration in software projects and present an approach that works on software archives with social network analysis techniques. Our tool called STNA-CockpitSTNA-cockpit provides both, a meta-model to represent communication and collaboration and a graph visualization technique to interactively explore instances of the meta-model. These instances are reconstructed from CVS, Bugzilla, and mailing list data. In a case study with the Eclipse Platform Core project data we demonstrate that with STNA-Cockpit one can observe project dynamics for certain periods of time. This allows, for example, project managers to early identify communication bottlenecks, contributor and expertise networks, or to understand how newcomers can be integrated fast and efficiently into their team.

  6. Computer-aided communication satellite system analysis and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagl, T. W.; Morgan, N. H.; Morley, R. E.; Singh, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations of the various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. A satellite Telecommunication analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) for costing and sensitivity analysis work in application of communication satellites to educational development is given. The modifications made to STAMP include: extension of the six beam capability to eight; addition of generation of multiple beams from a single reflector system with an array of feeds; an improved system costing to reflect the time value of money, growth in earth terminal population with time, and to account for various measures of system reliability; inclusion of a model for scintillation at microwave frequencies in the communication link loss model; and, an updated technological environment.

  7. Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, Donald D.

    1990-01-01

    Communication in its many forms is a critical component for an effective Space Grant Program. Good communication is needed within individual Space Grant College/Consortia, for example between consortium affiliates and the consortium program office. Effective communication between the several programs, NASA Headquarters, and NASA field centers also is required. Further, communication among the above program elements, industry, local and state government, and the public also are necessary for meeting program objectives.

  8. Economic Analysis of Nutrition Interventions for Chronic Disease Prevention: Methods, Research, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, John B.; Coates, Paul M.; Russell, Robert M.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Schuttinga, James A.; Bowman, Barbara A.; Peterson, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Increased interest in the potential societal benefit of incorporating health economics as a part of clinical translational science, particularly nutrition interventions, led the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health to sponsor a conference to address key questions about economic analysis of nutrition interventions to enhance communication among health economic methodologists, researchers, reimbursement policy makers, and regulators. Issues discussed included the state of the science, such as what health economic methods are currently used to judge the burden of illness, interventions, or health care policies, and what new research methodologies are available or needed to address knowledge and methodological gaps or barriers. Research applications included existing evidence-based health economic research activities in nutrition that are ongoing or planned at federal agencies. International and U.S. regulatory, policy and clinical practice perspectives included a discussion of how research results can help regulators and policy makers within government make nutrition policy decisions, and how economics affects clinical guideline development. PMID:21884133

  9. An analysis of aircrew communication patterns and content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oser, Randall L.; Prince, Carolyn; Morgan, Ben B., Jr.; Simpson, Steven S.

    1991-09-01

    The findings reported here represent a detailed analysis of tactical rotary-wing aircrew communication patterns and content. This research is part of an extensive effort to investigate the nature of tactical aircrew coordination and to develop effective mission-oriented aircrew coordination training. The primary objectives of this research were to answer the following questions: (1) What specific communication patterns and content are demonstrated by different helicopter crewmembers (i.e., Helicopter Aircraft Commander - HAC and Helicopter 2nd Pilot - H2P)? (2) Do tactical aircrew communication patterns and content vary as a function of the performance demands and requirements of different flight conditions (i.e., routine and non-routine)? (3) Are the communication patterns and content of more effective aircrews different from those of less effective aircrews? (4) What similarities exist between the communication patterns and content of military rotary-wing aircrews and commercial fixed-wing aircrews? and (5) Can the results of the communication analyses have an impact on aircrew coordination training?

  10. Can policy analysis theories predict and inform policy change? Reflections on the battle for legal abortion in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Surjadjaja, Claudia; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2011-01-01

    The relevance and importance of research for understanding policy processes and influencing policies has been much debated, but studies on the effectiveness of policy theories for predicting and informing opportunities for policy change (i.e. prospective policy analysis) are rare. The case study presented in this paper is drawn from a policy analysis of a contemporary process of policy debate on legalization of abortion in Indonesia, which was in flux at the time of the research and provided a unique opportunity for prospective analysis. Applying a combination of policy analysis theories, this case study provides an analysis of processes, power and relationships between actors involved in the amendment of the Health Law in Indonesia. It uses a series of practical stakeholder mapping tools to identify power relations between key actors and what strategic approaches should be employed to manage these to enhance the possibility of policy change. The findings show how the moves to legalize abortion have been supported or constrained according to the balance of political and religious powers operating in a macro-political context defined increasingly by a polarized Islamic-authoritarian—Western-liberal agenda. The issue of reproductive health constituted a battlefield where these two ideologies met and the debate on the current health law amendment became a contest, which still continues, for the larger future of Indonesia. The findings confirm the utility of policy analysis theories and stakeholder mapping tools for predicting the likelihood of policy change and informing the strategic approaches for achieving such change. They also highlight opportunities and dilemmas in prospective policy analysis and raise questions about whether research on policy processes and actors can or should be used to inform, or even influence, policies in ‘real-time’. PMID:21183461

  11. Can policy analysis theories predict and inform policy change? Reflections on the battle for legal abortion in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Surjadjaja, Claudia; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2011-09-01

    The relevance and importance of research for understanding policy processes and influencing policies has been much debated, but studies on the effectiveness of policy theories for predicting and informing opportunities for policy change (i.e. prospective policy analysis) are rare. The case study presented in this paper is drawn from a policy analysis of a contemporary process of policy debate on legalization of abortion in Indonesia, which was in flux at the time of the research and provided a unique opportunity for prospective analysis. Applying a combination of policy analysis theories, this case study provides an analysis of processes, power and relationships between actors involved in the amendment of the Health Law in Indonesia. It uses a series of practical stakeholder mapping tools to identify power relations between key actors and what strategic approaches should be employed to manage these to enhance the possibility of policy change. The findings show how the moves to legalize abortion have been supported or constrained according to the balance of political and religious powers operating in a macro-political context defined increasingly by a polarized Islamic-authoritarian-Western-liberal agenda. The issue of reproductive health constituted a battlefield where these two ideologies met and the debate on the current health law amendment became a contest, which still continues, for the larger future of Indonesia. The findings confirm the utility of policy analysis theories and stakeholder mapping tools for predicting the likelihood of policy change and informing the strategic approaches for achieving such change. They also highlight opportunities and dilemmas in prospective policy analysis and raise questions about whether research on policy processes and actors can or should be used to inform, or even influence, policies in 'real-time'. PMID:21183461

  12. Integrated communication and control systems. I - Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halevi, Yoram; Ray, Asok

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an ICCS analysis focusing on discrete-time control systems subject to time-varying delays. The present analytical technique is applicable to integrated dynamic systems such as those encountered in advanced aircraft, spacecraft, and the real-time control of robots and machine tools via a high-speed network within an autonomous manufacturing environment. The significance of data latency and missynchronization between individual system components in ICCS networks is discussed in view of the time-varying delays.

  13. SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative): a policy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fought, S.O.

    1987-01-01

    Contents include -- Foundations of Deterrence; A Model for Stability; Analysis of SDI/Stability; Related Issues; Treatment of Implementation Factors; Historical Evolution and Trends; The Strategic Choices and Flexible Response; The Planners' Perspective; The Impact of Strategic Defense on a Strategy of Flexible Response; Synthesis.

  14. Social Judgment Analysis: Methodology for Improving Interpersonal Communication and Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbaugh, John; Harmon, Joel

    Research has found the Social Judgment Analysis (SJA) approach, with its focus on judgment policy and cognitive feedback, to be a significant factor in developing group member agreement and improving member performance. A controlled experiment was designed to assess the relative quality of the judgment making process provided by SJA.…

  15. A Discourse Analysis of Student Perceptions of Their Communication Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Eugenie P.

    This paper presents the conclusions of a study of student perceptions of communication competence. Discourse analysis data was collected on students in university systems in six different American states in the East, Midwest, and South. Student discourse was analyzed for differences in the ways in which students described their perceptions of…

  16. Analysis of Multiple Manding Topographies during Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Jay W.; Wacker, David P.; Berg, Wendy K.; Winborn-Kemmerer, Lisa; Lee, John F.; Ibrahimovic, Muska

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of reinforcing multiple manding topographies during functional communication training (FCT) to decrease problem behavior for three preschool-age children. During Phase 1, a functional analysis identified conditions that maintained problem behavior for each child. During Phase 2, the children's parents taught them to…

  17. Graphic Communications--Commercial Photography. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for graphic communications--commercial photography. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the…

  18. Role of Communication Networks in Behavioral Systems Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houmanfar, Ramona; Rodrigues, Nischal Joseph; Smith, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of communication networks and the role of verbal behavior in behavioral systems analysis. Our discussion highlights styles of leadership in the design and implementation of effective organizational contingencies that affect ways by which coordinated work practices are managed. We draw upon literature pertaining to…

  19. A Semantic Network Analysis of the International Communication Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerfel, Marya L.; Barnett, George A.

    1999-01-01

    Finds that a semantic network analysis of the International Communication Association (ICA) based on paper titles presented at its 1991 conference had a high degree of correspondence with the affiliation structure. Suggests validity of the procedures employed for determining semantic networks. Interprets results in regard to this journal's…

  20. Alcohol policy in a Russian region: a stakeholder analysis

    PubMed Central

    Polikina, Olga; Koroleva, Natalia; Leon, David A.; McKee, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Male life expectancy in the Russian Federation, at 60 years, is the lowest in Europe. Several factors contribute to this situation, but hazardous consumption of alcohol is especially a key factor. Methods: We undertook a stakeholder analysis in a typical Russian region located on the western side of the Urals. Organizations with a stake in alcohol policy in the region were identified by snowball sampling and information on their position and influence on alcohol policy was elicited from interviews with key informants. Their interests and influence were mapped and their relationships plotted. Results: Twenty-nine stakeholder organizations were identified and 43 interviews were conducted with their staff. The most influential actors were the Federal and regional governments, large beer producers and manufacturers of strong alcohols. However, the majority of organizations that might be expected to play a role in developing or implementing alcohol control policies were almost entirely disengaged and fragmented. No evidence was found of an existing or emerging multi-sectoral coalition for developing alcohol policy to improve health. Organizations that might be expected to contribute to tackling hazardous drinking had little understanding of what might be effective. Conclusions: While stakeholders with an interest in maintaining or increasing alcohol consumption are engaged and influential, those who might seek to reduce it either take a very narrow perspective or are disengaged from the policy agenda. There is a need to mobilize actors who might contribute to effective policies while challenging those who can block them. PMID:20350932

  1. Analysis of Computer-Mediated Communication: Using Formal Concept Analysis as a Visualizing Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hara, Noriko

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the use of Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) as a methodology to visualize the data in computer-mediated communication. Bases FCA on a mathematical lattice theory and offers visual maps (graphs) with conceptual hierarchies, and proposes use of FCA combined with content analysis to analyze computer-mediated communication. (Author/LRW)

  2. Tobacco control in the Russian Federation- a policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Russian Federation (Russia) has one of the highest smoking rates in the world. The purpose of this study is to analyze past and current trends of the tobacco epidemic in the Russian Federation, review current tobacco control policy responses, and identify areas of opportunity for policy priorities. Methods We used a policy triangle as analytical framework to examine content, context, and processes of Russian tobacco control policy. The analysis was based on secondary data on supply and demand sides of the Russian tobacco epidemic, tobacco-related economic and health effects during Russia’s economic transition, and compliance of Russian tobacco policy with international standards and regulations. Results Tobacco-promoting strategies have specifically targeted women and youth. Russia’s approval of a “National Tobacco Control Concept” and draft for a comprehensive tobacco control bill increasingly align national legislature with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). However, several structural and cultural factors represent substantial barriers to the policy process. The influence of transnational tobacco companies on policy processes in Russia has so far impeded a full implementation of the FCTC mandates. Conclusions Several strategies have been identified as having the potential to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use in Russia and decrease tobacco-related national health and economic burden: adjusting national tobacco policy by raising tobacco tax from the current lowest level in Europe to at least 70%; consequent enforcement of a complete smoking ban in public places; marketing restrictions; and smoking cessation interventions integrated into primary care. Russia’s tobacco control efforts need to target women and youths specifically to efficiently counter industry efforts. PMID:23339756

  3. The Effect of Definitions of "Policy" on the Nature and Outcomes of Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guba, Egon G.

    1984-01-01

    Presents eight definitions of "policy" that are implied in the literature and, by applying these definitions in three policy arenas, notes their differential effects in terms of policy questions, data collected, data sources, methodology, and policy products. (MLF)

  4. Content Analysis as a Foundation for Programmatic Research in Communication.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D

    2013-06-01

    Previous arguments that content analyses provide the descriptive foundation for media effects research (McLeod & Reeves, 1980) are extended to include that content analyses can provide a sound and useful foundation for programmatic research by individual communication scientists. I discuss examples from my own work and from that of colleagues in communication and related disciplines. Use of messages sampled and coded in a content analysis in combination with survey data sets or as stimuli in experiments are highlighted. The particular potential for employing larger numbers of randomly sampled messages in experimental designs, and, with use of appropriate statistical methods, being able to generalize to populations of messages, is described. PMID:23914276

  5. Education Policy Analysis and the Rent-a-Troika Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Dale

    Educational policy analysis consists of a "troika" of major components--politics (or power), technology (ideas), and service delivery (workers). Three case studies of New York City programs illustrate how the components interact in different situations. The city's School Improvement Project aims to make schools more effective in teaching poor…

  6. A Policy Analysis of Public School Retirement Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tara; Teeter, Matt

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this policy analysis was to examine the Missouri Public School Retirement System (PSRS). The team investigated the under-funding of PSRS, relating to sustainability and the feasibility of the system's use of one lever, contribution rate, to stabilize the retirement system, and to meet actuary needs and governmental requirements. The…

  7. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2001: Numbers 23-45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document consists of articles 23-45 published in the electronic journal "Education Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 2001: (23) "La Participacion de las Minorias Nacionales dentro de Sistemas Educativas Pre-Modernos: El Caso de los Garifunas de Guatemala" (Carlos R. Ruano); (24) "'Alexander v. Sandoval': A Setback for Civil Rights"…

  8. Policy Analysis for Rural Development and Growth Management in Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, John S.; Duff, Mary K.

    Providing a broad analysis of Colorado's rural problems, the body of this report enumerates rural development and growth management problems; describes remedies worth study; and suggests a policy making system. The Appendix presents supporting material, including comparative socioeconomic data on each Colorado county. Opportunities and threats…

  9. A Scale Analysis of the Effects of US Federal Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandya, Jessica Zacher

    2012-01-01

    In this essay I argue that the effects of federal policy can be examined through a scale analysis that helps deconstruct the effect of the current widespread accountability movement in the US educational system. I first discuss the concept of scale, including its thus-far limited use in educational research. I define scales not only as…

  10. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 1999: Numbers 1-20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of articles 1-20 published in the electronic journal "Educational Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 1999: (1) "Ethnic Segregation in Arizona Charter Schools" (Casey D. Cobb and Gene V. Glass); (2) "Educational Research in Latin America: A Response to Akkari and Perez" (Mariano Narodowski); (3) "Effects on Students of a…

  11. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2002: Numbers 26-50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    This document consists of articles 26 through 50 published in the electronic journal "Education Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 2002: (26) "Home Schooling in the United States: Trends and Characteristics" (Kurt J. Bauman); (27) "Mentoring Narratives ON-LINE: Teaching the Principalship" (Alison I. Griffith and Svitlana Taraban); (28) "Elm…

  12. Comparative Analysis, Global Policy Studies and the Human Condition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertsch, Gary K.

    This paper examines the role that comparative analysis and global policy studies can play in explaining the human condition in the contemporary world. It investigates economic well-being, one dimension of the human condition, and examines some of the attributes that represent it and some of the forces that affect it in villages, social groupings,…

  13. A Unified Framework for Monetary Theory and Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagos, Ricardo; Wright, Randall

    2005-01-01

    Search-theoretic models of monetary exchange are based on explicit descriptions of the frictions that make money essential. However, tractable versions of these models typically make strong assumptions that render them ill suited for monetary policy analysis. We propose a new framework, based on explicit micro foundations, within which macro…

  14. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2002: Numbers 1-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of articles 1 through 25 published in the electronic journal Education Policy Analysis Archives for the year 2002: (1) Testing and Diversity in Postsecondary Education: The Case of California (Daniel Koretz, Michael Russell, Chingwei David Shin, Cathy Horn, and Kelly Shasby); (2) State-Mandated Testing and Teachers Beliefs…

  15. A Critical Policy Analysis of Texas' "Closing the Gaps 2015"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Thackik, Stefani Leigh

    2016-01-01

    This critical policy analysis uses critical race theory to provide a counter narrative to the P-16 initiative in Texas known as "Closing the Gaps 2015". Findings indicate that while these reforms aim to increase educational access and achievement for people of color, they fall short of addressing systemic inequities such as enduring…

  16. Tradeoff Analysis for Combat Service Support Wireless Communications Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Burnette, John R.; Thibodeau, Christopher C.; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2002-02-28

    As the Army moves toward more mobile and agile forces and continued sustainment of numerous high-cost legacy logistics management systems, the requirement for wireless connectivity and a wireless network to supporting organizations has become ever more critical. There are currently several Army communications initiatives underway to resolve this wireless connectivity issue. However, to fully appreciate and understand the value of these initiatives, a Tradeoff Analysis is needed. The present study seeks to identify and assess solutions. The analysis identified issues that impede Interim Brigade Combat Team (IBCT) communication system integration and outlined core requirements for sharing of logistics data between the field and Army battle command systems. Then, the analysis examined wireless communication alternatives as possible solutions for IBCT logistics communications problems. The current baseline system was compared with possible alternatives involving tactical radio systems, wireless/near term digital radio, cellular satellite, and third-generation (3G) wireless technologies. Cellular satellite and 3G wireless technologies offer clear advantages and should be considered for later IBCTs.

  17. Using Sentiment Analysis to Observe How Science is Communicated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, David; Illingworth, Sam

    2016-04-01

    'Citizen Science' and 'Big data' are terms that are currently ubiquitous in the field of science communication. Whilst opinions differ as to what exactly constitutes a 'citizen', and how much information is needed in order for a data set to be considered truly 'big', what is apparent is that both of these fields have the potential to help revolutionise not just the way that science is communicated, but also the way that it is conducted. However, both the generation of sufficient data, and the efficiency of then analysing the data once it has been analysed need to be taken into account. Sentiment Analysis is the process of determining whether a piece of writing is positive, negative or neutral. The process of sentiment analysis can be automated, providing that an adequate training set has been used, and that the nuances that are associated with a particular topic have been accounted for. Given the large amounts of data that are generated by social media posts, and the often-opinionated nature of these posts, they present an ideal source of data to both train with and then scrutinize using sentiment analysis. In this work we will demonstrate how sentiment analysis can be used to examine a large number of Twitter posts, and how a training set can be established to ensure consistency and accuracy in the automation. Following an explanation of the process, we will demonstrate how automated sentiment analysis can be used to categorise opinions in relation to a large-scale science festival, and will discuss if sentiment analysis can be used to tell us if there is a bias in these communications. We will also investigate if sentiment analysis can be used to replace more traditional, and invasive evaluation strategies, and how this approach can then be adopted to investigate other topics, both within scientific communication and in the wider scientific context.

  18. Development of the free-space optical communications analysis software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeganathan, Muthu; Mecherle, G. Stephen; Lesh, James R.

    1998-05-01

    The Free-space Optical Communication Analysis Software (FOCAS) was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to provide mission planners, systems engineers and communications engineers with an easy to use tool to analyze direct-detection optical communication links. The FOCAS program, implemented in Microsoft Excel, gives it all the power and flexibility built into the spreadsheet. An easy-to-use interface, developed using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), to the spreadsheet allows easy input of data and parameters. A host of pre- defined components allow an analyst to configure a link without having to know the details of the components. FOCAS replaces the over-a-decade-old FORTRAN program called OPTI widely used previously at JPL. This paper describes the features and capabilities of the Excel-spreadsheet-based FOCAS program.

  19. Content of the Business Communication Course: An Analysis of Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardrope, William J.; Bayless, Marsha L.

    1999-01-01

    Examines 229 responses from members of the Association for Business Communication (United States) who rated the importance of 30 business communication concepts that were divided into six categories: communication theory, written communication, oral communication, employment communication, technology, and current business communication issues.…

  20. Space Shuttle Communications Coverage Analysis for Thermal Tile Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroll, Quin D.; Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Boster, John P.; Chavez, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    The space shuttle ultra-high frequency Space-to-Space Communication System has to provide adequate communication coverage for astronauts who are performing thermal tile inspection and repair on the underside of the space shuttle orbiter (SSO). Careful planning and quantitative assessment are necessary to ensure successful system operations and mission safety in this work environment. This study assesses communication systems performance for astronauts who are working in the underside, non-line-of-sight shadow region on the space shuttle. All of the space shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) transmitting antennas are blocked by the SSO structure. To ensure communication coverage at planned inspection worksites, the signal strength and link margin between the SSO/ISS antennas and the extravehicular activity astronauts, whose line-of-sight is blocked by vehicle structure, was analyzed. Investigations were performed using rigorous computational electromagnetic modeling techniques. Signal strength was obtained by computing the reflected and diffracted fields along the signal propagation paths between transmitting and receiving antennas. Radio frequency (RF) coverage was determined for thermal tile inspection and repair missions using the results of this computation. Analysis results from this paper are important in formulating the limits on reliable communication range and RF coverage at planned underside inspection and repair worksites.

  1. Best of enemies: Using social network analysis to explore a policy network in European smoke-free policy.

    PubMed

    Weishaar, Heide; Amos, Amanda; Collin, Jeff

    2015-05-01

    Networks and coalitions of stakeholders play a crucial role in the development and implementation of policies, with previous research highlighting that networks in tobacco control are characterised by an antagonism between supporters and opponents of comprehensive tobacco control policies. This UK-based study used quantitative and qualitative network analysis (drawing on 176 policy submissions and 32 interviews) to systematically map and analyse a network of actors involved in the development of European Union (EU) smoke-free policy. Policy debates were dominated by two coalitions of stakeholders with starkly opposing positions on the issue. One coalition, consisting primarily of health-related organisations, supported comprehensive EU smoke-free policy, whereas the other, led by tobacco manufacturers' organisations, opposed the policy initiative. The data suggest that, aided by strong political commitment of EU decision makers to develop smoke-free policy, advocates supporting comprehensive EU policy were able to frame policy debates in ways which challenged the tobacco industry's legitimacy. They then benefited from the stark polarisation between the two coalitions. The paper provides empirical evidence of the division between two distinct coalitions in tobacco policy debates and draws attention to the complex processes of consensus-seeking, alliance-building and strategic action which are integral to the development of EU policy. Highlighting network polarisation and industry isolation as factors which seemed to increase tobacco control success, the study demonstrates the potential significance and value of FCTC article 5.3 for tobacco control policy-making. PMID:25863723

  2. Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys

    PubMed Central

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. Methods and analysis A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, ‘environmental equity’ indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International ‘best practice benchmarks’ will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. Dissemination This research is highly original due to the very ‘upstream’ approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to

  3. Using Decision Analysis to Improve Malaria Control Policy Making

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Randall; Dickinson, Katherine L.; Anderson, Richard M.; Fowler, Vance G.; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Mutero, Clifford M.; Saterson, Kathryn A.; Wiener, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria and other vector-borne diseases represent a significant and growing burden in many tropical countries. Successfully addressing these threats will require policies that expand access to and use of existing control methods, such as insecticide-treated bed nets and artemesinin combination therapies for malaria, while weighing the costs and benefits of alternative approaches over time. This paper argues that decision analysis provides a valuable framework for formulating such policies and combating the emergence and re-emergence of malaria and other diseases. We outline five challenges that policy makers and practitioners face in the struggle against malaria, and demonstrate how decision analysis can help to address and overcome these challenges. A prototype decision analysis framework for malaria control in Tanzania is presented, highlighting the key components that a decision support tool should include. Developing and applying such a framework can promote stronger and more effective linkages between research and policy, ultimately helping to reduce the burden of malaria and other vector-borne diseases. PMID:19356821

  4. Administrative Policy Analysis, Budgeting, Implementation, and Evaluation: An Overview to Policy/Program Analysis and Evaluation Techniques, Package VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneke, Gregory A.; Steiss, Alan Walter

    This overview serves as an introduction to a series of ten curriculum modules that comprise a portion of the National Training and Development Service Urban Management Curriculum Development Project. The overview was designed to provide a generalized discussion of the field of government policy/program analysis and evaluation. The training program…

  5. , Analysis of U.S. Net Metering and Interconnection Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, Rusty; Cook, Chris

    2006-07-01

    Historically, the absence of interconnection standards has been one of the primary barriers to the deployment of distributed generation (DG) in the United States. Although significant progress in the development of interconnection standards was achieved at both the federal and state levels in 2005, interconnection policy and net-metering policy continue to confound regulators, lawmakers, DG businesses, clean-energy advocates and consumers. For this reason it is critical to keep track of developments related to these issues. The North Carolina Solar Center (NCSC) is home to two Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) projects -- the National Interconnection Project and the Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy (DSIRE). This paper will present the major federal and state level policy developments in interconnection and net metering in 2005 and early 2006. It will also present conclusions based an analysis of data collected by these two projects.

  6. LACOMA- OPTICAL ANALYSIS FOR LASER HETERODYNE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S.

    1994-01-01

    LACOMA (Laser Communicator Analysis Program) was developed to predict the effects of optical aberrations on transmitters and receivers used in heterodyne communication systems. Combining the proven techniques of a previous optical program with a new approach designed to evaluate heterodyne performance, the program is a general purpose package to be used by optical and communication engineers. Two independent optical trains for the received signal and the local oscillator are specified and evaluated. A comprehensive ray trace subroutine and Fourier transform compute complex amplitude spread functions in a specified detector plane. The two functions are combined and integrated over a specific detector to determine heterodyne signal power. This power is normalized with respect to an ideal value to provide a quantitative value for receiver degradation. Values of local oscillator illumination efficiency, optical transmission, detection efficiency and phase match efficiency are also evaluated to isolate the cause of any unexpected degradations. The program has been used for a tolerance analysis of a selected system designed for space communications, and for evaluation of several other systems. This program was implemented on an IBM 360/91 and an IBM 360/95 and needs approximately 103K bytes of core.

  7. Developing policies and procedures for a picture archiving and communication system.

    PubMed

    Gaytos, B

    2001-06-01

    Policies and procedures (P&P) constitute the mechanism for planning, standardizing, and documenting the provision of clinical services. Upon approval by hospital management, the P&P is an official statement of hospital rules and regulations. Each P&P establishes organizational responsibility for providing services. P&P are a mechanism for communicating standard operating procedures to hospital and medical staff. P&P serve as a reference document for unusual events, as well as routine procedures. P&P are often reviewed by inspection teams from the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospital Organizations (JCAHO) to determine whether the hospital has documented systematic practices. A picture archival and communications system (PACS) provides a new vehicle for providing radiology services. P&P that were designed for conventional film-based imaging are often not appropriate for electronic imaging. Because PACS is new and not yet widespread, good examples of PACS P&P are not yet available. JCAHO has no official requirements for PACS: PACS is viewed only as a means for the hospital to accomplish its work. Successful P&P development is a team effort, drafted by personnel responsible for executing the procedure, assisted by staff proficient in PACS technology, and tested in the field. The P&P should be reviewed and approved by management personnel knowledgeable about hospital and imaging operations. P&P should be written in clear and concise language. Successful P&P development is an ongoing effort. P&P must be periodically reviewed and updated to reflect changes in PACS technology and changes in clinical operations. New P&P must be developed when a deficit is noted. PACS security is a good example of a topic worthy of P&P development, especially in the face of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) legislation of 1996. What are the provisions for access control? Does the system include a feature for automatic shut-off of the software? Are there

  8. Cost analysis of post-polio certification immunization policies.

    PubMed Central

    Sangrujee, Nalinee; Cáceres, Victor M.; Cochi, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An analysis was conducted to estimate the costs of different potential post-polio certification immunization policies currently under consideration, with the objective of providing this information to policy-makers. METHODS: We analyzed three global policy options: continued use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV); OPV cessation with optional inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV); and OPV cessation with universal IPV. Assumptions were made on future immunization policy decisions taken by low-, middle-, and high-income countries. We estimated the financial costs of each immunization policy, the number of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases, and the global costs of maintaining an outbreak response capacity. The financial costs of each immunization policy were based on estimates of the cost of polio vaccine, its administration, and coverage projections. The costs of maintaining outbreak response capacity include those associated with developing and maintaining a vaccine stockpile in addition to laboratory and epidemiological surveillance. We used the period 2005-20 as the time frame for the analysis. FINDINGS: OPV cessation with optional IPV, at an estimated cost of US$ 20,412 million, was the least costly option. The global cost of outbreak response capacity was estimated to be US$ 1320 million during 2005-20. The policy option continued use of OPV resulted in the highest number of VAPP cases. OPV cessation with universal IPV had the highest financial costs, but it also had the least number of VAPP cases. Sensitivity analyses showed that global costs were sensitive to assumptions on the cost of the vaccine. Analysis also showed that if the price per dose of IPV was reduced to US$ 0.50 for low-income countries, the cost of OPV cessation with universal IPV would be the same as the costs of continued use of OPV. CONCLUSION: Projections on the vaccine price per dose and future coverage rates were major drivers of the global costs of post

  9. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Tax Incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Doris, E.

    2009-10-01

    As a policy tool, state tax incentives can be structured to help states meet clean energy goals. Policymakers often use state tax incentives in concert with state and federal policies to support renewable energy deployment or reduce market barriers. This analysis used case studies of four states to assess the contributions of state tax incentives to the development of renewable energy markets. State tax incentives that are appropriately paired with complementary state and federal policies generally provide viable mechanisms to support renewable energy deployment. However, challenges to successful implementation of state tax incentives include serving project owners with limited state tax liability, assessing appropriate incentive levels, and differentiating levels of incentives for technologies with different costs. Additionally, state tax incentives may result in moderately higher federal tax burdens. These challenges notwithstanding, state tax incentives that consider certain policy design characteristics can support renewable energy markets and state clean energy goals.The scale of their impact though is directly related to the degree to which they support the renewable energy markets for targeted sectors and technologies. This report highlights important policy design considerations for policymakers using state tax incentives to meet clean energy goals.

  10. Pakistan's maternal and child health policy: analysis, lessons and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, S; Haq, I U; Ghaffar, A; Akhtar, T; Mahaini, R

    2004-07-01

    An estimated 400,000 infant and 16,500 maternal deaths occur annually in Pakistan. These translate into an infant mortality rate and maternal mortality ratio that should be unacceptable to any state. Disease states including communicable diseases and reproductive health (RH) problems, which are largely preventable account for over 50% of the disease burden. The analysis of Pakistan's maternal and child health (MCH) and family planning (FP) policy covers the period 1990-2002, and focuses on macroeconomic influences, priority programs and gaps, adequacy of resources, equity and organizational aspects, and the process of policy formulation. The overall MCH/FP policy is well directed. MCH/FP has been a priority in all policies; resource allocation, although unacceptably low, has substantially increased during the last decade; and there is a progressive shift from MCH to the reproductive health (RH) agenda. Areas in need of improvement include greater use of evidence as a basis for policy; increased priority to nutrition programs, measures to reduce neonatal and perinatal mortality, provision of emergency obstetric care, availability of skilled birth attendants, and a clear policy on integrated management of childhood illnesses. Enhanced planning capacity, development of a balanced human resource, improved governance to reduce staff absenteeism and frequent transfers, and a greater role of the private sector in the provision of services are some organizational aspects that need the governments' consideration. There are several lessons to be learnt: (i) Ministries of Health need sustained stewardship and well-documented evidence to protect cuts in resource allocation; (ii) frequent policy announcement sends inappropriate signals to managers and weakens on-going implementation; (iii) MCH/FP policies unless informed by evidence and participation of interest groups are unlikely to address gaps in programs; (iv) distributional and equity objectives of MCH/FP be addressed