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1

Emergent Communication Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication strategy is often defined as planned actions to achieve desired results; however, strategies emerge regardless of writer\\/speaker intent. This paper defines an emergent communication strategy as a communication construct derived from the interaction between reader\\/hearer response, situated context, and discursive patterns. The definition is based on the work of Mintzberg (1988) on emergent business strategies, Jeffrey Goldstein (1999) on

Cynthia L. King

2009-01-01

2

NASA science communications strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1994, the Clinton Administration issued a report, 'Science in the National Interest', which identified new national science goals. Two of the five goals are related to science communications: produce the finest scientists and engineers for the 21st century, and raise scientific and technological literacy of all Americans. In addition to the guidance and goals set forth by the Administration, NASA has been mandated by Congress under the 1958 Space Act to 'provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination concerning its activities and the results thereof'. In addition to addressing eight Goals and Plans which resulted from a January 1994 meeting between NASA and members of the broader scientific, education, and communications community on the Public Communication of NASA's Science, the Science Communications Working Group (SCWG) took a comprehensive look at the way the Agency communicates its science to ensure that any changes the Agency made were long-term improvements. The SCWG developed a Science Communications Strategy for NASA and a plan to implement the Strategy. This report outlines a strategy from which effective science communications programs can be developed and implemented across the agency. Guiding principles and strategic themes for the strategy are provided, with numerous recommendations for improvement discussed within the respective themes of leadership, coordination, integration, participation, leveraging, and evaluation.

1995-06-01

3

Developing a Communication Strategy for Protecting Children. Report on Problem Definition Analysis Presented to: The Stuart Foundations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Human Services Policy Center of Washington undertook a study of communication strategies for protecting children because of the perception among many leading child protection professionals that a distorted pattern of media coverage is driving child protection policies toward responding to the small proportion of atypical cases which the media…

Brandon, Richard N.; Gordon, Andrew; Gordon, Margaret T.; Messerschmidt, David; Mitchell, Lorelei

4

Developing a Communication Strategy for Protecting Children. Report on Problem Definition Analysis Presented to: The Stuart Foundations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Human Services Policy Center of Washington undertook a study of communication strategies for protecting children because of the perception among many leading child protection professionals that a distorted pattern of media coverage is driving child protection policies toward responding to the small proportion of atypical cases which the media…

Brandon, Richard N.; Gordon, Andrew; Gordon, Margaret T.; Messerschmidt, David; Mitchell, Lorelei

5

Crisis Communication: The Business Communicator's Strategies for Communicating under Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident to illustrate the communication problems embedded in a crisis. Describes the reactions created by the stress related to crisis. Suggests business communication strategies for improving communication to the public. (SR)|

Vielhaber, Mary E.

1990-01-01

6

Corporate strategies for satellite communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial and satellite broadcast communications technologies, while clearly providing tremendous benefits in many market sectors, present something of a challenge to the strategic planning bodies in most organizations. This is because there is no existing analog for the services in the organizations' telecommunications networks. The marketplace is therefore a confusing place for such organizations swamped as it is with competing service providers, technologies, and services, and their telecommunications strategies cannot cope with the opportunities because they have been founded on the exploitation of point to point connections. A mechanism for creating and bounding strategies which combines the rigor of structured analysis with a comprehensive categorization of strategic directions which has been successfully used to generate new paneuropean telecommunications strategies is presented.

Birch, David G. W.; Buck, S. Peter

1991-10-01

7

Industrial Marketing And Communications Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable similarity between consumer purchasing and business to business purchasing, although there are differences between communication strategies and activities. In industrial marketing communications tend to be information based, rational and designed to generate leads or inquires in support the sales staff. All members of the buying center must be reached and influenced; different message and media strategies may

Nurhan Tosun

8

Communication Strategies in the Written Medium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The field of second language acquisition has distinguished between two types of strategies: learning strategies and communication strategies. Learning strategies deal with the receptive domain of intake, memory, storage, and recall. Communication strategies pertain to the employment of verbal and nonverbal mechanisms for the productive…

Xhaferi, Brikena

2012-01-01

9

Communication strategies for organ donation.  

PubMed

A country, state or hospital may have the latest medical technology and infrastructure as well as qualified professionals for organ transplantation, but unless there is an adequate donor population the waiting lists for transplants will continue to be long and for some patients, hopeless. Public and professional awareness programmes are key factor in the donation process. Social education that explains the life-saving benefits of organ transplantation, the enormous need for organ donation, the concept of brain death and religious teachings related to these issues is vital for creating a conducive environment for the organ transplant co-ordinator or physician soliciting the donation. The education of hospital medical, nursing and administrative personnel is also essential to both miximise opportunities for donation, as well as to prevent loss of potential organs after donor consent. Other target populations are medical examiners or coroners, and police personnel under whose jurisdiction the donations occur, as their co-operation and guidance is necessary for meeting statutory requirements. The involvement of government officials and politicians is also valuable, as their active intervention is essential for the introduction and amendment of rules and laws to promote the donation and transplantation of organs. The present paper describes communication strategies for the development of an efficient education plan that will provide information about organ transplantation, explain the desired outcome, address potential queries, misconceptions or obstacles, and identify potential sources of support. PMID:18712137

Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo

2008-03-01

10

Communication in conflict: Style?strategy relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationships between scores on Rahim's measure of conflict styles and supervisors’ predictions of the communicative strategies they would use in conflicts with their subordinates. It finds that scores on some styles (integrating, compromising, and avoiding) predict initial communicative strategies, but not follow?up strategies with noncompliant subordinates. Complex patterns of strategy shifts are examined in terms of

Charles Conrad

1991-01-01

11

Promoting Community Health Resources: Preferred Communication Strategies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Community health promotion efforts involve communicating resource information to priority populations. Which communication strategies are most effective is largely unknown for specific populations. Objective: A random-dialed telephone survey was conducted to assess health resource comm...

12

Communication and Design in Multimodal Presentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective educational presentations not only communicate meaning through structured content, but indicate the attitudes of presenters and their empathic engagement with the audience. This paper considers the design of multimodal presentations, specifically examining the functional and integrative roles of gestures in the communicative process when materials are presented by experienced teachers. A gestural coding scheme is used to describe similarities

Roger Hartley; Adel Elsayed; Milena Pesheva

2007-01-01

13

Intervention Strategies for Learning Disabled Children with Oral Communication Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper tabularly presents information strategies (goals and instructional activities) for managing learning disabled children with oral communication disorders. The strategies are based on a comprehensive organizational framework of pragmatic abilities comprised of three major components: communicative intention, presupposition, and social…

Spekman, Nancy J.; Roth, Froma P.

1984-01-01

14

Ambiguity as strategy in organizational communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that while most teachers, researchers, and practitioners of organizational communication encourage clarity, a critical examination of communication processes in organizations reveals that clarity is both non?normative and not a sensible standard against which to gauge individual or organizational effectiveness. People in organizations confront multiple situational requirements, develop multiple and often conflicting goals, and respond with communicative strategies

Eric M. Eisenberg

1984-01-01

15

Promoting community health resources: preferred communication strategies.  

PubMed

Community health promotion efforts involve communicating resource information to priority populations. Which communication strategies are most effective is largely unknown for specific populations. A random dialed representative phone survey was conducted assessing current health resource community awareness, health resource utilization, and communication strategy preferences. The survey revealed that community members preferred to receive information on health resources from the Internet (28.3%), newspaper (26.4%), or mail (22.3%). Different priority populations had varying health communication strategy preferences (e.g., young adults prefer Internet, older adults prefer newspaper, and obese adults prefer mail). Ideally, if health resources are intended for adult audiences, a campaign that would include communication through newspaper (targeting older adults), mailing (targeting obese adults), and Web sites (targeting younger adults) would be the most effective approach. This research suggests that an assessment of communication strategy preferences of the priority population might be a crucial first step when developing health promotion programs. PMID:19346407

Colby, Sarah E; Johnson, Amy L; Eickhoff, Amanda; Johnson, Luann

2009-04-03

16

Effectively executing a comprehensive marketing communication strategy.  

PubMed

Marketers are under increasing scrutiny from their management to demonstrate accountability for the resources they receive. Three models are presented to help marketers execute their customer communication activities more effectively. Benefits of using the "Identification of Strategic Communication Elements," "Business Communication" and "Communications Management Process" models include (1) more effective upfront strategic and tactical planning, (2) ensuring key communication principles are addressed, (3) easier communication program communication, (4) provides a framework for program evaluation and market research and (5) increases the creative thinking marketers need when addressing the major marketing challenges. The ultimate benefit is the greater likelihood of more positive marketing results. PMID:19042530

Gombeski, William R; Taylor, Jan; Piccirilli, Ami; Cundiff, Lee; Britt, Jason

2007-01-01

17

Communication strategies in the age of accountability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To help executives understand the communications implications of the current climate and devise successful strategies. To promote a better understanding of the importance of reputation, its determinants and the role of communications in managing it. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Economist intelligence unit conducted a survey of 175 senior executives in North America, Europe and Asia Pacific for Hill & Knowlton

Andrew Pharoah

2006-01-01

18

Communicative Language Teaching obstacles and strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces the theory of Communicative Language Teaching, analyzes the obstacles of misunderstanding about the theory and the complicated teaching environment, corresponding strategies raise by Communicative Language Testing, teachers' qualities improving and CL T environment developing. In the end, the research promotes foreign language educators to explore effective teaching methods according to China's actual situation.

Zeng Xiaoshan

2011-01-01

19

Corporate Communication Strategy: Applying Theory to Practice at Dow Corning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the Dow Corning breast implant controversy in the context of a theoreti- cal corporate communication framework. It begins with a discussion of relevant theoretical constructs for corporate communication strategy. It then presents a chronology of the controversy, based on field interviews and an exhaustive survey of relevant media coverage. The article concludes with insights about how corporate

Paul A. Argenti

1998-01-01

20

Communication Strategies or Discourse Strategies in Foreign Language Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews Faerch and Kasper's model (1983) of communication strategies and demonstrates that it is too rigid to have a sound psychological foundation. The article argues for more emphasis on studying learners' strategies from a discourse analyst's perspective and touches on the interrelation between language, culture, and personality in verbal…

Abdesslem, Habib

1996-01-01

21

Locating Strategies for Personal Communication Networks: A Novel Tracking Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partition of location areas is designed to mini- mize the total costs of finding users' location and tracking their movement in personal communication networks (PCN's). A new scheme to partition and track mobile users and its implementa- tion based on cellular architecture are proposed. According to the tracking strategy, the mobile station (MS) transmits only update messages at specific

Anna Hac; Xian Zhou

1997-01-01

22

Clinical communication strategies of nurse practitioners with patients.  

PubMed

Nurses' awareness of their communication strategies is critically important both in identifying effective patterns in their interaction and in teaching themselves to improve their patient education techniques. Ineffective communication between client and nurse practitioner can result in failure to improve health status or deterioration of health status when recommendations are not followed. Studies of nonverbal aspects of clinical communication tend to count or average types of communication behaviors over the entire interaction rather than use sequential analysis of these behaviors. This paper presents initial results of a pilot study that used a sequential analysis of strategic roles played by nonverbal communication in nurse practitioner-patient interactions involving patient education. Because there is little previous work in applying sequential analysis, the grounded theory approach was used to identify nonverbal communication behaviors. Routine visits that focused on osteoporosis prevention were conducted by three nurse practitioners. Two visits per nurse were videotaped and analyzed for sequential events of nonverbal communication by the researchers alone and then in combination with the nurse conducting the visit. Descriptions of each visit were developed based upon both the verbal and nonverbal characteristics of the nurse-patient interactions as observed in the videotaped visits. From these, vignettes were created that summarized each nurse-patient visit according to the nature of the clinical communication that took place. Interviews of both nurses and patients were conducted before and after the visits to explore osteoporosis knowledge, goals, and strategies for the visit.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2631934

Martin, L L; Barkan, H

23

Evaluation of Sexual Communication Message Strategies  

PubMed Central

Parent-child communication about sex is an important proximal reproductive health outcome. But while campaigns to promote it such as the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) have been effective, little is known about how messages influence parental cognitions and behavior. This study examines which message features explain responses to sexual communication messages. We content analyzed 4 PSUNC ads to identify specific, measurable message and advertising execution features. We then develop quantitative measures of those features, including message strategies, marketing strategies, and voice and other stylistic features, and merged the resulting data into a dataset drawn from a national media tracking survey of the campaign. Finally, we conducted multivariable logistic regression models to identify relationships between message content and ad reactions/receptivity, and between ad reactions/receptivity and parents' cognitions related to sexual communication included in the campaign's conceptual model. We found that overall parents were highly receptive to the PSUNC ads. We did not find significant associations between message content and ad reactions/receptivity. However, we found that reactions/receptivity to specific PSUNC ads were associated with increased norms, self-efficacy, short- and long-term expectations about parent-child sexual communication, as theorized in the conceptual model. This study extends previous research and methods to analyze message content and reactions/receptivity. The results confirm and extend previous PSUNC campaign evaluation and provide further evidence for the conceptual model. Future research should examine additional message content features and the effects of reactions/receptivity.

2011-01-01

24

Evaluation of sexual communication message strategies.  

PubMed

Parent-child communication about sex is an important proximal reproductive health outcome. But while campaigns to promote it such as the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) have been effective, little is known about how messages influence parental cognitions and behavior. This study examines which message features explain responses to sexual communication messages. We content analyzed 4 PSUNC ads to identify specific, measurable message and advertising execution features. We then develop quantitative measures of those features, including message strategies, marketing strategies, and voice and other stylistic features, and merged the resulting data into a dataset drawn from a national media tracking survey of the campaign. Finally, we conducted multivariable logistic regression models to identify relationships between message content and ad reactions/receptivity, and between ad reactions/receptivity and parents' cognitions related to sexual communication included in the campaign's conceptual model. We found that overall parents were highly receptive to the PSUNC ads. We did not find significant associations between message content and ad reactions/receptivity. However, we found that reactions/receptivity to specific PSUNC ads were associated with increased norms, self-efficacy, short- and long-term expectations about parent-child sexual communication, as theorized in the conceptual model. This study extends previous research and methods to analyze message content and reactions/receptivity. The results confirm and extend previous PSUNC campaign evaluation and provide further evidence for the conceptual model. Future research should examine additional message content features and the effects of reactions/receptivity. PMID:21599875

Evans, W Douglas; Davis, Kevin C; Umanzor, Cindy; Patel, Kajal; Khan, Munziba

2011-05-20

25

Communicative Repair Strategies and Problem Behaviours of Children with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reviews research on the use of strategies by children with autism to repair communicative breakdowns and discusses the possible links between communicative breakdowns and the emergence of problem behavior in children with autism. Strategies for decreasing risk of communicative breakdown and teaching repair strategies are considered.…

Keen, Deb

2003-01-01

26

Communicating through Crisis: A Strategy for Organizational Survival.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests that crisis communication should be a part of the larger issues of communication policy and strategy. Builds a case for the need to consider crisis communication in a larger context. Proposes a model of crisis communication content that may serve as a framework for research into the efficacy of communication during crisis episodes. (RS)|

Sturges, David L.

1994-01-01

27

Presenting sponsored content on a mobile communication facility  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Improved capabilities for positioning content on a mobile communication facility, based in part on the likelihood of interaction with the content, are disclosed for mobile communications facilities, such as cell phones. These and other capabilities are employed to improve the likelihood of user interaction with content presented to a mobile communication facility, such as positioning content to appropriate or desirable mobile communication facilities.

Ramer; Jorey (Brighton, MA); Soroca; Adam (Cambridge, MA); Doughty; Dennis (Brookline, MA)

2010-07-06

28

Underwater communication past, present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part A of this paper is a brief report on the contributions made by various workers with experience in the field of underwater communications, which includes both data telemetry and speech, at an informal meeting held on the 11 th and 12th April 1967 at the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering of the University of Birmingham. The main aim

H. O. Berktay; B. K. Gazey; C. A. Teer

1968-01-01

29

Communication Strategy: Proper Structure Necessary but not Sufficient.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Researching whether properly structured organizations, at combatant commands, develop more effective communication strategy is the purpose of this monograph. Proper structure is defined in current doctrine and key communication literature. Proper structur...

J. T. Alexander

2010-01-01

30

Communication Strategy: Proper Structure Necessary But Not Sufficient.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Researching whether properly structured organizations, at combatant commands, develop more effective communication strategy is the purpose of this monograph. Proper structure is defined in current doctrine and key communication literature. Proper structur...

J. T. Alexander

2010-01-01

31

Communications strategy for irradiator siting approvals: a Canadian perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new public attitudes survey and a communications strategy developed during a 2-year period, during which a proposal for the installation of a unique cobalt 60 sourced sludge irradiator was being considered. This Sludge Recycling Facility proposal was supported by a plan that addressed knowledge needs of five target audiences - politicians, neighbours, regulatory and licensing agencies, city staff and future plant workers, and special interest groups.

Swinwood, Jean F.; Fraser, Frank M.

1995-02-01

32

Communication Skills for End-of-Life Nursing Care: Teaching Strategies from the ELNEC Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a key module in a 3-day train-the-trainer course in end-of-life nursing--competence in communicating with patients and families. Factors affecting communication, coping strategies for families, strategies for classroom and clinical teaching, and resources are described. (SK)

Matzo, Marianne LaPorte; Sherman, Deborah Witt; Sheehan, Denice C.; Ferrell, Betty Rolling; Penn, Barbara

2003-01-01

33

Resilient Communication: A New Crisis Communication Strategy for Homeland Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current crisis communication plans and guidance at all levels of government focus almost exclusively on communication during a crisis, rather than a comprehensive approach that also addresses the timeframe well before and well after a disaster. Furthermor...

S. L. Watson

2012-01-01

34

Educational Strategies and Communication Skill Development in Dietetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: Dietetics Students Gain Confidence and Skills to Communicate Nutrition.Skills to educate and to communicate with clients, employees, peers, and the media have become increasingly important for the dietitian. Dietitians work side by side with professional educators and professionals in communications. To present themselves as peer professionals requires communication strengths. A course in the dietetics curriculum, Communications Techniques in

K. S. Jamesen

1996-01-01

35

COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES IN WRITING AMONG MALAY ESL LEARNERS by  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to identify the communication strategies used by the English learners through the analysis of types of errors in the English essay writing among 31 Malay speakers of a rural secondary school in Kelantan. It was found that these learners utilised these strategies to communicate with readers in their writing but it eventually led them to produce errors.

Norhakimah Khaiessa; Binti Ahmad

36

Communication strategies affected by audience opposition, feedback and persuasibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were conducted to assess the effect of audience characteristics upon message strategies chosen by communicators. In each experiment subjects selected the arguments they would use in a persuasive communication. Communicators who expected an audience which was initially opposed to the argued position tended to select arguments which focused on problems and issues, rather than on solutions, that is,

Michael D. Hazen; Sara E. Kiesler

1975-01-01

37

A model for developing risk communication strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk communication is of vital importance in today’s society, as audiences become ever more questioning of the causes and effects of risk. However, the communication of risk is a complex activity involving many different types of communicators from scientists, to the media, to government agencies, industry and consumer groups, each of which has its own agendas to fulfil. Such variation

L. Smillie; A. Blissett

2010-01-01

38

Employee communication strategies for organizational crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perhaps at no time is it more important for an organization to communicate sensitively and openly with its employees than during a crisis. Such efforts, however, are driven by management's view of a crisis situation, which frequently fails to consider employees' stress-induced responses to management communication behavior. This paper draws on research findings on life situations, crisis management, communication, stress,

J. David Pincus; Lalit Acharya I

1988-01-01

39

Communication Strategies and Product Line Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

When selling a product line, a firm has to consider the costs of communicating about the different products to the consumers. This may affect the product line design in general, and which products or services are offered in particular. The problem is that firms have to communicate to consumers, possibly through advertising, to make them consider buying the products that

J. Miguel Villas-Boas

2004-01-01

40

Pedagogical Strategies for Communication and Aging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course description lists a sequence of units focusing on how aging affects an individual's ability to communicate. Besides general information about the course organization, specific information is provided on four short papers, in which students defend their views on critical issues of communication and aging, and on seven units of study.…

Webb, Lynne

41

Segmenting consumers for food defense communication strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In the light of lessons learned from recent disasters (The London subway bombings, and Hurricane Katrina), it has become increasingly clear that supply chain partners as well as government agencies need to be prepared to communicate effectively to consumers and customers before, during and after a disaster. Effective communication can minimize confusion and harm to company reputations, to

Dennis Degeneffe; Jean Kinsey; Thomas Stinson; Koel Ghosh

2009-01-01

42

Evaluation of Sexual Communication Message Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parent-child communication about sex is an important proximal reproductive health outcome. But while campaigns to promote\\u000a it such as the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) have been effective, little is known about how messages influence\\u000a parental cognitions and behavior. This study examines which message features explain responses to sexual communication messages.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a We content analyzed 4 PSUNC ads to identify

W Douglas Evans; Kevin C Davis; Cindy Umanzor; Kajal Patel; Munziba Khan

2011-01-01

43

Communicating Dynamic Behaviors: Are Interactive Multimedia Presentations Better than Static Mixed-Mode Presentations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static mixed-mode presentations consisting of verbal explanations illustrated with diagrams have long been used to communicate\\u000a information. With the advent of multimedia, such presentations have become dynamic, by migrating from paper to the computer\\u000a and by adding interactivity and animation. The conventional wisdom is that computer-based multimedia presentations are better\\u000a than printed presentations. However, does the communicative power of mixed-mode

N. Hari Narayanan; Mary Hegarty

2000-01-01

44

Effectiveness of communication strategies for deaf or hard of hearing workers in group settings.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: In group settings, background noise and an obstructed view of the speaker are just a few of the issues that can make workplace communication difficult for an individual who is deaf or hard of hearing. Accommodation strategies such as amplification of the speaker's voice or the use of text-based alternatives exist to address these issues. However, recent studies have shown that there are still unmet needs related to workplace communication in group settings for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing.OBJECTIVE: Identify the most common strategies used by individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing to improve communication in group settings and gauge the perceived effectiveness of those strategies. METHOD: An online survey was conducted with individuals who self-identified as deaf or hard of hearing. The survey presented specific communication strategies based on three functional approaches (aural/oral, text, visual). The strategies applied to both receptive and expressive communication in five different meeting types ranging in size and purpose.PARTICIPANTS: 161 adults (age 22-90 yrs.) with limited hearing ability completed the survey. RESULTS: Text-based strategies were typically the least frequently used strategies in group settings, yet they ranked high in perceived effectiveness for receptive and expressive communication. Those who used an interpreter demonstrated a strong preference for having a qualified interpreter present in the meeting rather than an interpreter acting remotely. For expressive communication, participants in general preferred to use their own voice or signing abilities and ranked those strategies as highly effective.CONCLUSIONS: A more accessible workplace for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing would incorporate more ubiquitous text-based strategy options. Also, qualified interpreters, when used, should be present in the meeting for maximum effectiveness. PMID:23531576

Haynes, Scott

2013-03-26

45

Relational communication, satisfaction, compliance?gaining strategies, and compliance in communication between physicians and patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six themes of physicians' relational communication were hypothesized to predict patients' satisfaction and compliance, to relate to strategies used by physicians to gain compliance, and to relate to frequency of physician?patient contact. Telephone interviews with 234 adults who had seen a primary care physician within the previous six months confirmed that perceived relational communication was strongly related to affective, cognitive,

Judee K. Burgoon; Michael Pfau; Roxanne Parrott; Thomas Birk; Ray Coker; Michael Burgoon

1987-01-01

46

Integrated Marketing Communications for Local Nonprofit Organizations: Developing an Integrated Marketing Communications Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the importance of integrated marketing communications for nonprofit organizations and how to get started on developing a plan including issues to address and writing objectives. Also included are strategies for writing a marketing communications plan including a prototype for such a document. Sidebars are included in the article on writing objectives and a mission statement. An explanation of a

Teri Kline Henley

2001-01-01

47

Communication Difficulties and the Use of Communication Strategies: From the Perspective of Individuals with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: To enhance communicative ability and thereby the possibility of increased participation of persons with aphasia, the use of communication strategies has been proposed. However, little is known about how persons with aphasia experience having conversations and how they perceive their own and their conversation partner's use of…

Johansson, Monica Blom; Carlsson, Marianne; Sonnander, Karin

2012-01-01

48

Communicating Health: Priorities and Strategies for Progress. Action Plans to Achieve the Health Communication Objectives in Healthy People 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Communication is increasingly recognized as a necessary element of all efforts to improve health. Health communication is the study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health. The inc...

2003-01-01

49

Oral Presentations for Technical Communication. The Allyn and Bacon Series in Technical Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating theory and practice, this book is designed to teach presentation skills to students of technical communication, whose careers will involve making complex scientific and technical information accessible to a variety of audiences (including lay audiences). It focuses exclusively on technical communication and provides a rich,…

Gurak, Laura J.

50

Communication-based positioning systems: past, present and prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews positioning systems in the context of communication systems. First, the basic positioning technique is described for location based service (LBS) in mobile communication systems. Then the high integrity global positioning system (iGPS) is introduced in terms of aspects of what it is and how the low Earth orbit (LEO) Iridium telecommunication satellites enhance the global positioning system (GPS). Emphasis is on the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) which is mainly based on commercial geostationary (GEO) communication satellites, including decommissioned GEO and inclined geosynchronous communication satellites. Characterized by its low cost, high flexibility, wide-area coverage and ample frequency resources, a distinctive feature of CAPS is that its navigation messages are generated on the ground, then uploaded to and forwarded by the communication satellites. Fundamental principles and key technologies applied in the construction of CAPS are presented in detail from the CAPS validation phase to its experimental system setup. A prospective view of CAPS has concluded it to be a seamless, high accuracy, large capacity navigation and communication system which can be achieved by expanding it world wide and enhancing it with LEO satellites and mobile base stations. Hence, this system is a potential candidate for the next generation of radio navigation after GPS.

Ma, Guan-Yi; Wan, Qing-Tao; Gan, Tong

2012-06-01

51

(Meta)communication strategies in inclusive classes for deaf students.  

PubMed

How can an inclusive classroom for deaf students be successful? The use of metacommunication strategies by teachers and hearing peers seems promising. Schools that promote this approach tend to improve deaf students' psychosocial development and academic achievement. However, this is not a general rule. The present study identifies the elements of success, with the investigators basing their analysis on extensive observation of 4 bilingual classes conducted by regular education and specialized teachers. The study was conducted in 3 public elementary schools in Brasilia, Brazil. Data were collected through direct observation (156 hours) and video recording (34 hours). Results were qualitatively analyzed from a microgenetic perspective. The investigators devised 14 categories of social interaction, e.g., visual contact and responsivity, multimodal communication, co-construction of meanings, flexible use of space, and sign language instruction for hearing students. PMID:20066919

Kelman, Celeste Azulay; Branco, Angela Uchôa

2009-01-01

52

Crisis Situations, Communication Strategies, and Media CoverageA Multicase Study Revisiting the Communicative Response Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the relationships among crisis situations, crisis response strategies, and media coverage. The author examines four political crisis situations and the strategies used to manage them; adopts a comparative, multicase, holistic research design; uses typical content analysis procedures for data analysis; and applies pattern-matching logic to compare the data against a theoretical model, the corporate communicative response

Yi-Hui Huang

2006-01-01

53

The Communication Strategy of NASA's Earth Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is a complex, multi-disciplinary subject. Accurately conveying this complexity to general audiences, while still communicating the basic facts, is challenging. Our approach is to combine climate change information with a wide range of Earth system science topics, illustrated by satellite imagery and data visualizations. NASA's Earth Observatory web site (earthobservatory.nasa.gov) uses the broad range of NASA's remote sensing technologies, data, and research to communicate climate change science. We serve two primary audiences: the "attentive public" --people interested in and willing to seek out information about science, technology, and the environment--and media. We cover the breadth of Earth science, with information about climate change integrated with stories about weather, geology, oceanography, and solar flares. Current event-driven imagery is used as a hook to draw readers. We then supply links to supplemental information, either about current research or the scientific basics. We use analogies, carefully explain jargon or acronyms, and build narratives which both attract readers and make information easier to remember. These narratives are accompanied by primers on topics like energy balance or the water cycle. Text is carefully integrated with illustrations and state-of-the-art data visualizations. Other site features include a growing list of climate questions and answers, addressing common misconceptions about global warming and climate change. Maps of global environmental parameters like temperature, rainfall, and vegetation show seasonal change and long-term trends. Blogs from researchers in the field provide a look at the day-to-day process of science. For the media, public domain imagery is supplied at full resolution and links are provided to primary sources.

Simmon, R.; Ward, K.; Riebeek, H.; Allen, J.; Przyborski, P.; Scott, M.; Carlowicz, M. J.

2010-12-01

54

Marketing crises in tourism: communication strategies in the united states and spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research brief compares crisis-response strategies of marketing-communication professionals in tourism organizations (TOs) in the United States and Spain. It reports the extent to which they use proven crisis-management strategies. Results indicate significant differences between the countries' TOs in both their extant plans for responding to marketing crises and in their strategies for handling those crises. It presents practical implications

Alfonso González-Herrero; Cornelius B. Pratt

1998-01-01

55

Applied Communication: A Workshop Presenters' Handbook for Pennsylvania Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This handbook, which was developed to assist individuals serving as applied communication (AC) trainers to English, business, and vocational education teachers throughout Pennsylvania, contains presentation materials, suggested activities, and selected resources to structure and facilitate inservice training to AC teachers. Part 1 contains…

Mattson, Sandra; And Others

56

Communication strategies in cosmetic surgery websites: an application of Taylor's six-segment message strategy wheel.  

PubMed

Using Taylor's six-segment message strategy wheel as a theoretical framework, this study examines the communication approach (transmission or ritual) and message strategy (ego, social, sensory, routine, acute need, or ration) of cosmetic surgery websites. A content analysis revealed a fairly even division between transmission and ritual approaches. Ration strategy was the exclusive strategy in the websites adopting a transmission approach. No routine or acute need strategies were observed. Websites incorporating the ritual approach used ego, social, and sensory strategies. Human female models and natural objects were incorporated to deliver emotional persuasion. Implications for cosmetic surgery web marketers are discussed. PMID:23697851

Ahn, Ho-Young Anthony; Wu, Lei; Taylor, Ronald E

2013-01-01

57

Crisis communicative strategies in Taiwan: Category, continuum, and cultural implication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to investigate crisis communicative strategies (CCSs) in a Chinese context, and (2) to develop a model integrating the measures, categories, and continuum of CCS. A survey of public relations and public affairs managers from Taiwan's top-500 companies was undertaken to examine actual experiences of handling crises. The results showed that five crisis

Yi-Hui Huang; Ying-Hsuan Lin; Shih-Hsin Su

2005-01-01

58

Rudy's Red Wagon: Communication Strategies in Contemporary Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The primary focus of this book is "the put-on" and other manipulative strategies. Manipulative forms of communication as used in contemporary society are examined in relation to advertisements and commercials, salesmen, political figures, authors, artists, educators and students. The book is a study of power--how the powerful and powerless,…

Rein, Irving J.

59

Whittle Communications and Channel One: Rhetorical Strategies of Innovation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study examined the message features that influence an innovation's acceptance by a mass audience. The study looked at three strategies of innovational rhetoric (denial of controversy, subtle criticism of existing institutions, and projection of a rhetorical vision) used by a commercial broadcasting company, called Whittle Communications in…

Adams, Scott

60

Limited communication capacity unveils strategies for human interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Connectivity is the key process that characterizes the structural and functional properties of social networks. However, the bursty activity of dyadic interactions may hinder the discrimination of inactive ties from large interevent times in active ones. We develop a principled method to detect tie de-activation and apply it to a large longitudinal, cross-sectional communication dataset (~19 months, ~20 million people). Contrary to the perception of ever-growing connectivity, we observe that individuals exhibit a finite communication capacity, which limits the number of ties they can maintain active in time. On average men display higher capacity than women, and this capacity decreases for both genders over their lifespan. Separating communication capacity from activity reveals a diverse range of tie activation strategies, from stable to exploratory. This allows us to draw novel relationships between individual strategies for human interaction and the evolution of social networks at global scale.

Miritello, Giovanna; Lara, Rubén; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

2013-06-01

61

Limited communication capacity unveils strategies for human interaction.  

PubMed

Connectivity is the key process that characterizes the structural and functional properties of social networks. However, the bursty activity of dyadic interactions may hinder the discrimination of inactive ties from large interevent times in active ones. We develop a principled method to detect tie de-activation and apply it to a large longitudinal, cross-sectional communication dataset (?19 months, ?20 million people). Contrary to the perception of ever-growing connectivity, we observe that individuals exhibit a finite communication capacity, which limits the number of ties they can maintain active in time. On average men display higher capacity than women, and this capacity decreases for both genders over their lifespan. Separating communication capacity from activity reveals a diverse range of tie activation strategies, from stable to exploratory. This allows us to draw novel relationships between individual strategies for human interaction and the evolution of social networks at global scale. PMID:23739519

Miritello, Giovanna; Lara, Rubén; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

2013-01-01

62

Teaching VOCA Use as a Communicative Repair Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students with developmental disabilities often rely on prelinguistic behavior (e.g., reaching, leading) to communicate. When listeners fail to attend to prelinguistic behaviors, students may benefit from responding with an alternative form of communication to repair the breakdown. In the present study, we taught two students with developmental…

Sigafoos, Jeff; Drasgow, Eric; Halle, James W.; O'Reilly, Mark; Seely-York, Sue; Edrisinha, Chaturi; Andrews, Alonzo

2004-01-01

63

Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The following essays on communication are presented: communication as a condition of survival, communication for special purposes, the means of transmission of communication, communication within social and economic structures, the teaching of communication through the press, the teaching of modern languages, communication as a point of…

Strauss, Andre

64

Evaluation of two communication strategies to improve udder health management.  

PubMed

Worldwide, programs to improve udder health are implemented using communication tools and methods that inform and persuade dairy farmers. This study evaluated 2 communication strategies used in a mastitis control program in the Netherlands. To improve farmers' udder health management, tools such as instruction cards, treatment plans, checklists and software were developed following an argument-based comprehensive "central route." These tools were used during on-farm study group meetings for farmers organized by veterinarians and also during individual veterinarian-farmer interactions. The second strategy aimed at adopting a single management practice to increase the use of milking gloves during milking. This approach followed a straightforward "peripheral" route that used implicit persuasion techniques. Results of an online survey of 374 Dutch dairy farmers showed that most farmers were able and willing to use the educational management tools to increase udder health on their farms. They evaluated the tools positively regardless of the mastitis problems on their farms. This seems to indicate that the central route of communication is most effective when farmers are motivated to work on udder health in general. Results of repeated random telephone surveys before, during, and after the campaign on the use of milking gloves showed that the use of gloves increased from 20.9 to 42.0% of the respondents. Respondents' opinions about milking gloves also changed favorably, indicating that a relatively short peripheral campaign on a single action can have a sustained effect on farmers' behavior. Both communication strategies seem to be potentially successful in disseminating knowledge to a specific target group of farmers and in changing that group's behavior. However, to reach as many farmers as possible, the strategies should be combined. When optimizing these strategies, both the farmers' motivation to work on udder health and the aim of the campaign should be considered. When aiming to improve general udder health management, the central route seems to be effective if farmers are already motivated to optimize their udder health management. For farmers who are less motivated to work on udder health, the peripheral route seems to be most effective when aiming to change a single management practice. The evaluated communication strategies are examples of how management practices to control mastitis can be effectively communicated to farmers. As such, this study contributes to optimizing future programs to control and prevent diseases. PMID:20105532

Jansen, J; Renes, R J; Lam, T J G M

2010-02-01

65

CULTURE-SPECIFIC NOTIONS IN L2 COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication strategies (CS) used by L2 speakers have been investigated using various tasks, and it has been demonstrated that there exist task effects that cause differences in CS choice. Previously missing in CS research has been the use of culture-specific notions as referents. This study aimed at exploring CS use for culture-specific notions in L2 by answering two questions: \\

PIYASUDA WONGSAWANG

66

White Paper: Developing Informatics Tools and Strategies for Consumer-centered Health Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the emphasis on individuals' active partnership in health care grows, so does the public's need for effective, comprehensible consumer health resources. Consumer health informatics has the potential to provide frameworks and strategies for designing effective health communication tools that empower users and improve their health decisions. This article presents an overview of the consumer health informatics field, discusses promising

Alla Keselman; Robert Logan; Catherine Arnott-Smith; Gondy Leroy; Qing Zeng-Treitler

2008-01-01

67

Developing Informatics Tools and Strategies for Consumer-centered Health Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the emphasis on individuals' active partnership in health care grows, so does the public's need for effective, comprehensible consumer health resources. Consumer health informatics has the potential to provide frameworks and strategies for designing effective health communication tools that empower users and improve their health decisions. This article presents an overview of the consumer health informatics field, discusses promising

C. A. Smith; Alla Keselman; Q. Zeng-Treitler; R. Logan; Gondy Leroy

2008-01-01

68

A Partial List of Educational, Instructional, and Documentary Films Treating Women's Roles, problems, and Communication Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document lists 189 educational, instructional, and documentary films treating women's roles, problems, and communication strategies. The films are classified by substance and topics: beauty ethic: presentations and examinations; birth control, unwanted pregnancy, and abortion; coping with a male oriented society; dating and marriage;…

Edwards, Richard; Gronbeck, Bruce E.

69

Communications Strategies on Alcohol and Highway Safety. Volume II. High School Youth. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The second part of a two-part, two volume study deals with high school youth and identifies target populations and communications strategies for encouraging personal action steps to prevent drunk driving. Data, collected from interviews and questionnaires, are summarized and presented in tabular form. One fourth of high schoolers in a…

Grey Advertising, Inc., New York, NY.

70

Improved Eavesdropping Detection Strategy in Quantum Direct Communication Protocol Based on Five-Particle Cluster State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the eavesdropping detection efficiency in a two-step quantum direct communication protocol, an improved eavesdropping detection strategy using the five-particle cluster state is proposed in which the five-particle cluster state is used to detect eavesdroppers. During the security analysis, the method of the entropy theory is introduced, and two detection strategies are compared quantitatively by using the constraint between the information that the eavesdropper can obtain and the interference that has been introduced. If the eavesdroppers intend to obtain all information, the eavesdropping detection rate of the original two-step quantum direct communication protocol by using EPR pair block as detection particles will be 50 %; while the proposed strategy's detection rate will be 88 %. In the end, the security of the proposed protocol is discussed. The analysis results show that the eavesdropping detection strategy presented is more secure.

Li, Jian; Jin, Hai-Fei; Jing, Bo

2012-09-01

71

"One Big Happy Family": How to Plan an Internal Communications Strategy. Specialisms for Generalists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explains the strategic importance of internal communications, and offers a simple model for managing the process of effective internal communications. Discussion includes defining internal communications, strategic importance of internal communications, integrating internal communications strategy as a natural part of everyday working…

Slee, Peter; Harwood, Eleanor

2004-01-01

72

Orientation through Presentation: Getting MBA Students Interested in Communication Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The recent "Business Communication Quarterly" special issue on management communication instruction in internationally oriented MBA programs draws attention to a delicate and pervasive problem. Debby Andrews pointed out that whereas acknowledgment of the importance of communication skills for management is commonplace, curricula dedicated to…

Connor, Michael

2005-01-01

73

Present situation and future development of multiple mobile robot communication technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile robot communication technology is one of the important research domains of multiple mobile robot cooperation technologies. It includes communication of the master to the slavers in which wireless mode is widely adopted and the slavers to slavers. This paper discusses the present situation of the key technologies in multiple mobile robot communication, include communication, topology structure, communication model and

Zhou Yun; Zhang Yong-qiang; Zhou Wan-zhen

2010-01-01

74

Communicator-in-chief: presidential use of television past, present, and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis seeks to determine how television has changed as a communication medium for presidents over the past half century. An evaluation of the evolving ways presidents use television to communicate with and to build support from the American people has been conducted. Presidential communication strategies have been identified by drawing primarily from primary sources written by presidents and White

Jenna Wasson

2002-01-01

75

Developing Regional Communications Campaigns Strategy for Environment and Natural Resources Management Policy Awareness for the East African Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the findings of an evaluation of Uganda's national biomass energy conservation awareness campaigns, a review , and communications campaigns 'best practices', to present a case for a communications campaigns strategy for natural resources conservation policy by the East African Community (1999) states. The objectives are to: prof ile the key EAC natural resources conservation policy objectives; highlight

Wilson Okaka

2010-01-01

76

[Communication process: a group activities tool in the family health strategy].  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to analyze the communication process tools triggered in group activities in the Family Health strategy. Data collection was performed using semi-structured interviews recorded with 51 nurses and through non-participating, non-systematic public observation in natural situations of 19 group activities analyzed according to content qualitative approach. Based on the reports of the professionals, two categories emerged: dialogue-action and dialogue-interaction, which evinced that the communication process is an instrumental means of group activities in the Family Health strategy. The former by the predominant use of verbal language as a means for developing operational procedures specific to each professional in relation to monitoring the health of the client, and the latter as an instrument in which, according to the nurses, there is a simultaneous use of verbal and nonverbal communication. PMID:22241188

Cardoso, Leticia Silveira; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Sant'Anna, Cynthia Fontella

2011-12-01

77

Literacy and Communication Technologies: Distance Education Strategies for Literacy Delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article examines the promotion of literacy through information and communication technologies (ICTs) and through various modes of distance learning. After a general discussion of these approaches, the article focuses on efforts towards reducing illiteracy in Nigeria through integrated strategies for literacy delivery and especially through distance learning. After highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of these measures, the author makes some suggestions on how to maximize their effectiveness in helping Nigeria to achieve the targets of the Education for All agenda and the Millennium Development Goals.

Aderinoye, Rashid

2008-11-01

78

A tournament of value: Strategies of presentation in Japanese advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses a Japanese advertising agency's attempt to win a prestigious European car manufacturer's account by means of a competitive presentation. It outlines the difficulties facing the agency with regard to competing accounts, the import car market in Japan, coordination of a campaign and strategies to be adopted in preparing the presentation, as well as showing how the ‘social’

Brian Moeran

1993-01-01

79

Defense satellite communications system - Past, present, and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a critical point in the long history of the Defense Satellite Communications System. This workhorse communications system has developed from the humble beginnings in the 1960s into today's highly capable backbone of U.S. Government Communications. After a long delay these satellites are being launched again and plan to quickly rebuild this critical national asset which has been held together by determination and sweat following the Challenger disaster. The critical issue is what services shall DSCS provide in the future. The process of defining the SHF communications capability of the next generation of these satellites to support the military needs of the next century is under way.

Cook, Robert G.

1992-03-01

80

National Research Strategy for Neurological and Communicative Disorders. Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Research Strategy summarizes the scope of the health problems and the research challenges the Institute must meet to carry out its mission. Chapter 1 describes the fascination, excitement, and extraordinary potential of the present moment of ...

1979-01-01

81

Nuclear past, nuclear present: Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and contemporary strategy  

SciTech Connect

The controversial atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 represent the only occasions when atomic weapons have been employed in war, yet surprisingly little attention has been paid to the relationship between the bombings and the course of subsequent nuclear strategy. Dr. Clark contends that the August 1945 experience was crucially formative and gave rise to a set of influential assumptions about the moral acceptability of using nuclear weapons, the rationality of nuclear decision-making, and the controllability of nuclear operations. The author's detailed reconstruction of the events of 1945 sheds new light upon these assumptions and contributes to the present debate about nuclear strategy, tracing present nuclear strategy, tracing present nuclear concerns and problems back to some of the misleading conclusions drawn from the bombings.

Clark, I.

1985-01-01

82

Political communication management : The strategy of the two main candidates during the 2007 French presidential elections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to investigate the communication strategy of the two main candidates in the 2007 French presidential elections, deconstructing the process of communication in its main elements: context, message, media-mix, and communication strategy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Secondary data were collected from a variety of secondary sources, such as texts, articles, statistics and interviews on the subject of the

C?lin Gur?u; Nawel Ayadi

2011-01-01

83

'It's Like Chicken but Bigger': Effects of Communication Strategy in the ESL Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports the effects of communication strategy instruction on second language performance (communicative success, speech rate, message abandonment) and on the use of communication strategies (paraphrase). Two classes of adult immigrants, enrolled in a full-time intermediate proficiency ESL program at a post-secondary institution in…

Rossiter, Marian J.

2003-01-01

84

Prevention Strategies for Cardioembolic Stroke: Present and Future Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cause of cardioembolism. An update on secondary prevention strategies, used to protect patients from the risk of stroke in many common cardiac conditions, is presented in the paper. The main line of actions of stroke prevention in cardioembolism is mostly connected with antithrombotic drugs, but also other, more invasive, techniques are quickly emerging. Also the classic pharmacological prevention with coumarins may soon be overcome by new generation anticoagulants. Is an aggressive treatment of Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) always recommended? One of the main challenges of the future years will be to understand competitiveness between old and new preventive strategies.

Giacalone, Giacomo; Abbas, Mohammed Abballa; Corea, Francesco

2010-01-01

85

[Communication strategies used by health care professionals in providing palliative care to patients].  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to verify the relevance and utilization of communication strategies in palliative care. This is a multicenter qualitative study using a questionnaire, performed from August of 2008 to July of 2009 with 303 health care professionals who worked with patients receiving palliative care. Data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis. Most participants (57.7%) were unable to state at least one verbal communication strategy, and only 15.2% were able to describe five signs or non-verbal communication strategies. The verbal strategies most commonly mentioned were those related to answering questions about the disease/treatment. Among the non-verbal strategies used, the most common were affective touch, looking, smiling, physical proximity, and careful listening. Though professionals have assigned a high degree of importance to communication in palliative care, they showed poor knowledge regarding communication strategies. Final considerations include the necessity of training professionals to communicate effectively in palliative care. PMID:22773483

Trovo de Araújo, Monica Martins; da Silva, Maria Júlia Paes

2012-06-01

86

Intercultural Communication: A Key Element in Global Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural factors in global communication include differences in customs, space, dress, religion, class, work ethic, privacy, and other areas. Language differences in oral, written, and nonverbal communication as well as semantics also complicate intercultural communication. (SK)

Spinks, Nelda; Wells, Barron

1997-01-01

87

Health communication instruction: toward identifying common learning goals, course content, and pedagogical strategies to guide curricular development.  

PubMed

Health communication is a vibrant and growing area of the communication discipline, with an abundance of theoretically grounded scholarship and practical application at many levels. Despite this growth, there has yet to be a published description of health communication pedagogy that could identify common conceptual approaches and teaching practices. To help address this gap, an online survey of health communication instructors at 77 colleges and universities throughout the United States was conducted. The questionnaire elicited information about the general characteristics of the institutions and the courses, learning goals, content areas, teaching strategies, and pedagogical practices. Key limitations are highlighted and some recent systematic curricular programs are then presented. PMID:17523859

Query, Jim L; Wright, Kevin B; Bylund, Carma L; Mattson, Marifran

2007-01-01

88

Design of a Retransmission Strategy for Error Control in Data Communication Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several retransmission strategies with different degrees of flexibility for various applications in data Communication between two terminals are analyzed and compared with each other. A method for proving the correctness of a strategy is developed and use...

S. J. Golestaani

1976-01-01

89

Developing Informatics Tools and Strategies for Consumer-centered Health Communication  

PubMed Central

As the emphasis on individuals' active partnership in health care grows, so does the public's need for effective, comprehensible consumer health resources. Consumer health informatics has the potential to provide frameworks and strategies for designing effective health communication tools that empower users and improve their health decisions. This article presents an overview of the consumer health informatics field, discusses promising approaches to supporting health communication, and identifies challenges plus direction for future research and development. The authors' recommendations emphasize the need for drawing upon communication and social science theories of information behavior, reaching out to consumers via a range of traditional and novel formats, gaining better understanding of the public's health information needs, and developing informatics solutions for tailoring resources to users' needs and competencies. This article was written as a scholarly outreach and leadership project by members of the American Medical Informatics Association's Consumer Health Informatics Working Group.

Keselman, Alla; Logan, Robert; Smith, Catherine Arnott; Leroy, Gondy; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

2008-01-01

90

Communicative Alternatives to Challenging Behavior: Integrating Functional Assessment and Intervention Strategies. Volume 3. Communication and Language Intervention Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Emphasizing the use of communication training as the foundation for effective behavioral programming, this book explains how challenging behavior can be redirected into socially acceptable behavior through functional communication intervention. The book offers hands-on assessment and intervention strategies that can be used in school, home, work,…

Reichle, Joe, Ed.; Wacker, David P., Ed.

91

Freshmen Engagement Through Communication: Predicting Friendship Formation Strategies and Perceived Availability of Network Resources From Communication Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

First-time freshmen completed communication skills questionnaires at the beginning of a fall semester. Approximately 6 weeks later they completed another questionnaire regarding friendship formation strategies and the perceived availability of resources from their new social network. Results suggest that different profiles of communication skills predicted how much freshmen reported using group involvement, online social networking, disclosure, responsiveness, and invitations as

Bree McEwan; Laura K. Guerrero

2010-01-01

92

Communicative Alternatives to Challenging Behavior: Integrating Functional Assessment and Intervention Strategies. Volume 3. Communication and Language Intervention Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizing the use of communication training as the foundation for effective behavioral programming, this book explains how challenging behavior can be redirected into socially acceptable behavior through functional communication intervention. The book offers hands-on assessment and intervention strategies that can be used in school, home, work,…

Reichle, Joe, Ed.; Wacker, David P., Ed.

93

Strategy maps: a step-by-step guide to measuring, managing and communicating the plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To demonstrate a step-by-step model of strategy mapping for improving strategy communication in today's organization. The work is based on experience gained while consulting in a myriad of organizations adopting strategy mapping as a strategic initiative. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Over the past few years since strategy mapping was introduced in literature, the author found that clients in the organizations

Cam Scholey

2005-01-01

94

Repair Strategies Used by Elementary-Age Beginning Communicators with Autism: A Preliminary Descriptive Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This descriptive study extends previous studies on communication repairs by (a) involving elementary-age children with autism who are prelinguistic to emergent one-word communicators and (b) examining repair strategies in terms of the relationships between the conventionality and functionality of communication forms and the type of breakdown.…

Ohtake, Yoshihisa; Yanagihara, Masafumi; Nakaya, Akitaka; Takahashi, Shoji; Sato, Etsuko; Tanaka, Minoru

2005-01-01

95

Designing and implementing a communications strategy: lessons learnt from HIV and Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Programme Consortia  

PubMed Central

In recent years there has been increasing recognition of the importance of strategic research communication. Health research organisations need to be able to communicate their research effectively to increase the probability that the findings influence policy and practice, and benefit those in greatest need. Many research funders are making communications a requirement of research funding. This paper reflects on the experience in developing and implementing communications strategies of several Research Programme Consortia funded by the Department for International Development. Different research topics will require different communications approaches in order to be effective. This is reflected in the diversity of strategies employed by different research programmes. Strategic research communications designed to influence policy and practice require different skills and expertise from those required for carrying out research and writing it up for publication in academic journals. Therefore researchers involved in communicating research should be supported in this work. One of the ways in which research programme consortia have sought to do this is through convening workshops to develop the communications skills of researchers from partner organisations. These have proven invaluable. Another way of providing ongoing support to those involved in communicating research is through a Communications Community of Practice. Where this has been used it has proven a good way to support researchers both with ideas and resources, but also a strong sense of belonging to a community that shares a common concern with communication. Developing strong partnerships with research users, other research organisations, knowledge intermediaries and other stakeholders is vital for effective communication. Embracing the challenges and opportunities presented by communicating research to influence policy practice is vital if research is to have maximum possible impact, and demonstrate its worth at a time when funding for health and development activities is at risk. Sharing lessons learnt in this process between research programmes is important to support this work.

2011-01-01

96

[Tobacco control, a strategy to reduce non-communicable diseases].  

PubMed

Nearly two-thirds of all deaths globally are caused by noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory diseases and diabetes). The UN General Assembly approved Political Declaration of the High-Level Meeting on the Prevention and Control of non communicable diseases and recommending five priority interventions: 1. Tobacco control (the most urgent and immediate), 2. Salt reduction, 3. Improved diet and physical activity, 4 Reduction of hazardous alcohol intake, 5. Access to essential drugs and technologies. The Assembly recognizes the fundamental conflict of interest between tobacco industry and public health and recommends the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and MPOWER strategies. The full implementation of FCTC could prevent 5.5 Million of death in the next 10 years in low and middle income countries. All these recommendations are feasible to implement considering the willingness of Governments, the infrastructure available, the capacity building existing and the participation of all sectors, including civil society and the community as a whole. PMID:22689171

Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam

2012-06-01

97

Cost-Effective Strategies for Communication with Remote Surveillance Stations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The advances of modern communication technologies have changed the way the roadway information is collected. Innovative surveillance systems powered by various communication technologies have installed to support various transportation operations. The abu...

Y. C. Chiu C. Haas

2004-01-01

98

The Role of Communication in Alternative Development Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on an extensive review of the literature, this analysis of the special role of communications in relation to social development examines three major groups of writings: (1) those concerned with perceptions and definitions of early concepts of communication/communication theory and underdevelopment/development, which provide the basis for a…

Mativo, Kyalo

99

Strategies for Teaching and Testing Communicative Competence in Russian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains six workshop papers, each of which deals with one or more aspects of communicative competence. These papers are primarily reports of certain techniques which have been found successful for teaching and testing the ability to communicate in a foreign language. "Communicative Competence: Safety Tips for Riders on the Latest…

Dunatov, Rasio, Ed.

100

Examining Issues of Aided Communication Display and Navigational Strategies for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gestural mode and graphic mode augmentative communication systems offer viable options for young communicators with cognitive\\u000a and physical disabilities that preclude speech or result in speech that has insufficient intelligibility to be understood\\u000a by a range of communicative partners. This article examines issues related to strategies of interest to interventionists that\\u000a focus on navigating displays of aided communication systems utilizing

Joe Reichle; Kathryn D. R. Drager

2010-01-01

101

Developing tools and strategies for communicating climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research indicates that the public views zoos and aquariums as reliable and trusted sources for information on conservation. Additionally, visiting zoos and aquariums helps people reconsider their connections to conservation issues and solutions. The Aquarium of the Pacific, an AZA-accredited institution that serves the most ethnically diverse population of all aquariums in the nation, is using exhibit space, technology, public programming, and staff professional development to present a model for how aquariums can promote climate literacy. Our newest galleries and programs are designed to immerse our visitors in experiences that connect our live animal collection to larger themes on ocean change. The Aquarium is supporting our new programming with a multifaceted staff professional development that exposes our interpretive staff to current climate science and researchers as well as current social science on public perception of climate science. Our staff also leads workshops for scientists; these sessions allow us to examine learning theory and develop tools to communicate science and controversial subjects effectively. Through our partnerships in the science, social science, and informal science education communities, we are working to innovate and develop best practices in climate communication.

Bader, D.; Yam, E. M.; Perkins, L.

2011-12-01

102

Conflict Strategies Adolescents Use with Their Parents: Testing the Cognitive Communicator Characteristics Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the determinates of adolescents' confict strategy choice during conflict with their parents. Grounded in Giles & Street's (1985) Cognitive Communicator Characteristics Model, it predicted that during minimally salient conflict with their parents, adolescents' strategy choice would be driven by the behavioural dispositions associated with their self-esteem, while in highly salient conflict, adolescents' strategy use would be induced

Jamie Comstock; David B. Buller

1991-01-01

103

The surveillance of communicable diseases in the European Union--a long-term strategy (2008-2013).  

PubMed

This article presents the steps and considerations that led to the development of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control s (ECDC) long-term strategy for the surveillance of communicable diseases in the European Union (EU) for the years 2008 to 2013. Furthermore, it outlines the key features of the strategy that was approved by the ECDC s Management Board in December 2007. PMID:18761915

Amato-Gauci, A; Ammon, A

2008-06-26

104

Reporting pesticide assessment results to farmworker families: development, implementation, and evaluation of a risk communication strategy.  

PubMed Central

The collection of environmental samples presents a responsibility to return information to the affected participants. Explaining complex and often ambiguous scientific information to a lay audience is a challenge. As shown by environmental justice research, this audience frequently has limited formal education, increasing the challenge for researchers to explain the data collected, the risk indicated by the findings, and action the affected community should take. In this study we describe the development and implementation of a risk communication strategy for environmental pesticide samples collected in the homes of Latino/a migrant and seasonal farmworkers in a community-based participatory research project. The communication strategy was developed with community input and was based on face-to-face meetings with members of participating households. Using visual displays of data effectively conveyed information about individual household contamination and placed it in the context of community findings. The lack of national reference data and definitive standards for action necessitated a simplified risk message. We review the strengths and weaknesses of such an approach and suggest areas for future research in risk communication to communities affected by environmental health risks.

Quandt, Sara A; Doran, Alicia M; Rao, Pamela; Hoppin, Jane A; Snively, Beverly M; Arcury, Thomas A

2004-01-01

105

How to protect brand relationship quality in corporate crisis by appropriate communication strategy?—Moderating effect of consumer psychological contract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors affect brand relationship quality in corporate crisis, crisis communication strategy (CCS) for example. Different communication strategies may generate different impacts on consumers. However we can't ignore other factors that influence communication effects, such as consumer types. This paper uses consumer psychological contract (CPC) to distinguish the types of consumers and brand relationship quality (BRQ) to quantify crisis communication

Jing Zhang; Hai-ying Wei

2011-01-01

106

Teaching College Students Communication Strategies for Effective Social Justice Advocacy. Black Studies and Critical Thinking. Volume 23  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The book deals concretely with the most effective ways for educators to be social justice advocates, with questions about what it means to be a social justice advocate, and with the best communication strategies to advocate for a particular social justice view that might start and sustain an open dialogue. The book presents a number of practical…

Nash, Robert J., Ed.; Johnson, Richard Greggory, III, Ed.; Murray, Michele C., Ed.

2012-01-01

107

Strategies for Teaching Social and Emotional Intelligence in Business Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Incorporating social and emotional skills (EI) training into the business communication curriculum is important for preparing students to function effectively in a global workplace with its complex informal networks, intercultural issues, team emphasis, and participatory leadership. EI skills enhance communication behavior in work groups and…

Sigmar, Lucia Stretcher; Hynes, Geraldine E.; Hill, Kathy L.

2012-01-01

108

Mass Communication and Development: Impact Depends on Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the impact of mass communication on development. It suggests that, depending on how it is used and what it contains, mass communication has the 'potential for good as well as evil'. After reviewing the social and psychological prerequisites for development and effective use of the mass media, the paper discusses some research findings on the role of

Francis N. Wete

1988-01-01

109

Paper Presented to Media, Communication and Humanity Conference Dept of Media & Communications, London School of Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Australian democracy,boasts the highest voter turno ut in the world. Yet Australian media policy pays little attention to the goal of informe d citizenship. This contradiction is examined,from the perspective of the comparative political communication,literatures. First we place the Australian ‘media system’ within a larger international context and show that it is an outrider within Hallin & Mancini ’s

Paul Jones; Michael Pusey

110

Communication for Child Survival,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual presents a systematic public health communication methodology for child survival programs. It is meant for health and communication professionals who wish to use communication strategies to improve child health in the developing world. The manu...

M. R. Rasmuson R. E. Seidel W. A. Smith E. M. Booth

1988-01-01

111

Improving nursing students' communication skills using crew resource management strategies.  

PubMed

To provide optimal patient care, all members of the health care team must effectively communicate patient status and the current plan of care. The Crew Resource Management (CRM) training system has been successfully used in the aviation industry to manage human error and reduce risk in the operational environment. CRM focuses on behaviors that support communication and teamwork and is modifiable to be used in nursing education. A version of CRM-nursing crew resource management-was implemented in a group of senior undergraduate nursing students. Students were satisfied with the program, and in a subsequent simulation they demonstrated the ability to use the communication techniques learned. PMID:23380022

Aebersold, Michelle; Tschannen, Dana; Sculli, Gary

2013-02-05

112

Sociolinguistics: New strategies for the study of communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

John J. Gumperz and Dell Hymes, eds.Directions in Sociolinguistics: The Ethnography of Communication. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972. x + 598 pp. Maps, tables, appendixes, index, and bibliography. $11.00.

Joan Rubin

1974-01-01

113

Communication Strategies at Work. P.R.I.D.E. People Retraining for Industry Excellence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workplace skills course on communication strategies at work is designed to begin the process of building effective communication skills for use in the workplace as well as in personal relationships. Introductory material includes a course description and objectives. The course consists of four sessions, each of which has these components:…

Pollak, Ave

114

Second Language Communication Strategies: Definitions, Taxonomies, Data Elicitation Methodology and Teachability Issues. A Review Article.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines trends in second language communication strategies (CSs), explaining that when language learners concentrate on form or accuracy, they encounter problems, and when they recognize the mismatch between their linguistic resources and communicative intentions, they try to solve these problems using CSs (e.g., appeals for help,…

Rababah, Ghaleb

115

An Evaluation of Strategies for Training Staff to Implement the Picture Exchange Communication System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The picture exchange communication system (PECS) is a functional communication system frequently used with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders who experience severe language delays (Frost & Bondy, 2002). Few empirical investigations have evaluated strategies for training direct care staff how to effectively implement PECS with…

Barnes, Clarissa S.; Dunning, Johnna L.; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

2011-01-01

116

A Taxonomy of Representation Strategies in Iconic Communication  

PubMed Central

Predicting whether the intended audience will be able to recognize the meaning of an icon or pictograph is not an easy task. Many icon recognition studies have been conducted in the past. However, their findings cannot be generalized to other icons that were not included in the study, which, we argue, is their main limitation. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive taxonomy of icons that is intended to enable the generalization of the findings of recognition studies. To accomplish this, we analyzed a sample of more than eight hundred icons according to three axes: lexical category, semantic category, and representation strategy. Three basic representation strategies were identified: visual similarity; semantic association; and arbitrary convention. These representation strategies are in agreement with the strategies identified in previous taxonomies. However, a greater number of subcategories of these strategies were identified. Our results also indicate that the lexical and semantic attributes of a concept influence the choice of representation strategy.

Nakamura, Carlos; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

2012-01-01

117

Efficient attack strategy to communication networks with partial degree information  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the tolerance of complex networks to attacks. Due to the large network scale, it is almost impossible for an attacker to have the complete topology information about the whole network. Thus, an efficient attack strategy based on partial degree information is proposed. Using the generating function method we give the exact solution for the attack strategy. A theoretical

Yongxiang Xia; Jin Fan

2011-01-01

118

Nuclear past, nuclear present: Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and contemporary strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The controversial atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 represent the only occasions when atomic weapons have been employed in war, yet surprisingly little attention has been paid to the relationship between the bombings and the course of subsequent nuclear strategy. Dr. Clark contends that the August 1945 experience was crucially formative and gave rise to a set of

1985-01-01

119

Resilience strategies of healthcare facilities: present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore UK healthcare resilience strategies, define gaps and provide suggestions based on international best practice. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study adopted a pluralistic qualitative research approach to achieve its purpose including: research papers, governmental and non-governmental reports, code and guidance documents and databases. In addition, two case studies were visited in May

Nebil Achour; Andrew D. F. Price

2010-01-01

120

[Communication skills and their influence on prevention strategies in workplace].  

PubMed

Communication is a process which enables groups and individuals to increase their control over determining health factors acting on people's lifestyles to promote health. Good communication is fundamental to the health sector in a globalized world, since it may influence national and local policies, health promotion campaigns and correct operational practices. Our study analyses four significant incidents related to instances of bad communication and covers questions which have produced rather incoherent results provoking unjustified alarm. It is therefore necessary to prescribe a way of approaching these issues which will firstly lead to a more careful analysis of the risk involved and therefore to make known correct public information. It is necessary to improve the skills of experts in prevention, to promote educational initiatives at school, universities and in workplaces always focussing more on interdisciplinarity and developing new ways of approaching problems concerning health and safety. PMID:21086695

Messineo, A; Sanna, S; Dimitri, L; Di Geronimo, M

121

Innovation, Corporate Strategy, and Cultural Context: What Is the Mission for International Business Communication?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews relevant literature in the areas of communication and innovation and explores how efforts toward innovative practices are directly related to globalism and business strategy. Focuses on issues associated with national culture, corporate culture, and professional culture that are relevant to strategies for researching business…

Ulijn, Jan; O'Hair, Dan; Weggeman, Mathieu; Ledlow, Gerald; Hall, H. Thomas

2000-01-01

122

Marketing Crises in Tourism: Communication Strategies in the United States and Spain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compares crisis-response strategies of marketing-communication professionals in tourism organizations (TOs) in the United States and Spain. Reports the extent to which they use proven crisis-management strategies. Indicates significant differences between the countries' TOs in both their extant plans for responding to marketing crises and in…

Gonzalez-Herrero, Alfonso; Pratt, Cornelius B.

1998-01-01

123

A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Communication Strategies in Dispersing Wilderness Campers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two communication strategies, a brochure and a brochure plus personal contact, were used to disperse wilderness campers from a heavily used meadow. Results indicate that both strategies were successful, and no difference was found between them in overall effectiveness. (Authors/JN)

Roggenbuck, Joseph W.; Berrier, Deborah L.

1982-01-01

124

Post-earthquake crisis communications in Taiwan: An examination of corporate advertising and strategy motives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines gestures, themes, message copy points and imagery, and strategy motives reflected in corporate advertising appearing in the China Times and United Daily News, two leading newspapers, in the month following the devastating Chin-Chin earthquake in Taiwan in September 1999. The study identified four possible corporate strategy motives in post-crisis corporate communications: social responsibility, communal relationship building, enlightened

Fei-Wen Ho; Kirk Hallahan

2004-01-01

125

Applying Project Management Strategies to Collaborative Projects in Business Communication and Writing Courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I argue for more integration of project management strategies in teaching team-based writing projects in business communication and writing courses. I draw from a range of academic and industry-specific literature on workplace collaboration to show deficiencies in current textbook descriptions of effective collaboration and to discuss specific ways that instructors can help students apply project management strategies

Rebekka Andersen

2005-01-01

126

A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Communication Strategies in Dispersing Wilderness Campers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two communication strategies, a brochure and a brochure plus personal contact, were used to disperse wilderness campers from a heavily used meadow. Results indicate that both strategies were successful, and no difference was found between them in overall effectiveness. (Authors/JN)|

Roggenbuck, Joseph W.; Berrier, Deborah L.

1982-01-01

127

Reality Presentation and Communication: A Comparative Discussion of the Smithsonian Institution and The Washington Post as Communications Structures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A comparative study of two types of media, a newspaper and a museum, reveals substantive differences in the ways each of these communications organizations alters the information which it presents to the public. Interviews conducted with spokespeople from the Washington Post and the Smithsonian Institution focused on three major theories of…

Harvey, Lisa St. Clair

128

Past, present and future strategies of immunotherapy in gynecological malignancies.  

PubMed

Recently, the combining of different drugs has greatly improved response and survival rates in gynecological malignancies. Results are however far from being satisfactory. Treatments used in case of advanced or recurrent disease offer limited results in terms of long-term responses. The urgent need for new and more effective treatments has prompted researchers to investigate and propose new therapeutic strategies. One of the most interesting approaches that are being explored is constituted by immunotherapy. Currently, immunotherapeutic strategies include vaccination with peptide, viral vectors, carbohydrates and antiidiotypic antibodies. In addition, cell based immunotherapy has been adopted in vitro activated lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Most experience has been acquired in ovarian cancer and cervical cancer. Little has been investigated in endometrial and rare gynecologic neoplasms.The clinical experiences and results achieved with immunotherapy in this setting of patients have been reviewed and the future avenues that are currently being explored have also been discussed. PMID:22934850

Bellati, F; Napoletano, C; Ruscito, I; Visconti, V; Antonilli, M; Gasparri, M L; Zizzari, I G; Rahimi, H; Palaia, I; Rughetti, A; Benedetti Panici, P; Nuti, M

2013-05-01

129

Alternative Dispute Resolution: A Business (and) Communication Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) and its potential as a topic for business communication practice and research. Explores what ADR is; how mediation and ADR are used in business; how mediation and ADR are similar to and different from negotiating; and two or three essential learning points or skills to teach business students…

Netzley, Michael

2001-01-01

130

Managing Organizational Legitimacy: Communication Strategies for Organizations in Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Considers how crisis situations can cause internal and external stakeholders to question the legitimacy of organizations. Notes that when faced with a crisis, organizations are compelled to communicate strategically with stakeholders to manage legitimacy. Synthesizes literature on organizational legitimacy, crisis management, and niche-width…

Massey, Joseph Eric

2001-01-01

131

Developing proactive communication strategies for a potential pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication through the Australian media during a potential avian influenza epidemic could act to inform the public OR misinform, contributing to unnecessary public panic and undesirable responses. This project is part of ongoing research to assess Australians’ knowledge and perceptions of bird flu which will allow the development of public service advertising messages for use by the Australian government in

Sandra C. Jones; D. Iverson; L. Waters; I. Bevins; R. Hayes; O. Holland

2007-01-01

132

Learning through conflict: a realistic strategy for risk communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological conflicts are commonly seen as rooted in problems of risk perception and risk communication. This view is seriously deficient in that it does not fully appreciate that despite their technical content, the conflicts are at bottom political. Conflict of interests and values is evident even in differences over scientific agendas, methods, and interpretations, and especially in the inevitable cacophony

Paul C. Stern

1991-01-01

133

Text Message Copy in Print Ads: A Shrewd Communicative Strategy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although text messaging as a communication tool in society is rampant, research on its effects within print advertisements is lacking. To help fill this void, we employ three between-subject experiments (i.e., Study 1: text message vs. no text message; Studies 2 and 3: text message vs. traditional language). We posit that using text message copy in print ads is a

Jeremy J. Sierra; Robert S. Heiser; Ivonne M. Torres

2012-01-01

134

Know your neighborhood: A strategy for energy-efficient communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks typically conserve energy by following a periodic wakeup-sleep schedule: nodes minimize idle time and spend most of their time in a low power sleep state. In order to communicate and exchange data in such a network, the current duty-cycling MAC protocols either require tight synchronization between the neighbor wakeup schedules or spend a significant amount of energy

Farhana Ashraf; Riccardo Crepaldi; Robin H. Kravets

2010-01-01

135

Management conversations in Danish companies : Communicating corporate values and strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Good stakeholder relations are crucial for the corporate image and reputation of modern organisations. One important management tool for use in successfully establishing good stakeholder relations involves management conversations. Until now these conversations have not been investigated extensively either in general or specifically within the field of corporate communication. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to

Helle Kryger Aggerholm; Mona Agerholm Andersen; Birte Asmuß; Christa Thomsen

2009-01-01

136

Churchill and Obama: Leveraging Strategic Communication to Accomplish Grand Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Churchill used strategic communication to rally his domestic constituency, to articulate values and to build strong partnerships as a means to win World War II. Obama is clearly following Churchill's lead in each of these areas. As a relative neophyte on the national stage, he garnered a wave of domestic support for \\

Bryan N. Groves

137

Use of Augmentative and Assistive Communication Strategies by Family Members in the ICU  

PubMed Central

Background Very little is known about patient-family communication during critical illness and mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU), including the use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) tools and strategies during patient-family communication. Objectives The study objectives were to identify (1) which AAC tools families use with nonspeaking ICU patients and how they are used, and (2) what families and nurses say about patient-family communication with nonspeaking patients in the ICU. Methods A qualitative secondary analysis was conducted of existing data from a clinical trial testing interventions to improve nurse-patient communication in the ICU. Narrative study data (field notes, intervention logs, nurse interviews) from 127 critically ill adults were reviewed for evidence of family involvement with AAC tools. Qualitative content analysis was applied for thematic description of family and nurse accounts of patient-family communication. Results Family involvement with AAC tools was evident in 44% (n= 41/93) of the patients completing the parent study protocol. Spouses/significant others communicated with patients most often. Writing was the most frequently used tool. Main themes describing patient-family communication included: (1) Families as unprepared and unaware; (2) Family perceptions of communication effectiveness; (3) Nurses deferring to or guiding patient-family communication; (4) Patient communication characteristics; and (5) Family experience and interest with AAC tools. Conclusions Families are typically unprepared for the communication challenges of critical illness, and often “on their own” in confronting them. Assessment by skilled bedside clinicians can reveal patient communication potential and facilitate useful AAC tools and strategies for patients and families.

Broyles, Lauren M.; Tate, Judith A.; Happ, Mary Beth

2013-01-01

138

Using Communication Strategies to Promote Sexual Health: Can Mass Media Get in Bed with the “Female” Condom?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many public health students receive little, if any, formal training in communicating health information to the public. Public health practitioners, however, are regularly asked to use communication strategies to convey health information. The lesson plan was designed to teach students mass communication strategies in the context of sexual health promotion. It is expected that by participating in the activity, students

Sarah Mariel Levine; S. Bryn Austin

2010-01-01

139

The influence of national culture on dissolution communication strategies in Western versus Asian business relationships: a theoretical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifies the communication strategies available to companies when dissolving cross-cultural inter-organisational relationships to achieve effective (cooperative) outcomes. First, addresses the importance of communication dissolution, and proposes a typology of available communication strategies. Second, emphasises the importance of understanding cultural diversity in business relationships in general and dissolution in particular. Third, proposes two related theoretical frameworks. The first addresses different conflict

Susan Freeman; Emma Browne

2004-01-01

140

Using Communication Strategies to Promote Sexual Health: Can Mass Media Get in Bed with the "Female" Condom?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many public health students receive little, if any, formal training in communicating health information to the public. Public health practitioners, however, are regularly asked to use communication strategies to convey health information. The lesson plan was designed to teach students mass communication strategies in the context of sexual health…

Levine, Sarah Mariel; Austin, S. Bryn

2010-01-01

141

Children's communicative abilities revisited: verbal versus perceptual disambiguating strategies in referential communication.  

PubMed

The way seven- and nine-year-old French children and adults interpret ambiguous object descriptions was studied in four experiments. All four experiments followed the same basic procedure and consisted of two phases. During the training phase, plastic blocks varying in shape, colour and size were associated with fruit names. Some objects were always given just one label, the generic term, whereas others could be given either the generic or the specific label. For example, large circles were referred to as 'pommes' ('apples'), and large blue circles as 'reinettes' (a kind of apple). Still others were given no name at all. During the test phase of the experiment, subjects were presented with referentially ambiguous messages and asked to point to a given object (Experiments 1, 2 and 3) or to draw an object (Experiment 4). The messages consisted of either a generic term preceded by an article (e.g. '(la pomme'-'the apple') or a verbal description based on a colour adjective (e.g. 'le bleu'-'the blue one'). When presented with the generic term, older children and adults persistently chose the object for which no specific term had been given during the training phase. When presented with an adjective description, they chose the referent for which no fruit name had been given during the training phase. Younger children's choices depended on whether the article preceding the description was definite or indefinite. These results are consistent with the Gricean approach to referential communication proposed by Jackson & Jacobs (1982) and with an extended version of the principle of contrast proposed by Clark (1987, 1988). PMID:2010500

Pynte, J; Girotto, V; Baccino, T

1991-02-01

142

Condom use: exploring verbal and non-verbal communication strategies among Latino and African American men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of literature provides evidence of a link between communication with sexual partners and safer sexual practices, including condom use. More research is needed that explores the dynamics of condom communication including gender differences in initiation, and types of communication strategies. The overall objective of this study was to explore condom use and the dynamics surrounding condom communication

Ann P. Zukoski; S. Marie Harvey; Meredith Branch

2009-01-01

143

Path analysis: a strategy for investigating multivariate causal relationships in communication disorders.  

PubMed

This tutorial paper explains, illustrates, and discusses path analysis, a powerful strategy for examining the plausibility and degree of causal relationships which are postulated to exist among a set of variables. In addition to its strength as a method of theory testing, path analysis is highly compatible with the kind of retrospective research which is so often used to study speech and language pathologies. One of its major advantages is that it allows explicit recognition of multiple, interacting causes of communication disorders and allows the researcher to evaluate the logical consequences of assumptions made about the specific nature of those causal relationships. A summary of the meaning of causal relationships is followed by a presentation of the principles underlying path analysis, as well as an outline of its basic procedures. Also presented is an illustrative example of the application of path analysis to the evaluation of some competing causal theories of a communication disorder. Finally, the general advantages of path analysis and its applicability to the investigation of causal relationships in speech and language pathologies are summarized and discussed. PMID:7329044

Duffy, J R; Watt, J; Duffy, R J

1981-12-01

144

A cross-media adaptation strategy for multimedia presentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation techniques for multimedia presentations are mainly concerned with switching between different qualities of single media elements to reduce the data volume and by this to adapt to limited presentation resources. This kind of adaptation, however, is limited to an inherent lower bound, i.e., the lowest acceptable technical quality of the respective media type. To overcome this limitation, we propose

Susanne Boll; Wolfgang Klas; Jochen Wandel

1999-01-01

145

The Effect of Conflict Goals on Avoidance Strategies: What Does Not Communicating Communicate?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Avoidance is proposed to be a goal-directed behavior rather than a behavior that reflects passivity or inaction. To evaluate this proposition, a typology of conflict goals and a typology of conflict avoidance strategies are created, and the relationship between nonavoidance strategies and the elements of these 2 typologies are evaluated within a…

Wang, Qi; Fink, Edward L.; Cai, Deborah A.

2012-01-01

146

Oral candidiasis: pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment strategies.  

PubMed

Oral candidiasis is a clinical fungal infection that is the most common opportunistic infection affecting the human oral cavity. This article reviews the pathogenesis, clinical presentations, diagnosis and treatmentstrategies for oral candidiasis. PMID:23705242

Lalla, Rajesh V; Patton, Lauren L; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna

2013-04-01

147

Developing and evaluating communication strategies to support informed decisions and practice based on evidence (DECIDE): protocol and preliminary results  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare decision makers face challenges when using guidelines, including understanding the quality of the evidence or the values and preferences upon which recommendations are made, which are often not clear. Methods GRADE is a systematic approach towards assessing the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations in healthcare. GRADE also gives advice on how to go from evidence to decisions. It has been developed to address the weaknesses of other grading systems and is now widely used internationally. The Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE) consortium (http://www.decide-collaboration.eu/), which includes members of the GRADE Working Group and other partners, will explore methods to ensure effective communication of evidence-based recommendations targeted at key stakeholders: healthcare professionals, policymakers, and managers, as well as patients and the general public. Surveys and interviews with guideline producers and other stakeholders will explore how presentation of the evidence could be improved to better meet their information needs. We will collect further stakeholder input from advisory groups, via consultations and user testing; this will be done across a wide range of healthcare systems in Europe, North America, and other countries. Targeted communication strategies will be developed, evaluated in randomized trials, refined, and assessed during the development of real guidelines. Discussion Results of the DECIDE project will improve the communication of evidence-based healthcare recommendations. Building on the work of the GRADE Working Group, DECIDE will develop and evaluate methods that address communication needs of guideline users. The project will produce strategies for communicating recommendations that have been rigorously evaluated in diverse settings, and it will support the transfer of research into practice in healthcare systems globally.

2013-01-01

148

Geostationary communications satellite orbit utilization strategies for the 1980s  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orbital congestion became apparent when the number of applications filed with the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) for 6/4 GHz orbital slots exceeded the number of slots available. In order to overcome this congestion, approaches must be studied for increasing the capacity of the geostationary orbit. In connection with an identification of the factors which affect geostationary orbit capacity, three types of capacity are introduced, including site capacity, service area capacity, and total capacity of the geostationary orbit. Attention is given to approaches for increasing the number of satellites in the geostationary orbit, the phased introduction of new technology, increased interference allocations from other satellites, methods for increasing the spectral efficiency by channel equipment design, the possibility to increase the spectral efficiency by antenna design and frequency reuse, procedures for increasing the available bandwidth, and the development of techniques for optimizing the placement of satellites serving different service areas.

Hedinger, R. A.

149

Integration of analytical measurements and wireless communications--current issues and future strategies.  

PubMed

Rapid developments in wireless communications are opening up opportunities for new ways to perform many types of analytical measurements that up to now have been restricted in scope due to the need to have access to centralised facilities. This paper will address both the potential for new applications and the challenges that currently inhibit more widespread integration of wireless communications with autonomous sensors and analytical devices. Key issues are identified and strategies for closer integration of analytical information and wireless communications systems discussed. PMID:18585121

Diamond, Dermot; Lau, King Tong; Brady, Sarah; Cleary, John

2007-11-17

150

Assessment of theory of mind in children with communication disorders: Role of presentation mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with communication disorders have problems with both language and social interaction. The theory-of-mind hypothesis provides an explanation for these problems, and different tests have been developed to test this hypothesis. However, different modes of presentation are used in these tasks, which make the results difficult to compare. In the present study, the performances of typically developing children, children with

Marit van Buijsen; Angelique Hendriks; Mieke Ketelaars; Ludo Verhoeven

2011-01-01

151

COMMUNICATION: Stochastic resonance and the evolution of Daphnia foraging strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Search strategies are currently of great interest, with reports on foraging ranging from albatrosses and spider monkeys to microzooplankton. Here, we investigate the role of noise in optimizing search strategies. We focus on the zooplankton Daphnia, which move in successive sequences consisting of a hop, a pause and a turn through an angle. Recent experiments have shown that their turning angle distributions (TADs) and underlying noise intensities are similar across species and age groups, suggesting an evolutionary origin of this internal noise. We explore this hypothesis further with a digital simulation (EVO) based solely on the three central Darwinian themes: inheritability, variability and survivability. Separate simulations utilizing stochastic resonance (SR) indicate that foraging success, and hence fitness, is maximized at an optimum TAD noise intensity, which is represented by the distribution's characteristic width, ?. In both the EVO and SR simulations, foraging success is the criterion, and the results are the predicted characteristic widths of the TADs that maximize success. Our results are twofold: (1) the evolving characteristic widths achieve stasis after many generations; (2) as a hop length parameter is changed, variations in the evolved widths generated by EVO parallel those predicted by SR. These findings provide support for the hypotheses that (1) ? is an evolved quantity and that (2) SR plays a role in evolution.

Dees, Nathan D.; Bahar, Sonya; Moss, Frank

2008-12-01

152

Interacting Advertising and Production Strategies — A Model Approach on Customers’ Communication Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a simulation approach to explore different advertising and production strategies in a heterogeneous\\u000a consumer market. The main focus is to model the dynamics of interacting marketing and production strategies. Such models are\\u000a needed to find the right tradeoff between two general main targets: adopting the product to customer needs and\\/or communicate\\u000a the products’ features to

Jürgen WÖckl

153

STRATOP: A Model for Designing Effective Product and Communication Strategies. Paper No. 470.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The STRATOP algorithm was developed to help planners and proponents find and test effectively designed choice objects and communication strategies. Choice objects can range from complex social, scientific, military, or educational alternatives to simple economic alternatives between assortments of branded convenience goods. Two classes of…

Pessemier, Edgar A.

154

Teacher Talk in the Immersion Classroom: Strategies to Communicate in the Target Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports on strategies used by immersion teachers to modify their speech in order to maintain the use of the target language while sustaining interactive communication and the concomitant teaching of the content and the second language. This classroom-based research, undertaken at Methodist Ladies College (MLC) in Melbourne, sources…

Veque, Catherine

2005-01-01

155

Disarming People with Words: Strategies of Interactional Communication that Crisis (Hostage) Negotiators Share with Systemic Clinicians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative study examined the interactional communication strategies used by law enforcement officers during a hostage-taking incident at a high school. The research involved analysis of the negotiation conversation between police crisis (hostage) negotiators and a hostage taker who entered his former high school to take revenge on a…

Charles, Laurie L.

2007-01-01

156

Communications Strategies on Alcohol and Highway Safety. Volume I. Adults 18-55. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of a two-part, two volume study deals with adults aged 18-55 and identifies target populations and communications strategies for encouraging personal action steps to prevent drunk driving. Fully 54% of adult Americans participate once a month in social or business situations where alcohol is served. They are termed Alcohol Related…

Grey Advertising, Inc., New York, NY.

157

Effective Use of Risk Communication Strategies for Health and Safety Educational Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Risk-communication strategies include recognizing public attitudes about potential risks, establishing the existence and severity of risk, demonstrating that risks pose a threat to abilities and values, illustrating risk-avoidance methods, and using quasiscientific, elucidating, and transforming explanations. (SK)

Hutcheson, Scott

1999-01-01

158

Communications Strategies on Alcohol and Highway Safety. Volume I. Adults 18-55. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The first part of a two-part, two volume study deals with adults aged 18-55 and identifies target populations and communications strategies for encouraging personal action steps to prevent drunk driving. Fully 54% of adult Americans participate once a month in social or business situations where alcohol is served. They are termed Alcohol Related…

Grey Advertising, Inc., New York, NY.

159

Assessing Uganda's public communications campaigns strategy for effective national health policy awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uganda government's national health policy communication campaign strategy has been done in a socio-economic, legal and environmental context dominated by chronic poverty, ignorance, disease and official corruption. Deficiencies in the national health policy awareness, knowledge, risky behaviour and superstitions have increased the incidents of illnesses, diseases, deaths and poverty in Uganda. Published evidence on the effectiveness of the national health

Wilson Okaka

2009-01-01

160

EFFECT OF VISUAL STRATEGIES ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty children with autism from special education schools in Mumbai, participated in the experimental research that aimed to document the effect of visual strategy training on development of communication skills and compare its effectiveness with existing classroom instructions. Objects, pictures, symbols and manual signs were used as visual tools. The treatment group received 14 one-to-one sessions. Each session focused on

Rubina Lal; Meeta Bali

161

Information-Seeking Strategies, Uncertainty, and Computer-Mediated Communication: Toward a Conceptual Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues existing theory and research on computer-mediated communication (CMC) provide a limited view of information-seeking behavior. Proposes a conceptual model for its examination via CMC and new media. Discusses strategies for seeking social information, and identifies factors influencing their selection from alternatives. Describes two…

Ramirez, Artemio, Jr.; Walther, Joseph B.; Burgoon, Judee K.; Sunnafrank, Michael

2002-01-01

162

Business strategies and the adoption of ERP : Evidence from Taiwan's communications industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between business strategies and the adoption of enterprise resource planning (ERP) in Taiwan's communications industry. This sector has experienced astounding growth in production over the past three years. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data are collected from 100 organizations through face-to-face interviews. A discriminant analysis is used to test the hypotheses

Woan-yuh Jang; Ching-i Lin; Ming-ju Pan

2009-01-01

163

The impact of self interest and desire for liking on the selection of communicative strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects on selection of message strategies of variables relevant to two communicative objectives, task and interpersonal, were studied. Subjects composed a message in response to one of four situations: high or low self interest in compliance, or high or low desire for liking by the message recipient. Self interest influenced the degree of pressure exerted on the message recipient. Desire

Ruth Anne Clark

1979-01-01

164

Assessment of Theory of Mind in Children with Communication Disorders: Role of Presentation Mode  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children with communication disorders have problems with both language and social interaction. The theory-of-mind hypothesis provides an explanation for these problems, and different tests have been developed to test this hypothesis. However, different modes of presentation are used in these tasks, which make the results difficult to compare. In…

van Buijsen, Marit; Hendriks, Angelique; Ketelaars, Mieke; Verhoeven, Ludo

2011-01-01

165

Communication Effects of Advertising versus Direct Experience When Both Search and Experience Attributes Are Present  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has predicted that direct product experience will be superior to advertising in communicating information about products. In experiment 1 of the present study, claims about search attributes were better recognized and beliefs about search attributes were more accessible and more confidently held after exposure to ads in comparison with direct experience of two inexpensive packaged products. Experiment 2

Alice A. Wright

1995-01-01

166

Physicians' communicative strategies in interacting with Internet-informed patients: results from a qualitative study.  

PubMed

This article describes the strategies used by physicians to interact with Internet-informed patients, alongside illustrating the motives underlying such strategies. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a sample of 17 physicians from primary care and medical specialist practices in the Italian part of Switzerland. The sample was diversified in terms of specialty, age, and gender. Data collection and analysis were driven by grounded theory and supported by a computer-assisted qualitative analysis program. A typology of four communicative strategies has been outlined. The adoption of these strategies is shaped by physicians' general attitude toward Internet-informed patients, based on their conception of medical information for lay people through the Internet. However, this general attitude is mediated by doctors' interpretation of the specific communicative context, that is, their appraisal of three aspects: the patient's health literacy, the relevance of the online information to be discussed, and their own communicative efficacy. At the end, the process of interpretation underlying the strategies is discussed to expand on it and to identify implications for practice and research. PMID:22260422

Caiata-Zufferey, Maria; Schulz, Peter J

2012-01-19

167

The Strategy of Internal Communications and Working Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines existing structures in faculty-management relationships and presents a college-wide model for shared governance. Considers the roles of consultants and steering and area committees. Concludes that shared governance must be based on a commitment to trusting and cooperative relations between administrators and faculty. (DMM)|

Bila, Dennis W.

1983-01-01

168

General practitioners' strategies and tactics of communication with the terminally ill.  

PubMed

Interviews with 22 randomly selected general practitioners (GPs) investigated their communication with terminally ill patients. In interview analysis a conceptual distinction was drawn between objectives, strategies and tactics. When treating terminal patients, GPs expressed the objectives of keeping the patient comfortable, painfree, happy and maintaining dignity. A strategy is a plan and mode of approaching patients existing over an extended time period. Three strategies were described by GPs for use when interacting with terminally ill patients. These are characterized as 'try to disclose', 'let the patient decide' and 'avoid disclosing'. Tactics refer to behaviours used within a single consultation, as part of a strategy. Six tactics are described: evasion, denial, uncertainty, hints and prompts, euphemism and reassurance. Different strategies imply quite different forms of consultation. Thus to understand a consultation we must place it into the context of the series. PMID:7506681

Todd, C; Still, A

1993-09-01

169

Communication Research for NASA's Planetary Protection Program: Science, Risk, Models, Strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary protection is the term used to describe policies and practices that are intended to prevent 1) contamination of extraterrestrial environments by microbial Earth life (forward contamination) and 2) contamination of Earth's environment by possible extraterrestrial microbial life (back contamination) in the course of solar system exploration. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the international Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) both have planetary protection policies in place. Because the practice of planetary protection involves many different disciplines and many different national and international and governmental and nongovernmental organizations, communication has always been an important element of the practice. Thus NASA Planetary Protection Office has a long-term communication research initiative under way, addressing legal and ethical issues relating to planetary protection, models and methods of science and risk communication, and communication strategy and planning. With the pace of solar system exploration picking up, the era of solar system sample return under way, and public concerns about biological contamination heightened, communication is an increasingly important concern in the planetary protection community. This paper will describe current activities in communication research for NASA's planetary protection program.

Billings, L.

2004-12-01

170

Presenting evidence and summary measures to best inform societal decisions when comparing multiple strategies.  

PubMed

Multiple strategy comparisons in health technology assessment (HTA) are becoming increasingly important, with multiple alternative therapeutic actions, combinations of therapies and diagnostic and genetic testing alternatives. Comparison under uncertainty of incremental cost, effects and cost effectiveness across more than two strategies is conceptually and practically very different from that for two strategies, where all evidence can be summarized in a single bivariate distribution on the incremental cost-effectiveness plane. Alternative methods for comparing multiple strategies in HTA have been developed in (i) presenting cost and effects on the cost-disutility plane and (ii) summarizing evidence with multiple strategy cost-effectiveness acceptability (CEA) and expected net loss (ENL) curves and frontiers. However, critical questions remain for the analyst and decision maker of how these techniques can be best employed across multiple strategies to (i) inform clinical and cost inference in presenting evidence, and (ii) summarize evidence of cost effectiveness to inform societal reimbursement decisions where preferences may be risk neutral or somewhat risk averse under the Arrow-Lind theorem. We critically consider how evidence across multiple strategies can be best presented and summarized to inform inference and societal reimbursement decisions, given currently available methods. In the process, we make a number of important original findings. First, in presenting evidence for multiple strategies, the joint distribution of costs and effects on the cost-disutility plane with associated flexible comparators varying across replicates for cost and effect axes ensure full cost and effect inference. Such inference is usually confounded on the cost-effectiveness plane with comparison relative to a fixed origin and axes. Second, in summarizing evidence for risk-neutral societal decision making, ENL curves and frontiers are shown to have advantages over the CEA frontier in directly presenting differences in expected net benefit (ENB). The CEA frontier, while identifying strategies that maximize ENB, only presents their probability of maximizing net benefit (NB) and, hence, fails to explain why strategies maximize ENB at any given threshold value. Third, in summarizing evidence for somewhat risk-averse societal decision making, trade-offs between the strategy maximizing ENB and other potentially optimal strategies with higher probability of maximizing NB should be presented over discrete threshold values where they arise. However, the probabilities informing these trade-offs and associated discrete threshold value regions should be derived from bilateral CEA curves to prevent confounding by other strategies inherent in multiple strategy CEA curves. Based on these findings, a series of recommendations are made for best presenting and summarizing cost-effectiveness evidence for reimbursement decisions when comparing multiple strategies, which are contrasted with advice for comparing two strategies. Implications for joint research and reimbursement decisions are also discussed. PMID:21671686

Eckermann, Simon; Willan, Andrew R

2011-07-01

171

On-board processing concepts for Multibeam Communication Satellites - Present situation and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper addresses some relevant issues concerning Multibeam Communications Satellite, outlining some logical architecture trends aiming at abandoning the old 'cable-in-the-sky' concept in favor of more attractive 'switchboard-in-the-sky' features. On Board Processing (OBP) concepts must then be envisaged to increase the degree of satellite integration in the (digital) terrestrial network. Both system and technology aspects are substantiated in the paper, and potential benefits/critical areas indicated.

Ananasso, Fulvio; Saggese, Enrico

1988-12-01

172

Communicating the Urgency and Challenge of Global Climate Change: Lessons Learned and New Strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change can sometimes be characterized as a "creeping environmental problem"--it is complex and long-term, involves long system lags, lacks the immediacy of everyday experience and thus is hard to perceive, and feels overwhelming to most individuals. Climate change thus does not typically attain the status of an urgent concern, taking priority over other matters for individuals, organizations or in the policy arena. We review the major reasons behind this lack of urgency, and document the observed consequences of previous communication strategies, including lack of public understanding, indifference, confusion, fear and uncertainty. We find that certain emotional motivators such as fear and guilt, while oft-employed, do not actually result in improved recognition of the urgency of the issue, nor do they typically result in action. Rather, positive and engaging approaches may be more likely to achieve this goal. We propose seven strategies to improve the communication of climate change and its urgency: 1) Abide by basic communication rules and heed the warnings of communication experts; 2) Address the emotional and the temporal components of "urgency"; 3) Increase the persuasiveness of the message; 4) Use trusted messengers-broaden the circle; 5) Use opportunities well; 6) Tap into individual and cultural strengths and values; and 7) Unite and Conquer. The multi-faceted nature of the proposed strategies reflects the unique challenges of the climate change issue as well as the need to engage all levels and sectors of societies in the solution, from individuals, to businesses, to governments. These strategies and results emerged from a multi-disciplinary, academic/practitioner workshop on the topic held at NCAR in summer 2004.

Dilling, L.; Moser, S. C.

2004-12-01

173

Non-genetic mechanisms communicating antibiotic resistance: rethinking strategies for antimicrobial drug design.  

PubMed

Introduction: Infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria are of great concern worldwide. In many cases, resistance is not due to the presence of specific antibiotic-modifying enzymes, but rather associated with a general impermeability of the bacterial cell envelope. The molecular bases of this intrinsic resistance are not completely understood. Moreover, horizontal gene transfers cannot solely explain the spread of intrinsic resistance among bacterial strains. Areas covered: This review focuses on the increased intrinsic antibiotic resistance mediated by small molecules. These small molecules can either be secreted from bacterial cells of the same or different species (e.g., indole, polyamines, ammonia, and the Pseudomonas quinolone signal) or be present in the bacterial cell milieu, whether in the environment, such as indole acetic acid and other plant hormones, or in human tissues and body fluids, such as polyamines. These molecules are metabolic byproducts that act as infochemicals and modulate bacterial responses toward antibiotics leading to increasing or decreasing resistance levels. Expert opinion: The non-genetic mechanisms of antibiotic response modulation and communication discussed in this review should reorient our thinking of the mechanisms of intrinsic resistance to antibiotics and its spread across bacterial cell populations. The identification of chemical signals mediating increased intrinsic antibiotic resistance will expose novel critical targets for the development of new antimicrobial strategies. PMID:22860901

El-Halfawy, Omar M; Valvano, Miguel A

2012-08-04

174

Education Techniques for Lifelong Learning Giving a PowerPoint Presentation: The Art of Communicating Effectively1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effectiveness of an oral presentation depends on the ability of the speaker to communicate with the audience. An important part of this communication is focusing on two to five key points and emphasizing those points during the presentation. Every aspect of the presentation should be purposeful and directed at facilitating learners' achievement of the objectives. This necessitates that the speaker

Jannette Collins

175

Self-Determination and the Use of Self-Presentation Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors evaluated the relationships among individual differences in self-determination and self-presentation. The authors expected less self-determined individuals to report engaging in self-presentation strategies more frequently. To be more specific, the authors expected higher autonomy scores to be associated with the use of fewer self-presentation strategies, whereas they expected higher controlled and higher impersonal orientation scores to be associated with

Melissa A. Lewis; Clayton Neighbors

2005-01-01

176

Risk factors, prevention and communication strategy during Nipah virus outbreak in Malaysia.  

PubMed

An outbreak of acute febrile encephalitis affecting pig-farm workers and owners was recognized in peninsular Malaysia as early as September 1998. The outbreak was initially thought to be due to Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus and thus very intensive prevention, control and communication strategies directed at JE virus were undertaken by the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Agriculture of Malaysia. There was an immediate change in the prevention, control and communication strategies with focus and strategies on infected pigs as the source of infections for humans and other animals following the discovery of Nipah virus. Information and understanding the risks of Nipah virus infections and modes of transmission strengthened the directions of prevention, control and communication strategies. A number of epidemiological surveillances and field investigations which were broadly divided into 3 groups covering human health sector, animal health sector and reservoir hosts were carried out as forms of risk assessment to determine and assess the factors and degree of risk of infections by the virus. Data showed that there was significant association between Nipah virus infection and performing activities involving close contact with pigs, such as processing of piglets, administering injection or medication to pigs, assisting in the birth of piglets, assisting in pig breeding, and handling of dead pigs in the affected farms. A complex process of anthropogenic driven deforestation, climatic changes brought on by El Niño-related drought, forest fire and severe haze, and ecological factors of mixed agro-pig farming practices and design of pig-sties led to the spillovers of the virus from its wildlife reservoir into pig population. PMID:21329177

Chua, K B

2010-12-01

177

"What Is the Best Way to Be a Social Justice Advocate?": Communication Strategies for Effective Social Justice Advocacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Conflict can shut down communication, the key to social justice advocacy. In this article, the author shares his insights on how some communication strategies can help manage conflict and sustain open conversation with students about contentious issues. Recently, the author participated in an extremely heated discussion session for student…

Nash, Robert J.

2010-01-01

178

"What Is the Best Way to Be a Social Justice Advocate?": Communication Strategies for Effective Social Justice Advocacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conflict can shut down communication, the key to social justice advocacy. In this article, the author shares his insights on how some communication strategies can help manage conflict and sustain open conversation with students about contentious issues. Recently, the author participated in an extremely heated discussion session for student affairs…

Nash, Robert J.

2010-01-01

179

Assessment of theory of mind in children with communication disorders: role of presentation mode.  

PubMed

Children with communication disorders have problems with both language and social interaction. The theory-of-mind hypothesis provides an explanation for these problems, and different tests have been developed to test this hypothesis. However, different modes of presentation are used in these tasks, which make the results difficult to compare. In the present study, the performances of typically developing children, children with specific language impairments, and children with autism spectrum disorders were therefore compared using three theory-of-mind tests (the Charlie test, the Smarties test, and the Sally-and-Anne test) presented in three different manners each (spoken, video, and line drawing modes). The results showed differential outcomes for the three types of tests and a significant interaction between group of children and mode of presentation. For the typically developing children, no differential effects of presentation mode were detected. For the children with SLI, the highest test scores were consistently evidenced in the line-drawing mode. For the children with ASD, test performance depended on the mode of presentation. Just how the children's non-verbal age, verbal age, and short-term memory related to their test scores was also explored for each group of children. The test scores of the SLI group correlated significantly with their short-term memory, those of the ASD group with their verbal age. These findings demonstrate that performance on theory-of-mind tests clearly depend upon mode of test presentation as well as the children's cognitive and linguistic abilities. PMID:21349688

van Buijsen, Marit; Hendriks, Angelique; Ketelaars, Mieke; Verhoeven, Ludo

2011-02-23

180

Employees' Choices in Learning How to Use Information and Communication Technology Systems at Work: Strategies and Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to promote the understanding of how employees learn to use information and communication technology (ICT) systems at work. The elements of a learning activity in the context of ICT use are identified from the literature. In particular, approaches to learning, learning strategies and problem-solving strategies are…

Korpelainen, Eija; Kira, Mari

2010-01-01

181

A Low-Cost Cooperative Strategy for Cellular Controlled Short-Range Communication Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter is concerned with cellular controlled short-range communication (CCSRC) systems, which can provide a significant performance gain over the traditional cellular systems as shown in the literature. However, to obtain such a gain, CCSRC systems need perfect channel state information (CSI) of all users and the complexity of setting up the optimal cooperative clusters is factorial with respect to the number of potentially cooperative users, which is very unrealistic in practical systems. To solve this problem, we propose a novel cooperative strategy, where CCSRC systems only need the distances between all user pairs and the complexity of setting up the cooperative clusters is relatively low. Simulation results show that the performance of the proposed strategy is close to optimal.

Han, Han; Wang, Hao; Lin, Xiaokang

182

Intervention strategies to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases in Mexico: cost effectiveness analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To inform decision making regarding intervention strategies against non-communicable diseases in Mexico, in the context of health reform. Design Cost effectiveness analysis based on epidemiological modelling. Interventions 101 intervention strategies relating to nine major clusters of non-communicable disease: depression, heavy alcohol use, tobacco use, cataracts, breast cancer, cervical cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Data sources Mexican data sources were used for most key input parameters, including administrative registries; disease burden and population estimates; household surveys; and drug price databases. These sources were supplemented as needed with estimates for Mexico from the WHO-CHOICE unit cost database or with estimates extrapolated from the published literature. Main outcome measures Population health outcomes, measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs); costs in 2005 international dollars ($Int); and costs per DALY. Results Across 101 intervention strategies examined in this study, average yearly costs at the population level would range from around ?$Int1m (such as for cataract surgeries) to >$Int1bn for certain strategies for primary prevention in cardiovascular disease. Wide variation also appeared in total population health benefits, from <1000 DALYs averted a year (for some components of cancer treatments or aspirin for acute ischaemic stroke) to >300?000 averted DALYs (for aggressive combinations of interventions to deal with alcohol use or cardiovascular risks). Interventions in this study spanned a wide range of average cost effectiveness ratios, differing by more than three orders of magnitude between the lowest and highest ratios. Overall, community and public health interventions such as non-personal interventions for alcohol use, tobacco use, and cardiovascular risks tended to have lower cost effectiveness ratios than many clinical interventions (of varying complexity). Even within the community and public health interventions, however, there was a 200-fold difference between the most and least cost effective strategies examined. Likewise, several clinical interventions appeared among the strategies with the lowest average cost effectiveness ratios—for example, cataract surgeries. Conclusions Wide variations in costs and effects exist within and across intervention categories. For every major disease area examined, at least some strategies provided excellent value for money, including both population based and personal interventions.

2012-01-01

183

Teacher Strategies for Effective Intervention with Students Presenting Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties: An International Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A review of international research literature on teacher strategies for effective intervention with students presenting social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) is presented. Particular attention is given to evidence defining the qualities and skills of effective teachers and the value of behavioural and cognitive behavioural…

Cooper, Paul

2011-01-01

184

The Effects of Varying Pictorial Detail and Presentation Strategy on Concept Formation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of varying pictorial detail and presentation strategy on learners of varying grade levels in a visually transmitted concept formation task. Specifically, line drawings containing only relevant details and halftones containing relevant and irrelevant detail were presented successively and…

Gorman, Don A.

185

A Conceptual Framework for Focusing the Teaching of Communication Skills on Compliance-Gaining Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognition of the importance of patient compliance with medication regimens has resulted in a total redesign of a course at the Auburn University School of Pharmacy. A description of the rationale and methodology for focusing communication courses on patient compliance is presented along with a conceptual model and course syllabus. (Author/MLW)

Berger, Bruce A.; Felkey, Bill G.

1989-01-01

186

Motivations and self-presentation strategies on Korean-based "Cyworld" weblog format personal homepages.  

PubMed

The main purposes of this study are to find out individuals' motives and interpersonal self-presentation strategies on constructing Korean weblog format personal homepage (e.g., "Cyworld mini-homepage"). The study also attempts to find predictor motives that lead to the activities of posting and maintaining a homepage and compare the self-presentation strategies used on the Web with those commonly used in interpersonal situations. By using a principal component factor analysis, four salient self-presentation strategy factors and five interpretable mini-homepage hosting motive factors were identified. Accompanying multiple regression analysis shows that entertainment and personal income factors are major predictors in explaining homepage maintenance expenditures and frequencies of updating. PMID:17305445

Jung, Taejin; Youn, Hyunsook; McClung, Steven

2007-02-01

187

Denny's: Communicating Amidst a Discrimination Case.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a case study for use in business communication classes to help students understand and learn both the context and the strategies for communication with business and management. Looks at communication strategies employed by Denny's during its crisis caused by charges of racial discrimination. Includes actual communications instrumental in…

Chin, Teresa; Naidu, Sharmila; Ringel, Jonathan; Snipes, Wayne; DeSilva, Jean; Bienvenu, Sherron Kenton

1998-01-01

188

The evolution of alternative adaptive strategies for effective communication in noisy environments.  

PubMed

Animals communicating socially are expected to produce signals that are conspicuous within the habitats in which they live. The particular way in which a species adapts to its environment will depend on its ancestral condition and evolutionary history. At this point, it is unclear how properties of the environment and historical factors interact to shape communication. Tropical Anolis lizards advertise territorial ownership using visual displays in habitats where visual motion or "noise" from windblown vegetation poses an acute problem for the detection of display movements. We studied eight Anolis species that live in similar noise environments but belong to separate island radiations with divergent evolutionary histories. We found that species on Puerto Rico displayed at times when their signals were more likely to be detected by neighboring males and females (during periods of low noise). In contrast, species on Jamaica displayed irrespective of the level of environmental motion, apparently because these species have a display that is effective in a range of viewing conditions. Our findings appear to reflect a case of species originating from different evolutionary starting points evolving different signal strategies for effective communication in noisy environments. PMID:21117941

Ord, Terry J; Charles, Grace K; Hofer, Rebecca K

2010-11-30

189

Learning Our Way into Communication: The Making of the Communication and Information Strategy "with" the National Agricultural Advisory Services Programme in Uganda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports on the making of the Communication and Information Strategy with the National Agricultural Advisory Services Programme (NAADS) in Uganda. The NAADS is a new organization in government responsible for the implementation of a demand-driven agricultural extension approach. The new extension approach calls for fundamental changes…

Ramirez, Ricardo

2005-01-01

190

Assessing the effectiveness of Communication Media in  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a strategy paper for developing effective communication strategies in health in the state of Rajasthan, India. Rajasthan is one among the poor performing states in Health and Family Welfare. The author first presents the current stains of communication strategies, which have been developed by the called Information Education and Communication (IEC) Bureau. Further, few indicators and methods are

K. Srinivasan

191

Communications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Communication in its many forms is a critical component for an effective Space Grant Program. Good communication is needed within individual Space Grant College/Consortia, for example between consortium affiliates and the consortium program office. Effect...

D. D. Stouffer

1990-01-01

192

Computational Studies of Presentation Strategies for a Multilevel Model of Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We consider a class of 'look-ahead' rules for generating stimulus presentation strategies in learning experiments, i.e., rules on (local) optimization over the next one, two, or more trials--given the subject's state of conditioning at the current trial. ...

W. Karush R. E. Dear

1966-01-01

193

The present status and future trends in computer\\/communication technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews some aspects of computer communication network design in the light of recent research. The paper first concentrates on local distribution systems that use demand shared transmission lines. Then there is a discussion of communication protocol and the impact that it has on network performance. Finally there is some discussion of issues that face the designer of a

A. G. Fraser

1976-01-01

194

Context and Communication Strategies in Naturalistic Behavioural Intervention: A Framework for Understanding How Practitioners Facilitate Communication in Children with ASD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many different approaches to intervention aimed at facilitating the social and communicative abilities of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Behavioural interventions seek to improve the social and communicative abilities of children with ASD through interaction. Recently there has been a move towards naturalistic…

Sowden, Hannah; Perkins, Mick; Clegg, Judy

2011-01-01

195

Context and Communication Strategies in Naturalistic Behavioural Intervention: A Framework for Understanding How Practitioners Facilitate Communication in Children with ASD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There are many different approaches to intervention aimed at facilitating the social and communicative abilities of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Behavioural interventions seek to improve the social and communicative abilities of children with ASD through interaction. Recently there has been a move towards naturalistic…

Sowden, Hannah; Perkins, Mick; Clegg, Judy

2011-01-01

196

Strategies for a Creative Future with Computer Science, Quality Design and Communicability  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the current work is presented the importance of the two-way triad between computer science, design and communicability.\\u000a It is demonstrated how the principles of quality of software engineering are not universal since they are disappearing inside\\u000a university training. Besides, a short analysis of the term “creativity” males apparent the existence of plagiarism as a human\\u000a factor that damages the

Francisco V. Cipolla Ficarra; Maria Villarreal

2010-01-01

197

Exploring attitudes, beliefs, and communication preferences of Latino community members regarding BRCA1/2 mutation testing and preventive strategies  

PubMed Central

Purpose To inform development of a culturally sensitive hereditary breast and ovarian cancer communication initiative and related clinical genetic services. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with 51 female and male Latinos. Educational materials were designed to communicate information about hereditary breast or ovarian cancer and availability of relevant clinical services or prevention strategies. Focus groups explored participants’ knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, BRCA1/2 testing, and communication preferences for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer health messages. Results Overall, awareness of familial breast and ovarian cancer and availability of genetic risk assessment was low. Once informed, participants held favorable attitudes toward risk assessment and counseling services. Critical themes of the research highlighted the need to provide bilingual media products and use of a variety of strategies to increase awareness about hereditary cancer risk and availability of clinical genetic services. Important barriers were identified regarding family cancer history communication and cancer prevention services. Strategies were suggested for communicating cancer genetic information to increase awareness and overcome these barriers; these included both targeted and tailored approaches. Conclusion This research suggests that cancer genetic communication efforts should consider community and cultural perspectives as well as health care access issues before widespread implementation.

Kinney, Anita Yeomans; Gammon, Amanda; Coxworth, James; Simonsen, Sara E.; Arce-Laretta, Maritza

2011-01-01

198

Seasonal and pandemic influenza: the role of communication and preventive strategies.  

PubMed

Appropriate, timely, and data-driven health information is a very important issue in preventive strategies against influenza. Intuitively, a link between willingness to be vaccinated against seasonal influenza and against pandemic influenza exists, given the similarities in decision-making for this vaccine. International and national literature reviews suggest that progress has been made in order to incorporate and disseminate crisis risk communication principles into public health practice, as such investments in public health could be important for building capacity and practice which aid in the realization of countermeasures in response to a future pandemic and epidemic situation. This study emphasizes the lack of perception by Health Care Workers (HCWs) of the importance of being immunized against seasonal and pandemic influenza and the doubts concerning safety. In the future, particular efforts are needed during vaccination campaigns, to provide more information to HCWs and the general population regarding role and safety of such vaccines. PMID:22010540

Boccia, A; Di Thiene, D; De Giusti, M; La Torre, G

2011-09-01

199

Food Pricing Strategies, Population Diets, and Non-Communicable Disease: A Systematic Review of Simulation Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Food pricing strategies have been proposed to encourage healthy eating habits, which may in turn help stem global increases in non-communicable diseases. This systematic review of simulation studies investigates the estimated association between food pricing strategies and changes in food purchases or intakes (consumption) (objective 1); Health and disease outcomes (objective 2), and whether there are any differences in these outcomes by socio-economic group (objective 3). Methods and Findings Electronic databases, Internet search engines, and bibliographies of included studies were searched for articles published in English between 1 January 1990 and 24 October 2011 for countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Where ?3 studies examined the same pricing strategy and consumption (purchases or intake) or health outcome, results were pooled, and a mean own-price elasticity (own-PE) estimated (the own-PE represents the change in demand with a 1% change in price of that good). Objective 1: pooled estimates were possible for the following: (1) taxes on carbonated soft drinks: own-PE (n?=?4 studies), ?0.93 (range, ?0.06, ?2.43), and a modelled ?0.02% (?0.01%, ?0.04%) reduction in energy (calorie) intake for each 1% price increase (n?=?3 studies); (2) taxes on saturated fat: ?0.02% (?0.01%, ?0.04%) reduction in energy intake from saturated fat per 1% price increase (n?=?5 studies); and (3) subsidies on fruits and vegetables: own-PE (n?=?3 studies), ?0.35 (?0.21, ?0.77). Objectives 2 and 3: variability of food pricing strategies and outcomes prevented pooled analyses, although higher quality studies suggested unintended compensatory purchasing that could result in overall effects being counter to health. Eleven of 14 studies evaluating lower socio-economic groups estimated that food pricing strategies would be associated with pro-health outcomes. Food pricing strategies also have the potential to reduce disparities. Conclusions Based on modelling studies, taxes on carbonated drinks and saturated fat and subsidies on fruits and vegetables would be associated with beneficial dietary change, with the potential for improved health. Additional research into possible compensatory purchasing and population health outcomes is needed. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Nghiem, Nhung; Blakely, Tony

2012-01-01

200

A Nationwide Communication System for the Hearing Impaired: Strategies Toward Commercial Implementation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The key objectives of this study are to define an affordable, useful, new communication service for the deaf and to assess the viability of developing commercial computer-communication networks to provide these communication services to the deaf community...

D. S. Allan E. J. Craighill S. S. Oren C. L. Jackson S. H. Russell

1981-01-01

201

Garnering input for recycling communication strategies at a Big Ten University  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing environmental challenges confronting our planet, colleges and universities are trying different approaches for minimizing their adverse environmental impacts. Among the approaches being used to revitalize campus sustainability efforts, new waste management strategies have included attempts to improve campus-recycling programs. This paper presents select findings from a comprehensive study at a large, Tier I university aimed at, among other

Michael D. Kaplowitz; Felix K. Yeboah; Laurie Thorp; Aimee M. Wilson

2009-01-01

202

Individual audio channels with single display groupware: effects on communication and task strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a system that allows four users to each receive sound from a private audio channel while using a shared tabletop display. In order to explore how private audio channels affect a collaborative work environment, we conducted a user study with this system. The results reveal differences in work strategies when groups are presented with individual versus public audio,

Meredith Ringel Morris; Dan Morris; Terry Winograd

2004-01-01

203

Female Subjective Strategies in Post-Franco Spain as Presented by Rosa Montero and Lucía Etxebarria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project studies the subjective strategies that Rosa Montero and Lucía Etxebarria present in post-Franco Spain. I approached this study with an understanding that Spain’s society since the death of Franco is still changing, and its people were still coming to terms with this new order. Spanish literature has reflected this change and the people’s desire to find their place

Kristin Amber Kiely

2008-01-01

204

Behavioral change communication strategy vital in malaria prevention interventions in rural communities: Nakasongola district, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Introduction Malaria is a leading killer disease in Uganda and it accounts for significant morbidity in pregnant women and children. Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria, which causes adverse effects including abortion, low birth weight and maternal anaemia. Children with severe malaria frequently develop one of these symptoms including: severe anaemia, respiratory distress, Prostration, convulsions and cerebral malaria. Due to the severity of the disease there is need for multiple interventions to reduce the disease burden. African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) adopted community based approaches to improve malaria prevention. Behavioral change communication (BCC) was fundamental at every process of Project implementation. This paper shares AMREF's experience in using BCC strategies amidst other interventions in malaria prevention approaches involving use of insecticide treated nets and environment management. Methods AMREF through a Malaria project (2007-2010) in Nakasongola district supported BCC activities through training, community mobilization, mass media, health promotion and advocacy. Program performance was measured through baseline and evaluation surveys in 2007 and 2010. Results The final project evaluation indicated improvement from baseline values as follows: knowledge on prevention of malaria among school children from 76.6% to 90%, under five children sleeping under bed net the previous night from 51% to 74.7%, and from 24% to 78% among pregnant women. Conclusion Mobilization of malaria prevention interventions can be successful once BCC approaches are adequately planned and coordinated. Malaria prevention through BCC strategies are likely to be more effective with integration of other malaria interventions, and involvement of community based structures.

Mugisa, Margaret; Muzoora, Abel

2012-01-01

205

Communicate!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This ten chapter book is designed to provide high school students with an understanding of basic communication processes. The first five chapters include discussions of language development, function, and acquisition in relation to both human and non-human communication. The sixth chapter contains specimen linguistic analyses of speech and…

Chase, Stuart

206

Symptom communication during critical illness: the impact of age, delirium, and delirium presentation.  

PubMed

Symptom communication is integral to quality patient care. Communication between patients and nurses in the intensive care unit (ICU) is complicated by oral or endotracheal intubation and fluctuating neurocognitive status or delirium. We report the (a) prevalence of delirium and its subtypes in non-vocal, mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients; (b) impact of age on delirium; and (c) influence of delirium and age on symptom communication. Videorecorded interactions between patients (N = 89) and nurses (N = 30) were analyzed for evidence of patient symptom communication at four time points across 2 consecutive days. Delirium was measured at enrollment and following sessions. Delirium prevalence was 23.6% at enrollment and 28.7% across sessions. Participants age >60 were more likely to be delirious on enrollment and during observational sessions. Delirium was associated with self-report of pain, drowsiness, and feeling cold. Patients were significantly less likely to initiate symptom communication when delirious. Symptom identification should be carefully undertaken in older adults with or without delirium. PMID:23755732

Tate, Judith A; Sereika, Susan; Divirgilio, Dana; Nilsen, Marci; Demerci, Jill; Campbell, Grace; Happ, Mary Beth

2013-06-10

207

Mexican American Mothers of Low and Middle Socioeconomic Status: Communication Behaviors and Interactive Strategies during Shared Book Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to describe and compare the communication behaviors and interactive reading strategies used by Mexican American mothers of low- and middle-socioeconomic status (SES) background during shared book reading. Method: Twenty Mexican American mother-child dyads from the Southwestern United States were observed…

Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Hines, Rachel; Montiel, Miguel

2009-01-01

208

Issues Advertising as Crisis Communication: Northwest Airlines' Use of Image Restoration Strategies During the 1998 Pilot's Strike  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the use of issues advertising as a form of organizational crisis communication. Specifically, the study analyzes Northwest Airline's (NWA) use of image restoration strategies in the issues advertisements it placed related to the 1998 pilots' strike. We conclude that issues advertising enabled NWA to be proactive in their attempt to reduce culpability for the strike. The evidence

Kimberly Cowden; Timothy L. Sellnow

2002-01-01

209

Cognitive Processing of Crisis Communication: Effects of CSR and Crisis Response Strategies on Stakeholder Perceptions of a Racial Crisis Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to provide a more refined understanding of crisis situations, especially crises resulting from race issues, the researchers identified crisis dynamic variables from existing literature (e.g., Coombs & Holladay, 2002) and connected these links in a model. The cognitive processing model of crisis communication investigates how pre- crisis corporate social responsibility (CSR) practice and different crisis-response strategies affect stakeholders'

Hye Kyung Kim; Sung-Un Yang

2009-01-01

210

A content analysis of multinationals' Web communication strategies: cross-cultural research framework and pre-testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the growing trend toward the interactive medium, there would appear to be a lack of comprehensive research methodology for evaluating the degree of standardisation in multinational corporations’ (MNCs’) online communication strategies across differing cultures. The objective of this exploratory study is to construct a research framework for cross-cultural comparison of corporate Web pages, applying traditional advertising content study techniques.

Shintaro Okazaki; Javier Alonso Rivas

2002-01-01

211

Framing and Counterframing the Issue of Corporate Social ResponsibilityThe Communication Strategies of Nikebiz.com  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the communication strategies that sports shoe giant Nike used to successfully protect its corporate social responsibility (CSR) reputation during the late 1990s. The article opens with a brief discussion of CSR and its critical importance to transnationals such as Nike. The opening also includes four research questions guiding this study. The article then discusses why frame

Randall L. Waller; Roger N. Conaway

2011-01-01

212

Mexican American Mothers of Low and Middle Socioeconomic Status: Communication Behaviors and Interactive Strategies during Shared Book Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to describe and compare the communication behaviors and interactive reading strategies used by Mexican American mothers of low- and middle-socioeconomic status (SES) background during shared book reading. Method: Twenty Mexican American mother-child dyads from the Southwestern United States were observed…

Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Hines, Rachel; Montiel, Miguel

2009-01-01

213

Competent Communication Strategies for Responding to Sexual Harassment in Colleges and Universities [and] Sexual Harassment: Issues and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The first article outlines principles for developing communication strategies and training programs to prevent and respond to sexual harassment on college/university campuses. Additional brief articles cover policy development, the University of Florida sexual harassment policy, policy for faculty conduct, and dealing with a sexual harassment…

Harper, Loretta F.; Rifkind, Lawrence J.

1992-01-01

214

Examining Success of Communication Strategies Used by Formal Caregivers Assisting Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease during an Activity of Daily Living  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To examine how formal (i.e., employed) caregivers' use verbal and nonverbal communication strategies while assisting individuals with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) during the successful completion of an activity of daily living (ADL). Based on the literature, the authors hypothesized that caregivers' use of 1 proposition,…

Wilson, Rozanne; Rochon, Elizabeth; Mihailidis, Alex; Leonard, Carol

2012-01-01

215

A Content Analysis of Multinationals' Web Communication Strategies: Cross-Cultural Research Framework and Pre-Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussion of research methodology for evaluating the degree of standardization in multinational corporations' online communication strategies across differing cultures focuses on a research framework for cross-cultural comparison of corporate Web pages, applying traditional advertising content study techniques. Describes pre-tests that examined…

Okazaki, Shintaro; Alonso Rivas, Javier

2002-01-01

216

Social Marketing and Diffusion-Based Strategies for Communicating with Unique Populations: HIV Prevention in San Francisco  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a 2-year investigation of the extent to which strategies based on social marketing and diffusion of innovations concepts are used in preventive health communication with unique (highly ostracized) populations. Of the 49 organizations in San Francisco that operate HIV prevention programs (N=100),programs that most highly targeted unique populations were surveyed. Personal interviews were then conducted with 38 staff

James W. Dearing; Everett M. Rogers; Gary Meyer; Michelle L. Campo

1996-01-01

217

A Content Analysis of Multinationals' Web Communication Strategies: Cross-Cultural Research Framework and Pre-Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of research methodology for evaluating the degree of standardization in multinational corporations' online communication strategies across differing cultures focuses on a research framework for cross-cultural comparison of corporate Web pages, applying traditional advertising content study techniques. Describes pre-tests that examined…

Okazaki, Shintaro; Alonso Rivas, Javier

2002-01-01

218

Short Communication: Use of Raltegravir in Late-Presenting HIV-Infected Pregnant Women.  

PubMed

Abstract The risk of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is clearly correlated with the maternal HIV cell-free viral load (VL) at delivery. Preventing MTCT in late-presenting (after 28 weeks) HIV-infected pregnant women remains a clinical challenge, and ensuring a rapid decrease of maternal VL is an important preventive strategy. Raltegravir (RGV) has a higher first and second phase viral decay rate, has a high placental transfer, with a potential preloading effect for neonate, and demonstrates effective accumulation in cervicovaginal secretions. We report 14 cases in which RGV was used late in pregnancy for HIV-1 MTCT prophylaxis. All women were RGV naive and the prophylaxis regimens included RGV plus at least two other antiretroviral agents. At RGV initiation, the median gestational age was 36 weeks (range 34-38) and the median maternal plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load was 35,364 copies/ml (range 636-391,535). At delivery, the median gestational age was 38 weeks (range 37-40). The median exposure time to RGV was 17 days (range 7-32), with a mean maternal VL decay of 2.6 log. At delivery, seven women had undetectable (<50 copies/ml) VL, four had between 64 and 457 copies/ml, and in three VL was not available. All but one infant's HIV-RNA tests were negative at 1 and 3 months (one case of in utero MTCT). Raltegravir-containing antiretroviral regimens induced a rapid HIV-RNA decline in maternal VL at delivery, and were safe and effective in preventing MTCT for late-presenting, HIV-infected women. PMID:23731224

Nóbrega, Isabella; Travassos, Ana Gabriela; Haguihara, Tatiana; Amorim, Fábio; Brites, Carlos

2013-06-25

219

Self-Assessment of Oral Communication Presentations in Food Science and Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Self-assessment allows learners to observe, analyze, and evaluate their own performances. Self-reflection allows the student to assess his or her communication skill level and progress against a standard. Additionally, the implementation of self-assessment through carefully prepared classroom experiences enables learners to manage their own…

Reitmeier, C. A.; Vrchota, D. A.

2009-01-01

220

Historical Perspective of Technologies Used in Medical Communications, Past, Present, and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical communication in the pharmaceutical industry has evolved over the past quarter century along with advances in information technology. The medical information function within the pharmaceutical industry became a distinct entity in the early 1980s as the demand for systematic and organized information increased and the complexity of questions required more in-depth responses. Early on, literature searching was a manual

Lesley Fierro; Donna Savulich; Charles Fraser; Andrew Gažo; Christine Wyble

2009-01-01

221

Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Communication impairment is a core deficit associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, it should not be surprising\\u000a that this topic has become a major thrust of assessment and treatment in applied behavior analysis (ABA). The types of communication\\u000a skills to target for intervention and the behavioral assessment methods that can be used to identify these target behaviors\\u000a are reviewed

Jeff Sigafoos; Mark F. O’Reilly; Giulio E. Lancioni

222

An Innovative Training Project: Enhancing the Capacity of School Personnel in Maine To Promote the Use of Alternative Communication Strategies for Students with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief paper describes an innovative training project, the Augmentative, Assistive, and Facilitated Communication project, designed to enhance the capacity of school personnel to use alternative communication strategies with children having severe communication impairments. The project has provided training and technical assistance to school…

Gitlow, Lynn; Gilmer, Debbie; Mintz, Barbara; Kurtz, Alan; Bilodeau, Colette

223

Present status and strategy of reel-to-reel TFA-MOD process for coated conductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the research and development of a reel-to-reel TFA-MOD (Metal Organic Deposition using Trifluoro-acetates) process, a present status is reviewed and its future strategy is addressed. As a base of the study, the 90m long tape with uniform Ic distribution of the 300A\\/cm-width level was obtained on the CeO2 buffered IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7\\/Hastelloy C276 substrate. The tape has the 56m region with

T. Izumi; M. Yoshizumi; M. Miura; K. Nakaoka; Y. Ichikawa; Y. Sutoh; S. Miyata; H. Fukushima; Y. Yamada; Y. Shiohara

2009-01-01

224

Stormy weather: testing “stealing thunder” as a crisis communication strategy to improve communication flow between organizations and journalists  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a highly proactive approach to crisis communication called “stealing thunder.” Reporters and journalism students were asked to read one of two fictitious crisis scenarios: one in which the organization’s public relations practitioner stole thunder (broke the news about the crisis) by contacting the journalist, and one in which the journalist learned

Laura M. Arpan; Donnalyn Pompper

2003-01-01

225

Literacy and Hazard Communication Comprehension of Employees Presenting to an Occupational Health Clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 100 million American workers, 7 million workplaces, and 945,000 hazardous chemical products are covered under the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS), regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. There were a total of 1,183,500 recordable non-fatal illnesses and injuries in private industry workplaces in 2006 resulting in days away from work. Of these, 19,480 were due to chemicals

Christine Bouchard

2011-01-01

226

Relative Effects of Visualized and Verbal Presentation Methods in Communicating Environmental Information among Stakeholders: Okavango Delta, Botswana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study examined the relative effectiveness of 2 public instructional communication methods in improving selected predictors of knowledge-sharing behaviors among communities in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. A total of 120 subjects took part in a quasiexperimental study, with 2 experimental treatments: (a) visualized PowerPoint…

Thakadu, Olekae T.; Irani, Tracy; Telg, Ricky

2011-01-01

227

Communication Strategies in the Practice of Lawyering. Proceedings of the 1983 Summer Conference on Communication Strategies in the Practice of Lawyering (Oracle, AZ, June 24-27, 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawn from a conference intended as a step toward reuniting the disciplines of behavioral sciences and law, the items in this compilation were prepared by practitioners and educators in the areas of law, communication, social psychology, and sociology. The items are arranged in five sections according to these topics: interviewing and counseling,…

Matlon, Ronald J., Ed.; Crawford, Richard J., Ed.

228

[Present and future strategies for women at risk, or suffering from premature ovarian failure (POF)].  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to present the strategies for fertility preservation that are currently proposed to patients at risk from premature ovarian failure (POF) due to chemotherapy as well as some future solutions that could allow patients already affected by an IOP to recover their fertility. Today, cryo-preservation of pieces of ovarian cortex followed by orthotopic transplantation as well as in vitro maturation of oocytes (IVM) allow preservation of fertility in patients being to undergo an antitumor treatment. However, although promising results have been obtained, the pregnancy rate remains very low. Improvement of these techniques, but also stimulation of resting follicle activation, in vitro folliculogenesis, and culture of putative oogonia that may be present in the adult ovary, are all future opportunities for patients suffering from an IOP, and are currently the subject of intensive researches. PMID:23085049

Gougeon, A

2012-10-22

229

Communication Strategies and Timeliness of Response to Life Critical Telemetry Alarms  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background: A centralized electrocardiogram telemetry monitoring system (TMS) facilitates early identification of critical arrhythmias and acute medical decompensation. Timely intervention can only be performed if abnormalities are communicated rapidly to the direct caregiver. The study objectives were to measure effectiveness of bi-directional voice communication badges versus one-way alphanumeric pagers for telemetry alarm response and communication loop closure. Methods: A sequential observational pilot study of nursing response to TMS alarms compared communication technologies on four nursing units in a 1,061 bed tertiary care hospital with 264 TMS channels of telemetry over a 2-year period. Subsequently, the communication technologies were compared in a randomized fashion on a 68-bed progressive cardiac care unit. Caregivers were blinded to the protocol. All alarm responses were recorded during two periods using either pagers or voice communication devices. Alarm response time and closure of the communication loop were analyzed in a blinded fashion. Results: The direct communication functionality of the badge significantly shortened the time to first contact, time to completion, and rate of closure of the communication loop in both the pilot and study phases. Median time to first contact with the communication badge was 0.5?min, compared to 1.6?min with pager communication (p?Communication loop closure was achieved in 100% of clinical alarms using the badge versus 19% with the pager (p?Communication badge technology reduced alarm time to first contact and completion as well as facilitated communication loop closures. Immediate two-way communication significantly impacted practice, alarm management, and resulted in faster bedside care.

Bonzheim, Kimberly A.; Gebara, Rani I.; O'Hare, Bridget M.; Ellis, R. Darin; Brand, Monique A.; Balar, Salil D.; Stockman, Rita; Sciberras, Annette M.

2011-01-01

230

Presentations  

Cancer.gov

Presentations Name Position Presentation (ppt) Sudhir Srivastava, PhD, MPH Chief, Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Metabolomics: An Untapped Frontier (ppt, 161kb) John Milner, PhD Chief, Nutritional Sciences research Group Can Metabolomics

231

Assessing the effectiveness of Communication Media in Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a strategy paper for developing effective communication strategies in health in the state of Rajasthan, India. Rajasthan is one among the poor performing states in Health and Family Welfare. The author first presents the current stains of communication strategies, which have been developed by the called Information Education and Communication (IEC) Bureau. Further, few indicators and methods are

Srinivasan K

2006-01-01

232

Communication Skills for Department Chairs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Communication strategies needed for the specific responsibilities of college and university department heads are presented. Each chapter first describes communication strategies useful in handling an administrative task, and then uses real-life case studies to demonstrate their applications in typical situations. Readers are guided through a…

Higgerson, Mary Lou

233

Module 7-AA: Communicating Effectively  

Cancer.gov

The seventh module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores communication issues pertinent to African Americans with cancer and their health care providers, discusses strategies for culturally sensitive communication, and presents the SPIKES protocol, a practical framework for effective communication.

234

Comparison of Annie Sullivan's Teaching Strategies for Literacy and Communication to the Current Outcome Performance Indicators in Deaf-Blindness: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored teaching strategies for communication and literacy development in deaf-blind students by determining if there was a significant relationship between the instructional strategies practiced by Annie Sullivan in the early 1900s and the contemporary instructional strategies recommended by The National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness…

Pevsner, Diane

2010-01-01

235

Communicating Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science Communication plays a crucial role in education and in the public understanding of science. It shortens the distance between scientific research, the school and the general public. Astronomy has a privileged position in the process of science communication since it embraces different areas of knowledge such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, geology and biology. It is capable of attracting a vast audience and is a powerful tool for science popularization. Nowadays, science must compete with many other subjects for a place in the media and in the public's attention. This paradigm has raised the standards and demands for science communication and pushed it into professionalism. The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) is one of the biggest challenges for astronomy communication. There are two key elements in the communication strategy that are often forgotten: detailed description of objectives and goals and evaluation of the results. They are in opposite poles of the communication strategy, but must both be taken into account from the beginning of any activity. In this paper we will present some guidelines that can be helpful in the initial planning of outreach activities, as well as the evaluation of its results.

Russo, P.; Barrosa, Mariana

2007-08-01

236

Staying on Message: How the Right Tools Can Make or Break Your College's Communications Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As the market for online communications evolves, it's hard to blame college administrators for feeling a bit deluged. Gone are the days of traditional media, where communications professionals relied on newspapers and print and radio advertising to recruit students and tell their stories. With more students embracing technology…

Gross, Michael

2010-01-01

237

Designing Effective Persuasive Systems Utilizing the Power of Entanglement: Communication Channel, Strategy & Affect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With rapid advancements in information and communication technologies, computer-mediated communication channels such as email, web, mobile smart-phones with SMS, social networking websites (Facebook), multimedia websites, and OEM devices provide users with multiple technology choices to seek information. However, no study has compared the…

Li, Haiqing

2010-01-01

238

Using Collaborative Strategies To Validate the Intercultural ACCESS Test: Assessment of Communication Competency & English Speaking Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A crucial consideration in the development of equal representation in the academic, work, and civic life of the United States involves shifting away from the assumption that the traditional speech communication student is monocultural and that research methods must fit linear models of assessing teaching and learning communication competencies.…

Flores, Norma Landa

239

Sex Workers and HIV/AIDS: Analyzing Participatory Culture-Centered Health Communication Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An emerging trend in health communication research advocates the need to foreground articulations of health by participants who are at the core of any health campaign. Scholarly work suggests that the culture-centered approach to health communication can provide a theoretical and practical framework to achieve this objective. The culture-centered…

Basu, Ambar; Dutta, Mohan J.

2009-01-01

240

A Nationwide Communication System for the Hearing Impaired: Strategies Toward Commercial Implementation. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this report is to assess the viability of developing commercial computer communications networks to provide communications services to the deaf community on a nationwide basis. Access to this network is considered for existing Baudot/Weitbrecht Telecommunications Devices for the Deaf (TDDs) and ASCII terminals with Bell modems. The…

Allan, Daniel S.; And Others

241

The Art of Talking Tech: Strategies for Effective Communication with Information Technology Departments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the value of communication among librarians and information technology (IT) staff. Focusing on self education, a willingness to learn, basic communication techniques, and a variety of resources, this column seeks to be a starting point for hospital librarians when coping with their IT departments.

Lisa A. Ennis

2009-01-01

242

"I'll Repeat Myself, "Again?!"" Empowering Students through Assertive Communication Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One goal parents and educators should have is to help children become assertive and emotionally intelligent individuals. In furthering this goal, it helps to have an understanding of the three basic communication styles: (1) passive; (2) aggressive; and (3) assertive. Because communication is most effective when a message is delivered assertively,…

Kolb, Sharon M.; Griffith, Amy C. Stevens

2009-01-01

243

Communication Strategies for People with Developmental Disabilities: Issues from Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a collection of essays on helping people with developmental disabilities communicate successfully. It is intended for practitioners and students in special education, speech-language pathology, and psychology. The essays are as follows: "Communicative Behaviour in the Least Restrictive Environment" (Ken Linfoot); "Play as an…

Linfoot, Ken, Ed.

244

On being sad and evasive: Affective influences on verbal communication strategies in conflict situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does mood influence people’s tendency to engage in evasive, equivocal communication when facing conflict situations? Based on recent affect–cognition theories and research on verbal communication, this experiment predicted that negative mood should increase, and positive mood decrease the level of verbal evasiveness in conflict situations, and that high situational conflict should magnify these mood effects. Participants underwent a happy or

Joseph P Forgas; Michelle Cromer

2004-01-01

245

Enhancing Parent-Child Communication about Drug Use: Strategies for Professionals Working with Parents and Guardians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research indicates that family connectedness is the leading protective factor against youth involvement in alcohol and other drug use. A vital component to building positive family connections is effective parent-child communication. This article discusses the importance of building positive parent-child communication skills and provides…

King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

2011-01-01

246

Workshops: Extend Learning beyond Your Presentation with These Brain-Friendly Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Whether one is perusing the brain research, learning-style theory or proven professional development practices, there are strategies that, by their very nature, take advantage of the way brains acquire information. While these strategies facilitate instruction for K-12 students, they work equally well for adult learners. This article outlines 10…

Tate, Marcia L.

2009-01-01

247

Sense of Place and the National Parks, Strategies for Communicating the Interconnected Nature of Earth Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using sense of place can help scientists improve their communication of complex concepts related to the connectivity of the environment, geological processes, and human societies. National parks afford excellent examples of places that contain intellectual and emotional stimuli for diverse individuals - in other words, they foster a sense of place. Parks contain spectacular examples of how the processes that shape the earth influence ecosystem and societal development. Parks can therefore be used as outdoor classrooms to engage people in place-based Earth Science education. Incorporating place-based teaching methods can promote learning about Earth’s processes that ensures that a wider audience can be reached than by traditional instructional methods. Specific examples of using national parks on the Colorado Plateau, in the Rocky Mountains and the Keweenaw Peninsula for K-12 teacher training have resulted in a deepening of Earth Science content-area knowledge. The National Parks “Views of the National Park (Views)” multimedia education program can subsequently be used to promote engagement of students in the teachers’ classrooms. Teachers who wish to continue their education as interns in the parks are served by programs such as Geoscientists-in-the-Parks, Volunteers-in-Parks, and Teacher-Ranger-Teacher programs. The Michigan Teaching Excellence Program (MiTEP), multi-year teacher leadership and professional development program is working with middle-grade science teachers from selected urban districts and using the parks of the Midwest as natural classrooms. MiTEP has partnered with the NPS to develop internship opportunities for teachers in the parks. These internships will result in educational materials that can be hosted by “Views”. The goal of the internships are to improve teachers’ understanding of the natural environment and the processes that it reflects, and to assist park personnel in producing materials that are standards-based, age-appropriate, and of interest to diverse urban students and families. Both teachers and parks are enthusiastic about working together and we anticipate that MiTEP’s strategy may be a model for others who wish to provide life-long learning opportunities to teachers and outreach opportunities to parks.

Vye, E. C.; Rose, W. I.; Huntoon, J. E.; Nash, B. L.

2010-12-01

248

Revisiting strategic communication's past to understand the present : Examining the direction and nature of communication on Fortune 500 and Philanthropy 400 web sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to compare the communication styles on the web sites of a random sample of the top American corporations and non-profit organizations. By revisiting the traditional approach to understanding strategic communication, the four models of public relations provide insights into the direction and nature of organizational communication. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A random sample of

Richard D. Waters; Jennifer L. Lemanski

2011-01-01

249

Killer artificial antigen-presenting cells: a novel strategy to delete specific T cells  

PubMed Central

Several cell-based immunotherapy strategies have been developed to specifically modulate T cell–mediated immune responses. These methods frequently rely on the utilization of tolerogenic cell–based antigen-presenting cells (APCs). However, APCs are highly sensitive to cytotoxic T-cell responses, thus limiting their therapeutic capacity. Here, we describe a novel bead-based approach to modulate T-cell responses in an antigen-specific fashion. We have generated killer artificial APCs (?aAPCs) by coupling an apoptosis-inducing ?-Fas (CD95) IgM mAb together with HLA-A2 Ig molecules onto beads. These ?aAPCs deplete targeted antigen-specific T cells in a Fas/Fas ligand (FasL)–dependent fashion. T-cell depletion in cocultures is rapidly initiated (30 minutes), dependent on the amount of ?aAPCs and independent of activation-induced cell death (AICD). ?aAPCs represent a novel technology that can control T cell–mediated immune responses, and therefore has potential for use in treatment of autoimmune diseases and allograft rejection.

Fleck, Martin; Mackensen, Andreas; Zoso, Alessia; Halbritter, Dagmar; Schneck, Jonathan P.; Oelke, Mathias

2008-01-01

250

Strategies for early recognition of cutaneous melanoma--present and future  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous melanoma is a highly aggressive malignant tumor of skin melanocytes with an increasing incidence in most countries of the world, especially in the fair-skinned populations. Despite all preventive and therapeutic efforts, malignant melanoma is still the most lethal skin cancer. A delayed diagnosis results in an advanced stage and worsened prognosis. Once distant metastases are present, the five-year survival rate is less than 10 percent. At the same time, patients may be cured by an early diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma followed by a wide excision. Therefore, the early detection of melanoma at curable stages is crucial for the patients’ survival. Besides the investigation of pigmented lesions with the unaided eye, a wide range of examination techniques for improved diagnostic accuracy have been developed and validated in clinical trials. However, none of these techniques are able to provide a definite and final diagnosis or to replace an excisional biopsy of suspicious lesions followed by histological analysis. This review provides a concise overview of general principles as well as current and future strategies for an improved early diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma

Brehmer, Franziska; Ulrich, Martina; Haenssle, Holger A.

2012-01-01

251

Cost-Effective Strategies for Communicating with Remote Surveillance Stations: A Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The researchers accomplished the following research activities during the 2003-2004 research period: (1) Documented the state-of-the-practice and past experience in deploying wireless communication system configurations, identified deficiency of current p...

Y. C. Chiu C. Haas H. Logman M. N. Chiu A. Sunkara

2003-01-01

252

Optimal Message Block Size for Computer Communications with Error Detection and Retransmission Strategies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Error detection and retransmission are used as error control in many computer communication systems. In these systems, random length messages are partitioned into fixed size blocks for ease in data handling and memory management. A mathematical model is d...

W. W. Chu

1973-01-01

253

Public Relations Autonomy, Legal Dominance, and Strategic Orientation as Predictors of Crisis Communicative Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the factors affecting how public relations autonomy, legal dominance, and strategic orientation\\u000a affect crisis communicative response in corporate contexts. Communication managers, crisis managers, public affairs managers,\\u000a and\\/or public relations managers were solicited from Taiwan’s top 500 companies to participate in a survey. The results revealed\\u000a that, in contrast to public relations autonomy being the strongest and sole

Yi-Hui Huang; Shih-Hsin Su

2009-01-01

254

Designing Effective Persuasive Systems Utilizing the Power of Entanglement: Communication Channel, Strategy and Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With rapid advances in information and communication technology, computer-mediated communication (CMC) technologies are utilizing\\u000a multiple IT platforms such as email, websites, cell-phones\\/PDAs, social networking sites, and gaming environments. However,\\u000a no studies have compared the effectiveness of a persuasive system using such alternative channels and various persuasive techniques.\\u000a Moreover, how affective computing impacts the effectiveness of persuasive systems is not clear.

Haiqing Li; Samir Chatterjee

2010-01-01

255

Communication at Home and in the Community: Helpful Strategies & Suggestions from Parents & Families with a Child Who Is Deaf-Blind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief booklet lists communication strategies identified at a 1999 national parent workshop by over 100 parents and family members of children with deaf-blindness called "Important Practices in Communication: Making It Happen at Home and in the Community." The booklet addresses four questions: (1) How can we facilitate and promote a child's…

National Technical Assistance Consortium for Children and Young Adults Who Are Deaf-Blind, Monmouth, OR.

256

Communication strategy of transboundary air pollution findings in a US-Mexico Border XXI program project.  

PubMed

From 1996 to 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) conducted an air quality study known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP). The study was a US-Mexico Border XXI program project and was developed in response to local community requests on a need for more air quality measurements and concerns about the health impact of local air pollutants; this included concerns about emissions from border-dependent industries in Mexico, known as maquiladoras. The TAPP was a follow-up study to environmental monitoring done by EPA in this area in 1993 and incorporated scientific and community participation in development, review of results, and public presentation of findings. In spite of this, critical remarks were leveled by community activists against the study's preliminary "good news" findings regarding local air quality and the influence of transboundary air pollution. To resolve these criticisms and to refine the findings to address these concerns, analyses included comparisons of daily and near real-time measurements to TNRCC effects screening levels and data from other studies along with wind sector analyses. Reassessment of the data suggested that although regional source emissions occurred and outliers of elevated pollutant levels were found, movement of air pollution across the border did not appear to cause noticeable deterioration of air quality. In spite of limitations stated to the community, the TAPP was presented as establishing a benchmark to assess current and future transboundary air quality in the Valley. The study has application in Border XXI Program or other air quality studies where transboundary transport is a concern since it involved interagency coordination, public involvement, and communication of scientifically sound results for local environmental protection efforts. PMID:11740622

Mukerjee, Shaibal

2002-01-01

257

The National Cholesterol Education Program. A Communications Strategy for Public Education. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Health Communications Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide presents an overall direction for mass media messages and materials developed for public audiences under the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), with particular emphasis on overall consistency and coherence in broadcast and print materials. Section 1 introduces the program and presents overall objectives, purpose, and scope…

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

258

A system dynamics model as a decision aid in evaluating and communicating complex market entry strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing a market entry strategy is a critical activity for any firm but all the more so for those firms that wish to successfully compete in today's challenging global economy. Unfortunately, developing a market entry strategy is an ill-structured and complex activity for which structured approaches have proven inadequate. In less structured situations, data driven and model based decision-support systems

Peter Otto

2008-01-01

259

The development of persuasive communication strategies in kindergarteners through twelfth?graders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has documented age?related developments in the differentiation and abstractness of the system of interpersonal constructs employed in perceiving persons and the relationship of such developments to qualitative changes in persuasive strategies. This study extended the analysis of the interrelations among these developments within a broad age range. In addition to other findings, the quality of persuasive strategies was

Jesse G. Delia; Susan L. Kline; Brant R. Burleson

1979-01-01

260

A simple packet retransmission strategy for throughput and delay enhancement on power line communication channels  

SciTech Connect

A new, simple, and effective communication protocol is developed and evaluated for use on power line distribution networks. The protocol involves retransmission of unacknowledged packets, which are sent in either single or multiple (N) copies in accordance with estimates of communication link quality. Multiple packet copies can be code combined at the receiver, using majority voting on each bit position, to reduce packet error rates. Adaptive link quality estimates are based on the receipt or absence of positive acknowledgements. Information throughput efficiency is calculated and N optimized in terms of system variables. Performance benefits of code combining are clearly demonstrated. The algorithm was implemented and tested using a five-station intrabuilding power line communications network operating at 1.2, 2.4, 4.8 and 9.6 kbit/s data rate. Substantial throughput and delay improvement occurred on poor quality links, without degrading performance on good links.

Onunga, J.O. (Kenya Posts and Telecommunications Corp., Nairobi (Kenya)); Donaldson, R.W. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

1993-07-01

261

Performance Analysis and Special Issues of Broadband Strategies in the Computer Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broadband communications consists of the technologies and equipment required\\u000ato deliver packet-based digital voice, video, and data services to end users.\\u000aBroadband affords end users high-speed, always-on access to the Internet while\\u000aaffording service providers the ability to offer value-added services to\\u000aincrease revenues. Due to the growth of the Internet, there has been tremendous\\u000abuildout of high-speed, inter-city communications

S. S. Riaz Ahamed; D. Mahesh

2010-01-01

262

Chronic Modes of Action for Ecotoxicity: Integrated Testing Strategies for the 21st Century, presentation  

EPA Science Inventory

This initiative, though focusing perhaps on individual assays at the beginning, recognizes the need for a tiered strategy for ecotoxicity tests that better integrates new techniques (models, in vitro methods, new technologies) to improve ecotoxicity testing as a whole. The reali...

263

Performing success: identifying strategies of self-presentation in women's biographical narratives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biographies of eight highly professional women form the material for discussing how women live, understand, and ‘perform’ success. After identifying macro-topics related to success, the authors carry out an analysis of the women's discursive strategies of self-representation. They examine features that are indicative of suppression or backgrounding of social actors and, related to this, sources of ambivalence, activeness, and

Ina Wagner; Ruth Wodak

2006-01-01

264

Performing success: identifying strategies of self-presentation in women's biographical narratives  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRA C T. The biographies of eight highly professional women form the material for discussing how women live, understand, and 'perform' success. After identifying macro-topics related to success, the authors carry out an analysis of the women's discursive strategies of self-representation. They examine features that are indicative of suppression or backgrounding of social actors and, related to this, sources of

AR T ICLE

265

Optimal Message Block Size for Computer Communications with Error Detection and Retransmission Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Error detection and retransmission are used as error control in many computer communication systems. In these systems, random length messages are partitioned into fixed size blocks for ease in data handling and memory management. A mathematical model is developed in this paper to determine the optimal message block size that minimizes the expected waiting time in retransmission and acknowledgment delay

W. Chu

1974-01-01

266

Testing Communication Strategies to Convey Genomic Concepts Using Virtual Reality Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health professionals need to be able to communicate information about genomic susceptibility in understandable and usable ways, but substantial challenges are involved. We developed four learning modules that varied along two factors: (1) learning mode (active learning vs. didactic learning) and (2) metaphor (risk elevator vs. bridge) and tested them using a 2 × 2 between-subjects, repeated measures design. The study used

Kimberly A. Kaphingst; Susan Persky; Cade McCall; Christina Lachance; Andrew C. Beall; Jim Blascovich

2009-01-01

267

Communicative Dynamism in Expository Academic English: Some Strategies in Teaching the Pragmatics of Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There are qualities or organizational principles in discourse that determine its information structure and contribute to its communicative dynamism. A "wave" model of discourse analysis shows graphically how each successive item of new information in a text provides a platform for the next new item, or "wave," of information. The model is based…

Bruce, Nigel J.

1988-01-01

268

Development Discourse on Gender and Communication in Strategies for Social Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the role of gender and the nature of instructional discourse on beneficiaries and social change in development communication projects addressing health, nutrition, and population problems. Finds a shift from focusing on women and other marginal groups since the Decade for Women, toward emphasizing consumption and privatization. (CR)

Wilkins, Karin Gwinn

1999-01-01

269

Communication Topics and Strategies in E-Mail Consultation: Comparison between American and International University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|On today's "wired" college campuses, students avail themselves in increasing numbers of electronic channels, most notably e-mail, as a means to consult with their professors. While some research has investigated the purposes for which university students communicate with their instructors via e-mail, little research has examined differences in…

Biesenbach-Lucas, Sigrun

2005-01-01

270

Is information and communication technology (ICT) the right strategy for growth in Mexico?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although empirical evidence available suggests that information and communication technologies (ICT) have positively contributed to important sectors of the Mexican economy, it is still unknown to which extent ICT have truly contributed to productivity among these sectors. The increasing implementation and imports of ICT technologies, the growing demand for ICT-skilled human capital and training, the rising level of wages and

Francisco Caudillo Sanchez

2006-01-01

271

The strategy and policy to develop the communication industry in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Building on the IT and semiconductor industries' successful development, Taiwan government had planned to develop the next successful industry - communication industry - several years ago. The National Telecommunication Program since 1988 has resulted in many achievements over five years' development. For example, Taiwan made more than 80% of the WLAN cards worldwide; government issued five

A. Chou

2005-01-01

272

between electronic and face-to-face communication and its implication for alternative workplace strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author David P. Young is based at Chesterton Facilities and Property Management in the City of London and has recently graduated with a Masters Degree from the Facility Planning and Management Programme at Cornell Univer- sity. Abstract Many individuals who have no or limited experience of using electronic communication technologies (ECTs), e.g. telephone, fax, voice, and e-mail are concerned

David P. Young

273

Perceptions of Conflict Strategies and Communication Competence in Task-Oriented Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Individuals in temporary task-oriented dyads or groups must manage conflict competently if they hope to be successful in reaching their goals. Thus far, however, research on the associations between conflict styles and communication competence has focused on acquainted dyads, such as relational partners and coworkers, rather than unacquainted…

Gross, Michael A.; Guerrero, Laura K.; Alberts, Jess K.

2004-01-01

274

Topic Management and Turn Taking in Professional Communication: First- Versus Second-Language Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and contrasts the communication behavior of Hong Kong Cantonese bilingual speakers as they interact in comparable first- and second-language strategic formulations and decision-making meetings. Finds similarities in terms of volume, context level, and ideas; and differences in areas of turn-taking frequency, length of spoken time per…

Du-Babcock, Bertha

1999-01-01

275

Description of Communication Breakdown Repair Strategies Produced by Nonverbal Students with Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study describes the communication repair behaviors used by nonverbal students with developmental disabilities in the interactions they were involved in with their teachers during free play activities. All children were students at centers serving student with developmental disabilities at Anadolu University in Turkey. Data were collected by…

Dincer, Baris; Erbas, Dilek

2010-01-01

276

The Community-Based Report: A Strategy for Teaching Business Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Community-Based Report provides students in business communications classes with an authentic context for thinking and writing. Students are required to investigate and produce written and oral solutions to a problem experienced by a local corporation, business, governmental or not-for-profit organization. Students develop their own cases,…

Rosenberg, Roberta K.; Gordon, Douglas K.

277

Effective Communication Strategies for Noise-Limited Power-Line Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ergodic chaotic parameter modulation (ECPM) has recently been proposed as a viable modulation technique for power-line communications (PLC) due to its robustness to multipath conditions and low complexity in receiver design. While performance of ECPM has been found to be satisfactory in limited noise conditions, performance issues for other hostile challenges in the power-line environment, such as narrowband and impulsive

Julian Meng; Andrew E. Marble

2007-01-01

278

The Emergence of Marketing and Communications Strategy in South African Further Education and Training Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|South African further education and training (FET) colleges have been enjoined to become more responsive to their external environment, in keeping with international trends in public vocational education and training (VET) reform. One mechanism for achieving this goal is to market colleges and communicate more effectively to future students,…

McGrath, Simon; Akoojee, Salim

2007-01-01

279

AN ANALYSIS OF CORPORATE E?MAIL COMMUNICATION AS PART OF AIRLINES' SERVICE RECOVERY STRATEGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the increased use of the Internet in the travel industry, companies should be eager to provide reliable and high quality service when communicating online. This study focused on e?mail response behavior of airlines with special attention to service recovery. A mystery approach was applied to empirically test the responsiveness and quality of replies to inquiries and complaints. Results show

Astrid Dickinger; Ulrike Bauernfeind

2009-01-01

280

The Bundesbank's Communications Strategy and Policy Conflicts with the Federal Government  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we provide an estimate of the likelihood of conflict between the federal government and the Bundesbank for the 1989–1998 period. We rely on a novel proxy for the impact of public communication by Bundesbank officials on the probability of conflict, in addition to interest rate, exchange rate, money supply behavior, as well as electoral influences. The empirical

Pierre L. Siklos; Martin T. Bohl

2005-01-01

281

A Cognition-Emotion-Action Sequence: Anticipated Emotional Consequences of Causal Attributions and Reported Communication Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined development of relations between causal explanations, the anticipated emotional consequences for others if these causes were communicated, and the decision to disclose or withhold causal explanation. Within a role-playing paradigm, children aged 5-12 were given scenarios involving social rejection or broken social engagement. Data…

Weiner, Bernard; Handel, Stephen J.

1985-01-01

282

Effect Size Measures for Mediation Models: Quantitative Strategies for Communicating Indirect Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The statistical analysis of mediation effects has become an indispensable tool for helping scientists investigate processes thought to be causal. Yet, in spite of many recent advances in the estimation and testing of mediation effects, little attention has been given to methods for communicating effect size and the practical importance of those…

Preacher, Kristopher J.; Kelley, Ken

2011-01-01

283

Informing the public about information and participation strategies in the siting of mobile communication base stations: an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Informing the public and ensuring their participation are considered important characteristics for a successful siting of mobile communication base stations. However, there is only sparse empirical evidence for this presumption. In particular, nothing is known about whether informing people that a siting decision is based on public information and participation activities has any positive effects. The experimental study presented here

Peter M. Wiedemann; Holger Schütz

2008-01-01

284

Linking Contextual Factors with Rhetorical Pattern Shift: Direct and Indirect Strategies Recommended in English Business Communication Textbooks in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scholars have consistently claimed that rhetorical patterns are culturally bound, and indirectness is a defining characteristic of Chinese writing. Through examining how the rhetorical mechanism of directness and indirectness is presented in 29 English business communication textbooks published in China, we explore how English business…

Wang, Junhua; Zhu, Pinfan

2011-01-01

285

National Research Strategy for Neurological and Communicative Disorders. Volume 1. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NINCDS has conducted a review and assessment of its current research strategies, program balance, and research activities in light of evolving public health needs and research opportunities. The review and assessment was carried out as a joint effort ...

1979-01-01

286

Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (25th, Dallas, Texas, 2002). Volume 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For the twenty-fifth year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. This is Volume 2 of the 25th Annual Proceedings of Selected Papers On the Practice of Educational Communications and Technology Presented at The National Convention…

Lamboy, Carmen, Ed.; Simonson, Michael, Ed.

2002-01-01

287

Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (26th, Anaheim, California, 2003). Volume 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For the twenty-sixth year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. This is Volume 2 of the 26th Annual Proceedings of Selected Papers On the Practice of Educational Communications and Technology presented at the National AECT…

Simonson, Michael, Ed.; Crawford, Margaret, Ed.

2003-01-01

288

Communications, Social Science, and Humanities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After researching NASSP's clearinghouse of information on exemplary programs, the writers present a synthesis of instructional strategies and curricular modalities in communications, social science, and humanities. Schools identified are listed at the end of the article. (Editor)|

Brown, Mary S.; Brown, Beverly L.

1974-01-01

289

The effects of asset-light strategy on competitive advantage in the telephone communications industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how asset-light operations generate competitive advantage in the telephone communications industry. Competitive advantage is defined as the ability of a firm to generate returns above its synthetic normal return. Three regression models are developed to describe the relationships between asset-light operations and competitive advantage. This empirical study provides several insights: (1) Asset-light operations significantly contribute to competitive

Fen-May Liou

2011-01-01

290

The influence of strategy map communications and individual differences on multidimensional performance evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidimensional performance evaluation systems such as the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) were developed to overcome the documented tendency of managers to focus almost exclusively on short-term financial performance measures while disregarding or de-emphasising other short-term and\\/or long-term non-financial performance measures. Evidence suggests, however, that implementation of many of these systems has not achieved desired outcomes. Cogent communication of a corporation's goals

D. Jordan Lowe; Salvador Carmona-Moreno; Philip M. J. Reckers

2011-01-01

291

Crisis communication in higher education: The use of “negotiation” as a strategy to manage crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study examined the crisis response strategies of Louisiana State University after its women's head basketball coach resigned amid charges of inappropriate conduct with former basketball players. This case study draws on relationship management and negotiation as the theoretical lens to examine the efforts of the University in managing relationships and restoring its image. Data for this study was

Tulika M. Varma

2011-01-01

292

New Information and Communication Technologies in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Strategies and Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article will primarily allow a definition of the strategic development of ICT in the Democratic Republic of Congo, to be put forward. For the most part it involves the precision of many types of measures and strategies (such as institutional, regulatory, infrastructural measures), human resources, the development of content and partnerships,…

Banza, Nsomwe-a- Nfunkwa

2006-01-01

293

How global companies communicate in host country: a glocalization strategy in web space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corporate web sites have significant roles in building a positive image with stakeholders, particularly in a host market environment with different cultural backgrounds and values. A content analysis was conducted to study the glocalization strategies of corporate web sites and depiction of cultural values of 47 international brands which were identified as having Indonesian web sites. The four types of

Bayu Sutikno; Julian Ming-Sung Cheng

2011-01-01

294

How global companies communicate in host country: a glocalization strategy in web space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corporate web sites have significant roles in building a positive image with stakeholders, particularly in a host market environment with different cultural backgrounds and values. A content analysis was conducted to study the glocalization strategies of corporate web sites and depiction of cultural values of 47 international brands which were identified as having Indonesian web sites. The four types of

Bayu Sutikno; Julian Ming-Sung Cheng

2012-01-01

295

A Perspective for Developing Strategies for Utilizing New Communication Technologies in Public Relations Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on a definition of public relations that recognizes the field as a purposeful management function, this paper provides a perspective on public relations to help practitioners develop strategies for the use of new media forms in public relations programs. The paper begins with a historical review of mass media effects research and proceeds…

Ledingham, John A.; Masel-Walters, Lynne

296

Capacity occupation strategy for data messaging over non-geostationary mobile satellite communication systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable interest has been focused on the possibility of employing a large number of low earth orbit (LEO) satellites to provide an overall global coverage. Capacity estimation of different LEO satellite constellations is derived in terms of satellite altitude and traffic offered. A capacity occupation strategy is proposed for the transmission of both telephone and wireless data messaging over LEO

Nawal A. Elfishawy; Salah Khamis

2001-01-01

297

Treatment Strategies for Patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Past, Present, and Future  

PubMed Central

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most commonly occurring lymphoma in the Western world. DLBCL is a clinically, biologically, and pathologically heterogeneous entity with biologically distinct subtypes that have different expected treatment outcomes. The addition of rituximab to combination chemotherapy has improved outcomes for all patients with DLBCL and can produce cure for many individuals. Relapsed DLBCL is generally managed with salvage chemo-immunotherapy followed by high dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation which can cure additional patients. However, outcomes for patients who relapse early after upfront rituximab and chemotherapy have a poorer prognosis. Novel therapies and strategies are desperately needed for these patients and several emerging treatments hold promise for improving DLBCL treatment outcomes in the future.

Sinha, Rajni; Nastoupil, Loretta

2013-01-01

298

Two distinct conformations of a rinderpest virus epitope presented by bovine major histocompatibility complex class I N*01801: a host strategy to present featured peptides.  

PubMed

The presentation of viral peptide epitopes to host cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is crucial for adaptive cellular immunity to clear the virus infection, especially for some chronic viral infections. Indeed, hosts have developed effective strategies to achieve this goal. The ideal scenario would be that the peptide epitopes stimulate a broad spectrum of CTL responses with diversified T-cell receptor (TCR) usage (the TCR repertoire). It is believed that a diversified TCR repertoire requires a "featured" peptide to be presented by the host major histocompatibility complex (MHC). A featured peptide can be processed and presented in a number of ways. Here, using the X-ray diffraction method, the crystal structures of an antigenic peptide derived from rinderpest virus presented by bovine MHC class I N*01801 (BoLA-A11) have been solved, and two distinct conformations of the presented peptide are clearly displayed. A detailed analysis of the structure and comparative sequences revealed that the polymorphic amino acid isoleucine 73 (Ile73) is extremely flexible, allowing the MHC groove to adopt different conformations to accommodate the rinderpest virus peptide. This makes the peptide more featured by exposing different amino acids for T-cell recognition. The crystal structures also demonstrated that the N*01801 molecule has an unusually large A pocket, resulting in the special conformation of the P1 residue at the N terminus of the peptide. We propose that this strategy of host peptide presentation might be beneficial for creating a diversified TCR repertoire, which is important for a more-effective CTL response. PMID:21450819

Li, Xin; Liu, Jun; Qi, Jianxun; Gao, Feng; Li, Qirun; Li, Xiaoying; Zhang, Nianzhi; Xia, Chun; Gao, George F

2011-03-30

299

Two Distinct Conformations of a Rinderpest Virus Epitope Presented by Bovine Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I N*01801: a Host Strategy To Present Featured Peptides?†  

PubMed Central

The presentation of viral peptide epitopes to host cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is crucial for adaptive cellular immunity to clear the virus infection, especially for some chronic viral infections. Indeed, hosts have developed effective strategies to achieve this goal. The ideal scenario would be that the peptide epitopes stimulate a broad spectrum of CTL responses with diversified T-cell receptor (TCR) usage (the TCR repertoire). It is believed that a diversified TCR repertoire requires a “featured” peptide to be presented by the host major histocompatibility complex (MHC). A featured peptide can be processed and presented in a number of ways. Here, using the X-ray diffraction method, the crystal structures of an antigenic peptide derived from rinderpest virus presented by bovine MHC class I N*01801 (BoLA-A11) have been solved, and two distinct conformations of the presented peptide are clearly displayed. A detailed analysis of the structure and comparative sequences revealed that the polymorphic amino acid isoleucine 73 (Ile73) is extremely flexible, allowing the MHC groove to adopt different conformations to accommodate the rinderpest virus peptide. This makes the peptide more featured by exposing different amino acids for T-cell recognition. The crystal structures also demonstrated that the N*01801 molecule has an unusually large A pocket, resulting in the special conformation of the P1 residue at the N terminus of the peptide. We propose that this strategy of host peptide presentation might be beneficial for creating a diversified TCR repertoire, which is important for a more-effective CTL response.

Li, Xin; Liu, Jun; Qi, Jianxun; Gao, Feng; Li, Qirun; Li, Xiaoying; Zhang, Nianzhi; Xia, Chun; Gao, George F.

2011-01-01

300

The Theoretical Foundation for Intercultural Business Communication: A Conceptual Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Develops a theoretical framework for intercultural business communication which sets it apart from intercultural communication and international business. Presents a model that discusses the intercultural, business, and communication strategies that are part of intercultural business communication. Examines how past articles in the field fit into…

Varner, Iris I.

2000-01-01

301

The effectiveness of health communication strategies in health education in Kushima, Japan.  

PubMed

Japan's 2008 health policy focuses more than ever on health education for behaviour change and outcome measures for physical health status. This is at odds with contemporary health promotion and health education, which frame health as a resource for everyday life and indicate that the evaluation of interventions should measure broader aspects of health rather than just physical aspects. The application of a combination of different health communication models and theories allows for a customized approach, depending on the types of change that are being sought, and can lead to increased relevance as well as a better fit when it comes to evaluating the achievement of broad health promotion goals. This article explores the application of the Outcome Model for Health Promotion to a two-year health education intervention in Kushima, Japan. This model measures program effectiveness from four aspects: physical health outcomes; intermediate health outcomes; health promotion outcomes; and health promotion actions. A quantitative and qualitative longitudinal, mixed model study design and methods were used for the analysis. Data was taken from health exams, structured interviews, and participant observations collected from 67 participants at four times over two years. This intervention relied primarily on health education and communication to achieve mental and social health outcomes more significantly and faster than physical health outcomes. The importance of moving outcome measurement beyond direct health achievements is discussed in light of the relationships between physical, mental, and social health and its determinants, and our results. PMID:20357347

Ebina, Ryoko; Kawasaki, Fumiko; Taniguchi, Izumi; Togari, Taisuke; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Sparks, Michael

2010-03-01

302

The total time hypothesis, recall strategies, and memory for rapidly presented word strings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three experiments the free recall of rapidly presented word strings was studied. The word strings were shown either in\\u000a grammatical order or a scrambled order. It was found that the invariance of recall with various presentation times for grammatical\\u000a sequences breaks down at presentation times between 175 and 250 msec. The order of recall, however, remains consistent with\\u000a the

Sheila M. Pfafflin

1974-01-01

303

The Influence of Learner Strategies on Oral Presentations: A Comparison between Group and Individual Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cooperative learning has frequently been used in language classrooms, from in-class task-based group work to group presentations. Research suggests that cooperative learning provides mutual support, as well as successful and effective learning outcomes of tasks. The present research addressed a number of problems discovered in group oral…

Chou, Mu-hsuan

2011-01-01

304

Multi?linear strategies for (re)presenting the complexity of young people in research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the current climate of unpredictability and constant change, young people at school are faced with a multitude of choices and contradictory influences. In this article, I argue that (re)presentations of young people in youth research need to reflect the complexity and multiplicity of their lives and changing priorities, and I attempt to (re)present a small group of young people

Mary Elizabeth Ryan

2010-01-01

305

Effects of viewing time, fixations, and viewing strategies on visual memory for briefly presented natural objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the impact of viewing time and fixations on visual memory for briefly presented natural objects. Participants saw a display of eight natural objects arranged in a circle and used a partial report procedure to assign one object to the position it previously occupied during stimulus presentation. At the longest viewing time of 7,000 ms or 10 fixations, memory performance

Gesche M. Huebner; Karl R. Gegenfurtner

2010-01-01

306

Opening the Doors of Communication: A Handbook about Strategies and Implementation of Communication Tools for Your Child. Second Edition. CRC-8  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication is accomplished in many ways--through gestures, body language, writing, and speaking. Most people communicate verbally, without giving much thought to the process, but others may struggle to effectively communicate with others. The ability to express oneself affects behavior, learning, and sociability. When children are unable to…

PACER Center, 2004

2004-01-01

307

Georgia's Cancer Awareness and Education Campaign: combining public health models and private sector communications strategies.  

PubMed

The Georgia Cancer Awareness and Education Campaign was launched in September 2002 with the goals of supporting cancer prevention and early detection efforts, heightening awareness of and understanding about the five leading cancers among Georgia residents, and enhancing awareness and education about the importance of proper nutrition, exercise, and healthy lifestyles. The inaugural year of the campaign is outlined, beginning with adherence to the public health principles of surveillance, risk factor identification, intervention evaluation, and implementation. A strategic and integrated communications campaign, using tactics such as paid advertising, public service announcements, local community relations, media releases, a documentary film, special events, and other components, is described in detail with links to multimedia samples. With an estimated budget of 3.1 million dollars, the first year of the campaign focuses on breast and cervical cancer screening and early detection. PMID:15670430

Parker, Demetrius M

2004-06-15

308

ANONYMOUS COMMUNICATIONS ON THE INTERNET  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many internet applications, it may be advantageous or essential and even critical to protect the identity of participants. Anonymous communication strategies mostly shield the sender of messages from identification. This paper presents a protocol for anonymous communication over internet that can also provide receiver anonymity. Our system is designed to provide anonymity under a rather strong adversarial model in

Ying Wang; Partha Dasgupta

309

Priorities and Strategies for the Implementation of Integrated Informatics and Communications Technology to Improve Evidence-Based Practice  

PubMed Central

The U.S. health care system is one of the world's most advanced systems. Yet, the health care system suffers from unexplained practice variations, major gaps between evidence and practice, and suboptimal quality. Although information processing, communication, and management are key to health care delivery and considerable evidence links information/communication technology (IT) to improvements in patient safety and quality of care, the health care system has a longstanding gap in its investment. In the Crossing the Quality Chasm and Building a Better Delivery System reports, The Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Engineering identified IT integration as critical to improving health care delivery systems. This paper reviews the state of IT use in the U.S. health care system, its role in facilitating evidence-based practices, and identifies key attributes of an ideal IT infrastructure and issues surrounding IT implementation. We also examine structural, financial, policy-related, cultural, and organizational barriers to IT implementation for evidence-based practice and strategies to overcome them.

Doebbeling, Bradley N; Chou, Ann F; Tierney, William M

2006-01-01

310

Corporate self-presentation on the WWW : Strategies for enhancing usability, credibility and utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify starting points for improving corporate self-presentation on the world wide web (WWW) by enhancing site usability, message credibility, and information utility. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Content analysis, quantitative linguistic analysis and discourse analysis were used to examine the “About Us” sections of 20 well-known corporate web sites. Findings – The findings suggest

Irene Pollach

2005-01-01

311

Analysis of Grouping Strategy for Presentation Exercise in Computer Literacy Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presentation exercise using computer was introduced in the computer literacy course for freshmen. The course con- sisted of three classes, and the average skill level of the classes had been evenly balanced based on the midterm ex- amination scores before the exercise began. In the classes, the participants were divided into groups of three students. For this, we imposed different

Masahide Nakamura; Michio Nakanishi; Akira Harada

312

Self-monitoring and cooperation as a self-presentational strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the hypothesis that cooperation may occur as a result of strategic self-presentation that is instrumental for increasing personal gain. 149 undergraduates played a decomposed Prisoner's Dilemma game with a bogus partner. The prospect of future interaction with the partner and the discernment of the partner (i.e., contingency in giving approval) were manipulated, and Ss were classified as scoring high

Priscilla R. Danheiser; William G. Graziano

1982-01-01

313

Testing communication strategies to convey genomic concepts using virtual reality technology.  

PubMed

Health professionals need to be able to communicate information about genomic susceptibility in understandable and usable ways, but substantial challenges are involved. We developed four learning modules that varied along two factors: (1) learning mode (active learning vs. didactic learning) and (2) metaphor (risk elevator vs. bridge) and tested them using a 2 x 2 between-subjects, repeated measures design. The study used an innovative virtual reality technology experimental platform; four virtual worlds were designed to convey the concept that genetic and behavioral factors interact to affect common disease risk. The primary outcome was comprehension (recall, transfer). Study participants were 42 undergraduates aged 19-23. The results indicated that the elevator metaphor better supported learning of the concept than the bridge metaphor. Mean transfer score was significantly higher for the elevator metaphor (p < 0.05). Mean change in recall was significantly higher for didactic learning than active learning (p < 0.05). Mean ratings for variables posited to be associated with better learning (e.g., motivation), however, were generally higher for the active learning worlds. The results suggested that active learning might not always be more effective than didactic learning in increasing comprehension of health information. The findings also indicated that less complex metaphors might convey abstract concepts more effectively. PMID:19466649

Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Persky, Susan; McCall, Cade; Lachance, Christina; Beall, Andrew C; Blascovich, Jim

2009-06-01

314

A panel study of peer norms and adolescent alcohol consumption: developing strategies for communication interventions.  

PubMed

Given that alcohol consumption and binge drinking among adolescents in the United States remain prevalent, this study assesses changes in the influence of peer norms-and their interactions with time, gender, and ethnicity-on alcohol consumption. Panel survey interviews of adolescents (N = 1,607) were completed in 9th grade and then again in 12th grade with students from Louisiana. Fixed effects multiple regression assessed the relations between the changes in 2 types of peer norms (i.e., descriptive norms and injunctive norms) and 2 alcohol consumption measures: 30-day alcohol prevalence and binge drinking. Increases in 30-day alcohol prevalence and binge drinking were associated with only descriptive norms. The effects of both types of peer norms intensified over time, and the effects of descriptive norms varied according to gender and ethnicity. Specifically, the influence of descriptive norms was greater on boys than on girls and on Caucasians than on African Americans. Communication interventions that target adolescents in the context of alcohol consumption should consider the temporal variability of peer normative influence and how it varies by gender and ethnicity. PMID:23767700

Hong, Traci; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Johnson, Carolyn

2013-06-14

315

Future droughts in Global Climate Models and adaptation strategies from regional present-day analogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Droughts are among the most impacting phenomena of a changing climate, affecting agricultural productivity and human health. They can furthermore interact with and amplify other climatic extreme events such as heat waves. Our analysis of the CMIP5 ensemble of GCM simulations identifies several hot spots of aggravating droughts in coming decades, such as the Mediterranean, parts of the Southern US and North East Brazil, which also compare well with increasing stress from heat waves. However, as we show by a comparison of drought indices, the exact pattern can substantially depend on the index choice. In some regions of the developing world which are particularly vulnerable to droughts, e.g. Central Africa, this uncertainty is further increased by a high disagreement between the GCMs. In a second step, we perform an analogue search which, for a given target region, identifies regions which under present-day climate show drought conditions that are similar to the projected future drought conditions of the target region. For example, the future conditions in the Mediterranean are found to be analogue to the present-day conditions in parts of the US, Central Asia or Australia. Information from web resources on climate change adaptation and agricultural practices for the identified similar regions are then assessed in the context of the target region as potential guidelines for adaptation. Thus combining the temporal and spatial dimension helps to transfer local climate adaptation knowledge to other regions, where it is expected to become relevant in the future.

Orlowsky, B.; Seneviratne, S. I.

2012-04-01

316

[Strategies for Mycobacterium avium complex infection control in Japan: how do they improve the present situation?].  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) were the most frequently isolated (about 80%) and most common cause of lung nontuberculosis. Its rate of infection is globally increasing, especially in Japan. In this situation, it is urgently needed to provide scientific evidences and develop therapeutic interventions in MAC infections. Recently, more and more patients are elderly women with no history of smoking, and they have reticulonodular infiltrates and patchy bilateral bronchiectasis. However the prognostic and intractable factors of MAC infections are poorly known. In this symposium, we address five novel strategies for MAC infection, concerning the more accurate incidence and prevalence rates compared with other countries, host defense associated with Th1/Th17 balance, route of MAC infection related soil exposure, MAC IgA antibody as a diagnosis maker, and improved chemotherapy including aminoglycoside or new quinolone. Appropriate clinical intervention may help to reduce the prolongation of MAC infection or enhance the activity of chemotherapy for the improved control of MAC. Below are the abstracts for each of the five speakers. 1. Review of current epidemiological study of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in Japan and the rest of the world: Kozo MORIMOTO (Respiratory Center, Fukujuji Hospital, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association) The studies on pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease prevalence were started in early 1970s in Japan by the Mycobacteriosis Research Group of National Chest Hospitals. They were followed by a questionnaire survey in 1990s, by the National Tuberculosis and NTM Survey in late 1990s, and recently by the questionnaire surveys conducted by the NTM Disease Research Committee. The latest data in Japan (from 2007) indicated a morbidity rate of 5.7 per 100,000 population. Deaths from NTM disease were reported for the first time in 1970 and showed a marked, steady increase until 2007, with 912 deaths in that year. We estimated NTM prevalence in our country in 2005 to be 33-65/100,000 using death number and the 1-2% fatality rate obtained from in our hospital. Epidemiologic study conducted by some regions, states and countries estimated the incidence or prevalence of NTM by unique methods in each. Although the microbiologic criteria of diagnosis is attractive to get information of prevalence, we think the most reliable method is to use the health insurance claims that should be done in future in Japan. 2. The elucidation of the pathogenesis of pulmonary MAC disease by using gene modified mice: Masashi MATSUYAMA, Yukio ISHII, Nobuyuki HIZAWA (Division of Respiratory Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba), Kenji OGAWA (Department of Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Higashi Nagoya National Hospital) Thl immune responses are associated with protective immunity to intracellular pathogens. T-bet is the master regulator for Thl cell differentiation. We therefore investigated the role of T-bet in the host defense against pulmonary MAC infection using T-bet knockout (T-bet-/-) mice and T-bet overexpressing (T-bet tg/tg) mice. Pulmonary MAC infection was induced by intratracheal instillation with 1 X 10(7) CFU of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis. The degrees of pulmonary inflammation and the number of organisms were much enhanced in T-bet-/- mice than in wild-type mice and T-bet tg/tg mice after MAC infection. A significant decrease in Th1 cytokines and increase in Th17 cytokines were observed in the lungs of T-bett-/-mice, compared with wild-type mice and T-bet tg/tg mice. Interestingly, however, the level of Th2 cytokines was not different among mice genotypes in response to MAC. These findings indicate that T-bet plays a central role in controlling MAC disease progression, through the regulation of both Th1 and Th17, but not Th2 responses. 3. Route of infection in Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex disease: Yutaka ITO (Department of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Infection Contr

Ogawa, Kenji; Sano, Chiaki

2013-03-01

317

Presenting SAPUSS: solving aerosol problem by using synergistic strategies at Barcelona, Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the summary of the key objectives, instrumentation and logistic details, goals, and initial scientific findings of the Marie Curie Action FP7-EU SAPUSS project carried out in the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB) from 20 September-20 October 2010. The experiment involved concurrent measurements of aerosols with multiple techniques occurring simultaneously. The key objective is to deduce point aerosol source characteristics and to understand the atmospheric processes responsible for their generations and transformations. The unique approach is the large variety of instrumentation deployed simultaneously in six monitoring sites in Barcelona (NE Spain) and around the city, including: a main road traffic site, two urban background sites, a regional background site and two tower sites (150 m and 545 m a.s.l., 150 m and 80 m above ground, respectively). The SAPUSS experiment allows us to interpret the variability of aerosols levels and composition in an Urban Mediterranean, an environment not well characterized so far. During SAPUSS different air mass scenarios were encountered, including warm Saharan, cold Atlantic, wet European and stagnant Regional ones and presenting different local meteorology and boundary layer conditions. Analysis of part of the data collected allows us to compare the monitoring sites as well as to draw scientific conclusions about relevant air quality parameters. High levels of traffic-related gaseous pollutants were measured at the urban ground level monitoring sites, whereas layers of tropospheric ozone were recorded at tower levels. Particularly, tower level night time average ozone concentrations (80 ± 25 ?g m-3) were up to double than ground level ones. Particle number concentrations (N>5: 9980 ± 6500 cm-1, average of all measurements) were generally traffic dependent, although a contribution from two different types of nucleation events was also found. Analysis of the particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations shows an enhancement of coarse particles (PM2.5-10) at the urban ground level (+64%, average 11.7 ?g m-3) but of fine ones (PM1) at urban tower level (+28%, average 14.4 ?g m-3). Preliminary modeling findings reveal an underestimation of the fine accumulation aerosols. In summary, this paper lays the foundation of SAPUSS, an integrated study of relevance to many other similar urban Mediterranean coastal environment sites.

Dall'Osto, M.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Minguillon, M. C.; Alier, M.; Amato, F.; Brines, M.; Cusak, M.; Grimalt, J. O.; Karanasiou, A.; Moreno, T.; Pandolfi, M.; Pey, J.; Reche, C.; Ripoll, A.; Tauler, R.; Van Drooge, B. L.; Viana, M.; Harrison, R. M.; Gietl, J.; Beddows, D.; Bloss, W.; O'Dowd, C.; Ceburnis, D.; Martucci, G.; Ng, S.; Worsnop, D.; Wenger, J.; Mc Gillcuddy, E.; Sudou, J.; Healy, R.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Gomez Moreno, F.; Artinano, B.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Pfaffenberger, L.; Frey, S.; Wilsenack, F.; Casabona, D.; Jiménez-Guerrero, P.; Gross, D.; Cotz, N.

2012-07-01

318

Second Language Learning and Use Strategies: Clarifying the Issues. Research Report. Revised Version.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The discussion presented here is intended to clarify terminology and concepts of learning strategies and language use strategies for second languages. It first provides working definitions for these terms: language learning and use strategies; language use strategies; language performance strategies; communication strategies; cognitive strategies;…

Cohen, Andrew D.

319

The relationship between electronic and face-to-face communication and its implication for alternative workplace strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many individuals who have no or limited experience of using electronic communication technologies (ECTs), e.g. telephone, fax, voice, and e-mail are concerned that media like e-mail are a limited, if not poor, way of communicating, and that they cannot replace face-to-face communication. Reports on research examining how relatively sophisticated ECT users use ECTs to communicate, and how electronic communication may

David P. Young

1995-01-01

320

Learning and Challenging Online Social Communication Strategies in Morocco: Gender and Usage by AUI Graduates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the use of Facebook for self-presentation and networking by recent graduates of Al Akhawayn University (AUI), a prestigious English-instruction university in Ifrane, Morocco. These graduates, known among themselves as AUIers, present a unique cohort in Moroccan higher education because of the American-inspired, globally-focused undergraduate education they have received. A central question of this study is how these

Lynne Dahmen; Fatima Zahrae Chrifi-Alaoui

2010-01-01

321

THE EFFECT OF GENERALIZED COMPETITION AND STRATEGY ON THE BUSINESS VALUE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper is presented an empirical study of the effect of two external environment factors: i) the 'generalized' competition the organization faces, which, according to M. Porter's 'Five Forces Model' of competition, consists of the bargaining power of its suppliers, the bargaining power of its buyers, the competitive rivalry from its competitors, the threat of new entrants and the

Euripidis Loukis; Ioakim Sapounas; Konstantinos Aivalis

2006-01-01

322

Leadership Roles, Socioemotional Communication Strategies, and Technology Use of Irish and US Students in Virtual Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global virtual teams provide numerous benefits for corporations employing virtual organizational forms and for individual teams and team members. However, virtual collaboration also presents some well-recognized challenges. A growing body of research has examined the process of virtual teaming and the challenges inherent in that process. This study seeks to address some of the gaps in the existing literature. Specifically,

Madelyn Flammia; Yvonne Cleary; Darina M. Slattery

2010-01-01

323

Run-time mapping and communication strategies for Homogeneous NoC-Based MPSoCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiprocessor systems-on-chip are becoming increasingly popular in embedded systems for the high degree of performance and flexibility they permit. While most MPSoCs are today highly heterogeneous for better fitting the target applications, homogeneous systems may become in a near future a viable alternative bringing other benefits such as run-time load balancing, high performance and low power consumption. The work presented

Gilles Sassatelli; Nicolas Saint-jean; Pascal Benoit; Lionel Torres; Michel Robert; Cristiane R. Woszezenki; Ismael Augusto Grehs; Fernando Gehm Moraes

2007-01-01

324

A strategy for the design of digital satellite communication links using interactive link budgeting software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sophisticated software package which allows the designer to view the satellite-link budgeting problem from any perspective and to shape a budget according to any set of optimization criteria is described. The package allows easy access to and simple editing of both design and performance variables through the use of menus and a set of link design forms. Examples of its use are presented.

Mott, C. A.; Skellern, D. J.

325

Parental communication appears not to be an effective strategy to reduce smoking in a sample of Dutch adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study examined the reciprocal effects of the frequency of parent–adolescent communication on tobacco-related issues (smoking-specific communication), and adolescents’ smoking. Participants were 428 Dutch older and younger siblings between 13 and 16 years old. Smoking-specific communication did not affect youth smoking in general; however, among younger, but not older, siblings, smoking-specific communication was associated with a higher likelihood of

Z. Harakeh; R. C. M. E. Engels; E. A. W. den Exter Blokland; R. H. J. Scholte; A. A. Vermulst

2009-01-01

326

Communication: Health Communication: Health Professionals ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Communication: Health Communication: Health Professionals and Consumers Professionals and Consumers Presented by Presented by ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

327

News Media's Incorporation of User-Driven Communication Platforms into News Gathering, Production, and Presentation: Credible Source or Incredible Claims?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at the implications of user-driven communication platforms (i.e. social media sites, and user generated content) upon professional journalism and news. Mainstream media's incorporation of these platforms, particularly in the reporting of conflict and emergency events sans journalist-presence raise questions regarding their influence upon journalistic routines, and on media-supported 'truth-claims'. The paper explores how user-driven images and information

Amira Firdaus

328

Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (31st, Orlando, FL, 2008)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the thirty-first year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) sponsored the publication of these Proceedings. Papers were presented at the annual AECT Convention in Orlando, Florida. This year's Proceedings has two sections--Section 1 includes research and development papers and…

Simonson, Michael, Ed.

2008-01-01

329

Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (27th, Chicago, Illinois, 2004). Volume 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For the twenty-seventh year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. Papers published in this volume were presented at the National AECT Convention in Chicago, Illinois. The Proceedings of AECT's Convention are published in two…

Simonson, Michael, Ed.; Crawford, Margaret, Ed.

2004-01-01

330

Speech, Language, and Communication Disorders. Papers Presented at the Annual International Convention of the Council for Exceptional Children (48th, Chicago, Illinois, April 19-25, 1970).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Speech, language, and communication disorders were among the topics of papers presented at the convention of the Council for Exceptional Children in Chicago, 1970. Discussions include evaluation theory and caseload selection by Lear Ashmore, differential diagnosis in a rural school by William L. Shinder, the practical application of differential…

Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

331

Communicating with Villagers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Common problems and possible solutions in communication with rural villagers in developing countries are discussed in terms of communication extension strategies, mass communication media, the use of simple communication technology in place of the more sophisticated and expensive methods, a case study of a successful communication project in…

Colle, Royal D.

332

Interactive communication strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Physical inactivity is a recognized independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. However, a large proportion of the U.S. population does not participate in regular physical activity, and research has shown that without intervention, most people remain sedentary. Thus, an urgent need exists for developing effective interventions to promote physical-activity adoption and maintenance. Additionally, it is important

Bess H Marcus; Claudio R Nigg; Deborah Riebe; LeighAnn H Forsyth

2000-01-01

333

Media communication strategies for climate-friendly lifestyles - Addressing middle and lower class consumers for social-cultural change via Entertainment-Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that Entertainment-Education (E-E) is a striking communication strategy for reaching middle and lower socio-economic classes with climate-friendly lifestyle messages. On the international level (e.g. in the US and the Netherlands) E-E approaches are being theoretically grounded, whereas in Germany they are not yet. Therefore further theoretical discussion and mapping of E-E approaches is central for future research.

S. Lubjuhn; N. Pratt

2009-01-01

334

Facilitating Communicative Development in Young Children with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the communication roles of both caregivers and professionals who have contact with young children with disabilities. It presents principles that underlie adult communicative strategy use with this population, along with specific suggestions for facilitating communicative competence. (Author/DB)|

Hoge, Debra Reichert; Parette, Howard P., Jr.

1995-01-01

335

Enhancing the use of Augmentative Communication Systems of Children with Autism Through Caregiver-Implemented Naturalistic Teaching Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) for children who do not acquire functional speech or who have difficulty processing and comprehending spoken language is well documented in the literature. Considering that one of the core defining features of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is the inability to develop effective communication skills, children with ASD represent good candidates for

Debora Regina Nunes

2005-01-01

336

Priorities and Strategies for the Implementation of Integrated Informatics and Communications Technology to Improve Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. health care system is one of the world's most advanced systems. Yet, the health care system suffers from unexplained practice variations, major gaps be- tween evidence and practice, and suboptimal quality. Although information processing, communication, and management are key to health care delivery and con- siderable evidence links information\\/communication technology (IT) to improvements in patient safety and quality

Bradley N. Doebbeling; Ann F. Chou; William M. Tierney

2006-01-01

337

Towards a Strategy on Developing African Teacher Capabilities in the Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was commissioned by SchoolNet Africa (SNA) in partnership with the Commonwealth of Learning (COL), the International Institute for Communication and Development (IICD) and the Open Society Initiative of Southern Africa (OSISA). It is the most extensive examination to date of teacher training in information and communication technology…

Commonwealth of Learning, 2004

2004-01-01

338

TeknoSport: Communicating to Prevent Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a case study for use in business communication classes to help students understand and learn both the context and the strategies for communication with business and management. Deals with situation in a sports training equipment firm in which a new president and the board decided to cut a successful and popular sales training program.…

Rogers, Priscilla S.

1998-01-01

339

TeknoSport: Communicating to Prevent Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a case study for use in business communication classes to help students understand and learn both the context and the strategies for communication with business and management. Deals with situation in a sports training equipment firm in which a new president and the board decided to cut a successful and popular sales training program.…

Rogers, Priscilla S.

1998-01-01

340

Effects of the Influence Agent’s Sex and Self-Confidence on Informational Social Influence in Computer-Mediated Communication:Quantitative Versus Verbal Presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments examined the effects of the influence agent’s inferred sex and self-proclaimed competence on informational social influence in computermediated communication. In 2 (Participant Sex: Male vs. Female) 2 (Partner’s Character:Male vs. Female) 2 (Partner’s Self-Confidence: High vs. Low) mixed-design experiments, participants played a trivia game with an anonymous partner. When the partner’s confidence was presented in quantitative form, its

Eun-Ju Lee

2005-01-01

341

Health care strategies to promote earlier presentation of symptomatic breast cancer: perspectives of women and family physicians  

PubMed Central

Background Many women with symptoms suggestive of a breast cancer diagnosis delay presentation to their family physician. Although factors associated with delay have been well described, there is a paucity of data on strategies to mitigate delay. Objectives We conducted a qualitative research project to examine factors related to delay and to identify health care system changes that might encourage earlier presentation. Methods Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with women who sought care 12 weeks or more after self-detection of breast cancer symptoms and with family physicians whose practices included patients meeting that criterion. Results The women and physicians both suggested a need for clearer screening mammography guidelines for women 40–49 years of age and for better messaging concerning breast awareness. The use of additional hopeful testimonials from breast cancer survivors were suggested to help dispel the notion of cancer as a “death sentence.” Educational initiatives were proposed, aimed at both increasing awareness of “non-lump” breast cancer symptoms and advising women that a previous benign diagnosis does not ensure that future symptoms are not cancer. Women wanted empathic nonjudgmental access to care. Improved methods to track compliance with screening mammography and with periodic health exams and access to a rapid diagnostic process were suggested. Conclusions A list of “at-risk situations for delay” in diagnosis of breast cancer was developed for physicians to assist in identifying women who might delay. Health care system changes actionable both at the health policy level and in the family physician’s office were identified to encourage earlier presentation of women with symptomatic breast cancer.

Heisey, R.; Clemons, M.; Granek, L.; Fergus, K.; Hum, S.; Lord, B.; McCready, D.R.; Fitzgerald, B.

2011-01-01

342

Speech Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented in this book is a view of speech communication which enables an individual to become fully aware of his or her role as both initiator and recipient of messages. Communication is treated broadly with emphasis on the understanding and skills relating to various types of speech communication across the broad spectrum of human…

Brooks, William D.

343

Learning to collaborate: Can young children develop better communication strategies through collaboration with a more popular peer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unpopular children are known to have poor communication skills and experience difficulty in collaborative situations. This\\u000a study investigated whether pairing unpopular, 5 to 6 year-old, children with a more popular peer would promote more effective\\u000a collaboration. The study also investigated differences in popular and unpopular children’s verbal and non-verbal communication.\\u000a Thirty-six girls and 36 boys were placed in one of

Suzanne Murphy; Dorothy Faulkner

2000-01-01

344

Development and Comparison Between Resource Allocation Strategies Based on Intelligent Scheme and Traditional Distributed Dynamic Resource Allocation Strategies in Mobile Communication Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The third generation of mobile communication aims to transmit not only voice and text but also videos and multimedia data.\\u000a Furthermore, in the future it is expected to involve web browsing, file transfer, and database access. This requires wireless\\u000a cellular networks to efficiently support packet data traffic. Therefore, challenge in the design of wireless networks is to\\u000a support both voice

Jamal Raiyn

2007-01-01

345

Role of Communications Within Technology Transfer Activities of the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was undertaken to obtain a greater understanding of the communications activities involved in the technology transfer effort at (USA-CERL). Chapter II presents a case study of communications strategies used and the problems encountered in the t...

J. J. Walaszek

1987-01-01

346

Development of behaviour change communication strategy for a vaccination-linked malaria control tool in southern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and linked to the expanded programme on immunization (EPI) is a promising strategy for malaria control in young children. As evidence grows on the efficacy of IPTi as public health strategy, information is needed so that this novel control tool can be put into practice promptly, once a policy

Adiel K Mushi; Joanna Schellenberg; Mwifadhi Mrisho; Fatuma Manzi; Conrad Mbuya; Haji Mponda; Hassan Mshinda; Marcel Tanner; Pedro Alonso; Robert Pool; David Schellenberg

2008-01-01

347

Deterministic quantum cryptographic communication with entanglement state  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantum cryptographic communication protocol with entanglement state is proposed to distribute secret messages deterministically. In this scheme the messages are encoded in the particles of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs rotated random polarization angles by applying random and independent operations. Security analysis indicates that this scheme is secure against the present Trojan horse attack strategy and the impersonation attack strategy,

Dazu Huang; Zhigang Chen

2009-01-01

348

A parametric approach for low energy wireless data communication [mobile multimedia computing\\/communication applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a joint control methodology of error protection capability and modulation strategy is presented to minimize the energy dissipation of a given communication. The communication energy includes the energy consumption of the underlying digital (channel encoder\\/decoder) and analog blocks including the RF amplifier. The energy dissipation of these blocks is determined by the system configuration parameters like channel

Hunsoo Choo; Kaushik Roy

2004-01-01

349

Women and authority in business\\/technical communication scholarship: An analysis of writing features, methods, and strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the means by which women convey authority in their scholarly publications. After analyzing a selected sample of women's scholarship in technical communication journal articles, the study explores whether traditional authoritative writing features conflict with traits more frequently characterized in feminist research as “women's ways of making meaning.”; Findings point to a need for more research into

Jo Allen

1994-01-01

350

Adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in academic libraries: A strategy for library networking in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to investigate the extent of adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in university libraries in Nigeria. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Postal survey was the instrument used for data collection. Almost 60 per cent of the University Librarians out of the 29 university libraries surveyed completed their questionnaires. Findings – The results of the survey show that

Okon E. Ani; Jacob E. Esin; Nkoyo Edem

2005-01-01

351

Home-to-School Connections Guide: Tips, Tech Tools, and Strategies for Improving Family-to-School Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication between home and school is good for kids. Keeping families up-to-date about upcoming events is important, but it's not enough to fully engage parents as partners. When schools and families really work together, that sets the stage for all kinds of benefits. The National Coalition for Parent Involvement in Education reports that…

George Lucas Educational Foundation, 2011

2011-01-01

352

The Effective Teacher's Guide to Autism and Communication Difficulties: Practical Strategies, Second Edition. The Effective Teacher's Guides  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this welcome second edition of "The Effective Teacher's Guide to Autism and Communication Difficulties", best-selling author Michael Farrell addresses how teachers and others can develop provision for students with autism and students that have difficulties with speech, grammar, meaning, use of language and comprehension. Updated and expanded,…

Farrell, Michael

2011-01-01

353

Present status and future strategy in breeding faba beans (Vicia Faba L.) for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress is being made, mainly by ICARDA but also elsewhere, in breeding for resistance to Botrytis, AScochyta, Uromyces, and Orobanche; and some lines have resistance to more than one pathogen. The strategy is to extend multiple resistance but also to seek new and durable forms of resistance. Internationally coordinated programs are needed to maintain the momentum of this work.

D. A. Bond; G. J. Jellis; G. G. Rowland; J. Le Guen; L. D. Robertson; S. A. Khalil; L. Li-Juan

1993-01-01

354

Impact of HIV on clinical presentation and outcomes of tuberculosis treatment at primary care level [Short communication].  

PubMed

Little is known on how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection impacts pediatric tuberculosis (TB) in primary care. We compared TB type, HIV care and case fatality rates between 5685 adults and 830 children with TB treated at primary care clinics in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Children represented a substantial burden (13%) of TB, and presented predominantly with difficult to diagnose smear-negative TB and extra-pulmonary TB. The HIV co-infection rate was lower in children than in adults, and fewer children than adults received antiretroviral therapy during anti-tuberculosis treatment. Case fatality was four times higher in HIV-infected than non-infected children. Child-friendly point-of-care TB diagnostics and decentralized pediatric TB-HIV care should receive greater attention. PMID:24125443

Henegar, C; Behets, F; Vanden Driessche, K; Tabala, M; Van Rie, A

2013-11-01

355

A Retrogen Strategy for Presentation of an Intracellular Tumor Antigen as an Exogenous Antigen by Dendritic Cells Induces Potent Antitumor T Helper and CTL Responses1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of an effective antitumor response requires CD41 helper T (Th) cells to recognize antigens on the same dendritic cells (DCs) that cross-present CTL antigens. Such cross-presentation is difficult to achieve by current tumor vaccine strategies. Here, we develop a novel \\

Zhaoyang You; Jenny Hester; Lisa Rollins; Giulio C. Spagnoli; Pierre van der Bruggen; Si-Yi Chen

2001-01-01

356

Formative research and development of an evidence-based communication strategy: the introduction of Vi typhoid fever vaccine among school-aged children in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The authors conducted formative research (a) to identify stakeholders' concerns related to typhoid fever and the need for disease information and (b) to develop a communication strategy to inform stakeholders and address their concerns and motivate for support of a school-based vaccination program in Pakistan. Data were collected during interactive and semi-structured focus group discussions and interviews, followed by a qualitative analysis and multidisciplinary consultative process to identify an effective social mobilization strategy comprised of relevant media channels and messages. The authors conducted 14 focus group discussions with the parents of school-aged children and their teachers, and 13 individual interviews with school, religious, and political leaders. Parents thought that typhoid fever was a dangerous disease, but were unsure of their children's risk. They were interested in vaccination and were comfortable with a school-based vaccination if conducted under the supervision of trained and qualified staff. Teachers and leaders needed information on typhoid fever, the vaccine, procedures, and sponsors of the vaccination program. Meetings were considered the best form of information dissemination, followed by printed materials and mass media. This study shows how qualitative research findings can be translated into an effective social mobilization and communication approach. The findings of the research indicated the importance of increasing awareness of typhoid fever and the benefits of vaccination against the disease. Identification and dissemination of relevant, community-based disease and vaccination information will increase demand and use of vaccination. PMID:23330632

Pach, Alfred; Tabbusam, Ghurnata; Khan, M Imran; Suhag, Zamir; Hussain, Imtiaz; Hussain, Ejaz; Mumtaz, Uzma; Haq, Inam Ul; Tahir, Rehman; Mirani, Amjad; Yousafzai, Aisha; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Ochiai, R Leon; Soofi, Sajid; Clemens, John D; Favorov, Michael O; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

2013-01-18

357

Strategies for improving human health in contaminated situations: a review of past, present and possible future approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategies for improving human health in contaminated situations have traditionally been based on restricting emissions, remedial\\u000a reduction of exposure and, where appropriate and possible, medical reconnaissance of efficacy. We review these and the broader\\u000a aspects of general public health approaches, including necessary understanding of epidemiology and the wider social context,\\u000a before considering a specific local case study involving health issues

John G. Farmer; Richard Jarvis

2009-01-01

358

Parent Perceptions: Communication, Interaction, and Behavior in Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents interview information from parents to educators on the importance of teaching communication to students with autism spectrum disorder. The perspectives of three mothers of children with autism are presented to gain insight to strategies they felt helped their child to improve in the areas of interaction, communication, and behavior. A high school special education teacher\\/interviewer acted as

Sue E Hoppe

2005-01-01

359

Psychosocial assessment by phone for high-scoring patients taking the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: communication pathways and strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The well-documented risks associated with perinatal depression provide a strong argument for universal screening. However,\\u000a uncertainty about what to do with findings is a significant barrier to implementing screenings where obstetric care is provided.\\u000a Based on experience with a comprehensive screening program, we describe a protocol for those critical communication pathways\\u000a that encourage a dynamic phone exchange between a mental

I. A. Cardone; J. J. Kim; T. E. J. Gordon; S. M. Gordon; R. K. Silver

2006-01-01

360

African American Women and HIV/AIDS: A National Call for Targeted Health Communication Strategies to Address a Disparity  

PubMed Central

Dr Arya is assistant professor of medicine in the section of infectious diseases at the Baylor College of Medicine and a health services researcher at the Houston Center for Quality of Care and Utilization Studies in Houston. Dr Behforouz is assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, medical and executive director of the Prevention and Access to Care and Treatment Project, and associate physician in the Brigham Internal Medicine Associates at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston. Dr Viswanath is associate professor of society, human development and health at the Harvard School of Public Health and director of the Health Communication Core of the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center, Boston. At the time of manuscript submission, Dr Arya was a fellow in the division of infectious diseases at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School. African American women are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. To address this disparity, the CDC released a call for targeted communication campaigns in African American communities. The mass media is an HIV/AIDS information source used by African Americans, and media initiatives can be cost-effective for delivering HIV prevention messages. Needed is research in communities at risk to determine the messages needed and the preferred formats and channels with which to deliver the messages so that targeted communication campaigns can be part of the multifaceted approach to ending the HIV/AIDS disparity affecting African American women.

Arya, Monisha; Behforouz, Heidi L.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

2013-01-01

361

Surgical Treatment for Severe Heart Failure: Recent Progress in Treatment Strategy and its Present Status in Japan  

PubMed Central

Chronic intractable heart failure that is unresponsive to maximum medical therapy can have a wide variety of causes; these include advanced valvular diseases and severe myocardial ischemia, ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) in heart failure following extensive myocardial infarction, chronic heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in which the myocardium itself is progressively damaged or the acute aggravation of the latter. Heart transplantation has long been considered the only useful treatment for patients with heart failure due to ICM- and DCM-induced severe left ventricular hypofunction. However, because of the extremely limited number of heart transplant donors, other surgical treatments have also been attempted. In this communication, we provide an overview of the current situation with regard to left ventriculoplasty and heart transplantations, as well as of the treatment of severe heart failure using ventricular assist devices, which have recently shown remarkable progress.

Nishimura, Motonobu

2012-01-01

362

Perception, consequences, communication, and strategies for handling fatigue in persons with rheumatoid arthritis of working age--a focus group study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe how persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of working age experience and handle their fatigue in everyday life. Six focus group discussions were conducted focusing on experiences of fatigue in 25 persons with RA (19 women, 6 men), aged 20-60 years. The discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed according to qualitative content analysis. The analyses resulted in four categories. (1) Perception of fatigue: Fatigue was experienced different from normal tiredness, unpredictable, and overwhelming. It was associated with negative emotions, changed self-image, and fears. Feelings of frustration and shame were central when the persons were forced to omit valued life activities. (2) Consequences due to fatigue: The fatigue caused changes in cognitive ability, ability to act, and overall activity pattern where the increased need for rest and sleep caused an imbalance in daily life. The participants struggled not to let the fatigue interfere with work. The fatigue also brought negative consequences for their significant others. (3) Communicating fatigue: Fatigue was difficult to gain understanding for, and the participants adjusted their communication accordingly; it was important to keep up appearances. During medical consultation, fatigue was perceived as a factor not given much consideration, and the participants expressed taking responsibility for managing their fatigue symptoms themselves. (4) Strategies to handle fatigue: Strategies comprised conscious self-care, mental strategies, planning, and prioritizing. Fatigue caused considerable health problems for persons with RA of working age: negative emotions, imbalance in daily life due to increased need for rest, and difficulties gaining understanding. This draws attention to the importance of developing new modes of care to address fatigue in RA. Person-centered care to improve balance in life may be one approach needing further investigations. PMID:23292480

Feldthusen, Caroline; Björk, Mathilda; Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

2013-01-05

363

Comparing face processing strategies between typically-developed observers and observers with autism using sub-sampled-pixels presentation in response classification technique.  

PubMed

In the present study we modified the standard classification image method by subsampling visual stimuli to provide us with a technique capable of examining an individual's face-processing strategy in detail with fewer trials. Experiment 1 confirmed that one testing session (1450 trials) was sufficient to produce classification images that were qualitatively similar to those obtained previously with 10,000 trials (Sekuler et al., 2004). Experiment 2 used this method to compare classification images obtained from observers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically-developing (TD) observers. As was found in Experiment 1, classification images obtained from TD observers suggested that they all discriminated faces based on information conveyed by pixels in the eyes/brow region. In contrast, classification images obtained from ASD observers suggested that they used different perceptual strategies: three out of five ASD observers used a typical strategy of making use of information in the eye/brow region, but two used an atypical strategy that relied on information in the forehead region. The advantage of using the response classification technique is that there is no restriction to specific theoretical perspectives or a priori hypotheses, which enabled us to see unexpected strategies, like ASD's forehead strategy, and thus showed this technique is particularly useful in the examination of special populations. PMID:23321026

Nagai, Masayoshi; Bennett, Patrick J; Rutherford, M D; Gaspar, Carl M; Kumada, Takatsune; Sekuler, Allison B

2013-01-12

364

Enabling a Prelinguistic Communicator with Autism to Use Picture Card as a Strategy for Repairing Listener Misunderstandings: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this case study was to examine the effects of a time-delay prompting procedure on the acquisition of skills for repairing multiple listener misunderstandings. A prelinguistic student with autism was taught to use picture cards as a strategy to repair listener misunderstandings in a setting where the student had to ask the listener…

Ohtake, Yoshihisa; Wehmeyer, Michael; Uchida, Naomi; Nakaya, Akitaka; Yanagihara, Masafumi

2010-01-01

365

When Patients Are Impatient: The Communication Strategies Utilized by Emergency Department Employees to Manage Patients Frustrated by Wait Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have documented the frustrations patients experience during long wait times in emergency departments (EDs), but considerably less research has sought to understand ED staff responses to these frustrations. In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 ED social workers, patient navigators, and medical staff members at a large urban hospital regarding their experiences and interpersonal strategies for dealing with frustrated patients.

Elizabeth L. Cohen; Holley A. Wilkin; Michael Tannebaum; Melissa S. Plew; Leon L. Haley Jr

2012-01-01

366

A constructivist approach to communication and projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In connection with a study on relationships between food producers and retail chains a New theory on communication and projection\\u000a was developed. To position the New theory the paper first gives a short presentation of the traditional communication theory.\\u000a Then there is a short presentation of the paradigm including the research strategy used for the development of the New theory.

Hans Skytte

367

Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences  

PubMed Central

As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management.

Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E.; Airame, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D.

2010-01-01

368

The Technical Communicator's Role in Bridging the Gap between Arab and American Business Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the Islamic influence in Arab business strategies; magnifies the dynamics in the two-way communication process between an Arab speaker and English speaker; demonstrates fundamental differences between English and Arabic; and presents effective strategies for the technical communicator to use when pursuing business with an Arab country,…

Lundgren, LaRae D.

1998-01-01

369

Summary of a survey of security communications at fixed-site facilities  

SciTech Connect

A general summary of a recent survey of security voice communications at 13 facilities is presented, including survey methodology, the role of communications for security forces at a generic facility, and a list of several strategies for improving the resistance of the communications system against eavesdropping, deception, and jamming. 5 figs.

Snell, M.K.; Gangel, D.J.; Heustess, J.E.

1985-01-01

370

Summary of a survey of security communications at fixed-site facilities  

SciTech Connect

A general summary of a recent survey of security voice communications at 13 facilities is presented, including survey methodology, the role of communications for security forces at a generic facility, and a list of several strategies for improving the resistance of the communications system against eavesdropping, deception, and jamming.

Snell, M.K.; Gangel, D.J.; Heustess, J.E.

1985-01-01

371

Organizational Management through Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book promotes professional management through the process of communication, developing communication strategies for setting goals, planning, organizing, controlling, and problem solving. The book's first five chapters, which relate organizational management to communication, include a behavioral approach to management and organizational…

Allen, Richard K.

372

Strategies for measurement-based quantum computation with cluster states transformed by stochastic local operations and classical communication  

SciTech Connect

We examine cluster states transformed by stochastic local operations and classical communication, as a resource for deterministic universal computation driven strictly by projective measurements. We identify circumstances under which such states in one dimension constitute resources for random-length single-qubit rotations, in one case quasideterministically (N-U-N states) and in another probabilistically (B-U-B states). In contrast to the cluster states, the N-U-N states exhibit spin correlation functions that decay exponentially with distance, while the B-U-B states can be arbitrarily locally pure. A two-dimensional square N-U-N lattice is a universal resource for quasideterministic measurement-based quantum computation. Measurements on cubic B-U-B states yield two-dimensional cluster states with bond defects, whose connectivity exceeds the percolation threshold for a critical value of the local purity.

D'Souza, Adam G.; Feder, David L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Institute for Quantum Information Science, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

2011-10-15

373

Proceedings of Selected Research Paper Presentations at the 1980 Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology and Sponsored by the Research and Theory Division held at Denver, Colorado on April 21-24, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 31 papers in this collection represent approximately 35 percent of the manuscripts which were submitted for consideration to the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) for presentation at t...

M. R. Simonson D. Rohner

1980-01-01

374

Use of stakeholder analysis to inform risk communication and extension strategies for improved biosecurity amongst small-scale pig producers.  

PubMed

Extension and communication needs amongst small-scale pig producers, described as pig producers with less than 100 sows, have been previously identified. These producers, who are believed to pose a biosecurity risk to commercial livestock industries, are characterized by a lack of formal networks, mistrust of authorities, poor disease reporting behaviour and motivational diversity, and reliance on other producers, veterinarians and family for pig health and production advice. This paper applies stakeholder identification and analysis tools to determine stakeholders' influence and interest on pig producers' practices. Findings can inform a risk communication process and the development of an extension framework to increase producers' engagement with industry and their compliance with biosecurity standards and legislation in Australia. The process included identification of stakeholders, their issues of concerns regarding small-scale pig producers and biosecurity and their influence and interest in each of these issues. This exercise identified the capacity of different stakeholders to influence the outcomes for each issue and assessed their success or failure to do so. The disconnection identified between the level of interest and influence suggests that government and industry need to work with the small-scale pig producers and with those who have the capacity to influence them. Successful biosecurity risk management will depend on shared responsibility and building trust amongst stakeholders. Flow-on effects may include legitimating the importance of reporting and compliance systems and the co-management of risk. Compliance of small-scale pig producers with biosecurity industry standards and legislation will reduce the risks of entry and spread of exotic diseases in Australia. PMID:22227304

Hernández-Jover, M; Gilmour, J; Schembri, N; Sysak, T; Holyoake, P K; Beilin, R; Toribio, J-A L M L

2012-01-09

375

Clinical Presentations, Antiplatelet Strategies and Prognosis of Patients with Stent Thrombosis: An Observational Study of 140 Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Until now there has been scarce evidence regarding an optimal antiplatelet strategy and clinical outcomes for patients who had suffered from stent thrombosis (ST). Methods and Results 140 patients who suffered from stent thrombosis were prospectively registered. Patients received dual (aspirin and 150 mg clopidogrel, N?=?66) or triple (additional cilostazol, N?=?74) antiplatelet therapy at the physician’s discretion. Thereafter platelet reactivity and one year clinical outcomes were analyzed. The primary outcome included the composite of cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke at one year,which developed in 41 (29.3%) patients, consisting of 31 (22.1%) cardiac death, 9 (6.4%) non-fatal MI and 1 (1.4%) stroke. Recurrent definite and probable ST according to ARC definition was observed in 8 (5.7%) and 14 (10.0%) patients, respectively. Triple therapy was associated with significantly lower platelet reactivities (50.2±17.8, % vs. 59.6±17.2, %, P?=?0.002) compared to high dose dual antiplatelet therapy. However, the incidence of primary events (24.3% vs. 34.8%, P?=?0.172) did not differ between triple and dual antiplatelet therapies. High on-treatment platelet reactivity (HR: 8.35, 95% CI: 2.234?30.867, P?=?0.002) and diabetes (HR: 3.732, 95% CI: 1.353?10.298, P?=?0.011) were independent predictors of primary events. Conclusions Patients who suffered from stent thrombosis have a poor prognosis even after revascularization with intensive antiplatelet therapy. Triple antiplatelet therapy was more effective in reducing on-treatment platelet reactivity, compared to high dose dual antiplatelet therapy.

Han, Ya-Ling; Zhang, Quan-Yu; Li, Yi; Guan, Shao-Yi; Jing, Quan-Min; Wang, Zu-Lu; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Xiao-Zeng; Ma, Ying-Yan; Wang, Bin; Deng, Jie; Wang, Geng; Kim, Young-Hak

2012-01-01

376

Reclaiming Futures: Using communication to drive community and systems change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reclaiming Futures is a national juvenile justice reform initiative of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. During its 11years of demonstration and expansion phases, Reclaiming Futures has used a variety of communications strategies, tools, and techniques to achieve its objectives. This paper describes the literature relevant to contemporary use of communications tools to achieve social change, and presents a brief history

Mac Prichard; Laura Burney Nissen; Patty Farrell; Melissa Moore

2011-01-01

377

The Effect of Using a Program Based on Cooperative Learning Strategy on Developing some Oral Communication Skills of Students, at English Department, Faculty of Education, Sana'a University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of study is to investigate the effective of using a cooperative learning strategy STAD-based program on developing some oral communication skills of second level students, English Department, Faculty of Education, Sana'a University. Based on literature review, related studies and a panel of jury members' point of view, a list of 5 oral…

Zuheer, Khaled Mohsen Mohammed

2008-01-01

378

The Contemporary Relevance of Communication Research: Using "Communication Currents" in the Communication Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this report is to describe a rationale and strategies for use of the National Communication Association's online magazine, "Communication Currents", in the undergraduate communication curriculum. "Communication Currents" features essays that translate current scholarship published in NCA journals, making the research…

Waldeck, Jennifer H.

2008-01-01

379

Proactive Parent Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents examples of teacher-parent interactions designed to help teachers communicate with parents. The scenarios involve a teacher communicating with parents about a struggling student, a teacher communicating with parents about a student's behavior problems, and a teacher attempting to communicate with a confrontational parent. Teacher prompts…

Babcock, Sharel; Backlund, Judy

2001-01-01

380

Global brand market-entry strategy to manage corporate reputation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to present a case for the practical management of corporate reputation, in relation to two groups of concepts: communication, identity, and trust; and communication, identity, and image. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A review of the current knowledge of corporate reputation, personality, identity, and image leads to development of a strategy framework to enhance\\/protect corporate reputation. A case

Maktoba Omar; Robert L. Williams Jr; David Lingelbach

2009-01-01

381

Global Marketing Communications and Strategic Regionalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how ideas of global standardization, localization, and regionalization are played out in relation to global marketing. Its aim is to deepen present understanding of global marketing communications and corporate strategy through case studies examining corporate responses to the issues of global standardization, localization, and regionalization. To do this, a research project was developed: an exploratory analysis of

Rowan Wilken; John Sinclair

2011-01-01

382

Communicating biosecurity.  

PubMed

Shifting from risk-calculation orientations focusing on populations to preparedness perspectives that model uncertainty through scenario-based projections, biosecurity debates redefined notions of "health" and "security." Nevertheless, a key focus of biosecurity discussions--the domain labeled "communication"--has not been fundamentally rethought, even as it has expanded and professionalized. Bracketing preconceived ideas about the term's content, the article traces debates about biosecurity "communication" from the 1990s to the present, drawing on ethnography and textual analysis. Using a notion of biocommunicability, the cultural modeling of how discourse is produced, circulates, and is received, the article analyzes assumptions regarding subjects, subject-positions, objects, spatializing and temporalizing practices, scales, economies of affect, and regimes of ethics that are built into discourse about "communication." Ironically, the conviction that "communication" is of marginal importance as a focus of critical inquiry, seemingly shared by most medical anthropologists, enables these assumptions to fundamentally shape discussions of biosecurity and emergency management. PMID:21218354

Briggs, Charles L

2011-01-01

383

The U.S. Geological Survey's Earthquake Summary Posters: A GIS-based Education and Communication Product for Presenting Consolidated Post-Earthquake Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake Summary Posters (ESP's), a new product of the U.S. Geological Survey's Earthquake Program, are produced at the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) in Golden. The posters consist of rapidly-generated, GIS-based maps made following significant earthquakes worldwide (typically M>7.0, or events of significant media/public interest). ESP's consolidate, in an attractive map format, a large-scale epicentral map, several auxiliary regional overviews (showing tectonic and geographical setting, seismic history, seismic hazard, and earthquake effects), depth sections (as appropriate), a table of regional earthquakes, and a summary of the reional seismic history and tectonics. The immediate availability of the latter text summaries has been facilitated by the availability of Rapid, Accurate Tectonic Summaries (RATS) produced at NEIC and posted on the web following significant events. The rapid production of ESP's has been facilitated by generating, during the past two years, regional templates for tectonic areas around the world by organizing the necessary spatially-referenced data for the map base and the thematic layers that overlay the base. These GIS databases enable scripted Arc Macro Language (AML) production of routine elements of the maps (for example background seismicity, tectonic features, and probabilistic hazard maps). However, other elements of the maps are earthquake-specific and are produced manually to reflect new data, earthquake effects, and special characteristics. By the end of this year, approximately 85% of the Earth's seismic zones will be covered for generating future ESP's. During the past year, 13 posters were completed, comparable to the yearly average expected for significant earthquakes. Each year, all ESPs will be published on a CD in PDF format as an Open-File Report. In addition, each is linked to the special event earthquake pages on the USGS Earthquake Program web site (http://earthquake.usgs.gov). Although three formats are generated, the poster-size format is the most popular for display, outreach, and use as a working map for project scientists (JPEG format for web; PDF for download, editing, and printing) whereas the other (smaller) formats are suitable for briefing packages. We will soon make both GIS and PDF files of individual elements of the posters available online. ESP's provide an unprecedented opportunity for college earth-science faculty to take advantage of current events for timely lessons in global tectonics. They are also invaluable to communicate with the media and with government officials. ESP's will be used as a vehicle to present other products now under development under the auspices of NEIC and the ANSS, including rapid finite-fault models, global predictive ShakeMaps, "Did You Feel It?", and Rapid Assessments of Global Earthquakes (RAGE, Earle and others, this meeting).

Tarr, A.; Benz, H.; Earle, P.; Wald, D. J.

2003-12-01

384

High school students presenting science: An interactional sociolinguistic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presenting science is an authentic activity of practicing scientists. Thus, effective communication of science is an important skill to nurture in high school students who are learning science. This study examines strategies employed by high school students as they make science presentations; it assesses students' conceptual understandings of particular science topics through their presentations and investigates gender differences. Data are

Robert Bleicher

1994-01-01

385

Enhancing Patient Activation: Communication Strategies  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Health System Organization of Health Care Self- Management Support Decision Support Delivery System Design Clinical Information Systems ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

386

Sketching informal presentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Informal presentations are a lightweight means for fast and convenient communication of ideas. People communicate their ideas to others on paper and whiteboards, which afford fluid sketching of graphs, words and other expressive symbols. Unlike existing authoring tools that are designed for formal presentations, we created SketchPoint to help presenters design informal presentations via freeform sketching. In SketchPoint, presenters can

Yang Li; James A. Landay; Zhiwei Guan; Xiangshi Ren; Guozhong Dai

2003-01-01

387

Communication Aids in the Classroom: The Views of Education Staff and Speech and Language Therapists Involved with the Communication Aids Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The findings presented in this paper are part of an independent evaluation study of the Communication Aids Project (CAP). The study was carried out between July 2003 and April 2004 and looked at the impact of CAP on children receiving communication aids and evaluated the CAP strategy of assessment and delivery. In this paper the views of…

Wright, Jannet A.; Newton, Caroline; Clarke, Michael; Donlan, Chris; Lister, Claire; Cherguit, Jasmina

2006-01-01

388

Communicating Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are in an era of rapidly changing communication media, which is driving a major evolution in the modes of communicating science. In the past, a mainstay of scientific communication in popular media was through science “translators”; science journalists and presenters. These have now nearly disappeared and are being replaced by widespread dissemination through, e.g., the internet, blogs, YouTube and journalists who often have little scientific background and sharp deadlines. Thus, scientists are required to assume increasing responsibility for translating their scientific findings and calibrating their communications to non-technical audiences, a task for which they are often ill prepared, especially when it comes to controversial societal issues such as tobacco, evolution, and most recently climate change (Oreskes and Conway 2010). Such issues have been politicized and hi-jacked by ideological belief systems to such an extent that constructive dialogue is often impossible. Many scientists are excellent communicators, to their peers. But this requires careful attention to detail and logical explanation, open acknowledgement of uncertainties, and dispassionate delivery. These qualities become liabilities when communicating to a non-scientific audience where entertainment, attention grabbing, 15 second sound bites, and self assuredness reign (e.g. Olson 2009). Here we report on a program initiated by NCAR and UCAR to develop new approaches to science communication and to equip present and future scientists with the requisite skills. If we start from a sound scientific finding with general scientific consensus, such as the warming of the planet by greenhouse gases, then the primary emphasis moves from the “science” to the “art” of communication. The art cannot have free reign, however, as there remains a strong requirement for objectivity, honesty, consistency, and above all a resistance to advocating particular policy positions. Targeting audience attitudes and beliefs, which studies such as the Six Americas research help identify, is key to effective science communications (e.g. Leiserowitz, Maibach, et al, 2009). We argue that the impact of the scientific message can be substantially improved by targeting it to these additional factors. This does require an understanding of the audience and a repackaging of the message to different societal groups. Logical and dispassionate presentation of evidence works for a target scientific audience, but major decisions from the policy to the personal level are influenced by many factors including immediacy, economics, culture, community leaders, emotional framing, and ideological filters.

Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.

2010-12-01

389

Communicating food safety: Ethical issues in risk communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses two paradigms of risk communication that guide strategies for communicating food safety issues. Built on the principles of social utility and paternalism, the first paradigm heavily relies on science and technical experts to determine food safety regulations and policies. Risk communication, in this context, is a unidirectional process by which experts from the industry or government regulatory

Clifford W. Scherer; Napoleon K. Juanillo

1992-01-01

390

Broken communication in nursing can kill: teaching communication is vital.  

PubMed

Nursing communication is vital to quality and safe nursing care. Evidence continues to increase that communication breakdowns are responsible for medication errors, unnecessary costs, and inadequate patient care. Nursing students can be taught enhanced communication skills during clinical conferences using innovative teaching strategies, examples of which are described in this article. PMID:23798248

Judd, Maureen

2013-01-01

391

Research in Communication Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are presented in the areas of signal design bounds, spread spectrum communications, the partial correlation properties of gold codes, the design of special signal sets for good correlation, signal design for totally phase-incoherent communications...

L. R. Welch R. A. Scholtz

1976-01-01

392

Emergency Medical Services Communications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four alternative plans are presented for the New River Valley Planning District Emergency Medical Service Communications System. Because a detailed overall Emergency Medical Service (EMS) plan was lacking for the New River area, communications planners de...

1974-01-01

393

Communicating water quality risk  

SciTech Connect

Technology for detecting and understanding water quality problems and the impacts of activities on long-range groundwater quality has advanced considerably. In the past a technical solution was considered adequate but today one must consider a wide range of both technical and social factors in evaluating technical alternatives that are also acceptable social solutions. Policies developed and implemented with limited local participation generally are resisted and become ineffective if public cooperation is necessary for effective implementation. The public, the experts and the policymakers all must understand and appreciate the different perspectives present in risk policymaking. The typical model used to involve the public in policy decisions is a strategy described as the decide-announce-defend-approach. Much more acceptable to the public, but also more difficult to implement, is a strategy that calls for free flow of information within the community about the problem, policies and potential solutions. Communication about complex issues will be more successful if the communication is substantial; if it takes advantage of existing interpersonal networks and mass media; if it pays particular attention to existing audience knowledge, interest and behaviors; and if it clearly targets messages to various segments of the audience.

Scherer, C.W. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

1990-01-01

394

Meeting CCS communication challenges head-on: Integrating communications, planning, risk assessment, and project management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium, Schlumberger Carbon Services, and Archer Daniels Midland has implemented a comprehensive communications plan at the Illinois Basin - Decatur Project (IBDP), a one million metric tonne Carbon Capture and Storage project in Decatur, IL, USA funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. The IBDP Communication Plan includes consortium information, funding and disclaimer citations, description of target audiences, media communications guidelines, paper and presentations guidelines, site visit information, crisis communication, on-site photography regulations, and other components. The creation, development, and implementation processes for the IBDP Communication Plan (the Plan) are shared in this paper. New communications challenges, such as how to address add-on research requests, data sharing and management, scope increase, and contract agreements have arisen since the Plan was completed in January 2009, resulting in development of new policies and procedures by project management. Integrating communications planning, risk assessment, and project management ensured that consistent, factual information was developed and incorporated into project planning, and constitutes the basis of public communications. Successful integration has allowed the IBDP to benefit from early identification and mitigation of the potential project risks, which allows more time to effectively deal with unknown and unidentified risks that may arise. Project risks and risks associated with public perception can be managed through careful planning and integration of communication strategies into project management and risk mitigation. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Greenberg, S.; Gauvreau, L.; Hnottavange-Telleen, K.; Finley, R.; Marsteller, S.

2011-01-01

395

Multicultural Communication: Assessing, Facilitating, and Evaluating Competency-Based Oral Interactions. Short Course No. 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses assessing the oral communication skills of non-native speakers of English enrolled in pre-vocational programs at Golden West College (California), presents the locally developed assessment instrument, and discusses multicultural communication intervention strategies educators can use to empower students. The first part of the…

Flores, Norma Landa

396

Communication Audits and the Effects of Increased Information: A Follow-up Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers how communication audits are typically presented as one-shot events, whose impact is not measured. Employs a follow-up audit to track the effects of an initial audit upon a major health care organization. Illustrates how the audit can play a useful role in an organization's communication strategy. (SG)

Hargie, Owen; Tourish, Dennis; Wilson, Noel

2002-01-01

397

Communication Audits and the Effects of Increased Information: A Follow-up Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Considers how communication audits are typically presented as one-shot events, whose impact is not measured. Employs a follow-up audit to track the effects of an initial audit upon a major health care organization. Illustrates how the audit can play a useful role in an organization's communication strategy. (SG)|

Hargie, Owen; Tourish, Dennis; Wilson, Noel

2002-01-01

398

Effective communication coalescing for data-parallel applications  

SciTech Connect

Communication coalescing is a static optimization that can reduce both communication frequency and redundant data transfer in compiler-generated code for regular, data parallel applications. We present an algorithm for coalescing communication that arises when generating code for regular, data-parallel applications written in High-Performance Fortran (HPF). To handle sophisticated computation partitionings, our algorithm normalizes communication before attempting coalescing. We experimentally evaluate our algorithm, which is implemented in the dHPF compiler, in the compilation of HPF versions of the NAS application benchmarks SP, BT and LU. Our normalized coalescing algorithm improves the performance and scalability of compiler-generated code for these benchmarks by reducing the communication volume up to 55% compared to a simpler coalescing strategy and enables us to match the communication volume and frequency in hand-optimized MPI implementations of these codes.

Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Mellor-Crummey, John M.

2005-06-10

399

EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF REAL-TIME COMMUNICATION ON MEDIA CHOICE IN THE CONTEXT OF DISTRIBUTED WORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an exploratory study into the use of real-time communication (RTC) systems to support distributed work. Motivated by the authors' dissatisfaction with theories assuming individually rational actors, the paper suggests the idea of informated presence to capture phenomena emerging from employees' increasingly computer-mediated engagement with their work environment. Four case vignettes are presented to illustrate different communicative strategies

Aleksi Aaltonen

400

Ten Powerhouse Strategies for Educating Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents strategies for educating administrators as to the value of school library programs and their influence on student achievement. Highlights include meeting and communicating with principals and superintendents; providing documentation to support library policies and collections; demonstrating professional research abilities; inviting them…

Brisco, Shonda

2003-01-01

401

Analyzing Protection Strategies for Online Software Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enormous popularity of the Internet and the tremendous advances in communication technology have opened a new distribution channel for the software firms. However, at the same time, the Internet also makes the distribution of pirate software much easier. In order to analyze software firms' protection strategies for online software distribution, a game theory base model is presented in the

Kemal Altinkemer; Junwei Guan

2003-01-01

402

Eavesdropping on secure deterministic communication with qubits through photon-number-splitting attacks  

SciTech Connect

A collective photon-number-splitting attack strategy is proposed, which combines photon-number-splitting attack with an unambiguous set discrimination of quantum state. Verified by this attack strategy, it is shown that a two-way quantum secure direct communication protocol with qubits is insecure in real circumstance. Finally, we present a possible improved version of this kind of quantum secure direct communication protocol.

Lin Song [State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Wen Qiaoyan; Gao Fei [State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Zhu Fuchen [National Laboratory for Modern Communications, P.O. Box 810, Chengdu 610041 (China)

2009-05-15

403

Using instructional theory to facilitate communication in Web-based courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This articles examines the role of computer-mediated communication as well as broader interpretations of communication in Web-based instruction. Overviews of cognitive processing and cognitive constructivist paradigms are presented to illustrate their relevance for guiding development of Web-based courses. Instructional goals and communication strategies associated with these paradigms are identified. We conclude that developers should use instructional theories to guide choices

Susan M. Miller; Kenneth L. Miller

1999-01-01

404

[Study on different kinds of animal feed for their adequateness for breeding and rearing beagle dogs. 1st communication: summarizing presentation of results (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Some of the current food mixtures for dogs available on the market and their further development were tested regarding the usage under rational and standardized experimental conditions. Further, it should be clarified which of the two separate modes of nutrition has the better effect on breeding and rearing of dogs. The use of a complete feed for breeding and maintaining (Altromin H) was compared with a special breeding feed (Zahn Z) together with a special maintenance feed (Zahn H). The tests were made at two places (Mannheim and Ingelheim) mainly on Beagle dogs. The food mixtures are described with the kind and quantity of the ingredients and nutrients. The results of the parameters measured in breeding effect, nursing period and rearing phase showed that all the feeds tested were nutritively satisfactory to the animals. Detailed information will be given in the 2nd and 3rd communications. Further investigations should be carried out on food consumption, food wastage, optional usage of the ingredients of the foodstuff and on energy balance. PMID:1036702

Teute, H W; Schrank, H; Knappen, F; Wilk, W

1976-01-01

405

Communication in Fungi  

PubMed Central

We will discuss fungal communication in the context of fundamental biological functions including mating, growth, morphogenesis, and the regulation of fungal virulence determinants. We will address intraspecies but also interkingdom signaling by systematically discussing the sender of the message, the molecular message, and receiver. Analyzing communication shows the close coevolution of fungi with organisms present in their environment giving insights into multispecies communication. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying microbial communication will promote our understanding of the “fungal communicome.”

Cottier, Fabien; Muhlschlegel, Fritz A.

2012-01-01

406

The repertoire of human efforts to avoid sexually transmissible diseases: past and present Part 1: Strategies used before or instead of sex  

PubMed Central

Background/objective: Despite the focus by public health programmes on condoms, chastity, or monogamy, people use a much wider variety of strategies to minimise their personal risk of sexually transmissible disease (STD). The objective of this study was to compile a comprehensive list of personal and societal STD avoidance strategies. Methods: Data from clinical and research observations, computer searches, and historical texts were pooled. Results: In addition to discriminating between potential sexual partners, a variety of behaviours before or instead of sex were identified that have been perceived to alter STD risk. Traditional STD avoidance strategies were often poorly documented and difficult to disentangle from other drives such as the maintenance of social order, paternity guarantee, and eugenics. They also varied in popularity in time and place. Some examples were displacement activities such as masturbation or exercise, circumcision, infibulation, shaving, vaccination, or requiring partners to be tested for infection. Social and moral forces typically discourage non-marital sex, and this affects most people most of the time but few people all of the time. Conclusion: The full spectrum of STD avoidance strategies warrants further study because some are ubiquitous across cultures and because they have the potential to complement or undermine safer sex programmes. Because of their greater acceptability, some less efficacious strategies may have greater public health importance than less popular but more efficacious strategies such as condoms. Key Words: sexually transmitted diseases; HIV infection; partner selection

Donovan, B.

2000-01-01

407

Rate and determinants of treatment response to different antiretroviral combination strategies in subjects presenting at HIV-1 diagnosis with advanced disease  

PubMed Central

Background The optimal therapeutic strategies for patients presenting with advanced disease at HIV-1 diagnosis are as yet incompletely defined. Methods All patients presenting at two outpatient clinics in 2000-2009 with an AIDS-defining clinical condition or a CD4+ T cell count < 200/?L at HIV-1 diagnosis were analyzed for the presence of combined immunovirological response, defined by the concomitant presence of an absolute number of CD4+ T cells > 200 cells/?L and a plasma HIV-1 RNA copy number < 50/mL after 12 months of HAART. Results Among 102 evaluable patients, first-line regimens were protease inhibitors [PI]-based in 78 cases (77%) and efavirenz-based in 24 cases (23%). The overall response rate was 65% (95% CI: 55-74), with no differences by gender, age, nationality, route of transmission, hepatitis virus coinfections, presence of AIDS-defining clinical events, baseline HIV-1 viral load, or type of regimen (response rates with PI-based and efavirenz-based therapy: 63% and 71%, respectively, p = 0.474). Response rate was significantly better with higher baseline CD4+ T cell counts (78% with CD4+ ? 100/?L, compared to 50% with CD4+ < 100/?L; odds ratio: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.49-8.23, p = 0.003). Median time on first-line antiretroviral therapy was 24 months (interquartile range: 12-48). Switch to a second line treatment occurred in 57% of patients, mainly for simplification (57%), and was significantly more common with PI-based regimens [adjusted hazard ratios (AHR) with respect to efavirenz-based regimens: 3.88 for unboosted PIs (95% CI: 1.40-10.7, p = 0.009) and 4.21 for ritonavir-boosted PI (95%CI 1.7-10.4, p = 0.002)] and in older subjects (? 50 years) (AHR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.02-3.31, p = 0.044). Overall mortality was low (3% after a median follow up of 48 months). Conclusions Our data indicate that a favorable immunovirological response is possible in the majority of naive patients presenting at HIV-1 diagnosis with AIDS or low CD4+ T cell counts, and confirm that starting HAART with a more compromised immune system may be associated with a delayed and sometimes partial immune recovery. Simpler regimens may be preferable in this particular population.

2011-01-01

408

The risk communication challenges of mass animal destruction.  

PubMed

Mass animal destruction strategies present a major risk communication challenge. While mass culling, stamping out, and depopulation may be scientifically and economically justified during emergency response to exotic disease incursions and eradication programmes, their use may be limited in the future due to public concerns over animal welfare, environmental contamination and unintended social consequences. To address this dilemma, official veterinary services must move from unidirectional communications strategies to active engagement of all potentially affected stakeholders. Case studies of recent disease outbreaks demonstrate the critical role that communications play in influencing public reaction to disease management strategies. An evaluation of these case studies provides support for the implementation of risk communication best practices: incorporating risk communications into the policy-development process, conducting pre-event planning, fostering partnerships with the public, collaborating with credible sources, meeting the needs of the media, listening to and addressing public concerns, communicating with compassion and empathy, demonstrating honesty and openness, acknowledging uncertainty and providing messages that give people meaningful things to do. Implementing the risk communication best practices requires veterinary services to move from a more technocratic approach to a participatory model where the potentially affected public play an active role in risk assessment and policy making. PMID:20411519

Hueston, William D

409

Making Sense Sensibly in Crisis Communication: How Publics’ Crisis Appraisals Influence Their Negative Emotions, Coping Strategy Preferences, and Crisis Response Acceptance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the importance of affect in persuasion and strategic communication decision making, there is a lack of a systematic and integrated approach to understanding how discrete emotions publics experience in crises and their behavioral tendencies are associated with their cognitive appraisals. A 2 (predictability: high and low) × 2 (controllability: high and low) between-subjects experiment using a random general public

Yan Jin

2010-01-01

410

Strategies for Foreign Language Teaching: Communication, Technology, Culture. Report of the Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (Chicago, Illinois, April 26-28, 1984).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 13 selected papers included in this conference report are: "Achieving Curriculum Fit for That 'Horrible' Second Year" (Lorraine A. Strasheim); "Project Partnership: French Culture and Language in the Elementary School" (Susan Turner); "A Middle School Exploratory Course" (Kay Thorp); "Creative and Communicative Achievement Testing" (Barbara…

Westphal, Patricia B., Ed.; And Others

411

Dietetics Students' Ability to Choose Appropriate Communication and Counseling Methods Is Improved by Teaching Behavior-Change Strategies in Computer-Assisted Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several models and theories have been proposed to help registered dietitians (RD) counsel and communicate nutrition information to patients. However, there is little time for students or interns to observe and\\/or participate in counseling sessions. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) can be used to give students more opportunity to observe the various methods and theories of counseling. This study used CAI simulations

Ruchi Puri; Carol Bell; William D. Evers

2010-01-01

412

Health literacy as a public health goal: a challenge for contemporary health education and communication strategies into the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Health literacy is a relatively new concept in health pro- motion. It is a composite term to describe a range of out- comes to health education and communication activities. From this perspective, health education is directed towards improving health literacy. This paper identifies the failings of past educational programs to address social and eco- nomic determinants of health, and

DON NUTBEAM

2006-01-01

413

Changing Health Behaviors to Improve Health Outcomes after Angioplasty: A Randomized Trial of Net Present Value versus Future Value Risk Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Patients who have undergone angioplasty experience difficulty modifying at-risk behaviors for subsequent cardiac events. The purpose of this study was to test whether an innovative approach to framing of risk, based on "net present value" economic theory, would be more effective in behavioral intervention than the standard "future value approach"…

Charlson, M. E.; Peterson, J. C.; Boutin-Foster, C.; Briggs, W. M.; Ogedegbe, G. G.; McCulloch, C. E.; Hollenberg, J.; Wong, C.; Allegrante, J. P.

2008-01-01

414

Changing Health Behaviors to Improve Health Outcomes after Angioplasty: A Randomized Trial of Net Present Value versus Future Value Risk Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients who have undergone angioplasty experience difficulty modifying at-risk behaviors for subsequent cardiac events. The purpose of this study was to test whether an innovative approach to framing of risk, based on "net present value" economic theory, would be more effective in behavioral intervention than the standard "future value approach"…

Charlson, M. E.; Peterson, J. C.; Boutin-Foster, C.; Briggs, W. M.; Ogedegbe, G. G.; McCulloch, C. E.; Hollenberg, J.; Wong, C.; Allegrante, J. P.

2008-01-01

415

Changing health behaviors to improve health outcomes after angioplasty: a randomized trial of net present value versus future value risk communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients who have undergone angioplasty expe- rience difficulty modifying at-risk behaviors for subsequent cardiac events. The purpose of this study was to test whether an innovative ap- proach to framing of risk, based on 'net present value' economic theory, would be more effective in behavioral intervention than the standard 'fu- ture value approach' in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality following

M. E. Charlson; J. C. Peterson; C. Boutin-Foster; W. M. Briggs; G. G. Ogedegbe; C. E. McCulloch; J. Hollenberg; C. Wong; J. P. Allegrante

2008-01-01

416

strategy_template  

Cancer.gov

179 APPENDIX A Strategy Statement/Creative Brief Template 1. Intended audiences Whom do you want to reach with your communication? Be specific. 2. Objectives What do you want your intended audiences to do after they hear, watch, or experience this communication? 3.

417

Innovative approach to teaching communication skills to nursing students.  

PubMed

This study assessed the effectiveness of a learner-centered simulation intervention designed to improve the communication skills of preprofessional sophomore nursing students. An innovative teaching strategy in which communication skills are taught to nursing students by using trained actors who served as standardized family members in a clinical learning laboratory setting was evaluated using a two-group posttest design. In addition to current standard education, the intervention group received a formal training session presenting a framework for communication and a 60-minute practice session with the standardized family members. Four domains of communication-introduction, gathering of information, imparting information, and clarifying goals and expectations-were evaluated in the control and intervention groups in individual testing sessions with a standardized family member. The intervention group performed better than the control group in all four tested domains related to communication skills, and the difference was statistically significant in the domain of gathering information (p = 0.0257). PMID:19810670

Zavertnik, Jean Ellen; Huff, Tanya A; Munro, Cindy L

2010-02-04

418

The Past, Present, and Future of HIV Prevention: Integrating Behavioral, Biomedical, and Structural Intervention Strategies for the Next Generation of HIV Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 25 years, the field of HIV prevention research has been trans- formed repeatedly. Today, effective HIV prevention requires a combi- nation of behavioral, biomedical, and structural intervention strategies. Risk of transmitting or acquiring HIV is reduced by consistent male- and female-condom use, reductions in concurrent and\\/or sequential sexual and needle-sharing partners, male circumcision, and treatment with antiretroviral

Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus; Dallas Swendeman; Gary Chovnick

2009-01-01

419

Visual Imagery Training for Patients With Visual Perceptual Deficits Following Right Hemisphere Cerebrovascular Accidents: A Case Study Presenting the Lighthouse Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.Objective: To illustrate use of the Lighthouse Strategy (LHS) to improve visual neglect.Study Design: Single case design with repeated measures on 2 dependent variables, a posttest, and a follow-up.Setting: Inpatient Brain Injury Rehabilitation Unit.Subject: A 65-year-old Caucasian woman with left visual inattention following a right-hemisphere stroke.Intervention: Patient learned to use the LHS during 3 treatment sessions.Main Outcome Measures: Pre- and

Janet P. Niemeier

2002-01-01

420

The Past, Present, and Future of HIV Prevention: Integrating Behavioral, Biomedical, and Structural Intervention Strategies for the Next Generation of HIV Prevention  

PubMed Central

In the past 25 years, the field of HIV prevention research has been transformed repeatedly. Today, effective HIV prevention requires a combination of behavioral, biomedical, and structural intervention strategies. Risk of transmitting or acquiring HIV is reduced by consistent male and female-condom use, reductions in concurrent and/or sequential sexual and needle-sharing partners, male circumcision, and treatment with antiretroviral medications. At least 144 behavioral prevention programs have been found effective in reducing HIV transmission acts; however, scale up of these programs has not occurred outside of the United States. A series of recent failures of HIV-prevention efficacy trials for biomedical innovations such as HIV vaccines, treating herpes simplex 2 and other sexually transmitted infections, and diaphragm and microbicide barriers highlights the need for behavioral strategies to accompany biomedical strategies. This challenges prevention researchers to reconceptualize how cost-effective, useful, realistic, and sustainable prevention programs will be designed, delivered, tested, and diffused. The next generation of HIV prevention science must draw from the successes of existing evidence-based interventions and the expertise of the market sector to integrate preventive innovations and behaviors into everyday routines.

Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Chovnick, Gary

2010-01-01

421

Advanced Communications Technology: Mobile Communications Requirements Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Coast Guard's mobile communications requirements will outstrip existing system capabilities, available capacity, and affordability by the late 1990s. This will require changes in the mix of mobile communications equipment and services used by operational units. New commercial mobile satellite services are available now, with many others arriving on the market between 1998 and 2003. These new services present unique opportunities to satisfy mission requirements, reduce investment in communications infrastructure, and realize more costeffective communications services. The Coast Guard Research and Development Center (R&DC) has undertaken an effort to identify and evaluate current and emerging satellite services that may be used to satisfy Coast Guard mobile communications requirements. As part of this effort, Anteon Corporation has been tasked by R&DC to collect the mobile communications functional requirements that have been identified by program managers. Anteon analysts have reviewed the Government Furnished Information (GFI) and researched other related documentation to identify and collect the requirements that may be used to describe the needed operating environment. Anteon analysts assessed the functional requirements to develop system requirements that describe the features that a communications system must provide to support the functional requirements. This report presents the current and projected Coast Guard mobile communications system requirements.

1998-05-01

422

Coaching Communication Partners: A Preliminary Investigation of Communication Intervention during Mealtime in Rett Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rett syndrome (RTT) occurs primarily in females and is characterized by deficits in cognition, communication, hand use and ambulation. This quasi-experimental study explored the use of a coaching program to increase communicative interactions between girls with RTT and their communication partners. Communication coaching strategies were provided…

Bartolotta, Theresa E.; Remshifski, Patricia A.

2013-01-01

423

Online Courses: WCS: Conservation Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While part of conservation is based in science, a large portion of conservation relies on people and their actions. This course will help participants define and create an effective conservation communication strategy on an issue of their choice. Particip

1900-01-01

424

Teaching Deaf-Blind People to Communicate and Interact with the Public: Critical Issues for Travelers Who Are Deaf-Blind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Travelers with dual sensory losses present the rehabilitation professional with additional tasks and responsibilities that expand the instructional curriculum. Effective instruction in rehabilitation and orientation and mobility includes teaching strategies and tools for dealing with unfamiliar people through "communication" (conveying…

Bourquin, Eugene; Sauerburger, Dona

2005-01-01

425

Wireless Communication for Controlling Microgrids: Co-simulation and Performance Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

A microgrid with wireless communication links for microgrid control has been designed and developed. The complete simulation model has been developed in MatLab SimuLink with seamless integration of the power subsystem and the communication subsystem. Unlike the conventional co-simulators that usually glue two existing simulators together by creating an interface, which has a steep learning curve, the proposed simulator is a compact single-unit model. Detailed modeling of the power subsystem and communication system is presented as well as the microgrid control architecture and strategies. The impact of different communication system performances on microgrid control has been studied and evaluated in the proposed simulator.

Mao, Rukun [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL; Li, Huijuan [ORNL; Li, Husheng [ORNL

2013-01-01

426

Underground mine communications: a survey  

SciTech Connect

After a recent series of unfortunate underground mining disasters, the vital importance of communications for underground mining is underlined one more time. Establishing reliable communication is a very difficult task for underground mining due to the extreme environmental conditions. Until now, no single communication system exists which can solve all of the problems and difficulties encountered in underground mine communications. However, combining research with previous experiences might help existing systems improve, if not completely solve all of the problems. In this survey, underground mine communication is investigated. Major issues which underground mine communication systems must take into account are discussed. Communication types, methods, and their significance are presented.

Yarkan, S.; Guzelgoz, S.; Arslan, H.; Murphy, R.R. [University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

2009-07-01

427

Communicating Geomorphology. JGHE Annual Lecture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication strategies emphasize concerns for "content" (what is said) and "process" (the way things are said). Scientists have a responsibility to communicate the findings of their research, enhancing prospects that their insights can meaningfully inform management practice. When used effectively, principles from geomorphology provide critical…

Brierley, Gary

2009-01-01

428

Communicating Geomorphology. JGHE Annual Lecture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Communication strategies emphasize concerns for "content" (what is said) and "process" (the way things are said). Scientists have a responsibility to communicate the findings of their research, enhancing prospects that their insights can meaningfully inform management practice. When used effectively, principles from geomorphology provide critical…

Brierley, Gary

2009-01-01

429

Communicating During Negotiations/Strikes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Successful collective bargaining and, if necessary, strike management, requires careful planned communication strategies and programs before, during, and after, if the school system is to maintain the public's confidence. This handbook is designed to provide guidelines for the educational administrative team in developing a communication plan…

National School Public Relations Association, Arlington, VA.

430

Improving Organizational Communication through Trust.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores organizational trust through psychological/sociological avenues. Argues that trust is a critical factor in overcoming communication barriers that are context-related (communication environment or setting) and content-related (the message itself or the participants). Suggests that trust can be improved by applying identified strategies.…

Phelps, Lonnie D.; DuFrene, Debbie D.

1989-01-01

431

Internships in speech communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a survey of communication internships indicate that the internship is developing into an important instructional strategy. Benefits to the student, university, and sponsoring organization are described, and the reactions of forty two interns at three universities are summarized.

Cal W. Downs; Paul Harper; Gary Hunt

1976-01-01

432

Wireless Communications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wireless communications is an industry that is growing at an incredible rate. Cellular phones are the most obvious example of this trend; it is hard to go anywhere without seeing someone using one. Rapidly advancing technologies and lower prices are making this all possible. At the current pace, there seems to be no limit to what is possible in the wireless industry.To learn about the events that led up to present day wireless communications, this site offers a very informative history of telecommunications (1) that goes all the way back to the time of carrier pigeons. A good introduction to wireless networking can be found in this mini-tutorial (2). The best parts of this tutorial are the discussions of many recent wireless developments and technologies. There are a few interactive games and activities that are supposed to be instructive and entertaining, but some of them can be annoying. For the more technically savvy user, the third site (3) starts by describing many of the principles that drive current wireless systems. The second part examines the technologies that will be used in future generations of services. To build on this material, the third generation mobile communications systems (3G) is the central topic at 3G Newsroom (4), providing breaking news about the development of 3G technology. Additionally, the site has an excellent introduction to 3G, including its applications and specifications. One of the advancements that is paving the way toward 3G is Bluetooth, which is explained in great detail here (5). This technology is capable of very high data transfer rates, but there are some limitations, which are all discussed in the articles on the site. Although Bluetooth is raising plenty of interest, this recent news story (6) is creating more than its share of debate. It outlines a very controversial move by the FCC to allow the use of ultrawideband technology in commercial wireless applications. The author explains in simple terms why there are so many concerns about something that could revolutionize wireless systems. The evolution of the global system for mobile communications (GSM) is traced at GSM World (7). Here users can learn about the roots of the wireless industry as well as what is in store for the future. A special section addresses health concerns associated with mobile phone use. Radio was one of the earliest form of wireless communication, and the Invention of Radio (8) documents the people and events that made it what it is today. The stories of such famous scientists and inventors as Marconi, DeForest, and Armstrong are told in brief accounts, and there is even a link to the well known War of the Worlds radio broadcast.

Leske, Cavin.

2002-01-01

433

An Information Systems Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for a coherent information systems development strategy that integrates both voice and data communications with computing into the campus computing environment is described. The need for a strategy, as opposed to a set of goals, in light of rapidly changing technological parameters, is discussed. (MLW)

Heterick, Robert C.

1986-01-01

434

Communicative Challenges of Bystander Intervention: Impact of Goals and Message Design Logic on Strategies College Students Use to Intervene in Drinking Situations.  

PubMed

A key concern on college campuses is how to help students avoid negative outcomes related to alcohol use. One way to address this is to encourage students to intervene when they see others engaged in high-risk behavior. This approach, referred to as bystander intervention, requires that individuals seek to influence others; however, research on bystander intervention has not explored how students communicate when they intervene. Drawing from a multiple goals perspective, we examined individuals' goals during intervention, the types of messages individuals use to intervene, and the relationship of design logic to sense of efficacy and messages used. Participants (n?=?212) identified their goals and indicated what they would say to intervene in two college-drinking scenarios. We found that differences in goals were related to the types of messages used, with more specific goals leading to messages better aligned with achieving those goals. Additionally, more sophisticated design logic was related to a higher sense of efficacy and was reflected in the types of messages individuals used to intervene. The study views bystander intervention as an influence process and highlights the communicative challenges that can impact how people intervene. PMID:23402306

White, Cindy H; Malkowski, Jennifer

2013-02-12

435

Thinking strategically about communications for the space sciences: the case of astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ongoing concerns about public understanding of science and scientific literacy, coupled with the growing prominence of science in everyday life, demand that science experts know how to explain the work they do and the value it offers. Public funding of scientific research also argues for communications with the public about it. For research funded by NASA, a statutory requirement is in place to "provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information concerning its activities and the results thereof." (1958 National Aeronautics and Space Act.) Public interest in space science is substantial, and advances in the field are rapid. Communicating about science is thus an especially important task for researchers working in the space sciences, as well as an obligation for those receiving public funding. This presentation will describe a communication strategy developed for NASA's Astrobiology Program, intended to aid communication among scientists within an expanding and broadly multidisciplinary field as well as communication about science with a range of external audiences. Conceived strategically, communication is an integral element of the overall work of a program or organization. Communication is conceived strategically in the Astrobiology Program. Astrobiology communication strategy offers a way of thinking about communication - an approach to communication, as it were - and provides guidance on methods, messages, tools, and audiences to be considered in implementation. It can help members of the astrobiology community to communicate about their work with experts - in their own fields and in others - and non-experts - employers, funders, policy makers, teachers, students, parents, citizens. It is designed to promote quality, consistency, and continuity in communication endeavors across the astrobiology program and to integrate these endeavors in program planning and activities. Implementation of a communication strategy for the Astrobiology Program is expected to advance NASA's mission to explore the universe and search for life and inspire the next generation of explorers by strengthening efforts to inform the public about astrobiology and its role in space exploration. Implementation can also help to build community in the field of astrobiology. It is not possible to predict the outcomes of research sponsored by the Astrobiology Program or the evolution of the cultural environment in which it is taking place. The Program thus can benefit from the flexibility inherent in this approach to communication. This presentation will address concepts and models of communication, relevant findings in research on communication, and rhetorical strategies for communicating about science.

Billings, L.

2007-12-01

436

The communication challenges presented by nanofoods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology has the potential to lead to healthier, safer and better tasting foods, and improved food packaging, but the hesitation of the food industry and public fears in some countries about tampering with nature may be holding back the introduction of nanofoods.

Duncan, Timothy V.

2011-11-01

437

The benefits and obstacles of implementing ICTs strategies for development from a bottom-up approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compatibility between the implementation of information and communication technologies (ICTs) strategies and the bottom-up approach in the developmental process is assessed. In order to put the theoretical arguments into practice, the existing benefits and obstacles of implementing such strategies in reality are presented. Deriving from the analysis of the bottom-up approach is the identification of three key areas: basic

Martina Fors; Alfredo Moreno

2002-01-01

438

Observations on the UK transformational government strategy relative to citizen data sharing and privacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – One of the key aims of the UK's Transformational Government strategy is to create a “joined-up” government where communications within and between public organisations is improved by the use of information technology. Data sharing is a key enabler of “joined-up” government but the implementation of the strategy presents a series of risks. The purpose of this paper is

Colin Combe

2009-01-01

439

[The influence of non-verbal communication in nursing care].  

PubMed

The present study is linked to the Center for Researching and Testing in Nursing at the Nursing School Alfredo Pinto - UNIRIO, and it started during the development of a monograph. The object of the study is the meaning of non-verbal communication under the optics of the nursing course undergraduates. The study presents the following objectives: to determine how non-verbal communication is comprehended among college students in nursing and to analyze in what way that comprehension influences nursing care. The methodological approach was qualitative, while the dynamics of sensitivity were applied as strategy for data collection. It was observed that undergraduate students identify the relevance and influence of non-verbal communication along nursing care, however there is a need in amplifying the knowledge of non-verbal communication process prior the implementation of nursing care. PMID:16514950

Santos, Carla Cristina Viana; Shiratori, Kaneji

440

Efficacy methods to evaluate health communication and marketing campaigns.  

PubMed

Communication and marketing are growing areas of health research, but relatively few rigorous efficacy studies have been conducted in these fields. In this article, we review recent health communication and marketing efficacy research, present two case studies that illustrate some of the considerations in making efficacy design choices, and advocate for greater emphasis on rigorous health communication and marketing efficacy research and the development of a research agenda. Much of the outcomes research in health communication and marketing, especially mass media, utilizes effectiveness designs conducted in real time, in the media markets or communities in which messages are delivered. Such evaluations may be impractical or impossible, however, imiting opportunities to advance the state of health communication and marketing research and the knowledge base on effective campaign strategies, messages, and channels. Efficacy and effectiveness studies use similar measures of behavior change. Efficacy studies, however, offer greater opportunities for experimental control, message exposure, and testing of health communication and marketing theory. By examining the literature and two in-depth case studies, we identify advantages and limitations to efficacy studies. We also identify considerations for when to adopt efficacy and effectiveness methods, alone or in combination. Finally, we outline a research agenda to investigate issues of internal and external validity, mode of message presentation, differences between marketing and message strategies, and behavioral outcomes. PMID:19466645

Evans, W Douglas; Uhrig, Jennifer; Davis, Kevin; McCormack, Lauren

2009-06-01

441

Communications Pretesting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The majority of social development programs around the world stand to benefit from communicating their activities through the mass media. Most program administrators will invest in communication that will effectively reach a target population but will avo...

1978-01-01

442

Communications and Development: Two Views.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two views on current international communication are presented--that of an American academician, and that of an Indian journalist. John Lent traces the rise of development journalism and development communication from the point of view of those who believ...

1977-01-01

443

Asian Communication: Research, Training, Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A selection of eight papers on Asian communication is presented for the purpose of alerting communication researchers to significant work being done outside of the academic community. Topics include (1) a Malaysian experience in using commercial resources...

D. Lerner

1976-01-01

444

Desert Storm communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the communication network that supported Operation Desert Storm is presented. The system, which maintained a 98% availability rate, supported 700000 telephone calls and 152000 messages per day. More than 30000 radio frequencies were managed to provide necessary connectivity and to ensure minimum interference. The roles of communications satellites, switched networks and terrestrial systems, and packet-switched networks and

J. S. Toma

1992-01-01

445

Improving Virtual Team Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foundation of successful software product development today is establishing an effective and efficient teamwork. In order to manage large software development projects it is needed to manage and coordinate virtual teams of programmers, engineers, business analysts and other project stakeholders. Trust is required for effective team communication. Presented software tool enhances cooperative work support by improving virtual team communication.

Kresimir Pripuzic; Luko Gjenero; Hrvoje Belani

2006-01-01

446

Ripple Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how surface-dwelling animals use the water surface as a mode of communication by making ripple signals while they swim about. Provides information about surfaces and surface waves, ripple communication in water striders, ripple signal characteristics, sensing and orienting, other modes of communication, and evolution of ripple…

Wilcox, R. Stimson

1980-01-01

447

Cultural Communications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

Armas, Jose

448

Interracial Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to introduce communicators to the factors influencing them interracial and interethnic interaction, this study attempts to explain the dynamics of interracial communication by offering descriptions of various interracial interaction situations and possible reasons for the existence of problems in interracial communication. The first…

Rich, Andrea L.

449

RSFSR Minister of Space and Communications Interviewed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An interview with RSFSR Minister of Communications, Information Science, and Space is presented. The following subject areas are covered: space-based communication system of RSFSR; plans for launching three more Gorizont communication satellites; moderniz...

1991-01-01

450

Computing effective communication policies in multiagent systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. ABSTRACT Communication is a key tool for facilitating multiagent coordination in cooperative and uncertain domains. We focus on a class of multiagent problems modeled as De- centralized Markov Decision Processes with Communication (DEC-MDP-COM) with local observability. The planning problem for computing the optimal communication strategy in such domains is often formulated with the assumption of the knowledge of optimal

Doran Chakraborty; Sandip Sen

2007-01-01

451

Immigrant Family StrengthsMeeting Communication Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on immigrants punctuates their difficulties with language acculturation and communication. Minimal attention has been given to the diversity of immigrant family communication issues in relation to the receiving communities in which they have lived, and research has not assessed immigrant families' strategies for minimizing communication breakdown. Based on in-depth interviews with 20 immigrant mothers and their adult daughters,

PAULA M. USITA; ROSEMARY BLIESZNER

2002-01-01

452

Technical Communications: Student Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Technical Communications Student Guide will provide students with a sound foundation in the Research, Composition and Presentation of technically-oriented material. Skills acquired through Technical Communications are transferable to a variety of educational and professional technical or general contexts. Accordingly, this module may be used either as a complement to an existing technical program or as a stand-alone technical communications course. A 112-page instructional manual covering technical communications topics including oral presentations, report writing, and writing feasibility reports and executive summaries. Supporting ethics cases are also included. Target Audience 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators Self Evaluation DataIn response to one of industry's top demands that technicians be as fluent in communication abilities as they are technically proficient, this manual offers practical information and can support a stand-alone course or supplement any technical curriculum.

2009-11-09

453

Rethinking Quality Assurance: Examining Established Practices, Exploring New Strategies. Selected Presentations at the Annual Accreditation and Quality Assurance Conference. Proceedings (Philadelphia, PA, December 4-5, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection contains selected presentations from an annual accreditation and quality assurance conference. The papers are: (1) "Turning around Troubled Institutions" (Matthew Goldstein); (2) "Triadic Hierarchical Planning" (William J. Austin); (3) "Edinboro University's Triangulated Institutional Effectiveness Model" (Michael A. Mogavero and…

Middle States Commission on Higher Education, Philadelphia, PA.

454

Rethinking Quality Assurance: Examining Established Practices, Exploring New Strategies. Selected Presentations at the Annual Accreditation and Quality Assurance Conference. Proceedings (Philadelphia, PA, December 4-5, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection contains selected presentations from an annual accreditation and quality assurance conference. The papers are: (1) "Turning around Troubled Institutions" (Matthew Goldstein); (2) "Triadic Hierarchical Planning" (William J. Austin); (3) "Edinboro University's Triangulated Institutional Effectiveness Model" (Michael A. Mogavero and…

Middle States Commission on Higher Education, Philadelphia, PA.

455

A "community as resource" strategy for disaster response.  

PubMed Central

Natural and technological disasters present significant threats to the public's health. The emergency response capabilities of government and private relief organizations are limited. With a strategy in which residents of urban areas are trained in search and rescue, first aid, fire suppression, care and shelter, emergency communications, and disaster mental health, the community becomes a "resource" rather than a "victim." Images p263-a

Lichterman, J D

2000-01-01

456

Strategies for Supporting the Sensory-Based Learner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prevention of behavioral problems in school settings is essential. When the function of behavior communicates a sensory-based need, as it does for many learners with autism, teachers need to know what to do. Therefore, it is important for teachers to have varied strategies available for use in the support of such learners. The authors present

Murray, Mary; Baker, Pamela Hudson; Murray-Slutsky, Carolyn; Paris, Betty

2009-01-01

457

INTERNET BUSINESS STRATEGY: CASE STUDY OF PROPERTY DEVELOPERS IN MALAYSIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a study which analysed property development companies in Malaysia on internet business strategy. The implementation of Internet as a synergy in business is currently one of the contemporary debatable topics in the evolution of business. This is due to the emergence of information and communication technology worldwide. As a developing country, property business in

Muhammad Najib Razali; David Martin Juanil

458

Key Elements of a Successful Drive toward Marketing Strategy Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A conceptual model is presented that depicts the relationship between an internal marketing function and an organization's readiness to learn. Learning and marketing orientations are identified as components to marketing strategy making. Key organizational functions, including communication and decision-making, are utilized in a framework for…

Cann, Cynthia W.; George, Marie A.

2003-01-01

459

Discourse Strategies for Generating Natural-Language Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

If a generation system is to produce text in response to a given communicative goal, it must be able to determine what to include in its text and how to organize this information so that it can be easily understood. In this paper, a computational model of discourse strategies is presented that can be used to guide the generation process

Kathleen Mckeown

1985-01-01

460

A National Strategy for Civic Networking: A Vision of Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a vision and a national strategy for civic networking based on the development of the National Information Infrastructure. Topics addressed include a public interest communications policy; benefits of civic networking, including improving services and reducing government costs, reducing poverty and health care costs, and improving…

Civille, Richard

1993-01-01

461

Communicating Urban Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While cities cover only 2% of the Earth's surface, over 50% of the world's people live in urban environments. Precisely because of their population density, cities can play a large role in reducing or exacerbating the global impact of climate change. The actions of cities could hold the key to slowing down climate change. Urban dwellers are becoming more aware of the need to reduce their carbon usage and to implement adaptation strategies. However, messaging around these strategies has not been comprehensive and adaptation to climate change requires local knowledge, capacity and a high level of coordination. Unless urban populations understand climate change and its impacts it is unlikely that cities will be able to successfully implement policies that reduce anthropogenic climate change. Informal and formal educational institutions in urban environments can serve as catalysts when partnering with climate scientists, educational research groups, and public policy makers to disseminate information about climate change and its impacts on urban audiences. The Climate and Urban Systems Partnership (CUSP) is an interdisciplinary network designed to assess and meet the needs and challenges of educating urban audiences about climate change. CUSP brings together organizations in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Queens, NY and Washington, DC to forge links with informal and formal education partners, city government, and policy makers. Together this network will create and disseminate learner-focused climate education programs and resources for urban audiences that, while distinct, are thematically and temporally coordinated, resulting in the communication of clear and consistent information and learning experiences about climate science to a wide public audience. Working at a community level CUSP will bring coordinated programming directly into neighborhoods presenting the issues of global climate change in a highly local context. The project is currently exploring a number of models for community programming and this session will present early results of these efforts while engaging participants in exploring approaches to connecting urban communities and their local concerns to the issues of global climate change.

Snyder, S.; Crowley, K.; Horton, R.; Bader, D.; Hoffstadt, R.; Labriole, M.; Shugart, E.; Steiner, M.; Climate; Urban Systems Partnership

2011-12-01

462

The use of hi fidelity simulation to enhance nursing students' therapeutic communication skills.  

PubMed

Nursing students entering psychiatric settings for clinical practice need a solid foundation of therapeutic communication skills. This article presents an innovative strategy for nursing students to practice therapeutic communication skills with psychiatric patients by using hi fidelity simulation with Laerdal SimMan. Using the SimMan vocal function enabled nurse educators to develop communication algorithms that allowed students to interact with SimMan as they would with psychiatric patients. The SimMan algorithms can be designed to mimic many scenarios typically found in psychiatric settings. Nursing students can use this technology to take the therapeutic communication skills they have learned in the classroom and practice them in a safe laboratory environment before entering actual psychiatric settings. The ability of students to practice communication skills prior to entering psychiatric settings can promote effective therapeutic communication skills and decrease student anxiety. PMID:19120033

Sleeper, Justin A; Thompson, Cesarina

2008-12-17

463

Inter-Cultural Communication: A Foundation of Communicative Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a model of inter-cultural communication that enumerates and structures latent factors affecting such communication and elaborates on the process of self-reflection as a guiding mechanism of successful communication. Design/methodology/approach: The five factors and various moderators that are…

Vuckovic, Aleksandra

2008-01-01

464

Born again group testing - Multiaccess communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief summary of the basic notions of group testing is presented together with a brief historical account. One of the early papers on group testing is shown to include a description of the tree-search polling algorithm of Hayes. The classical group testing problem is formulated, including a criterion for optimality of test plans. A restricted class of tests, called nested testing, is described, and a complete description for an optimal nested strategy is given for both a finite number and an infinite number of Bernoulli distributed random variables. A generalization of group testing applicable to the random access communications problem is presented.

Wolf, J. K.

1985-03-01

465

Public Relations: The Route to Success and Influence. Public Relations for Your Library: A Tool for Effective Communications; Tooting Your Own Horn: Web-Based Public Relations for the School Media Specialist; Bookmarks as a Teaching Tool; Customers and Culture: The Who and What of Library Public Relations Efforts; Strategies for Successful Job Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special section includes five articles that discuss public relations strategies for school librarians. Highlights include effective communication, including measuring and evaluating the success of public relations efforts; Web-based public relations; giving bookmarks to students; customers and cultural contexts; and successful job…

Lyon, Linda; Silverstein, Roberta; Fisher, Julieta Dias; Hill, Ann; Hegel, Claudette; Miller, Donna; Moyer, Mary

2002-01-01

466

Alzheimer's disease. Physician-patient communication.  

PubMed Central

The number of cognitively impaired elderly in Canada has increased greatly during the past two decades; nearly all have Alzheimer's disease (AD). The memory problems and changes in language and communication of these patients place tremendous strain on physicians who are searching for a differential diagnosis and are trying to communicate with them. Reviewing the salient language and communication features of AD patients leads to strategies for improving effective physician-patient communication.

Orange, J. B.; Molloy, D. W.; Lever, J. A.; Darzins, P.; Ganesan, C. R.

1994-01-01

467

Random Communication Satellite Coverage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report develops models for assessing credible satellite failure rates, population densities, coverage probabilities, and outage intervals. These models are interpreted in terms of the present random military communication satellite system. A sufficien...

C. S. Lorens

1967-01-01

468

Overview of commercial satellite communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief history of communications satellites is presented, taking into account the launching of Sputnik 1 in October 1957, the Explorer 1 in January of 1958, the launch of the Score as the world's first active communications satellite in December 1958, the Communications Satellite Act in 1962, and the launch of 'Early Bird' in 1964. The Intelsat satellites are considered

G. W. Beakley

1984-01-01

469

House Plans and Communication Flow  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents an activity in which students will demonstrate the relationship between the nonverbal concept of space and the flow of verbal communication. Most courses in interpersonal, intercultural, small group, and family communication discuss types of nonverbal communication, including kinesics, haptics, paralanguage, proxemics, and…

Clasen, Patricia

2008-01-01

470

Are Pharmaceutical Marketing Decisions Calibrated to Communications Effects?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marketing managers continually struggle with how to maximize the effects of an integrated marketing communications strategy. The growing number of available communication outlets, as well as highly varying competitive landscapes, adds further complexity to this challenge. This empirical study examines the differential impact within a pharmaceutical market therapeutic category where both “push” and “pull” communication strategies operate on consumers and

Erin Cavusgil; Roger Calantone

2011-01-01

471

Communication and Aging  

PubMed Central

Interpersonal communication has been described as a critical tool for life adjustment, linking people to their environment.1 When communication disorders are present these links can be easily broken. Communication disorders form a diverse group of conditions that vary in terms of type, severity, and co-occurrence with other symptoms that limit mobility, vision, endurance, or cognition. Although communication disorders affect people of all ages, the prevalence and complexity of these conditions increase with age, and may be characterized by a stable, recovering or degenerative course. Disabilities associated with communication disorders may best be viewed as a dynamic process that varies over time instead of as a single static event that remains constant. Two broad trajectories of disability and aging have been described2 and can be applied to those with communication disorders. The disability with aging group includes people who live most of their lives without disability and either experience the subtle communication problems associated with age or the onset of conditions such as stroke that occur most commonly in old age. The aging with disability group includes people who either have lifelong or early onset communication disorders as a result of cerebral palsy or multiple sclerosis (MS) and age in the context of the already-existing disability. Regardless of the trajectory, the burden of communication disorder is cumulative; it grows with age and has important implications for health care providers. This article describes various communication disabilities associated with aging and how these disabilities affect important functions such as access to health care and maintenance of social roles. Suggestions that preserve and enhance communication function in older adults are also provided in this article.

Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Bourgeois, Michelle S.; Baylor, Carolyn R.

2011-01-01

472

Sources of variability in human communicative skills  

PubMed Central

When established communication systems cannot be used, people rapidly create novel systems to modify the mental state of another agent according to their intentions. However, there are dramatic inter-individual differences in the implementation of this human competence for communicative innovation. Here we characterize psychological sources of inter-individual variability in the ability to build a shared communication system from scratch. We consider two potential sources of variability in communicative skills. Cognitive traits of two individuals could independently influence their joint ability to establish a communication system. Another possibility is that the overlap between those individual traits influences the communicative performance of a dyad. We assess these possibilities by quantifying the relationship between cognitive traits and behavior of communicating dyads. Cognitive traits were assessed with psychometric scores quantifying cooperative attitudes and fluid intelligence. Competence for implementing successful communicative innovations was assessed by using a non-verbal communicative task. Individual capacities influence communicative success when communicative innovations are generated. Dyadic similarities and individual traits modulate the type of communicative strategy chosen. The ability to establish novel communicative actions was influenced by a combination of the communicator's ability to understand intentions and the addressee's ability to recognize patterns. Communicative pairs with comparable systemizing abilities or behavioral inhibition were more likely to explore the search space of possible communicative strategies by systematically adding new communicative behaviors to those already available. No individual psychometric measure seemed predominantly responsible for communicative success. These findings support the notion that the human ability for fast communicative innovations represents a special type of complex collaborative activity.

Volman, Inge; Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Toni, Ivan

2012-01-01

473

A communication-theory based view on telemedical communication.  

PubMed

Communication theory based analysis sheds new light on the use of health telematics. This analysis of structures in electronic medical communication shows communicative structures with special features. Current and evolving telemedical applications are analyzed. The methodology of communicational theory (focusing on linguistic pragmatics) is used to compare it with its conventional counterpart. The semiotic model, the roles of partners, the respective message and their relation are discussed. Channels, sender, addressee, and other structural roles are analyzed for different types of electronic medical communication. The communicative processes are shown as mutual, rational action towards a common goal. The types of communication/texts are analyzed in general. Furthermore the basic communicative structures of medical education via internet are presented with their special features. The analysis shows that electronic medical communication has special features compared to everyday communication: A third participant role often is involved: the patient. Messages often are addressed to an unspecified partner or to an unspecified partner within a group. Addressing in this case is (at least partially) role-based. Communication and message often directly (rather than indirectly) influence actions of the participants. Communication often is heavily regulated including legal implications like liability, and more. The conclusion from the analysis is that the development of telemedical applications so far did not sufficiently take communicative structures into consideration. Based on these results recommendations for future developments of telemedical applications/services are given. PMID:15537236

Schall, Thomas; Roeckelein, Wolfgang; Mohr, Markus; Kampshoff, Joerg; Lange, Tim; Nerlich, Michael

2003-01-01

474

The nonverbal communication functions of emoticons in computer-mediated communication.  

PubMed

Most past studies assume that computer-mediated communication (CMC) lacks nonverbal communication cues. However, Internet users have devised and learned to use emoticons to assist their communications. This study examined emoticons as a communication tool that, although presented as verbal cues, perform nonverbal communication functions. We therefore termed emoticons quasi-nonverbal cues. PMID:18817486

Lo, Shao-Kang

2008-10-01

475

An approach to dyadic communication in historical social movements: Dyadic communication in Maoist insurgent mobilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paucity of word?by?word transcriptions of movements' dyadic interactions need not completely preclude investigation of historical movements’ dyadic communication. Scholars can study the constraints that urged a movement to select dyadic communication and the general strategies used in movement dyads. Three kinds of data can be used to reconstruct general strategies used in dyads: (1) the theoretical writings of movement

J. F. Walsh Jr

1986-01-01

476

Communicating with nurses: The experiences of 10 adults with cerebral palsy and complex communication needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of patients with cerebral palsy and complex communication needs (CCN) in hospital. Ten adults with cerebral palsy and CCN participated in semistructured interviews about their recent hospital experiences. Along with identifying barriers to successful communication, the participants suggested strategies to improve the hospital communication experience. The findings are discussed in

Susan Balandin; Bronwyn Hemsley; Jeff Sigafoos; Vanessa Green

2007-01-01

477

Teaching Functional Communication Skills Using Augmentative and Alternative Communication in Inclusive Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three preschool-aged children with disabilities were taught functional communication behaviors using select augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices. Acquisition of AAC behaviors resulted from an intervention strategy that included creating communicative opportunities, providing a peer or teacher model of the behavior, prompting the behavior, and providing access to natural consequences for appropriate responses. Interventions occurred in inclusive preschool classrooms. The

Susan S. Johnston; Andrea P. McDonnell; Catherine Nelson; Angie Magnavito

2003-01-01

478

Communicating about Mathematics Using Games: Playing Fraction Track  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a teaching strategy, playing mathematical games can foster communication as students explain and justify their moves to one another. Fraction Track is an interactive two-person version of a game that engages players in thinking about equivalent fractions. Although presented here as an online game, it can easily be adapted to a paper version for the classroom. Links from this page go to the role of the teacher and to the role of student communication in using games as an instructional tool.

Nctm

2000-01-01

479

Better Communication Through Collaboration: Lessons Learned from a New Model of Science Communication Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct, effective communication with the public is an increasingly important part of the earth scientist's professional toolkit. Earth sciences issues, including climate change, ocean acidification, energy extraction and use and geological hazard assessment, are increasingly relevant to public debates, yet recent, dramatic changes in the media business have led to decreased coverage of science. Earth scientists must increasingly shoulder the burden of informing the broad public themselves, and in collaboration with professional communicators. Fortunately, the tools and venues needed to do so have never been more accessible. This presentation will describe a new model of science communication education, based on bringing together collaborating teams of students with diverse backgrounds in the sciences, engineering and journalism. The project-based approach uses group workshopping and multiple rounds of peer- and instructor-guided revision to leverage diverse expertise and facilitate both primary knowledge gain and comprehensive, effective and meaningful training and experience in audience-focused outreach, media interaction, and journalism. Courses build from fundamental communications theory to the end goal of publication in professional outlets. Course goals are regularly enhanced and reinforced with internships and individual study projects. Using examples from a series of courses and projects developed at Stanford University over the past three years, I will describe the theory and strategies underlying this new approach to science communication education, what it has to offer for scientists and journalists alike, and key points to consider for effective implementation. I will also show how combining the knowledge, expertise and experience of STEM and journalism students can inform a new model of science journalism, based on exploring and communicating the process of science, not just the results, that can avoid many of the common pitfalls of science journalism. I will present a preliminary assessment of outcomes from three courses at Stanford - environmental communications, environmental journalism and multimedia storytelling for earth scientists - including publications, retrospective post assessment of student abilities and attitudes, and ongoing application of course goals in professional and/or educational settings.

Hayden, T.

2011-12-01

480

Communicator, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The CAG "Communicator" focus is on serving gifted students in California. This document consists of the four issues of "communicator" issued during 1997. Featured articles include: (1) "The Gifted Student At Risk. It Can't Be True" (Judy Roseberry); (2) "Tech Net-Technology and At-Risk Students" (Judy Lieb); (3) "Reviving Ophelia: Saving the…

Bortolussi, Vicki, Ed.

1997-01-01

481

Communicating up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Chief communicators at many U.S. institutions are interested in forging closer ties with governing boards. Proponents say such relationships can increase board trust and confidence in communicators before a crisis occurs, making it easier to manage the institution's reputation and limit negative publicity when one does. At some institutions, such…

Lum, Lydia

2013-01-01

482

Communication Notebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A wide variety of internal and external communication methods used by the Piqua City School District (Ohio) are described. A philosophy statement is followed by descriptions of the roles of the board of education, the community, the teachers, the superintendent, and the media in an effective communications program. Among the 41 external…

Bachman, Duane

483

Verbal Behavior and Communication Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Communication deficits are a defining characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (American Psychiatric Association,\\u000a 2000). Thus, it is not surprising that improving communication skills is the primary focus of virtually all early intervention\\u000a programs for children with ASD. Many of the most effective teaching strategies for building language come from the field of\\u000a applied behavior analysis (ABA) (see Matson, Benavidez,

Thomas S. Higbee; Tyra P. Sellers

484

Health Communications: Nursing Education for Increased Visibility and Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To improve the visibility of nurses in mass media, health communications content should be integrated into nursing education. Nurses equipped with advanced communication skills, media expertise and teaching strategies can empower the profession to influence the health care environment. (SK)|

Chaffee, Mary

2000-01-01

485

POLITICAL COMMUNICATION VERSUS COMMERCIAL COMMUNICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to draw a parallel between commercial communication, seen as a basic element of classic marketing and electoral communication, seen as part of political marketing. The processes of policy and message development and dissemination in the political field are, somewhat, akin to market positioning in the commercial sector. For Philip Kotler political marketing is \\

Monica Bija; Máthé Ilona

486

Slotted-FIFO Communication for Asynchronous Distributed Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication protocols designed for database applications are not necessarily suitable for other applications, like multimedia communication, due to the former's requirement of reliable and ordered communication, and the latter's ability to withstand occasional losses and misordering of messages as long as real-time communication can be supported. This paper presents the slotted- FIFO communication mode that supports communication primitives for the

ROBERTO BALDONI; R OBERTO BERALDI; RAVI PRAKASH

1998-01-01

487

Communication acoustics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Those aspects of acoustics which concern the relations of acoustics to the information and communication technologies are now frequently called ``communication acoustics.'' After a short review of the history of this field, relevant results from recent research at the Institute of Communication Acoustics at the Ruhr-University of Bochum, Germany, will be reported. This work can be seen in light of the research areas of computational auditory scene analysjs (CASA) and auditory virtual environments (AVE)-both dealing with the parametric representation of auditory scenes. Recent application opportunities and future trends will be discussed. It will be argued that modern communication-acoustical systems-which are often only embedded components in more complex communication systems-require more and more built-in explicit knowledge. Among other things, the development of such components and systems calls for data and knowledge from the cognitive sciences. Today's programs for education in communication engineering and communication acoustics often do not take sufficient account of this trend.

Blauert, Jens

2001-05-01

488

Multiply controlled verbal operants: An analysis and extension to the picture exchange communication system  

PubMed Central

This paper presents Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior as a framework for understanding language acquisition in children with autism. We describe Skinner's analysis of pure and impure verbal operants and illustrate how this analysis may be applied to the design of communication training programs. The picture exchange communication system (PECS) is a training program influenced by Skinner's framework. We describe the training sequence associated with PECS and illustrate how this sequence may establish multiply controlled verbal behavior in children with autism. We conclude with an examination of how Skinner's framework may apply to other communication modalities and training strategies.

Bondy, Andy; Tincani, Matt; Frost, Lori

2004-01-01

489

LANL application communication patterns  

SciTech Connect

This brief presentation describes the communication patterns used by a set of unclassified applications developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory: XNobel/XRAGE/RAGE/SAGE, Krak, Sweep3D, and Partisn. It mentions which processes communicate with which other processes, whether the application is typically run in a strong-scaling mode or a weak-scaling mode, what message sizes are commonly used, and how the application's performance changes at scale.

Pakiin, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-10

490

Implementation of Strategies in Continuing Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose--The purpose of this paper is to provide higher education institutions with strategies of continuing education and methods to communicate and implement these strategies. Design/methodology/approach--The balanced scorecard approach is used to implement the strategy. It translates the strategy into tangible objectives, measures and targets…

Kettunen, Juha

2005-01-01