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Sample records for community factors relevant

  1. An exploratory study of community factors relevant for participatory malaria control on Rusinga Island, western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Opiyo, Pamela; Mukabana, W Richard; Kiche, Ibrahim; Mathenge, Evan; Killeen, Gerry F; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    Background Capacity strengthening of rural communities, and the various actors that support them, is needed to enable them to lead their own malaria control programmes. Here the existing capacity of a rural community in western Kenya was evaluated in preparation for a larger intervention. Methods Focus group discussions and semi-structured individual interviews were carried out in 1,451 households to determine (1) demographics of respondent and household; (2) socio-economic status of the household; (3) knowledge and beliefs about malaria (symptoms, prevention methods, mosquito life cycle); (4) typical practices used for malaria prevention; (5) the treatment-seeking behaviour and household expenditure for malaria treatment; and (6) the willingness to prepare and implement community-based vector control. Results Malaria was considered a major threat to life but relevant knowledge was a chimera of scientific knowledge and traditional beliefs, which combined with socio-economic circumstances, leads to ineffective malaria prevention. The actual malaria prevention behaviour practiced by community members differed significantly from methods known to the respondents. Beside bednet use, the major interventions implemented were bush clearing and various hygienic measures, even though these are ineffective for malaria prevention. Encouragingly, most respondents believed malaria could be controlled and were willing to contribute to a community-based malaria control program but felt they needed outside assistance. Conclusion Culturally sensitive but evidence-based education interventions, utilizing participatory tools, are urgently required which consider traditional beliefs and enable understanding of causal connections between mosquito ecology, parasite transmission and the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. Community-based organizations and schools need to be equipped with knowledge through partnerships with national and international research and tertiary

  2. Relevancy of the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Kenneth T.

    The speaker traces the history of early academies in New York State, with their several forms and functions, until the establishment of the public community college under the State University Law of 1948. Its students now make up 60% of the University's enrollment. According to the State Regents, it should (1) be supported as providing a broader…

  3. 28 CFR 51.57 - Relevant factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relevant factors. 51.57 Section 51.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Determinations by the Attorney General § 51.57 Relevant factors. Among the factors the Attorney...

  4. Improved Variable Selection Algorithm Using a LASSO-Type Penalty, with an Application to Assessing Hepatitis B Infection Relevant Factors in Community Residents

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Pi; Zeng, Fangfang; Hu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Dingmei; Zhu, Shuming; Deng, Yu; Hao, Yuantao

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In epidemiological studies, it is important to identify independent associations between collective exposures and a health outcome. The current stepwise selection technique ignores stochastic errors and suffers from a lack of stability. The alternative LASSO-penalized regression model can be applied to detect significant predictors from a pool of candidate variables. However, this technique is prone to false positives and tends to create excessive biases. It remains challenging to develop robust variable selection methods and enhance predictability. Material and methods Two improved algorithms denoted the two-stage hybrid and bootstrap ranking procedures, both using a LASSO-type penalty, were developed for epidemiological association analysis. The performance of the proposed procedures and other methods including conventional LASSO, Bolasso, stepwise and stability selection models were evaluated using intensive simulation. In addition, methods were compared by using an empirical analysis based on large-scale survey data of hepatitis B infection-relevant factors among Guangdong residents. Results The proposed procedures produced comparable or less biased selection results when compared to conventional variable selection models. In total, the two newly proposed procedures were stable with respect to various scenarios of simulation, demonstrating a higher power and a lower false positive rate during variable selection than the compared methods. In empirical analysis, the proposed procedures yielding a sparse set of hepatitis B infection-relevant factors gave the best predictive performance and showed that the procedures were able to select a more stringent set of factors. The individual history of hepatitis B vaccination, family and individual history of hepatitis B infection were associated with hepatitis B infection in the studied residents according to the proposed procedures. Conclusions The newly proposed procedures improve the identification of

  5. The Relevant Factors in Promoting Reading Activities in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Han-Chen; Tsai, Yao-Hsu; Huang, Shih-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to help students absorb knowledge, schools often conduct reading activities. Thorough planning and strategies, however, are needed to insure the effect of reading promotions, and make them a deeply-rooted part of life. This study adopted the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to discuss the relevant factors in promoting reading activities…

  6. Increasing the Relevance of Research to Underserved Communities: Lessons Learned from a Retreat to Engage Community Health Workers with Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Angier, Heather; Wiggins, Noelle; Gregg, Jessica; Gold, Rachel; DeVoe, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Summary This article presents information on a community retreat developed to seek input from community health workers (CHWs) to increase the relevance of our research to underserved communities in Oregon. Retreats facilitating dialogue between researchers and CHWs could yield important insight to enhance the significance of research for communities. PMID:23728049

  7. Dissociative absorption: An empirically unique, clinically relevant, dissociative factor.

    PubMed

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Lassri, Dana; Soffer-Dudek, Nir; Shahar, Golan

    2015-11-01

    Research of dissociative absorption has raised two questions: (a) Is absorption a unique dissociative factor within a three-factor structure, or a part of one general dissociative factor? Even when three factors are found, the specificity of the absorption factor is questionable. (b) Is absorption implicated in psychopathology? Although commonly viewed as "non-clinical" dissociation, absorption was recently hypothesized to be specifically associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. To address these questions, we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on 679 undergraduates. Analyses supported the three-factor model, and a "purified" absorption scale was extracted from the original inclusive absorption factor. The purified scale predicted several psychopathology scales. As hypothesized, absorption was a stronger predictor of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than of general psychopathology. In addition, absorption was the only dissociative scale that longitudinally predicted obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We conclude that absorption is a unique and clinically relevant dissociative tendency that is particularly meaningful to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. PMID:26241024

  8. Psychological Factors in Community College Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Chad; Redekop, Frederick; Burgin, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study explored psychological factors in the context of a community college population purported to impact decisions to remain in college from one semester to another. Researchers examined results from 1191 responses from students attending a community college in the Mid-Atlantic United States. The study further explored the predictive power…

  9. Relevant Cytokines in the Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Adrian; Rendon-Ramirez, Erick J; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian G

    2016-03-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of infectious death in the world. Immune dysregulation during acute lung infection plays a role in lung injury and the systemic inflammatory response. Cytokines seem to be major players in severe lung infection cases. Here, we present a review of published papers in the last 3 years regarding this topic. The cytokine response during pneumonia is different in bacterial vs viral infections; some of these cytokines correlate with clinical severity scales such as CURB65 or SOFA. Treatment focused in the cytokine environment is an interesting area that could impact the prognosis of CAP. Some of the agents that have been studied as co-adjuvant therapy are corticosteroids, macrolides, and linezolid, but anyone of those have shown a clear or proven efficacy or have been recommended as a part of the standard of care for CAP. More studies designed to define the role of immunomodulatory agents, such as co-adjuvant therapy in pneumonia, are needed. PMID:26874956

  10. Relevance of ammonium oxidation within biological soil crust communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.L.; Budinoff, C.R.; Belnap, J.; Garcia-Pichel, F.

    2005-01-01

    Thin, vertically structured topsoil communities that become ecologically important in arid regions (biological soil crusts or BSCs) are responsible for much of the nitrogen inputs into pristine arid lands. We studied N2 fixation and ammonium oxidation (AO) at subcentimetre resolution within BSCs from the Colorado Plateau. Pools of dissolved porewater nitrate/ nitrite, ammonium and organic nitrogen in wetted BSCs were high in comparison with those typical of aridosoils. They remained stable during incubations, indicating that input and output processes were of similar magnitude. Areal N2 fixation rates (6.5-48 ??mol C2H2 m-2 h -1) were high, the vertical distribution of N2 fixation peaking close to the surface if populations of heterocystous cyanobacteria were present, but in the subsurface if they were absent. Areal AO rates (19-46 ??mol N m-2 h-1) were commensurate with N2 fixation inputs. When considering oxygen availability, AO activity invariably peaked 2-3 mm deep and was limited by oxygen (not ammonium) supply. Most probable number (MPN)-enumerated ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (6.7-7.9 ?? 103 cells g-1 on average) clearly peaked at 2-3 mm depth. Thus, AO (hence nitrification) is a spatially restricted but important process in the nitrogen cycling of BSC, turning much of the biologically fixed nitrogen into oxidized forms, the fate of which remains to be determined.

  11. Real, Relevant, Meaningful Learning: Community-Based Education in Native Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enos, Anya Dozier

    The Community-Based Education Model (CBEM) at Santa Fe Indian School (SFIS) in New Mexico was studied to determine the elements that contribute to its success and that may be replicated in other community education projects. The CBEM engages students and tribal communities in issues related to their environment, natural resources, and health in an…

  12. The effects of space relevant environmental factors on halophilic Archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuko, Stefan; Moeller, Ralf; Rettberg, Petra

    Within the last 50 years, space technology has provided tools for transporting terrestrial (microbial) life beyond Earth's protective shield in order to study its responses to selected conditions of space. Microorganisms are ubiquitous and can be found in almost every environment on Earth. They thrive and survive in a broad spectrum of environments and are true masters in adapting to rapidly changing external conditions. Although microorganisms cannot actively grow under the harsh conditions of outer space or other known planets, some microorganisms might be able to survive for a time in space or other planets as dormant, inactive spores or in similar desiccation-resistant resting states, e.g., enclosed in halite crystals or biofilms. Halite crystals are the realm of halophilic Archaea as they have adapted to life at extreme salt concentrations. They can stay entrapped in such crystals for millions of years without losing viability and therefore the family Halobacteriaceae belongs to the group of microorganisms which may survive space travel or may even be found on other planets. Several members of this family have been utilized in space relevant experiments where they were exposed to detrimental environmental conditions such as UV-C radiation, vacuum, temperature cycles (+60(°) C and -25(°) C) and heavy iron bombardment (150 MeV He, 500 MeV Ar and 500 MeV Fe ions). The viability was evaluated by colony forming unit (cfu) counts as well as with the LIFE/DEAD kit. Results revealed that UV-C radiation (up to 1.000 J/m (2) ) has a considerable effect on the viability, whereas the other tested parameters inflict little damage onto the organisms. Repair of UV-C inflicted damage is efficient and several DNA damage repair genes are up-regulated following exposure. Halophilic archaea display a strong resistance against heavy iron bombardment, with dosages of up to 2.000 Gy 500 MeV Fe ions needed to establish a visible effect on the vitality. Genomic integrity after

  13. Community Support and Relevance to Community: Indispensable Underpinnings for Branch Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, K.; Bornhoft, S.

    2011-01-01

    This case study of Florida State University (FSU) Panama City illustrates the essential importance of strong synergy among a branch campus, its main campus, and its community. The interdependence of the branch campus and its community is highlighted through discussion of the role of the campus administrator, various partnerships, and niche…

  14. ABE: Direction through Community Relevance. NAAESC Occasional Papers, Volume 2, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Allan; Oddgeirsson, Jean

    Adult basic education (ABE) teachers are committed to understanding their students and to teaching something useful, something relevant, and something that will give students more control over their world or community. The goal of ABE teachers must then be to be familiar with their students' understanding of their world. ABE teachers are logically…

  15. One White Teacher's Struggle for Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: The Problem of the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Nora E.

    2009-01-01

    This is a case of one novice White teacher whose strong commitment to becoming a culturally relevant teacher was hindered by her struggle to develop meaningful connections to the home community of her mostly African American students. Using a hybrid methodology of action research, discourse analysis, and critical interpretive analysis of…

  16. Microbial Relevant Fouling in Membrane Bioreactors: Influencing Factors, Characterization, and Fouling Control

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bing; Fane, Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) play important roles on degradation of organic/inorganic substances in wastewaters, while microbial deposition/growth and microbial product accumulation on membranes potentially induce membrane fouling. Generally, there is a need to characterize membrane foulants and to determine their relations to the evolution of membrane fouling in order to identify a suitable fouling control approach in MBRs. This review summarized the factors in MBRs that influence microbial behaviors (community compositions, physical properties, and microbial products). The state-of-the-art techniques to characterize biofoulants in MBRs were reported. The strategies for controlling microbial relevant fouling were discussed and the future studies on membrane fouling mechanisms in MBRs were proposed. PMID:24958297

  17. Pathologically Relevant Prelamin A Interactions with Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Infante, Arantza; Rodríguez, Clara I

    2016-01-01

    LMNA-linked laminopathies are a group of rare human diseases caused by mutations in LMNA or by disrupted posttranslational processing of its largest encoded isoform, prelamin A. The accumulation of mutated or immature forms of farnesylated prelamin A, named progerin or prelamin A, respectively, dominantly disrupts nuclear lamina structure with toxic effects in cells. One hypothesis is that aberrant lamin filament networks disrupt or "trap" proteins such as transcription factors, thereby interfering with their normal activity. Since laminopathies mainly affect tissues of mesenchymal origin, we tested this hypothesis by generating an experimental model of laminopathy by inducing prelamin A accumulation in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We provide detailed protocols for inducing and detecting prelamin A accumulation in hMSCs, and describe the bioinformatic analysis and in vitro assays of transcription factors potentially affected by prelamin A accumulation. PMID:26778572

  18. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. 315.3 Section 315.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.3 General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness....

  19. Factors relevant to utility integration of intermittent renewable technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Yih-huei; Parsons, B.K.

    1993-08-01

    This study assesses factors that utilities must address when they integrate intermittent renewable technologies into their power-supply systems; it also reviews the literature in this area and has a bibliography containing more than 350 listings. Three topics are covered: (1) interface (hardware and design-related interconnection), (2) operability/stability, and (3) planning. This study finds that several commonly held perceptions regarding integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies are not valid. Among findings of the study are the following: (1) hardware and system design advances have eliminated most concerns about interface; (2) cost penalties have not occurred at low to moderate penetration levels (and high levels are feasible); and (3) intermittent renewable energy technologies can have capacity values. Obstacles still interfering with intermittent renewable technologies are also identified.

  20. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes at environmentally relevant concentrations affect the composition of benthic communities.

    PubMed

    Velzeboer, I; Peeters, E T H M; Koelmans, A A

    2013-07-01

    To date, chronic effect studies with manufactured nanomaterials under field conditions are scarce. Here, we report in situ effects of 0, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2, and 2 g/kg multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in sediment on the benthic community composition after 15 months of exposure. Effects observed after 15 months were compared to those observed after 3 months and to community effects of another carbonaceous material (activated carbon; AC), which was simultaneously tested in a parallel study. Redundancy analysis with variance partitioning revealed a total explained variance of 51.7% of the variation in community composition after 15 months, of which MWCNT dose explained a statistically significant 9.9%. By stepwise excluding the highest MWCNT concentrations in the statistical analyses, MWCNT effects were shown to be statistically significant already at the lowest dose investigated, which can be considered environmentally relevant. We conclude that despite prolonged aging, encapsulation, and burial, MWCNTs can affect the structure of natural benthic communities in the field. This effect was similar to that of AC observed in a parallel experiment, which however was applied at a 50 times higher maximum dose. This suggests that the benthic community was more sensitive to MWCNTs than to the bulk carbon material AC. PMID:23713543

  1. Design flow factors for sewerage systems in small arid communities.

    PubMed

    Imam, Emad H; Elnakar, Haitham Y

    2014-09-01

    Reliable estimation of sewage flow rates is essential for the proper design of sewers, pumping stations, and treatment plants. The design of the various components of the sewerage system should be based on the most critical flow rates with a focus on extremely low and peak flow rates that would be sustained for a duration related to the acceptable limits of behavior of the components under consideration. The extreme flow conditions and to what extent they differ from the average values are closely related to the size of the community or network, and the socioeconomic conditions. A single pumping station is usually sufficient to pump flow from small community in either flat or non-undulating topography. Therefore, the hydraulic loading on the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) results from the pumped flow from the pumping station rather than the trunk sewer flow. The intermittent operation of the pumping units further accentuates the sewage hydrograph in the final trunk sewer. Accordingly, the design flow for the various components of the WWTP should be determined based on their relevant flow factors. In this study, analysis of one representative small community out of five monitored small communities in Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is presented. Pumped sewage flow rates were measured and the sewer incoming flows were hydraulically derived. The hourly and daily sewer and pumped flow records were analyzed to derive the relationship between the flow factors that would be sustained for various durations (instantaneously, 1 h, 2 h, etc.) and their probability of non-exceedance. The resulting peaking factors with a consideration for their sustained flow duration and specified probability would permit the design of the various components of the treatment plant using more accurate critical flows. PMID:25685521

  2. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals § 601.32 General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. FDA's determination of the safety and effectiveness of a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the...

  3. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals § 601.32 General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. FDA's determination of the safety and effectiveness of a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the...

  4. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals § 601.32 General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. FDA's determination of the safety and effectiveness of a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the...

  5. Unscrambling Cyanobacteria Community Dynamics Related to Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia; Farnelid, Hanna M.; Lindh, Markus V.; Casini, Michele; Andersson, Agneta; Pinhassi, Jarone; Legrand, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a 2-year monthly time- series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An “epidemic population structure” (dominance of asingle cluster) was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this clusters imultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs, e.g., Nodularia spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formeda consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocynobacteria and the bloom

  6. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-03-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using 'bouts' of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252

  7. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-01-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using ‘bouts’ of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252

  8. Atrazine does not affect algal biomass or snail populations in microcosm communities at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Leilan R; Moore, Dana L; Sibley, Paul K; Solomon, Keith R; Hanson, Mark L

    2011-07-01

    The herbicide atrazine is a photosynthetic inhibitor used around the world in agricultural applications. Contamination of surface waters adjacent to treated areas can directly reduce growth of nontarget aquatic autotrophs, but the severity of impacts is highly dependent on species sensitivity and exposure concentration. Secondary effects resulting from macrophyte or phytoplankton decline may include an expansion of the more tolerant periphyton community. Recently, this shift in the autotrophic community has been proposed as a mechanism for increased rates of parasite infections in amphibians via augmented populations of aquatic snails which act as intermediate hosts to larval trematodes. To further clarify this relationship, an outdoor microcosm study was conducted to examine the effects of atrazine on primary production and snail populations over a range of environmentally relevant concentrations. In July 2009, 15 experimental ponds were treated to achieve initial concentrations of 0, 1, 10, 30, and 100 µg/L atrazine. Over a period of 73 d, measures were taken of macrophyte, phytoplankton, and periphyton biomass, growth, and fecundity of caged snails (Physella spp. and Stagnicola elodes) and free-living snails (Physella spp.). Except for declines in macrophyte biomass at the highest treatment level, no consistent relationships were found between atrazine concentration and any measured parameter. Comparison of these results with previous findings highlights the variability of responses to atrazine exposure between similarly constructed freshwater communities, even at concentrations up to 20 times higher than sustained environmental levels. PMID:21567448

  9. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. 315.3 Section 315.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.3 General factors...

  10. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. 601.32 Section 601.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals § 601.32 General factors...

  11. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. 315.3 Section 315.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.3 General factors...

  12. Bacterial Community Dynamics in Full-Scale Activated Sludge Bioreactors: Operational and Ecological Factors Driving Community Assembly and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Valentín-Vargas, Alexis; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Massol-Deyá, Arturo A.

    2012-01-01

    The assembling of bacterial communities in conventional activated sludge (CAS) bioreactors was thought, until recently, to be chaotic and mostly unpredictable. Studies done over the last decade have shown that specific, and often, predictable random and non-random factors could be responsible for that process. These studies have also motivated a “structure–function” paradigm that is yet to be resolved. Thus, elucidating the factors that affect community assembly in the bioreactors is necessary for predicting fluctuations in community structure and function. For this study activated sludge samples were collected during a one-year period from two geographically distant CAS bioreactors of different size. Combining community fingerprinting analysis and operational parameters data with a robust statistical analysis, we aimed to identify relevant links between system performance and bacterial community diversity and dynamics. In addition to revealing a significant β-diversity between the bioreactors’ communities, results showed that the largest bioreactor had a less dynamic but more efficient and diverse bacterial community throughout the study. The statistical analysis also suggests that deterministic factors, as opposed to stochastic factors, may have a bigger impact on the community structure in the largest bioreactor. Furthermore, the community seems to rely mainly on mechanisms of resistance and functional redundancy to maintain functional stability. We suggest that the ecological theories behind the Island Biogeography model and the species-area relationship were appropriate to predict the assembly of bacterial communities in these CAS bioreactors. These results are of great importance for engineers and ecologists as they reveal critical aspects of CAS systems that could be applied towards improving bioreactor design and operation. PMID:22880016

  13. Predicting Children's Depressive Symptoms from Community and Individual Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Cole, David A.; Smith, Thomas M.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; LaGrange, Beth; Jacquez, Farrah M.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Truss, Alanna E.; Folmer, Amy S.

    2008-01-01

    Community, demographic, familial, and personal risk factors of childhood depressive symptoms were examined from an ecological theoretical approach using hierarchical linear modeling. Individual-level data were collected from an ethnically diverse (73% African-American) community sample of 197 children and their parents; community-level data were…

  14. Community characteristics and implementation factors associated with effective systems of care.

    PubMed

    Lunn, Laurel M; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Wang, Wei; Greenbaum, Paul E; Kutash, Krista; Boothroyd, Roger A; Friedman, Robert M

    2011-07-01

    How are characteristics of communities associated with the implementation of the principles of systems of care (SOC)? This study uses multilevel modeling with a stratified random sample (N = 225) of US counties to explore community-level predictors of the implementation factors of the System of Care Implementation Survey. A model composed of community-level social indicators fits well with 5 of 14 factors identified as relevant for effective SOCs. As hypothesized, community disadvantage was negatively and residential stability positively associated with the implementation of SOC principles. Designation as a mental health professional shortage area was positively related to some implementation scores, as was the percentage of minority residents, while rurality was not significantly associated with any of the factors. Given the limitations of the study, the results should be interpreted with caution, but suggest that further research is merited to clarify these relationships that could inform efforts directed at promoting SOCs. PMID:21594747

  15. Background Factors Common among Outstanding Community College Presidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlin, Charles H.; Crittenden, Barbara J.; Ebbers, Larry H.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies nine factors from the literature that contribute to the development of exemplary community college presidents. These factors were used in developing a survey instrument, which was completed by 718 community college presidents. Classifies respondents as normative or outstanding while comparing responses from both groups to create a…

  16. Community Risk and Protective Factors and Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Scott P.; Hays, Carol E.; Mulhall, Peter F.

    2003-01-01

    Study researched the impact of the contextual characteristics of the community on self-reported 8th grade alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use. Results indicate that community disorganization is an important risk factor for ATOD use while family supports is an important protective factor. Greater economic constraints decreases, rather than…

  17. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. 601.32 Section 601.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... estimated absorbed radiation dose of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical....

  18. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.3 General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. FDA's determination of the safety and effectiveness of a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the...

  19. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.3 General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. FDA's determination of the safety and effectiveness of a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the...

  20. Online Workforce Development in Community Colleges: Connection with Community, Institutional, and Governance Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Githens, Rod Patrick; Sauer, Timothy M.; Crawford, Fashaad L.; Cumberland, Denise M.; Wilson, Kristin B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined community and institutional factors that influence offering online workforce development programs in community colleges. The study included a random sample of 321 community college in the United States. Findings conclude that colleges operating under statewide governance structures and in states with more highly centralized…

  1. Community-Based Participatory Research: Conducting a Formative Assessment of Factors that Influence Youth Wellness in the Hualapai Community

    PubMed Central

    Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I.; Siyuja, Thomas; Watahomigie, Helen J; Irwin, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. Using a community-based participatory research approach, a tribe–university team conducted a formative assessment of local factors that influence youth wellness to guide the design of a culturally and locally relevant health promotion program. Methods. Open-ended interviews with key informants, a school self-assessment using the Centers for Disease Control’s School Health Index, and a locally generated environmental inventory provided data that were triangulated to yield a composite of influential factors and perceived need within the community. Results. Family involvement and personal goal setting were identified as key to youth wellness. Supportive programs were described as having consistent adult leadership, structured activities, and a positive local and regional image. Availability of illicit drugs and alcohol, poor teacher attitude, and lack of adult involvement were significant negative factors that impact youth behavior. Conclusions. Local/native (emic) and university/nonnative (etic) perspectives and abilities can be combined to yield a culturally relevant formative assessment that is useful to public health planning. In this collaborative effort, standard means of data collection and analysis were modified in some cases to enhance and build upon the knowledge and skills of community researchers. PMID:16873759

  2. Strategic Decision Making in Community Colleges: An Exploration of Issues Relevant to Decision Making to Confer Community College Baccalaureate Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currier, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores the process community college senior administrators employ when assessing the complex strategic decision to confer community college baccalaureate degrees. Strategic opportunities, such as conferring baccalaureate degrees, occur infrequently thus community college leaders must be prepared to act quickly and…

  3. How Do Principals' Behaviors Facilitate or Inhibit the Development of a Culturally Relevant Learning Community?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Gwendolyn Julia

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the question: "How do principals facilitate or inhibit the development of a culturally responsive learning environment?" A second question asked, "What is the principal's role in developing a culturally relevant learning community?" The criteria for purposely…

  4. Factors Affecting Soil Microbial Community Structure in Tomato Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in agroecosystems may be affected by soil, climate, plant species, and management. We identified some of the most important factors controlling microbial biomass and community structure in an agroecosystem utilizing tomato plants with the following nine tre...

  5. Commitment to Community Practice among Social Work Students: Contributing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Amnon; Cohen, Ayala

    2013-01-01

    It is important to develop commitment to community practice among social work students to encourage their engagement in this field as professionals later in life. This research examines factors that affect commitment to community practice among social work students. A structured questionnaire was administered to 277 social work students in one…

  6. Factors Affecting Drug Abuse in Adolescent Females in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renes, Susan L.; Strange, Anthony T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores factors influencing adolescent female substance use in rural communities. Self-reported data gathered from females 12 to 15 years of age in two northwestern communities in the United States showed an association among gender identity, peer and parental relationships, and substance use. Aggressive masculinity had the strongest…

  7. Relevance of social and behavioral factors in the evaluation of dental health care for school children.

    PubMed

    Hamp, S E; Nilsson, T; Faresjö, T; Gamsäter, G

    1984-04-01

    An interdisciplinary strategy based on a theoretical model for studying dental health was used to analyze the relevance of social and behavioral factors in the evaluation of dental health care for school children. The study comprised pupils who, after a total period of 5 years, differed in their experience with preventive regimens applying different principles of dental prevention. In 1979-80 social and behavioral data were collected by means of a postal questionnaire from altogether 234 pupils, aged 15-16 years, from two school areas. Clinical data, comprising scores for prevalence of plaque, gingivitis, and caries, were available from examinations in 1974, 1978, and 1979. The analysis of factors influencing the subjects' oral status demonstrated that material factors--the parents' education and employment, type of housing, and line of education--and physical factors--sex and prevalence of plaque, gingivitis, and caries at base line--all were of significance for the results obtained. No significant influence of home care climate (social/political factors), dental knowledge and attitudes, general foresightedness or carelessness (mental factors), or tooth-cleaning and sweet-eating habits (action factors) was found. Social and behavioral factors of significance exerted their influence regardless of the type and scope of the dental health care provided. Gingival health was far more a consequence of the professional tooth-cleaning regimen than dependent on the social and behavioral factors tested. No superior effect on caries status was demonstrated for any of the preventive regimens tested. PMID:6588720

  8. Link community detection using generative model and nonnegative matrix factorization.

    PubMed

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Baquero, Carlos; Liu, Dayou

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of communities in complex networks is a fundamental data analysis problem with applications in various domains. While most of the existing approaches have focused on discovering communities of nodes, recent studies have shown the advantages and uses of link community discovery in networks. Generative models provide a promising class of techniques for the identification of modular structures in networks, but most generative models mainly focus on the detection of node communities rather than link communities. In this work, we propose a generative model, which is based on the importance of each node when forming links in each community, to describe the structure of link communities. We proceed to fit the model parameters by taking it as an optimization problem, and solve it using nonnegative matrix factorization. Thereafter, in order to automatically determine the number of communities, we extend the above method by introducing a strategy of iterative bipartition. This extended method not only finds the number of communities all by itself, but also obtains high efficiency, and thus it is more suitable to deal with large and unexplored real networks. We test this approach on both synthetic benchmarks and real-world networks including an application on a large biological network, and compare it with two highly related methods. Results demonstrate the superior performance of our approach over competing methods for the detection of link communities. PMID:24489803

  9. Link Community Detection Using Generative Model and Nonnegative Matrix Factorization

    PubMed Central

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Baquero, Carlos; Liu, Dayou

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of communities in complex networks is a fundamental data analysis problem with applications in various domains. While most of the existing approaches have focused on discovering communities of nodes, recent studies have shown the advantages and uses of link community discovery in networks. Generative models provide a promising class of techniques for the identification of modular structures in networks, but most generative models mainly focus on the detection of node communities rather than link communities. In this work, we propose a generative model, which is based on the importance of each node when forming links in each community, to describe the structure of link communities. We proceed to fit the model parameters by taking it as an optimization problem, and solve it using nonnegative matrix factorization. Thereafter, in order to automatically determine the number of communities, we extend the above method by introducing a strategy of iterative bipartition. This extended method not only finds the number of communities all by itself, but also obtains high efficiency, and thus it is more suitable to deal with large and unexplored real networks. We test this approach on both synthetic benchmarks and real-world networks including an application on a large biological network, and compare it with two highly related methods. Results demonstrate the superior performance of our approach over competing methods for the detection of link communities. PMID:24489803

  10. Factors Influencing Learning at a Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marvin L.

    The Walberg Educational Productivity Model theorizes that learning in its affective, behavioral, and cognitive aspects is causally influenced by factors in the areas of individual aptitude (i.e., prior achievement, age or stage of maturation, and motivation), instructional treatment (i.e., quantity of time spent in learning situations and…

  11. Developing measures of community-relevant outcomes for violence prevention programs: a community-based participatory research approach to measurement.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Alice J; Baker, Courtney N; Komaroff, Eugene; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Hohl, Bernadette C; Leff, Stephen S

    2013-12-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research is a research paradigm that encourages community participation in designing and implementing evaluation research, though the actual outcome measures usually reflect the "external" academic researchers' view of program effect and the policy-makers' needs for decision-making. This paper describes a replicable process by which existing standardized psychometric scales commonly used in youth-related intervention programs were modified to measure indicators of program success defined by community partners. This study utilizes a secondary analysis of data gathered in the context of a community-based youth violence prevention program. Data were retooled into new measures developed using items from the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, the Hare Area Specific Self-Esteem Scale, and the Youth Asset Survey. These measures evaluated two community-defined outcome indicators, "More Parental Involvement" and "Showing Kids Love." Results showed that existing scale items can be re-organized to create measures of community-defined outcomes that are psychometrically reliable and valid. Results also show that the community definitions of parent or parenting caregivers exemplified by the two indicators are similar to how these constructs have been defined in previous research, but they are not synonymous. There are nuanced differences that are important and worthy of better understanding, in part through better measurement. PMID:23846829

  12. Relevant factors to consider prior to an investor-owned acquisition of a nonprofit healthcare entity.

    PubMed

    Ault, Kelvin; Childs, Brad; Wainright, Charles F; Young, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the factors that affect the negotiations for an acquisition of a nonprofit system by an investor-owned entity. The recent economic downturn, accompanying credit crisis, and healthcare reform legislation will likely encourage and accelerate the pace of merger and acquisition (M&A) transactions between investor-owned entities and nonprofit hospitals. As many nonprofits are smaller, more financially vulnerable, and more limited in their access to capital than their investor-owned counterparts, nonprofits could be prime targets for investor-owned acquirers during the healthcare reform implementation period. In M&A transactions of this type, the investor-owned acquirer typically is motivated to pursue an acquisition when the deal promises an acceptable return on investment and decreased operating costs from economies of scale. Alternatively, the nonprofit target is typically seeking funding for upgrades to facilities and information technology systems as well as a continued commitment to charity care and managed-care contracting leverage. A successful acquisition of a nonprofit hospital by an investor-owned company requires a careful analysis of relevant tax, economic, and strategic factors prior to closing the deal. This article lists the most significant factors to consider in these deals and explains how these factors should influence the purchase price and postacquisition cash flow. PMID:21838025

  13. Relevant Obstetric Factors for Cerebral Palsy: From the Nationwide Obstetric Compensation System in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Junichi; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu; Asano, Yuri; Satoh, Shoji; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Ichizuka, Kiyotake; Tamiya, Nanako; Nakai, Akihito; Fujimori, Keiya; Maeda, Tsugio; Masuzaki, Hideaki; Suzuki, Hideaki; Ueda, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to identify the relevant obstetric factors for cerebral palsy (CP) after 33 weeks’ gestation in Japan. Study design This retrospective case cohort study (1:100 cases and controls) used a Japanese national CP registry. Obstetric characteristics and clinical course were compared between CP cases in the Japan Obstetric Compensation System for Cerebral Palsy database and controls in the perinatal database of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology born as live singleton infants between 2009 and 2011 with a birth weight ≥ 2,000 g and gestation ≥ 33 weeks. Results One hundred and seventy-five CP cases and 17,475 controls were assessed. Major relevant single factors for CP were placental abnormalities (31%), umbilical cord abnormalities (15%), maternal complications (10%), and neonatal complications (1%). A multivariate regression model demonstrated that obstetric variables associated with CP were acute delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status (relative risk [RR]: 37.182, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.028–69.032), uterine rupture (RR: 24.770, 95% CI: 6.006–102.160), placental abruption (RR: 20.891, 95% CI: 11.817–36.934), and preterm labor (RR: 3.153, 95% CI: 2.024–4.911), whereas protective factors were head presentation (RR: 0.199, 95% CI: 0.088–0.450) and elective cesarean section (RR: 0.236, 95% CI: 0.067–0.828). Conclusion CP after 33 weeks’ gestation in the recently reported cases in Japan was strongly associated with acute delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status, uterine rupture, and placental abruption. PMID:26821386

  14. Therapy-relevant factors in adult ADHD from a cognitive behavioural perspective.

    PubMed

    Newark, Patricia Elizabeth; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2010-06-01

    Adult individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been suffering from this neurobiological and highly heritable disorder chronically since childhood. Resulting from their longstanding neuropsychological impairments, such as attentional problems, emotional instability, and disinhibition, they are familiar to a multiplicity of negative life outcomes and underachievement. Furthermore, a large part of this population suffers from psychiatric comorbidity. This accumulation of negative experiences has an impact on therapy-relevant factors such as the individual's self-esteem, self-efficacy, development of core beliefs/schemas, and coping strategies. Based on negative beliefs about the self, individuals confronted with difficult situations develop maladaptive coping strategies, for instance avoidance and procrastination. These strategies lead to maintenance and reinforcement of maladaptive beliefs, and as such they acquit themselves as schema-confirming. Captured in this vicious cycle, the individual sees her negative view of the self confirmed. The purpose of this paper is to illuminate these interactive factors that influence the aforementioned cycle in order to emphasize the cognitive behavioural interventions tailored to those factors on the basis of latest research. Furthermore, the authors want to attract notice to the resources people with ADHD are said to have, namely creativity and resilience. These postulated resources could be therapy-relevant by creating positive beliefs about the self, hence improving coping skills and breaking the vicious circle of negative appraisal. Taking into account personal resources and their fostering may be an important fundament for the treatment plan of adult ADHD. Information on the current state of research and theoretical approaches concerning the below-mentioned key words was gathered through MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PSYNDEXplus, and PubMed databases. PMID:21432591

  15. Individual and community factors affecting psychological sense of community, attraction, and neighboring in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Derek

    2008-08-01

    One thousand nine hundred ninety-five individuals in 20 rural Canadian communities were measured on perceived social cohesion by the three Buckner scale subdimensions: psychological sense of community (PSOC), attraction, and neighboring. Number of household children, income over $20,000, age, birthplace in, and years lived in the community significantly positively influenced PSOC and Attraction. Number of household children (positive for income over $20,000; otherwise negative), income over $40,000, birthplace, and years in the community significantly influenced neighboring. Increased interaction generally increases individuals' social cohesion. As the only significant community variable was being on an island province, individual-oriented policies are recommended to increase cohesion. PMID:19579352

  16. Motivation to Participate in Workplace Training within the Intelligence Community and Beyond: A Study of Contributing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanard, Stephanie Vernice Overton

    2013-01-01

    Organizations can incur extensive costs to fund training typically available to employees free of charge. However, some employees do not participate. The body of research reviewed in adult education focused on relevant studies and models of contributing factors for participation in academia, the workplace, and the community. No studies were found…

  17. Community Based Mathematics Project: Conceptualizing Access through Locally Relevant Mathematics Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebby, Caroline; Lim, Vivian; Reinke, Luke; Remillard, Janine; Magee, Emily; Hoe, Nina; Cyrus, Maya

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a conceptual framework for using locally relevant mathematics curricula to increase access to mathematics for marginalized youth. Drawing on different strands of research on equity in mathematics education, the authors propose that there are three kinds of access that are afforded by the use of contexts that…

  18. Policy-Relevant Research within the Community Colleges: An IHE Focus for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Dennis A., II; Campbell, Dale F.

    2015-01-01

    Grounded in policy-relevant research, the Institute of Higher Education at the University of Florida is focused on supporting local, state, and national postsecondary policy development as well as training the next generation of institutional leaders. IHE conducts rigorous scholarship focused on postsecondary policy analysis and supporting the…

  19. On Diversity, Empathy, and Community: The Relevance of Johann Gottfried Herder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Howard M.; Durrant, Marie B.; Evans, Matthew T.; Maughan, Suzanne L.

    2008-01-01

    The writings of Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) foreshadowed several of the dominant theories of sociology, social psychology, aesthetics, linguistics and literary theory. His ideas impacted generations of thinkers, but today he is uncelebrated, mostly unknown. His writings on populism, expressionism, and pluralism are relevant to contemporary…

  20. Factors Associated with Student Withdrawal from Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoggin, Donna; Styron, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Research was designed to identify commonalities of personal, enrollment, withdrawal, and evaluative factors as they relate to student withdrawal from community college. The study sought to identify interrelationships between identified reasons for student withdrawal and the variables of gender, race, classification status, degree sought, plans for…

  1. Factors That Develop Effective Professional Learning Communities in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Peiying; Lee, Che-Di; Lin, Hongda; Zhang, Chun-Xi

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the key factors of developing effective professional learning communities (PLCs) within the Taiwanese context. Four constructs--supportive and shared leadership, shared visions, collegial trust, and shared practices--were adopted and developed into an instrument for measuring PLC function. A stratified random…

  2. Complement Factor B Mutations in Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome—Disease-Relevant or Benign?

    PubMed Central

    Marinozzi, Maria Chiara; Vergoz, Laura; Rybkine, Tania; Ngo, Stephanie; Bettoni, Serena; Pashov, Anastas; Cayla, Mathieu; Tabarin, Fanny; Jablonski, Mathieu; Hue, Christophe; Smith, Richard J.; Noris, Marina; Halbwachs-Mecarelli, Lise; Donadelli, Roberta; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique

    2014-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a genetic ultrarare renal disease associated with overactivation of the alternative pathway of complement. Four gain-of-function mutations that form a hyperactive or deregulated C3 convertase have been identified in Factor B (FB) ligand binding sites. Here, we studied the functional consequences of 10 FB genetic changes recently identified from different aHUS cohorts. Using several tests for alternative C3 and C5 convertase formation and regulation, we identified two gain-of-function and potentially disease-relevant mutations that formed either an overactive convertase (M433I) or a convertase resistant to decay by FH (K298Q). One mutation (R178Q) produced a partially cleaved protein with no ligand binding or functional activity. Seven genetic changes led to near-normal or only slightly reduced ligand binding and functional activity compared with the most common polymorphism at position 7, R7. Notably, none of the algorithms used to predict the disease relevance of FB mutations agreed completely with the experimental data, suggesting that in silico approaches should be undertaken with caution. These data, combined with previously published results, suggest that 9 of 15 FB genetic changes identified in patients with aHUS are unrelated to disease pathogenesis. This study highlights that functional assessment of identified nucleotide changes in FB is mandatory to confirm disease association. PMID:24652797

  3. Academic Excellence, Cultural Relevance, Community Connectedness: Lessons from R. W. Coleman Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Pauline

    Robert W. Coleman Elementary School in Baltimore (Maryland) is a school that is exemplary by virtue of its efforts to build on the strengths of students and the community. Although it is not yet a model of curriculum or instruction, it operates in an ethical and theoretical framework with much to say to the urban educator. The school, which serves…

  4. DELIVERING TIME-RELEVANT WATER QUALITY INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY THE LAKE ACCESS-MINNEAPOLIS PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EMPACT was created in 1996 to take advantage of new technologies that make it possible to provide environmental information to the public in near real time. EMPACT is working with the 86 largest metropolitan areas of the country to help communities in these areas: Collecting, ma...

  5. The New Urban Community: Mutual Relevance of the Social and Physical Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellow, Deborah; Bedger, Jean E.

    This report presents a study carried out in the near southside Chicago community of South Commons. The site was chosen because it was considered planned, heterogeneous, and located in the inner-city. The analysis is based on preliminary work carried out in the summer of 1973. This project focuses on the social and physical construction of…

  6. Outdoor Learning: Curriculum Imperatives and Community Relevance in a Rural Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maposah-Kandemiri, Myra; Higgins, Peter; McLaughlin, Pat

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a review of practice in the use of the outdoors, and its potential in the teaching of environmental education at Muenzaniso, a Zimbabwean primary school. The school uses permaculture and Integrated Land Use Design as tools for sustainable environmental management. Evidence suggests that pressing community and curriculum…

  7. Exploring the Relevance of Feminist Pedagogy to Community Psychology: Continuing the Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Germaine-Small, Melissa; Walsh-Bowers, Richard; Mitchell, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    Psychology has made advances in rectifying its historical negation of women's perspectives, as evidenced by a steady increase in women's scholarship and distinctly feminist works. However, in community psychology, the scope and magnitude of works generated both by and about women from a feminist framework have not kept pace with discourse on the…

  8. Troubled Diversities, Multiple Identities and the Relevance of Royce: What Makes a Community Worth Caring about?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raposa, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article raises questions about what it means to be a diverse academic community and about why such diversity is worth struggling to achieve. The controversial arguments of Walter Benn Michaels are critically examined as a stimulus and prelude to considering the more constructive perspectives supplied by Amartya Sen and Josiah Royce. Royce's…

  9. Culturally Relevant Prevention: The Scientific and Practical Considerations of Community-Based Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Le'Roy E.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2007-01-01

    For over a decade, there have been increasing efforts in counseling psychology and other areas of applied psychology to understand the role of culture in preventive and mental health services for ethnically, economically, and religiously diverse communities. In this Major Contribution, the authors offer examples of three prevention programs in…

  10. Community wind power ownership schemes in Europe and their relevance to the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark

    2001-05-15

    With varying success, the United States and Europe have followed a more or less parallel path of policies to support wind development over the past twenty years. Feed-in laws and tax incentives first popularized in California in the early 1980s and greatly expanded upon in Europe during the 1990s are gradually giving way to market-based support mechanisms such as renewable portfolio standards, which are being implemented in one form or another in ten US states and at least three European nations. At the same time, electricity markets are being liberalized in both the US and Europe, and many electricity consumers are being given the choice to support the development of renewable energy through higher tariffs, both in traditionally regulated and newly competitive markets. One notable area in which wind development in Europe and United States has not evolved in common, however, is with respect to the level of community ownership of wind turbines or clusters. While community ownership of wind projects is unheard of in the United States, in Europe, local wind cooperatives or other participatory business schemes have been responsible for a large share of total wind development. In Denmark, for example, approximately 80% of all wind turbines are either individually or cooperatively owned, and a similar pattern holds in Germany, the world leader in installed wind capacity. Sweden also has a strong wind cooperative base, and the UK has recently made forays into community wind ownership. Why is it that wind development has evolved this way in Europe, but not in the United States? What incremental effect have community-owned wind schemes had on European wind development? Have community-owned wind schemes driven development in Europe, or are they merely a vehicle through which the fundamental driving institutions have been channeled? Is there value to having community wind ownership in the US? Is there reason to believe that such schemes would succeed in the US? If so, which

  11. Persistence and Adherence With Dementia Pharmacotherapy: Relevance of Patient, Provider, and System Factors

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Colleen J; Stock, Kathryn; Seitz, Dallas; Herrmann, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of studies examining adherence and (or) persistence with dementia pharmacotherapy during the past decade, including a summary of the key patient-, drug-, system-, and provider-level factors associated with these measures. Estimates of adherence and 1-year persistence to these drugs have ranged from 34% to 94% and 35% to 60%, respectively. Though many studies reported nonsignificant associations, there are data suggesting that patient age, sex, ethnoracial background, socioeconomic status, and region-specific reimbursement criteria, as well as the extent and quality of interactions among patients, caregivers, and providers, may influence persistence with pharmacotherapy. As many studies relied on administrative data, limited information was available regarding the relevance of patient’s cognitive and functional status or the importance of caregiver involvement or assistive devices to adherence or persistence. PMID:25702361

  12. Identifying Key Hospital Service Quality Factors in Online Health Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yuchul; Hur, Cinyoung; Jung, Dain

    2015-01-01

    Background The volume of health-related user-created content, especially hospital-related questions and answers in online health communities, has rapidly increased. Patients and caregivers participate in online community activities to share their experiences, exchange information, and ask about recommended or discredited hospitals. However, there is little research on how to identify hospital service quality automatically from the online communities. In the past, in-depth analysis of hospitals has used random sampling surveys. However, such surveys are becoming impractical owing to the rapidly increasing volume of online data and the diverse analysis requirements of related stakeholders. Objective As a solution for utilizing large-scale health-related information, we propose a novel approach to identify hospital service quality factors and overtime trends automatically from online health communities, especially hospital-related questions and answers. Methods We defined social media–based key quality factors for hospitals. In addition, we developed text mining techniques to detect such factors that frequently occur in online health communities. After detecting these factors that represent qualitative aspects of hospitals, we applied a sentiment analysis to recognize the types of recommendations in messages posted within online health communities. Korea’s two biggest online portals were used to test the effectiveness of detection of social media–based key quality factors for hospitals. Results To evaluate the proposed text mining techniques, we performed manual evaluations on the extraction and classification results, such as hospital name, service quality factors, and recommendation types using a random sample of messages (ie, 5.44% (9450/173,748) of the total messages). Service quality factor detection and hospital name extraction achieved average F1 scores of 91% and 78%, respectively. In terms of recommendation classification, performance (ie, precision) is

  13. Estimating Cyanobacteria Community Dynamics and its Relationship with Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wenhuai; Chen, Huirong; Lei, Anping; Lu, Jun; Hu, Zhangli

    2014-01-01

    The cyanobacteria community dynamics in two eutrophic freshwater bodies (Tiegang Reservoir and Shiyan Reservoir) was studied with both a traditional microscopic counting method and a PCR-DGGE genotyping method. Results showed that cyanobacterium Phormidium tenue was the predominant species; twenty-six cyanobacteria species were identified in water samples collected from the two reservoirs, among which fourteen were identified with the morphological method and sixteen with the PCR-DGGE method. The cyanobacteria community composition analysis showed a seasonal fluctuation from July to December. The cyanobacteria population peaked in August in both reservoirs, with cell abundances of 3.78 × 108 cells L-1 and 1.92 × 108 cells L-1 in the Tiegang and Shiyan reservoirs, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was applied to further investigate the correlation between cyanobacteria community dynamics and environmental factors. The result indicated that the cyanobacteria community dynamics was mostly correlated with pH, temperature and total nitrogen. This study demonstrated that data obtained from PCR-DGGE combined with a traditional morphological method could reflect cyanobacteria community dynamics and its correlation with environmental factors in eutrophic freshwater bodies. PMID:24448632

  14. Marine wildlife entanglement: Assessing knowledge, attitudes, and relevant behaviour in the Australian community.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Elissa; Mellish, Sarah; Sanders, Ben; Litchfield, Carla

    2014-12-15

    Marine debris remains a global challenge, with significant impacts on wildlife. Despite this, there is a paucity of research examining public understanding about marine wildlife entanglement [MWE], particularly within an Australian context. The present study surveyed two hundred and thirteen participants across three coastal sites to assess familiarity with MWE and the effectiveness of a new community education initiative 'Seal the Loop' [STL]. Results revealed attitudes toward marine wildlife were very positive (M 40.5, SD 4.12); however 32% of participants were unable to correctly explain what MWE is and risks to wildlife were under-estimated. STL may be one method to enhance public understanding and engagement-if community familiarity with the program can be increased. For those aware of STL (<13% of the sample at the time of the study), findings revealed this was having a positive impact (e.g. learning something new, changed waste disposal behaviours). PMID:25455820

  15. More than a bookstore: the continuing relevance of feminist bookstores for the lesbian community.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Feminist bookstores serve as hubs for the lesbian community, offering a "safe space" for gatherings, information dissemination, and personal exploration. In recent years, the number of feminist bookstores in the U.S. has drastically declined. This trend is often attributed to the increase in corporate bookstore chains and the emergence of online merchants. Given the wider availability of feminist and lesbian reading material, have feminist bookstores outlived their usefulness? Using survey and interview data collected from lesbian feminist bookstore customers, I show that feminist bookstores continue to be perceived as vital to the lesbian community. Respondents share powerful memories of their first visits to feminist bookstores and articulate the continued need for such enterprises in their communities. Despite these assertions, however, more than half of the women surveyed indicate that their visits to the stores have grown less frequent over time due to changes in life circumstances or decreased salience of lesbian identity. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19780272

  16. Factors influencing perceived sustainability of Dutch community health programs.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, A J M; Van Assema, P; Hesdahl, B; Harting, J; De Vries, N K

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health programs in deprived neighborhoods in the southern part of the Netherlands. The interview guide was based on a conceptual framework that includes factors related to the context, the leading organization, leadership, the coalition, collaborating partners, interventions and outcomes. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and content analyzed using NVivo 8.0. Participants in each of the programs varied in their perceptions of the sustainability of the program, but those people collaborating in pre-existing neighborhood structures expressed relatively high faith in their continuation. The participating citizens in particular believed that these structures would continue to address the health of the community in the future. We found factors from all categories of the conceptual framework that were perceived to influence sustainability. The program leaders appeared to be crucial to the programs, as they were frequently mentioned in close interaction with other factors. Program leaders should use a motivating and supportive leadership style and should act as 'program champions'. PMID:24021354

  17. Expression, regulation and clinical relevance of the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 in human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Aragó, M; Formentini, L; Martínez-Reyes, I; García-Bermudez, J; Santacatterina, F; Sánchez-Cenizo, L; Willers, I M; Aldea, M; Nájera, L; Juarránz, Á; López, E C; Clofent, J; Navarro, C; Espinosa, E; Cuezva, J M

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings in colon cancer cells indicate that inhibition of the mitochondrial H+-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase by the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) promotes aerobic glycolysis and a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signal that enhances proliferation and cell survival. Herein, we have studied the expression, biological relevance, mechanism of regulation and potential clinical impact of IF1 in some prevalent human carcinomas. We show that IF1 is highly overexpressed in most (>90%) of the colon (n=64), lung (n=30), breast (n=129) and ovarian (n=10) carcinomas studied as assessed by different approaches in independent cohorts of cancer patients. The expression of IF1 in the corresponding normal tissues is negligible. By contrast, the endometrium, stomach and kidney show high expression of IF1 in the normal tissue revealing subtle differences by carcinogenesis. The overexpression of IF1 also promotes the activation of aerobic glycolysis and a concurrent ROS signal in mitochondria of the lung, breast and ovarian cancer cells mimicking the activity of oligomycin. IF1-mediated ROS signaling activates cell-type specific adaptive responses aimed at preventing death in these cell lines. Remarkably, regulation of IF1 expression in the colon, lung, breast and ovarian carcinomas is exerted at post-transcriptional levels. We demonstrate that IF1 is a short-lived protein (t1/2 ∼100 min) strongly implicating translation and/or protein stabilization as main drivers of metabolic reprogramming and cell survival in these human cancers. Analysis of tumor expression of IF1 in cohorts of breast and colon cancer patients revealed its relevance as a predictive marker for clinical outcome, emphasizing the high potential of IF1 as therapeutic target. PMID:23608753

  18. Analysis of Clinically Relevant Factors for Pulmonary Hypertension in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shen; Sun, Qianmei

    2015-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is common in patients with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and is associated with high mortality. This study analyzed clinically relevant factors for pulmonary hypertension in MHD patients and the effect of serum pentraxin3 (PTX3) in the pathogenesis of PH to provide the basis for early diagnosis and treatment of MHD patients with PH. Material/Methods This study included 60 MHD patients (group A) and 30 healthy controls (group B). Group A was further divided into PH and non-PH groups. Clinical characteristics, auxiliary examination results and serum PTX3 level of the PH and non-PH groups were compared. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the risk factors for PH in MHD patients. ROC curve was applied to evaluate the diagnostic value of PTX3 in PH. Results The incidence rate of PH in MHD patients was 50%, and most presented as mild to moderate. Compared with the non-PH group, patients in PH group presented significantly longer atrial diameter, right ventricular diameter and main pulmonary artery diameter (P<0.05), as well as higher PTX3 and NT-proBNP level. Atrial diameter and PTX3 level were the risk factors for PH in MHD patients. AUC of PTX3 was 0.721 (95%CI: 0.590–0.851, P=0.003). Conclusions The prevalence of PH was higher in MHD patients and mostly presented as mild to moderate. Such patients often developed heart structural changes and cardiac ultrasound was highly recommended. Serum PTX3 level was significantly elevated and could be used as a marker of PH in MHD patients. PMID:26706606

  19. Analysis of Clinically Relevant Factors for Pulmonary Hypertension in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shen; Sun, Qianmei

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is common in patients with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and is associated with high mortality. This study analyzed clinically relevant factors for pulmonary hypertension in MHD patients and the effect of serum pentraxin3 (PTX3) in the pathogenesis of PH to provide the basis for early diagnosis and treatment of MHD patients with PH. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study included 60 MHD patients (group A) and 30 healthy controls (group B). Group A was further divided into PH and non-PH groups. Clinical characteristics, auxiliary examination results and serum PTX3 level of the PH and non-PH groups were compared. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the risk factors for PH in MHD patients. ROC curve was applied to evaluate the diagnostic value of PTX3 in PH. RESULTS The incidence rate of PH in MHD patients was 50%, and most presented as mild to moderate. Compared with the non-PH group, patients in PH group presented significantly longer atrial diameter, right ventricular diameter and main pulmonary artery diameter (P<0.05), as well as higher PTX3 and NT-proBNP level. Atrial diameter and PTX3 level were the risk factors for PH in MHD patients. AUC of PTX3 was 0.721 (95%CI: 0.590-0.851, P=0.003). CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of PH was higher in MHD patients and mostly presented as mild to moderate. Such patients often developed heart structural changes and cardiac ultrasound was highly recommended. Serum PTX3 level was significantly elevated and could be used as a marker of PH in MHD patients. PMID:26706606

  20. Prognostic Factors Toward Clinically Relevant Radiographic Progression in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Tomohiro; Okada, Akitomo; Fukuda, Takaaki; Hidaka, Toshihiko; Ishii, Tomonori; Ueki, Yukitaka; Kodera, Takao; Nakashima, Munetoshi; Takahashi, Yuichi; Honda, Seiyo; Horai, Yoshiro; Watanabe, Ryu; Okuno, Hiroshi; Aramaki, Toshiyuki; Izumiyama, Tomomasa; Takai, Osamu; Miyashita, Taiichiro; Sato, Shuntaro; Kawashiri, Shin-ya; Iwamoto, Naoki; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Tamai, Mami; Origuchi, Tomoki; Nakamura, Hideki; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Katsumi; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine prognostic factors of clinically relevant radiographic progression (CRRP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical practice. We performed a multicenter prospective study in Japan of biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (bDMARD)-naive RA patients with moderate to high disease activity treated with conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs) at study entry. We longitudinally observed 408 patients for 1 year and assessed disease activity every 3 months. CRRP was defined as yearly progression of modified total Sharp score (mTSS) > 3.0 U. We also divided the cohort into 2 groups based on disease duration (<3 vs ≥3 years) and performed a subgroup analysis. CRRP was found in 10.3% of the patients. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent variables to predict the development of CRRP were: CRP at baseline (0.30 mg/dL increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.11), time-integrated Disease Activity Score in 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) during the 1 year postbaseline (12.4-unit increase, 95%CI 1.17–2.59), RA typical erosion at baseline (95%CI 1.56–21.1), and the introduction of bDMARDs (95%CI 0.06–0.38). The subgroup analysis revealed that time-integrated DAS28-ESR is not a predictor whereas the introduction of bDMARDs is a significant protective factor for CRRP in RA patients with disease duration <3 years. We identified factors that could be used to predict the development of CRRP in RA patients treated with DMARDs. These variables appear to be different based on the RA patients’ disease durations. PMID:27124044

  1. A review of abiotic and biotic interactions in pelagic communities: Processes relevant to L Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a state-of-the-art review of structural and functional processes in pelagic communities and extrapolate these empirical and theoretical results to L Lake, the once-through cooling reservoir at the Savannah River Plant. Man-made reservoirs differ from natural lakes in their origins, hydrodynamics, sedimentation patterns, and general eutrophication histories. Phosphorus and nitrogen limitation of phytoplankton productivity controls the rate of eutrophication, while also determining algal community structure. Here the Lean and Monod models of nutrient fluxing and uptake kinetics provide useful constructs for predictive purposes. Much of the reduced carbon synthesized by primary production is shunted through the microbial loop where heterotrophic flagellates and protozoans pass this carbon on to the macrozooplankton. This recently discovered pathway is common to eutrophic reservoirs where blue-green species dominate phytoplankton assemblages. Through selective grazing and tactile oriented predation, the crustacean zooplankton partially regulates the relative abundance of algae and microzooplankton species. 194 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Factors influencing HIV vaccine community engagement in the urban South.

    PubMed

    Frew, Paula M; del Rio, Carlos; Clifton, Sarah; Archibald, Matthew; Hormes, Joseph T; Mulligan, Mark J

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine personal characteristics, socio-environmental conditions, and motivational factors that potentially influence HIV vaccine research community engagement. Specifically, the study identified predictive aspects that may aid in future community program development on HIV vaccine issues. A cross-sectional survey consisting of evaluative measures, demographics, social interaction, and health information-seeking behaviors was conducted. Participants were a diverse group of 452 adults (>or=18 years) at HIV vaccine awareness-building and community education gatherings in Atlanta. The sample included large numbers of women (n=251) and minorities (n=224). In multivariate analysis, the overall logistic regression model was significant, with a resulting coefficient of determination (Nagelkerke R(2)) of .505. Highly significant factors included an excellent activity/event rating (log odds beta = 4.521, P< .001), White race (beta= -.835, P= .005), greater educational attainment (beta= .725, P= .011), travel distance (beta = 1.186, P= .002), and excellent perception of the study site (beta=2.131, P< .001). Subgroup analyses by gender and race revealed similar findings. These data demonstrate the importance of building a favorable study site image and gaining familiarity in the community to aid in the promotion of HIV vaccine research on an ongoing basis. PMID:18389351

  3. Factors affecting the level of success of community information systems.

    PubMed

    Coombs, C R; Doherty, N F; Loan-Clarke, J

    1999-01-01

    The factors that influence the ultimate level of success or failure of systems development projects have received considerable attention in the academic literature. However, previous research has rarely targeted different instances of a common type of system within a homogeneous organisational sector. This paper presents the results of a survey of IM&T managers within Community Trusts to gain insights into the factors affecting the success of Community Information Systems. The results demonstrate that the most successful operational systems were thoroughly tested prior to implementation and enjoyed high levels of user and senior management commitment. Furthermore, it has been shown that there is a relationship between the level of organisational impact and systems success, with the most successful systems engendering changes to the host organisation's culture, level of empowerment and clinical working practices. In addition to being of academic interest, this research provides many important insights for practising IM&T managers. PMID:10747445

  4. The Ivory Tower and the Community: A New Approach to Emphasizing the Relevance of Environmental Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuff, K. E.; Corazza, L.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past eight years we have developed and implemented several U.C. Berkeley-based outreach programs that provide opportunities for grades nine through eleven students in the East San Francisco Bay Area to gain skills and understandings that increase their capacity to enroll and perform successfully in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in the future, which enhances their capacity to decide to pursue STEM careers. A common element of these programs is the opportunity they provide participants to engage in environmental science research projects that are directly linked to relevant, real-world environmental problems and issues facing their communities. Analysis of evidence gleaned from questionnaires, interviews and specific assessment instruments indicates that these programs have consistently achieved a high degree of success in that they have: significantly increased participants' understanding of the process and nature of science; enhanced their intellectual self-confidence with regard to STEM; developed deeper appreciation of how scientific research can contribute to the maintenance of healthy local environments; developed a greater interest in participating in STEM-related courses of study and after school programs; and improved attitudes toward STEM. These results corroborate recent research studies that indicate a close relationship between educational activities that promote the perception of STEM as being relevant and the ability to foster development of deeper conceptual understandings among teens. Moreover, they support the notion that providing opportunities for students to develop personal connections with particular issues discussed, and real-world STEM experiences that make STEM more relevant and interesting can help to bring about changes in attitude, which is a key component in improving STEM learning and understanding particularly among urban youth. Overall, our work suggests that in order for a given STEM

  5. The relevance of coagulation factor X protection of adenoviruses in human sera

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, M R; Doszpoly, A; Turner, G; Nicklin, S A; Baker, A H

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous delivery of adenoviruses is the optimal route for many gene therapy applications. Once in the blood, coagulation factor X (FX) binds to the adenovirus capsid and protects the virion from natural antibody and classical complement-mediated neutralisation in mice. However, to date, no studies have examined the relevance of this FX/viral immune protective mechanism in human samples. In this study, we assessed the effects of blocking FX on adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) activity in the presence of human serum. FX prevented human IgM binding directly to the virus. In individual human sera samples (n=25), approximately half of those screened inhibited adenovirus transduction only when the Ad5–FX interaction was blocked, demonstrating that FX protected the virus from neutralising components in a large proportion of human sera. In contrast, the remainder of sera tested had no inhibitory effects on Ad5 transduction and FX armament was not required for effective gene transfer. In human sera in which FX had a protective role, Ad5 induced lower levels of complement activation in the presence of FX. We therefore demonstrate for the first time the importance of Ad–FX protection in human samples and highlight subject variability and species-specific differences as key considerations for adenoviral gene therapy. PMID:27014840

  6. Factors influencing autism spectrum disorder screening by community paediatricians

    PubMed Central

    WS, Angie; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Nicholas, David; Sharon, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In most cases, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be reliably diagnosed at two to three years of age. However, Canadian data reveal a median age at diagnosis of approximately four years. OBJECTIVE: To examine general paediatricians’ practices regarding ASD screening and identify factors that influence decisions regarding the use of ASD screening tools. METHODS: Using a qualitative inquiry-based interpretive description approach, 12 paediatricians from four practice groups participated in four focus groups and one individual interview. These were conducted using semistructured interviews, digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. RESULTS: Five main domains of themes were identified related to screening tool use: benefits; needs not addressed; elements that limit utility; elements that encourage utility; and implementation challenges. Factors influencing practice included availability of time, comfort with screening tool use, previous use and knowledge about specific tools. Systemic factors included knowledge and access to community resources, as well as the ability to provide support to the child and family. CONCLUSION: The results from the present study identified important factors that influence paediatric practice in ASD screening. As screening tools improve, it will be important to examine the implementation and effectiveness of screening tools and strategies for increased uptake. Future research will also need to attend to the practical needs of physicians and communities in the aim of earlier diagnosis and rapid access to interventional resources. PMID:26175565

  7. Maternal, neonatal and community factors influencing neonatal mortality in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Carla Jorge; Hill, Kenneth

    2005-03-01

    Child mortality (the mortality of children less than five years old) declined considerably in the developing world in the 1990s, but infant mortality declined less. The reductions in neonatal mortality were not impressive and, as a consequence, there is an increasing percentage of infant deaths in the neonatal period. Any further reduction in child mortality, therefore, requires an understanding of the determinants of neonatal mortality. 209,628 birth and 2581 neonatal death records for the 1998 birth cohort from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were probabilistically matched. Data were from SINASC and SIM, Information Systems on Live Births and Deaths of Brazil. Logistic regression was used to find the association between neonatal mortality and the following risk factors: birth weight, gestational age, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes, delivery mode, plurality, sex, maternal education, maternal age, number of prior losses, prenatal care, race, parity and community development. Infants of older mothers were less likely to die in the neonatal period. Caesarean delivery was not found to be associated with neonatal mortality. Low birth weight, pre-term birth and low Apgar scores were associated with neonatal death. Having a mother who lives in the highest developed community decreased the odds of neonatal death, suggesting that factors not measured in this study are behind such association. This result may also indicate that other factors over and above biological and more proximate factors could affect neonatal death. PMID:15768774

  8. Historical and contemporary factors generate unique butterfly communities on islands.

    PubMed

    Vodă, Raluca; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Shreeve, Tim G; Khaldi, Mourad; Barech, Ghania; Rebbas, Khellaf; Sammut, Paul; Scalercio, Stefano; Hebert, Paul D N; Vila, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms shaping island biotas are not yet well understood mostly because of a lack of studies comparing eco-evolutionary fingerprints over entire taxonomic groups. Here, we linked community structure (richness, frequency and nestedness) and genetic differentiation (based on mitochondrial DNA) in order to compare insular butterfly communities occurring over a key intercontinental area in the Mediterranean (Italy-Sicily-Maghreb). We found that community characteristics and genetic structure were influenced by a combination of contemporary and historical factors, and among the latter, connection during the Pleistocene had an important impact. We showed that species can be divided into two groups with radically different properties: widespread taxa had high dispersal capacity, a nested pattern of occurrence, and displayed little genetic structure, while rare species were mainly characterized by low dispersal, high turnover and genetically differentiated populations. These results offer an unprecedented view of the distinctive butterfly communities and of the main processes determining them on each studied island and highlight the importance of assessing the phylogeographic value of populations for conservation. PMID:27353723

  9. Historical and contemporary factors generate unique butterfly communities on islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodă, Raluca; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Shreeve, Tim G.; Khaldi, Mourad; Barech, Ghania; Rebbas, Khellaf; Sammut, Paul; Scalercio, Stefano; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Vila, Roger

    2016-06-01

    The mechanisms shaping island biotas are not yet well understood mostly because of a lack of studies comparing eco-evolutionary fingerprints over entire taxonomic groups. Here, we linked community structure (richness, frequency and nestedness) and genetic differentiation (based on mitochondrial DNA) in order to compare insular butterfly communities occurring over a key intercontinental area in the Mediterranean (Italy-Sicily-Maghreb). We found that community characteristics and genetic structure were influenced by a combination of contemporary and historical factors, and among the latter, connection during the Pleistocene had an important impact. We showed that species can be divided into two groups with radically different properties: widespread taxa had high dispersal capacity, a nested pattern of occurrence, and displayed little genetic structure, while rare species were mainly characterized by low dispersal, high turnover and genetically differentiated populations. These results offer an unprecedented view of the distinctive butterfly communities and of the main processes determining them on each studied island and highlight the importance of assessing the phylogeographic value of populations for conservation.

  10. Historical and contemporary factors generate unique butterfly communities on islands

    PubMed Central

    Vodă, Raluca; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Shreeve, Tim G.; Khaldi, Mourad; Barech, Ghania; Rebbas, Khellaf; Sammut, Paul; Scalercio, Stefano; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Vila, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms shaping island biotas are not yet well understood mostly because of a lack of studies comparing eco-evolutionary fingerprints over entire taxonomic groups. Here, we linked community structure (richness, frequency and nestedness) and genetic differentiation (based on mitochondrial DNA) in order to compare insular butterfly communities occurring over a key intercontinental area in the Mediterranean (Italy-Sicily-Maghreb). We found that community characteristics and genetic structure were influenced by a combination of contemporary and historical factors, and among the latter, connection during the Pleistocene had an important impact. We showed that species can be divided into two groups with radically different properties: widespread taxa had high dispersal capacity, a nested pattern of occurrence, and displayed little genetic structure, while rare species were mainly characterized by low dispersal, high turnover and genetically differentiated populations. These results offer an unprecedented view of the distinctive butterfly communities and of the main processes determining them on each studied island and highlight the importance of assessing the phylogeographic value of populations for conservation. PMID:27353723

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: which factors are relevant? (review of the literature).

    PubMed

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Andersen, Klaus E; Darsow, Ulf; Mortz, Charlotte G; Orton, David; Worm, Margitta; Muraro, Antonella; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Grimalt, Ramon; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Flohr, Carsten; Halken, Susanne; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Borrego, Luis M; Oranje, Arnold P

    2013-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children is increasing. Sensitization to contact allergens can start in early infancy. The epidermal barrier is crucial for the development of sensitization and elicitation of ACD. Factors that may influence the onset of sensitization in children are atopic dermatitis, skin barrier defects and intense or repetitive contact with allergens. Topical treatment of ACD is associated with cutaneous sensitization, although the prevalence is not high. ACD because of haptens in shoes or shin guards should be considered in cases of persistent foot eruptions or sharply defined dermatitis on the lower legs. Clinical polymorphism of contact dermatitis to clothing may cause difficulties in diagnosing textile dermatitis. Toys are another potentially source of hapten exposure in children, especially from toy-cosmetic products such as perfumes, lipstick and eye shadow. The most frequent contact allergens in children are metals, fragrances, preservatives, neomycin, rubber chemicals and more recently also colourings. It is very important to remember that ACD in young children is not rare, and should always be considered when children with recalcitrant eczema are encountered. Children should be patch-tested with a selection of allergens having the highest proportion of positive, relevant patch test reactions. The allergen exposure pattern differs between age groups and adolescents may also be exposed to occupational allergens. The purpose of this review is to alert the paediatrician and dermatologist of the frequency of ACD in young children and of the importance of performing patch tests in every case of chronic recurrent or therapy-resistant eczema in children. PMID:23373713

  12. Factors influencing food choice in an Australian Aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Maypilama, Elaine; Colles, Susan; Scarlett, Maria; Dhurrkay, Joanne Garnggulkpuy; Ritchie, Jan; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-03-01

    We explored with Aboriginal adults living in a remote Australian community the social context of food choice and factors perceived to shape food choice. An ethnographic approach of prolonged community engagement over 3 years was augmented by interviews. Our findings revealed that knowledge, health, and resources supporting food choice were considered "out of balance," and this imbalance was seen to manifest in a Western-imposed diet lacking variety and overrelying on familiar staples. Participants felt ill-equipped to emulate the traditional pattern of knowledge transfer through passing food-related wisdom to younger generations. The traditional food system was considered key to providing the framework for learning about the contemporary food environment. Practitioners seeking to improve diet and health outcomes for this population should attend to past and present contexts of food in nutrition education, support the educative role of caregivers, address the high cost of food, and support access to traditional foods. PMID:24549409

  13. Plant available silicon in South-east Asian rice paddy soils - relevance of agricultural practice and of abiotic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marxen, A.; Klotzbücher, T.; Vetterlein, D.; Jahn, R.

    2012-12-01

    Background Silicon (Si) plays a crucial role in rice production. Si content of rice plants exceeds the content of other major nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous or potassium. Recent studies showed that in some environments external supply of Si can enhance the growth of rice plants. Rice plants express specific Si transporters to absorb Si from soil solutions in form of silicic acid, which precipitates in tissue cells forming amorphous silica bodies, called phytoliths. The phytoliths are returned to soils with plant residues. They might be a main source of plant available silicic acid in soils. Aims In this study we assess the effects of rice paddy cultivation on the stocks of `reactive` Si fractions in mineral topsoils of rice paddy fields in contrasting landscapes. The `reactive` Si fractions are presumed to determine the release of plant-available silicic acid in soils. We consider the relevance of abiotic factors (mineral assemblage; soil weathering status) and agricultural practice for these fractions. Agricultural practices, which were assumed to affect the stocks of `reactive` Si were (i) the usage of different rice varieties (which might differ in Si demand), (ii) straw residue management (i.e., whether straw residues are returned to the fields or removed and used e.g. as fodder), and (iii) yield level and number of crops per year. Material and methods Soils (top horizon of about 0-20 cm depth) were sampled from rice paddy fields in 2 mountainous and 5 lowland landscapes of contrasting geologic conditions in Vietnam and the Philippines. Ten paddy fields were sampled per landscape. The rice paddy management within landscapes differed when different farmers and/or communities managed the fields. We analysed the following fractions of `reactive` Si in the soils: acetate-extractable Si (dissolved and easily exchangeable Si), phosphate-extractable Si (adsorbed Si), oxalate extractable Si (Si associated with poorly-ordered sesquioxides), NaOH extractable Si

  14. That's why I take my ONS. Means-end chain as a novel approach to elucidate the personally relevant factors driving ONS consumption in nutritionally frail elderly users.

    PubMed

    den Uijl, Louise C; Kremer, Stefanie; Jager, Gerry; van der Stelt, Annelies J; de Graaf, Cees; Gibson, Peter; Godfrey, James; Lawlor, J Ben

    2015-06-01

    Oral nutritional supplements (ONS) are a recommended form of nutritional intervention for older malnourished persons when a 'food first' approach and/or food fortification prove ineffective. The efficacy of ONS will depend on, amongst other factors, whether persons do, or do not, consume their prescribed amount. Factors influencing ONS consumption can be product, context, or person related. Whereas product and context have received some attention, little is known about the person factors driving ONS consumption. In addition, the relative importance of the product, context, and person factors to ONS consumption is not known. Using the means-end chain (MEC) method, the current study elucidated personally relevant factors (product, context, and person factors) related to ONS consumption in two groups of older nutritionally frail ONS users: community-dwelling persons and care home residents with mainly somatic disorders. To our knowledge, the current work is the first to apply the MEC method to study older nutritionally frail ONS users. Forty ONS users (n = 20 per group) were recruited via healthcare professionals. The level of frailty was assessed using the FRAIL scale. Both groups were interviewed for 30 to 45 minutes using the soft laddering technique. The laddering data were analysed using LadderUX software™. The MEC method appeared to work well in both groups. The majority of the participants took ONS on their doctor's or dietician's prescription as they trusted their advice. The community-dwelling group took ONS to prolong their independence, whereas the care home group reported values that related more to small improvements in quality of life. In addition, care home residents perceived themselves as dependent on their caregiver for their ONS arrangements, whereas this dependence was not reported by community-dwelling persons. Key insights from this work will enable doctors and dieticians to customize their nutritional interventions to ONS users' personal

  15. Protective Factors in American Indian Communities and Adolescent Violence

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jia; Chewning, Betty; St. Clair, Iyekiyapiwin Darlene; Kokotailo, Patricia K; Lacourt, Jeanne; Wilson, Dale

    2014-01-01

    Purpose With their distinct cultural heritage and rural boundaries, American Indian reservation communities offer a unique opportunity to explore protective factors that help buffer adolescents from potential risk behaviors such as violence. Prior published research on Indian communities has not explored three potential protective factors for violence - parental monitoring of adolescents and friends, adolescents’ self-efficacy to avoid fighting, and adolescents’ interest in learning more about their traditional culture. This paper explores the relationship between these factors and reduced risk of reported violence. Methods In 1998, 630 American Indian students in grades 6–12 were surveyed in five Midwestern, rural Indian reservation schools. Path analysis was used to identify the direct and indirect association of the three potential protective factors with reduced violence behavior. Results There were significant gender differences both in perceived parental monitoring and in adolescents’ self-efficacy. For female adolescents, parental monitoring had the strongest inverse relationship with female adolescents’ involvement in violence. Female adolescents’ self-efficacy and their interest in learning more about their culture were also inversely associated with violence and therefore potentially important protectors. Male adolescents who reported more interest in learning the tribe’s culture had better self-efficacy to avoid violence. However, self-efficacy did not successfully predict their reported involvement in peer violence. Conclusions These findings support exploring gender differences, parental monitoring, self-efficacy training as well as cultural elements in future violence intervention studies. Further investigation is needed to identify protective factors for risk behaviors among male adolescents and test the generalizability to non-reservation based adolescents. PMID:22926269

  16. An indicator for effects of organic toxicants on lotic invertebrate communities: Independence of confounding environmental factors over an extensive river continuum.

    PubMed

    Beketov, Mikhail A; Liess, Matthias

    2008-12-01

    Distinguishing between effects of natural and anthropogenic environmental factors on ecosystems is a fundamental problem in environmental science. In river systems the longitudinal gradient of environmental factors is one of the most relevant sources of dissimilarity between communities that could be confounded with anthropogenic disturbances. To test the hypothesis that in macroinvertebrate communities the distribution of species' sensitivity to organic toxicants is independent of natural longitudinal factors, but depends on contamination with organic toxicants, we analysed the relationship between community sensitivity SPEAR(organic) (average community sensitivity to organic toxicants) and natural and anthropogenic environmental factors in a large-scale river system, from alpine streams to a lowland river. The results show that SPEAR(organic) is largely independent of natural longitudinal factors, but strongly dependent on contamination with organic toxicants (petrochemicals and synthetic surfactants). Usage of SPEAR(organic) as a stressor-specific longitude-independent measure will facilitate detection of community disturbance by organic toxicants. PMID:18547697

  17. Environmental factors influencing cyanobacteria community structure in Dongping Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xuetang; Tian, Chang; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Xie, Jun

    2013-11-01

    The present study was conducted to provide a detailed understanding of the variation in cyanobacterial communities of Dongping Lake, which is the final water volume adjusting and storing lake in the east route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China. The spatial and temporal distribution of cyanobacteria was assessed from May 2010 to October 2012 based on monthly samples collected from three stations. Over the 30-month survey, 15 genera and 25 species of cyanobacteria were identified, with cyanobacterial abundance at each monitoring station ranging from undetected to 3.04x10(7) cells/L, average of 4.27x10(6) cells/L. The dominant cyanobacterial species were Pseudanabaena limnetica and Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi and not the usual bloom-forming genera such as Microcystis and Anabaena. Cyanobacterial community structure and water quality variables exhibited substantial changes over the period of survey. Redundancy analysis, Pearson correlations, and regression analysis were applied to analyze the relationships among the variables. The results suggested that temperature and chemical oxygen demand were key drivers of the cyanobacterial community composition in Dongping Lake. In addition, the concentration of inorganic nitrogen in the lake had a profound effect on the cyanobacterial abundance as a non-limiting factor in warm periods. PMID:24552047

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of depression among community dwelling elderly.

    PubMed

    Yaka, Erdem; Keskinoglu, Pembe; Ucku, Reyhan; Yener, Görsev Gülmen; Tunca, Zeliha

    2014-01-01

    Depression in the elderly is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of depression among community-dwelling older population in an urban setting in Turkey. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 482 elderly individuals 65 years and over in an urban area. Cluster sampling method was used for sample size. Depression in the elderly had been diagnosed by a clinical interview and Geriatric Depression Scale. Data were collected by door-to-door survey. Chi square test was used for statistical analysis. P value, which was calculated by the results of chi square test and coefficient of phi (φ), below 0.05 was included in the analysis of logistic regression. Depression was significantly associated with female gender, being single or divorced, lower educational status, low income, unemployment, and lack of health insurance. However, logistic regression analysis revealed higher depression rates in the elderly with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, psychiatric disease, cerebrovascular disease, low income and being dependent. Depression is common among community-dwelling older people in an urban area of Izmir, Turkey. Older adults living in community should be cautiously screened to prevent or manage depression. PMID:24767692

  19. The Relevance of Cultural Factors in Predicting Condom-Use Intentions among Immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocken, P. L.; van Dorst, A. G.; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex education and machismo beliefs on gender and power…

  20. Factors that Influence the Perceived Advantages and Relevance of Facebook as a Learning Tool: An Extension of the UTAUT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar-Rodríguez, Tomás; Carvajal-Trujillo, Elena; Monge-Lozano, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Social media technologies are becoming a fundamental component of education. This study extends the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to identify factors that influence the perceived advantages and relevance of Facebook as a learning tool. The proposed model is based on previous models of UTAUT. Constructs from previous…

  1. Plant community assembly at small scales: Spatial vs. environmental factors in a European grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Sebastian; Hempel, Stefan; Ristow, Michael; Rillig, Matthias C.; Kowarik, Ingo; Caruso, Tancredi

    2015-02-01

    Dispersal limitation and environmental conditions are crucial drivers of plant species distribution and establishment. As these factors operate at different spatial scales, we asked: Do the environmental factors known to determine community assembly at broad scales operate at fine scales (few meters)? How much do these factors account for community variation at fine scales? In which way do biotic and abiotic interactions drive changes in species composition? We surveyed the plant community within a dry grassland along a very steep gradient of soil characteristics like pH and nutrients. We used a spatially explicit sampling design, based on three replicated macroplots of 15 × 15, 12 × 12 and 12 × 12 m in extent. Soil samples were taken to quantify several soil properties (carbon, nitrogen, plant available phosphorus, pH, water content and dehydrogenase activity as a proxy for overall microbial activity). We performed variance partitioning to assess the effect of these variables on plant composition and statistically controlled for spatial autocorrelation via eigenvector mapping. We also applied null model analysis to test for non-random patterns in species co-occurrence using randomization schemes that account for patterns expected under species interactions. At a fine spatial scale, environmental factors explained 18% of variation when controlling for spatial autocorrelation in the distribution of plant species, whereas purely spatial processes accounted for 14% variation. Null model analysis showed that species spatially segregated in a non-random way and these spatial patterns could be due to a combination of environmental filtering and biotic interactions. Our grassland study suggests that environmental factors found to be directly relevant in broad scale studies are present also at small scales, but are supplemented by spatial processes and more direct interactions like competition.

  2. Factors underlying variable DNA methylation in a human community cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lucia L.; Emberly, Eldon; Fraser, Hunter B.; Neumann, Sarah M.; Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E.; Kobor, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetics is emerging as an attractive mechanism to explain the persistent genomic embedding of early-life experiences. Tightly linked to chromatin, which packages DNA into chromosomes, epigenetic marks primarily serve to regulate the activity of genes. DNA methylation is the most accessible and characterized component of the many chromatin marks that constitute the epigenome, making it an ideal target for epigenetic studies in human populations. Here, using peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from a community-based cohort stratified for early-life socioeconomic status, we measured DNA methylation in the promoter regions of more than 14,000 human genes. Using this approach, we broadly assessed and characterized epigenetic variation, identified some of the factors that sculpt the epigenome, and determined its functional relation to gene expression. We found that the leukocyte composition of peripheral blood covaried with patterns of DNA methylation at many sites, as did demographic factors, such as sex, age, and ethnicity. Furthermore, psychosocial factors, such as perceived stress, and cortisol output were associated with DNA methylation, as was early-life socioeconomic status. Interestingly, we determined that DNA methylation was strongly correlated to the ex vivo inflammatory response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to stimulation with microbial products that engage Toll-like receptors. In contrast, our work found limited effects of DNA methylation marks on the expression of associated genes across individuals, suggesting a more complex relationship than anticipated. PMID:23045638

  3. Factors affecting satisfaction among community-based hospice volunteer visitors.

    PubMed

    Chevrier, F; Steuer, R; MacKenzie, J

    1994-01-01

    Trained volunteers are an essential component in the delivery of care to clients and families facing a terminal and/or life-threatening illness. As the need for hospice care increases, so does the need to increase the number of volunteers available for visiting. Hospice of London, which is a community based hospice, proposed that volunteers who felt satisfied would remain with the organization longer, thereby, decreasing the costs associated with training new volunteers and enhancing the ability of the agency to provide high-quality volunteer client matches. Accordingly, a survey was conducted in August 1992 to determine which factors were related to hospice volunteer satisfaction. One hundred and five volunteer were surveyed over the telephone. Results demonstrated a positive correlation between satisfaction and feeling like a team member, receiving feedback from staff, feeling valuable and having the volunteer's expectations match the position. Differences in the factors related to satisfaction were noted when the groups were divided by age and gender. PMID:7893559

  4. The effects of innovation factors on smartphone adoption among nurses in community hospitals.

    PubMed

    Putzer, Gavin J; Park, Yangil

    2010-01-01

    A relatively new mobile technological device is the smartphone-a phone with advanced features such as Windows Mobile software, access to the Internet, and other computer processing capabilities. This article investigates the decision to adopt a smartphone among healthcare professionals, specifically nurses. The study examines constructs that affect an individual's decision to adopt a smartphone by employing innovation attributes leading to perceived attitudes. We hypothesize that individual intentions to use a smartphone are mostly determined by attitudes toward using a smartphone, which in turn are affected by innovation characteristics. Innovation characteristics are factors that help explain whether a user will adopt a new technology. The study consisted of a survey disseminated to 200 practicing nurses selected from two community hospitals in the southeastern United States. In our model, the innovation characteristics of observability, compatibility, job relevance, internal environment, and external environment were significant predictors of attitude toward using a smartphone. PMID:20697467

  5. Inhaled drugs as risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Almirall, J; Bolíbar, I; Serra-Prat, M; Palomera, E; Roig, J; Hospital, I; Carandell, E; Agustí, M; Ayuso, P; Estela, A; Torres, A

    2010-11-01

    The effect of inhaled drugs in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is unclear. This case-control study was designed to determine whether inhaled drugs were risk factors for CAP. All incident cases of confirmed CAP that occurred over 1 yr in patients with chronic bronchitis (CB), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma were included, as well as CB, COPD and asthma controls. Risk factors for CAP and inhaled treatment were recorded during a personal interview. An effect of inhaled drugs on the risk of CAP was observed in COPD and asthma patients after adjusting for the effect of other respiratory diseases and their concomitant treatments. In COPD patients, inhaled steroids had a risk OR of 3.26 (95% CI 1.07-9.98) and in asthma patients inhaled anticholinergics had a risk OR of 8.80 (95% CI 1.02-75.7). In CB patients, no association with CAP was observed for any inhaler. These effects were independent of adjusting variables related to severity and other respiratory and non-respiratory risk factors for CAP, including vaccines. Inhaled β(2)-adrenergic agonists did not show a significant effect on the risk of CAP in any of the respiratory diseases. Inhaled steroids may favour CAP in COPD patients, whereas anticholinergics may favour CAP in asthma patients. It is difficult to differentiate the effect of inhaled therapy from the effect of COPD or asthma severity on the risk of CAP, and these relationships may not be causal, but could call attention to inhaled therapy in COPD and asthma patients. PMID:20525710

  6. Effects of the Communities That Care Prevention System on Youth Reports of Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, B. K. Elizabeth; Gloppen, Kari M.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Many interventions seeking to reduce problem behaviors and promote healthy youth development target both risk and protective factors, yet few studies have examined the effect of preventive interventions on overall levels of protection community wide. In a community-randomized controlled trial, this study tested the effect of Communities That Care (CTC) on protective factors in 24 communities across 7 states. Data on protective factors were collected from a panel of 4,407 youths in CTC and control communities followed from Grade 5 through Grade 8. Hierarchical linear modeling compared mean levels of 15 protective factors derived from the social development model in CTC and control communities in Grade 8, adjusted for individual and community characteristics and baseline levels of protective factors in Grade 5. Global test statistics were calculated to examine effects on protection overall and by domain. Analyses across all protective factors found significantly higher levels of overall protection in CTC compared to control communities. Analyses by domain found significantly higher levels of protection in CTC than control communities in the community, school, and peer/individual domains, but not in the family domain. Significantly higher levels of opportunities for prosocial involvement in the community, recognition for prosocial involvement in school, interaction with prosocial peers, and social skills among CTC compared to control youth contributed to the overall and domain specific results. This is consistent with CTC’s theory of change, which posits that strengthening protective factors is a mechanism through which CTC prevents behavior problems. PMID:25366931

  7. Effects of the communities that care prevention system on youth reports of protective factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, B K Elizabeth; Gloppen, Kari M; Rhew, Isaac C; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David

    2015-07-01

    Many interventions seeking to reduce problem behaviors and promote healthy youth development target both risk and protective factors, yet few studies have examined the effect of preventive interventions on overall levels of protection community wide. In a community-randomized controlled trial, this study tested the effect of Communities That Care (CTC) on protective factors in 24 communities across seven states. Data on protective factors were collected from a panel of 4407 youths in CTC and control communities followed from grade 5 through grade 8. Hierarchical linear modeling compared mean levels of 15 protective factors derived from the social development model in CTC and control communities in grade 8, adjusted for individual and community characteristics and baseline levels of protective factors in grade 5. Global test statistics were calculated to examine effects on protection overall and by domain. Analyses across all protective factors found significantly higher levels of overall protection in CTC compared to control communities. Analyses by domain found significantly higher levels of protection in CTC than control communities in the community, school, and peer/individual domains, but not in the family domain. Significantly higher levels of opportunities for prosocial involvement in the community, recognition for prosocial involvement in school, interaction with prosocial peers, and social skills among CTC compared to control youth contributed to the overall and domain-specific results. This is consistent with CTC's theory of change, which posits that strengthening protective factors is a mechanism through which CTC prevents behavior problems. PMID:25366931

  8. Factors Influencing Teachers' Level of Participation in Online Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalid, Fariza; Joyes, Gordon; Ellison, Linda; Daud, Md Yusoff

    2014-01-01

    The use of an online learning community is one possible approach to teachers' professional development that can enhance the opportunity for collaboration. Discussions in online learning communities not only allow community members to share resources, ideas and expertise, but also contribute to the fulfilment of teachers' needs in terms of…

  9. Risk Factors for Sexual Offending in Men Working With Children: A Community-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Turner, Daniel; Hoyer, Juergen; Schmidt, Alexander F; Klein, Verena; Briken, Peer

    2016-10-01

    Identifying risk factors for sexual abuse in men who work with children and who have already abused a child could lead to more appropriate screening and prevention strategies and is thus of major scientific and societal relevance. A total of 8649 German men from the community were assessed in an extensive anonymous and confidential online survey. Of those, 37 (0.4 %) could be classified as child sexual abusers working with children, 90 (1.0 %) as child sexual abusers not working with children, and 816 (9.4 %) as men who work with children and who have not abused a child. We assessed the impact of working with children as an individual risk factor for self-reported child sexual abuse and compared personal factors, pedophilic sexual fantasies, deviant sexual behaviors, antisocial behaviors, and hypersexuality among the three groups. Most interestingly, working with children was significantly associated with a self-reported sexual offense against children; however, it explained only three percent of its variance. Child sexual abusers working with children admitted more antisocial and more sexually deviant behaviors than child sexual abusers not working with children and than men working with children who have not abused a child. Our findings support some of the suggestions made by other researchers concerning factors that could be considered in applicants for child- or youth-serving institutions. However, it has to be pointed out that the scientific basis still seems premature. PMID:27184566

  10. Neighborhood Factors Relevant for Walking in Older, Urban, African American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Nancy Ambrose; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A.; Robinson, Jennifer C.; Torres, Elisa R.; Murphy, Susan L.; Martyn, Kristy K.

    2010-01-01

    Focus-group and photo-voice methodology were used to identify the salient factors of the neighborhood environment that encourage or discourage walking in older, urban African Americans. Twenty-one male (n = 2) and female (n = 19) African Americans age 60 years and older (M = 70 ± 8.7, range = 61–85) were recruited from a large urban senior center. Photographs taken by the participants were used to facilitate focus-group discussions. The most salient factors that emerged included the presence of other people, neighborhood surroundings, and safety from crime, followed by sidewalk and traffic conditions, animals, public walking tracks and trails, and weather. Future walking interventions for older African Americans should include factors that encourage walking, such as the presence of other friendly or active people, attractive or peaceful surroundings, and a sense of safety from crime. PMID:20181997

  11. On the relevance of assumptions associated with classical factor analytic approaches.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Daniel; Unlü, Ali

    2013-01-01

    A personal trait, for example a person's cognitive ability, represents a theoretical concept postulated to explain behavior. Interesting constructs are latent, that is, they cannot be observed. Latent variable modeling constitutes a methodology to deal with hypothetical constructs. Constructs are modeled as random variables and become components of a statistical model. As random variables, they possess a probability distribution in the population of reference. In applications, this distribution is typically assumed to be the normal distribution. The normality assumption may be reasonable in many cases, but there are situations where it cannot be justified. For example, this is true for criterion-referenced tests or for background characteristics of students in large scale assessment studies. Nevertheless, the normal procedures in combination with the classical factor analytic methods are frequently pursued, despite the effects of violating this "implicit" assumption are not clear in general. In a simulation study, we investigate whether classical factor analytic approaches can be instrumental in estimating the factorial structure and properties of the population distribution of a latent personal trait from educational test data, when violations of classical assumptions as the aforementioned are present. The results indicate that having a latent non-normal distribution clearly affects the estimation of the distribution of the factor scores and properties thereof. Thus, when the population distribution of a personal trait is assumed to be non-symmetric, we recommend avoiding those factor analytic approaches for estimation of a person's factor score, even though the number of extracted factors and the estimated loading matrix may not be strongly affected. An application to the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) is given. Comments on possible implications for the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) complete the presentation. PMID

  12. Influence of Information Sources on Hepatitis B Screening Behavior and Relevant Psychosocial Factors Among Asian Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Miho; Strong, Carol; Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how different information sources relate to Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs, hepatitis B virus (HBV) knowledge, and HBV screening. The Maryland Asian American Liver Cancer Education Program administered a survey of 877 Asian immigrants. The most common sources of information identified by the multiple-answer questions were newspapers (39.8%), physicians (39.3%), friends (33.8%), TV (31.7%), and the Internet (29.5%). Path analyses—controlling for age, sex, educational level, English proficiency, proportion of life in U.S., health insurance coverage, and family history of HBV infection—showed that learning about HBV from physicians had the strongest direct effect; friends had a marginal indirect effect. Perceived risk, benefits, and severity played limited roles in mediation effects. Path analysis results differed by ethnicity. Physician-based HBV screening intervention would be effective, but should be complemented with community health campaigns through popular information sources for the uninsured. PMID:23238580

  13. META-ANALYSIS OF THE LIFE STYLE FACTORS RELEVANT TO ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS FOR THE AGING POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study is to characterize activity patterns, physiological changes, and environmental exposures for the aging population. Meta analysis was performed on more than 2000 reviewed articles to evaluate the lifestyle factors ...

  14. 29 CFR 780.145 - The relationship is determined by consideration of all relevant factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... any, of the practice to farming as evidenced by common understanding, competitive factors, and the... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Performance of the Practice âas An Incident to Or in Conjunction Withâ the Farming Operations § 780.145 The relationship is determined...

  15. The Assessment of the Likelihood of Mammography Usage with Relevant Factors among Women with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kung, Pei-Tseng; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Chiou, Shang-Jyh

    2012-01-01

    Research that identifies the determinants of low mammography use among disabled people is scant. This study examines the determining factors related to the low usage of mammography among women with disabilities. To identify the barriers that prevent women with disabilities from participating in mammography screening can help authorities conceive…

  16. Factors associated with compliance with community directed treatment with ivermectin for onchocerciasis control in Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although ivermectin is distributed free of charge through the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC), not all eligible individuals within communities receive the annual treatment. This poses a serious threat to efforts aimed to control onchocerciasis. This study attempts to determine factors associated with compliance to Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) and provides a basis for trying to understand how best to sustain long-term compliance in order to achieve success in the control of onchocerciasis. Methods An unmatched case-control study was conducted in Bebeka coffee plantation southwest Ethiopia. Cases were, compliant i.e., those individuals who had been registered on the relevant treatment registers and had taken all the five annual doses of Ivermectin. Controls were non-compliant, i.e. those individuals who had been recorded in the relevant treatment registers during the first treatment round(2003), and did not take at least two doses of which one being in the last treatment round (2007). Data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Data were edited, cleaned, coded and analyzed using SPSS version 12.0.1 for Microsoft Windows. Multiple logistic regression models was used to identify factors associated with compliance to ivermectin. Results From the total of 456 individuals selected for administration of the survey questionnaire, 450(225 cases and 225 controls) were contacted and completed the study 2 refused and 4 were unavailable. Five factors associated with compliance were identified: high risk perception [Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR) = 1.98, 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.32-2.95], one's family support [AOR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.22-2.84], perceiving that the Community Drug Distributors (CDDs) are doing their work well [AOR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.50-5.37] and perceiving measuring height is the best way to determine a person's treatment dose [AOR = 6.37, 95% CI, 2.10-19.29] are

  17. [Effect of environmental factors on fish community structure in the Huntai River Basin at multiple scales].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-li; Li, Yan-fen; Xu, Zong-xue

    2014-09-01

    In June 2012, fishes was investigated at 65 sampling sites in the Huntai River basin in Northeast of China. Forty species were collected, belonging to 9 orders, 14 families,33 genera. Cobitidae and Cyprinidae were the dominant fishes in the community structure in the Huntai River basin, accounting for 13. 21% and 65. 83% of the fish community, respectively. There were two types of spatial distribution of fish community, one was distributed in the head water and tributaries in the upstream, and the other was in the plain rivers. Nemachilus nudus, Cobitis granoei and Phoxinus lagowskii dominated the local community in the upper reaches of the Dahuofang Reservoir and shenwo River, while Carassius ayratus and Hemiculter leucisculdus dominated the local community in the plain rivers. CCA (canonical correspondence analysis) was used to distinguish the primary environmental variables that affected the fish community structure. The results indicated fish community was mainly affected by environment factors at watershed and reach scales. Proportions of woodland and urban land, and altitude were three important environmental factors affecting the fish community at the watershed scale. Dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, pH and habitat inhomogeneity significantly affected the fish community at the reach scale, whereas substrate didn't show significant influence at the microhabitat scale. Environmental factors at watershed scale explained 7. 66% of the variation of fish community structure, environmental factors at reach scale explained 10. 57% of the variation of fish community structure. Environmental factors at reach scale influenced the fish community more significantly. PMID:25518673

  18. Factors affecting collaboration between general practitioners and community pharmacists: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists (CPs) are encouraged to collaborate, a true collaborative relationship does not exist between them. Our objective was to identify and analyze factors affecting GP-CP collaboration. Methods This was a descriptive-exploratory qualitative study carried out in two Spanish regions: Catalonia (Barcelona) and Balearic Islands (Mallorca). Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs and CPs from Barcelona and Mallorca (January 2010-February 2011). Analysis was conducted using Colaizzi’s method. Results Thirty-seven interviews were conducted. The factors affecting the relationship were different depending on timing: 1) Before collaboration had started (prior to collaboration) and 2) Once the collaboration had been initiated (during collaboration). Prior to collaboration, four key factors were found to affect it: the perception of usefulness; the Primary Care Health Center (PCHC) manager’s interest; the professionals’ attitude; and geography and legislation. These factors were affected by economic and organizational aspects (i.e. resources or PCHC management styles) and by professionals’ opinions and beliefs (i.e. perception of the existence of a public-private conflict). During collaboration, the achievement of objectives and the changes in the PCHC management were the key factors influencing continued collaboration. The most relevant differences between regions were due to the existence of privately-managed PCHCs in Barcelona that facilitated the implementation of collaboration. In comparison with the group with experience in collaboration, some professionals without experience reported a skeptical attitude towards it, reporting that it might not be necessary. Conclusions Factors related to economic issues, management and practitioners’ attitudes and perceptions might be crucial for triggering collaboration. Interventions and strategies derived from these identified

  19. How therapeutic communities work: Specific factors related to positive outcome

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Steve; Pickard, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    Background Therapeutic communities (TCs) are becoming increasingly widespread as a form of treatment for entrenched mental health problems, particularly addictions and personality disorders, and are equally used in educational, prison and learning disability settings. Despite growing evidence for their effectiveness, little research has been conducted to establish how TCs work to produce positive outcomes. We hypothesize that there are two specific factors that in combination contribute to TC effectiveness: the promotion of a sense of belongingness and the capacity for responsible agency. Although both factors are found in other therapeutic approaches and are important to the psychosocial aspects of psychiatric care more generally, we argue that their combination, extent and emphasis are unique to TCs. Material Drawing on social and experimental psychology, we: (1) review research on a sense of belongingness and the capacity for responsible agency; (2) establish the mechanisms by which TCs appear to promote them; (3) draw lessons for TC practice; and (4) suggest why they may contribute to positive outcome. Discussion A sense of belongingness is correlated with improved self-esteem and overall well-being. The capacity for responsible agency is central to behavioural change. TCs are typically used in fields where positive outcome requires both personal growth and behavioural change. We suggest that TCs are uniquely placed to demand such growth and change of their members because the sense of belongingness engendered by TC methods protects against the risks engendered by this demand. Conclusion Empirically informed, evidence-driven research is necessary to understand how TCs work and how TC practice can be improved. This understanding may offer lessons for the improvement of psychosocial aspects of psychiatric care more generally. PMID:22820178

  20. [Dynamics of recent cultivated land in Zhejiang Province and relevant driving factors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-dong; Yu, Dong-sheng; Shi, Xue-zheng; Liu, Ying-an; Wang, Shi-hang; Zhang, Guang-xing; Liu, Yang

    2010-12-01

    Through the human-computer interactive interpretation of the 2000, 2005, and 2008 remote sensing images of Zhejiang Province with the help of RS and GIS techniques, the dynamic database of cultivated land change in the province in, 2000-2008 was established, and the driving factors of the cultivated land change were analyzed by ridge regression analysis. There was a notable cultivated land change in the province in 2000-2008. In 2000-2005 and 2005-2008, the annual cultivated land change in the province arrived -1.42% and -1.46%, respectively, and most of the cultivated land was changed into residential and industrial land. Non-agricultural population rate, real estate investment, urban green area, and orchard area were thought to be the main driving factors of the cultivated land change in Zhejiang Province, and even, in the developed areas of east China. PMID:21442998

  1. Mechanistic basis and clinical relevance of the role of transforming growth factor-β in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Run-Long; Zhao, Lu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a key factor in cancer development and progression. TGF-β can suppress tumorigenesis by inhibiting cell cycle progression and stimulating apoptosis in early stages of cancer progression. However, TGF-β can modulate cancer-related processes, such as cell invasion, distant metastasis, and microenvironment modification that may be used by cancer cells to their advantage in late stages. Corresponding mechanisms include angiogenesis promotion, anti-tumor immunity suppression, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induction. The correlation between TGF-β expression and cancer prognosis has also been extensively investigated. Results suggest that TGF-β pathway can be targeted to treat cancer; as such, the feasibility of this treatment is investigated in clinical trials. PMID:26779375

  2. Clinical Relevance of Environmental Factors in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease.

    PubMed

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M

    2016-06-01

    Genetic factors contribute for about 70% to 80% and environmental factors for about 20% to 30% to the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). Relatives of AITD patients carry a risk to contract AITD themselves. The 5-year risk can be quantified by the so-called Thyroid Events Amsterdam-score, based on serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid peroxidase (TPO)-antibodies and family history. Subjects at risk may ask what they can do to prevent development of AITD. This review summarizes what is known about modulation of exposure to environmental factors in terms of AITD prevention. To stop smoking decreases the risk on Graves disease but increases the risk on Hashimoto disease. Moderate alcohol intake provides some protection against both Graves and Hashimoto disease. Low selenium intake is associated with a higher prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity, but evidence that selenium supplementation may lower TPO antibodies and prevent subclinical hypothyroidism remains inconclusive. Low serum vitamin D levels are associated with a higher prevalence of TPO antibodies, but intervention studies with extra vitamin D have not been done yet. Stress may provoke Graves hyperthyroidism but not Hashimoto thyroiditis. Estrogen use have been linked to a lower prevalence of Graves disease. The postpartum period is associated with an increased risk of AITD. Taking together, preventive interventions to diminish the risk of AITD are few, not always feasible, and probably of limited efficacy. PMID:27184015

  3. Clinical Relevance of Environmental Factors in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Genetic factors contribute for about 70% to 80% and environmental factors for about 20% to 30% to the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). Relatives of AITD patients carry a risk to contract AITD themselves. The 5-year risk can be quantified by the so-called Thyroid Events Amsterdam-score, based on serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid peroxidase (TPO)-antibodies and family history. Subjects at risk may ask what they can do to prevent development of AITD. This review summarizes what is known about modulation of exposure to environmental factors in terms of AITD prevention. To stop smoking decreases the risk on Graves disease but increases the risk on Hashimoto disease. Moderate alcohol intake provides some protection against both Graves and Hashimoto disease. Low selenium intake is associated with a higher prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity, but evidence that selenium supplementation may lower TPO antibodies and prevent subclinical hypothyroidism remains inconclusive. Low serum vitamin D levels are associated with a higher prevalence of TPO antibodies, but intervention studies with extra vitamin D have not been done yet. Stress may provoke Graves hyperthyroidism but not Hashimoto thyroiditis. Estrogen use have been linked to a lower prevalence of Graves disease. The postpartum period is associated with an increased risk of AITD. Taking together, preventive interventions to diminish the risk of AITD are few, not always feasible, and probably of limited efficacy. PMID:27184015

  4. Influence of information sources on hepatitis B screening behavior and relevant psychosocial factors among Asian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miho; Strong, Carol; Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2013-08-01

    This study examines how different information sources relate to Health Belief Model constructs, hepatitis B virus (HBV) knowledge, and HBV screening. The Maryland Asian American Liver Cancer Education Program administered a survey of 877 Asian immigrants. The most common sources of information identified by the multiple-answer questions were newspapers (39.8 %), physicians (39.3 %), friends (33.8 %), TV (31.7 %), and the Internet (29.5 %). Path analyses-controlling for age, sex, educational level, English proficiency, proportion of life in U.S., health insurance coverage, and family history of HBV infection-showed that learning about HBV from physicians had the strongest direct effect; friends had a marginal indirect effect. Perceived risk, benefits, and severity played limited roles in mediation effects. Path analysis results differed by ethnicity. Physician-based HBV screening intervention would be effective, but should be complemented with community health campaigns through popular information sources for the uninsured. PMID:23238580

  5. Age-Related Changes in Immunological Factors and Their Relevance in Allergic Disease Development During Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Woo-Sung; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lim, Yeon-Mi; Yoon, Dankyu; Son, Jo-Young; Park, Jung-Won; Hong, Soo-Jong; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Allergic diseases are triggered by Th2-mediated immune reactions to allergens and orchestrated by various immunological factors, including immune cells and cytokines. Although many reports have suggested that childhood is the critical period in the onset of allergic diseases and aging leads to alter the susceptibility of an individual to allergic diseases, age-related changes in various immunological factors in healthy individuals as well as their difference between healthy and allergic children have not yet been established. Methods We investigated the ratio of Th1/Th2 cells and the levels of 22 allergy-related cytokines across all age groups in individuals who were classified as clinically non-atopic and healthy. We also examined their differences between healthy and allergic children to evaluate immunological changes induced by the development of allergic diseases during childhood. Results The Th1/Th2 ratio rose gradually during the growth period including childhood, reaching peak values in the twenties-thirties age group. Th1/Th2 ratios were significantly lower in allergic children than in healthy controls, whereas 14 of 22 cytokines were significantly higher in allergic children than in healthy controls. On the other hand, there were no differences in Th1/Th2 ratios and cytokines between healthy and allergic adolescents. Conclusions In this study, age-related changes in Th1/Th2 ratios were found in normal controls across all age groups, and decreases in Th1/Th2 ratio were observed with increasing of 14 cytokines in allergic children. The results of this study may be helpful as reference values for both monitoring immunological changes according to aging in healthy individuals and distinguishing between normal and allergic subjects in terms of immune cells and soluble factors. PMID:27126727

  6. 48 CFR 1609.7101-2 - Community-rated carrier performance factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Community-rated carrier... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Performance Evaluation 1609.7101-2 Community-rated carrier performance factors. OPM... specified by the contracting officer when a community-rated carrier does not provide the...

  7. 48 CFR 1609.7101-2 - Community-rated carrier performance factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Community-rated carrier... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Performance Evaluation 1609.7101-2 Community-rated carrier performance factors. OPM... specified by the contracting officer when a community-rated carrier does not provide the...

  8. Critical Success Factors for the North Carolina Community College System. A Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kathryn Baker

    In response to legislative mandate, the North Carolina State Board of Community Colleges developed a list of Critical Success Factors (CSF) to help define statewide measures of accountability for all community colleges. Developed by staff members of the State Board with input from the state's community college presidents, the CSFs emphasize…

  9. 48 CFR 1609.7101-2 - Community-rated carrier performance factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Community-rated carrier... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Performance Evaluation 1609.7101-2 Community-rated carrier performance factors. OPM... specified by the contracting officer when a community-rated carrier does not provide the...

  10. 48 CFR 1609.7101-2 - Community-rated carrier performance factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Community-rated carrier... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Performance Evaluation 1609.7101-2 Community-rated carrier performance factors. OPM... specified by the contracting officer when a community-rated carrier does not provide the...

  11. 48 CFR 1609.7101-2 - Community-rated carrier performance factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Community-rated carrier... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Performance Evaluation 1609.7101-2 Community-rated carrier performance factors. OPM... specified by the contracting officer when a community-rated carrier does not provide the...

  12. Virtual Knowledge-Sharing Communities of Practice at Caterpillar: Success Factors and Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardichvili, Alexander; Page, Vaughn; Wentling, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Reports the results of a qualitative study of success factors and barriers to the development of virtual knowledge-sharing communities of practice at Caterpillar Inc. Identified prerequisites for successful knowledge management through virtual communities of practice, as well as barriers to virtual community development, and discusses future…

  13. ASD-relevant Animal Models of the Foxp Family of Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, J. Michael; Konopka, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a multifaceted association between genes and the environment. Currently, in the majority of patients, the etiology of autism is not known and coupled with increasing prevalence rates, along with the high degree of heritability of autism, the development of animal models is crucial for studying and developing therapies for autism. A key characteristic of autism is marked abnormalities in the acquisition and use of language. Thus, to understand and ultimately treat autism is an especially difficult task because no animal produces language, as it is defined in humans. In this review, we will discuss the FOXP family of genes, which are a group of transcription factors that have been linked to both autism, as well as language in humans. Due to the association of language/communication and the Foxp family of transcription factors, animal models with targeted disruptions of Foxp functioning are powerful tools for understanding the developmental signaling pathways that may be vulnerable in autism. PMID:24358452

  14. Soluble Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (sEGFRs) in Cancer: Biological Aspects and Clinical Relevance.

    PubMed

    Maramotti, Sally; Paci, Massimiliano; Manzotti, Gloria; Rapicetta, Cristian; Gugnoni, Mila; Galeone, Carla; Cesario, Alfredo; Lococo, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The identification of molecules that can reliably detect the presence of a tumor or predict its behavior is one of the biggest challenges of research in cancer biology. Biological fluids are intriguing mediums, containing many molecules that express the individual health status and, accordingly, may be useful in establishing the potential risk of cancer, defining differential diagnosis and prognosis, predicting the response to treatment, and monitoring the disease progression. The existence of circulating soluble growth factor receptors (sGFRs) deriving from their membrane counterparts has stimulated the interest of researchers to investigate the use of such molecules as potential cancer biomarkers. But what are the origins of circulating sGFRs? Are they naturally occurring molecules or tumor-derived products? Among these, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a cell-surface molecule significantly involved in cancer development and progression; it can be processed into biological active soluble isoforms (sEGFR). We have carried out an extensive review of the currently available literature on the sEGFRs and their mechanisms of regulation and biological function, with the intent to clarify the role of these molecules in cancer (and other pathological conditions) and, on the basis of the retrieved evidences, speculate about their potential use in the clinical setting. PMID:27104520

  15. Soluble Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (sEGFRs) in Cancer: Biological Aspects and Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Maramotti, Sally; Paci, Massimiliano; Manzotti, Gloria; Rapicetta, Cristian; Gugnoni, Mila; Galeone, Carla; Cesario, Alfredo; Lococo, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The identification of molecules that can reliably detect the presence of a tumor or predict its behavior is one of the biggest challenges of research in cancer biology. Biological fluids are intriguing mediums, containing many molecules that express the individual health status and, accordingly, may be useful in establishing the potential risk of cancer, defining differential diagnosis and prognosis, predicting the response to treatment, and monitoring the disease progression. The existence of circulating soluble growth factor receptors (sGFRs) deriving from their membrane counterparts has stimulated the interest of researchers to investigate the use of such molecules as potential cancer biomarkers. But what are the origins of circulating sGFRs? Are they naturally occurring molecules or tumor-derived products? Among these, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a cell-surface molecule significantly involved in cancer development and progression; it can be processed into biological active soluble isoforms (sEGFR). We have carried out an extensive review of the currently available literature on the sEGFRs and their mechanisms of regulation and biological function, with the intent to clarify the role of these molecules in cancer (and other pathological conditions) and, on the basis of the retrieved evidences, speculate about their potential use in the clinical setting. PMID:27104520

  16. Assessing the zooplankton community and environmental factors in a Mediterranean wetland.

    PubMed

    Kagalou, Ifigenia I; Kosiori, Alexia; Leonardos, Ioannis D

    2010-11-01

    Mediterranean wetlands represent unique repositories of biodiversity, but these ecosystems are increasingly threatened by human-induced habitat loss. Seventy percent of Greek wetlands (ponds, mires, marshes, etc.) have been lost in the past 80 years due to human intervention. In Greece habitat types of mires, listed in Directive 92/43/EEC, have been recorded in a few locations, one of the most important is Kalodiki wetland. Eutrophication key elements were determined at four sampling stations throughout 1 year in order to monitor the trophic conditions. Moreover, the zooplankton community was described as biological element relevant in the assessment of the ecological status of Kalodiki wetland. Kalodiki wetland exhibits nutrient concentrations corresponding to eutrophic conditions while according to chlorophyll-a values it is classified between mesotrophic and eutrophic status depending mostly on the sampling period. As concerning zooplankton community, it appears poor in species and dominated by small-sized organisms, which is generally typical of eutrophic, disturbed systems. Differences among zooplankton assemblages over seasons as well as among sampling sites highlight the role of both abiotic and biotic factors. PMID:19936952

  17. Corticotropin-releasing factor peptide antagonists: design, characterization and potential clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Rivier, Jean E.; Rivier, Catherine L.

    2014-01-01

    Elusive for more than half a century, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was finally isolated and characterized in 1981 from ovine hypothalami and shortly thereafter, from rat brain. Thirty years later, much has been learned about the function and localization of CRF and related family members (Urocortins 1, 2 and 3) and their 2 receptors, CRF receptor type 1 (CRFR1) and CRF receptor type 2 (CRFR2). Here, we report the stepwise development of peptide CRF agonists and antagonists, which led to the development of the CRFR1 agonist Stressin1; the long-acting antagonists Astressin2-B which is specific for CRFR2; and Astressin B, which binds to both CRFR1 and CRFR2. This analog has potential for the treatment of CRF-dependent diseases in the periphery, such as irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:24269930

  18. Psycho- and immunopharmacological factors relevant to selection of volunteers in clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Meyer, F P

    2001-07-01

    There are many well-known factors and variables which play a role in the evaluation of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic results gained from healthy volunteers. The genetic constitution is influenced by age, sex, circadian and seasonal variations, dietary factors, immunological function, alcohol intake, smoking, etc. Vesell repeatedly pointed out these facts some time ago [Vesell 1982, Vesell and Passananti 1977]. Since Janke [1964], we have suspected that personality traits can also influence the drug response. The following overview is dedicated to this field designated as differential psychopharmacology which, from the point of view ofthe author, has been given too little attention by pharmacologists and clinical pharmacologists. It has been demonstrated that the effect of psychotropic drugs, including placebo, can be differentially influenced by personality traits, e.g. introversion/extroversion, high level neuroticism/low level neuroticism and success motivation/failure motivation. For example, relatively high doses of diazepam (0.3 mg/kg), when compared to placebo, only impaired the psychophysical performance of extroverted volunteers whereas introverted volunteers remained unaffected. Pharmacokinetic parameters, e.g. absorption, biotransformation, can also be affected by the level of neuroticism or by anxiety, as demonstrated for diazepam, caffeine, paracetamol and theophylline. The absorption kinetics of diazepam and caffeine clearly differ between volunteers with high neuroticism scores and those with low neuroticism scores. Emotionally unstable volunteers absorbed the substances more quickly and more completely than emotionally stable volunteers. There were surprising differences in various immunological indices between dominant and submissive subjects. In dominant volunteers the immune system was more activated than in submissive volunteers. In the future, it will become increasingly necessary to obtain results for such target groups and to avoid

  19. Lift Every Voice and Sing: Constructing Community through Culturally Relevant Pedagogy in the University of Illinois Black Chorus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Sheelagh

    2011-01-01

    For Gloria Ladson-Billings, culturally relevant pedagogy is characterized by three criteria: academic success, cultural competence and critical consciousness. Those engaged in culturally relevant pedagogy are connected by how they see themselves as teachers and how they see their students, how they view knowledge and how they structure social…

  20. A Research Practitioner's Perspective on Culturally Relevant Prevention: Scientific and Practical Considerations for Community-Based Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, James P., Jr.; Miller, Erica

    2007-01-01

    This article is a response to a number of articles that use a culturally relevant prevention (CRP) approach for ethnic and racial minorities. The reaction is from a research practitioner's viewpoint. The authors argue in favor of determining an operational definition of cultural relevance by implementing prevention services with fidelity in the…

  1. Factors Correlated with the Interactional Diversity of Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Willis A.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data from the Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE) to examine how student background characteristics, student engagement, and institutional characteristics correlate with the frequency of interactional diversity among community college students. Given the current lack of research on interactional diversity among…

  2. Hazardous Drinking and Military Community Functioning: Identifying Mediating Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foran, Heather M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Slep, Amy M. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Hazardous drinking is a serious societal concern in military populations. Efforts to reduce hazardous drinking among military personnel have been limited in effectiveness. There is a need for a deeper understanding of how community-based prevention models apply to hazardous drinking in the military. Community-wide prevention efforts may…

  3. Measuring Community Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Evidence from a Developing Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Edward R.; Wells, William; Katz, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Most published research on community risk and protective factors for adolescent problem behaviors has been carried out in developed nations. This article examines community risk and protective factors in a sample of more than 2,500 adolescents in Trinidad and Tobago, a developing Caribbean nation. The authors examine the construct and concurrent…

  4. Modifiable Risk Factors for Attempted Suicide in Australian Clinical and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gregory L.; Page, Andrew; Clover, Kerrie; Taylor, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Modifiable risk factors for suicide attempt require identification in clinical and community samples. The aim of this study was to determine if similar social and psychiatric factors are associated with suicide attempts in community and clinical settings and whether the magnitude of effect is greater in clinical populations. Two case-control…

  5. Clinical relevance of the biochemical, metabolic, and genetic factors that influence low-density lipoprotein heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Kwiterovich, Peter O

    2002-10-17

    Traditional risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) predict about 50% of the risk of developing CAD. The Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III has defined emerging risk factors for CAD, including small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Small, dense LDL is often accompanied by increased triglycerides (TGs) and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL). An increased number of small, dense LDL particles is often missed when the LDL cholesterol level is normal or borderline elevated. Small, dense LDL particles are present in families with premature CAD and hyperapobetalipoproteinemia, familial combined hyperlipidemia, LDL subclass pattern B, familial dyslipidemic hypertension, and syndrome X. The metabolic syndrome, as defined by ATP III, incorporates a number of the components of these syndromes, including insulin resistance and intra-abdominal fat. Subclinical inflammation and elevated procoagulants also appear to be part of this atherogenic syndrome. Overproduction of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) by the liver and increased secretion of large, apolipoprotein (apo) B-100-containing VLDL is the primary metabolic characteristic of most of these patients. The TG in VLDL is hydrolyzed by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) which produces intermediate-density lipoprotein. The TG in intermediate-density lipoprotein is hydrolyzed further, resulting in the generation of LDL. The cholesterol esters in LDL are exchanged for TG in VLDL by the cholesterol ester tranfer proteins, followed by hydrolysis of TG in LDL by hepatic lipase which produces small, dense LDL. Cholesterol ester transfer protein mediates a similar lipid exchange between VLDL and HDL, producing a cholesterol ester-poor HDL. In adipocytes, reduced fatty acid trapping and retention by adipose tissue may result from a primary defect in the incorporation of free fatty acids into TGs. Alternatively, insulin resistance may promote reduced retention of free fatty acids by adipocytes. Both these abnormalities lead to

  6. The Potential Risk Factors Relevant to Lateral Epicondylitis by Wrist Coupling Posture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su-Ya; Chieh, Hsiao-Feng; Lin, Chien-Ju; Jou, I-Ming; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Su, Fong-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The use of awkward wrist postures and unskilled techniques might induce lateral epicondylitis. This study thus investigated the effects of wrist deviation combined with extension and movement velocity on the dynamic performances of the wrist muscles during the coupling posture via a custom-made bi-planar isokinetic dynamometer. Thirty subjects were recruited to perform the isokinetic testing. We measured the muscle strengths and activities for the wrist extensors and flexors during concentric and eccentric contractions at three movement velocities, 30°s-1, 90°s-1, and 180°s-1, combined with three wrist postures, neutral position (NP), radial deviation (RD), and ulnar deviation (UD). The root mean square (RMS) of the electromyographic signal in the extensor digitorum communis (EDC), normalized peak torque of extensors, and ratio of normalized peak torque between wrist extensors and flexors, were all greater in the NP than RD and UD in both contractions. The ratio of RMS between EDC and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) had a significantly greater value in RD than UD during the concentric contraction. The EDC showed significantly higher activity at the fast velocity in both contractions. Nevertheless, a significantly higher RMS of the electromyographic signal between EDC and FDS and the ratio of strength between wrist extensors and flexors were found at slow velocity in both contractions. The wrist deviation combined with extension and movement velocity of the wrist joint should thus be considered as influential factors which might alter the dynamic performances, and may result in further injury of the elbow joint. PMID:27171198

  7. Students’ Aggression and Its Relevance to Personal, Family, and Social Factors

    PubMed Central

    Alami, Ali; Shahghasemi, Zohreh; Davarinia Motlagh Ghochan, Arezoo; Baratpour, Fateme

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aggression is defined as behaviors intended to hurt, harm, or injure another person. Aggression is by no means a new concern in human society, especially in youth. Universities are among the institutions in which most of the members are young people and because of facing with various personal and social stressors, the students usually experience high level of stress. Objectives: This study aimed to determine aggression among university students and its association with their personal, family, and social characteristics. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted on a representative sample (n = 809) of university students (1 state university and 2 private universities) locating in Gonabad, Iran in 2012. Using proportional to size stratified sampling, we selected the respondents and gathered the required data using a valid and reliable questionnaire. The data were entered into SPSS (version 20) and analyzed through t test, ANOVA, and regression model. Results: A total of 381 (47.2%) male and 428 (52.8%) female students participated in the study. Mean (SD) age of the respondents was 21.79 (2.86) years. Overall mean aggression score (SD) in the students was 72.45 (15.49) and this score for in dorm and out of dorm students was 74.31 (15.59) and 70.93 (15.23), respectively. There were significant associations between the mean aggression score of dormitory students and sex (P = 0.004), age (P = 0.044), and type of the university (P = 0.039). On the other hand, there was no significant association between all independent factors and mean aggression score of students living out of dorm. Conclusions: Regarding the control of aggressive behaviors, paying attention to male, young students living in dormitory, especially in non-governmental universities has the highest priority. PMID:26756005

  8. Community Size as a Factor in Health Partnerships in Community Parks and Recreation, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Jo An M.; Mowen, Andrew J.; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although partnerships between park and recreation agencies and health agencies are prevalent, little research has examined partnership characteristics and effectiveness among communities of different sizes. The objective of this study was to determine whether park and recreation leaders’ perceptions of partnership characteristics, effectiveness, and outcomes vary by community size. Methods A web-based survey was completed in 2007 by 1,217 National Recreation and Park Association members. Community size was divided into 4 categories: very small, small, medium, and large. Questions measured agencies’ recognition of the need for partnerships, their level of experience, and the effectiveness and outcomes of partnerships. Results Larger communities were significantly more likely to recognize the need for and have more experience with partnerships than smaller communities. Very small and large communities partnered significantly more often with senior services, nonprofit health promotion agencies, and public health agencies than did small and medium ones. Large and small communities were significantly more likely than very small and medium communities to agree that their decision making in partnerships is inclusive and that they have clearly defined goals and objectives. Large communities were significantly more likely than very small communities to report that their partnership helped leverage resources, make policy changes, meet their mission statement, and link to funding opportunities. Conclusion Community size shapes partnership practices, effectiveness, and outcomes. Very small communities are disadvantaged in developing and managing health partnerships. Increasing education, training, and funding opportunities for small and rural park and recreation agencies may enable them to more effectively partner with organizations to address community health concerns. PMID:23886043

  9. The effects of community environmental factors on obesity among Korean adults: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nan-He; Kwon, Soonman

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explored multidimensional factors related to obesity by dividing them into individual and environmental factors, and performed multilevel analysis to investigate community environmental effects. METHODS: Data from the 2011 and 2012 Community Health Surveys were used for the analysis. Community-level variables, constructed from various regional statistics, were included in the model as environmental factors. Respondents with body mass index (BMI)≥25 were defined as obese, and a multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze individual and environmental factors related to obesity. Moreover, a stratified analysis was conducted to compare factors related to obesity between men and women. RESULTS: Of 337,136 samples, 82,887 (24.6%) were obese, with BMI≥25. Sociodemographic characteristics at the individual level were mostly significantly related to obesity; however, while there were more obese men subjects among those with high socioeconomic status, there were more obese women among those with low socioeconomic status. There were fewer obese respondents among those who regularly walked and more obese respondents among those who reported short sleep duration or were highly stressed. At the community level, people living in areas with high socioeconomic status, high satisfaction with safety and public transportation, and high accessibility to sports facilities in their community had lower obesity risks. CONCLUSIONS: Community-level environmental factors affected obesity, especially perceived community environment, more significant than physical environment. Thus, it is necessary to develop effective obesity prevention and management strategies by considering potential community environmental factors that affect obesity. PMID:25666167

  10. Measuring Sense of Community: A Methodological Interpretation of the Factor Structure Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, N. Andrew; Speer, Paul W.; Hughey, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Instability in the factor structure of the Sense of Community Index (SCI) was tested as a methodological artifact. Confirmatory factor analyses, tested with two data sets, supported neither the proposed one-factor nor the four-factor (needs fulfillment, group membership, influence, and emotional connection) SCI. Results demonstrated that the SCI…

  11. Normal people in clinical practice: a general factor of personality in biproportional scaling and its practical relevance.

    PubMed

    Mosterman, Regina M

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the clinical relevance of absolute scaling in personality assessment, Hofstee and Ten Berge's (2004) biproportional scaling method was applied to 3 clinical samples and compared with relative scaling in traditional analyses. In the first sample, 80 psychotherapy clients provided self-reports as well as reports by 3 informants, resulting in 320 ratings of the Dutch short form of the MMPI (NVM). In the second sample, 96 psychotherapy clients provided self-reports and informant reports, resulting in 384 Five-Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI) ratings. In the third sample, 95 clients provided self-reports and informant reports, resulting in 380 ratings of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). In Part I of the study, the personality structure based on biproportional scaling was examined by replicating Hofstee, Barelds, and Ten Berge (2006). In Part II, this personality structure as well as self-informant distances and self-informant likenesses were related to symptoms, personality pathology, and level of functioning. The results confirmed the presence of a general factor of personality in absolute scaling, which appears to reflect social fitness and the absence of severe psychopathology. This factor was significantly associated with fewer symptoms and better functioning in all 3 samples. The personality pathology results were only significant in the FFPI sample. Self-informant distance and self-informant likeness were primarily associated with symptoms. A relationship between poor social fitness and insecure early attachment was suggested in 3 case studies. PMID:22809082

  12. Community perceptions and factors influencing utilization of health services in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bakeera, Solome K; Wamala, Sarah P; Galea, Sandro; State, Andrew; Peterson, Stefan; Pariyo, George W

    2009-01-01

    Background Healthcare utilization has particular relevance as a public health and development issue. Unlike material and human capital, there is little empirical evidence on the utility of social resources in overcoming barriers to healthcare utilization in a developing country context. We sought to assess the relevance of social resources in overcoming barriers to healthcare utilization. Study Objective To explore community perceptions among three different wealth categories on factors influencing healthcare utilization in Eastern Uganda. Methods We used a qualitative study design using Focus Group Discussions (FGD) to conduct the study. Community meetings were initially held to identify FGD participants in the different wealth categories, ('least poor', 'medium' and 'poorest') using poverty ranking based on ownership of assets and income sources. Nine FGDs from three homogenous wealth categories were conducted. Data from the FGDs was analyzed using content analysis revealing common barriers as well as facilitating factors for healthcare service utilization by wealth categories. The Health Access Livelihood Framework was used to examine and interpret the findings. Results Barriers to healthcare utilization exist for all the wealth categories along three different axes including: the health seeking process; health services delivery; and the ownership of livelihood assets. Income source, transport ownership, and health literacy were reported as centrally useful in overcoming some barriers to healthcare utilization for the 'least poor' and 'poor' wealth categories. The 'poorest' wealth category was keen to utilize free public health services. Conversely, there are perceptions that public health facilities were perceived to offer low quality care with chronic gaps such as shortages of essential supplies. In addition to individual material resources and the availability of free public healthcare services, social resources are perceived as important in overcoming

  13. Family, friend or foe? Critical reflections on the relevance and role of social capital in health promotion and community development.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Sarah E L; Poland, Blake

    2005-06-01

    Social capital has been the focus of considerable academic and policy interest in recent years. Despite this interest, the concept remains undertheorized: there is an urgent need for a critical engagement with this literature that goes beyond summary. This paper lays a foundation for a critical dialogue between social capital and health promotion, by examining problematics in the conceptualization and practice of social capital building and linking these to models of community development, a cornerstone health promotion strategy. In so doing, the paper contributes to the existing literature by providing a theoretical exposition and critique of various threads in social capital discourse, and linking these threads explicitly to community development practice. Distinctions between communitarian, institutional and critical approaches to social capital are elaborated, and the relationships between these three approaches and three models of community development-social planning, locality development, and social action-are discussed. The existing social capital literature is then critically examined in relation to three key themes common to both literatures: community integration, public participation, and power relations. This examination suggests that social capital cannot be conceived in isolation from economic and political structures, since social connections are contingent on, and structured by, access to material resources. This runs counter to many current policy discourses, which focus on the importance of connection and cohesion without addressing fundamental inequities in access to resources. This paper posits that approaches to community development and social capital should emphasise the importance of a conscious concern with social justice. A construction of social capital which explicitly endorses the importance of transformative social engagement, while at the same time recognising the potential negative consequences of social capital development, could

  14. The characteristics and relevant factors of Pap smear test use for women with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examines the Pap smear usage conditions and relevant influential factors for 18,204 women aged 30 years and above with intellectual disabilities, using nationwide data from 2008. Methods The research method of this study is secondary data analysis. The data was obtained from three nationwide databases from 2006 to 2008. This study employed descriptive statistics to analyze the use and rate of Pap smear testing by women with intellectual disabilities. Chi-square test was used to assess the correlation between Pap smear test usage and several variables. Logistic regression analysis was employed to explore the factors that influence Pap smear test usage. Results The results show that 4.83% (n =880) of women with intellectual disabilities underwent Pap smear tests. Pap smear test usage rates exhibit a declining trend with increases in age. Factors that significantly influence Pap smear test use include age, urbanization level of resident area, monthly salary, aboriginal status, marital status, existence of DM, severity of disability. Conclusions The women with intellectual disabilities had a low use rate of Pap smear test, which is significantly less than the 28.8% usage rate for the general population of women aged 30 years and above. PMID:24890828

  15. Relevance of the transcription factor PdSte12 in Penicillium digitatum conidiation and virulence during citrus fruit infection.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Laura; Teixidó, Neus; Torres, Rosario; Usall, Josep; Viñas, Inmaculada; Sánchez-Torres, Paloma

    2016-10-17

    Green mould, resulting from Penicillium digitatum, is the most important postharvest disease of citrus. In a previous study, the PdSte12 transcription factor gene was identified, and disruption mutants were obtained. In the present study, the ΔPdSte12 mutants generated through gene replacement showed significantly reduced virulence during citrus fruit infection. Virulence was affected not only in mature fruit but also in immature fruit, and disease severity was markedly reduced when the oranges were stored at 20 or 4°C. In addition, the ΔPdSte12 mutants were defective in asexual reproduction, producing few conidia. The conidiophores of these mutants had longer metulae with fewer branches at the tip of the hyphae. Gene expression analysis revealed that PdSte12 might act as a negative regulator of several transporter-encoding genes and a positive regulator of two sterol demethylases, all of which are involved in fungicide resistance and fungal virulence. Moreover, PdSte12 exhibited the negative regulation of another transcription factor PdMut3, putatively involved in fungal pathogenesis but with no effect on the MAPK SLT2 P. digitatum orthologue belonging to different transcription pathways relevant to cell integrity. These results indicate the PdSte12 transcription factor is functionally conserved in P. digitatum for infection and asexual reproduction, similar to other Ste12 fungal plant pathogens. PMID:27479695

  16. Analysis of factors affecting the accuracy, reproducibility, and interpretation of microbial community carbon source utilization patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, S.K.; Garchow, H.; Klug, M.J.; Forney, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    We determined factors that affect responses of bacterial isolates and model bacterial communities to the 95 carbon substrates in Biolog microliter plates. For isolates and communities of three to six bacterial strains, substrate oxidation rates were typically nonlinear and were delayed by dilution of the inoculum. When inoculum density was controlled, patterns of positive and negative responses exhibited by microbial communities to each of the carbon sources were reproducible. Rates and extents of substrate oxidation by the communities were also reproducible but were not simply the sum of those exhibited by community members when tested separately. Replicates of the same model community clustered when analyzed by principal- components analysis (PCA), and model communities with different compositions were clearly separated un the first PCA axis, which accounted for >60% of the dataset variation. PCA discrimination among different model communities depended on the extent to which specific substrates were oxidized. However, the substrates interpreted by PCA to be most significant in distinguishing the communities changed with reading time, reflecting the nonlinearity of substrate oxidation rates. Although whole-community substrate utilization profiles were reproducible signatures for a given community, the extent of oxidation of specific substrates and the numbers or activities of microorganisms using those substrates in a given community were not correlated. Replicate soil samples varied significantly in the rate and extent of oxidation of seven tested substrates, suggesting microscale heterogeneity in composition of the soil microbial community.

  17. An Analysis of the Relationship between Select Organizational Climate Factors and Job Satisfaction Factors as Reported by Community College Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Giacomo, Rose-Marie Carla

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the overall satisfaction with organizational climate factors across seven studies of various levels of community college personnel. A secondary purpose was to determine if there was a significant relationship between satisfaction with organizational climate factors and the importance of job satisfaction…

  18. Do climate factors govern soil microbial community composition and biomass at a regional scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Guo, C.; Lü, X.; Yuan, S.; Wang, R.

    2014-12-01

    Soil microbial communities play important role in organic matter decomposition, nutrient cycling and vegetation dynamic. However, little is known about factors driving soil microbial community composition at large scales. The objective of this study was to determine whether climate dominates among environmental factors governing microbial community composition and biomass at a regional scale. Here, we compared soil microbial communities using phospholipid fatty acid method across 7 land use types from 23 locations in North-East China Transect (850 km x 50 km). The results showed that soil water availability and land use changes exhibited the dominant effects on soil microbial community composition and biomass at the regional scale, while climate factors (expressed as a function of large-scale spatial variation) did not show strong relationships with distribution of microbial community composition. Likewise, factors such as spatial structure, soil texture, nutrient availability and vegetation types were not important. Wetter soils had higher contributions of gram-positive bacteria, whereas drier soils had higher contributions of gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Heavily disturbed soils had lower contributions of gram-negative bacteria and fungi than historically disturbed and undisturbed soils. The lowest microbial biomass appeared in the wettest and driest soils. In conclusion, dominant climate factors, commonly known to structure distribution of macroorganisms, were not the most important drivers governing regional pattern of microbial communities because of inclusion of irrigated and managed practices. In comparison, soil water regime and land use types appear to be primary determinants of microbial community composition and biomass.

  19. Online Occupational Education in Community Colleges: Prevalence and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Githens, Rod P.; Crawford, Fashaad L.; Sauer, Timothy M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the current state of online occupational programs in community colleges and explored issues related to institutional, economic, and social indicators that influence (a) the offering of online programs and (b) the programmatic connection to workforce development needs. This project is the first national study that categorizes…

  20. Factors Influencing Grade Point Averages at a Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marvin L.; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the applicability of Walberg's model of educational productivity to a community college setting. Finds that prior achievement, use of out-of-school time, motivation, social context of the classroom, and age have positive effects on grade point average, while quantity of instruction and emphasis on education at home have negative effects.…

  1. Factors Influencing the Desire To Take Environmental Action in Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Chouinard, Omer; Musafiri, Jean-Pierre; IsaBelle, Claire

    In a coastal community, four social groups were chosen to participate in various educational programs designed to promote their desire to take environmental action. At the end of these educational programs, conducted by a scientist and an environmental educator, the participants were invited to get involved in the resolution of an environmental…

  2. Elucidating biotic factors that influence assembly of fungal endophyte communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most plants harbor a diverse assemblage of non-mycorrhizal fungal endophytes. These fungi can directly influence the host plant, and can instigate trophic cascades that affect surrounding communities of herbivores, plants, and animals. Despite this, biotic mechanisms that influence assembly of funga...

  3. Institutional Factors Affecting Student Participation in Community College Science Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arthur M.

    Drawing upon the responses of 268 instructors of randomly selected class sections offered at the Los Angeles Community College District during Fall 1980, this paper assesses the role of the faculty in remedying the underrepresentation of women, minorities, and the handicapped in science education. The paper first summarizes probable causes of this…

  4. Reform in One Community: Factors in Establishing a Firm Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musetti, Bernadette McCormack; O'Hara, Susan; Gibson, Elizabeth; McMahon, Maureen

    This report describes Project CREEK (Community Resources Through Environmental Education for Kids), a collaborative 3-year project between the University of California at Davis, the University of Maryland, and a large, rural K-5 elementary school in central California, and a sister site near Baltimore. Specifically, this report examines changes in…

  5. Factors Predicting Community College Faculty Satisfaction with Instructional Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongbin; Twombly, Susan; Wolf-Wendel, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    In light of growing speculation that the autonomy of community college faculty members is eroding, this study draws on the 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty to explore the institutional and personal variables that predict faculty satisfaction with authority to make decisions about content and methods in instructional activities. Results…

  6. The Relevancy of Community-Based Methods: Using Diet within Native American and Alaska Native Adult Populations as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Fialkowski, Marie K.; Okoror, Titilayo A.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The rates of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease in Native Americans and Alaska Natives far exceed that of the general US population. There are many postulating reasons for these excessive rates including the transition from a traditional to a contemporary diet. Although information on the dietary intakes of Native American and Alaska Native communities are limited, there seems to be a consensus that the Native American and Alaska Native diet is high in total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. Further information on the diet needs to be attained so that dietary interventions can effectively be implemented in these communities. An approach that is community based is proposed as the best solution to understanding the Native diet and developing culturally tailored interventions to sustainably improve diet. PMID:22686210

  7. Where are the food deserts? An evaluation of policy-relevant measures of community food access in South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Liese, Angela D.; Hibbert, James D.; Ma, Xiaoguang; Bell, Bethany A.; Battersby, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Several recent United States (US) policies target spatial access to healthier food retailers. We evaluated two measures of community food access developed by two different agencies, using a 2009 food environment validation study in South Carolina as a reference. While the US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service’s (USDA ERS) measure designated 22.5% of census tracts as food deserts, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) measure designated 29.0% as non-healthier retail tracts; 71% of tracts were designated consistently between USDA ERS and CDC. Our findings suggest a need for greater harmonization of these measures of community food access. PMID:26294937

  8. Cell Injury-Induced Release of Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: Relevance to Intracerebral Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Transplantations.

    PubMed

    Aizman, Irina; Vinodkumar, Deepti; McGrogan, Michael; Bates, Damien

    2015-07-15

    Beneficial effects of intracerebral transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and their derivatives are believed to be mediated mostly by factors produced by engrafted cells. However, the mesenchymal cell engraftment rate is low, and the majority of grafted cells disappear within a short post-transplantation period. Here, we hypothesize that dying transplanted cells can affect surrounding tissues by releasing their active intracellular components. To elucidate the type, amounts, and potency of these putative intracellular factors, freeze/thaw extracts of MSC or their derivatives were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and bioassays. We found that fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2 and FGF1, but not vascular endothelial growth factor and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 levels were high in extracts despite being low in conditioned media. Extracts induced concentration-dependent proliferation of rat cortical neural progenitor cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells; these proliferative responses were specifically blocked by FGF2-neutralizing antibody. In the neuropoiesis assay with rat cortical cells, both MSC extracts and killed cells induced expression of nestin, but not astrocyte differentiation. However, suspensions of killed cells strongly potentiated the astrogenic effects of live MSC. In transplantation-relevant MSC injury models (peripheral blood cell-mediated cytotoxicity and high cell density plating), MSC death coincided with the release of intracellular FGF2. The data showed that MSC contain a major depot of active FGF2 that is released upon cell injury and is capable of acutely stimulating neuropoiesis and angiogenesis. We therefore propose that both dying and surviving grafted MSC contribute to tissue regeneration. PMID:25873141

  9. The Eastern Iowa Community College District Program Evaluation Process: A Vital and Practical Tool for Ensuring Program Relevancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedel, Janice Nahra

    The process developed and implemented by the Eastern Iowa Community College District (EICCD) to evaluate its vocational and technical programs is described. The process provides for the flow of information and recommendations from the faculty through administrative ranks to the Chancellor of the District. The EICCD is comprised of three colleges…

  10. Collective Bargaining in Public Community Colleges; A Survey of Relevant Contract Provisions from 84 Professional Contracts Covering 120 Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Board of Regional Community Colleges, Boston.

    This study was undertaken in an effort to provide community college administrators with a resource tool from which they may readily obtain comparative data on current negotiated contract provisions at other institutions. The report is the first in a projected series of nationwide studies conducted by the Massachusetts State Board of Regional…

  11. The Columbia Impairment Scale: Factor Analysis Using a Community Mental Health Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jonathan B.; Eack, Shaun M.; Greeno, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to test the factor structure of the parent version of the Columbia Impairment Scale (CIS) in a sample of mothers who brought their children for community mental health (CMH) services (n = 280). Method: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the fit of the hypothesized four-factor structure…

  12. Identifying overlapping communities as well as hubs and outliers via nonnegative matrix factorization

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiaochun; Wang, Xiao; Jin, Di; Cao, Yixin; He, Dongxiao

    2013-01-01

    Community detection is important for understanding networks. Previous studies observed that communities are not necessarily disjoint and might overlap. It is also agreed that some outlier vertices participate in no community, and some hubs in a community might take more important roles than others. Each of these facts has been independently addressed in previous work. But there is no algorithm, to our knowledge, that can identify these three structures altogether. To overcome this limitation, we propose a novel model where vertices are measured by their centrality in communities, and define the identification of overlapping communities, hubs, and outliers as an optimization problem, calculated by nonnegative matrix factorization. We test this method on various real networks, and compare it with several competing algorithms. The experimental results not only demonstrate its ability of identifying overlapping communities, hubs, and outliers, but also validate its superior performance in terms of clustering quality. PMID:24129402

  13. Factors contributing to participation of a rural community in health education: a case study from ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Adamu, Abebaw Yirga

    This study investigated factors that contributed to the participation of a rural community in health education. It was conducted in the Awi zone of the Amhara region in Ethiopia. The participants were rural community members and health extension workers. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit rural community members, whereas convenient sampling was used to recruit health extension workers. Data was collected through in-depth individual interviews, and focus group discussions. The study revealed various factors contributing to the participation of a rural community in health education, including attainability of the objectives of health education, profiles of the health extension workers, peer influence, organization of the health education program in terms of place and time, and meaningfulness of the health education in terms of rural community lives. Although the ultimate goal of participation in health education is similar for all rural community members, they were attracted to the program by one or more than one different factor. Efforts aimed at enhancing participation of a rural community in health education program should address each factor that contributes to the participation of community members. PMID:23000462

  14. Community Perspectives on Factors that Influence Collaboration in Public Health Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Rogerio M.

    2009-01-01

    Community collaboration in research may lead to better methods, results, and dissemination of interventions. Little systematic research has examined specific factors that influence community-based organizations (CBOs) to collaborate in public health research. There is an urgent need to advance knowledge on this topic so that together, researchers…

  15. Factors Affecting Change in Major and College Persistence for Traditional and Nontraditional Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Shuntay

    2013-01-01

    Community colleges enroll a substantial proportion of both traditional and nontraditional students pursuing various academic goals. Consequently, these types of students have different characteristics that influence their success in community colleges. The purpose of this study was to analyze the contributing factors in traditional and…

  16. Factors Related to Communication of Forest Fire Prevention Messages, a Study of Selected Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griessman, B. Eugene; Bertrand, Alvin L.

    Two rural Louisiana communities were selected to evaluate the effectiveness of certain types of communication in preventing man-caused forest fires. The communities were selected on the basis of differences in fire occurrence rates and other factors related to conservation. Questionnaires and personal interviews were utilized to determine views of…

  17. Motivating Factors of Florida Community and State College Information Technology Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Wendy Louise

    2013-01-01

    In this study the core job characteristics that contribute to the internal motivational factors and job satisfaction of information technology faculty members working at a community or state college in Florida were investigated. Fifty-four information technology faculty members working at a community or state college in Florida completed the Job…

  18. Exploring Critical Factors of Self Concept among High Income Community College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Nor, Ahmad Rosli Mohd; Amat, Salleh; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abdul

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the critical factors influencing the self-concept of community college graduates in the development of their careers. Individuals with a positive self-concept are often associated with a good career choices and a well-panned career development path. Hence community college students should be girded with a…

  19. Community Violence, Protective Factors, and Adolescent Mental Health: A Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined interrelationships among community violence exposure, protective factors, and mental health in a sample of urban, predominantly African American adolescents (N = 504). Latent Profile Analysis was conducted to identify profiles of adolescents based on a combination of community violence exposure, self-worth, parental monitoring,…

  20. LAND USE AND CLIMATIC FACTORS STRUCTURE REGIONAL PATTERNS IN SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim Understanding the drivers of community composition across spatial scales is of keen interest to ecologists. Although patterns are emerging for macroorganisms, we only have a basic understanding of the factors determining soil microbial community composition, diversity, and productivity at larg...

  1. What Factors Are Important in Smoking Cessation Amongst Deprived Communities?: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Hazel J.; Memon, Anjum; Lawson, Kate; Jacobs, Barbara; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is limited evidence regarding effective smoking cessation interventions in deprived communities. This study explored what factors are considered most important in smoking cessation, from the perspective of a group of NHS Stop Smoking Service users from a deprived community. Design: A qualitative study. Setting: A deprived…

  2. Effect of Community Factors on Primary School Learners' Achievement in Rural Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alam, Shafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Community plays an important role in childhood education. This research has identified the community factors that affect learners' achievement through the use of case studies. Qualitative data were captured by semi-structured interview and data interpretation was underpinned by concepts derived from human capital and social capital theories. This…

  3. Individual and Service Factors Affecting Deinstitutionalization and Community Use of People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim was to evaluate the effect of the closure of a small intellectual disability hospital on the community use of those people involved. In addition, the study sought to identify those factors that might influence the community use of people with intellectual disabilities. Methods: The impact of resettlement was investigated using…

  4. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…

  5. Rethinking the Factors of Success: Social Support and Community Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haithcox-Dennis, Melissa; DeWeese, Amanda; Goodman, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coalitions are often the strategy of choice when needs are great, resources are few, and individual efforts have proven unsuccessful in addressing serious health issues. Despite the widespread use of coalitions and extensive research, no definitive list of factors predicting coalition success has been identified. One factor, social…

  6. Psychometric Properties of the AHRQ Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture: A Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aboneh, Ephrem A.; Look, Kevin; Stone, Jamie; Lester, Corey; Chui, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) developed a hospital patient safety culture survey in 2004, and has adapted this survey to other healthcare settings, such as nursing homes and medical offices, and most recently community pharmacies. However, it is unknown if safety culture dimensions developed in hospital settings can be transferred to community pharmacies. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Method The survey was administered to 543 community pharmacists in [state], United States. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of our data with the proposed AHRQ model. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the underlying factor structure. Internal consistency reliabilities were calculated. Results A total of 433 usable surveys were returned (response rate of 80%). Results from the confirmatory factor analysis showed inadequate model fit for the original 36 item, 11-factor structure. Exploratory factor analysis showed that a modified 27 item, 4-factor structure better reflected the underlying safety culture dimensions in community pharmacies. The communication openness factor, with 3 items, dropped in its entirety while 6 items dropped from multiple factors. The remaining 27 items redistributed to form the 4-factor structure: safety related communication, staff training and work environment, organizational response to safety events, and staffing, work pressure and pace. Cronbach's α of 0.95 suggested good internal consistency. Conclusion Dimensions related to safety culture in a community pharmacy environment may differ from those in other healthcare settings such as in hospitals. Our findings suggest that validation studies need to be conducted before applying safety dimensions from other healthcare settings into community pharmacies. PMID:26208535

  7. Factors associated with participation in a community senior health promotion program: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Buchner, D M; Pearson, D C

    1989-01-01

    Factors associated with participation in a community senior health promotion program were studied in 103 participants and a population-based control group of 531 non-participants. Compared to controls, participants had similar physical health status, but lower mental and social health status. Both men and women participants reported more depressive symptoms, lower positive affect, and lower social participation. Mental and social health may be important yet under-studied factors influencing participation in community health promotion programs. PMID:2729475

  8. Capacity factor analysis for evaluating water and sanitation infrastructure choices for developing communities.

    PubMed

    Bouabid, Ali; Louis, Garrick E

    2015-09-15

    40% of the world's population lacks access to adequate supplies of water and sanitation services to sustain human health. In fact, more than 780 million people lack access to safe water supplies and about 2.5 billion people lack access to basic sanitation. Appropriate technology for water supply and sanitation (Watsan) systems is critical for sustained access to these services. Current approaches for the selection of Watsan technologies in developing communities have a high failure rate. It is estimated that 30%-60% of Watsan installed infrastructures in developing countries are not operating. Inappropriate technology is a common explanation for the high rate of failure of Watsan infrastructure, particularly in lower-income communities (Palaniappan et al., 2008). This paper presents the capacity factor analysis (CFA) model, for the assessment of a community's capacity to manage and sustain access to water supply and sanitation services. The CFA model is used for the assessment of a community's capacity to operate, and maintain a municipal sanitation service (MSS) such as, drinking water supply, wastewater and sewage treatment, and management of solid waste. The assessment of the community's capacity is based on seven capacity factors that have been identified as playing a key role in the sustainability of municipal sanitation services in developing communities (Louis, 2002). These capacity factors and their constituents are defined for each municipal sanitation service. Benchmarks and international standards for the constituents of the CFs are used to assess the capacity factors. The assessment of the community's capacity factors leads to determine the overall community capacity level (CCL) to manage a MSS. The CCL can then be used to assist the community in the selection of appropriate Watsan technologies for their MSS needs. The selection is done from Watsan technologies that require a capacity level to operate them that matches the assessed CCL of the

  9. Rural community and physician perspectives on resource factors affecting physician retention.

    PubMed

    Conte, S J; Imershein, A W; Magill, M K

    1992-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate issues affecting recruitment and retention of physicians in a rural north Florida community. As part of this investigation, the authors examined the relevant context of medical care and physician practice for this community. The results identify a number of problems not uncommon in rural communities and supported by previous literature. Physicians felt isolated, dissatisfied with job security and professional autonomy, and frustrated by a lack of cooperation among the major providers of health care. More importantly, upon closer scrutiny, some of the most appealing characteristics of this community for incoming physicians become its weaknesses. Access to a regional medical center nearby and nearness to a metropolitan area were both cited as positive attributes to their choice of practice location. In this community, however, these appear to have resulted in a highly divided medical system. Many of the employed and insured patients in the county prefer to get their medical care in the nearby city. At the same time three separate entities within the community--a federally funded community health center, a county public health unit, and a community hospital--are expected to provide services for the poor and uninsured. The resulting lack of a comprehensive approach to provision of services contributes significantly to the dissatisfaction among providers and to their ultimate retention. PMID:10121547

  10. Operational factors of air service to small communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using 30-passenger jet aircraft to service low density, short haul markets was analyzed. Aircraft characteristics, market potential, and economic factors were among the areas evaluated.

  11. Analisys of the therapeutic factors in the Therapeutic Community Podsused among the war related diagnosis and the others.

    PubMed

    Martic-Biocina, Sanja; Sakoman, Mirna Pandzic; Bosak, Josipa; Stipic, N

    2015-09-01

    Therapeutic community/TC/ is a sociotherapeutic method that uses sociotherapeutic and psychotherapeutic techniques for various mental disorders. In Croatia, during and after the war many war veterans have been in treatment through TC and many of them still participate in it. Majority of them were diagnosed with PTSD diagnosis, but some of them also had other diagnosis, e.g. depression, paranoid delusion, etc. In this paper we describe principles of TC that we use in Croatia and we also try to find out which curative factors of TC are the most important for this population. We applied semistructured intervju based on Yalom book of practice and theory of psychotherapy to explore what factors do war veterans find the most important and relevant for their resilience and better coping with everyday issues. PMID:26417803

  12. Predicting Children’s Depressive Symptoms from Community and Individual Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Cole, David A.; Smith, Thomas M.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; LaGrange, Beth; Jacquez, Farrah M.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Truss, Alanna E.; Folmer, Amy S.

    2011-01-01

    Community, demographic, familial, and personal risk factors of childhood depressive symptoms were examined from an ecological theoretical approach using hierarchical linear modeling. Individual-level data were collected from an ethnically diverse (73% African-American) community sample of 197 children and their parents; community-level data were obtained from the U.S. Census regarding rates of community poverty and unemployment in participants’ neighborhoods. Results indicated that high rates of community poverty and unemployment, children’s depressive attributional style, and low levels of self-perceived competence predict children’s depressive symptoms, even after accounting for demographic and familial risk factors, such as parental education and negative parenting behaviors. The effect of negative parenting behaviors on depressive symptoms was partially mediated by personal variables like children’s self-perceived competence. Recommendations for future research, intervention and prevention programs are discussed. PMID:25364062

  13. Soil Microbial Community Responses to Long-Term Global Change Factors in a California Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, K.; Peay, K.

    2015-12-01

    Soil fungal and bacterial communities act as mediators of terrestrial carbon and nutrient cycling, and interact with the aboveground plant community as both pathogens and mutualists. However, these soil microbial communities are sensitive to changes in their environment. A better understanding of the response of soil microbial communities to global change may help to predict future soil microbial diversity, and assist in creating more comprehensive models of terrestrial carbon and nutrient cycles. This study examines the effects of four global change factors (increased temperature, increased variability in precipitation, nitrogen deposition, and CO2 enrichment) on soil microbial communities at the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment (JRGCE), a full-factorial global change manipulative experiment on three hectares of California grassland. While similar studies have examined the effects of global change on soil microbial communities, few have manipulated more factors or been longer in duration than the JRGCE, which began field treatments in 1998. We find that nitrogen deposition, CO2 enrichment, and increased variability in precipitation significantly affect the structure of both fungal and bacterial communities, and explain more of the variation in the community structures than do local soil chemistry or aboveground plant community. Fungal richness is correlated positively with soil nitrogen content and negatively with soil water content. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which associate closely with herbaceous plants' roots and assist in nutrient uptake, decrease in both richness and relative abundance in elevated CO2 treatments.

  14. Which intervention design factors influence performance of community health workers in low- and middle-income countries? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kok, Maryse C; Dieleman, Marjolein; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Kane, Sumit S; Ormel, Hermen; Tijm, Mandy M; de Koning, Korrie A M

    2015-11-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly recognized as an integral component of the health workforce needed to achieve public health goals in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many factors influence CHW performance. A systematic review was conducted to identify intervention design related factors influencing performance of CHWs. We systematically searched six databases for quantitative and qualitative studies that included CHWs working in promotional, preventive or curative primary health services in LMICs. One hundred and forty studies met the inclusion criteria, were quality assessed and double read to extract data relevant to the design of CHW programmes. A preliminary framework containing factors influencing CHW performance and characteristics of CHW performance (such as motivation and competencies) guided the literature search and review.A mix of financial and non-financial incentives, predictable for the CHWs, was found to be an effective strategy to enhance performance, especially of those CHWs with multiple tasks. Performance-based financial incentives sometimes resulted in neglect of unpaid tasks. Intervention designs which involved frequent supervision and continuous training led to better CHW performance in certain settings. Supervision and training were often mentioned as facilitating factors, but few studies tested which approach worked best or how these were best implemented. Embedment of CHWs in community and health systems was found to diminish workload and increase CHW credibility. Clearly defined CHW roles and introduction of clear processes for communication among different levels of the health system could strengthen CHW performance.When designing community-based health programmes, factors that increased CHW performance in comparable settings should be taken into account. Additional intervention research to develop a better evidence base for the most effective training and supervision mechanisms and qualitative research to inform

  15. Which intervention design factors influence performance of community health workers in low- and middle-income countries? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Maryse C; Dieleman, Marjolein; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Broerse, Jacqueline EW; Kane, Sumit S; Ormel, Hermen; Tijm, Mandy M; de Koning, Korrie AM

    2015-01-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly recognized as an integral component of the health workforce needed to achieve public health goals in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many factors influence CHW performance. A systematic review was conducted to identify intervention design related factors influencing performance of CHWs. We systematically searched six databases for quantitative and qualitative studies that included CHWs working in promotional, preventive or curative primary health services in LMICs. One hundred and forty studies met the inclusion criteria, were quality assessed and double read to extract data relevant to the design of CHW programmes. A preliminary framework containing factors influencing CHW performance and characteristics of CHW performance (such as motivation and competencies) guided the literature search and review. A mix of financial and non-financial incentives, predictable for the CHWs, was found to be an effective strategy to enhance performance, especially of those CHWs with multiple tasks. Performance-based financial incentives sometimes resulted in neglect of unpaid tasks. Intervention designs which involved frequent supervision and continuous training led to better CHW performance in certain settings. Supervision and training were often mentioned as facilitating factors, but few studies tested which approach worked best or how these were best implemented. Embedment of CHWs in community and health systems was found to diminish workload and increase CHW credibility. Clearly defined CHW roles and introduction of clear processes for communication among different levels of the health system could strengthen CHW performance. When designing community-based health programmes, factors that increased CHW performance in comparable settings should be taken into account. Additional intervention research to develop a better evidence base for the most effective training and supervision mechanisms and qualitative research to

  16. The level of knowledge and awareness about prostate cancer in the Turkish male and the relevant effective factors

    PubMed Central

    Turkan, Sadi; Doğan, Faruk; Ekmekçioğlu, Ozan; Çolak, Aslıhan; Kalkan, Mehmet; Şahin, Çoşkun

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to determine the general knowledge and awareness levels, information sources, and the state of medical check-up for prostate cancer (PCa) and relevant effective factors. Material and methods The participants were asked to answer to 14 questions of a questionnaire about age, education, economic and social condition, knowledge about PCa, state of being examined and their related factors. According to demographic characteristics of the participants, levels of awareness about PCa, sources of information, affecting factors and their interrelationships were examined. Two groups were formed according to age (<60 years, >60 years) and variations according to ages were investigated. Results Two hundred and ninety-three men with an average age of 57 years (range 40–85) were included in the study. Our findings showed that 68.3% of the participants were thinking that PCa is a frequently seen disease, 88.4% were thinking that it can be treated and 62.8% of men specified that their information sources are doctors. We also found that 60.8% of the participants had not undergone prostate examination and prostate specific antigen (PSA) control. The most reason for not having annual examinations was (44.4%) “negligence”. Significantly greater number of men with higher education (high school/university) were highly informed about PCa (p=0.037). Check-up rates were statistically significantly higher among men with intermediate income (p=0.041). Curability of PCa diagnosed at an early stage was acknowledged by statistically higher number of individuals under the age 60 (p<0.05). Health control, prostate examination and/or PSA control rates were higher in men with a family history of PCa and in the group of >60 years. Conclusion Although PCa has a high prevalence and mortality rates, personal and social information and sensitivity levels must be increased as it can be treated if diagnosed at an early stage. We think that social and medical impact of the

  17. [Relationships between characteristics of ground bryophyte communities and environmental factors in urban area of Chongqing, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Pi, Chun-yan; Tian, Shang

    2015-10-01

    The present study focused on bryophyte species composition, species diversity and the relationship between bryophyte communities and environmental factors in urban area of Chongqing City, by using biodiversity indices and the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), based on the data of 44 plots. The results revealed that 86 species belonging to 43 genera and 25 families were found in saxicolous bryophyte communities, while 46 species belonging to 28 genera and 22 families were found in terricolous ones. The diversity indices of both saxicolous and terricolous bryophyte communities from campuses were higher than those of parks, natural scenic resorts, Jinyunshan National Nature Reserve. TWINSPAN classified saxicolous and terricolous bryophyte communities into three and two groups, respectively. CCA results showed canopy density was the major environmental factor of saxicolous bryophyte communities influencing bryophyte distribution in parks and campuses, whereas altitude, relative humidity and human disturbance were the major environmental factors in natural scenic resorts and nature reserve. Soil pH, canopy density and human disturbance were the major environmental factors in terricolous bryophyte communities in parks and campuses, whereas altitude, relative humidity and water content of the soil were the major environmental factors in those of natural scenic resorts and nature reserve. PMID:26995924

  18. Clinical relevance of and risk factors for HSV-related tracheobronchitis or pneumonia: results of an outbreak investigation

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Ilka; Gottlieb, Jens; Meier, Astrid; Sohr, Dorit; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Henke-Gendo, Cornelia; Gastmeier, Petra; Welte, Tobias; Schulz, Thomas Friedrich; Mattner, Frauke

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 was identified in respiratory specimens from a cluster of eight patients on a surgical intensive care unit within 8 weeks. Six of these patients suffered from HSV-related tracheobronchitis and one from HSV-related pneumonia only. Our outbreak investigation aimed to determine the clinical relevance of and risk factors associated with HSV-related tracheobronchitis or pneumonia in critically ill patients, and to investigate whether the cluster was caused by nosocomial transmission. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed to identify risk factors for the outcomes of HSV-related tracheobronchitis or pneumonia and death using univariable analysis as well as logistic regression analysis. Viruses were typed by molecular analysis of a fragment of the HSV type 1 glycoprotein G. Results The cohort of patients covering the outbreak period comprised 53 patients, including six patients with HSV-related tracheobronchitis and one patient with pneumonia only. HSV-related tracheobronchitis or pneumonia was associated with increased mortality (100% in patients with versus 17.8% in patients without HSV-related tracheobronchitis or pneumonia; P < 0.0001). The interaction of longer duration of ventilation and tracheotomy was associated with HSV-related tracheobronchitis or pneumonia in multivariable analysis. Identical HSV type 1 glycoprotein G sequences were found in three patients and in two patients. The group of three identical viral sequences belonged to a widely circulating strain. The two identical viral sequences were recovered from bronchoalveolar lavages of one patient with HSV-related tracheobronchitis and of one patient without clinical symptoms. These viral sequences showed unique polymorphisms, indicating probable nosocomial transmission. Conclusion HSV-related tracheobronchitis or pneumonia is associated with increased mortality in critically ill patients. Care should be taken to avoid nosocomial transmission and

  19. Suicide Among Young Alaska Native Men: Community Risk Factors and Alcohol Control

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. I examined community risk factors that explained variation in suicide rates among young rural Alaska Native men, evaluating the effectiveness of local alcohol control as a public health policy to reduce this population’s historically high vulnerability. Methods. I compiled suicide data, alcohol control status, and community-level social, cultural, and economic characteristics for Alaska Native men aged 15 to 34 years in 178 small Alaska communities from 1980 to 2007. Poisson regression equations explained variation in suicide rates as a function of endogenous alcohol control and community characteristics. Results. Suicide rates were higher in communities prohibiting alcohol importation under state law, but the effect was not significant after controlling for other community characteristics. More remote communities, those with fewer non-Natives, and those with evidence of cultural divides had higher suicide risks. Communities with higher incomes, more married couples, and traditional elders had lower risks. Conclusions. Alcohol control is ineffective in preventing suicide among Alaska Natives; suicide instead appears related to particular complex community characteristics that are either protective or increase risk. Communities have limited means to pursue economic and cultural development strategies that might offer more protection. PMID:24754505

  20. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  1. Emission of climate-relevant trace gases and succession of microbial communities during open-windrow composting

    SciTech Connect

    Hellmann, B.; Zelles, L.; Palojaervi, A.; Bai, Q.

    1997-03-01

    Municipal solid-waste composting is a process of increasing importance, based primarily on augmentation of microbial activity. The composting of organic matter leads not only to a reduction in waste but a sensible recycling of residuals to their origin. Carbon dioxide derived from plant matter degradation does not contribute to global warming. However, emitted nitrous oxide and methane molecules contribute to the enhancement of the greenhouse effect. This study determined a wide variety of microbial properties during the composting processes at a whole windrow level and quantified the emission rates of the climate relevant trace gases, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane during the course of maturation of a compost row. 47 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Gas-phase organics in environmental tobacco smoke: 2. Exposure-relevant emission factors and indirect exposures from habitual smoking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Brett C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff, William W.

    Sorption of emitted gas-phase organic compounds onto material surfaces affects environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) composition and exposures indoors. We have introduced a new metric, the exposure relevant emission factor (EREF) that accounts for sorptive uptake and reemission to give the mass of individual ETS constituents available for exposure over a day in which smoking occurs. This paper describes month-long experiments to investigate sorption effects on EREFs and potential ETS exposures under habitual smoking conditions. Cigarettes were smoked in a 50-m 3 furnished room over a 3-h period 6-7 days per week, with continuous ventilation at 0.3, 0.6, or 2.1 h -1. Organic gas concentrations were measured every few days over 4-h "smoking", 10-h "post-smoking" and 10-h "background" periods. Concentration patterns of volatile ETS components including 1,3-butadiene, benzene and acrolein were similar to those calculated for a theoretical non-sorbing tracer, indicating limited sorption. Concentrations of ETS tracers, e.g. 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP) and nicotine, and lower volatility toxic air contaminants including phenol, cresols, and naphthalene increased as experiments progressed, indicating mass accumulation on surfaces and higher desorption rates. Daily patterns stabilized after week 2, yielding a steady daily cycle of ETS concentrations associated with habitual smoking. EREFs for sorbing compounds were higher under steady cycle versus single-day smoking conditions by ˜50% for 3-EP, and by 2-3 times for nicotine, phenol, cresols, naphthalene, and methylnaphthalenes. Our results provide relevant information about potential indirect exposures from residual ETS (non-smoker enters room shortly after smoker finishes) and from reemission, and their importance relative to direct exposures (non-smoker present during smoking). Under the conditions examined, indirect exposures accounted for a larger fraction of total potential exposures for sorbing versus non-sorbing compounds

  3. 2010 Critical Success Factors for the North Carolina Community College System. Twenty First Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Community College System (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    First mandated by the North Carolina General Assembly in 1989 (S.L. 1989; C. 752; S. 80), the Critical Success Factors report has evolved into the major accountability document for the North Carolina Community College System. This twenty first annual report on the critical success factors is the result of a process undertaken to streamline and…

  4. Factors Enhancing the Teaching of Information Literacy to Adirondack Community College Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joyce

    This study examines the status of information literacy skills among the faculty of Adirondack Community College (ACC) in New York, and describes factors that enhance these skills. Three primary questions posed by the study are: (1) what information literacy skills do faculty have now?; (2) what factors strengthen the teaching of information…

  5. Factors Promoting Academic Success among African American and White Male Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrakis, Athena I.

    2008-01-01

    This study seeks to isolate factors associated with academic success, operationalized as grade point average (GPA) and course completion, among two male student populations within the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD): African American and white men. In order to determine the factors that are associated with academic success, two…

  6. Factors that Promote Progression in Schools Functioning as Professional Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leclerc, Martine; Moreau, Andre C.; Dumouchel, Catherine; Sallafranque-St-Louis, Francois

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify factors that influence the functioning of a school working as a Professional Learning Community (PLC) and to analyze the links between these factors and the school's progression. This research was developed within the context of an interpretative research paradigm. The primary data collection tool…

  7. An Analysis of Multiple Factors Affecting Retention in Web-Based Community College Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined four factors affecting retention in Web-based community college courses. Analyses were conducted on student demographics, student learning styles, course communication and external factors. The results suggest that Web-based courses are more attractive to busy students who are also more likely to fail or drop the course.…

  8. Perceptions of First-Time in College Community College Students Regarding Factors and Barriers for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Deana K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of first-generation first-time in college (FTIC) students who have completed a student success course (Learning Frameworks: First-Year Experience-EDUC 1300) at the community college level regarding (a) factors that enable them to succeed and (b) factors that are barriers to their success. A…

  9. Environmental and ecological factors that shape the gut bacterial communities of fish: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sullam, Karen E.; Essinger, Steven D.; Lozupone, Catherine A.; O’Connor, Michael P.; Rosen, Gail L.; Knight, Rob; Kilham, Susan S.; Russell, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria often help their hosts acquire nutrients from their diet, showing trends of co-evolution and independent acquisition by hosts from the same trophic levels. While these trends hint at important roles for biotic factors, the effects of the abiotic environment on symbiotic community composition remain comparably understudied. In this investigation, we examined the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on the gut bacterial communities of fish from different taxa, trophic levels and habitats. Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of 25 16S rRNA libraries revealed that salinity, trophic level and possibly host phylogeny shape the composition of fish gut bacteria. When analysed alongside bacterial communities from other environments, fish gut communities typically clustered with gut communities from mammals and insects. Similar consideration of individual phylotypes (vs. communities) revealed evolutionary ties between fish gut microbes and symbionts of animals, as many of the bacteria from the guts of herbivorous fish were closely related to those from mammals. Our results indicate that fish harbour more specialized gut communities than previously recognized. They also highlight a trend of convergent acquisition of similar bacterial communities by fish and mammals, raising the possibility that fish were the first to evolve symbioses resembling those found among extant gut fermenting mammals. PMID:22486918

  10. Effects of anthropogenic and demographic factors on patterns of parasitism in African small mammal communities.

    PubMed

    Salzer, Johanna S; Carroll, Darin S; Williams-Newkirk, Amanda Jo; Lang, Stefanie; Peterhans, Julian Kerbis; Rwego, Innocent B; Ockers, Sandra; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2015-03-01

    Habitat disturbance often results in alterations in community structure of small mammals. Additionally, the parasites harboured by these small mammals may be impacted by environmental changes or indirectly affected by changes in available hosts. To improve our understanding of this interplay, we examined the patterns of parasitism in small mammal communities from a variety of habitats in forested Uganda. Small mammals were collected from areas experiencing variable habitat disturbance, host density and species richness. The analysis focused on 3 most abundant rodent species, Lophuromys aquilus, Praomys jacksoni and Hylomyscus stella, and a diverse group of parasites they harbour. The impact of various habitat and host community factors on parasite prevalence was examined using linear regression and Spearman's rank-order correlation. We further investigated the parasite communities associated with each individual using correspondence analysis. We determined that, parasite prevalence and richness may be occasionally influenced by community and habitat factors, but taxonomy is a driving force in influencing the parasite community harboured by an individual host. Ultimately, applying general principles across a broad range of disturbance levels and diverse host communities needs to be approached with caution in complex communities. PMID:25262668

  11. [Team-based community psychiatry: importance of context factors and transferability of evidence from studies].

    PubMed

    Weinmann, S; Gühne, U; Kösters, M; Gaebel, W; Becker, T

    2012-07-01

    The German Society for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology (DGPPN) guidelines on psychosocial interventions for people with severe mental illness appraise the transferability of results of trials evaluating community-based mental health services to the German situation. This assessment has to draw on research results on factors determining effectiveness. This must be seen against the background of a lack of high-quality trials in Germany. The article discusses system, context and setting factors related to the transfer of evidence on community-based service models from other countries. These issues are discussed on the basis of evidence concerning the models of case management, assertive community treatment and community mental health teams. International differences in study findings are highlighted and the importance of treatment-as-usual in influencing study results is emphasized. The more control services including elements of community-based care there are and the less the pressure to reduce inpatient treatment (threshold to inpatient care admission), the smaller the relative effect sizes of innovative care models will be.In the absence of direct evidence, careful examination of transferability is required before introducing health care models. Research has revealed solid evidence for several factors influencing the effects of innovative community mental health care. Among key factors in the care of people with severe mental illness, home visits and joint team responsibility for both psychiatric and social care were identified. This evidence can facilitate the adaptation of successful mental health care models in Germany. PMID:22688090

  12. Land use and climatic factors structure regional patterns in soil microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Drenovsky, Rebecca E.; Steenwerth, Kerri L.; Jackson, Louise E.; Scow, Kate M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim Although patterns are emerging for macroorganisms, we have limited understanding of the factors determining soil microbial community composition and productivity at large spatial extents. The overall objective of this study was to discern the drivers of microbial community composition at the extent of biogeographical provinces and regions. We hypothesized that factors associated with land use and climate would drive soil microbial community composition and biomass. Location Great Basin Province, Desert Province and California Floristic Province, California, USA. Methods Using phospholipid fatty acid analysis, we compared microbial communities across eight land-use types sampled throughout the State of California, USA (n = 1117). Results The main factor driving composition and microbial biomass was land-use type, especially as related to water availability and disturbance. Dry soils were more enriched in Gram-negative bacteria and fungi, and wetter soils were more enriched in Gram-positive, anaerobic and sulphate-reducing bacteria. Microbial biomass was lowest in ecosystems with the wettest and driest soils. Disturbed soils had less fungal and more Gram-positive bacterial biomass than wildland soils. However, some factors known to influence microbial communities, such as soil pH and specific plant taxa, were not important here. Main conclusions Distinct microbial communities were associated with land-use types and disturbance at the regional extent. Overall, soil water availability was an important determinant of soil microbial community composition. However, because of the inclusion of managed and irrigated agricultural ecosystems, the effect of precipitation was not significant. Effects of environmental and management factors, such as flooding, tillage and irrigation, suggest that agricultural management can have larger effects on soil microbial communities than elevation and precipitation gradients. PMID:24443643

  13. Prediction of Low Community Sanitation Coverage Using Environmental and Sociodemographic Factors in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Oswald, William E; Stewart, Aisha E P; Flanders, W Dana; Kramer, Michael R; Endeshaw, Tekola; Zerihun, Mulat; Melaku, Birhanu; Sata, Eshetu; Gessesse, Demelash; Teferi, Tesfaye; Tadesse, Zerihun; Guadie, Birhan; King, Jonathan D; Emerson, Paul M; Callahan, Elizabeth K; Moe, Christine L; Clasen, Thomas F

    2016-09-01

    This study developed and validated a model for predicting the probability that communities in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, have low sanitation coverage, based on environmental and sociodemographic conditions. Community sanitation coverage was measured between 2011 and 2014 through trachoma control program evaluation surveys. Information on environmental and sociodemographic conditions was obtained from available data sources and linked with community data using a geographic information system. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of low community sanitation coverage (< 20% versus ≥ 20%). The selected model was geographically and temporally validated. Model-predicted probabilities of low community sanitation coverage were mapped. Among 1,502 communities, 344 (22.90%) had coverage below 20%. The selected model included measures for high topsoil gravel content, an indicator for low-lying land, population density, altitude, and rainfall and had reasonable predictive discrimination (area under the curve = 0.75, 95% confidence interval = 0.72, 0.78). Measures of soil stability were strongly associated with low community sanitation coverage, controlling for community wealth, and other factors. A model using available environmental and sociodemographic data predicted low community sanitation coverage for areas across Amhara Region with fair discrimination. This approach could assist sanitation programs and trachoma control programs, scaling up or in hyperendemic areas, to target vulnerable areas with additional activities or alternate technologies. PMID:27430547

  14. Factors influencing evidence-based practice for community nurses.

    PubMed

    Baird, Lisa M Garland; Miller, Tess

    2015-05-01

    Factors influencing the development of evidence-based nursing practice (EBNP) were examined in Prince Edward Island, Canada. An adapted electronic questionnaire was distributed to practicing registered nurses and nurse practitioners (n=68). An analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between nurses' clinical practice setting and the EBNP scale. Significant differences were also found between age and education level when compared with the EBNP subscales where novice nurses were less likely to rely on experience and intuition, and expert nurses with a higher level of education reported being more skilful at synthesising and applying information from research findings into their nursing practice. PMID:25993372

  15. Influence of geogenic factors on microbial communities in metallogenic Australian soils.

    PubMed

    Reith, Frank; Brugger, Joel; Zammit, Carla M; Gregg, Adrienne L; Goldfarb, Katherine C; Andersen, Gary L; DeSantis, Todd Z; Piceno, Yvette M; Brodie, Eoin L; Lu, Zhenmei; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Wakelin, Steven A

    2012-11-01

    Links between microbial community assemblages and geogenic factors were assessed in 187 soil samples collected from four metal-rich provinces across Australia. Field-fresh soils and soils incubated with soluble Au(III) complexes were analysed using three-domain multiplex-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and phylogenetic (PhyloChip) and functional (GeoChip) microarrays. Geogenic factors of soils were determined using lithological-, geomorphological- and soil-mapping combined with analyses of 51 geochemical parameters. Microbial communities differed significantly between landforms, soil horizons, lithologies and also with the occurrence of underlying Au deposits. The strongest responses to these factors, and to amendment with soluble Au(III) complexes, was observed in bacterial communities. PhyloChip analyses revealed a greater abundance and diversity of Alphaproteobacteria (especially Sphingomonas spp.), and Firmicutes (Bacillus spp.) in Au-containing and Au(III)-amended soils. Analyses of potential function (GeoChip) revealed higher abundances of metal-resistance genes in metal-rich soils. For example, genes that hybridised with metal-resistance genes copA, chrA and czcA of a prevalent aurophillic bacterium, Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, occurred only in auriferous soils. These data help establish key links between geogenic factors and the phylogeny and function within soil microbial communities. In particular, the landform, which is a crucial factor in determining soil geochemistry, strongly affected microbial community structures. PMID:22673626

  16. The associated factors to endometrial cavity fluid and the relevant impact on the IVF-ET outcome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Endometrial cavity fluid (ECF) is a fluid accumulation within the endometrial cavity. The significance of ECF remains unclear during the program of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). The aim of the present study was to investigate the associated factors to ECF, visualized through ultrasound at the day of oocyte retrieval, and the relevant impact on the outcome of IVF-ET. Methods From the clinical data of 1557 infertility patients for IVF-ET program, 46 ECF patients were retrospectively selected as the ECF group; and another 134 patients with a bilateral salpingectomy and without ECF, selected as the control group. The demographics and the outcome of IVF-ET were compared between the two groups. Results The incidence of ECF was 2.95% (46/1557). Over half (28/46, 60.87%) of ECF patients had tubal infertility. Only 12 Of 46 ECF patients (26.09%) had visible hydrosalpinx on ultrasonography before ovarian stimulation. The cycle cancellation rate (4/46, 8.69%) of ECF group was not significantly higher than that of the control group (6/134, 4.48%; P > 0.05). Reasons for cycle cancellation in both groups were all the high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). No significant difference was found in clinical pregnancy rate between the patients with their ECF <3.5 mm in the anterior-posterior diameter (APD) and the control group (35.48% versus 30.47%; P > 0.05). No clinical pregnancy was found among those patients with their ECF equal or higher 3.5 mm in APD. Conclusions It was tubal infertility, not hydrosalpinx, which was related to the development of ECF. Excessive ECF (equal or higher 3.5 mm in APD) at the day of oocyte retrieval would have a negative impact on the outcome of IVF-ET. PMID:20465847

  17. Factor Structure and Reliability of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales' (CTS2) 10-Factor Model in a Community-Based Female Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Sung Hyun

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the factor structure and reliability of the revised Conflict Tactics Scales' (CTS2) 10-factor model in a community-based female sample (N = 261). The underlying factor structure of the 10-factor model was tested by the confirmatory multiple group factor analysis, which demonstrated complex factor cross-loadings…

  18. Psychosocial factors associated with youth involvement in community activities promoting heart health.

    PubMed

    Altman, D G; Feighery, E; Robinson, T N; Haydel, K F; Strausberg, L; Lorig, K; Killen, J D

    1998-08-01

    This study examined factors that influence youth participation in heart disease prevention activities among 2,609 ninth graders in six inner-city public high schools. Constructs derived from social cognitive, empowerment, and community development theories informed the conceptual framework employed. Study participants were diverse with respect to gender, ethnicity, parent education, acculturation, and academic achievement. Perceived incentive value, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, sense of community, and perceived policy control were all significantly associated with participation in community activities promoting heart health. In multivariate analyses, perceived incentive value, defined as the extent to which participants valued a heart-healthy environment, was most strongly associated with community participation, accounting for 11.9% of the total variance. These findings have implications for designing school curricula and after-school and community programs targeting adolescents' involvement in health advocacy activities. PMID:9690106

  19. Temporal trends in earth-atmosphere system reflectance factor for sagebrush steppe vegetation communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, Laurence L.

    1987-01-01

    Four consecutive Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper acquisitions were used to examine trends in earth-atmosphere system reflectance factors of sagebrush steppe vegetation communities following soil moisture recharge from snow melt. Significant differences in trends between vegetation communities correspond to known differences in the initiation and duration of active vegetation growth. Information on short-term vegetation processes are a valuable supplement to estimates of total vegetation cover which can be obtained using satellite brightness images at less frequent temporal intervals.

  20. Factors Associated with Community Participation among Individuals Who Have Experienced Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Feng-Hang; Helfrich, Christine A.; Coster, Wendy J.; Rogers, E. Sally

    2015-01-01

    Community participation is an important goal for people who have experienced homelessness. The aim of this study was to use the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework to examine factors associated with community participation among people who are homeless or recently housed through housing programs. Participants (n = 120) recruited from six housing placement and search programs completed measures of community participation (including productivity, social and leisure, and community-services-use domains), psychiatric and physical symptoms, functional limitations, and a demographic form. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify predictors of overall community participation and subdomain scores. Results suggested that cognitive and mobility limitations, relationship status, and housing status significantly predicted both overall participation and participation in productivity and social and leisure subdomains. Participants who were housed through housing programs, who had cognitive and mobility limitations, and who were single showed less community participation. The findings suggest that activity limitations and environmental and personal factors may need to be addressed in efforts to enhance community participation in this population. PMID:26378558

  1. Factors that influence the beta-diversity of spider communities in northwestern Argentinean Grasslands.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Artigas, Sandra M; Ballester, Rodrigo; Corronca, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    Beta-diversity, defined as spatial replacement in species composition, is crucial to the understanding of how local communities assemble. These changes can be driven by environmental or geographic factors (such as geographic distance), or a combination of the two. Spiders have been shown to be good indicators of environmental quality. Accordingly, spiders are used in this work as model taxa to establish whether there is a decrease in community similarity that corresponds to geographic distance in the grasslands of the Campos & Malezales ecoregion (Corrientes). Furthermore, the influence of climactic factors and local vegetation heterogeneity (environmental factors) on assemblage composition was evaluated. Finally, this study evaluated whether the differential dispersal capacity of spider families is a factor that influences their community structure at a regional scale. Spiders were collected with a G-Vac from vegetation in six grassland sites in the Campos & Malezales ecoregion that were separated by a minimum of 13 km. With this data, the impact of alpha-diversity and different environmental variables on the beta-diversity of spider communities was analysed. Likewise, the importance of species replacement and nesting on beta-diversity and their contribution to the regional diversity of spider families with different dispersion capacities was evaluated. The regional and site-specific inventories obtained were complete. The similarity between spider communities declined as the geographic distance between sites increased. Environmental variables also influenced community composition; stochastic events and abiotic forces were the principal intervening factors in assembly structure. The differential dispersal capacity of spider groups also influenced community structure at a regional scale. The regional beta-diversity, as well as species replacement, was greater in high and intermediate vagility spiders; while nesting was greater in spiders with low dispersion

  2. Factors that influence the beta-diversity of spider communities in northwestern Argentinean Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Artigas, Sandra M.; Ballester, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Beta-diversity, defined as spatial replacement in species composition, is crucial to the understanding of how local communities assemble. These changes can be driven by environmental or geographic factors (such as geographic distance), or a combination of the two. Spiders have been shown to be good indicators of environmental quality. Accordingly, spiders are used in this work as model taxa to establish whether there is a decrease in community similarity that corresponds to geographic distance in the grasslands of the Campos & Malezales ecoregion (Corrientes). Furthermore, the influence of climactic factors and local vegetation heterogeneity (environmental factors) on assemblage composition was evaluated. Finally, this study evaluated whether the differential dispersal capacity of spider families is a factor that influences their community structure at a regional scale. Spiders were collected with a G-Vac from vegetation in six grassland sites in the Campos & Malezales ecoregion that were separated by a minimum of 13 km. With this data, the impact of alpha-diversity and different environmental variables on the beta-diversity of spider communities was analysed. Likewise, the importance of species replacement and nesting on beta-diversity and their contribution to the regional diversity of spider families with different dispersion capacities was evaluated. The regional and site-specific inventories obtained were complete. The similarity between spider communities declined as the geographic distance between sites increased. Environmental variables also influenced community composition; stochastic events and abiotic forces were the principal intervening factors in assembly structure. The differential dispersal capacity of spider groups also influenced community structure at a regional scale. The regional beta-diversity, as well as species replacement, was greater in high and intermediate vagility spiders; while nesting was greater in spiders with low dispersion

  3. Geogenic Factors as Drivers of Microbial Community Diversity in Soils Overlying Polymetallic Deposits.

    PubMed

    Reith, Frank; Zammit, Carla M; Pohrib, Rebecca; Gregg, Adrienne L; Wakelin, Steven A

    2015-11-01

    This study shows that the geogenic factors landform, lithology, and underlying mineral deposits (expressed by elevated metal concentrations in overlying soils) are key drivers of microbial community diversity in naturally metal-rich Australian soils with different land uses, i.e., agriculture versus natural bushland. One hundred sixty-eight soil samples were obtained from two metal-rich provinces in Australia, i.e., the Fifield Au-Pt field (New South Wales) and the Hillside Cu-Au-U rare-earth-element (REE) deposit (South Australia). Soils were analyzed using three-domain multiplex terminal-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (M-TRFLP) and PhyloChip microarrays. Geogenic factors were determined using field-mapping techniques and analyses of >50 geochemical parameters. At Fifield, microbial communities differed significantly with geogenic factors and equally with land use (P < 0.05). At Hillside, communities in surface soils (0.03- to 0.2-m depth) differed significantly with landform and land use (P < 0.05). Communities in deeper soils (>0.2 m) differed significantly with lithology and mineral deposit (P < 0.05). Across both sites, elevated metal contents in soils overlying mineral deposits were selective for a range of bacterial taxa, most importantly Acidobacteria, Bacilli, Betaproteobacteria, and Epsilonproteobacteria. In conclusion, long-term geogenic factors can be just as important as land use in determining soil microbial community diversity. PMID:26341204

  4. Community resilience factors among indigenous Sámi adolescents: a qualitative study in Northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Nystad, Kristine; Spein, Anna Rita; Ingstad, Benedicte

    2014-10-01

    This qualitative study explores community resilience factors within an indigenous Sámi community in Northern Norway. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 22 informants, 12 females and 10 males, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years old, 12 of whom had reindeer husbandry affiliation. Data analysis used a modified grounded theory approach and narrative analysis. Interpretation of the data was based on ecological perspectives theory and the identification of possible community resilience factors including Sámi language competence, use of recreational and natural resources, and traditional ecological knowledge, such as reindeer husbandry related activities. These cultural factors appear to strengthen adolescents' ethnic identity and pride, which in turn act as potential resilience mechanisms. Land was a significant arena for traditional practices and recreation. The majority of the youth reported support from relationships with extended godparents (fáddarat) and extended family (sohka) networks. The fáttar network was particularly strong among adolescents with reindeer husbandry affiliations. Native language competence and reindeer husbandry were key components in adolescent social networks. Interconnectedness among the community members and with the environment seemed to promote resilience and well-being. Two factors that excluded adolescents from full community membership and participation were being a nonnative Sámi language speaker and the absence of extended Sámi family networks. PMID:24846701

  5. Geogenic Factors as Drivers of Microbial Community Diversity in Soils Overlying Polymetallic Deposits

    PubMed Central

    Zammit, Carla M.; Pohrib, Rebecca; Gregg, Adrienne L.; Wakelin, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    This study shows that the geogenic factors landform, lithology, and underlying mineral deposits (expressed by elevated metal concentrations in overlying soils) are key drivers of microbial community diversity in naturally metal-rich Australian soils with different land uses, i.e., agriculture versus natural bushland. One hundred sixty-eight soil samples were obtained from two metal-rich provinces in Australia, i.e., the Fifield Au-Pt field (New South Wales) and the Hillside Cu-Au-U rare-earth-element (REE) deposit (South Australia). Soils were analyzed using three-domain multiplex terminal-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (M-TRFLP) and PhyloChip microarrays. Geogenic factors were determined using field-mapping techniques and analyses of >50 geochemical parameters. At Fifield, microbial communities differed significantly with geogenic factors and equally with land use (P < 0.05). At Hillside, communities in surface soils (0.03- to 0.2-m depth) differed significantly with landform and land use (P < 0.05). Communities in deeper soils (>0.2 m) differed significantly with lithology and mineral deposit (P < 0.05). Across both sites, elevated metal contents in soils overlying mineral deposits were selective for a range of bacterial taxa, most importantly Acidobacteria, Bacilli, Betaproteobacteria, and Epsilonproteobacteria. In conclusion, long-term geogenic factors can be just as important as land use in determining soil microbial community diversity. PMID:26341204

  6. Factors affecting screening for diabetic complications in the community: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to identify the factors that affect screening for diabetic complications by sex in the community. METHODS: This study used individual-level data from the 2013 Community Health Survey (CHS) for 20,806 (male, 9,958; female, 10,848) adults aged 30 years or older who were diagnosed with diabetes. Community-level data for 253 communities were derived from either CHS or national statistics. A chi-square test and multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the rate of screening for diabetic complications according to individual-level and community-level variables. In the multilevel analysis, the community-level variance ratio of the null model was 7.4% and 9.2% for males and females, respectively. With regard to community-level variables, males were affected by the city type, number of physicians, and their living environment, while females were affected by number of physicians, natural and living environments, and public transportation. CONCLUSIONS: The factors that influenced individual willingness to undergo screening for diabetic complications differed slightly by sex; however, both males and females were more likely to undergo screening when they recognized their health status as poor or when they actively sought to manage their health conditions. Moreover, in terms of community-level variables, both males and females were affected by the number of physicians. It is essential to provide sufficient and ongoing opportunities for education on diabetes and its management through collaboration with local communities and primary care medical centers. PMID:27156347

  7. [Shrimp community structure and its influential factors in the Jiaojiang River estuary during spring and autumn].

    PubMed

    Qi, Hai-Ming; Sun, Yue; Xu, Zhao-Li; Sun, Lu-Feng; Gao, Qian; Que, Jiang-Long; Tian, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Based on the data from two oceanographic surveys during April and October 2010, the spatial and seasonal variations in composition, dominance, and diversity of shrimp communities, as well as the influential factors in the Jiaojiang River estuary were analyzed. A total of 16 species of shrimp were found, which belonged to 12 families under 8 genera. 14 species of shrimp were found in spring (April) and 12 species in autumn (October). With the employment of index of relative importance (IRI), in spring 6 dominant species were identified, as Acetes chinensis, Alpheus distinguendus, Parapenaeopsis hardwickii, Leptochela gracilis, Alpheus juponicus and Palaemon gravieri, and in autumn 3 dominant species were found as Solenocera crassicornis, Parapenaeopsis hardwickii and Metapenaeus joyneri. Eurythermal and eurysaline shrimp community prevailed in the Jiaojiang River estuary, followed by eurythermal and hyposaline shrimp community. Margalef index (D), Shannon index (H) and Pielou's evenness index were used to evaluate the diversity of shrimp community in the studied area. The stations with higher value of D and H were mainly located in the west of the Dachen Island, whereas the Pielou's evenness index was stable all across the Jiaojiang River estuary. By hierarchical cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) method, the results indicated that shrimp communities had significant seasonal and spatial variations. Depth was the most important factor that affected variations in the shrimp community structure in the Jiaojiang River estuary. PMID:24697077

  8. GIS as a community engagement tool: developing a plan to reduce infant mortality risk factors.

    PubMed

    Detres, Maridelys; Lucio, Robert; Vitucci, Judi

    2014-07-01

    This article describes how a community coalition focusing on maternal and child health engages community participation through the use of geographic information systems (GIS) mapping, developing strategies that culminate in the implementation of a service delivery plan to improve birth outcomes. Vital statistics data from 2007 to 2009 was analyzed by zip code in Pinellas County Florida to produce choropleth thematic maps using ArcGIS for 3 year rolling average infant deaths and single year percentages for prematurity. The maps were presented at the organization's annual coalition meeting to discuss risk areas, changes over time in the selected indicators and solicit community feedback on how to best target issues addressing infant mortality and prematurity. The maps identified new zip codes of concern for prematurity in addition to known high risk zip codes for both infant mortality and prematurity. The community identified changes in demographic composition and changes in housing patterns, such as new mobile home areas, in the high risk areas. In response, the community assisted the Coalition in developing a holistic plan addressing risk factors affecting birth outcomes by expanding current services, hiring a nutritionist, and contracting a health navigator. When compared to tables and charts, a visual depiction of a neighborhood by recognizable zip codes is a useful tool to help community decision makers better visualize public health concerns and interpret trends based on local knowledge. Public health professionals should use this community knowledge to interpret research results and implement strategies to improve birth outcomes. PMID:23934057

  9. Verrucomicrobial community structure and abundance as indicators for changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Soares, Tielle; Rossetto, Raffaella; van Veen, Johannes Antonie; Tsai, Siu Mui; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya

    2015-09-01

    Here we show that verrucomicrobial community structure and abundance are extremely sensitive to changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint and real-time quantitative PCR assay were used to analyze changes in verrucomicrobial communities associated with contrasting soil nutrient conditions in tropical regions. In case study Model I ("Slash-and-burn deforestation") the verrucomicrobial community structures revealed disparate patterns in nutrient-enriched soils after slash-and-burn deforestation and natural nutrient-poor soils under an adjacent primary forest in the Amazonia (R = 0.819, P = 0.002). The relative proportion of Verrucomicrobia declined in response to increased soil fertility after slash-and-burn deforestation, accounting on average, for 4 and 2 % of the total bacterial signal, in natural nutrient-poor forest soils and nutrient-enriched deforested soils, respectively. In case study Model II ("Management practices for sugarcane") disparate patterns were revealed in sugarcane rhizosphere sampled on optimal and deficient soil fertility for sugarcane (R = 0.786, P = 0.002). Verrucomicrobial community abundance in sugarcane rhizosphere was negatively correlated with soil fertility, accounting for 2 and 5 % of the total bacterial signal, under optimal and deficient soil fertility conditions for sugarcane, respectively. In nutrient-enriched soils, verrucomicrobial community structures were related to soil factors linked to soil fertility, such as total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sum of bases, i.e., the sum of calcium, magnesium and potassium contents. We conclude that community structure and abundance represent important ecological aspects in soil verrucomicrobial communities for tracking the changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility under tropical environmental conditions. PMID:26184407

  10. Evaluation for Community-Based Programs: The Integration of Logic Models and Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helitzer, Deborah; Hollis, Christine; de Hernandez, Brisa Urquieta; Sanders, Margaret; Roybal, Suzanne; Van Deusen, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss the utility of and value of the use of logic models for program evaluation of community-based programs and more specifically, the integration of logic models and factor analysis to develop and revise a survey as part of an effective evaluation plan. Principal results: Diverse stakeholders with varying outlooks used a logic…

  11. Learning Innovative Maternal Instinct: Activity Designing Semantic Factors of Alcohol Modification in Rural Communities of Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yodmongkol, Pitipong; Jaimung, Thunyaporn; Chakpitak, Nopasit; Sureephong, Pradorn

    2014-01-01

    At present, Thailand is confronting a serious problem of alcohol drinking behavior which needs to be solved urgently. This research aimed to identify the semantic factors on alcohol drinking behavior and to use maternal instinct driving for housewives as village health volunteers in rural communities, Thailand. Two methods were implemented as the…

  12. Factors Moderating Children's Adjustment to Parental Separation: Findings from a Community Study in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Helen; Dunn, Judy; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Golding, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Research findings show that there is marked variability in children's response to parental separation, but few studies identify the sources of this variation. This prospective longitudinal study examines the factors modifying children's adjustment to parental separation in a community sample of 5,635 families in England. Children's…

  13. The Evolution of a Teacher Community of Practice: Identifying Facilitating and Constraining Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a larger, qualitative study that explored the potential of a school-based teacher community of practice as a model for a transformative form of teacher professional development. This paper reports on initial findings from a grounded theory exploration of the factors that facilitated and constrained the evolution…

  14. Community Violence, School-Related Protective Factors, and Psychosocial Outcomes in Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Kristy A.; Warren, Jared S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of two putative school-based protective factors--student identification with school and perceived teacher support--to psychosocial outcomes in a sample of urban youth exposed to community violence. Participants were 175 high school students ages 14-19 in grades 9-12 from a large urban school district. Results…

  15. Examining the Factors Influencing Participants' Knowledge Sharing Behavior in Virtual Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Irene Y. L.; Chen, Nian-Shing; Kinshuk

    2009-01-01

    Increasing organizations and educational institutions have implemented virtual learning communities to encourage knowledge sharing. However, this task can not be accomplished simply by grouping people together and telling them "sharing your knowledge will make you learn better". This research attempts to examine the factors influencing knowledge…

  16. SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY FACTORS IN EMPLOYMENT SUCCESS OF TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL COURSE GRADUATES. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALTMAN, JAMES W.; MORRISON, EDWARD J.

    THE STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO (1) IDENTIFY SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY FACTORS RELATED TO THE PLACEMENT AND EMPLOYMENT SUCCESS OF TRADE AND INDUSTRY COURSE GRADUATES FROM VOCATIONAL AND COMPREHENSIVE PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS, AND (2) DEVELOP BROAD RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF THE PLACEMENT AND EMPLOYMENT PERFORMANCE OF SCHOOLS. SELECTED FROM A PREVIOUS…

  17. Factors Influencing the Integration of Technology by Community College Adjunct Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paver, Jonathan David

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the factors that predict intention to integrate technology into instruction by community college adjunct faculty. For this study the integration of technology was defined as beyond simple occasional use, within the next academic year. The decomposed theory of planned behavior was tested for its predictive ability with this…

  18. Student Perceptions of Factors Contributing to Community-College-to-University Transfer Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gard, Dwight R.; Paton, Valerie; Gosselin, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The transfer process includes areas such as academic preparation and advisement, transfer evaluation, financial aid, and psychosocial factors. A descriptive, exploratory method was employed to capture the perceptions of a transfer student cohort regarding their experiences in transitioning from lower division community college enrollment to…

  19. Community Violence Exposure and Adolescent Delinquency: Examining a Spectrum of Promotive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Pan; Voisin, Dexter R.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether promotive factors (future expectations, family warmth, school attachment, and neighborhood cohesion) moderated relationships between community violence exposure and youth delinquency. Analyses were conducted using N = 2,980 sixth to eighth graders (M[subscript age] = 12.48; 41.1% males) from a racially, ethnically, and…

  20. Factors Affecting Academic Outcomes of Underprepared Community College Students. AIR 1999 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, J. Charles

    This study examined the factors affecting the four-year academic performance and outcomes of 1,249 underprepared students at Prince George's Community College (Maryland). The fall 1994 freshmen required remediation in reading, writing, or mathematics. Subjects were defined as achievers if, by summer 1998, they had earned a degree or certificate…

  1. Factors to be Considered: Overlapping Communities of Inquiry and a Knowledge-Building Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Richard; Lamon, Mary

    This paper describes a 4-month discourse in Computer Supported Intentional Learning Environment (CSILE) databases and the resulting classroom curriculum to identify potential factors for consideration when implementing a knowledge-building environment utilizing overlapping communities of inquiry. The study was part of a larger study of fifth and…

  2. Women Chief Academic Officers of Public Community Colleges: Career Paths and Mobility Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenney, Cynthia B.

    This study investigates the career paths and mobility factors of female chief academic officers (CAOs) in public community colleges. Analysis revealed the most significant predictors for the career paths to be entry port, number of higher education positions held, and the first prior position held. Gender did not significantly influence mobility…

  3. Factors Contributing to the Upward Transfer of Baccalaureate Aspirants Beginning at Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueli

    2012-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with the upward transfer of baccalaureate aspirants beginning at community colleges. Based on data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 and the Postsecondary Education Transcript Study, a sequential logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict bachelor's degree-seeking community…

  4. Measuring the Accountability of CTE Programs: Factors that Influence Postcollege Earnings among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Kenneth J.; Starobin, Soko S.; Laanan, Frankie Santos; Friedel, Janice N.

    2012-01-01

    In this study specific factors were examined to determine their ability to influence fifth-year earnings of community college students in the Manufacturing/Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) career cluster and the Arts/Audiovisual/Technology/ Communication career cluster. State and national data sets from Iowa's Management…

  5. Team Factors that Predict to Sustainability Indicators for Community-Based Prevention Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Johnson, Lesley E.; Chilenski, Sarah Meyer; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.; Spoth, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Because they often set out with a guarantee of only short-term funding, many community partnerships will face a threat to their sustainability almost as soon as the first money runs out. Research into the factors that enable some coalitions and partnerships to meet the challenge when others fail is limited. This study begins to fill this gap in…

  6. Connecting Vulnerable Children and Families to Community-Based Programs Strengthens Parents' Perceptions of Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Marcia; Joslyn, Allison; Wojton, Morella; O'Reilly, Mairead; Dworkin, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    We employed principles from a nationally recognized prevention model on family support to investigate whether connecting vulnerable children to community-based programs and services through a statewide intervention system, the "Help Me Grow" program, strengthens parents' perceptions of protective factors. We used a parent survey modeled…

  7. Amotivation: Factors Influencing Motivation and Persistence of Students Enrolled in a Community College Developmental Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Kerri D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this two-part qualitative study was to examine the factors associated with developmental education student persistence at a 2-year college. The population for this study included 63 students that were currently taking at least one developmental education course at a community college in Northern Kentucky. The initial data collection…

  8. Critical Success Factors for the North Carolina Community College System, 1993. Fourth Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh. Div. of Planning and Research Services.

    The data presented in this report are indicators of the level of success of the North Carolina Community College System as measured by student outcomes and the extent to which the system addresses the needs of the state. Where possible, 5-year data are presented. Seven critical factors are examined: (1) student success, evidenced by the number of…

  9. Impact of Environmental Factors on Community Participation of Persons with an Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdonschot, Manon M. L.; de Witte, L. P.; Reichrath, E.; Buntinx, W. H. E.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design: A systematic review of the literature. Objectives: To describe which environmental factors have an impact on community participation of persons with an intellectual disability. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted for the period of 1996-2006 in Pubmed, CINAHL and PSYCINFO. Search terms were derived from the…

  10. New evidence of risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Almirall, J; Bolíbar, I; Serra-Prat, M; Roig, J; Hospital, I; Carandell, E; Agustí, M; Ayuso, P; Estela, A; Torres, A

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), with special emphasis on modifiable risk factors and those applicable to the general population. A population-based, case-control study was conducted, with a target population of 859,033 inhabitants aged >14 yrs. A total of 1,336 patients with confirmed CAP were matched to control subjects by age, sex and primary centre over 1 yr. In the univariate analysis, outstanding risk factors were passive smoking in never-smokers aged >65 yrs, heavy alcohol intake, contact with pets, households with >10 people, contact with children, interventions on the upper airways and poor dental health. Risky treatments included amiodarone, N-acetylcysteine and oral steroids. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccine, and visiting the dentist were protective factors. Multivariable analysis confirmed cigarette smoking, usual contact with children, sudden changes of temperature at work, inhalation therapy (particularly containing steroids and using plastic pear-spacers), oxygen therapy, asthma and chronic bronchitis as independent risk factors. Interventions for reducing community-acquired pneumonia should integrate health habits and lifestyle factors related to household, work and community, together with individual clinical conditions, comorbidities and oral or inhaled regular treatments. Prevention would include vaccination, dental hygiene and avoidance of upper respiratory colonisation. PMID:18216057