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Sample records for communities norris brook

  1. Pipeline corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Norris Brook Crossing Peabody, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted August 17--19, 1992, at the Norris Brook crossing in the town of Peabody, Essex County, Massachusetts. The pipeline at this site was installed during September and October 1990. A backhoe was used to install the pipeline. The pipe was assembled on the adjacent upland and slid into the trench, after which the backhoe was used again to fill the trench and cover the pipeline. Within two years after pipeline construction, a dense vegetative community, composed predominantly of native perennial species, had become established on the ROW. Compared with adjacent natural areas undisturbed by pipeline installation, there was an increase in purple loosestrife and cattail within the ROW, while large woody species were excluded from the ROW. As a result of the ROW`s presence, habitat diversity, edge-type habitat, and species diversity increased within the site. Crooked-stem aster, Aster prenanthoides (a species on the Massasschusetts list of plants of special concern), occurred in low numbers in the adjacent natural areas and had reinvaded the ROW in low numbers.

  2. Sustaining a Rural Black Farming Community in the South: A Portrait of Brooks Farm, Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grim, Valerie; Effland, Anne B. W.

    1997-01-01

    Brooks Farm is an independent Black farming community unique in the Mississippi Delta. A community case study shows that, despite declining population and resources, Brooks Farm has drawn on the strength of its traditional institutions (family, churches, civic groups) to sustain community life and to continue to provide services to the elderly,…

  3. THE NEW NORRIS HOUSE: A SUSTAINABLE HOME FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1933 the Tennessee valley Authority constructed a model community, Norris, Tennessee, as part of the Norris Dam construction project. A key feature of this New Deal village was the Norris House, a series of home designs built as models for modern, efficient, and sustainable...

  4. UPLOAD: THE NEW NORRIS HOUSE – A SUSTAINABLE HOME FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1933 the Tennessee Valley Authority constructed a model community, Norris, Tennessee, as part of the Norris Dam construction project. A key feature of this New Deal village was the Norris House, a series of home designs built as models for modern, efficient, and sustain...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Norrie disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an inherited eye disorder that leads to blindness in male infants at birth or soon after ... hereditaria congenital progressive oculo-acoustico-cerebral degeneration Episkopi blindness Fetal iritis syndrome Norrie syndrome Norrie-Warburg syndrome ...

  6. Status of Norris Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Norris Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses, conditions that impair reservoir uses, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most up-to-date publications and data available, and from interviews with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies, and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Observations on communities of brook and brown trout separated by an upstream movement barrier on the Firehole River

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeding, L.R.

    1980-07-01

    Division of a fluvial fish community by stream impoundment can give rise to dissimilar upstream and downstream assemblages which may themselves differ from the original community. These changes are often ascribed to the modification of physical habitat or water quality. Less well documented are effects on fluvial fish communities of an upstream-1 movement barrier alone. Observations were made on contrasting communities of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) separated by Kepler Cascades in the Firehole River of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, a series of waterfalls that form an upstream-movement barrier. (ACR)

  8. Initial Characterization of Carbon Metabolism in Iron Oxidizing Microbial Communities of Acidic Hot Springs in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreuzer, H. W.; Jennings, R. D.; Whitmore, L.; Inskeep, W. P.; Moran, J.

    2012-12-01

    Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park is home to several acidic, sulfidic hot springs. Visual inspection of the springs reveals distinct geochemical regions starting with a sulfur deposition zone followed by a transition to iron oxide deposition downstream. The microbial communities in the iron oxidation zones are dominated by Archaea, including several members that appear to define previously unrecognized taxa. Abiotic iron oxidation rates are very slow at these temperatures (typically ~ 65-70 oC) and pH's (typically ~3). Therefore, the relatively rapid iron oxide deposition rate strongly suggests the process is microbially mediated, and an organism previously isolated from these springs, Metallosphaera yellowstonensis, has been shown to oxide iron in culture. M. yellowstonensis has been observed in the all microbial communities analyzed in the iron oxidizing zones of these springs, though metagenomic profiling suggests it constitutes only ~20% of the community membership. When we began our studies of C flow in the iron-oxidizing community, no C source had been demonstrated. Observed potential carbon sources in the springs include dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and methane, as well as random inputs of heterotrophic carbon in the forms of insect carcasses, pine needles, and animal scat. The temperatures in the iron oxidation zones are above the photosynthetic upper temperature limit, thus precluding photosynthetic-based autotrophy within the community itself. We are employing geochemical and stable isotope techniques to assess carbon inventories in the system. We have demonstrated that M. yellowstonensis as well as excised samples of iron oxide mat communities can fix CO2, and our estimated isotopic fractionation factor is consistent with the 3-hydroxypropionate 4-hydroxybutyrate pathway. Genes of this pathway have been identified in the M. yellowstonensis genome. We have tentatively identified small amounts of organic compounds

  9. Plant communities as indicators of salt marsh hydrology A study at Goose Fare Brook, Saco, Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Millette, P.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Salt marsh stratigraphy often relies on vegetation fragment distribution as an indicator of paleo-sea level. This study is attempting to validate the use of Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens at Goose Fare Brook in Saco, Maine as paleo-sea level indicators. Plant zones were mapped and each zone boundary was surveyed to describe the relationship between sea level and plant species zonation. Data showing the contact elevations between S. patens and S. alterniflora were examined, and contacts from different environments in the marsh were compared. Differences in contact elevations ranged from only a few centimeters to more than eighty centimeters. Three series of groundwater monitoring wells were installed along transects. Within a single transect, one well was placed in the creek bottom, measuring the free water surface, and one was placed at each of several plant zone boundaries. Strip chart recordings from one series of monitoring wells show the flood dominated patterns of tidally influenced groundwater fluctuations in the wells. Root depths of 100 plugs each of S. alterniflora and S. patens were also measured. A comparison of these measurements and those from monitoring wells will assist in the determination of the average length of submergence time for each species. Preliminary findings suggest that sea level is not the only force affecting the modern zonation of these two indicator plants in Goose Fare Brook.

  10. Epilepsy phenotypes in siblings with Norrie disease.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Akihisa; Arai, Eisuke; Kitamura, Yuri; Abe, Shinpei; Ikeno, Mitsuru; Fujimaki, Takuro; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2015-11-01

    Norrie disease is an X-linked recessive disorder that is characterized by congenital blindness. Although epileptic seizures are observed in some patients with Norrie disease, little is known about this phenomenon. Here, we report the manifestation of epilepsy in siblings with Norrie disease to increase our knowledge of epilepsy in this condition. Three brothers with congenital blindness were diagnosed with Norrie disease after genetic analyses indicated the deletion of exon 2 of the NDP gene. The eldest brother had suffered from epileptic seizures since the age of 11years, and his seizures were resistant to antiepileptic drugs. Although the second brother had no epileptic seizures, the youngest sibling had experiences epileptic seizures since the age of 8years. His seizures were controlled using lamotrigine and levetiracetam. An electroencephalography (EEG) revealed epileptiform discharges in the occipital areas in all three brothers. A study of these patients will increase our knowledge of epilepsy in patients with Norrie disease. PMID:25944760

  11. A Strong Independent Community College for the District of Columbia. Testimony of Alice M. Rivlin, Senior Fellow and Director of Greater Washington Research at the Brookings Institution, before the Council of the District of Columbia Committee of the Whole Community College Roundtable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivlin, Alice M.

    2009-01-01

    In this testimony, the author talks briefly about how the District of Columbia Appleseed and her organization, Greater Washington Research at Brookings, came to sponsor the community college feasibility study they have released. In 2008, both Brookings and DC Appleseed published papers highlighting the importance of providing opportunities for DC…

  12. Charting Changes: A Conversation with Norris Haring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teagarden, James; Zabel, Robert H.; Kaff, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    The authors present an interview with Dr. Norris Haring, University of Washington, USA, professor emeritus and founding director of the Experimental Education Center on Human Development and Disability. They report on the profound impact Dr. Haring has had on the field of educating children with disabilities. Dr. Haring was the founding president…

  13. Soil bacterial communities of a calcium-supplemented and a reference watershed at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA.

    PubMed

    Sridevi, Ganapathi; Minocha, Rakesh; Turlapati, Swathi A; Goldfarb, Katherine C; Brodie, Eoin L; Tisa, Louis S; Minocha, Subhash C

    2012-03-01

    Soil Ca depletion because of acidic deposition-related soil chemistry changes has led to the decline of forest productivity and carbon sequestration in the northeastern USA. In 1999, acidic watershed (WS) 1 at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), NH, USA was amended with Ca silicate to restore soil Ca pools. In 2006, soil samples were collected from the Ca-amended (WS1) and reference watershed (WS3) for comparison of bacterial community composition between the two watersheds. The sites were about 125 m apart and were known to have similar stream chemistry and tree populations before Ca amendment. Ca-amended soil had higher Ca and P, and lower Al and acidity as compared with the reference soils. Analysis of bacterial populations by PhyloChip revealed that the bacterial community structure in the Ca-amended and the reference soils was significantly different and that the differences were more pronounced in the mineral soils. Overall, the relative abundance of 300 taxa was significantly affected. Numbers of detectable taxa in families such as Acidobacteriaceae, Comamonadaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae were lower in the Ca-amended soils, while Flavobacteriaceae and Geobacteraceae were higher. The other functionally important groups, e.g. ammonia-oxidizing Nitrosomonadaceae, had lower numbers of taxa in the Ca-amended organic soil but higher in the mineral soil. PMID:22098093

  14. Henry Norris Russell and the Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVorkin, D.

    2013-04-01

    Henry Norris Russell, one of the most influential American astronomers of the first half of the 20th Century, had a special place in his heart for the Lowell Observatory. Although privately critical of the founder for his pronouncements about life on Mars and the superiority of the Mars Hill observing site, he always supported the Observatory in public and professional circles. He staunchly supported Tombaugh's detection of a planet as leading from Lowell's prediction, and always promoted V. M. Slipher's spectroscopic investigations of planetary and stellar phenomena. But how did he react to Slipher's puzzling detection of the extreme radial velocities of spiral nebulae starting in 1912, and how did he regard the extension and interpretation of those observations by Hubble and others in following decades? Here we describe the arc of Russell's reactions, dating from Slipher's first detection, as an indicator of how mainstream stellar astronomers reacted to the concept of an expanding universe.

  15. Obituary: John Norris Bahcall, 1934-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striker, Jeremiah P.; Bahcall, Neta A.

    2007-12-01

    John Norris Bahcall, one of the most creative and influential astrophysicists of his generation — a scientist who helped prove what makes the Sun shine and helped make the Hubble Space Telescope a reality — passed away in Pasadena, California, on 17 August 2005. Bahcall died peacefully in his sleep from a rare blood disorder. For the past 35 years, Bahcall was the Richard Black Professor of Natural Sciences at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, where he created one of the leading astrophysics programs in the world. Active and working to the end, Bahcall said that he was always grateful for a full and happy life that exceeded his wildest expectations. Bahcall died as he lived, surrounded by the family he loved, embracing life to its fullest, happy, working and joking to the end. Bahcall's stellar career encompassed seminal contributions in numerous fields of astrophysics as well as extraordinary leadership on behalf of the scientific community, including the American Astronomical Society, the American Physical Society, the National Academy of Sciences, NASA, and Congress. Bahcall's contributions made him one of the scientific leaders of his time. He had been recognized by numerous awards including the 1998 National Medal of Science from President Clinton, the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, the Medal of the Swedish Royal Academy, the Dan David Award, the Fermi Award, the first Hans Bethe Prize, the Franklin Medal, the Comstock Prize in physics, NASA's Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal, NASA's Distinguished Public Service Medal, and the top awards of the American Astronomical Society — including the Russell Award, the Heineman Prize, and the Warner Prize. Bahcall was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1976 and to the American Philosophical Society in 2001. He was the recipient of Honorary Degrees from numerous universities around the world. Bahcall's scientific interests and expertise ranged from neutrino

  16. Obituary: John Norris Bahcall, 1934-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striker, Jeremiah P.; Bahcall, Neta A.

    2007-12-01

    John Norris Bahcall, one of the most creative and influential astrophysicists of his generation — a scientist who helped prove what makes the Sun shine and helped make the Hubble Space Telescope a reality — passed away in Pasadena, California, on 17 August 2005. Bahcall died peacefully in his sleep from a rare blood disorder. For the past 35 years, Bahcall was the Richard Black Professor of Natural Sciences at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, where he created one of the leading astrophysics programs in the world. Active and working to the end, Bahcall said that he was always grateful for a full and happy life that exceeded his wildest expectations. Bahcall died as he lived, surrounded by the family he loved, embracing life to its fullest, happy, working and joking to the end. Bahcall's stellar career encompassed seminal contributions in numerous fields of astrophysics as well as extraordinary leadership on behalf of the scientific community, including the American Astronomical Society, the American Physical Society, the National Academy of Sciences, NASA, and Congress. Bahcall's contributions made him one of the scientific leaders of his time. He had been recognized by numerous awards including the 1998 National Medal of Science from President Clinton, the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, the Medal of the Swedish Royal Academy, the Dan David Award, the Fermi Award, the first Hans Bethe Prize, the Franklin Medal, the Comstock Prize in physics, NASA's Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal, NASA's Distinguished Public Service Medal, and the top awards of the American Astronomical Society — including the Russell Award, the Heineman Prize, and the Warner Prize. Bahcall was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1976 and to the American Philosophical Society in 2001. He was the recipient of Honorary Degrees from numerous universities around the world. Bahcall's scientific interests and expertise ranged from neutrino

  17. Dental questions in Frank Norris's novel "McTeague".

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Lawrence

    2002-03-01

    Frank Norris's McTeague, one of the first novels in which the main character is a dentist and dentistry is central to the plot, has been a minor member of the American literary canon for over a century. Possibly because Norris was such a committed and practicing realist/naturalist, his characterization of McTeague as a believable dentist has not until now been questioned. Nor has his use or misuse of the California Dental Licensure Legislation of 1885 to bring about McTeague's downfall been subjected to historical analysis. Such analysis may cast doubt on the credibility and reputation of the novel. PMID:12108382

  18. Diving in Head First: Finding the Volume of Norris lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Drew W.

    2008-01-01

    This article allows students to apply their knowledge and experience of area and volume to find the volume of Norris Lake, a large reservoir lake in Tennessee. Students have the opportunity to demonstrate their skills in using maps and scales as well as to incorporate the use of technology in developing the solution. This project satisfied the…

  19. Expression study of the Norrie disease (NDP) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.Y.; Battinelli, E.M.; Breakefield, X.O.

    1994-09-01

    Norrie disease is a severe X-linked recessive neurological disorder of unknown pathogenesis. Typically, Norrie disease is characterized by congenital blindness with progressive loss of hearing; over half of Norrie patients also manifest different degrees of mental retardation. The gene for Norrie disease (NDP) comprises three exons, with the first exon being untranslated. The open reading frame is confined within exons 2 and 3. The mouse NDP gene has essentially the same structure as the human. In order to determine the expression pattern of the NDP gene, RT-PCR was performed on mRNAs isolated from brain, retina, cochlea, and liver tissues of mice at different developmental stages. Transcripts were detected in all tissues at all times. This result, however, is different from the results we obtained from human tissue in which all tissues examined showed expression of the NDP gene with the exception of liver. We further analyzed the transcription initiation sites of the mouse NDP gene by random amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The results showed that there are multiple transcription initiation sites associated with the expression of the NDP gene. The transcription start sites are utilized differentially in the tissues at different developmental stages. By using different intronic genomic fragments, we detected a possible second transcript which does not include the untranslated first exon. Northern analysis also revealed that there are at least two abundant transcripts associated with the NDP gene in brain. The results suggest that both multiple transcription initiation sites and different promoters may contribute to the expression of the NDP gene in different tissues during development.

  20. Marginal Experiments: Peter Brook and Stepping out Theatre Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpin, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This article juxtaposes the recent work of Peter Brook with a Bristol-based mental health service-user collective--Stepping Out Theatre Company. Informed by field-work with the company, this chapter explores the aesthetic and political relationship between professional, experimental theatre work and community-based performance practice. Drawing…

  1. The geology and remarkable thermal activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.E.; Keith, T.E.C. ); Hutchinson, R.A. )

    1988-01-01

    Norris Geyser Basin is adjacent to the north rim of the Yellowstone Caldera, one of the largest volcanic features of its type in the world. Hydrothermal activity may have been continuous for {gt}100,000 years B.P. Norris Basin includes the highest erupting geyser of recent water types, colors of organisms and inorganic precipitates, frequent changes in activity and chemistry, and very high subsurface temperatures ({gt}240{degrees}C). Norris Basin is only a part of the Norris-Mammoth Corridor that strikes north from the caldera rim to Mammoth Hot Springs. Norris Basin has a heat flow roughly 10 percent of that of the Yellowstone Caldera and requires an estimated 0.01 km{sup 3} of rhyolitic magma per year-a quantity far greater than the corridor's rate of eruption.

  2. Norrie disease gene: Characterization of deletions and possible function

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.Y.; Battinelli, E.M.; Hendriks, R.W.; Craig, I.W.; Powell, J.F.; Middleton-Price, H.; Sims, K.B.; Breakefield, X.O.

    1993-05-01

    Positional cloning experiments have resulted recently in the isolation of a candidate gene for Norrie disease (pseudoglioma; NDP), a severe X-linked neuro-developmental disorder. Here the authors report the isolation and analysis of human genomic DNA clones encompassing the NDP gene. The gene spans 28 kb and consists of 3 exons, the first of which is entirely contained within the 5{prime} untranslated region. Detailed analysis of genomic deletions in Norrie patients shows that they are heterogeneous, both in size and in position. By PCR analysis, they found that expression of the NDP gene was not confined to the eye or to the brain. An extensive DNA and protein sequence comparison between the human NDP gene and related genes from the database revealed homology with cysteine-rich protein-binding domains of immediate--early genes implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation. They propose that NDP is a molecule related in function to these genes and may be involved in a pathway that regulates neural cell differentiation and proliferation. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Streamlined HUB baffles for aeration at Norris Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Harshbarger, E.D.

    1984-07-01

    Streamlined hub baffles were installed and tested as aeration devices on both hydro turbines at Norris Dam. The results indicated that the baffles can induce significant aeration with only a small effect on unit operation. At the most efficient wicket gate opening, the airflow/waterflow ratio was about 2.2 to 3.2% which produced dissolved oxygen increases in the tailrace on the order of 2.5 to 3.0 mg/L when the incoming dissolved oxygen concentration was 1 mg/L or less. The baffles with aeration reduced unit efficiency less than 0.5% and reduced unit capacity less than 1 MW. For the final design, the baffles were bolted on and could be installed or removed in one eight-hour period or less.

  4. E APPROACH, FACING W SHOWING PARAPET CURTAILS Stanley Brook ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    E APPROACH, FACING W SHOWING PARAPET CURTAILS - Stanley Brook Bridge, Spanning Stanley Brook, Stanley Brook Motor Road, & Seaside Trail on Barr Hill-Day Mountain Carriage Road, Seal Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  5. 36 CFR 13.1226 - Brooks Falls area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Developed Area § 13.1226 Brooks Falls area. The area within 50 yards of the ordinary high water marks of the Brooks River from the Riffles Bear Viewing Platform to a point 100 yards above Brooks Falls is closed...

  6. 36 CFR 13.1226 - Brooks Falls area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Developed Area § 13.1226 Brooks Falls area. The area within 50 yards of the ordinary high water marks of the Brooks River from the Riffles Bear Viewing Platform to a point 100 yards above Brooks Falls is closed...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1226 - Brooks Falls area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Developed Area § 13.1226 Brooks Falls area. The area within 50 yards of the ordinary high water marks of the Brooks River from the Riffles Bear Viewing Platform to a point 100 yards above Brooks Falls is closed...

  8. Landscape- and decadal-scale changes in the composition and structure of plant communities in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range of Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado-Díaz, J. A.; Gould, W. A.

    2010-12-01

    Scientists have predicted an increase in vascular plant cover in some tundra ecosystems as a result of global climate change. In Arctic Alaska, observational studies have documented increases in shrub cover for some regions; however, only a few studies have provided detailed quantitative evidence supporting the existence such changes. To address these shortcomings, we analyzed plant community data from 156 1m2 vegetation plots located at two 1km2 grids in Toolik Lake, Alaska. This data covered the time period from 1989-2008. After 18 years, we found that the relative abundance of vascular vegetation have increased by 16%, while the relative abundance of nonvascular vegetation decreased by 19%. Mean plant canopy height has experienced an increase from 4.4 cm in 1990 to 6.5 cm in 2008 and the extent and complexity of the canopy have increased over time from about 60% to 80%. Species diversity was also significantly reduced. While major vegetation changes in other tundra regions have been attributed to gradual increases in surface air temperature, changes documented in this study were apparently promoted by increasing soil moisture conditions that resulted from increased summer rainfall in our region. These results support the idea that tundra ecosystems in this region of the Alaskan Arctic are experiencing significant increases in aboveground standing crop and a shift in carbon allocation to vascular plants vs. bryophytes. These changes will likely affect important ecosystem processes like snow re-deposition, winter biological activities, nutrient cycling and could ultimately result in significant feedbacks to climate.

  9. Brookings Papers on Education Policy, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Diane, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    American education has always had its critics, and undoubtedly always will. Nonetheless, there are signs that the educational environment is improving in unexpected ways. This issue of the Brookings Papers on Education Policy, the eighth volume springing from a series of annual meetings sponsored by the Brookings Institution to examine specific…

  10. Investigating Rapid Uplift and Subsidence Near Norris, Yellowstone, During 2013-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, W. K.; Cervelli, P. F.; Shelly, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Although Yellowstone's last magmatic eruption occurred about 70,000 years ago, hydrothermal explosions, earthquakes, and ground deformation still occur as testament to ongoing volcanic and tectonic processes. Since the late 1990s, a network of continuously recording Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers has recorded uplift and subsidence of the caldera and northwest caldera margin near Norris Geyser Basin. Previous deformation episodes have shown opposing vertical motion at the two sites, which has been attributed to temporal variations in magmatic fluid flux from the caldera laterally through the Norris-Mammoth fault corridor that intersects the caldera's northwest margin (Dzurisin et al., 2012; Wicks et al., 2006). These episodes have exhibited gradual changes, transitioning from uplift to subsidence (and vice versa) over weeks to months. Large earthquake swarms accompanied transitions from caldera uplift to subsidence in 1985 and 2010. Recent deformation in Yellowstone differs from previously observed episodes. In the latter half of 2013, uplift began around Norris, and by January of 2014 it reached rates of over 15 cm/yr. Also at the start of 2014, caldera deformation shifted from approximately 4 years of slow subsidence to slow uplift. On March 30, 2014, a M4.8 earthquake, the largest in Yellowstone since 1980, occurred northwest of Norris Geyser Basin near the center of uplift. Shortly after the event, deformation near Norris abruptly reversed to rapid subsidence (over 20 cm/yr). Caldera uplift began to accelerate around the same time. Thus, uplift can occur simultaneously in both the caldera and the Norris area, and dramatic reversals from rapid uplift to rapid subsidence can occur within a matter of days. While the complexity of the deformation defies a simple explanation, we hypothesize that the rapid transition from uplift to subsidence at Norris may indicate that the M4.8 earthquake opened a pathway for fluid migration away from Norris and allowed an

  11. Cataplexy and monoamine oxidase deficiency in Norrie disease.

    PubMed

    Vossler, D G; Wyler, A R; Wilkus, R J; Gardner-Walker, G; Vlcek, B W

    1996-05-01

    Norrie disease (ND) is an X-linked recessive disorder causing ocular atrophy, mental retardation, deafness, and dysmorphic features. Virtually absent monoamine oxidase (MAO) type-A and -B activity has been found in some boys with chromosome deletions. We report the coexistence of cataplexy and abnormal REM sleep organization with ND. Three related boys, referred for treatment of medically refractory atonic spells and apneas, underwent extended EEG-video-polysomnographic monitoring. They demonstrated attacks of cataplexy and inappropriate periods of REM sleep during which they were unarousable. One boy also had generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Previous testing revealed that all three have complete ND gene deletions. In all subjects, platelet MAO-B activity was absent, serum serotonin levels were markedly increased, and plasma catecholamine levels were normal. Data from the canine narcolepsy syndrome model implicate abnormal catecholaminergic and cholinergic activities in the pathogenesis of cataplexy. Our findings suggest that abnormal MAO activity or an imbalance between serotonin and other neurotransmitter levels may be involved in the pathogenesis of human cataplexy. PMID:8628463

  12. Harriet Brooks-Pioneer nuclear scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner-Canham, M. F.; Rayner-Canham, G. W.

    1989-10-01

    This article, using revealing statements from contemporary correspondence, traces the eventful life of Harriet Brooks, one of Ernest Rutherford's most valued research students and collaborators at McGill University. Brooks performed some of the crucial experiments in the early work on radioactivity; her work led her to the Cavendish where she did work with J. J. Thomson. Still later, she worked with Marie Curie, to whom Rutherford favorably compared her. Despite Brooks' achievements and promise, she finally relinquished her research career when faced with insurmountable objections to women who wished to have both a professional and a married life.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Brooke-Spiegler syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin appendages), such as sweat glands and hair follicles. People with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome may develop several ... develop in sweat glands. Trichoepitheliomas arise from hair follicles. The origin of cylindromas has been unclear; while ...

  14. AmeriFlux US-Bkg Brookings

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Tilden

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Bkg Brookings. Site Description - The Brookings site is located in a private pasture, consisting of a mixture of C3 and C4 species actively used for grazing. Belonging to the Northern Great Plains Rangelands, the grassland is representative of many in the north central United States, with seasonal winter conditions and a wet growing season.

  15. The Geology and Remarkable Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Donald Edward; Hutchinson, Roderick A.; Keith, Terry E.C.

    1988-01-01

    Norris Geyser Basin, normally shortened to Norris Basin, is adjacent to the north rim of the Yellowstone caldera at the common intersection of the caldera rim and the Norris-Mammoth Corridor, a zone of faults, volcanic vents, and thermal activity that strikes north from the caldera rim to Mammoth Hot Springs. An east-west fault zone terminates the Gallatin Range at its southern end and extends from Hebgen Lake, west of the park, to Norris Basin. No local evidence exists at the surface in Norris Basin for the two oldest Yellowstone volcanic caldera cycles (~2.0 and 1.3 m.y.B.P.). The third and youngest cycle formed the Yellowstone caldera, which erupted the 600,000-year-old Lava Creek Tuff. No evidence is preserved of hydrothermal activity near Norris Basin during the first 300,000.years after the caldera collapse. Glaciation probably removed most of the early evidence, but erratics of hot-spring sinter that had been converted diagenetically to extremely hard, resistant chalcedonic sinter are present as cobbles in and on some moraines and till from the last two glacial stages, here correlated with the early and late stages of the Pinedale glaciation <150,000 years B.P.). Indirect evidence for the oldest hydrothermal system at Norris Basin indicates an age probably older than both stages of Pinedale glaciation. Stream deposits consisting mainly of rounded quartz phenocrysts of the Lava Creek Tuff were subaerial, perhaps in part windblown and redeposited by streams. A few small rounded pebbles are interpreted as chalcedonic sinter of a still older cycle. None of these are precisely dated but are unlikely to be more than 150,000 to 200,000 years old. ...Most studies of active hydrothermal areas have noted chemical differences in fluids and alteration products but have given little attention to differences and models to explain evolution in types. This report, in contrast, emphasizes the kinds of changes in vents and their changing chemical types of waters and then

  16. Database of the Geology and Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Kathryn; Graham Wall, Brita; White, Donald E.; Hutchinson, Roderick A.; Keith, Terry E.C.; Clor, Laura; Robinson, Joel E.

    2008-01-01

    This dataset contains contacts, geologic units and map boundaries from Plate 1 of USGS Professional Paper 1456, 'The Geology and Remarkable Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.' The features are contained in the Annotation, basins_poly, contours, geology_arc, geology_poly, point_features, and stream_arc feature classes as well as a table of geologic units and their descriptions. This dataset was constructed to produce a digital geologic map as a basis for studying hydrothermal processes in Norris Geyser Basin. The original map does not contain registration tic marks. To create the geodatabase, the original scanned map was georegistered to USGS aerial photographs of the Norris Junction quadrangle collected in 1994. Manmade objects, i.e. roads, parking lots, and the visitor center, along with stream junctions and other hydrographic features, were used for registration.

  17. Heat Budget Monitoring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. A. M.; Neale, C. M. U.; Jaworowski, C.

    2014-12-01

    Frequent estimation of heat flux in active hydrothermal areas are required to monitor the variation in activity. Natural changes in geothermal and hydrothermal features can include rapid significant changes in surface temperature distribution and may be an indication of "re-plumbing" of the systems or potential hydrothermal explosions. Frequent monitoring of these systems can help Park managers make informed decisions on infrastructure development and/or take precautionary actions to protect the public. Norris Geyser Basin (NGB) is one of Yellowstone National Park's hottest and most dynamic basins. Airborne high-resolution thermal infrared remote sensing was used to estimate radiometric temperatures within NGB and allow for the estimation of the spatial and temporal distribution of surface temperatures and the heat flow budget. The airborne monitoring occurred in consecutive years 2008-2012 allowing for the temporal comparison of heat budget in NGB. Airborne thermal infrared images in the 8-12 µm bands with 1-m resolution were acquired using a FLIR SC640 scanner. Digital multispectral images in the green (0.57 μm), red (0.65 μm), and near infrared (0.80 μm) bands were also acquired to classify the terrain cover and support the atmospheric and emissivity correction of the thermal images. The airborne images were taken in the month of September on selected days with similar weather and under clear sky conditions. In the winter of 2012, images were also taken in March to compare the effect of the cold weather and snow cover on the heat budget. Consistent methods were used to acquire and process the images each year to limit the potential variability in the results to only the variability in the hydrothermal system. Data from radiation flux towers installed within the basin were used to compare with airborne radiometric surface temperatures and compensate for residual solar heating in the imagery. The presentation will discuss the different mechanisms involved in

  18. Formaldehyde as a carbon and electron shuttle between autotroph and heterotroph populations in acidic hydrothermal vents of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Moran, James J; Whitmore, Laura M; Isern, Nancy G; Romine, Margaret F; Riha, Krystin M; Inskeep, William P; Kreuzer, Helen W

    2016-05-01

    The Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park contains a large number of hydrothermal systems, which host microbial populations supported by primary productivity associated with a suite of chemolithotrophic metabolisms. We demonstrate that Metallosphaera yellowstonensis MK1, a facultative autotrophic archaeon isolated from a hyperthermal acidic hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) spring in Norris Geyser Basin, excretes formaldehyde during autotrophic growth. To determine the fate of formaldehyde in this low organic carbon environment, we incubated native microbial mat (containing M. yellowstonensis) from a HFO spring with (13)C-formaldehyde. Isotopic analysis of incubation-derived CO2 and biomass showed that formaldehyde was both oxidized and assimilated by members of the community. Autotrophy, formaldehyde oxidation, and formaldehyde assimilation displayed different sensitivities to chemical inhibitors, suggesting that distinct sub-populations in the mat selectively perform these functions. Our results demonstrate that electrons originally resulting from iron oxidation can energetically fuel autotrophic carbon fixation and associated formaldehyde excretion, and that formaldehyde is both oxidized and assimilated by different organisms within the native microbial community. Thus, formaldehyde can effectively act as a carbon and electron shuttle connecting the autotrophic, iron oxidizing members with associated heterotrophic members in the HFO community. PMID:26995682

  19. Master Plan for Educational Facilities: Saddle Brook, Bergen County, New Jersey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt and Engelhardt, Inc., Purdy Station, NY.

    Saddle Brook, New Jersey, one of the oldest townships in Bergen County, had an estimated population in 1979 of 15,975 persons residing within its 2.7 mile boundary. Present educational conditions, community characteristics, and educational facility requirements are considered indepth in this master plan. Maps, tables, and text present demographic…

  20. Filmless radiology at Brooke Army Medical Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Dennis L.

    1997-05-01

    The hospital at Brooke Army Medical Center in San Antonio, Texas has an essentially filmless radiology department. Mammography is one of the few services still using film. The radiology department at Brooke takes advantage of a very capable Lockheed Martin PACS to achieve the filmless operation. The old hospital has been replaced by a new hospital, the new Brooke Army Medical Center. As a basis for predictions of activity at new Brooke, the activities at the old Brooke Army Medical Center were examined. The heart of the PACS at Brooke is the image server with an associated database. The image server has the performance required to keep the radiologist from returning to film for diagnosis. A directly connected workstation can present a full screen of images in less than two seconds, even during the busiest hour of the day for this large hospital. In addition the database is used to organize the workflow for the radiology examinations through the hospital. Information about the activity at the new Brooke hospital is used to predict the utilization of the short term storage and the long term storage. In particular, the time that an examination will be retained on the new Brooke short term storage is measured. The Brooke medical complex generates 384.8 exams per day on a typical weekday. The number of exams on a weekend is 40 percent of the exams on the weekday. The storage required is 18.3 gigabytes per day in the short term storage of the Image Storage Unit (ISU) and 9.7 gigabytes per day in the archive. The 256 gigabytes of the ISU will hold 11.7 weeks or about 2.5 months of exams. The archive will hold four years of exams in tow jukeboxes. A working year will have an effective 300 days of equivalent weekday radiology load. By ten years from now the hospital complex can be expected to handle to load that is estimated to be about 160 percent of the current load. With the changes in the storage of disks and archive media that will have occurred by that time, the

  1. Monitoring the restoration of Red Brook, a small coastal stream in southeastern Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, E. M.; Kichefski, S. L.; Fradkin, B.; Gontz, A. M.; Lambert, B. C.; Purinton, T. A.

    2008-12-01

    Massachusetts is putting considerable time and investment into improving regional watersheds for public safety, community use, and ecological integrity. One major aspect of this effort involves restoring rivers and streams by removing unsafe or obsolete dams and obstructions to reconnect natural and cultural river communities. Despite the importance of sediment concentrations in water quality, little has been done in Massachusetts or elsewhere to document the long term impacts of dam removal on sediment transport and its ultimate impact on the local watershed. We are monitoring the restoration of Red Brook, a 4.5 mile small, spring-fed, coastal stream which is currently on the priority projects list of the Massachusetts Riverways Program. The long-term goal of the Red Brook Restoration project is to naturalize the stream and restore its function by removing man-made flumes, eliminating sources of unnatural sedimentation, and enhancing habitat for anadromous fishes, specifically sea-run brook trout. We are using in-situ measurements, geophysical techniques and a remotely-accessed environmental sensor network to monitor flow and sediment movement in the Brook before and after the flume removal. In summer 2008, we quantified the sediment deposits that have built up behind several flumes in the Brook. Removal of the most upstream flume is currently underway and we will monitor changes in flow and sediment transport in response to this removal. Preliminary results will be presented that compare pre- and post-restoration conditions in the Brook as well as evaluate the effectiveness of various monitoring techniques.

  2. Geology and remarkable thermal activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.E.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Keith, T.E.C.

    1988-01-01

    Norris Geyser Basin is adjacent to the north rim of the Yellowstone caldera at the common intersection of the caldera rim and the Norris-Mammoth Corridor, a zone of faults, volcanic vents, and thermal activity that strikes north from the caldera rim to Mammoth Hot Springs. The dominant quartz sand is hydrothermally cemented by chalcedony and is extremely hard, thereby justifying the term hydrothermal quartzite. The fundamental water type in Norris Basin is nearly neutral in pH and high in Cl and SiO/sub 2/. Another common type of water in Norris Basin is high in SO/sub 4/ and moderately high in Cl, with Cl/SO/sub 4/ ratios differing considerably. This study provides no new conclusive data on an old problem, the source or sources of rare dissolved constitutents. An important part of this paper consists of examples of numerous changes in behavior and chemical composition of most springs and geysers, to extents not known elsewhere in the park and perhaps in the world. Hydrothermal mineralogy in core samples from three research holes drilled entirely in Lava Creek Tuff to a maximum depth of -331.6 m permits an interpretation of the hydrothermal alteration history. A model for large, long-lived, volcanic-hydrothermal activity is also suggested, involving all of the crust and upper mantle and using much recent geophysical data bearing on crust-mantle interrelations.

  3. 78 FR 42064 - Before Commissioners: Jon Wellinghoff, Chairman; Philip D. Moeller, John R. Norris, Cheryl A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    .... Norris, Cheryl A. LaFleur, and Tony Clark; Order Approving Reliability Standard: North American Electric Reliability Corporation 1. On December 31, 2012, as amended on January 4, 2013, the North American Electric... the Electric Reliability Organization (ERO), as defined in section 215 of the FPA, in July 2006.\\2\\...

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 3923 globular clusters (Norris+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, M. A.; Gebhardt, K.; Sharples, R. M.; Faifer, F. R.; Bridges, T.; Forbes, D. A.; Forte, J. C.; Zepf, S. E.; Beasley, M. A.; Hanes, D. A.; Proctor, R.; Kannappan, S. J.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we continue the study of the GC system of NGC 3923 first presented in Norris et al. (2008MNRAS.385...40N). To the 29 NGC 3923 GC velocities previously determined from MOS we add an additional 50 GC velocities measured using a combination of MOS and Nod-and-Shuffle (N&S) observations. (1 data file).

  5. Is That What Bayesians Believe? Reply to Griffiths, Chater, Norris, and Pouget (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Davis, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    Griffiths, Chater, Norris, and Pouget (2012) argue that we have misunderstood the Bayesian approach. In their view, it is rarely the case that researchers are making claims that performance in a given task is near optimal, and few, if any, researchers adopt the theoretical Bayesian perspective according to which the mind or brain is actually…

  6. Reframing Romaine Brooks' heroic queer modernism.

    PubMed

    Langer, Cassandra L

    2010-01-01

    Modernism was not a wholesale embracing of Greenberg's definition as abstracting, non-objective, and autonomous. The expatriate U.S. artist and lesbian Romaine Brooks politicized her portraits of females based on a queer combination of the Byronic erotic and Baudelaire's modern dandy. Her execution of her queer modernist aesthetics re-presents female heroes as part of a self-reflective dynamic of lesbian modernity that emphasizes the ambiguity of normative gender binaries and plays with style, personality, and impersonation as disrupting to bourgeoisie mores. My focus is on how Brooks shatters normative conventions of portraiture in her revolutionary critique of heteronormativity. PMID:20408008

  7. Brief Report: Stony Brook Guidelines on the Ethics of the Care of People with Autism and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Stephen G.; Pomeroy, John; Keirns, Carla C.; Cover, Virginia Isaacs; Dorn, Michael Leverett; Boroson, Louis; Boroson, Florence; Coulehan, Anne; Coulehan, Jack; Covell, Kim; Kubasek, Kim; Luchsinger, Elizabeth; Nichols, Shana; Parles, James; Schreiber, Linda; Tetenbaum, Samara P.; Walsh, Rose Ann

    2013-01-01

    The increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with associated societal and clinical impacts, calls for a broad community-based dialogue on treatment related ethical and social issues. The Stony Brook Guidelines, based on a community dialogue process with affected individuals, families and professionals, identify and discuss the…

  8. Brookings Papers on Education Policy, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Diane, Ed.

    In this inaugural issue of "Brookings Papers on Education Policy" a varied group of scholars considers different dimensions of student performance. Several contributors try to offer a clear picture of how American students are performing as compared with their international peers and with the past. The following are included: (1) "Introduction"…

  9. Serving Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Les, Ed.

    This book contains 15 articles about various aspects of community further education (FE) programs in Great Britain, including program rationales/benefits, administration, and delivery. The following articles are included: "Foreword" (Bradshaw); "Commitment to Community Is Good Business and Practical Politics" (Brook); "Can We Serve Communities in…

  10. Harriet Brooks: Canada's First Woman Physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey

    2004-03-01

    During those early halcyon days of the study of radioactivity, one young Canadian woman, Harriet Brooks, joined Ernest Rutherford's group as his first research student. Later, she joined J.J. Thomson's group in Cambridge and, finally, Marie Curie's group in Paris. During her short research career, she made several important contributions to science. She investigated the nature of 'emanation' from radium; discovered that radioactive substances could undergo successive decay; and first reported the recoil of the radioactive atom. Much of this research was published under her name alone though Rutherford made extensive reference to her discoveries in his Bakerian lecture of 1904. Brooks life is of interest not only in what she accomplished, but also in the challenges she faced as a pioneering woman scientist in the early part of the twentieth century. In the presentation we will blend the account of her life and work with the societal context. This work was accomplished jointly with Marelene F. Rayner-Canham.

  11. Hydrothermal disturbances at the Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park (USA) in 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Heasler, H.; Smith, R. B.

    2003-12-01

    The Norris Geyser Basin in north-central Yellowstone National Park (YNP) experienced a series of notable changes during 2003, including formation of new hot springs and fumaroles, renewed activity of dormant geysers and elevated ground temperatures. This abstract provides a short synopsis of the new hydrothermal activity. In 2000, Yellowstone's tallest geyser, Steamboat, erupted after a dormant period of nearly 9 years. It erupted twice in 2002 and then again on 26 March and 27 April 2003. Surges in flux of thermal water preceding the eruptions (preplay) were recorded by a couplet of temperature data loggers placed in the outlet stream. The data indicated pulses of water flow with 1 and ~3 day intervals. On 10 July 2003, a new thermal feature was reported just west of Nymph Lake, ~ 3.5 km northwest of the Norris Museum. A linear series of vigorous fumaroles, about 75 m long had formed in a forested area, ~ 200 m up a hill on the lake's west shore. Fine particles of rock and mineral fragments coated nearby vegetation. Fumarole temperatures were around the local boiling temperature of water (92° C). After two months, somewhat reduced steam emission was accompanied by discharge of ~ 3-10 gallons per minute of near-neutral thermal water. Trees within 4 meters of the lineament were dead and were being slowly combusted. Porkchop Geyser in Norris' Back Basin had been dormant since it exploded in 1989, littering the nearby area with boulders up to over 1 m in diameter. Since that time, its water had remained well below the boiling temperature of water. From 1 April through 1 July `03, the temperature of waters in Porkchop's vent increased continuously from 67° to 88° C. Each Summer, Norris' Back Basin experiences an "annual disturbance" where individual hot springs and geysers typically show anomalous boiling, and have measurable increases in turbidity, acidity and SO4/Cl ratios. The disturbance has been linked to depressurization of the hydrothermal system as the

  12. Measuring Capacities for Community Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrieb, Kathleen; Norris, Fran H.; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the sets of adaptive capacities for Economic Development and Social Capital in the Norris et al. (2008) community resilience model with publicly accessible population indicators. Our approach involved five steps. First, we conducted a literature review on measurements of the capacities. Second, we created…

  13. Toward Better Teaching. 2001 James Flack Norris Award, sponsored by ACS Northeast Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Dennis G.

    2002-07-01

    This article, prepared from remarks made at the presentation of the James Flack Norris Award for 2001, offers some thoughts about how to enhance classroom and laboratory teaching. Many good practices, as well as behavior to avoid, can be obtained by recalling our own experiences as students and by analyzing the presentation styles of visiting speakers. Other qualities of effective teaching include (a) punctuality, (b) thorough preparation, (c) acquiring and sustaining contact with your class, (d) dealing with student questions that you cannot immediately answer, and (e) being serious and professional, yet compassionate and occasionally humorous. Ultimately, attitude is everything in teaching.

  14. 33 CFR 117.202 - Cold Spring Brook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cold Spring Brook. 117.202 Section 117.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.202 Cold Spring Brook. The draw...

  15. 33 CFR 117.202 - Cold Spring Brook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cold Spring Brook. 117.202 Section 117.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.202 Cold Spring Brook. The draw...

  16. 33 CFR 117.202 - Cold Spring Brook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cold Spring Brook. 117.202 Section 117.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.202 Cold Spring Brook. The draw...

  17. 33 CFR 117.202 - Cold Spring Brook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cold Spring Brook. 117.202 Section 117.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.202 Cold Spring Brook. The draw...

  18. 33 CFR 117.202 - Cold Spring Brook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cold Spring Brook. 117.202 Section 117.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.202 Cold Spring Brook. The draw...

  19. Cretaceous Olistostrome Model, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, R.C.

    1985-04-01

    The foothills area of the Brooks Range thrust belt in the area between the Itkillik River and the Etivluk River is composed dominantly of shallow, thrusted olistostrome sheets. Three olistostrome units can be recognized based on the dominant lithology of contained olistoliths and age of the matrix shales. The lower unit is Thithonian to mid-Valanginian in age and is characterized by abundant graywacke and turbidite, mafic rocks, black cherts, olistoliths of Norian-Rhaetic shales, Nuka sands, and glide sheets of Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian rocks. Olistolights were derived from the Misheguk, Ipnavik, and Nuka Ridge allochthonous sequences. The middle unit is of late Valanginian age and has olistoliths of Norian shales; more abundant Upper Triassic chert; Otuk Formation; variegated, radiolarian, black and white cherts; Siksikpuk facies red, green and black shales; Upper Jurassic graywacke; and minor occurrences of mafic rocks. The unit is characterized by glide sheets of Triassic white and multicolor cherts. Olistoliths are derived from Nuka Ridge and Brooks Range sequences. The upper unit is Hauterivian in age and olistoliths included reworked material from all older units. Olistoliths are few and widely scattered. Isolated outcrops of white chert and conglomerate boulders are characteristic.

  20. Brook trout passage performance through culverts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Bergeron, Normand

    2016-01-01

    Culverts can restrict access to habitat for stream-dwelling fishes. We used passive integrated transponder telemetry to quantify passage performance of >1000 wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) attempting to pass 13 culverts in Quebec under a range of hydraulic and environmental conditions. Several variables influenced passage success, including complex interactions between physiology and behavior, hydraulics, and structural characteristics. The probability of successful passage was greater through corrugated metal culverts than through smooth ones, particularly among smaller fish. Trout were also more likely to pass at warmer temperatures, but this effect diminished above 15 °C. Passage was impeded at higher flows, through culverts with steep slopes, and those with deep downstream pools. This study provides insight on factors influencing brook trout capacity to pass culverts as well as a model to estimate passage success under various conditions, with an improved resolution and accuracy over existing approaches. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate passage success of other species, with implications for connectivity of the riverscape.

  1. Devonian magmatism in Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dillion, J.T.; Tilton, G.R.

    1985-04-01

    Devonian bimodel metaplutonic and metavolcanic rocks lie in parallel, west-trending belts in the southern Brooks Range. Overlapping distribution of the plutonic and volcanic rocks occurs in volcanic centers found south of the Doonerak window in the Wiseman, Chandalar, and Colleen quadrangles, and near the Beaver Creek pluton in the Survey Pass quadrangle. The Devonian age is interpreted from isotopic analyses of U and Pb of over 55 zircon fractions from these felsic metaigneous units. Considering concordia plots and Pb-Pb ages from over 40 discordant zircon fractions and fossil ages derived from marbles intercalated in the volcanic sequences, the authors see an age range of 360-410 Ma. The age range is attributed to variation in crystallization ages, as well as the U-Pb systematics of the Brooks Range zircons. Their overlapping age and distribution provides evidence for cogenesis of the Devonian plutonic and volcanic rocks, and also for their correlation with Devonian magmatic rocks of the North American Cordilleran. Lower intercepts on U-Pb concordia diagrams for these zircons range from 105 to 150 Ma, bracketing the end of lead loss resulting from metamorphism. The age of this metamorphic event corresponds to the Late Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous emplacement of the Angayucham terrane. U-Pb concordia plots of 15 zircon fractions from five samples of the Ernie Lake granitic gneiss bodies are explained as latest Proterozoic intrusion of granitic magma with entrained 2-Ga-old zircons, which subsequently lost lead during Mesozoic metamorphism.

  2. Large-scale hydrothermal fluid discharges in the Norris-Mammoth corridor, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Sorey, M.L.; Thordsen, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Norris–Mammoth corridor is a complex subsidence structure that extends ∼40 km northward from the 0.6 Ma Yellowstone caldera, and contains many hydrothermal features with high fluid discharges totaling ∼1000 l/s. About 150–250 l/s of hydrothermal water, which attains boiling temperature at surface and 360°C at depth, discharge from the Norris Geyser Basin, adjacent to the caldera. The highest thermal water and gas discharges in the corridor are from Mammoth Hot Springs, where 500–600 l/s thermal water with surface temperatures of up to 73°C and calculated subsurface temperatures of ∼100°C issue from ∼100 hot springs scattered over a score of step-like travertine terraces that range in age from ∼0.4 Ma to recent. All the thermal water is meteoric, likely recharged in the Gallatin Range at 2.5–3.0 km elevations. The isotopic and chemical compositions of thermal waters and solutes can be interpreted to indicate a common magmatic source for heat and volatile solutes located near Norris. However, the chemical and isotopic compositions of gases, especially the 3He/4He ratios, provide strong evidence for a separate magmatic source for the Mammoth system.

  3. Growth and reproductive ecology of the eastern brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, in streams of differing vulnerability to acidic atmospheric deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Light, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    Three naturally infertile streams of differing vulnerability to acidic atmospheric deposition were studied to determine the status of their brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, populations and associated benthic communities. Of the three streams, Upper Three Runs was judged to be the least fertile, followed by Little Fishing Creek, with Roaring Run being the most fertile. The median weighted pH of acidic deposition impacting the watersheds was 3.8 for Upper Three Runs and 4.0 for Little Fishing Creek and Roaring Run. Brook trout from Roaring Run grew at a similar rate to those from Little Fishing Creek, with trout from Upper Three Runs showing the slowest growth. Roaring Run brook trout also had the highest relative condition of the three streams. Brook trout from Roaring Run and Little Fishing Creek generally matured one year later (age group II) than those from Upper Three Runs. Early maturity may be selected for in Upper Three Runs due to small annual increases in fecundity in higher age groups. Although the data were limited, there was a trend for brook trout from Upper Three Runs to produce fewer and larger ova. Roaring Run had higher volumes of benthos during fall and summer, and higher numbers during fall. Roaring Run and Little Fishing Creek had more, larger crayfish present, which added significantly to the volume of benthos in these streams. Qualitatively, Upper Three Runs had more shredders and fewer scrapers on a volume basis than the other two streams. On a per fish basis, the drift available to the fish in Roaring Run was always highest in volume, and highest in number during fall and spring. The brook trout from Roaring Run therefore had an advantage over those in the other two streams, by having a higher drift available per fish.

  4. NASA's Plum Brook Station Water Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puzak, Robert M.; Kimpton, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Plum Brook Station's water systems were built in the 1940s to support a World War II ordnance production complex. Because the systems had not been analyzed for current NASA usage, it was unknown if they could meet current requirements and codes or if they were efficient for current use. NASA wanted to determine what improvements would be needed or advisable to support its research projects, so it contracted a hydraulic analysis of the raw and domestic water systems. Burgess and Niple determined current water demands and water flow, developed and calibrated models of the two water systems, and evaluated efficiency improvements and cost-cutting options. They recommended replacing some water mains, installing a new service connection, and removing some high-maintenance items (an underground reservoir, some booster pumps, and a tower).

  5. Real-time Remote Data Online For Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, J. E.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Clor, L.; Cervelli, P. F.; Allen, S. T.; Heasler, H.; Moloney, T.

    2010-12-01

    Perry, John, Lowenstern, Jacob, Cervelli, Peter, Clor, Laura, Heasler, Henry, Allen, Scott, Moloney, Tim During June 2010, ten 900MHz wireless temperature data loggers (nodes) were installed around the Norris Geyser Basin to monitor geothermal features, streams and soil temperatures. The loggers can provide near real-time updates on temperature variations within 0.2 deg C due to hydrothermal discharges or subsurface fluid migration. Each sensor node is programmed to measure the temperature every two minutes and automatically upload data to the base station computer daily. The hardware consists of a waterproof case containing an M5 logger (made by Marathon Products, Inc.®) with internal memory, lithium D-cell batteries and a 900 MHz, 1-W-transceiver and 5 meter long Teflon-coated probe with a thermistor sensor. Tethered stub or panel antennas are oriented to optimize signal strength to the base station near the Norris Museum. A 0.61 meter-long base-station antenna located 10m high provides signal to the furthest node over 850 meters away with most being “line-of-sight”. A 20-meter coaxial cable and lightning grounding wire connects the base-station antenna to an Ethernet-radio connected to the YNP local-area network. A server located 26-km north at Mammoth Hot Springs requests data at regular intervals (normally daily), archives the information, and then sends it to the USGS for further archiving and internet distribution. During periods of unusual hydrothermal behavior, data can be requested as needed, and it is possible to set user-programmable alarm limits for notification. The RF network is designed to monitor changes from three different sub-basins at Norris (Gray Lakes, Steamboat-Echinus and Porcelain Basin), the main Tantalus Creek drainage, and five individual thermal features (Constant, Porkchop, Steamboat and Echinus Geysers, and Opalescent Spring). The logger installed in Nuphar Lake provides ambient temperatures controlled solely by local

  6. Surface and subsurface hydrothermal flow pathways at Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham Wall, B. R.

    2005-12-01

    During summer 2003 at Yellowstone's Norris Geyser Basin notable changes were observed in the discharge of heat and steam, creating new thermal features, dying vegetation, and the consequent closure of trails to protect public safety. In order to interpret data collected from GPS, seismic, and temperature instruments deployed in response to the increased hydrothermal activity, a study has been undertaken to provide a more complete knowledge of the spatial distribution of subsurface fluid conduits. Geologic data, including mapped outcrops, aerial imagery, thermal infrared imagery, and subsurface core, indicate that fracture pathways in the Lava Creek Tuff (LCT) channel flow in the hydrothermal system. These data show clear evidence that NE-SW and NW-SE trending structures provide major flow pathways at Norris. By mapping fracture sets in outcrops of LCT with varied degrees of hydrothermal alteration, one can consistently identify fractures that localize hydrothermal fluid flow, alteration, and the geometry of surface thermal features. Alteration is characterized by acid leaching that quickly alters LCT mafic minerals and glassy groundmass, which in outcrop is recognized by corroded and disaggregated LCT with local secondary mineral deposition. Mapping the sequence from unaltered to altered LCT has identified vertical cooling joints as primary conduits for hydrothermal fluids. These vertical joints correlate with the NE-SW trending geomorphic expression of the LCT in this area, and parallel the adjacent caldera boundary. Horizontal fractures parallel depositional stratigraphy, and in core from drill holes Y-9 (248 m) and Y-12 (332 m) appear to initiate at collapsed vapor-phase cavities or regions of altered fiamme. Vertical fractures in the core show sequences of hydrothermal minerals locally derived from water-rock interaction that line fracture walls, characteristic of mineral deposition associated with repeat reactivation. Although the hydrothermal system is

  7. 1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS THE INTAKE CHANNEL HERE. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  8. Learning to Communicate Science: Stony Brook University's Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, E.

    2012-12-01

    -profile activities that generated interest and allowed students, postdocs, faculty and administrators to sample course material. --CCS structured the courses as "bite-size" modules to make them easier to take. Courses are given in the evening, in successive four- or five-week blocks, so a student can take one to six modules in a single semester. At the heart of the effort are two courses: Distilling Your Message, in which students practice speaking clearly, vividly and conversationally at different levels of complexity to different audiences, and Improvisation for Scientists, in which students use improvisational theater exercises to help connect more responsively with their audiences. This is not about acting. It is about paying dynamic attention to the audience, shifting the focus from what the student is saying to what the other person is receiving. Other modules deal with writing for the public; using social media, and connecting with the community. In addition to the 1-credit courses, science graduate students can take a 3-credit course examining how the media cover science and health issues. This course also is taken by students in the journalism MS program, which focuses on science, health and environmental reporting, part of Stony Brook University's multi-pronged effort to improve communication of science to the public.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AIMSS Project. I. Compact Stellar Systems (Norris+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, M. A.; Kannappan, S. J.; Forbes, D. A.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Brodie, J. P.; Faifer, F. R.; Huxor, A.; Maraston, C.; Moffett, A. J.; Penny, S. J.; Pota, V.; Smith-Castelli, A.; Strader, J.; Bradley, D.; Eckert, K. D.; Fohring, D.; McBride, J.; Stark, D. V.; Vaduvescu, O.

    2015-04-01

    The majority of our southern spectroscopic observations to date have been obtained using the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope and the Goodman spectrograph in longslit and MOS modes. We used the South African Large Telescope (SALT) to observe fainter targets requiring exposure times impractically long to be used as filler targets for SOAR observing and which cannot be observed with Keck. As part of a study examining the GCs and UCDs of the shell elliptical NGC 3923 we obtained deep Gemini/GMOS spectroscopy of three UCDs (see Norris et al., 2012MNRAS.421.1485N, Cat. J/MNRAS/421/1485 for further details). The observations were made in MOS mode. The majority of our Northern hemisphere candidates were spectroscopically confirmed using the DEIMOS and ESI instruments on the Keck telescope . We also obtained spectra of NGC 4649 UCD1 with the IDS instrument on the Isaac Newton Telescope. (2 data files).

  10. Measurement of turbine pressures at TVA`s Norris Hydro Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hopping, P.; Mobley, M.; Pearson, H.

    1995-12-31

    The two 50-mW units at the Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA`s) Norris Hydro Project are to be upgraded with new Francis runners by the end of 1996. To increase the level of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the turbine discharges, the new turbines will include several alternatives for aerating the flow. For unit 2, the first to be upgraded, aeration outlets will be located at four sites - the discharge edge of the runner buckets, the base of the runner hub, the runner crown, and the wall of the draft tube cone. For each site, the amount of air drawn through the outlets will depend on the local pressure at the outlets and the headloss characteristics of the air supply passageways. Estimates for the pressure are available by two methods - numerical solutions of the governing equations of continuity and momentum, and measurements in the physical model of the turbine. Ideally, pressures obtained by each method should compare favorably. In analyzing the aeration alternatives for Norris, however, comparisons were found to be poor for the discharge edge of the runner buckets. To address these and other concerns, prototype pressure measurements were made in the existing units, both on the runner and in the draft tube cone. The results found that pressures measured on the discharge edge of the runner buckets agree better with the numerical computations, whereas those measured in the draft tube cone agree better with the physical model. The measurements allow the pressure coefficient to be determined for baffles located on the turbine hub and the wall of the draft tube cone. The headloss characteristics of the air supply passageway for the turbine hub is determined based on measured airflows. To provide additional data for estimating runner pressures and designing aeration outlets, similar measurements are planned for the new turbines.

  11. The Laser Teaching Center at Stony Brook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Harold

    2010-03-01

    Stony Brook's Laser Teaching Center was built more than ten years ago to serve a clientele ranging from high school (HS) students to graduate students. Its construction in a formerly open hallway area was financed by donations from private corporations and foundations, and it was equipped with similar contributions. It provides a working area for laser and optics-related projects, both individual and group. Its daily operations are overseen by a highly-dedicated Ph.D. who is a department employee. It is populated by HS students doing science fair related research, including the major national contests (in which we have many finalists and semifinalists), undergraduates doing extra-credit course projects and other kinds of research activities, graduate students in a special course called ``Optics Rotation,'' and many others who come to use its facilities. All of its denizens benefit enormously by occasional prestigious visitors. Students are drawn from among our undergraduates and graduate students, NSF's WISE program, special HS summer programs, and direct application from the outside. We have an excellent record of placing our HS students in the highest ranking colleges.

  12. Using environmental tracers and numerical simulation to investigate regional hydrothermal basins—Norris Geyser Basin area, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, W. Payton; Susong, David D.; Solomon, D. Kip; Heasler, Henry P.

    2013-06-01

    Heat and fluid flow fields are simulated for several conceptual permeability fields and compared to processes inferred from environmental tracers in springs around Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park. Large hydrothermal basins require specific permeability distributions in the upper crust. High permeability connections must exist between the land surface and high-temperature environments at depths of up to 5 km. The highest modeled temperatures are produced with a vertical conduit permeability of 10-15m2. Permeability at depths of 3-5 km must be within one order of magnitude of the near-surface permeability and must be ≥10-16m2. Environmental tracers from springs are used to develop a plausible numerical model of the local to regional groundwater flow field for the Norris Geyser Basin area. The model simulations provide insight into the dynamics of heat and fluid flow in a large regional hydrothermal system.

  13. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Fifty Years of Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, E. M.

    1999-05-01

    It is easy to pick out my most memorable meeting of the AAS: the 149th meeting held in January, 1977, and hosted by the University of Hawaii, in Honolulu, HI. It was the meeting at which two traditions of the Society were broken, and we moved into the era of equal opportunity for women astronomers. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin received the highest award of the AAS: the Henry Norris Russell Lectureship. This award had never before been available to women, otherwise Cecilia would, years earlier, have been honored for the many achievements in her lifetime of renowned astronomical research. And I, the first woman to be elected President of the AAS, had the honor of presenting the illuminated scroll to Cecilia, and of introducing her on the platform where she delivered the Henry Norris Russell Prize Lecture, entitled ``Fifty Years of Novae"(1) . Cecilia opened by comparing the experience of young and old scientists in achieving exciting results from their research, and then led us through the history of the discoveries of and about some famous novae. She described the physical picture that emerged from studies of their light curves, their spectra, and the discovery of their binary nature. Three important tables were included, listing data on cataclysmic binaries (dwarf novae) and their link to the nova phenomenon in general. She recalled that she and Sergei Gaposchkin had hesitated between the names catastrophic and cataclysmic for the dwarf novae, and decided on the latter, from the dictionary definitions of those two terms: ``a cataclysm is a great and general flood" while a catastrophe ``is a final event". The nova phenomenon is recurrent, as are the dwarf novae, and both involve an outpouring of a flood of energy. She concluded by describing her 50 years' experience with novae as presenting ``the contemporary portrait of a nova", rather than a final picture, and by forecasting that the next 50 years of discovering and studying novae will be as full of surprises as the

  14. Aerospace medicine at Brooks AFB, TX: hail and farewell.

    PubMed

    Nunneley, Sarah A; Webb, James T

    2011-05-01

    With the impending termination of USAF operations at Brooks Air Force Base (AFB) in San Antonio, TX, it is time to consider its historic role in Aerospace Medicine. The base was established in 1917 as a flight training center for the U.S. Army Air Service and in 1926 became home to its School of Aviation Medicine. The school moved to San Antonio's Randolph Field in 1931, but in 1959 it returned to Brooks where it occupied new facilities to support its role as a national center for U.S. Air Force aerospace medicine, including teaching, clinical medicine, and research. The mission was then expanded to encompass support of U.S. military and civilian space programs. With the abrupt termination of the military space program in 1969, research at Brooks focused on clinical aviation medicine and support of advanced military aircraft while continuing close cooperation with NASA in support of orbital spaceflight and the journey to the Moon. Reorganization in the 1990s assigned all research functions at Brooks to the Human Systems Division and its successors, leaving to USAFSAM the missions related to clinical work and teaching. In 2002 the USAF and the city of San Antonio implemented shared operation of Brooks as a "City-Base" in the hope of deflecting threatened closure. Nevertheless, under continuing pressure to consolidate military facilities in the United States, the 2005 Base Closure and Realignment Commission ordered Brooks closed by 2011, with its aerospace medicine functions relocated to new facilities at Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, OH. PMID:21614874

  15. Clarification to Brook and Willoughby (2016).

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Reports an error in "Social anxiety and alcohol use across the university years: Adaptive and maladaptive groups" by Christina A. Brook and Teena Willoughby (Developmental Psychology, 2016[May], Vol 52[5], 835-845). In the article, Figures 1 and 2 and Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4 were inadvertently designated as supplemental material. The figures and tables are present in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-13161-001.) University/college can be a challenging time as students face developmental tasks such as building new social networks and achieving academically. Social anxiety may be disadvantageous in this setting given that social situations often include drinking and individuals with social anxiety tend to self-medicate through alcohol use. However, findings are mixed as to whether the association between social anxiety and alcohol use is positive or negative. To clarify the nature of this association, we used a person-centered longitudinal analysis to identify student groups based on levels of social anxiety symptoms and alcohol consumption. Undergraduates (N = 1132, 70.5% female, Mage = 19.06 at Time 1) enrolled in university completed a survey assessing social anxiety and alcohol use over 3 years, and psychosocial functioning and emotion coping behaviors at Time 1. Two out of 5 groups were identified with higher levels of social anxiety, 1 with moderately low alcohol use, and the other with moderately high alcohol use. Both groups reported higher levels of general anxiety, depressive symptoms, behavioral inhibition, emotional reactivity, daily hassles, and lower levels of social ties at Time 1 than the 3 groups with lower levels of social anxiety. Furthermore, the social anxiety-alcohol use group reported significantly lower academic grades and was more likely to endorse problematic emotion coping behaviors (e.g., self-injury) than the social anxiety-low alcohol use group. These results not only help explain the

  16. The Bear Brook Watershed, Maine (BBWM), USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, S.; Kahl, J.; Fernandez, I.; Haines, T.; Rustad, L.; Nodvin, S.; Scofield, J.; Strickland, T.; Erickson, H.; Wigington, P., Jr.; Lee, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Bear Brook Watershed Manipulation project in Maine is a paired calibrated watershed study funded by the U.S. EPA. The research program is evaluating whole ecosystem response to elevated inputs of acidifying chemicals. The consists of a 2.5 year calibration period (1987-1989), nine years of chemical additions of (NH4)2SO4 (15N- and 34S-enriched for several years) to West Bear watershed (1989-1998), followed by a recovery period. The other watershed, East Bear, serves as a reference. Dosing is in six equal treatments/yr of 1800 eq SO4 and NH4/ha/yr, a 200% increase over 1988 loading (wet plus dry) for SO4 300% for N (wet NO3 + NH4). The experimental and reference watersheds are forested with mixed hard- and softwoods, and have thin acidic soils, areas of 10.2 and 10.7 ha and relief of 210 m. Thin till of variable composition is underlain by metasedimentary pelitic rocks and calc-silicate gneiss intruded by granite dikes and sills. For the period 1987-1995, precipitation averaged 1.4 m/yr, had a mean pH of 4.5, with SO4, NO3, and NH4 concentrations of 26, 14, and 7 ??eq/L, respectively. The nearly perrenial streams draining each watershed have discharges ranging from 0 (East Bear stops flowing for one to two months per year) to 150 L/sec. Prior to manipulation, East Bear and West Bear had a volume weighted annual mean pH of approximately 5.4, alkalinity = 0 to 4 ??eq/L, total base cations = 184 ??eq/L (sea-salt corrected = 118 ??eq/L), and SO4 = 100 to 111 ??eq/L. Nitrate ranged from 0 to 30 ??eq/L with an annual mean of 6 to 25 ??eq/L; dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranged from 1 to 7 mg/L but was typically less than 3. Episodic acidification occurred at high discharge and was caused by dilution of cations, slightly increased DOC, significantly higher NO3, and the sea-salt effect. Depressions in pH were accompanied by increases in inorganic Al. The West Bear catchment responded to the chemical additions with increased export of base cations, Al, SO4, NO3, and

  17. Thrust involvement of metamorphic rocks, southwestern Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Till, A.B.; Schmidt, J.M.; Nelson, S.W. )

    1988-10-01

    Most models for the tectonic history of the western Brooks Range treat Proterozoic and lower Paleozoic metamorphic rocks exposed in the southern part of the range as passive structural basement vertically uplifted late in the Mesozoic orogenic episode. Mapping in the metamorphic rocks shows that they can de divided into two structurally and metamorphically distinct belts, both of which were folded and thrust during the orogeny. Recognition of these belts and the nature of the contact separating them is critical to construction of accurate tectonic models of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt.

  18. Documentary Linguistics and Computational Linguistics: A Response to Brooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Steven; Chiang, David; Frowein, Friedel; Hanke, Florian; Vaswani, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    In mid-2012, the authors organized a two-week workshop in Papua New Guinea to provide training in basic techniques and technologies for language documentation, and to gain understanding of how these technologies might be improved in the future. An assessment of the workshop was conducted by Brooks with the central idea that the workshop's…

  19. Preservation at Stony Brook. Preservation Planning Program. Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Donald C.; And Others

    This final report is a product of a Preservation Planning Program (PPP) self-study conducted by the State University of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, working with the Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) Office of Management Studies (OMS). The PPP is designed to put self-help tools into the hands of library staff responsible for developing…

  20. EXPERIMENTAL ACIDIFICATION OF A STREAM TRIBUTARY TO HUBBARD BROOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long (5 mo.) and short-term (1 h to 2 days) effects of acidic pH have been measured in a poorly buffered mountain stream within the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. Over a 5-month period aluminum, calcium, magnesium, and potassium were mobilized into the stream w...

  1. Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs: 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtless, Gary, Ed.; Pack, Janet Rothenberg, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Designed to reach a wide audience of scholars and policymakers, the "Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs" is an annual series that serves as a forum for cutting-edge, accessible research on urban policy. The editors seek to integrate broader research into the policy discussion by bringing urban studies scholars together with economists and…

  2. 36 CFR 13.1220 - Brooks Camp Developed Area definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Brooks Falls Platform and is depicted on a map available at the park visitor center. Sections 13.1222-13... definition. 13.1220 Section 13.1220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Katmai National Park...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1220 - Brooks Camp Developed Area definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Brooks Falls Platform and is depicted on a map available at the park visitor center. Sections 13.1222-13... definition. 13.1220 Section 13.1220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Katmai National Park...

  4. Induction and viability of tetraploids in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations are threatened by introduction of invasive species, habitat loss, and habitat degradation in their native range; and are a problem invasive species in western Unites States and Canada, and in Europe. Stocking sterile triploids has been promoted as an ...

  5. Mn-ilmenites from the Norris kimberlite: metasomatism in the mantle of the south appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Klobcar, C.L.; Taylor, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Kimberlites provide petrologists a tantalyzingly diverse sample of the mantle. The Norris kimberlite (30 mile North of Knoxville, Tennessee) contains a unique suite of ilmenite nodules and megacrysts that span a wide compositional range. Some nodules contain the highest MnO contents yet reported (up to 71 mol% MnTiO/sub 3/). These ilmenites reflect redox changes in the upper mantle/lower crust and are our only samples of the mantle underlying the South Appalachians. Ilmenite can be divided into three groups: I high MnO (to 31 wt%), low MgO (<1 wt%); II High Mgo (to 15 wt%), low Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (<1 wt%); and III High Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (to 6.5 wt%) high MgO (to 12 wt%). Ilmenite can also be grouped by Fe/sup 2 +//Fe/sup 2 +/ + Fe/sup 3 +/ (Fe') into low Fe' (<0.8) and high Fe' (>0.8) (cf. Tompkins and Haggerty, 1985). Type II shows no marked increase in MgO from core to rim, common in other kimberlites; Fe' is also constant. Type I occurs in a variety of forms and is secondary to Types II and III. These ilmenites reflect a distinct evolution in the redox conditions which occurred during their formation. Type I (high MnO) formed at some later time and involved a highly-reducing form of metasomatism. Alteration of ilmenites also formed perovskite and spinel. This represents a unique type of Mn metasomatism and emphasizes the heterogeneity of the mantle of the N.A. craton.

  6. Mutation spectrum of the Norrie disease pseudoglioma (NDP) gene in Indian patients with FEVR

    PubMed Central

    Musada, Ganeswara Rao; Jalali, Subhadra; Hussain, Anjli; Chururu, Anupama Reddy; Gaddam, Pramod Reddy; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in the Norrie disease pseudoglioma (NDP; Xp11.3) gene have been involved in retinal blood vessel formation and neural differentiation and are implicated in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) cases. However, the role of the gene has not been explored in the Indian context. Thus, this study was designed to understand the involvement of NDP among Indian patients with FEVR. Methods The study cohort comprised 225 subjects, including unrelated patients with FEVR (n = 110) and ethnically matched healthy subjects (n = 115) recruited from a tertiary eye care center in India. The entire coding regions, intron–exon boundaries, along with the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of NDP were screened with resequencing following standard protocols. The spectrum of the observed variants was analyzed in conjunction with data available from other populations. Results Eight potentially pathogenic mutations (p.His4ArgfsX21, p.Asp23GlufsX9, p.Ile48ValfsX55, p.His50Asp, p.Ser57*, p.Gly113Asp, p.Arg121Gln, and p.Cys126Arg, including five novel ones), were observed in the coding region of the NDP gene in ten unrelated FEVR probands (9%). The novel changes were not observed in the control subjects and were unavailable in the dbSNP, ESP5400, NIEHS95, and ExAC databases. All probands with NDP mutations exhibited classical features of the disease as observed among patients with FEVR worldwide. Conclusions This is perhaps the first study to demonstrate the involvement of NDP among patients with Indian FEVR that further expands its mutation spectrum. The data generated could have broad implications in genetic counseling, disease management, and early intervention for a better prognosis in FEVR. PMID:27217716

  7. A Prototype Hydrothermal Monitoring System, Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, J. M.; Waite, G. P.; Puskas, C. M.; Chang, W.; Smith, R. B.; Heasler, H.; Lowenstern, J.

    2007-12-01

    Hydrothermal explosions are a prominent geologic hazard in Yellowstone National Park and are of consideration for park infrastructure and visitor safety. It is estimated that small rock-hurling phreatic explosions occur somewhere in the park almost every year and larger basin-wide events on the order of several hundred years. The Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (U.S. Geological Survey, University of Utah, and the National Park Service) has deployed a prototype network of GPS and seismic stations in Norris Geyser Basin. The monitoring system consists of five GPS stations and one broadband seismograph that were installed and operated for a year (October 2006 through September 2007) including during Yellowstone's harsh winter. The five GPS stations operated remarkably well over the survey period with at least 3 stations operating 98% of the time. The general southwest horizontal motion and subsidence of the 5 GPS stations are consistent with observations from nearby permanent GPS stations and InSAR. However, local transient signals of uplift and subsidence up to 6 cm are observed. Various long-period signals are observed in the seismic data, ranging from 2 to 100 seconds, which may be indicative of the transport of hydrothermal fluids within the basin. GPS and seismic data will be analyzed and compared to available temperature (air and water), rainfall, and barometric pressure data to try and isolate signals that can be attributed to the hydrothermal system. Ground deformation data can be used to determine the interdependence between regional deformation and hydrothermal activity. Seismic data can be used to help determine the interdependence between regional earthquakes and hydrothermal activity. These data will be valuable to YVO to help us better monitor Yellowstone's many hydrothermal systems to both gain a greater understanding of how they work as well as to be able to better understand the safety hazards involved to both park employees and visitors.

  8. 78 FR 19193 - Richard Phillips, Currently Incarcerated at: Inmate No. 81783-079, FCI Ray Brook Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... extended by successive Presidential Notices, the most recent being that of August 15, 2012 (77 FR 49699... Ray Brook Federal Correctional Institution, P.O. Box 300, Ray Brook, NY 12977 and with An Address At... Ray Brook, Federal Correctional Institution, P.O. Box 300, Ray Brook, NY 12977, and with an address...

  9. Evaluation of an Unsuccessful Brook Trout Electrofishing Removal Project in a Small Rocky Mountain Stream.

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2006-01-26

    In the western United States, exotic brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis frequently have a deleterious effect on native salmonids, and biologists often attempt to remove brook trout from streams by means of electrofishing. Although the success of such projects typically is low, few studies have assessed the underlying mechanisms of failure, especially in terms of compensatory responses. A multiagency watershed advisory group (WAG) conducted a 3-year removal project to reduce brook trout and enhance native salmonids in 7.8 km of a southwestern Idaho stream. We evaluated the costs and success of their project in suppressing brook trout and looked for brook trout compensatory responses, such as decreased natural mortality, increased growth, increased fecundity at length, and earlier maturation. The total number of brook trout removed was 1,401 in 1998, 1,241 in 1999, and 890 in 2000; removal constituted an estimated 88% of the total number of brook trout in the stream in 1999 and 79% in 2000. Although abundance of age-1 and older brook trout declined slightly during and after the removals, abundance of age-0 brook trout increased 789% in the entire stream 2 years after the removals ceased. Total annual survival rate for age-2 and older brook trout did not decrease during the removals, and the removals failed to produce an increase in the abundance of native redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri. Lack of a meaningful decline and unchanged total mortality for older brook trout during the removals suggest that a compensatory response occurred in the brook trout population via reduced natural mortality, which offset the removal of large numbers of brook trout. Although we applaud WAG personnel for their goal of enhancing native salmonids by suppressing brook trout via electrofishing removal, we conclude that their efforts were unsuccessful and suggest that similar future projects elsewhere over such large stream lengths would be costly, quixotic enterprises.

  10. A multitracer approach for characterizing interactions between shallow groundwater and the hydrothermal system in the Norris Geyser Basin area, Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, W.P.; Susong, D.D.; Solomon, D.K.; Heasler, H.P.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple environmental tracers are used to investigate age distribution, evolution, and mixing in local- to regional-scale groundwater circulation around the Norris Geyser Basin area in Yellowstone National Park. Springs ranging in temperature from 3??C to 90??C in the Norris Geyser Basin area were sampled for stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, major and minor element chemistry, dissolved chlorofluorocarbons, and tritium. Groundwater near Norris Geyser Basin is comprised of two distinct systems: a shallow, cool water system and a deep, high-temperature hydrothermal system. These two end-member systems mix to create springs with intermediate temperature and composition. Using multiple tracers from a large number of springs, it is possible constrain the distribution of possible flow paths and refine conceptual models of groundwater circulation in and around a large, complex hydrothermal system. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. A geologic framework for mineralization in the western Brooks Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Lorne E.

    2004-01-01

    The Brooks Range is a 950-km-long north-vergent fold and thrust belt, which was formed during Mesozoic convergence of the continental Arctic Alaska terrane and the oceanic Angayucham terrane and was further shortened and uplifted in Tertiary time. The Arctic Alaska terrane consists of parautochthonous rocks and the Endicott Mountains and De Long Mountains subterranes. The Endicott Mountains allochthon of the western Brooks Range is the setting for many sulfide and barite occurrences, such as the supergiant Red Dog zinc-lead mine. Mineralization is sediment hosted and most commonly is present in black shale and carbonate turbidites of the Mississippian Kuna Formation. The reconstructed Kuna basin is a 200 by +600 km feature that represents the culmination of a remarkable chain of events that includes three fluvial-deltaic and two or more orogenic cycles, Middle Devonian to Mississippian episodes of extension and igneous activity, and the emergence of a seaward Lower Proterozoic landmass that may have constituted a barrier to marine circulation. Mississippian extension and related horst-and-graben architecture in the western Brooks Range is manifested in part by strong facies variability between coeval units of allochthons and structural plates. Shallow marine to possibly nonmarine arkose, platform to shelf carbonate, slope-to-basin shale, chert and carbonate turbidites, and submarine volcanic rocks are all represented in Mississippian time. The structural setting of Mississippian sedimentation, volcanism, and mineralization in the Kuna basin may be comparable to documented Devono-Mississippian extensional sags or half-grabens in the subsurface north of the Brooks Range. Climate, terrestrial ecosystems, multiple fluvial-deltaic aquifers, and structural architecture affected the liberation, movement, and redeposition of metals in ways that are incompletely understood.

  12. The Mothball, Sustainment, and Proposed Reactivation of the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) at NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Scott R.; Lee, Jinho; Stephens, John W.; Hostler, Robert W., Jr.; VonKamp, William D.

    2010-01-01

    The Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio, is the nation s only large-scale, non-vitiated, hypersonic propulsion test facility. The HTF, with its 4-story graphite induction heater, is capable of duplicating Mach 5, 6, and 7 flight conditions. This unique propulsion system test facility has experienced several standby and reactivation cycles. The intent of the paper is to overview the HTF capabilities to the propulsion community, present the current status of HTF, and share the lessons learned from putting a large-scale facility into mothball status for a later restart

  13. Rural Schools and Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Largy, Paul

    1981-01-01

    A community education project in Brooks County, Georgia, began in 1977 with five people, developed county-wide support, and now includes a community education county council, federal funding, volunteer programs, after-school programs, agricultural education (especially swine production), and a day-care center. (AN)

  14. Broad-scale patterns of Brook Trout responses to introduced Brown Trout in New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna Jr, James E.; Slattery, Michael T.; Kean M. Clifford

    2013-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta are valuable sport fish that coexist in many parts of the world due to stocking introductions. Causes for the decline of Brook Trout within their native range are not clear but include competition with Brown Trout, habitat alteration, and repetitive stocking practices. New York State contains a large portion of the Brook Trout's native range, where both species are maintained by stocking and other management actions. We used artificial neural network models, regression, principal components analysis, and simulation to evaluate the effects of Brown Trout, environmental conditions, and stocking on the distribution of Brook Trout in the center of their native range. We found evidence for the decline of Brook Trout in the presence of Brown Trout across many watersheds; 22% of sampled reaches where both species were expected to occur contained only Brown Trout. However, a model of the direct relationship between Brook Trout and Brown Trout abundance explained less than 1% of data variation. Ordination showed extensive overlap of Brook Trout and Brown Trout habitat conditions, with only small components of the hypervolume (multidimensional space) being distinctive. Subsequent analysis indicated higher abundances of Brook Trout in highly forested areas, while Brown Trout were more abundant in areas with relatively high proportions of agriculture. Simulation results indicated that direct interactions and habitat conditions were relatively minor factors compared with the effects of repeated stocking of Brown Trout into Brook Trout habitat. Intensive annual stocking of Brown Trout could eliminate resident Brook Trout in less than a decade. Ecological differences, harvest behavior, and other habitat changes can exacerbate Brook Trout losses. Custom stocking scenarios with Brown Trout introductions at relatively low proportions of resident Brook Trout populations may be able to sustain healthy populations of both

  15. AmeriFlux US-Br1 Brooks Field Site 10- Ames

    DOE Data Explorer

    Parkin, Tim [USDA; Prueger, John [National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Br1 Brooks Field Site 10- Ames. Site Description - The Brooks Field Site 10 - Ames Site is one of three sites (Brooks Field Site 11 and Brooks Field Site 1011) located in a corn/soybean agricultural landscape of central Iowa. The farming systems, associated tillage, and nutrient management practices for soybean/corn production are typical of those throughout Upper Midwest Corn Belt. All three sites are members of the AmeriFlux network. Information for all three can be found in synchronous pages of this website.

  16. AmeriFlux US-Br3 Brooks Field Site 11- Ames

    DOE Data Explorer

    Parkin, Tim [USDA; Prueger, John [National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Br3 Brooks Field Site 11- Ames. Site Description - The Brooks Field Site 11 - Ames Site is one of three sites (Brooks Field Site 10 and Brooks Field Site 1011) located in a corn/soybean agricultural landscape of central Iowa. The farming systems, associated tillage, and nutrient management practices for soybean/corn production are typical of those throughout Upper Midwest Corn Belt. All three sites are members of the AmeriFlux network. Information for all three can be found in synchronous pages of this website.

  17. Results of weekly chemical and isotopic monitoring of selected springs in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park during June-September, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Weltman, U.; Counce, D.; White, L.D.; Janik, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year at Norris Geyser Basin, generally in August or September, a widespread hydrothermal 'disturbance' occurs that is characterized by simultaneous changes in the discharge characteristics of many springs, particularly in the Back Basin. During the summer season of 1995, water samples from eight widely distributed hot springs and geysers at Norris were collected each week and analyzed to determine whether chemical and isotopic changes also occurred in the thermal waters at the time of the disturbance. In addition, Beryl Spring in Gibbon Canyon, 5.8 km southwest of Norris Geyser Basin, was included in the monitoring program. Waters discharged by four of the monitored hot springs and geysers appear to issue from relatively deep reservoirs where temperatures are at least 270 C and possibly higher than 300 C. At the time of, and for several days after, the onset of the 1995 disturbance, the normally neutral-chloride waters discharged by these four features all picked up an acid-sulfate component and became isotopically heavier. The acid-sulfate component appears to be similar in composition to some waters discharged in 100 Spring Plain that issue from subsurface regions where temperatures are in the range 170-210 C. However, the two monitored springs that discharge acid-chloride-sulfate waters in the 100 Spring Plain region did not show any significant chemical or isotopic response to the annual disturbance. Beryl Spring, and two neutral-chloride hot springs at Norris that appear to draw their water from reservoirs where temperatures are 250 C or less, also did not show any significant chemical or isotopic response to the annual disturbance. After the start of the annual disturbance, chloride concentrations in water sampled from Double Bulger Geyser in the Back Basin increased from about 800 ppm to about 1500 ppm, nearly twice as high as any previously reported chloride concentration in a thermal water at Yellowstone. The isotopic composition of that water

  18. Effects of dam removal on brook trout in a Wisconsin stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, E.H.; Catalano, M.J.; Mercado-Silva, N.; Orr, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    Dams create barriers to fish migration and dispersal in drainage basins, and the removal of dams is often viewed as a means of increasing habitat availability and restoring migratory routes of several fish species. However, these barriers can also isolate and protect native taxa from aggressive downstream invaders. We examined fish community composition two years prior to and two years after the removal of a pair of low-head dams from Boulder Creek, Wisconsin, U.S.A. in 2003 to determine if removal of these potential barriers affected the resident population of native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Despite the presence of other taxa in the downstream reaches, and in other similar streams adjacent to the Boulder Creek (including the brown trout, Salmo trutta), no new species had colonized the Boulder Creek in the two years following dam removal. The adults catch per unit effort (CPUE) was lower and the young-of-the-year catch per unit effort (YOY CPUE) was higher in 2005 than in 2001 in all reaches, but the magnitude of these changes was substantially larger in the two dam-affected sample reaches relative to an upstream reference reach, indicating a localized effect of the removal. Total length of the adults and the YOY and the adult body condition did not vary between years or among reaches. Thus, despite changes in numbers of adults and the YOYs in some sections of the stream, the lack of new fish species invading Boulder Creek and the limited extent of population change in brook trout indicate that dam removal had a minor effect on these native salmonids in the first two years of the post-removal. Copyright ?? 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Spatial and temporal movement dynamics of brook Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, L.A.; Wagner, Tyler; Barton, Meredith L.

    2015-01-01

    Native eastern brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized brown trout Salmo trutta occur sympatrically in many streams across the brook trout’s native range in the eastern United States. Understanding within- among-species variability in movement, including correlates of movement, has implications for management and conservation. We radio tracked 55 brook trout and 45 brown trout in five streams in a north-central Pennsylvania, USA watershed to quantify the movement of brook trout and brown trout during the fall and early winter to (1) evaluate the late-summer, early winter movement patterns of brook trout and brown trout, (2) determine correlates of movement and if movement patterns varied between brook trout and brown trout, and (3) evaluate genetic diversity of brook trout within and among study streams, and relate findings to telemetry-based observations of movement. Average total movement was greater for brown trout (mean ± SD = 2,924 ± 4,187 m) than for brook trout (mean ± SD = 1,769 ± 2,194 m). Although there was a large amount of among-fish variability in the movement of both species, the majority of movement coincided with the onset of the spawning season, and a threshold effect was detected between stream flow and movement: where movement increased abruptly for both species during positive flow events. Microsatellite analysis of brook trout revealed consistent findings to those found using radio-tracking, indicating a moderate to high degree of gene flow among brook trout populations. Seasonal movement patterns and the potential for relatively large movements of brook and brown trout highlight the importance of considering stream connectivity when restoring and protecting fish populations and their habitats.

  20. Systematics of Water Temperature and Flow at Tantalus Creek During Calendar Year 2005, Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clor, Laura E.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Heasler, Henry P.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze data for stream flow and water temperature from Tantalus Creek in the Norris Geyser Basin and their relationship to air temperature, precipitation, and geyser eruptions during calendar year 2005. The creek is of interest because it is the primary drainage of the Norris Geyser Basin and carries a very high proportion of thermal water derived directly from hot springs. Two separate diurnal patterns emerge - (1) a winter pattern where increases in water temperature and stream flow closely track those of air temperature and (2) a summer pattern where water and air temperature are closely aligned but stream flow declines once water temperature reaches its daily maximum. The winter pattern is present when the daily average temperature consistently drops below 0 ?C whereas the summer pattern is recognizable when the daily average temperature regularly exceeds 0 ?C. Spring and fall systematics are much more irregular, although both summer and winter patterns can be discerned occasionally during those seasons. We interpret increases in stream flow associated with the winter pattern to result from addition of locally sourced melt water (both snow and soil-bound ice) that increases in abundance once temperatures increase in the morning. Melting is facilitated by the warm ground temperatures in the geyser basin, which are significantly higher than air temperatures in the winter. The summer pattern appears to be strongly affected by increased evaporation in the afternoon, decreasing flow and cooling the remaining water. Discharge from eruptions at Echinus Geyser are clearly visible as peaks in the hydrograph, and indicate that water from this geyser reach the Tantalus weir in 80 to 90 minutes, reflecting a slug of water that travels about 0.4 m s-1.

  1. Histopathology of fish. IV. A granuloma of brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.

    1956-01-01

    In the summer of 1952, Snieszko and Griffin (1955) diagnosed kidney disease in brook trout from the Fish and Wildlife Service's station at Berlin, New Hampshire. During the examination of these fish, a peculiar lesion was observed in the vicinity of the gastric caeca. In very advanced cases, hard, glistening, white masses of tissue bearing a striking resemblance to mature testes often filled the abdominal cavity. In the initial examinations, the material was actually mistaken for normal testicular tissue. Subsequently, it was recognized as an entirely aberrant, proliferating tumor-like mass.

  2. Proposed standard-weight equations for brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyatt, M.W.; Hubert, W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Weight and length data were obtained for 113 populations of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis across the species' geographic range in North America to estimate a standard-weight (Ws) equation for this species. Estimation was done by applying the regression-line-percentile technique to fish of 120-620 mm total length (TL). The proposed metric-unit (g and mm) equation is log10Ws = -5.186 + 3.103 log10TL; the English-unit (lb and in) equivalent is log10Ws = -3.483 + 3.103 log10TL. No systematic length bias was evident in the relative-weight values calculated from these equations.

  3. Academic Outcomes and Behavior--Identifying Quality Indicators. Brooks School District No. 2092.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    The Brooks Educational Quality Indicators project tested the premise that quality education in Brooks (Alberta) results from the right blend of attention to academics and developing character within a firm set of behavioral demands. The first stage of the study included data collection on district perceptions from teachers, staff, administrators,…

  4. TOXIC EFFECTS OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM ON BROOK TROUT ('SALVELINUS FONTINALIS') AND RAINBOW TROUT ('SALMO GAIRDNERI')

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposing brook trout to various concentrations of chromium (Cr(VI)) for up to 22 months (including reproduction) significantly increased alevin mortality at 0.35 mg Cr/l and retarded growth of young brook trout at the lowest concentration tested (0.01 mg Cr/l). Eight month exposu...

  5. Habitat suitability for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) reproduction in Adirondack Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, Carl L.

    1993-04-01

    The relationships between habitat characteristics and reproductive status of Adirondack brook trout populations were examined utilizing the Adirondack Lake Survey Corporation data base, which includes physical, chemical, and biological data for 1469 lakes. The only variables strongly related to brook trout natural reproduction were indices of groundwater influence on surface water chemistry, specifically silica and sodium concentrations. This finding supports the hypothesis that lake spawning populations of brook trout are strongly dependent on groundwater seepage for successful reproduction. Spawning habitat in small headwater lakes impounded by beaver activity may be degraded as a result of siltation of nearshore zones and diminished groundwater seepage. Adirondack lakes situated in thick-till basins receive proportionally greater groundwater input than thin-till lake types and thick-till lakes also had the highest proportion of self-sustaining brook trout populations. Acidification is most pronounced in thin-till basins, which also exhibited a low frequency of self-sustaining brook trout populations. Although brook trout fisheries may be maintained in acidic lakes by liming and stocking, the establishment of self-sustaining brook trout populations is not a likely outcome of these management practices. Additionally, there appears to be limited potential for restoration of lake spawning brook trout populations in currently acidic, fishless lakes should acidic inputs decline as a result of reductions in acid-forming emissions.

  6. Pears (In: Brooks & Olmo Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties List 44)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Names, synonyms, and brief descriptions of new and noteworthy fruit cultivars are periodically published in the "Brooks and Olmo Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties." This paper is the Pear section of the 44th Brooks and Olmo Register and describes the Asian pear cultivar 'Sooyoung' and the Eur...

  7. Environmental Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Mycobacteria in Brook Waters

    PubMed Central

    Iivanainen, E. K.; Martikainen, P. J.; Väänänen, P. K.; Katila, M.-L.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of environmental mycobacteria, viable counts of mycobacteria were measured in samples of brook water collected from 53 drainage areas located in a linear belt crossing Finland at 63° north latitude. The numbers of mycobacteria were correlated with characteristics of the drainage area, climatic parameters, chemical and physical characteristics of the water, and counts of other heterotrophic bacteria in the water. The numbers of mycobacteria in the water ranged from 10 to 2,200 CFU/liter. The counts correlated positively (P < 0.001) with the presence of peatlands, precipitation data, chemical oxygen demand, water color, and concentrations of Fe, Al, Cu, Co, and Cr. The mycobacterial counts correlated negatively (P < 0.001) with water pH, whereas other heterotrophic bacterial counts lacked any correlation with pH. A linear regression model with four independent variables (i.e., peatlands in the drainage area, chemical oxygen demand, concentration of potassium, and pH) explained 83% of the variation in mycobacterial counts in brook waters. Our results suggest that acidification may enhance the growth of environmental mycobacteria. PMID:16348866

  8. Community Contributions to Scholastic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Dunifon, Rachel; Ream, Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    The authors examine the influence of neighborhood characteristics on the academic outcomes of children in middle childhood. Prior research has examined structural features of the community and has evaluated their associations with youth outcomes (Brooks-Gunn, Duncan, Klebanov, & Sealand, 1993; Kowaleski-Jones, 2000). Other research has related…

  9. The Mw4.8 Norris Geyser Basin Earthquake of 30 March, 2014 and its Relationship to Crustal Deformation and Seismic Activity of the Yellowstone Volcanic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, J.; Shelly, D. R.; Smith, R. B.; Puskas, C. M.; Chang, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    The largest earthquake to be recorded in Yellowstone in over 30 years, a magnitude 4.8 earthquake, occurred on March 30, 2014 near the Norris Geyser Basin on the NW side of the 0.64 Ma Yellowstone caldera. The earthquake was felt throughout Yellowstone and the surrounding region. We analyze this unusual event using data from the Yellowstone Seismic and Geodetic networks in the context of active volcanic-tectonic processes of the Yellowstone volcanic system and its relationship to regional swarm seismicity and crustal deformation. Moment tensor analysis of the March 30 earthquake revealed a strike-slip, double-couple source mechanism with no isotropic contribution. This earthquake was part of a larger sequence of earthquake swarm activity in the Norris Geyser Basin area that began in September 2013 and continued into June 2014. During that period, 50-60% of the total seismicity recorded in Yellowstone, including nearly all of the swarm seismicity (earthquakes clustered in time and space), occurred in the Norris Geyser Basin area. In addition, GPS derived deformation data revealed unusually high uplift rates at ~15 cm/yr in the Norris area prior to the MW4.8 event, while a dramatic reversal to subsidence at rates of ~20 cm/yr occurred after the event. Regionally, the much larger Yellowstone caldera had experienced subsidence since January 2010 at rates of ~1.5 cm/yr prior to the MW4.8 event. After March 30, 2014 the caldera reversed to regional uplift at rates of ~10 cm/yr, similar to accelerated uplift rates observed in mid-2004.

  10. Stony Brook's Graduate Courses in Clear, Vivid, Conversational Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, E.

    2011-12-01

    Graduate students in the sciences at Stony Brook University are taking for-credit courses to learn to communicate more effectively about science with people outside their disciplines, including public officials, the press, students, potential funders and employers, colleagues in other fields, and the general public. Five Communicating Science courses are offered; two more will be added in January, 2012. The courses are offered by the School of Journalism and developed by the Center for Communicating Science (CCS). This interdisciplinary center was founded in 2009, with the participation of Alan Alda, the actor, writer, director and longtime advocate for science, who is a Visiting Professor at Stony Brook. At the core of the program are three 1-credit (14-hour) modules that rely on experiential learning, repeated practice and immediate, interactive feedback. In Distilling Your Message, students practice speaking clearly, vividly and conversationally about their work at different levels of complexity and formality to different audiences, using storytelling techniques where appropriate. In Writing for the Public, they extend these skills into writing. In Improvisation for Scientists, the most unconventional of the courses, students play improvisational theater games to help themselves connect more directly, personally and responsively with their audiences. In their first two semesters, the courses are expected to serve about 90 students, taking a total of about 180 credits. Most of the courses have filled quickly, mixing master's and doctoral students from more than a dozen fields, including marine and atmospheric sciences. Three to six credits of Communicating Science courses are required for students in two programs, an MA in Marine Conservation and Policy and an Advanced Certificate in Health Communications. The content and methods of the courses are based largely on lessons learned from evaluations of all-day workshops that CCS has conducted for more than 250

  11. Geological mapping in Doonerak Fenster, Central Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mull, C.C.; Adams, K.E.; Dillon, J.T.

    1985-04-01

    Mapping of the north flank of the Doonerak fenster has traced the Amawk thrust, the sole fault of the Endicott Mountains allochthon, from the North Fork of the Koyukuk River - Mount Doonerak area eastward for more than 40 km (25 mi) to the east plunge of the Doonerak anticline at Koyuktuvuk Creek near the Dietrich River. Mapping has concentrated on the structural style of the area and on the autochthonous or parautochthonous Carboniferous Lisburne Group, Kayak shale, Kekiktuk Conglomerate - which are present along most of the anticline - and Triassic Karen Creek Sandstone, Triassic Shublik Formation, and Permian-Triassic Sadlerochit Group - which are present only in the west. This Triassic to Mississippian section closely resembles the coeval autochthonous to Parautochthonous Ellesmerian section of the subsurface to the north and in the Brooks Range to the northeast.

  12. Progress in radar snow research. [Brookings, South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, W. H.; Ulaby, F. T.; Fung, A. K.; Aslam, A.

    1981-01-01

    Multifrequency measurements of the radar backscatter from snow-covered terrain were made at several sites in Brookings, South Dakota, during the month of March of 1979. The data are used to examine the response of the scattering coefficient to the following parameters: (1) snow surface roughness, (2) snow liquid water content, and (3) snow water equivalent. The results indicate that the scattering coefficient is insensitive to snow surface roughness if the snow is drv. For wet snow, however, surface roughness can have a strong influence on the magnitude of the scattering coefficient. These observations confirm the results predicted by a theoretical model that describes the snow as a volume of Rayleig scatterers, bounded by a Gaussian random surface. In addition, empirical models were developed to relate the scattering coefficient to snow liquid water content and the dependence of the scattering coefficient on water equivalent was evaluated for both wet and dry snow conditions.

  13. Decontamination of the Plum Brook Reactor Facility Hot Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Peecook, K.M.

    2008-07-01

    The NASA Plum Brook Reactor Facility decommissioning project recently completed a major milestone with the successful decontamination of seven hot cells. The cells included thick concrete walls and leaded glass windows, manipulator arms, inter cell dividing walls, and roof slabs. There was also a significant amount of embedded conduit and piping that had to be cleaned and surveyed. Prior to work starting evaluation studies were performed to determine whether it was more cost effective to do this work using a full up removal approach (rip and ship) or to decontaminate the cells to below required clean up levels, leaving the bulk of the material in place. This paper looks at that decision process, how it was implemented, and the results of that effort including the huge volume of material that can now be used as fill during site restoration rather than being disposed of as LLRW. (authors)

  14. Structural architecture of the central Brooks Range foothills, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Thomas E.; Potter, Christopher J.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.

    2002-01-01

    Five structural levels underlie the Brooks Range foothills, from lowest to highest: (1) autochthon, at a depth of ~9 km; (2) Endicott Mountains allochthon (EMA), thickest under the northern Brooks Range (>15 km) and wedging out northward above the autochthon; (3) higher allochthons (HA), with a composite thickness of 1.5+ km, wedging out northward at or beyond the termination of EMA; (4) Aptian-Albian Fortress Mountain Formation (FM), deposited unconformably on deformed EMA and HA and thickening northward into a >7-km-thick succession of deformed turbidites (Torok Formation); (5) gently folded Albian-Cenomanian deltaic deposits (Nanushuk Group). The dominant faulting pattern in levels 2-3 is thin-skinned thrusting and thrust-related folds formed before deposition of Cretaceous strata. These structures are cut by younger steeply south-dipping reverse faults that truncate and juxtapose structural levels 1-4 and expose progressively deeper structural levels to the south. Structural levels 4-5 are juxtaposed along a north-dipping zone of south-vergent folds and thrusts. Stratigraphic and fission-track age data suggest a kinematic model wherein the foothills belt was formed first, by thrusting of HA and EMA as deformational wedges onto the regionally south-dipping authochon at 140-120Ma. After deposition of FM and Torok during mid-Cretaceous hinterland extension and uplift, a second episode of contractional deformation at 60 Ma shortened the older allochthonous deformational wedges (EMA, HA) and overlying strata on north-vergent reverse faults. To the north, where the allochthons wedge out, shortening caused duplexing in the Torok and development of a triangle zone south of the Tuktu escarpment.

  15. Stream acidification and mortality of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in response to timber harvest in Catskill Mountain watersheds, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Burns, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of clear-cut and timber-stand improvement (TSI) harvests on water chemistry and mortality of caged brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were evaluated in a study of three Catskill Mountain streams, 1994-2000. Harvests removed 73% of tree basal area (BA) from a clearcut subbasin, 5% BA from a TSI subbasin, and 14% BA at a site below the confluence of both streams. A fourth nonharvested site served as a control. Water quality and trout mortality were affected only in the clearcut stream. Acidity and concentrations of nitrate and inorganic monomeric aluminum (Alim) increased sharply during high flows after the first growing season (fall 1997). Acid-Alim episodes were severe during this period and decreased steadily in magnitude and duration thereafter. All trout at this site died within 7 days during spring 1998 and 85% died during spring 1999. Only background mortality was observed in other years at this site and at the other three sites during all tests. The absence of mortality in TSI watersheds indicates that limited harvests should not harm brook trout populations in acid-sensitive streams. Effects of tree harvests on fish communities are of concern, however, because many stream-dwelling species are more sensitive to acidified waters than brook trout. ?? 2005 NRC.

  16. Origins of water and solutes in and north of the Norris-Mammoth Corridor, Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Yousif; Mariner, Robert; Ambats, Gil; Evans, William; White, Lloyd; Bullen, Thomas; Kennedy, B. Mack

    1990-01-01

    This study was initiated to investigate the impacts of geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) on the hydrothermal features of Yellowstone National Park. To determine possible hydrogeochemical connections, we used the diagnostic stable and radioactive isotopes of several elements, and the chemical and gas compositions of thermal and cold waters from the Norris-Mammoth Corridor and areas north of the Park. The investigations were particularly comprehensive in the Mammoth Hot Springs area, Corwin Springs KGRA, and Chico Hot Springs. The geochemical tools used are still subject to uncertainties of 1 - 5%. Preliminary interpretation of the data, especially the ??D and ??18O values of water, 87Sr/86Sr ratios, ??11B values, composition and isotopes of noble gases and several conservative chemical species would indicate that the waters from Mammoth Hot Springs and La Duke Spring area have evolved chemically and isotopically by reactions with different rock types, and are probably not directly connected. These data indicate that a component (<20%) of water in Bear Creek Springs may be derived from the Mammoth system.

  17. NASA PLUM BROOK STATION EMPLOYEE MARK WOIKE BRIEFS THE DIRECTOR OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SERVICE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA PLUM BROOK STATION EMPLOYEE MARK WOIKE BRIEFS THE DIRECTOR OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SERVICES - RANDALL FURNAS - ON THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMBUSTOR TECHNOLOGY TESTING IN THE HYPERSONIC TUNNEL FACILITY

  18. CELLS, PROTEINS, AND CERTAIN PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) BLOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory brook trout were used to evaluate, refine, or develop biochemical procedures for the analysis of fish blood. Analytical values were obtained for the following blood properties: total and differential leucocytes and erythrocytes; erythrocyte and plasma proteins (by elec...

  19. Pingos in the Brooks Range, northern Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, T.D.; Obi, Curtis M.

    1982-01-01

    Some 70 pingos occur at 27 separate localities within and near the Brooks Range. The pingos are distributed through mountain valleys at altitudes up to 725m and in terrain glaciated as recently as late Wisconsinan time. Pingos are particularly abundant in the Koyukuk and Chandalar drainage systems of the south-central Brooks Range, where they may be associated with structural features of regional extent.-from Authors

  20. Predicting Brook Trout occurrence in stream reaches throughout their native range in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWeber, Jefferson Tyrell; Wagner, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis is an important species of conservation concern in the eastern USA. We developed a model to predict Brook Trout population status within individual stream reaches throughout the species’ native range in the eastern USA. We utilized hierarchical logistic regression with Bayesian estimation to predict Brook Trout occurrence probability, and we allowed slopes and intercepts to vary among ecological drainage units (EDUs). Model performance was similar for 7,327 training samples and 1,832 validation samples based on the area under the receiver operating curve (∼0.78) and Cohen's kappa statistic (0.44). Predicted water temperature had a strong negative effect on Brook Trout occurrence probability at the stream reach scale and was also negatively associated with the EDU average probability of Brook Trout occurrence (i.e., EDU-specific intercepts). The effect of soil permeability was positive but decreased as EDU mean soil permeability increased. Brook Trout were less likely to occur in stream reaches surrounded by agricultural or developed land cover, and an interaction suggested that agricultural land cover also resulted in an increased sensitivity to water temperature. Our model provides a further understanding of how Brook Trout are shaped by habitat characteristics in the region and yields maps of stream-reach-scale predictions, which together can be used to support ongoing conservation and management efforts. These decision support tools can be used to identify the extent of potentially suitable habitat, estimate historic habitat losses, and prioritize conservation efforts by selecting suitable stream reaches for a given action. Future work could extend the model to account for additional landscape or habitat characteristics, include biotic interactions, or estimate potential Brook Trout responses to climate and land use changes.

  1. Movement patterns of Brook Trout in a restored coastal stream system in southern Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snook, Erin L.; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Dubreuil, Todd L.; Zydlewski, Joseph; O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Hurley, Stephen T.; Danylchuk, Andy J.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations are found from northern Canada to New England. The extent of anadromy generally decreases with latitude, but the ecology and movements of more southern populations are poorly understood. We conducted a 33-month acoustic telemetry study of Brook Trout in Red Brook, MA, and adjacent Buttermilk Bay (marine system) using 16 fixed acoustic receivers and surgically implanting acoustic transmitters in 84 individuals. Tagged Brook Trout used the stream, estuary (50% of individuals) and bay (10% of individuals). Movements into full sea water were brief when occurring. GAMM models revealed that transitions between habitat areas occurred most often in spring and fall. Environmental data suggest that use of the saline environment is limited by summer temperatures in the bay. Movements may also be related to moon phase. Compared to more northern coastal populations of Brook Trout, the Red Brook population appears to be less anadromous overall, yet the estuarine segment of the system may have considerable ecological importance as a food resource.

  2. Paleomagnetism and question of original location of the Permian Brook Street Terrane, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haston, Roger B.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Landis, C. A.; Coombs, D. S.

    1989-08-01

    Over 400 rock samples from 30 sites were collected for paleomagnetic study from the volcanogenic section in the Brook Street terrane within the Takitimu Mountains in western Southland, New Zealand. The section includes igneous and sedimentary rocks of the Permian Takitimu Group and White Hill Intrusive Suite. Many of the samples show a partial or complete remagnetization in the present field because of a recent acquisition of viscous remanent magnetization. An Early Permian direction (inclination = 46.1°, declination = 257°), isolated from the Heartbreak and Chimney Peaks formations of the Takitimu Group, indicates a low paleolatitude to midpaleolatitude, position (27° ± 5°) for the Brook Street terrane. Directions from the Late Permian (?) White Hill Intrusives (inclination = 64.6°, declination = 173.3°) suggest a slightly higher paleolatitude than the Early Permian Takitimu Group directions and 70°-90° of intervening clockwise rotation. Plate reconstructions and paleomagnetic data predict a high paleolatitude for the New Zealand margin of Gondwana throughout the late Paleozoic and Mesozoic. The low paleolatitude to middle paleolatitude, implied by the Early Permian Brook Street result, together with the oceanic nature of the Brook Street arc, suggest that the Brook Street terrane is allochthonous to the margin of Gondwana. A published Late Triassic/Early Jurassic paleomagnetic pole from the adjacent Murihiku terrane indicates a high paleolatitude. This suggests that the Brook Street and Murihiku terranes are genetically distinct.

  3. Enterococcus rivorum sp. nov., from water of pristine brooks.

    PubMed

    Niemi, R Maarit; Ollinkangas, Tuula; Paulin, Lars; Svec, Pavel; Vandamme, Peter; Karkman, Antti; Kosina, Marcel; Lindström, Kristina

    2012-09-01

    A significant number of Enterococcus strains from pristine waters of two brooks in Finland formed a distinct cluster on the basis of whole-cell protein fingerprinting by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE. The strains shared the following characteristics. Cells were ovoid, Gram-positive-staining and non-spore-forming, appearing singly or in pairs or chains. They were facultatively anaerobic and catalase-negative. Growth in broth containing 6.5 % NaCl or at 45 °C was weak or absent. Production of D antigen was variable. The strains tolerated 60 °C for 30 min, 40 % bile and tellurite, hydrolysed aesculin strongly and gelatin weakly, produced no acid from hippurate and did not reduce it, grew weakly at 10 °C, showed a strong reaction for the Voges-Proskauer test and produced acid from methyl α-d-glucoside, mannitol, sorbitol and sucrose, with weak or no production of acid from methyl α-d-mannoside, l-arabinose, gluconate and l-xylose. Several of the strains were selected for identification on the basis of sequencing of almost the whole 16S rRNA gene and partial atpA and pheS genes and of (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprints. Partial atpA and pheS gene sequencing was also performed for those type strains of Enterococcus species without available sequences in the database. The pristine brook isolates formed a novel species, for which the name Enterococcus rivorum sp. nov. (type strain S299(T) = HAMBI 3055(T) = LMG 25899(T) = CCM 7986(T)) is proposed. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, E. rivorum sp. nov. is related to the Enterococcus faecalis genogoup. It is distinguished from described Enterococcus species on the basis of 16S rRNA, atpA and pheS gene sequences and whole-cell protein and (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprints. It is most closely related to E. faecalis, but DNA-DNA hybridization confirms it to represent a novel species. PMID:22058322

  4. Behavioural thermoregulatory tactics in lacustrine brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis.

    PubMed

    Bertolo, Andrea; Pépino, Marc; Adams, Julie; Magnan, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The need to vary body temperature to optimize physiological processes can lead to thermoregulatory behaviours, particularly in ectotherms. Despite some evidence of within-population phenotypic variation in thermal behaviour, the occurrence of alternative tactics of this behaviour is rarely explicitly considered when studying natural populations. The main objective of this study was to determine whether different thermal tactics exist among individuals of the same population. We studied the behavioural thermoregulation of 33 adult brook charr in a stratified lake using thermo-sensitive radio transmitters that measured hourly individual temperature over one month. The observed behavioural thermoregulatory patterns were consistent between years and suggest the existence of four tactics: two "warm" tactics with both crepuscular and finer periodicities, with or without a diel periodicity, and two "cool" tactics, with or without a diel periodicity. Telemetry data support the above findings by showing that the different tactics are associated with different patterns of diel horizontal movements. Taken together, our results show a clear spatio-temporal segregation of individuals displaying different tactics, suggesting a reduction of niche overlap. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing the presence of behavioural thermoregulatory tactics in a vertebrate. PMID:21490935

  5. Structural problems of the Brooks Range ophiolite, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A.; Bickerstaff, D. . Dept. of Geology); Stone, D.B. . Geophysical Inst.)

    1993-04-01

    Structural and paleogeographic restorations of the Brooks Range ophiolite (hereafter BRO) and other associated mafic and ultramafic bodies of N. Alaska are difficult because of ambiguous relations between sheeted dikes, cover sediments, and steep NW and SE dipping magmatic flow fabrics. Paleomagnetically enhanced structural studies at Misheguk, Avan, and Siniktanneyak Mountains provide new constraints for the initial dip and sequence of deformation for various structural features of the BRO. The angle between magmatic layers near the petrologic moho and the paleomagnetic inclination of these layers is 50--63[degree] at Misheguk. High level gabbro layers that are disrupted by syn- and post-cooling intrusions display a greater variation. Assuming that the characteristic magnetization is primary, and that the primary inclination was > 80[degree], magmatic layers and the moho had initial dips from 17--40[degree]. These layers now dip 40--70[degree]SE suggesting some post-magmatic tilt. The variation of inclinations with depth in the ophiolite suggest that high level gabbro has tilted most. Sheeted dikes are documented at the Maiyumerak and Siniktanneyak ophiolite bodies. At both locations the dikes dip steeply and strike NE-SW. Sedimentary and volcanic flow layers associated with the dikes have the same strike and dip 0--30[degree]. Parallelism between various planar features throughout the BRO indicates that rotations about a vertical axis are either uniform throughout the ophiolite belt or negligible. Assuming the later, the BRO may represent a linear zone of SSZ magmatism that was oriented NE-SW prior to collision. Post-emplacement long wavelength folding of the ophiolite lid can account for its variation in facing direction and some steepening of magmatic layers.

  6. Cement stratigraphy of the Lisburne Group, northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.C.; Goldstein, R.H. . Geology Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    Cement stratigraphy serves as a descriptive framework for the interpretation of the diagenetic history of the Carboniferous Lisburne Group, northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska. The Lisburne is a sequence of shallow-water, marine carbonate rocks that have experienced a wide spectrum of diagenetic events: early marine diagenesis, early subaerial exposure, significant erosion and karstification following final Lisburne deposition, deep burial of at least 3,000 meters, compressional tectonism, and final uplift into modern mountain ranges. Compositional zones in the calcite cements were identified by using stains for ferroan calcite and cathodoluminescence microscopy. The cements are, from oldest to youngest: A1-nonferroan, nonluminescent or multibanded calcite; B1-nonferroan to low-ferroan, dull luminescent calcite; C1-ferroan, very-dull luminescent calcite; B2-nonferroan, dull luminescent calcite; A2-nonferroan calcite with 1 or 2 sets of nonluminescent and bright zones; C2-ferroan, very-dull luminescent calcite; Be-nonferroan, dull luminescent calcite. Petrographic studies of cross-cutting relationships show that A1 cements predate or are synchronous with surfaces of subaerial exposure within the Lisburne Group. The cross-cutting relationships include truncation of cements by early fractures, non-marine fissure fills, and at clast margins of autoclastic breccias. Similarly, B1 and C1 cements predate the major unconformity at the top of the Lisburne Group, hence, these cements are pre-Permian in age and may well have precipitated from fresh groundwaters introduced during development of the sub-Permian unconformity. B2 and C2 cements are present in the Permian Echooka formation overlying the Lisburne Group and, thus, can be dated as post-Pennsylvanian. B3 cements are Cretaceous or younger in age.

  7. Diagenesis of the Lisburne Group, northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.C.; Goldstein, R.H.; Enos, P.

    1995-05-01

    Petrographic cathodoluminescence studies of the cement stratigraphy of the Lisburne Group yield insights on its diagenetic history. Crosscutting relationships between features of subaerial exposure and calcite cements show that early generations of nonferroan, nonluminescent and multibanded-luminescent calcites are synchronous with or postdated by subaerial exposure surfaces within the Lisburne. Surfaces of subaerial exposure occur at 18 horizons within the Lisburne and are distinguished by features as laminated crusts, rhizoliths, autoclastic breccia, fissure fills, mud cracks, and erosional surfaces. Crosscutting relationships also occur between calcite cements and clasts in karst breccias and conglomerates that formed along the sub-Permian unconformity at the top of the Lisburne. The sub-Permian unconformity postdates later generations of calcite cement. These cements formed in the following sequence: nonferroan to low-ferroan, dully luminescent calcite; ferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite; and second generation of nonferroan, multibanded calcite. The crosscutting relationships not only constrain the timing of cement precipitation, but also suggest that the cements probably were precipitated from meteoric groundwaters introduced during subaerial exposure of the Lisburne platform. Late cements in the Lisburne postdate the Permian Echooka Formation. These cements are low-ferroan, moderately-bright to dully luminescent calcite, followed by a second generation of ferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite. Features of compaction and pressure solution are coincident with the precipitation of the late ferroan calcite and further constrain its timing to deep burial of the Lisburne. The youngest phase of calcite cement precipitated in the Lisburne Group is nonferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite. It commonly fills tectonically-induced shear fractures, indicating precipitation after the onset of Cretaceous (and/or Cenozoic) tectonism in the northeastern Brooks Range.

  8. Spring and aufeis (icing) hydrology in Brooks Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Kenji; Hinzman, Larry D.; Kane, Douglas L.

    2007-12-01

    Remote sensing studies and field hydrometeorological and geophysical investigations were employed to characterize several aufeis fields in the Brooks Range, Alaska. Geochemical studies were undertaken together with field hydrological measurements to better understand the chemical and thermal properties of stream base flow (groundwater spring) that contributes to winter aufeis development. The spring water temperature was measured at several major aufeis fields using data loggers throughout the year. Aufeis is an important water storage component in the Arctic and influences local ecology and geomorphology. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a useful and sensitive sensor for aufeis detection and for estimating the total volume of storage as well as freeze/thaw conditions. The SAR analysis indicated that the volume of aufeis formed in winter is 27-30% of the annual groundwater discharge in the Kuparuk River. Visible and near-IR satellite imagery indicated many of the high-discharge springs (more than 10-1000 1/s) and aufeis fields are centered around an elevation of 600 m a.s.l. in limestone areas with glacial morphology. Geomorphological investigations indicate that many of springs have continually existed from at least the last glaciation. Microwave data (SAR), thermal infrared, short wave infrared, and visible and near-IR bands were all used to observe the growth, decay, and distribution of aufeis deposits. The remotely sensed data indicate that the distribution of the aufeis deposits today is nearly the same as it was in past colder periods; this was mainly determined by mapping the distributed carbonate precipitates. Also, spring water temperatures and discharge volumes are predictable from the aufeis field size using remotely sensed techniques.

  9. Tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range ophiolite, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Detailed studies of the composition, internal structure, and age of the Brooks Range ophiolite (BRO) and its metamorphic sole reveal new constraints for its tectonic evolution. The BRO consists of six separate thrust masses of consanguineous composition, internal organization, structure and age. Subophiolite metamorphic rocks are locally preserved along its structural base, which is well exposed in several places. The metamorphic sole is locally transitional with mafic volcanic sequences, chert, tuffs, and minor clastic sedimentary material of the Copter Peak Complex, which is correlative with the Angayucham terrane. This terrane is much older than, and chemically distinct from the BRO. The internal structure of the BRO is characterized by NE-SW trending igneous layers that expose the transition zone from crust to mantle. Residual mantle material consists of tectonized peridotite in abrupt contact with dunite pods up to 4 km thick. Ductile and brittle structures of the BRO preserve various phases of its dynamic evolution from a magma body to a fragmented thrust sheet. The earliest deformational effects are recorded by ductile lattice and shape fabrics in dunites and the layered series of the BRO. Magmatic flow planes generally parallel the petrologic moho, and dip 40[degree]--70[degree] to the NW and SE. Flow lineations consistently plunge ESE-ENE from 39[degree]--54[degree]. Igneous laminations and compositional layers represent patterns of magmatic flow in, and plastic deformation of, a cumulate sequence -- not the deposition pattern of cumulate layers. In the upper layered series, amphiboles with a shape-preferred orientation yield Ar/Ar plateau ages of 163--169 Ma. These ages overlap with plateau ages of the same kind from amphibolite of the metamorphic sole. This concordance in age indicates that cooling of the BRO coincided with its tectonic emplacement.

  10. Stochastic life history modeling for managing regional-scale freshwater fisheries: an experimental study of brook trout.

    PubMed

    Adams, Blair K; Cote, David; Fleming, Ian A

    2016-04-01

    Environmental heterogeneity can combine with evolutionary responses to create very dynamic and often locally independent populations across a landscape. Such complexity creates difficulties for managers trying to conserve populations across large areas. This study develops, applies, and tests the use of stochastic life history modeling and Monte Carlo simulation to assess management scenarios related to the realities of regional fisheries management and conservation. We apply this approach to the management of recreational brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) fishing; an activity that can severely impact species balance, abundance, and the size structure of fish communities. Specifically, the model incorporates population-specific life-history information (e.g., growth rate, reproductive effort, and survival) to allow forecasts of the impact of various management strategies and/or changes to environmental conditions on a population's ecological characteristics (e.g., size structure, abundance, and probability of persistence). Sampling was carried out in 16 water bodies spread across four sites in Atlantic Canada. Each water body was sampled in 2005 and reassessed in 2008. This sampling had two primary objectives: (1) define a significant proportion of life-history variation of brook trout in Atlantic Canada, and (2) to test the precision and accuracy of model predictions of population responses to experimental exploitation and management changes. The model successfully predicted population responses to changes in adult survival in 12 of 13 populations having sufficient data for validation testing, while also proving to be a useful tool when engaging stakeholders regarding management options and their associated risk. We suggest that such models are cost-effective and have great potential for informing proactive management of jurisdictions with numerous and diverse populations. PMID:27411259

  11. Conservation genetics of Lake Superior brook trout: Issues, questions, and directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, C.C.; Stott, W.; Miller, L.; D'Amelio, S.; Jennings, Martin J.; Cooper, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Parallel efforts by several genetic research groups have tackled common themes relating to management concerns about and recent rehabilitation opportunities for coaster brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in Lake Superior. The questions that have been addressed include the evolutionary and genetic status of coaster brook trout, the degree of relatedness among coaster populations and their relationship to riverine tributary brook trout populations, and the role and effectiveness of stocking in maintaining and restoring coasters to Lake Superior. Congruent genetic results indicate that coasters are an ecotype (life history variant) rather than an evolutionarily significant unit or genetically distinct strain. Regional structure exists among brook trout stocks, coasters being produced from local populations. Introgression of hatchery genes into wild populations appears to vary regionally and may relate to local population size, habitat integrity, and anthropogenic pressures. Tracking the genetic diversity and integrity associated with captive breeding programs is helping to ensure that the fish used for stocking are representative of their source populations and appropriate for rehabilitation efforts. Comparative analysis of shared samples among collaborating laboratories is enabling standardization of genotype scoring and interpretation as well as the development of a common toolkit for assessing genetic structure and diversity. Incorporation of genetic data into rehabilitation projects will facilitate monitoring efforts and subsequent adaptive management. Together, these multifaceted efforts provide comprehensive insights into the biology of coaster brook trout and enhance restoration options. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  12. Does the introduced brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) affect growth of the native brown trout ( Salmo trutta)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsu, Kai; Huusko, Ari; Muotka, Timo

    2009-03-01

    Non-native brook trout have become widely established in North European streams. We combined evidence from an artificial-stream experiment and drainage-scale field surveys to examine whether brook trout suppressed the growth of the native brown trout (age 0 to age 2). Our experimental results demonstrated that brown trout were unaffected by the presence of brook trout but that brook trout showed reduced growth in the presence of brown trout. However, the growth reduction only appeared in the experimental setting, indicating that the reduced spatial constraint of the experimental system may have forced the fish to unnaturally intense interactions. Indeed, in the field, no effect of either species on the growth of the putative competitor was detected. These results caution against uncritical acceptance of findings from small-scale experiments because they rarely scale up to more complex field situations. This and earlier work suggest that the establishment of brook trout in North European streams has taken place mainly because of the availability of unoccupied (or underutilized) niche space, rather than as a result of species trait combinations or interspecific competition per se.

  13. Dietary calcein marking of brook trout, Atlantic salmon, yellow perch, and coho salmon scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Ostrowski, C.S.; Fletcher, J.W.; Mohler, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and yellow perch Perca flavescens fed calcein for 5 d showed characteristic calcein scale marks 7-10 d postmarking. In fish fed 0.75 or 1.25 g of calcein per kilogram of feed, the percentage of fish that exhibited a calcein mark was 100% in brook trout, 93-98% in Atlantic salmon, 60% in yellow perch, and 0% in coho salmon. However, when coho salmon were fed 5.25 g calcein/kg feed, 100% marking was observed 7-10 d postmarking. Brook trout were successfully marked twice with distinct bands when fed calcein 5 months apart. Brook trout scale pixel luminosity increased as dietary calcein increased in experiment 2. For the second calcein mark, scale pixel luminosity from brook trout fed 1.25 g calcein/kg feed was numerically higher (P < 0.08) than scales from fish fed 0.75 g calcein/kg feed. Mean pixel luminosity of calcein-marked Atlantic salmon scales was 57.7 for fish fed 0.75 g calcein/kg feed and 55.2 for fish fed 1.25 g calcein/kg feed. Although feed acceptance presented a problem in yellow perch, these experiments provide evidence that dietary calcein is a viable tool for marking fish for stock identification. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  14. HPLC and ELISA analyses of larval bile acids from Pacific and western brook lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yun, S.-S.; Scott, A.P.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.; Close, D.A.; Li, W.

    2003-01-01

    Comparative studies were performed on two native lamprey species, Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) and western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni) from the Pacific coast along with sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Great Lakes, to investigate their bile acid production and release. HPLC and ELISA analyses of the gall bladders and liver extract revealed that the major bile acid compound from Pacific and western brook larval lampreys was petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), previously identified as a migratory pheromone in larval sea lamprey. An ELISA for PZS has been developed in a working range of 20pg-10ng per well. The tissue concentrations of PZS in gall bladder were 127.40, 145.86, and 276.96??g/g body mass in sea lamprey, Pacific lamprey, and western brook lamprey, respectively. Releasing rates for PZS in the three species were measured using ELISA to find that western brook and sea lamprey released PZS 20 times higher than Pacific lamprey did. Further studies are required to determine whether PZS is a chemical cue in Pacific and western brook lampreys. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Science in Flux: NASA's Nuclear Program at Plum Brook Station 1955-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Science in Flux traces the history of one of the most powerful nuclear test reactors in the United States and the only nuclear facility ever built by NASA. In the late 1950's NASA constructed Plum Brook Station on a vast tract of undeveloped land near Sandusky, Ohio. Once fully operational in 1963, it supported basic research for NASA's nuclear rocket program (NERVA). Plum Brook represents a significant, if largely forgotten, story of nuclear research, political change, and the professional culture of the scientists and engineers who devoted their lives to construct and operate the facility. In 1973, after only a decade of research, the government shut Plum Brook down before many of its experiments could be completed. Even the valiant attempt to redefine the reactor as an environmental analysis tool failed, and the facility went silent. The reactors lay in costly, but quiet standby for nearly a quarter-century before the Nuclear Regulatory Commission decided to decommission the reactors and clean up the site. The history of Plum Brook reveals the perils and potentials of that nuclear technology. As NASA, Congress, and space enthusiasts all begin looking once again at the nuclear option for sending humans to Mars, the echoes of Plum Brook's past will resonate with current policy and space initiatives.

  16. Characterizing Thermal features in Norris Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Using Multi- spectral Remote Sensing Data and Dynamic Calibration Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, C. C.; Queen, L. P.; Heasler, H. P.; Jaworowski, C.

    2007-12-01

    A thermal infrared remote sensing project was implemented to develop methods for identifying, classifying, and mapping thermal features. This study is directed at geothermal features, with the expectation that new protocols developed here will apply to the wildland fire thermal environment. Airborne multi-spectral digital imagery were acquired over the geothermally active Norris Basin region of Yellowstone National Park, USA. Two image acquisitions were flown, with one acquisition near solar noon and the other at night. Raw data from the five sensors were uncalibrated, so a vicarious calibration procedure was developed to compute reflectance for the visible and NIR bands using an independently calibrated hyperspectral dataset. Calibration of the thermal sensor band utilized a dynamic, in-scene calibration procedure that exploited natural, pseudo-invariant thermal reference targets instrumented with in situ kinetic temperature recorders. The calibrated reflectance and radiant temperature data from each acquisition were processed and analyzed to develop a suite of thermal attributes, including radiant temperatures, a daytime-nighttime temperature difference (DeltaT), albedo, an albedo derivative (one minus albedo), and apparent thermal inertia (ATI). The albedo terms were computed using a published weighed-average albedo algorithm based on ratios of the narrowband red and near-infrared (NIR) reflectances to total solar irradiance for the respective red and NIR bandpasses. The weighing factors for each band were the proportion of total solar irradiance incident on the surface within each segment represented by a respective bandpass. In the absence of verifiable "truth," a step-wise chain of unsupervised classification and multivariate analysis exercises was performed, drawing heavily on "fuzzy truth" to assess the quality, efficiency, and efficacy of classification procedures and results. A final classification synthesizes a "geothermal phenomenology" comprised of

  17. Using noble gases measured in spring discharge to trace hydrothermal processes in the Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, W.P.; Susong, D.D.; Solomon, D.K.; Heasler, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Dissolved noble gas concentrations in springs are used to investigate boiling of hydrothermal water and mixing of hydrothermal and shallow cool water in the Norris Geyser Basin area. Noble gas concentrations in water are modeled for single stage and continuous steam removal. Limitations on boiling using noble gas concentrations are then used to estimate the isotopic effect of boiling on hydrothermal water, allowing the isotopic composition of the parent hydrothermal water to be determined from that measured in spring. In neutral chloride springs of the Norris Geyser Basin, steam loss since the last addition of noble gas charged water is less than 30% of the total hydrothermal discharge, which results in an isotopic shift due to boiling of ?? 2.5% ??D. Noble gas concentrations in water rapidly and predictably change in dual phase systems, making them invaluable tracers of gas-liquid interaction in hydrothermal systems. By combining traditional tracers of hydrothermal flow such as deuterium with dissolved noble gas measurements, more complex hydrothermal processes can be interpreted. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genomes of paired species northern brook lamprey (Ichthyomyzon fossor) and silver lamprey (I. unicuspis).

    PubMed

    Ren, Jianfeng; Buchinger, Tyler; Pu, Jiafei; Jia, Liang; Li, Weiming

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenomes of paired species northern brook lamprey (Ichthyomyzon fossor) and silver lamprey (I. unicuspis) is reported. The two mitogenomes show a 13 bp length difference on the tRNA-Gly and two control regions. The gene order and contents are conserved in the two lampreys and identical to the lamprey mitogenomes published. Except for three indel polymorphic sites, there are 27 SNP sites which are all synonymous substitution sites and occurred on 9 protein-coding genes, two rRNAs and one tRNA. The control region1 contains six consecutive 39-nt repetitive strings in both lampreys. A 7-nt repetitive string in the control region2 is repeated 3 and 5 times in northern brook lamprey and silver lamprey, respectively. The observed level of similarity between nucleotide sequences (99.74%) is consistent with the hypothesis that northern brook lamprey and silver lamprey represent two ecotypes of one species. PMID:25319286

  19. William Keith Brooks and the naturalist's defense of Darwinism in the late-nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Nash, Richard

    2015-06-01

    William Keith Brooks was an American zoologist at Johns Hopkins University from 1876 until his death in 1908. Over the course of his career, Brooks staunchly defended Darwinism, arguing for the centrality of natural selection in evolutionary theory at a time when alternative theories, such as neo-Lamarckism, grew prominent in American biology. In his book The Law of Heredity (1883), Brooks addressed problems raised by Darwin's theory of pangenesis. In modifying and developing Darwin's pangenesis, Brooks proposed a new theory of heredity that sought to avoid the pitfalls of Darwin's hypothesis. In so doing he strengthened Darwin's theory of natural selection by undermining arguments for the inheritance of acquired characteristics. In later attacks on neo-Lamarckism, Brooks consistently defended Darwin's theory of natural selection on logical grounds, continued to challenge the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, and argued that natural selection best explained a wide range of adaptations. Finally, he critiqued Galton's statistical view of heredity and argued that Galton had resurrected an outmoded typological concept of species, one which Darwin and other naturalists had shown to be incorrect. Brooks's ideas resemble the "biological species concept" of the twentieth century, as developed by evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr and others. The late-nineteenth century was not a period of total "eclipse" of Darwinism, as biologists and historians have hitherto seen it. Although the "Modern Synthesis" refers to the reconciliation of post-Mendelian genetics with evolution by natural selection, we might adjust our understanding of how the synthesis developed by seeing it as the culmination of a longer discussion that extends back to the late-nineteenth century. PMID:26013644

  20. 78 FR 8582 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Brooks River Visitor Access for Katmai National Park and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Register on that date (77 FR 37707). The public comment period ran from June 22 through August 20, 2012... Lake barge landing area at the mouth of the Brooks River. A no-action alternative is also evaluated. If... feet south of the mouth of the Brooks River. A new road segment (about 100 ft. long) would...

  1. 2014 Earthquake Swarm in Northwest Brooks Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, N. A.; Holtkamp, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    An unusual sequence of earthquakes in NW Brooks Range region of Alaska began with two magnitude 5.7 earthquakes within minutes of each other on April 18, 2014. These events were followed by a vigorous aftershock sequence with many aftershocks reaching magnitude 4 and higher. Later, three more magnitude 5.7 earthquakes occurred in the same source region on May 3, June 7 and June 16. Earthquake source mechanisms indicate normal faulting on SE-NW striking fault planes. The source region is located ~20 km NE of the Noatak village and ~40 km S of the Red Dog Mine. A magnitude 5.5 occurred in this area in 1981. The 1981 sequence also exhibited a swarm-like behavior over the course of 6 months. Detection and reporting of these earthquakes is complicated by sparseness of seismic network in NW Alaska. At the time of April 18 earthquake the nearest seismic site was located at the Red Dog Mine, with the next nearest station 350 km away. Following the May 3 event, the Alaska Earthquake Center installed two additional temporary stations, one in Noatak and another in Kotzebue, 85 km S of the source area. Overall, 450 events were reported in this sequence through end of July. The catalog magnitude of completeness with the additional stations was about ~2.2. We applied waveform template matching algorithm to detect additional events in this sequence that could not be detected with the standard network processing. The template matching resulted in ~600 additional event detections. The waveform cross-correlation indicates that most of the events are not repeating sources. From the catalogued events, only 6% of event pairs have correlation coefficients of 0.75 or higher. We were able to identify only a few families of repeating events. Only one family seemed to be present throughout the entire sequence, while other event families were mostly short-lived. We find preliminary evidence that the earthquakes migrated to shallower depths throughout the sequence, consistent with the

  2. Seismic images of the Brooks Range, Arctic Alaska, reveal crustal- scale duplexing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuis, G.S.; Levander, A.R.; Lutter, W.J.; Wissinger, E.S.; Moore, T.E.; Christensen, N.I.

    1995-01-01

    An integrated set of seismic reflection and refraction data collected across the Brooks Range, Arctic Alaska, in 1990, has yielded a composite image of this Mesozoic and Cenozoic fold-and-thrust belt that reveals duplexing to lower-crustal depths. Interpretations from this image are discussed. The position of the thickest crust may indicate that either the duplexed crust above the decollement was thrust onto and depressed the plate beneath the North Slope or the protracted tectonic history of the Brooks Range has left structures not simply explainable in terms of a single collisional event. -from Authors

  3. Bioavailability of metals in stream food webs and hazards to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the upper Animas River watershed, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.; Church, S.E.; Kimball, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    The water quality, habitats, and biota of streams in the upper Animas River watershed of Colorado, USA, are affected by metal contamination associated with acid drainage. We determined metal concentrations in components of the food web of the Animas River and its tributaries - periphyton (aufwuchs), benthic invertebrates, and livers of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) - and evaluated pathways of metal exposure and hazards of metal toxicity to stream biota. Concentrations of the toxic metals cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in periphyton, benthic invertebrates, and trout livers from one or more sites in the upper Animas River were significantly greater than those from reference sites. Periphyton from sites downstream from mixing zones of acid and neutral waters had elevated concentrations of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) reflecting deposition of colloidal Fe and Al oxides, and reduced algal biomass. Metal concentrations in benthic invertebrates reflected differences in feeding habits and body size among taxa, with greatest concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Cd in the small mayfly Rhithrogena, which feeds on periphyton, and greatest concentrations of Pb in the small stonefly Zapada, a detritivore. Concentrations of Zn and Pb decreased across each trophic linkage, whereas concentrations of Cu and Cd were similar across several trophic levels, suggesting that Cu and Cd were more efficiently transferred via dietary exposure. Concentrations of Cu in invertebrates and trout livers were more closely associated with impacts on trout populations and invertebrate communities than were concentrations of Zn, Cd, or Pb. Copper concentrations in livers of brook trout from the upper Animas River were substantially greater than background concentrations and approached levels associated with reduced brook trout populations in field studies and with toxic effects on other salmonids in laboratory studies. These results indicate that bioaccumulation and transfer of

  4. Bioavailability of metals in stream food webs and hazards to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the upper Animas River watershed, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Besser, J M; Brumbaugh, W G; May, T W; Church, S E; Kimball, B A

    2001-01-01

    The water quality, habitats, and biota of streams in the upper Animas River watershed of Colorado, USA, are affected by metal contamination associated with acid drainage. We determined metal concentrations in components of the food web of the Animas River and its tributaries-periphyton (aufwuchs), benthic invertebrates, and livers of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)-and evaluated pathways of metal exposure and hazards of metal toxicity to stream biota. Concentrations of the toxic metals cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in periphyton, benthic invertebrates, and trout livers from one or more sites in the upper Animas River were significantly greater than those from reference sites. Periphyton from sites downstream from mixing zones of acid and neutral waters had elevated concentrations of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) reflecting deposition of colloidal Fe and Al oxides, and reduced algal biomass. Metal concentrations in benthic invertebrates reflected differences in feeding habits and body size among taxa, with greatest concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Cd in the small mayfly Rhithrogena, which feeds on periphyton, and greatest concentrations of Pb in the small stonefly Zapada, a detritivore. Concentrations of Zn and Pb decreased across each trophic linkage, whereas concentrations of Cu and Cd were similar across several trophic levels, suggesting that Cu and Cd were more efficiently transferred via dietary exposure. Concentrations of Cu in invertebrates and trout livers were more closely associated with impacts on trout populations and invertebrate communities than were concentrations of Zn, Cd, or Pb. Copper concentrations in livers of brook trout from the upper Animas River were substantially greater than background concentrations and approached levels associated with reduced brook trout populations in field studies and with toxic effects on other salmonids in laboratory studies. These results indicate that bioaccumulation and transfer of metals in

  5. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF LEAD EXPOSURE ON THREE GENERATIONS OF BROOK TROUT ('SALVELINUS FONTINALIS')

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of three generations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) to mean total lead concentrations (0.9-474 microg/l) showed that all second-generation trout exposed to 235 and 474 microg Pb/l and 34% of those exposed to 119 microg Pb/l developed severe spinal deformities (sc...

  6. Temperature and competition between bull trout and brook trout: A test of the elevation refuge hypothesis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the elevation refuge hypothesis that colder water temperatures impart a competitive advantage to bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and thus account for increased biotic resistance to invasion and displacement by brook trout S. fontinalis in headwater streams. Growth, survival, and behavio...

  7. Modeling ecohydrologic processes at Hubbard Brook: Initial results for Watershed 6 stream discharge and chemistry

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Hubbard Brook Long Term Ecological Research site has produced some of the most extensive and long-running databases on the hydrology, biology and chemistry of forest ecosystem responses to climate and forest harvest. We used these long-term databases to calibrate and apply G...

  8. IMPACTS OF MARINE AEROSOLS ON SURFACE WATER CHEMISTRY AT BEAR BROOK WATERSHED, MAINE USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The East Bear catchment at Bear Brook Watershed, Maine receives moderate (for the eastern U.S.) amounts of Cl- in wet and dry deposition. In 1989, Cl- in precipitation ranged from 2 to 55 eq/L. Dry, occult, and wet deposition plus evapotranspiration resulted in stream Cl- averagi...

  9. Technology Education for All (Role of the Department of Technology and Society at Stony Brook).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truxal, John G.

    Studies offered by the Department of Technology and Society at the State University of New York at Stony Brook are described. The program of studies for nonengineering students provides an introduction to the characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of the technological environment. The college provides courses for undergraduates in the…

  10. RANDOMIZED INTERVENTION ANALYSIS OF THE BEHAVIOR OF BEAR BROOK WATERSHED, MAINE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aquatic Effects Research Program (AERP) within the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), the U.S. federal plan for effects research for acidic deposition, funded the EPA Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) project. he major objectives of BBWM were to 1) ide...

  11. 75 FR 38716 - Safety Zone; Vietnam Veterans of America Fireworks Display, Brookings, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Vietnam Veterans of America Fireworks... Veterans of America Fireworks Display near Brookings, Oregon. This action is necessary to ensure the safety... with fireworks displays on navigable waters. Accordingly, under 5 U.S.C. 553(b)(B), the Coast...

  12. MINERAL WEATHERING RATES FROM SMALL-PLOT EXPERIMENTS, WMP SITE, BEAR BROOKS, MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pH-dependence of silicate mineral weathering rates was measured in small-plot experiments at the Bear Brooks Watershed Manipulation Project site in Maine, U.S.A. ix 2 m2 plots were acidified with solutions of HCL in deionized water at pH values of 2, 2.5, and 3. Acid applicat...

  13. MORTALITY OF BROOK TROUT, MOTTLED SCULPINS, AND SLIMY SCULPINS DURING ACIDIC EPISODES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, mottled sculpins Cottus bairdi, and slimy sculpins Cottus cognatus occur in many Pennsylvania streams that have depressed pH and elevated aluminum concentrations during episodes of high stream discharge (acidic episodes). e performed 20-d in sit...

  14. SOIL ALUMINUM DISTRIBUTION IN THE NEAR-STREAM ZONE AT THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED IN MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-stream and upslope soil chemical properties were analyzed to infer linkages between soil and surface water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine [BBWM]. Organic and mineral soil samples were collected along six 20 m transects perpendicular to the stream and one 200 ...

  15. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF ZINC EXPOSURES ON BROOK TROUT ('SALVELINUS FONTINALIS')

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of three generations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) to zinc concentrations ranging from 2.6 to 534 micrograms/liter produced no significant harmful effects. During a separate exposure of embryos and larvae, 1,368 micrograms Zn/liter significantly reduced (P = 0.0...

  16. Distribution of volatile organic compounds in sediments near Sutton Brook Disposal Area, Tewksbury, Massachusetts, May 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, P.E.; Lyford, F.P.; Clifford, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Ground water at the Sutton Brook Disposal Area, a former municipal landfill in Tewksbury, Massachusetts, located adjacent to Sutton Brook, a tributary of the Shawsheen River, is contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results from the use of passive-vapor-diffusion samplers show vapor concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons as high as 500,000 parts per billion by volume in pore waters of streambed sediments along an approximate 2,000-foot reach of Sutton Brook where it flows between lobes of the former landfill. Petroleum hydrocarbons were also detected in the sediments on the eastern shore of Quarry Pond, which is south of the southern landfill lobe, with a maximum vapor concentration near 2,000 parts per billion by volume. Vapor concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediments of Sutton Brook vary by two to three orders-of-magitude over distances of 50 to 100 feet. Chlorinated hydrocarbons also were detected with passive-vapor-diffusion samplers, but generally at locations downstream of where petroleum hydrocarbons were detected, and mostly at vapor concentrations of less than 100 parts per billion by volume.

  17. Effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature (10, 14, 18, and 22??C) on survival and development of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata and western brook lampreys L. richardsoni during embryological and early larval stages. The temperature for zero development was estimated for each species, and the response to temperature was measured as the proportion of individuals surviving to hatch, surviving to the larval stage, and exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage (i.e., malformations of the body). The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.850C for Pacific lampreys and 4.97??C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18??C, followed by 14, 10, and 22??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook lampreys than for Pacific lampreys; however, the overall difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Overall survival significantly decreased from the time of hatch (proportion surviving = 0.85) to the larval stage (0.82; i.e., during the free-embryo stage). The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22??C, followed by 18, 10, and 14??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. These data provide baseline information on the thermal requirements of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys and will aid in assessment and prediction of suitable spawning and rearing habitats for these species.

  18. EFFECTS OF PHOTOPERIOD MANIPULATION ON BROOK TROUT REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT, FECUNDITY, AND CIRCULATING SEX STEROID CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of conducting reproductive studies with brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis at times other than the normal fall-spawning period...Overall viability of embryos from this spring spawning was slightly lower than the average viabi...

  19. DISTRIBUTION OF FINGERLING BROOK TROUT, SALVELINUS FONTINALIS (MITCHELL), IN DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONCENTRATION GRADIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A self-recording linear gradient tank and procedures are described in which individual brook trout fingerlings unstressed by recent transfer, unaccustomed surroundings or the presence of an observer could move freely in 16 oxygen concentration gradients within the limits of 1 and...

  20. Brook trout nutritional analysis for inclusion into the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many species of wild game and fish that are legal to hunt or catch do not have nutrition information in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Among those species that lack nutrition information are brook trout. The research team worked with the Nutrient Data Laboratory wit...

  1. EXPERIMENTAL ACIDIFICATION CAUSES SOIL BASE-CATION DEPLETION AT THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED IN MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is concern that changes in atmospheric deposition, climate, or land use have altered the biogeochemistry of forests causing soil base-cation depletion, particularly Ca. The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) is a paired watershed experiment with one watershed subjected to...

  2. William Graham Brooke (1835-1907): Advocate of Girls' Superior Schooling in Nineteenth-Century Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of William Graham Brooke as advocate of women's higher education and access to university. His work as advocate is considered against the religious, political, social and economic backdrop of late nineteenth century Ireland. A barrister, as Clerk in the Lord Chancellor's office, he was centrally involved in the…

  3. Essences, Unifyings, and Black Militancy: Major Themes in Gwendolyn Brooks's "Family Pictures" and "Beckonings"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansell, William H.

    1977-01-01

    Demonstrates that midway through the decade of the 1970s, Gwendolyn Brooks continues to be inspired by the same subjects; militancy and communal unity, the celebration of blackness, black heroes, love, religion, and the role of the poet, were the burden of her poems in earlier periods. (MB)

  4. Decontamination of Hot Cells and Hot Pipe Tunnel at NASA's Plum Brook Reactor Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.G.; Halishak, W.F.

    2008-07-01

    The large scale decontamination of the concrete Hot Cells and Hot Pipe Tunnel at NASA's Plum Brook Reactor Facility demonstrates that novel management and innovative methods are crucial to ensuring that the successful remediation of the most contaminated facilities can be achieved with minimal risk to the project stakeholders. (authors)

  5. Brooks Global Studies Extended-Year Magnet School. Profiles of Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishnietsky, Dan H.

    Extending the school year and incorporating global education into the curriculum are two educational innovations that have developed in response to demand for improved educational quality. This handbook profiles how educators and parents in Greensboro, North Carolina, planned Brooks Magnet School and implemented its 210-day, year-round calendar,…

  6. A comparative and experimental evaluation of performance of stocked diploid and triploid brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budy, Phaedra E.; Thiede, G.P.; Dean, A.; Olsen, D.; Rowley, G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous negative impacts, nonnative trout are still being stocked to provide economically and socially valuable sport fisheries in western mountain lakes. We evaluated relative performance and potential differences in feeding strategy and competitive ability of triploid versus diploid brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in alpine lakes, as well as behavioral and performance differences of diploid and triploid brook trout in two controlled experimental settings: behavioral experiments in the laboratory and performance evaluations in ponds. Across lakes, catch per unit effort (CPUE) and relative weight (Wr ) were not significantly different between ploidy levels. Mean sizes were also similar between ploidy levels except in two of the larger lakes where diploids attained slightly larger sizes (approximately 20 mm longer). We observed no significant differences between diploids and triploids in diet, diet preference, or trophic structure. Similarly, growth and condition did not differ between ploidy levels in smaller-scale pond experiments, and aggressive behavior did not differ between ploidy levels (fed or unfed fish trials) in the laboratory. Independent of ploidy level, the relative performance of brook trout varied widely among lakes, a pattern that appeared to be a function of lake size or a factor that covaries with lake size such as temperature regime or carrying capacity. In summary, we observed no significant differences in the relative performance of brook trout from either ploidy level across a number of indices, systems, and environmental conditions, nor any indication that one group is more aggressive or a superior competitor than the other. Collectively, these results suggest that triploid brook trout will offer a more risk-averse and promising management opportunity when they are stocked to these lakes and elsewhere to simultaneously meet the needs for the sport fishery and conservation objectives.

  7. Brook trout movement in response to temperature, flow, and thermal refugia within a complex Appalachian riverscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petty, J. Todd; Hansbarger, Jeff L.; Huntsman, Brock M.; Mazik, Patricia M.

    2012-01-01

    We quantified movements of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta in a complex riverscape characterized by a large, open-canopy main stem and a small, closed-canopy tributary in eastern West Virginia, USA. Our objectives were to quantify the overall rate of trout movement and relate movement behaviors to variation in streamflow, water temperature, and access to coldwater refugia. The study area experienced extremely high seasonal, yearly, and among-stream variability in water temperature and flow. The relative mobility of brook trout within the upper Shavers Fork watershed varied significantly depending on whether individuals resided within the larger main stem or the smaller tributary. The movement rate of trout inhabiting the main stem during summer months (50 m/d) was an order of magnitude higher than that of tributary fish (2 m/d). Movement rates of main-stem-resident brook trout during summer were correlated with the maximum water temperature experienced by the fish and with the fish's initial distance from a known coldwater source. For main-stem trout, use of microhabitats closer to cover was higher during extremely warm periods than during cooler periods; use of microhabitats closer to cover during warm periods was also greater for main-stem trout than for tributary inhabitants. Main-stem-resident trout were never observed in water exceeding 19.5°C. Our study provides some of the first data on brook trout movements in a large Appalachian river system and underscores the importance of managing trout fisheries in a riverscape context. Brook trout conservation in this region will depend on restoration and protection of coldwater refugia in larger river main stems as well as removal of barriers to trout movement near tributary and main-stem confluences.

  8. Conditions for creativity: lessons for lesbians in the lives of Romaine Brooks and Terry Wolverton.

    PubMed

    Walker, Diane

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the lives of Terry Wolverton, former lesbian separatist artist at The Women's Building, Los Angeles and now a mythical writer and visionary, and lesbian painter, Romaine Brooks. Whereas superficially their lives appear to have little in common other than that they were both lesbian artists, similarities can be found in stories linking them in ways previously un-examined before. Both came from abusive family backgrounds, Wolverton surviving sexual abuse and alcoholism, while Brooks' life was marred by a frightening mother and a father who deserted her. Using autobiography and biographical sources, Walker analyzes the creative conditions under which lesbian art may thrive. For a time, gay and lesbian art flourished in the United States. Brooks' portraits of "butch" lesbians became synonymous with popular images of twentieth-century lesbians. Wolverton's work with other lesbian artists in The Lesbian Art Project of 1977-1980 documents their engagement with art. The conditions required for creativity of whatever kind involves journeys and Walker uses the concept of "journeying" as a metaphor to describe the internal and external processes that of necessity accompany the creative act. The content of the article examines what can be learned from the lives of Brooks and Wolverton. Historically the "artist story" (Kunstlerroman) has focused on male and female heterosexual artists. The study of more recent autobiographical accounts permits an examination of the development of artists with cultural differences, and makes it possible to ask what conditions need be in place for lesbian artists to create art to "unfetter the self" when the self in question is different. Walker concludes that the early experiences of Wolverton and Brooks had a profound effect on their adult lives, as both made circuitous creative journeys in attempts to overcome the trauma of childhood years. Whereas one succeeded, the other failed due to the different cultural conditions

  9. Biological consequences of the coaster brook trout restoration stocking program in Lake Superior tributaries with Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, Jill B.K.; Stott, Wendylee; Loope, Delora M.; Kusnierz, Paul C.; Sreenivasan, Ashwin

    2013-01-01

    The coaster Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis is a Lake Superior ecotype representing intraspecific variation that has been impacted by habitat loss and overfishing. Hatchery strains of Brook Trout derived from populations in Lake Superior were stocked into streams within Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan, as part of an effort to rehabilitate adfluvial coaster Brook Trout. Wild and hatchery Brook Trout from three streams (Mosquito River, Hurricane River, and Sevenmile Creek) were examined for movement behavior, size, physiology, and reproductive success. Behavior and size of the stocked fish were similar to those of wild fish, and less than 15% of the stocked, tagged Brook Trout emigrated from the river into which they were stocked. There was little evidence of successful reproduction by stocked Brook Trout. Similar to the results of other studies, our findings suggest that the stocking of nonlocal Brook Trout strains where a local population already exists results in limited natural reproduction and should be avoided, particularly if the mechanisms governing the ecotype of interest are poorly understood.

  10. A novel missense mutation in the NDP gene in a child with Norrie disease and severe neurological involvement including infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Lev, Dorit; Weigl, Yuval; Hasan, Mariana; Gak, Eva; Davidovich, Michael; Vinkler, Chana; Leshinsky-Silver, Esther; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Watemberg, Nathan

    2007-05-01

    Norrie disease (ND) is a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterized by congenital blindness and in some cases, mental retardation and deafness. Other neurological complications, particularly epilepsy, are rare. We report on a novel mutation identified in a patient with ND and profound mental retardation. The patient was diagnosed at the age of 6 months due to congenital blindness. At the age of 8 months he developed infantile spasms, which were diagnosed at 11 months as his EEG demonstrated hypsarrhythmia. Mutation analysis of the ND gene (NDP) of the affected child and his mother revealed a novel missense mutation at position c.134T > A resulting in amino acid change at codon V45E. To the best of our knowledge, such severe neurological involvement has not been previously reported in ND patients. The severity of the phenotype may suggest the functional importance of this site of the NDP gene. PMID:17334993

  11. Using Multiple Environmental Age Tracers to Investigate Interactions between Hydrothermal and Shallow Local Systems in the Norris Geyser Basin Area, Yellowstone National Park.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, P.; Susong, D.; Solomon, D. K.; Heasler, H.

    2008-12-01

    Multiple age tracers are used to constrain the evolution of groundwater and interactions between shallow local flow and the hydrothermal system in the area surrounding Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park. Springs, ranging in temperature from 4°C - 92°C, were sample for dissolved chloroflourocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113) concentrations and tritium concentrations. Sample springs had a wide distribution of elevations, aspects, and volcanic deposits. CFC concentrations indicate a short (< 50 years) mean residence time for the shallow, cool-water system that circulates through the rhyolite and tuff flows adjacent to the geyser basin. Mixing processes and gas phase stripping can be assessed using the three different time dependent input curves for CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113. Comparison of CFC and tritium concentrations provides verification of CFC ages and is an additional measure of mixing processes. All cool samples (0-20°C) contain CFC's and tritium, and indicate little to no mixing of pre-modern waters, with a mean CFC age of ~ 40 years. The relative concentrations of CFC's and tritium reveal mixing processes in the warm and thermal waters. Springs warmer than 20°C show increased mixing of pre-modern water with increasing temperature. Thermal waters (50 - 90°C) are well described by a binary mixing model of modern and pre-modern waters with minimum pre-modern fractions of .75 to .9. The use of multiple age tracers allows for interpretation of different age stratification and mixing models, and provides insight into other processes affecting the groundwater system such as phase distribution and boiling. Age tracers allow for the integrated study of the hydrothermal and local groundwater systems in the Norris Geyser Basin area and help constrain interactions between the two using non-invasive techniques.

  12. The Enduring Challenge of Concentrated Poverty in America: Case Studies from Communities Across the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, David, Ed.; Reid, Carolina, Ed.; Nelson, Lisa, Ed.; O'Shaughnessy, Anne, Ed.; Berube, Alan, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This report--a joint effort of the Federal Reserve's Community Affairs function and the Brookings Institution's Metropolitan Policy Program--examines the issue of concentrated poverty and profiles 16 high-poverty communities from across the country, including immigrant gateway, Native American, urban, and rural communities. Through these case…

  13. Flood Study of Warren Brook in Alstead and Cold River in Alstead, Langdon, and Walpole, New Hampshire, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents water-surface elevations and profiles as determined using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) one-dimensional Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System, also known as HEC-RAS. Steady flow water-surface profiles were developed for two stream reaches: the Cold River from its confluence with the Connecticut River in Walpole, through Alstead to the McDermott Bridge in Langdon, NH, and Warren Brook from its confluence with the Cold River to Warren Lake in Alstead, NH. Flood events of a magnitude, which are expected to be equaled or exceeded once on the average during any 10-, 50-, 100-, or 500-year period (recurrence interval), were modeled using HEC-RAS as these flood events are recognized as being significant for flood-plain management, determination of flood insurance rates, and design of structures such as bridges and culverts. These flood events are referred to as the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods and have a 10-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2-percent chance, respectively, of being equaled or exceeded during any year. The recurrence intervals represent the long-term average between floods of a specific magnitude. The risk of experiencing rare floods at short intervals or within the same year increases when periods greater than one year are considered. The analyses in this study reflect the flooding potentials based on conditions existing in the communities of Walpole, Alstead and Langdon at the time of completion of this study.

  14. 77 FR 37707 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement on Brooks River Visitor Access for Katmai National Park and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... Lake barge landing area at the mouth of the Brooks River. A no-action alternative is also evaluated. If... feet. A new barge landing site would be located approximately 200 feet south of the mouth of the...

  15. Ontogenetic and diel variation in stream habitat use by brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in a headwater stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.; Ross, R.M.; Dropkin, D.S.; Redell, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Although considerable information exists on habitat use by stream salmonids, only a small portion has quantitatively examined diurnal and nocturnal habitat variation. We examined diel variation in habitat use by age-0 and age-1+ brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) during summer and autumn in a headwater stream in northern Pennsylvania. Habitat variables measured included cover, depth, substrate, and velocity. The most pronounced diel variation occurred in the use of cover during both seasons. Both age-0 brook trout and age-1+ trout were associated with less cover at night. Age-0 brook trout occupied swifter water during the day than at night during both seasons, but the difference was not significant. Increased cover, depth, and substrate size governed the habitat of age-1+ brook trout. Our findings support the need for a better understanding of diel differences in habitat use of stream salmonids when considering habitat enhancement and protection.

  16. Delineation of Areas Contributing Water to the Dry Brook Public-Supply Well, South Hadley, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garabedian, Stephen P.; Stone, Janet Radway

    2004-01-01

    Areas contributing water to the Dry Brook public-supply well in South Hadley, Massachusetts, were delineated with a numerical ground-water-flow model that is based on geologic and hydrologic information for the confined sand and gravel aquifer pumped by the supply well. The study area is along the Connecticut River in central Massachusetts, about 12 miles north of Springfield, Massachusetts. Geologic units in the study area consist of Mesozoic-aged sedimentary and igneous bedrock, late-Pleistocene glaciolacustrine sediments, and recent alluvial deposits of the Connecticut River flood plain. Dry Brook Hill, immediately south of the supply well, is a large subaqueous lacustrine fan and delta formed during the last glacial retreat by sediment deposition into glacial Lake Hitchcock from a meltwater tunnel that was likely near where the Connecticut River cuts through the Holyoke Range. The sediments that compose the aquifer grade from very coarse sand and gravel along the northern flank of the hill, to medium sands in the body of the hill, and to finer-grained sediments along the southern flank of the hill. The interbedded and overlapping fine-grained lacustrine sediments associated with Dry Brook Hill include varved silt and clay deposits. These fine-grained sediments form a confining bed above the coarse-grained aquifer at the supply well and partially extend under the Connecticut River adjacent to the supply well. Ground-water flow in the aquifer supplying water to Dry Brook well was simulated with the U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-flow modeling code MODFLOW. The Dry Brook aquifer model was calibrated to drawdown data collected from 8 observation wells during an aquifer test conducted by pumping the supply well for 10 days at a rate of 122.2 cubic feet per minute (ft3/min; 914 gallons per minute) and to water levels collected from observation wells across the study area. Generally, the largest hydraulic conductivity values used in the model were in the sand and

  17. Influence of species, size and relative abundance on the outcomes of competitive interactions between brook trout and juvenile coho salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thornton, Emily J; Duda, Jeff; Quinn, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Resource competition between animals is influenced by a number of factors including the species, size and relative abundance of competing individuals. Stream-dwelling animals often experience variably available food resources, and some employ territorial behaviors to increase their access to food. We investigated the factors that affect dominance between resident, non-native brook trout and recolonizing juvenile coho salmon in the Elwha River, WA, USA, to see if brook trout are likely to disrupt coho salmon recolonization via interference competition. During dyadic laboratory feeding trials, we hypothesized that fish size, not species, would determine which individuals consumed the most food items, and that species would have no effect. We found that species, not size, played a significant role in dominance; coho salmon won 95% of trials, even when only 52% the length of their brook trout competitors. As the pairs of competing fish spent more time together during a trial sequence, coho salmon began to consume more food, and brook trout began to lose more, suggesting that the results of early trials influenced fish performance later. In group trials, we hypothesized that group composition and species would not influence fish foraging success. In single species groups, coho salmon consumed more than brook trout, but the ranges overlapped. Brook trout consumption remained constant through all treatments, but coho salmon consumed more food in treatments with fewer coho salmon, suggesting that coho salmon experienced more intra- than inter-specific competition and that brook trout do not pose a substantial challenge. Based on our results, we think it is unlikely that competition from brook trout will disrupt Elwha River recolonization by coho salmon.

  18. Investigating a high resolution, stream chloride time series from the Biscuit Brook catchment, Catskills, NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Stephen B.; Harpold, Adrian A.; Taylor, Joie C.; Walter, M. Todd

    2008-01-01

    SummaryIn conjunction with stream discharge, stream chloride (Cl -) concentration has traditionally offered hydrologists a means to better understand internal catchment processes. Here we examine a 10 year, weekly stream Cl - concentration time series from the Biscuit Brook catchment, NY, United States. Using a two reservoir box model plus a snowmelt component, we replicate daily stream discharge reasonably well (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency = 0.64) and capture general trends in the stream Cl - concentration ( R2 = 0.36 during nonfreezing conditions). Additionally, we find that both the observed and modeled stream Cl - concentration time series appear to be 1/ f noise when analyzed spectrally. Differing from previously published explanations of 1/ f noise in other catchments, we propose that 1/ f noise in the Cl - concentration signal of Biscuit Brook may originate from a suite of watershed-scale processes affecting both water content and Cl - mass in the system and occurring at multiple time scales.

  19. Isolation and cross-familial amplification of 41 microsatellites for the brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, G.M.L.; King, T.L.; St. -Cyr, J.; Valcourt, M.; Bernatchez, L.

    2005-01-01

    The brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis; Osteichthyes: Salmonidae) is a phenotypically diverse fish species inhabiting much of North America. But relatively few genetic diagnostic resources are available for this fish species. We isolated 41 microsatellites from S. fontinalis polymorphic in one or more species of salmonid fish. Thirty-seven were polymorphic in brook charr, 15 in the congener Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and 14 in the lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush). Polymorphism was also relatively high in Oncorhynchus, where 21 loci were polymorphic in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 16 in cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) but only seven and four microsatellite loci were polymorphic in the more distantly related lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), respectively. One duplicated locus (Sfo228Lav) was polymorphic at both duplicates in S. fontinalis. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Stratigraphy, structure, and palinspastic synthesis of the western Brooks Range, northwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayfield, Charles F.; Tailleur, Irvin L.; Ellersieck, Inyo

    1983-01-01

    This report is an effort to describe and decipher the mid-Paleozoic to Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy and the orogenic evolution of the western Brooks Range. The western Brooks Range primarily is composed of stacks of complexly deformed thrust sheets that contain mostly coeval sequences of rocks with slightly different lithologic facies. In order to simplify the thrust-faulted stratigraphy and palinspastic restoration, the rocks are grouped into eight principal structural levels. The lowest structural level is believed to be autochthonous or parautochthonous and above that, each succeeding level is designated allochthon one through seven. Allochthon seven is composed of the remnants of an extensive ophiolite sheet. Allochthon six is composed of pillow basalt with subordinate intermediate volcanic rocks, chert, and Devonian limestone. It is not certain whether this allochthon was formed in a continental or oceanic setting. Allochthons five through one consist of distinctive and coeval sequences of Devonian to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rocks that were deposited in a continental setting. The present geographic distribution of each structural level is shown on the allochthon map of the western Brooks Range. The stratigraphy of the southern part of northern Alaska has been reconstructed by systematically unstacking lower allochthons to the north of higher allochthons. The palinspastic map that results from this procedure shows that the minimum thrust displacement between allochthon seven and the autochthon is approximately 700 to 800 km. Schematic cross sections drawn across the palinspastic map show how the stratigraphy of the southern part of northern. Alaska most likely appeared prior to the orogeny. During Devonian and Mississippian time, the sedimentary sequences that are now part of allochthons one to five are inferred to have been deposited in an ensialic basin with both northern and southern margins. During Pennsylvanian time, the sequences seem to have become

  1. Kinematics of the mosquito terrane, Coldfoot Area, Alaska: Keys to Brooks Range tectonics: Final report, Project No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, T.A.; Coney, P.J.

    1988-04-01

    Within the large-scale geometry of the Brooks Range, the Angayucham terrane occurs as a vast overthrust sheet. From the north flank of the Ruby terrane it underlies the Koyukuk basin and stretches north as the roof thrust to the various nappe terranes of the Brooks Range. The tectonic relationship of the Ruby terrane to the south flank of the Brooks Range lies largely obscured beneath the Angayucham in the eastern apex of the Koyukuk basin. The Mosquito terrane occurs as a window through the Angayucham at this juncture. The composition and structures of the Mosquito terrane reveal that is the result of shear along a sub-horizontal step or flange within the prominent, through-going dextral strike-slip fault system which cuts across the eastern Koyukuk basin and southeastern Brooks Range. Units of the Mosquito were derived from both the Angayucham and Ruby terranes. A consistent tectonic fabric imposed upon them is kinematically linked to the strike-slip system and indicates a northeasterly direction of transport across the terrane. The presence of Ruby-correlative units within the Mosquito suggests the Ruby underlies the Angayucham and that it is in contact with terrances of the southern Brooks Range at that structural level along high-angle strike-slip faults. These relationships demonstrate that an episode of dextral transpression is the latest in the history of terrane accretion and tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range. 35 refs.

  2. Exploring the potential of life-history key innovation: brook breeding in the radiation of the Malagasy treefrog genus Boophis.

    PubMed

    Vences, M; Andreone, F; Glaw, F; Kosuch, J; Meyer, A; Schaefer, H-C; Veith, M

    2002-08-01

    The treefrog genus Boophis is one of the most species-rich endemic amphibian groups of Madagascar. It consists of species specialized to breeding in brooks (48 species) and ponds (10 species). We reconstructed the phylogeny of Boophis using 16S ribosomal DNA sequences (558 bp) from 27 species. Brook-breeders were monophyletic and probably derived from an ancestral pond-breeding lineage. Pond-breeders were paraphyletic. The disparity in diversification among pond-breeders and brook-breeders was notable among endemic Malagasy frogs, although it was not significant when considering Boophis alone. Sibling species which have different advertisement calls but are virtually indistinguishable by morphology were common among brook-breeders; genetic divergence between these species was high (modal 8% total pairwise divergence). Substitution rates in brook-breeding species were significantly higher than in pond-breeders. Speciation of pond-breeders may be hindered by their usually more synchronous reproduction and a higher vagility which enhances gene flow, while a higher potential of spatial segregation and speciation may exist along brooks. PMID:12144665

  3. Preparation and Reactivity of Acyclic Chiral Allylzinc Species by a Zinc-Brook Rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Leibeling, Markus; Shurrush, Khriesto A; Werner, Veronika; Perrin, Lionel; Marek, Ilan

    2016-05-10

    The zinc-Brook rearrangement of enantiomerically enriched α-hydroxy allylsilane produces a chiral allylzinc intermediate, which reacts with retention of configuration in the presence of an electrophile. Two remarkable features of this transformation are the stereochemical outcome during the formation of the allylzinc species and the complete stereocontrol in the organized six-membered transition state, which leads to an overall and complete transfer of chirality within the reaction sequence. PMID:27061357

  4. Brook Rearrangement as a Trigger for the Ring Opening of Strained Carbocycles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fa-Guang; Eppe, Guillaume; Marek, Ilan

    2016-01-11

    The combined regio- and stereoselective carbometalation of cyclopropenyl amides, followed by the addition of an acyl silane, led to the formation of polysubstituted cyclopropyl derivatives as unique diastereoisomers. Upon warming of the reaction mixture to room temperature, a Brook rearrangement proceeded with inversion of configuration to provide ready access to δ-ketoamides possessing a quaternary carbon center with high enantiomeric ratios through selective C-C bond cleavage of the ring. PMID:26663399

  5. X-linked mental retardation syndrome: Three brothers with the Brooks-Wisniewski-Brown syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Morava, E.; Storcz, J.; Kosztolanyi, G.

    1996-07-12

    We report on 3 brothers with growth and mental retardation, bifrontal narrowness, short palpebral fissures, deeply set eyes with entropion, wide bulbous nose, small mouth, myopia, and spastic diplegia. The patients were born to normal and non-consanguineous parents. The similarity of our cases with those recently reported by Brooks et al. supports their suggestion that these patients are representative of a distinct entity. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Growth rate differences between resident native brook trout and non-native brown trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, S.M.; Hendry, A.P.; Letcher, B.H.

    2007-01-01

    Between species and across season variation in growth was examined by tagging and recapturing individual brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta across seasons in a small stream (West Brook, Massachusetts, U.S.A.). Detailed information on body size and growth are presented to (1) test whether the two species differed in growth within seasons and (2) characterize the seasonal growth patterns for two age classes of each species. Growth differed between species in nearly half of the season- and age-specific comparisons. When growth differed, non-native brown trout grew faster than native brook trout in all but one comparison. Moreover, species differences were most pronounced when overall growth was high during the spring and early summer. These growth differences resulted in size asymmetries that were sustained over the duration of the study. A literature survey also indicated that non-native salmonids typically grow faster than native salmonids when the two occur in sympatry. Taken together, these results suggest that differences in growth are not uncommon for coexisting native and non-native salmonids. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  7. Facies comparison of autochthonous and allochthonous Permian and Triassic units, north-central Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, K.E.

    1985-04-01

    Eight stratigraphic sections of Permian and Triassic rocks have been studied over a 30 km by 150 km area in the Endicott and Philip Smith Mountains of the central Brooks Range. Six of the sections are located on the Endicott Mountains allochthon, and the remaining two are parautochthonous columns in the Mount Doonerak area. The sections record a facies transition between the autochthonous Sadlerochit Group and Shublik Formation of the northeastern Brooks Range and the characteristically siliceous rocks of the allochthonous Siksikpuk and Otuk formations of the western Brooks Range. Laterally continuous and bioturbated beds of fine-grained sandstone, siltstone, and shale dominantly compose the Permian sequence, whereas the Triassic rocks consist of black shales, thin rhythmically bedded siliceous mudstones, and fossiliferous limestones. When the allochthonous sections are restored to a position south of the Mount Doonerak area, a general shallowing trend from southwest to northwest becomes evident within the reconstructed marine basin. To the south and west, the Permian sediments show a marked increase in silica content, with the occurrence of barite and a corresponding decrease in the thickness of the basal, coarser grained clastics. The Triassic formations also document an increase in silica and the presence of barite to the south and west, while becoming significantly sooty and phosphatic to the north and east. Ongoing petrographic and micropaleontologic studies of the field data will clarify these general paleogeographic relationships.

  8. Devonian-Mississippian carbonate sequence in the Maiyumerak Mountains, western Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dumoulin, J.A. ); Harris, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Essentially continuous, dominantly carbonate sedimentation occurred from at least the Early Devonian through the Mississippian in the area that is now the Maiyumerak Mountains, western Brooks Range. This succession is in striking contrast to Paleozoic sequences in the eastern Brooks Range and in the subsurface across northern Alaska, where uppermost Devonian-Mississippian clastic and Carboniferous carbonates unconformably overlie Proterozoic or lower Paleozoic metasedimentary or sedimentary rocks. Conodonts obtained throughout the Maiyumerak Mountains sequence indicate that any hiatus is less than a stage in duration, and there is no apparent physical evidence of unconformity within the succession. The sequence is best exposed northwest of the Eli River, where Emsian-Eifelian dolostones (Baird Group) are conformably overlain by Kinderhookian-Osagian sandy limestones (Utukok Formation) and Osagian-Chesterian fossiliferous limestones (Kogruk Formation) of the Lisburne Group. Conodont species assemblages and sedimentary structures indicate deposition in a range of shallow-water shelf environments. The sequence extends at least 30 km, from the Noatak Quadrangle northeast into the Baird Mountains Quadrangle; its easternmost extent has not been definitively determined. The Ellesmerian orogeny, thought to have produced the extensive middle Paleozoic unconformity seen through much of northern Alaska apparently had little effect on this western Brooks Range sedimentary succession.

  9. Lisburne Group (Mississippian-Lower Permian) petrography, paragenesis, and hydrocarbon potential, central Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Krutak, P.R.

    1989-03-01

    Subsurface Lisburne Group (Wahoo) rocks at Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk fields produce 2 million bbl of oil/day and contain 2-3 billion bbl of oil in place. Lisburne reservoirs are early diagenetic dolomites encased in thick platform carbonates. Petrographic and geochemical study of 264 samples from eight newly discovered surface Lisburne sections comprising 4568 ft of strata in the Central Brooks Range provide new data concerning paragenesis and hydrocarbon potential of Lisburne facies farther west. A generalized paragenetic sequence for Lisburne equivalents of this region is (1) initial carbonate skeletal growth (both aragonite and calcite) during the Carboniferous, (2) subsequent recrystallization and inversion of aragonite to calcite, the change to calcite proceeding throughout late Paleozoic and Permian-Triassic time, (3) dolomitization in the Middle and Late Carboniferous, (4) chertification and silicification, postdating slightly or overlapping dolomitization, (5) development of porosity (moldic, intracrystal, etc.) in the middle to late Mesozoic, (6) formation of fracture porosity concurrent with the Brooks Range orogeny during Middle Jurassic-Cretaceous time, (7) oil generation, migration, and emplacement in Late Cretaceous-Tertiary time. Lisburne dolomites from the Central Brooks Range bear heavy hydrocarbons. Rock-Eval pyrolysis indicates part of the section is in the oil window and near the peak wet-gas generation zone. Shale samples from this region display thermal alteration indices and vitrinite reflectance values near the oil floor and also indicate potential for sourcing dry gas. Conodont color alteration indices show part of the Lisburn could produce dry gas.

  10. Amoxicillin pulsatile - MiddleBrook: APC 111, APC-111, PULSYS-enhanced amoxicillin.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals (formerly Advancis Pharmaceutical) is developing an improved version of amoxicillin using its pulsatile oral drug delivery technology, called PULSYS. Amoxicillin PULSYS is intended to provide a lower treatment dose, once-daily alternative to currently approved amoxicillin and penicillin regimens for the treatment of adolescents/adults with pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis. If amoxicillin PULSYS is approved, it will be the first and only once-daily amoxicillin therapy approved for use in the US. Regulatory submissions for the treatment of pharyngitis/tonsillitis have been made in the US. Amoxicillin PULSYS is in clinical development for the treatment of pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis due to group A streptococcal infections in adolescents/adults as a tablet formulation. MiddleBrook was conducting clinical development of a sprinkle formulation for children. However, this has been put on hold for financial reasons. MiddleBrook is seeking regulatory approval for this product as a 505(b)(2) product, which is one that is not considered to be a completely new product, but is also not a generic product. It is a product with some differences from a previously approved product and clinical data to support such differences are required; however, the basic safety and efficacy studies may have been conducted by other organisations. In June 2007, Advancis Pharmaceutical was renamed as MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals, Inc. MiddleBrook and Par Pharmaceuticals entered a co-promotion agreement for this product in June 2004. Par was to fund future development in exchange for co-exclusive marketing rights and exclusive rights to sell amoxicillin PULSYS. MiddleBrook retained responsibility for the manufacturing programme and also retained all patents and brand names and was responsible for their enforcement. However, this collaboration was subsequently terminated in August 2005 by Par Pharmaceutical. MiddleBrook received the US $4.75 million R&D reimbursement

  11. Results of sediment and water sampling and inorganic, organic, and radionuclide analysis at recreation areas and water intakes - Norris, Melton Hill, and Watts Bar Lakes - Data report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-10-01

    Suspected water quality contamination in Watts Bar Reservoir as a result of activities in past decades at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge facility is of public concern. DOE, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the State of Tennessee, and other agencies and officials have received many inquiries from the public in recent years concerning this suspected pollution, especially how this potential contamination may affect the health and safety of those persons who use beaches in the area for swimming or other water-body-contact sports. As a result of these concerns, TVA conducted a study in May and June 1991 to obtain data on potential contaminants of concern in the water and sediment of Watts Bar Reservoir. TVA collected water and sediment samples at a total of 29 sites, including 18 recreation areas and 11 water intake locations, located throughout Norris, Melton Hill, and Watts Bar Reservoirs. The samples were analyzed for radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds which could pose a threat to human health.

  12. Results of sediment and water sampling for inorganic, organic, and radionuclide analysis at recreation areas and water intakes -- Norris, Melton Hill, and Watts Bar Lakes. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-10-01

    Suspected water quality contamination in Watts Bar Reservoir as a result of activities in past decades at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge facility is of public concern. DOE, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the State of Tennessee, and other agencies and officials have received many inquiries from the public in recent years concerning this suspected pollution, especially how this potential contamination may affect the health and safety of those persons who use beaches in the area for swimming or other water-body-contact sports. As a result of these concerns, TVA conducted a study in May and June 1991 to obtain data on potential contaminants of concern in the water and sediment of Watts Bar Reservoir. TVA collected water and sediment samples at a total of 29 sites, including 18 recreation areas and 11 water intake locations, located throughout Norris, Melton Hill, and Watts Bar Reservoirs. The samples were analyzed for radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds which could pose a threat to human health.

  13. Diurnal and seasonal patterns of ecosystem CO{sub 2} efflux from upland tundra in the foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Oberbauer, S.F.; Gillespie, C.T.; Cheng, Weixin

    1996-08-01

    Carbon dioxide efflux and soil microenvironment were measured in three upland tundra communities in the foothills of the Brooks Range in arctic Alaska to determine the magnitude of CO{sub 2} efflux rates and the relative importance of the belowground factors that influence them. Gas exchange and soil microenvironment measurements were made weekly between 14 June and 31 July 1990. The study communities included lichen-heath, a sparse community vegetated by lichens and dwarf ericaceous shrubs on rocky soils, moist Cassiope dwarf-shrub heath tundra, dominated by Carex and evergreen and deciduous shrubs on relatively deep organic soils, and dry Cassiope dwarf-shrub heath of stone-stripe areas, which was of intermediate character. Rates of CO{sub 2} efflux were similar for the three communities until mid-season when they peaked at rates between 4.9 and 5.9 g m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1}. Following the mid-season peak, the rates in all three communities declined, particularly in the lichen-heath. Seasonal patterns of CO{sub 2} efflux, soil temperature, and soil moisture suggest changing limitations to CO{sub 2} efflux, soil temperature, and soil moisture suggest changing limitations to CO{sub 2} efflux over the course of the season. Rates of carbon dioxide efflux followed changes in soil temperature early in the season when soil moisture was highest. Mid-season efflux appeared to be limited by soil, moss, and lichen hydration until the end of July, when temperature again limited efflux. Differences between the communities were related to microenvironmental differences and probable differences in carbon quality. The presence of peat-forming mosses is suggested to play an important role in differences in efflux and micro-environment among the communities. 32 refs., 3 figs., 4 tab.

  14. Unraveling the Timing of Fluid Migration and Trap Formation in the Brooks Range Foothills: A Key to Discovering Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Catherine L. Hanks

    2008-12-31

    Naturally occurring fractures can play a key role in the evolution and producibility of a hydrocarbon accumulation. Understanding the evolution of fractures in the Brooks Range/Colville basin system of northern Alaska is critical to developing a better working model of the hydrocarbon potential of the region. This study addressed this problem by collecting detailed and regional data on fracture distribution and character, structural geometry, temperature, the timing of deformation along the Brooks Range rangefront and adjacent parts of the Colville basin, and the in situ stress distribution within the Colville basin. This new and existing data then were used to develop a model of how fractures evolved in northern Alaska, both spatially and temporally. The results of the study indicate that fractures formed episodically throughout the evolution of northern Alaska, due to a variety of mechanisms. Four distinct fracture sets were observed. The earliest fractures formed in deep parts of the Colville basin and in the underlying Ellesmerian sequence rocks as these rocks experienced compression associated with the growing Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. The orientation of these deep basin fractures was controlled by the maximum in situ horizontal stress in the basin at the time of their formation, which was perpendicular to the active Brooks Range thrust front. This orientation stayed consistently NS-striking for most of the early history of the Brooks Range and Colville basin, but changed to NW-striking with the development of the northeastern Brooks Range during the early Tertiary. Subsequent incorporation of these rocks into the fold-and-thrust belt resulted in overprinting of these deep basin fractures by fractures caused by thrusting and related folding. The youngest fractures developed as rocks were uplifted and exposed. While this general order of fracturing remains consistent across the Brooks Range and adjacent Colville basin, the absolute age at any one

  15. New orbit recalculations of comet C/1890 F1 Brooks and its dynamical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Królikowska, Małgorzata; Dybczyński, Piotr A.

    2016-08-01

    C/1890 F1 Brooks belongs to a group of 19 comets used by Jan Oort to support his famous hypothesis on the existence of a spherical cloud containing hundreds of billions of comets with orbits of semi-major axes between 50 000 and 150 000 au. Comet Brooks stands out from this group because of a long series of astrometric observations as well as a nearly 2-yr-long observational arc. Rich observational material makes this comet an ideal target for testing the rationality of an effort to recalculate astrometric positions on the basis of original (comet-star) measurements using modern star catalogues. This paper presents the results of such a new analysis based on two different methods: (i) automatic re-reduction based on cometary positions and the (comet-star) measurements and (ii) partially automatic re-reduction based on the contemporary data for the reference stars originally used. We show that both methods offer a significant reduction in the uncertainty of orbital elements. Based on the most preferred orbital solution, the dynamical evolution of comet Brooks during three consecutive perihelion passages is discussed. We conclude that C/1890 F1 is a dynamically old comet that passed the Sun at a distance below 5 au during its previous perihelion passage. Furthermore, its next perihelion passage will be a little closer than during the 1890-1892 apparition. C/1890 F1 is interesting also because it suffered extremely small planetary perturbations when it travelled through the planetary zone. Therefore, in the next passage through perihelion, it will once again be a comet from the Oort spike.

  16. Environmental planning as a tool for economic development: The black brook watershed experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ryner, P.C.; Heller, G.B.

    1995-12-01

    The Keene, New Hampshire Planning Department has attempted to use environmental planning as a tool to facilitate industrial development of the Black Brook Watershed. The City has established detailed modeling of drainage, floodplains and groundwater, and has placed that information on accurate computer-based maps. When provided to developers at the beginning of the development process, this environmental information expidites design and permitting while also improving the likelihood of protecting sensitive environmental areas. Starting in 1987 as part of a Master Plan revision process, the Planning Department decided to concentrate on the Black Brook Watershed in northwestern Keene as a target area for a new approach to economic development and environmental protection. The entire watershed was chosen as the boundary for this study area and detailed studies were conducted. During this effort the City formulated a new Economic Development Master Plan which called for the creation of approximately 300 acres of new industrial development within the next ten years. The Black Brook basin was identified as the preferred site. Because of pro-active environmental planning, the City is now able to work in active, cooperative partnership with the private sector in the development of this area. It is clear from this first specific development project that the project development and permitting process will be shortened by at least 60 days, and a minimum of $5,000 to $10,000 in preliminary site information costs will be saved. The availability of good information on wetlands and floodplains has already had a dramatic impact upon proposed site design and has achieved the desired objective of avoiding these sensitive areas whenever possible. The City is now working on the design of an Industrial Design and Permitting System which will be applied to the entire City, based upon what has been learned from this effort.

  17. New orbit recalculations of comet C/1890 F1 Brooks and its dynamical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Królikowska, Małgorzata; Dybczyński, Piotr A.

    2016-04-01

    C/1890 F1 Brooks belongs to a group of nineteen comets used by Jan Oort to support his famous hypothesis on the existence of a spherical cloud containing hundreds of billions of comets with orbits of semimajor axes between 50 and 150 thousand au. Comet Brooks stands out from this group because of a long series of astrometric observations as well as nearly two-year long observational arc. Rich observational material makes this comet an ideal target for testing the rationality of an effort to recalculate astrometric positions on the basis of original (comet-star)-measurements using modern star catalogues. This paper presents the results of such new analysis based on two different methods: (i) automatic re-reduction based on cometary positions and the (comet-star)-measurements, and (ii) partially automatic re-reduction based on the contemporary data for originally used reference stars. We show that both methods offer a significant reduction of orbital elements uncertainties. Based on the most preferred orbital solution, the dynamical evolution of comet Brooks during three consecutive perihelion passages is discussed. We conclude that C/1890 F1 is a dynamically old comet that passed the Sun at a distance below 5 au during its previous perihelion passage. Furthermore, its next perihelion passage will be a little closer than during the 1890-1892 apparition. C/1890 F1 is interesting also because it suffered extremely small planetary perturbations when it travelled through the planetary zone. Therefore, in the next passage through perihelion it will be once again a comet from the Oort spike.

  18. New cave species of Sinella Brook, 1882 from China (Collembola: Entomobryidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Springtails, especially entomobryids, are abundant in Karst faunas. Five new species of Sinella Brook are described here from caves in southern China: S. liuae sp. nov., S. hunanica sp. nov., S. tigris sp. nov., S. minuta sp. nov. and S. tiani sp. nov. A new record of Sinella sineocula Chen & Christiansen, is also recorded. These species differ in claw structure, chaetae on ventral side of the head, and body chaetotaxy. An updated key to cave species of Sinella from China is provided. PMID:27615947

  19. Tectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range mountain front: Evidence from the Atigun Gorge region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, C.G.; Glenn, R.K.; Adams, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Atigun Gorge, at the northern front of the eastern Endicott Mountains, contains well-exposed rocks of the upper part of the Endicott Mountains allochthon and rocks of the structurally higher Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon. These allochthons contain rocks as young as Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) and are separated by a nearly vertical fault zone that contains exotic blocks of Triassic and Jurassic chert and silicified mudstone. Siliceous rocks of this type are not present in the Endicott Mountains allochthon but are characteristic of the Picnic Creek, Ipnavik River, and some of the other allochthons that structurally overlie the Endicott Mountains allochthon in the central and western Brooks Range. These exotic blocks, therefore indicate that structurally higher rocks of either the Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon were emplaced during the Early Cretaceous and are preserved along the northern flank of the eastern Endicott Mountains. The deformed thickness of this higher allochthon in the subsurface north of the mountains is unknown but probably exceeds 2 kilometers. Similar relations are mapped east of Atigun Gorge in an area of structural transition from the eastern Endicott Mountains into the northern Philip Smith Mountains, which are formed by the parautochthonous North Slope stratigraphic assemblage. The allochthonous rocks at the mountain front are regionally unconformably overlain by proximal Lower Cretaceous (Albian) foredeep conglomerate at the southern flank of the Colville basin, but at Atigun Gorge, the base of these deposits is interpreted as a possible back thrust at a triangle zone. Conglomerate clasts in the foredeep deposits are dominantly chert, mafic igneous rock, and other lithologies characteristic of the Picnic Creek and Ipnavik River allochthons and scattered clasts from the Endicott Mountains allochthon. The conglomerates show that the chert-rich allochthonous rocks and the Endicott Mountains allochthon were emplaced in the

  20. A 2000 year varve-based climate record from the central Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, B.W.; Abbott, M.B.; Finney, B.P.; Kutchko, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Varved minerogenic sediments from glacial-fed Blue Lake, northern Alaska, are used to investigate late Holocene climate variability. Varve thickness measurements track summer temperature recorded at Atigun Pass, located 41 km east at a similar elevation (r2 = 0.31, P = 0.08). Results indicate that climate in the Brooks Range from 10 to 730 AD (varve year) was warm with precipitation inferred to be higher than during the twentieth century. The varve-temperature relationship for this period was likely compromised and not used in our temperature reconstruction because the glacier was greatly reduced, or absent, exposing sub-glacial sediments to erosion from enhanced precipitation.

  1. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects: summary report. Plum Brook Reactor Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    This document summarizes information concerning the decommissioning of the Plum Brook Reactor Facility, which was placed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved safe storage configuration. The data were placed in a computerized information retrieval/manipulation system which permits future utilization of this information in decommissioning of similar facilities. The information is presented both in computer output form and a manually assembled summarization. Complete cost data were not readily available and decommissioning activities did not in all cases conform with current criteria for the SAFSTOR decommissioning mode, therefore no cost comparisons were made.

  2. Landscape-scale evaluation of asymmetric interactions between Brown Trout and Brook Trout using two-species occupancy models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; Jefferson T. Deweber; Jason Detar; John A. Sweka

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the distribution of native stream fishes is fundamental to the management and conservation of many species. Modeling species distributions often consists of quantifying relationships between species occurrence and abundance data at known locations with environmental data at those locations. However, it is well documented that native stream fish distributions can be altered as a result of asymmetric interactions between dominant exotic and subordinate native species. For example, the naturalized exotic Brown Trout Salmo trutta has been identified as a threat to native Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern United States. To evaluate large-scale patterns of co-occurrence and to quantify the potential effects of Brown Trout presence on Brook Trout occupancy, we used data from 624 stream sites to fit two-species occupancy models. These models assumed that asymmetric interactions occurred between the two species. In addition, we examined natural and anthropogenic landscape characteristics we hypothesized would be important predictors of occurrence of both species. Estimated occupancy for Brook Trout, from a co-occurrence model with no landscape covariates, at sites with Brown Trout present was substantially lower than sites where Brown Trout were absent. We also observed opposing patterns for Brook and Brown Trout occurrence in relation to percentage forest, impervious surface, and agriculture within the network catchment. Our results are consistent with other studies and suggest that alterations to the landscape, and specifically the transition from a forested catchment to one that contains impervious surface or agriculture, reduces the occurrence probability of wild Brook Trout. Our results, however, also suggest that the presence of Brown Trout results in lower occurrence probability of Brook Trout over a range of anthropogenic landscape characteristics, compared with streams where Brown Trout were absent.

  3. Can nutrient limitations explain low and declining white spruce growth near the Arctic treeline in the eastern Brooks Range, Alaska?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, S.; Sullivan, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    The position of the Arctic treeline is of critical importance for global carbon cycling and surface energy budgets. However, controls on tree growth at treeline remain uncertain. In the Alaskan Brooks Range, 20th century warming has caused varying growth responses among treeline trees, with trees in the west responding positively, while trees in the east have responded negatively. The prevailing explanation of this trend ascribes the negative growth response to warming-induced drought stress in the eastern Brooks Range. However, recent measurements of carbon isotope discrimination in tree rings, xylem sap flow and needle gas exchange suggest that drought stress cannot explain these regional growth declines. Additionally, evidence from the western Brooks Range suggests that nutrient availability, rather than drought stress, may be the proximate control on tree growth. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that low and declining growth of eastern Brooks Range trees is due to low and declining soil nutrient availability, which may continue to decrease with climate change as soils become drier and microbial activity declines. We compared microclimate, tree performance, and a wide range of proxies for soil nutrient availability in four watersheds along a west-east transect in the Brooks Range during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. We hypothesized that soil nutrient availability would track closely with the strong west-east precipitation gradient, with higher rainfall and greater soil nutrient availability in the western Brooks Range. We expected to find that soil water contents in the west are near optimum for nitrogen mineralization, while those in the east are below optimum. Needle nitrogen concentration, net photosynthesis, branch extension growth, and growth in the main stem are expected to decline with the hypothesized decrease in soil nutrient availability. The results of our study will elucidate the current controls on growth of trees near the

  4. 75 FR 3217 - J&T Hydro Company; H. Dean Brooks and W. Bruce Cox; Notice of Application for Transfer of License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission J&T Hydro Company; H. Dean Brooks and W. Bruce Cox; Notice of Application... 30, 2009, J&T Hydro Company (transferor) and W. Dean Brooks, and H. Bruce Cox (transferees) filed an... number (P- 11392) in the docket number field to access the document. For assistance, call toll-free...

  5. Growth of age-0 steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Pine River watershed, Alcona County, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Bellgraph, Brian J.; Thompson, Bradley E.; Hayes, Daniel B.; Riley, Timothy S.

    2006-12-01

    We sampled ten sites within the Pine River watershed, Alcona County, Michigan. In 2001, age-0 steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were collected to determine growth rates. In 2002, emergence dates of steelhead were determined by observational studies and age-0 steelhead and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were collected to determine growth rates. Steelhead emergence occurred from late June to mid-July 2002. Growth rates of both species varied among branches within the watershed (P<0.05). Steelhead growth varied from 0.24 to 0.42 mm/day and brook trout growth varied from 0.22 to 0.37 mm/day.

  6. High-resolution geophysical data collected within Red Brook Harbor, Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, in 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turecek, Aaron M.; Danforth, William W.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Barnhardt, Walter A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a high-resolution geophysical survey within Red Brook Harbor, Massachusetts, from September 28 through November 17, 2009. Red Brook Harbor is located on the eastern edge of Buzzards Bay, south of the Cape Cod Canal. The survey area was approximately 7 square kilometers, with depths ranging from 0 to approximately 10 meters. Data were collected aboard the U.S. Geological Survey Research Vessel Rafael. The research vessel was equipped with a 234-kilohertz interferometric sonar system to collect bathymetry and backscatter data, a dual frequency (3.5- and 200-kilohertz) compression high-intensity radar pulse seismic reflection profiler to collect subbottom data, a sound velocity profiler to acquire speed of sound within the water column, and a sea floor sampling device to collect sediment samples, video, and photographs. The survey was part of an ongoing cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management to map the geology of the Massachusetts inner continental shelf. In addition to inclusion within the cooperative geologic mapping effort, these data will be used to assess the shallow-water mapping capability of the geophysical systems deployed for this project, with an emphasis on identifying resolution benchmarks for the interferometric sonar system.

  7. Water age and stream solute dynamics at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (US)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botter, Gianluca; Benettin, Paolo; McGuire, Kevin; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The contribution discusses experimental and modeling results from a headwater catchment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (New Hampshire, USA) to explore the link between stream solute dynamics and water age. A theoretical framework based on water age dynamics, which represents a general basis for characterizing solute transport at the catchment scale, is used to model both conservative and weathering-derived solutes. Based on the available information about the hydrology of the site, an integrated transport model was developed and used to estimate the relevant hydrochemical fluxes. The model was designed to reproduce the deuterium content of streamflow and allowed for the estimate of catchment water storage and dynamic travel time distributions (TTDs). Within this framework, dissolved silicon and sodium concentration in streamflow were simulated by implementing first-order chemical kinetics based explicitly on dynamic TTD, thus upscaling local geochemical processes to catchment scale. Our results highlight the key role of water stored within the subsoil glacial material in both the short-term and long-term solute circulation at Hubbard Brook. The analysis of the results provided by the calibrated model allowed a robust estimate of the emerging concentration-discharge relationship, streamflow age distributions (including the fraction of event water) and storage size, and their evolution in time due to hydrologic variability.

  8. Middle Jurassic U-Pb crystallization age for Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.E. ); Aleinikoff, J.N.; Walter, M. )

    1993-04-01

    The authors report here a U-Pb age for the Siniktanneyak Mountain Ophiolite klippe in the west-central Brooks Range, the first U-Pb ophiolite age in northern Alaska. Like klippen of mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Brooks Range, the Siniktanneyak Mountain klippe is composed of a lower allochthon of Devonian and younger( ) diabase and metabasalt with trace-element characteristics of seamount basalts and an upper allochthon of ophiolite. The ophiolite is partial, consisting of (1) abundant dunite and subordinate harzburgite and wehrlite; (2) cumulate clinopyroxene gabbro, and (3) minor noncumulate clinopyroxene gabbro and subordinate plagiogranite; no sheeted dikes or volcanic rocks are known in the ophilitic allochthon. The plagiogranite forms small dikes and stocks that intrude the noncumulate gabbro and consists of zoned Na-rich plagioclase + clinopyroxene with interstial quartz and biotite. Five fractions of subhedral, tan zircon from the plagiogranite yield slightly discordant U-Pb data with an upper intercept age of 170 [+-] 3 Ma. The U-Pb data indicate that the Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite crystallized in the Middle Jurassic and was emplaced by thrusting onto mafic accretionary prism rocks within about 10 m.y. of crystallization. The U-Pb data provide an upper limit to the age of initiation of the Brookian orogeny.

  9. Complete mitochondrial genomes of Korean lamprey (Lethenteron morii) and American brook lamprey (L. appendix).

    PubMed

    Pu, Jiafei; Ren, Jianfeng; Zhang, Zhe; Jia, Liang; Buchinger, Tyler; Li, Weiming

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenomes of two lampreys with complex taxonomic histories, the Korean lamprey (Lethenteron morii) and the American brook lamprey (L. appendix) were determined. Three-nt length difference between two genomes occurred on tRNA-Ser2 and control region 2. Except for 3 indel sites, there are 58 variable sites between two genomes which occurred on 11 of the 13 protein-coding genes (aside from COX3 and ND3) and 2 of rRNAs, tRNAs, control regions and intergenic regions. Among these sites, 15 sites are non-synonymous substitution sites occurred on 8 protein-coding genes including COX1-COX2, ND1-ND2, ND4-ND6 and ATPase6. Control region 1 contains 4 consecutive 39-nt repetitive strings and a 26-nt repetitive string in control region 2 is repeated 3.8 times in both lampreys. The observed level of similarity between nucleotide sequences (99.62%) implies the Korean lamprey and American brook lamprey are very close relatives and should be assigned into the same taxonomic genus. PMID:25319284

  10. Evaluation of the Effects of Development on Peak-Flow Hydrographs for Collyer Brook, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.; Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Mann, Alexander; Chisolm, John

    2001-01-01

    The development of former agricultural or forested lands creates more impervious areas and drainage improvements that can increase the volume of runoff and decrease infiltration and ground-water recharge in a watershed. Drainage improvements also can improve the conveyance of runoff, decreasing the time of rise to peak flow between the start of a rainfall event and the peak surface-water runoff, and likewise decreasing the duration of the peak-flow event. The watershed of Collyer Brook in southern Maine was studied to evaluate the effect of land-use changes on peakflow hydrographs because of the known development in the area during the past 35 years and the availability of aerial photos and streamflow data for this time period. Although aerial photography indicates that suburban development has increased in the watershed between 1964 and 1999, the overall effect of suburbanization on rainfall-runoff processes in the watershed did not produce a statistically detectable change in the peak-flow hydrographs for Collyer Brook.

  11. Modeling of a theoretical stream of comet 12P/Pons-Brooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomko, Dušan

    2015-12-01

    We show the modeling of the theoretical stream of the Halley type comet 12P/Pons-Brooks in a single perihelion passage that was 250P0 orbital periods in the past (the orbital period is 70.85 years). The modeled stream consisted of 10,000 particles. We followed its dynamical evolution by the numerical integration from the moment of their ejection up to present. From the total number of 10,000 particles, 1227 particles are passing around the Earth's orbit within the distance 0.05 AU. These particles have a well-defined radiant (Fig. 2) predicted on the northern sky, with a high declination (from about 61° to 81°). The subsequent identification with available meteor databases can confirm whether the meteor shower is real or not. For this purpose we used three databases: the photographical, radio-meteor, and video-meteor database. Despite the well-defined radiant, which it consists of 1227 particles, we cannot certainly confirm, that comet 12P/Pons-Brooks is a parent body of some meteor shower observable on the Earth.

  12. Chronology of ophiolite crystallization, detachment, and emplacement: Evidence from the Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, K.R.; Bird, J.M. )

    1992-01-01

    {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar data from early Middle Jurassic ophiolites (187-184 Ma) in the western Brooks Range, Alaska, indicate that detachment - related metamorphism occurred {approximately}20 m.y. after crystallization and {approximately}20 m.y. before emplacement onto the Arctic Alaska margin. High-temperature metamorphic rocks along the basal surfaces of many ophiolites have ages that are contemporaneous with ophiolite crystallization, suggesting that detachment and thrust faulting occur while the lithosphere is young ({lt}10 Ma) and relatively hot. From these relations it has been generally assumed that detachment and initial overthrusting of oceanic lithosphere occur near the site of generation, such as a marginal basin or mid-ocean ridge. The new data from the Brooks Range ophiolites confirm previous indications that some ophiolites have much longer intervals between crystallization, thrust-related metamorphism, and emplacement. On the basis of these new results and data from other ophiolites, the authors propose that ophiolites originating within large ocean basins will generally have longer crystallization-to-emplacement intervals than the more commonly recognized marginal basin-type ophiolites.

  13. The role of Ca(2+) and Na (+) membrane transport in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) spermatozoa motility.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, Olga; Dzyuba, Borys; Cosson, Jacky; Rodina, Marek; Linhart, Otomar

    2014-10-01

    The role of environmental ion composition and osmolality in Ca(2+) signaled activation was assessed in spermatozoa of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. Milt from ten mature males was obtained by abdominal massage. Spermatozoa motility was evaluated in 0, 100, and 300 mOsm/kg NaCl or sucrose solutions, buffered by 10 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.5. For investigation of spermatozoa reaction to external Ca(2+) concentration, 2 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) was added to the activation media as a calcium ions chelator. For investigation of the effect of external Na(+) concentration in conditions of low external Ca(2+), 100 µM amiloride was added to the EGTA-containing solutions as a Na(+) transport blocker. Low motility was observed in sucrose (Na(+) free) solutions containing 2 mM EGTA but not in Na(+) solutions containing 2 mM EGTA. Addition of amiloride led to significantly increased motility (P < 0.05) compared with sucrose (Na(+) free) solutions containing 2 mM EGTA. We conclude that Na(+) transport in Ca(2+)-free solutions plays a regulatory role in brook trout spermatozoa activation. The influence of competitive Na(+) and Ca(2+) transport on the control of spermatozoa activation requires further study with respect to its application for improvement of artificial activation and storage media. PMID:24718964

  14. Factors influencing successful eradication of nonnative brook trout from four small Rocky Mountain streams using electrofishing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shepard, Bradley B.; Nelson, Lee M.; Taper, Mark L.; Zale, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    We successfully eradicated nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis by electrofishing from 2.4- to 3.0-km treatment reaches of four Rocky Mountain streams in Montana to conserve sympatric populations of native Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi. At least 6, and as many as 14, removal treatments of two to four electrofishing passes per treatment were required to successfully eradicate Brook Trout from these treatment reaches. We increased success by modifying our treatment efforts during this study from single annual treatments to several treatments a year to take advantage of autumn spawning and winter aggregating behavior. Eradication by electrofishing cost US \\$3,500 to \\$5,500 per kilometer where no riparian vegetation or woody debris clearing was necessary, increasing to \\$8,000 to \\$9,000 per kilometer where clearing was needed. Treatment costs without stream clearing were similar to costs of eradication using piscicides. Eradication by electrofishing may be preferable where native fish occur in sympatry with nonnative fish in smaller streams (base flow wetted widths

  15. Structural provinces of the northeastern Brooks Range, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.K.; Hanks, C.L. )

    1990-07-01

    The dominant Cenozoic structures of the northeastern Brooks Range are anticlinoria with cores of sub-Mississippian rocks, reflecting a regional north-vergent duplex with a floor thrust in the sub-Mississippian sequence and a roof thrust in the Mississippian Kayak Shale. The number of horses forming each anticlinorium and the structural style of the overlying Mississippian and younger cover sequence varies regionally, providing a basis for dividing the northeastern Brooks Range into structural provinces. In the western province, each anticlinorium contains a single horse, and shortening above the Kayak Shale was accommodated mainly by detachment folds. To the north in the Sadlerochit Mountains, the Kayak Shale is depositionally discontinuous and rocks elsewhere separated by this detachment deformed together. In the eastern province, each anticlinorium contains multiple horses, and shortening above the Kayak Shale was accommodated largely by thrust duplication of Mississippian through Triassic rocks. In the narrow central province, the Devonian Okpilak batholith was detached from its roots, internally shortened along shear zones and by penetrative strain, and transported northward. Because the Kayak Shale is locally absent, the Mississippian and younger cover sequence deformed in part penetratively along with the batholith. 13 figs.

  16. Acoustical measurements of DOE/NASA MOD-0 wind turbine at Plum Brook Station, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Etter, C.L.; Kelley, N.D.; McKenna, H.E.; Linn, C.; Garrelts, R.

    1983-06-01

    This report documents the evaluation of low-frequency acoustic emissions associated with the operation of the DOE/NASA MOD-0 wind turbine generator located at Plum Brook Station, Ohio. These measurements were taken as part of a joint SERI/NASA Brook Station, Ohio. These measurements were taken as part of a joint SERI/NASA effort to study acoustic noise generation by utility-sized wind turbines. The machine-operating conditions closely simulated the operation of the larger DOE/NASA MOD-1 wind turbine installed near Boone, NC, in both its design downwind configuration and theoretical upwind mode. Measurement results indicated that acoustic impulses characteristic of the MOD-1 turbine were detectable only with a downwind configuration and a 35-rpm rotor speed, a situation which parallels a 23-rpm rotor speed operation on the MOD-1. Under the available meteorological conditions, no impulses were detected during downwind 23 rpm or by wind-induced noise, indicating a severe limitation of the microphone configuration used in these tests.

  17. Evaluating Instructor Technology Integration in Community and Technical Colleges: A Performance Evaluation Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Favero, Marietta; Hinson, Janice M.

    2007-01-01

    The press for implementing technology based instructional delivery systems in community and technical colleges is well documented. Yet faculty face numerous challenges in integrating technology into instruction (AL-Bataineh & Brooks, 2003; Groves & Zemel, 2000; Khoury, 1997). Stimulating faculty ownership in technology, diffusion of technology use…

  18. Black Autobiography and the Dilemma of Western Artistic Tradition (A Look at Gwen Brooks'"Report From Part One")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Saundra

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the black autobiography as a unique literary genre, highlighting Gwen Brooks'"Report From Part One," as indicative of such an autobiography which goes beyond customary literary traditions in its conception of the artist as an activist. (EH)

  19. Genetic identity of brook trout in Lake Superior south shore streams: Potential for genetic monitoring of stocking and rehabilitation efforts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloss, Brian L.; Jennings, Martin J.; Franckowiak, R.; Pratt, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Rehabilitation of migratory ('coaster') brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis along Lake Superior's south shore is a topic of high interest among resource stakeholders and management agencies. Proposed strategies for rehabilitation of this brook trout life history variant in Wisconsin include supplemental stocking, watershed management, habitat rehabilitation, harvest regulations, or a combination thereof. In an effort to evaluate the success of coaster brook trout rehabilitation efforts, we collected genetic data from four populations of interest (Whittlesey Creek, Bois Brule River, Bark River, and Graveyard Creek) and the hatchery sources used in the Whittlesey Creek supplementation experiment. We characterized the genetic diversity of 30 individuals from each of four populations using 13 microsatellite DNA loci. Levels of genetic variation were consistent with those in similar studies conducted throughout the basin. Significant genetic variation among the populations was observed, enabling adequate population delineation through assignment tests. Overall, 208 of the 211 sampled fish (98.6%) were correctly assigned to their population of origin. Simulated F1 hybrids between two hatchery strains and the Whittlesey Creek population were identifiable in the majority of attempts (90.5-100% accuracy with 0-2.5% error). The genetic markers and analytical techniques described provide the ability to monitor the concurrent coaster brook trout rehabilitation efforts along Wisconsin's Lake Superior south shore, including the detection of hybridization between hatchery and native populations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  20. Performance Characterization of Influent and Effluent Treatment Systems: A Case Study at Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study characterizes the performance of influent and effluent disinfection systems at Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery, a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) restoration facility in East Orland, ME. Influent treatment of the hatchery’s water supply limits fish ...

  1. On Conceptual Metaphor and the Flora and Fauna of Mind: Commentary on Brookes and Etkina; and Jeppsson, Haglund, and Amin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherin, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, the author presents his thoughts on two papers appearing in this special issue. The first, "The Importance of Language in Students' Reasoning about Heat in Thermodynamic Processes," by David T. Brookes and Eugenia Etkina (See: EJ1060728), and the second, "Varying Use of Conceptual Metaphors Across Levels of…

  2. Media Literacy, News Literacy, or News Appreciation? A Case Study of the News Literacy Program at Stony Brook University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This case study provides practical and theoretical insights into the Stony Brook news literacy program, which is one of the most ambitious and well-funded curricular experiments in modern journalism education and media literacy. Analysis of document, interview, and observation data indicates that news literacy educators sought to teach students…

  3. THE MAGIC SIMULATION OF SURFACE WATER ACIDIFICATION AT, AND FIRST YEAR RESULTS FROM, BEAR BROOK WATERSHED MANIPULATION, MAINE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catchments of East and West Bear Brooks, Maine, USA, with similar stream chemistries and hydrographs, have been hydrologically and chemically monitored for 3.5 years. hese clear water streams are low in ANC (0-70 ueq litre-1), with variations caused by changing concentrations...

  4. Examining Scientific and Technical Writing Strategies in the 11th Century Chinese Science Book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuejiao

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the influential Chinese science book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook," written by Shen Kuo in the 11th century. I suggest that "Brush Talks" reveals a tension between institutionalized science and science in the public, and a gap between the making of scientific knowledge and the communication of such…

  5. Past and projected future changes in snowpack and soil frost at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term data from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire show that air temperature has increased by about 1 °C over the last half century. The warmer climate has caused significant declines in snow depth, snow water equivalent, and snow cover duration. Paradoxically, it has been su...

  6. State University of New York, Health Science Center at Stony Brook: Clinical Practice Management Plan. Report 94-S-34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    An evaluation was done of the use of funds generated by clinical practices at the Clinical Practice Management Plan of the State University of New York (SUNY) Health Science Center (HSC) at Stony Brook. The audit looked at compliance with Board of Trustee policies regarding: (1) whether 5 percent of the gross receipts from clinical practices were…

  7. 75 FR 52374 - National Environmental Policy Act; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Wind Farm Project AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Intent to... GRC Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project located near Sandusky, Ohio, pursuant to the National... and operation of the wind farm. The purpose of constructing and operating the wind farm is for NASA...

  8. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF METHYLMERCURIC CHLORIDE ON THREE GENERATIONS OF BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS): TOXICITY, ACCUMULATION, DISTRIBUTION, AND ELIMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a 144-wk period three generations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were continuously exposed to mean water concentrations of methylmercuric chloride (MMC) of 2.93, 0.93, 0.29, 0.09, 0.03, and less than 0.010 (control) micrograms Hg/liter. During the first 39 wk the h...

  9. Growth of a Science Center: The Center for Science and Mathematics Education (CESAME) at Stony Brook University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafney, Leo; Bynum, R. David; Sheppard, Keith

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the origin and development of CESAME (The Center for Science and Mathematics Education) at Stony Brook University. The analysis identifies key ingredients in areas of personnel, funding, organizational structures, educational priorities, collaboration, and institutionalization. After a discussion of relevant issues in…

  10. The Stories of Nico and Brooke Revisited: Toward a Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue about Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2008-01-01

    In "A tale of two cases: Lessons for education from the study of two boys living with half their brains" (M. H. Immordino-Yang, 2007), I showed that Nico (missing his right cerebral hemisphere) and Brooke (missing his left) had compensated for basic neuropsychological skills to previously unexpected degrees and argued that the ways they had…

  11. SEX-LINKED CHANGES IN PHASE 1 BIOTRANSFORMATION OF PHENOL IN BROOK TROUT OVER AN ANNUAL REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microsomal metabolism of phenol (11 degrees C) over an annual reproductive cycle from June to December has been studied using fall spawning adult brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Incubations were optimized for time, cofactor connection, pH, and microsomal protein concentr...

  12. What Do Facts Have to Do with It? Exploring Instructional Emphasis in Stony Brook News Literacy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    An analytic matrix comprised of multiple media literacy teaching and learning principles is conceptualized to examine a model of news literacy developed by journalism educators at Stony Brook University. The multidimensional analysis indicates that news literacy instructors focus on teaching students how to question and assess the veracity of news…

  13. Comparison of streamflow between pre and post timber harvesting in Catamaran Brook (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caissie, Daniel; Jolicoeur, Serge; Bouchard, Mireille; Poncet, Emmanuel

    2002-02-01

    The forest industry plays a major role in the economy of eastern Canada. The recreational fishery also represents an important source of revenue for this area. Therefore, there is concern over the potential economic effects and ecological impacts from logging operations on aquatic habitats. The present study deals with the comparison of streamflow between pre and post timber harvesting at Catamaran Brook (New Brunswick, Canada) to identify any potential changes to the hydrological regime. Studies were carried out on two sub-basins of Catamaran Brook, namely the Middle Reach (mid-basin) and the Upper Tributary 1. The harvested area at the Middle Reach represented 2.3% of this sub-basin while 23.4% of Upper Tributary 1 was harvested. It was noted that during both the calibration and timber harvesting phases, meteorological conditions (e.g. precipitation, runoff) contributed to relatively high natural variability. When studying changes on an annual and seasonal basis for the basin cut at 2.3% (i.e. Middle Reach) and using a control basin for comparison, no changes were detected to the annual water yield, seasonal runoff and streamflow timing between the calibration and timber harvesting phases. On a summer rainfall event basis, no changes were detected at the Middle Reach and the Upper Tributary 1 when studying relations between precipitation and stormflow (obtained through hydrograph separation). Alternatively, changes were detected in relations between peak flows and precipitation ( p<0.05) at the Upper Tributary 1 when comparing the calibration and timber harvesting phases. Peak flows showed higher values following timber harvesting. No significant changes were observed between peak flows and precipitation at the Middle Reach. When comparative studies were carried out on peak flow and stormflow between sub-basins (using the Middle Reach as control for treatments vs. the most affected site, i.e. Upper Tributary 1), significant changes were detected in peak flow ( p

  14. Context-specific influence of water temperature on brook trout growth rates in the field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, C.; Letcher, B.H.; Nislow, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    1. Modelling the effects of climate change on freshwater fishes requires robust field-based estimates accounting for interactions among multiple factors.2. We used data from an 8-year individual-based study of a wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) population to test the influence of water temperature on season-specific growth in the context of variation in other environmental (i.e. season, stream flow) or biotic factors (local brook trout biomass density and fish age and size) in West Brook, a third-order stream in western Massachusetts, U.S.A.3. Changes in ambient temperature influenced individual growth rates. In general, higher temperatures were associated with higher growth rates in winter and spring and lower growth rates in summer and autumn. However, the effect of temperature on growth was strongly context-dependent, differing in both magnitude and direction as a function of season, stream flow and fish biomass density.4. We found that stream flow and temperature had strong and complex interactive effects on trout growth. At the coldest temperatures (in winter), high stream flows were associated with reduced trout growth rates. During spring and autumn and in typical summers (when water temperatures were close to growth optima), higher flows were associated with increased growth rates. In addition, the effect of flow at a given temperature (the flow-temperature interaction) differed among seasons.5. Trout density negatively affected growth rate and had strong interactions with temperature in two of four seasons (i.e. spring and summer) with greater negative effects at high temperatures.6. Our study provided robust, integrative field-based estimates of the effects of temperature on growth rates for a species which serves as a model organism for cold-water adapted ectotherms facing the consequences of environmental change. Results of the study strongly suggest that failure to derive season-specific estimates, or to explicitly consider interactions with

  15. Structure and thermochronology of the metamorphic core of the Brooks Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro, Jaime

    1999-11-01

    Detailed field studies were undertaken in two key areas of the Central Belt of the Brooks Range: (1) the north flank of Mt. Igikpak in the Survey Pass Quadrangle and (2) in the Shishakshinovik Pass area in the eastern Ambler River Quadrangle. In both areas structural, stratigraphic, petrologic, 40Ar/39Ar, apatite fission-track and U-Pb data were used to constrain the kinematic and thermal history of metamorphic rocks of those areas. North of the Mt. Igikpak massif a crustal section ˜15 km thick is exposed. There are upper greenschist facies rocks in the deeper portions, and very low grade metamorphic rocks at higher structural levels. Two foliations are found: a higher grade relict S1 fabric and a lower grade S 2 fabric that controls the metamorphic layering. 40Ar/ 39Ar analyses from S1 white mica in the low-grade rocks at the northern end of the transect indicate that peak M1 metamorphism occurred before ˜112 Ma. We ascribe M1 to shortening that occurred during collision of an island arc against the Arctic Alaska margin. S 2 involved the retrogression of earlier assemblages. Kinematic indicators on S2 are top-to-the-north. A rapid cooling event from 500 +/- 50°C to 300 +/- 50°C took place between ˜98 and ˜90 Ma. The driving mechanism for ductile deformation during S2, and for rapid cooling documented by our thermochronologic data, was probably the gravitational collapse of the core of the orogen, over-thickened during the preceding collision. At Shishakshinovik Pass there are Mississippian Lisburne Group strata surrounded by metamorphic rocks typical of the Central Belt of the Brooks Range. All the rocks at Shishakshinovik Pass are intensely deformed, so that one cannot distinguish between an autochthonous and an allochthonous sequence. Furthermore the Mississippian rocks, instead of being attached to the underlying basement, are in the hanging wall of a northwest dipping shear zone. Based on the variations in metamorphic grade and the 40Ar/ 39Ar

  16. Drought-induced stomatal closure probably cannot explain divergent white spruce growth in the Brooks Range, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Brownlee, Annalis H; Sullivan, Patrick F; Csank, Adam Z; Sveinbjörnsson, Bjartmar; Ellison, Sarah B Z

    2016-01-01

    Increment cores from the boreal forest have long been used to reconstruct past climates. However, in recent years, numerous studies have revealed a deterioration of the correlation between temperature and tree growth that is commonly referred to as divergence. In the Brooks Range of northern Alaska, USA, studies of white spruce (Picea glauca) revealed that trees in the west generally showed positive growth trends, while trees in the central and eastern Brooks Range showed mixed and negative trends during late 20th century warming. The growing season climate of the eastern Brooks Range is thought to be drier than the west. On this basis, divergent tree growth in the eastern Brooks Range has been attributed to drought stress. To investigate the hypothesis that drought-induced stomatal closure can explain divergence in the Brooks Range, we synthesized all of the Brooks Range white spruce data available in the International Tree Ring Data Bank (ITRDB) and collected increment cores from our primary sites in each of four watersheds along a west-to-east gradient near the Arctic treeline. For cores from our sites, we measured ring widths and calculated carbon isotope discrimination (δ13C), intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE), and needle intercellular CO2 concentration (C(i)) from δ13C in tree-ring alpha-cellulose. We hypothesized that trees exhibiting divergence would show a corresponding decline in δ13C, a decline in C(i), and a strong increase in iWUE. Consistent with the ITRDB data, trees at our western and central sites generally showed an increase in the strength of the temperature-growth correlation during late 20th century warming, while trees at our eastern site showed strong divergence. Divergent tree growth was not, however, associated with declining δ13C. Meanwhile, estimates of C(i) showed a strong increase at all of our study sites, indicating that more substrate was available for photosynthesis in the early 21st than in the early 20th century. Our

  17. Deformation and the timing of gas generation and migration in the eastern Brooks Range foothills, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parris, T.M.; Burruss, R.C.; O'Sullivan, P. B.

    2003-01-01

    Along the southeast border of the 1002 Assessment Area in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, an explicit link between gas generation and deformation in the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt is provided through petrographic, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope analyses of fracture cements integrated with zircon fission-track data. Predominantly quartz-cemented fractures, collected from thrusted Triassic and Jurassic rocks, contain crack-seal textures, healed microcracks, and curved crystals and fluid inclusion populations, which suggest that cement growth occurred before, during, and after deformation. Fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures (175-250??C) and temperature trends in fracture samples suggest that cements grew at 7-10 km depth during the transition from burial to uplift and during early uplift. CH4-rich (dry gas) inclusions in the Shublik Formation and Kingak Shale are consistent with inclusion entrapment at high thermal maturity for these source rocks. Pressure modeling of these CH4-rich inclusions suggests that pore fluids were overpressured during fracture cementation. Zircon fission-track data in the area record postdeposition denudation associated with early Brooks Range deformation at 64 ?? 3 Ma. With a closure temperature of 225-240??C, the zircon fission-track data overlap homogenization temperatures of coeval aqueous inclusions and inclusions containing dry gas in Kingak and Shublik fracture cements. This critical time-temperature relationship suggests that fracture cementation occurred during early Brooks Range deformation. Dry gas inclusions suggest that Shublik and Kingak source rocks had exceeded peak oil and gas generation temperatures at the time structural traps formed during early Brooks Range deformation. The timing of hydrocarbon generation with respect to deformation therefore represents an important exploration risk for gas exploration in this part of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt. The persistence of gas high at

  18. The Impact of Climate Change on Past and Future Streamflow at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. L.; Driscoll, C. T.; Pourmokhtarian, A.

    2009-12-01

    Long-term data from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest show that air temperature has increased by 1-1.5 °C over the last half century. While more variable, annual precipitation has also increased by 19-26% during the same period. These changes in climate influence streamflow, which provides an integrated climate signal that incorporates physical (snowpack, evaporation) and biological (evapotranspiration) responses. Unlike the western United States, water is generally abundant in the Northeast. However, changes in flow could nevertheless affect stream ecosystem services in the region, such as drinking water, irrigation, recreation, wastewater assimilation, and hydropower. We analyzed long-term data at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest to determine if past changes in climate have affected the distribution and quantity of streamflow. We also analyzed future changes in streamflow using the forest ecosystem model, PnET-BGC driven by climate input scenarios generated using downscaled AOGCM output. Past streamflow data indicate that the timing of streamflow has changed at Hubbard Brook. The winter/spring center of streamwater volume is occurring 0.18-0.25 days earlier each year, and streamflow increases during snowmelt have become less extreme over the 50 year record. Despite declines in snowmelt runoff, the number of high flow days per year has increased, due to increases in precipitation. Similarly, greater precipitation amounts have resulted in fewer low flow days. The overall amount of annual streamflow has increased significantly over the last 50 years, consistent with an increase in precipitation and no change in evapotranspiration. Future climate projections for Hubbard Brook show that air temperature and precipitation will continue to increase during the 21st century. Unlike historical data, preliminary PnET-BGC results indicate that projected increases in evapotranspiration will balance increases in precipitation, resulting in no significant change in

  19. Do native brown trout and non-native brook trout interact reproductively?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucherousset, J.; Aymes, J. C.; Poulet, N.; Santoul, F.; Céréghino, R.

    2008-07-01

    Reproductive interactions between native and non-native species of fish have received little attention compared to other types of interactions such as predation or competition for food and habitat. We studied the reproductive interactions between non-native brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) and native brown trout ( Salmo trutta) in a Pyrenees Mountain stream (SW France). We found evidence of significant interspecific interactions owing to consistent spatial and temporal overlap in redd localizations and spawning periods. We observed mixed spawning groups composed of the two species, interspecific subordinate males, and presence of natural hybrids (tiger trout). These reproductive interactions could be detrimental to the reproduction success of both species. Our study shows that non-native species might have detrimental effects on native species via subtle hybridization behavior.

  20. Thrust-breakthrough of asymmetric anticlines: Observational constraints from surveys in the Brooks Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadamec, Margarete A.; Wallace, Wesley K.

    2014-05-01

    To gain insights into the processes governing the thrust-truncation of anticlines, we conducted a field study of the thrust-truncated folds in the remote Brooks Range of northern Alaska, where there is a transition in fold style from symmetric detachment folds to thrust-truncated asymmetric folds. In order to document the detailed geometry of the km-scale folds exposed in cliff-forming, largely inaccessible outcrops, a new surveying technique was developed that combines data from a theodolite and laser range finder. The field observations, survey profiles, and cross section reconstructions, indicate that late-stage thrust breakthrough of the anticlines within the mechanically competent Lisburne Group carbonates accommodated continued shortening when other mechanisms became unfeasible, including fold tightening, forelimb rotation, and parasitic folding in the anticline forelimbs. These results provide constraints on the processes that govern the transition from buckle folding to thrust truncation in fold-and-thrust belts worldwide.

  1. Prediction of the saturated hydraulic conductivity from Brooks and Corey's water retention parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasta, Paolo; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Romano, Nunzio

    2013-05-01

    Prediction of flow through variably saturated porous media requires accurate knowledge of the soil hydraulic properties, namely the water retention function (WRF) and the hydraulic conductivity function (HCF). Unfortunately, direct measurement of the HCF is time consuming and expensive. In this study, we derive a simple closed-form equation that predicts the saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks from the WRF parameters of Brooks and Corey (1964). This physically based analytical expression uses an empirical tortuosity parameter (τ) and exploits the information embedded in the measured pore-size distribution. Our proposed model is compared against the current state of the art using more than 250 soil samples from the Grenoble soil catalog (GRIZZLY) and hydraulic properties of European soils (HYPRES) databases. Results demonstrate that the proposed model provides better predictions of the saturated hydraulic conductivity values with reduced size of the 90% confidence intervals of about 3 orders of magnitude.

  2. Restoration of the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center, Plum Brook Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodling, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center's Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF), located at the Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio, is a non-vitiated, free-jet facility, capable of testing large-scale propulsion systems at Mach Numbers from 5 to 7. As a result of a component failure in September of 1996, a restoration project was initiated in mid- 1997 to repair the damage to the facility. Following the 2-1/2 year effort, the HTF has been returned to an operational condition. Significant repairs and operational improvements have been implemented in order to ensure facility reliability and personnel safety. As of January 2000, this unique, state-of-the-art facility was ready for integrated systems testing.

  3. Total mitochondrial genome of mantis shrimp, Squilloides leptosquilla (Brooks, 1886) (Crustacea: Stomatopoda: Squillidae) in Korean waters.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hye-Eun; Kim, Jung Nyun; Yoon, Tae-Ho; Park, Kyeong Dong; Park, Won Gyu; Park, Hyun; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2016-07-01

    We characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of Squilloides leptosquilla (Brooks, 1886) collected from the southern waters of Korea, which is newly recorded into the Korean carcinological fauna. The total mitochondrial genome length of S. leptosquilla was 16,376 bp. This circular DNA encodes 13 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs, and 22 transfer RNAs, as well as a putative control region. Compared with other decapod crustacean mitochondrial genomes, the overall A + T content was relatively high (71.1%) as those among other stomatopod species. Nine and four protein-coding genes are encoded on the H-strand and on the L-strand, respectively. The short non-coding region (210 bp) between tRNA(Glu) and tRNA(Phe) may be the good candidate as the molecular marker to discriminate S. leptosequilla from other stomatopods. PMID:26176982

  4. Modeling brook trout presence and absence from landscape variables using four different analytical methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steen, Paul J.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Wiley, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    As a part of the Great Lakes Regional Aquatic Gap Analysis Project, we evaluated methodologies for modeling associations between fish species and habitat characteristics at a landscape scale. To do this, we created brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis presence and absence models based on four different techniques: multiple linear regression, logistic regression, neural networks, and classification trees. The models were tested in two ways: by application to an independent validation database and cross-validation using the training data, and by visual comparison of statewide distribution maps with historically recorded occurrences from the Michigan Fish Atlas. Although differences in the accuracy of our models were slight, the logistic regression model predicted with the least error, followed by multiple regression, then classification trees, then the neural networks. These models will provide natural resource managers a way to identify habitats requiring protection for the conservation of fish species.

  5. Radiofrequency ablation: a safe and economical modality in treatment of Brooke-Spiegler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Savita; Dayal, Surabhi

    2012-08-01

    Brooke-Spiegler syndrome is an uncommon disease. Patients have a predisposition to develop cutaneous adnexal neoplasms such as cylindromas, trichoepitheliomas, spiradenomas, trichoblastomas, basal cell carcinomas, follicular cysts, and organoid nevi. Malignant transformation of preexisting tumors also occurs in these individuals. Various techniques have been used for the treatment of trichoepitheliomas and cylindromas including excision, electrocautery, carbon dioxide laser ablation, cryosurgery, and radiotherapy. In our case, cylindromas were ablated by radiofrequency in multiple sittings. Trichoepitheliomas were ablated using coagulation mode with power # 3 to 3.5. Cosmetically acceptable results were obtained in 100 percent of the cylindromas and 70 percent of the trichoepitheliomas (Visual Analog Scale). The radiofrequency ablation technique under different modes can be used in both large tumors as well as smaller ones, especially in developing countries because it is very cost effective and easily accessible. PMID:22948057

  6. Brooke-Spiegler Syndrome with Multiple Scalp Cylindromas and Bilateral Parotid Gland Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Kalina, Peter; el-Azhary, Rokea

    2012-01-01

    A 62-year-old female presented with numerous soft tissue lesions of her scalp and bilateral preauricular region. Several of these have been biopsied or removed with a diagnosis of cylindromas. Cylindromas are benign tumors with a differentiation towards apocrine sweat glands that increase in number and size throughout life. Multiple scalp cylindromas may coalesce and cover the entire scalp, resulting in the “turban tumor.” These are often associated with the autosomal dominant Brooke-Spiegler syndrome with coexistent facial trichoepitheliomas and spiradenomas. There is a very rare association between cylindromas and basal cell adenoma and adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland, with only 17 reported cases. Ours is the first CT demonstration of both the scalp and parotid gland findings in this uncommon situation. PMID:22606564

  7. Landslides in the Brooks Peninsula Study area, Vancouver Island; landscape evolution in a natural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthrie, R. H.; Evans, S. G.

    2003-04-01

    Two hundred and one debris slides and debris flows, ranging in size from 0.05 ha to 11.5 ha, were analyzed from an untouched portion of the west coast of Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada. The study examined nearly 300 km squared of rugged terrain on the Brooks Peninsula and Nasparti River Inlet. The land is devoid of roads, logging or other human encroachment and provides an unusual opportunity to examine an active natural system through time. Data were analyzed from air photographs for 50 years at intervals of approximately 15 years and characteristics of landslides were documented. Landslide frequency in this study area is higher than natural landslide frequencies from other Vancouver Island watersheds and several explanations are proposed including physiographic location, glacial history and bedrock geology. In a striking contrast, however, other Vancouver Island watersheds were developed and landslide rates increased substantially. In the Brooks Peninsula area the rate of landslides remained relatively constant through time and are therefore currently below those of developed areas. Magnitude-cumulative frequency data plotted well on two curves: a power law curve for landslides 1 ha and larger, and an exponential function for landslides less than 1 ha, with r-squared values of 0.99 in both cases. Because the landslides in this study are expected to be genetically linked to precipitation events, the possible influence of climate change was examined. While no significant change in mean frequencies were detected, spatial and temporal analysis revealed trends that are significant in light of future climate scenarios.

  8. Brown bear response to elevated viewing structures at Brooks River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBruyn, T.D.; Smith, T.S.; Proffitt, K.; Partridge, S.; Drummer, T.D.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing popularity of brown bear (Ursus arctos) viewing at Brooks River in Katmai National Park, Alaska has resulted in overcrowded facilities, increasing bear-human conflicts, displacement of bears from important habitats, and degradation of cultural resources. To partially address these issues, the National Park Service (NPS) constructed a 300-m-long elevated boardwalk with interconnected viewing platforms in August 2000. To determine what effects the new structures might have on individual bears, we observed bear movements and behaviors before and after construction. We used direct observations and motion-detection cameras to construct temporal-spatial profiles of bear activity. Although bear numbers were similar (59 bears in 2000 and 56 bears in 2001) and bear activity within the greater Brooks River area did not differ (P = 0.62, n = 29) between the 2 years of this study, trail crossings in the vicinity of the new structures decreased 78% (7,436 crossings in 2000 and 1,646 crossings in 2001; ??2 = 762, df = 14, P < 0.001). Bear temporal use of the boardwalk area changed such that when human use was highest, bear use was proportionally lower in the post- versus pre-construction phase (??2 = 34, df = 3, P < 0.005). Of 123 direct observations of bears approaching to pass beneath the structures, only 19.5% rerouted or avoided crossing under the structures. Bears' responses to the new structures were influenced by the behavior of visitors upon the structures. Potential management tools to minimize impacts of these structures on bears include enhanced public education regarding visitor conduct on the boardwalk, as well as visitor management and monitoring.

  9. The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS): application to the Hupsel Brook catchment and the Cabauw polder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, C. C.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Teuling, A. J.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-10-01

    The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS) is a new parametric (conceptual) rainfall-runoff model which accounts explicitly for processes that are important in lowland areas, such as groundwater-unsaturated zone coupling, wetness-dependent flowroutes, groundwater-surface water feedbacks, and seepage and surface water supply (see companion paper by Brauer et al., 2014). Lowland catchments can be divided into slightly sloping, freely draining catchments and flat polders with controlled water levels. Here, we apply WALRUS to two contrasting Dutch catchments: the Hupsel Brook catchment and the Cabauw polder. In both catchments, WALRUS performs well: Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies obtained after calibration on 1 year of discharge observations are 0.87 for the Hupsel Brook catchment and 0.83 for the Cabauw polder, with values of 0.74 and 0.76 for validation. The model also performs well during floods and droughts and can forecast the effect of control operations. Through the dynamic division between quick and slow flowroutes controlled by a wetness index, temporal and spatial variability in groundwater depths can be accounted for, which results in adequate simulation of discharge peaks as well as low flows. The performance of WALRUS is most sensitive to the parameter controlling the wetness index and the groundwater reservoir constant, and to a lesser extent to the quickflow reservoir constant. The effects of these three parameters can be identified in the discharge time series, which indicates that the model is not overparameterised (parsimonious). Forcing uncertainty was found to have a larger effect on modelled discharge than parameter uncertainty and uncertainty in initial conditions.

  10. The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS): application to the Hupsel Brook catchment and Cabauw polder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, C. C.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Teuling, A. J.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-02-01

    The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS) is a new parametric (conceptual) rainfall-runoff model which accounts explicitly for processes that are important in lowland areas, such as groundwater-unsaturated zone coupling, wetness-dependent flowroutes, groundwater-surface water feedbacks, and seepage and surface water supply (see companion paper by Brauer et al., 2014). Lowland catchments can be divided into slightly sloping, freely draining catchments and flat polders with controlled water levels. Here, we apply WALRUS to two contrasting Dutch catchments: the Hupsel Brook catchment and Cabauw polder. In both catchments, WALRUS performs well: Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies obtained after calibration on one year of discharge observations are 0.87 for the Hupsel Brook catchment and 0.83 for the Cabauw polder, with values of 0.74 and 0.76 for validation. The model also performs well during floods and droughts and can forecast the effect of control operations. Through the dynamic division between quick and slow flowroutes controlled by a wetness index, temporal and spatial variability in groundwater depths can be accounted for, which results in adequate simulation of discharge peaks as well as low flows. The performance of WALRUS is most sensitive to the parameter controlling the wetness index and the groundwater reservoir constant, and to a lesser extent to the quickflow reservoir constant. The effects of these three parameters can be identified in the discharge time series, which indicates that the model is not overparameterised (parsimonious). Forcing uncertainty was found to have a larger effect on modelled discharge than parameter uncertainty and uncertainty in initial conditions.