Science.gov

Sample records for community peer counsellors

  1. Peer Collaboration: A Model to Support Counsellor Self-Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Constance A.; Phelan, Anne M.

    2007-01-01

    In the context of a larger case study on how continuous learning in the workplace could be achieved through the implementation of peer collaboration, the process of how counsellors engaged in self-care within a large health care organization became clearer. This article is based on data derived from a qualitative analysis of nine transcribed…

  2. Components of genetic counsellor education: A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature.

    PubMed

    Ingvoldstad, C; Seven, M; Taris, N; Cordier, C; Paneque, M; Skirton, H

    2016-04-01

    The need for appropriately trained genetic counsellors to support genetic healthcare is now acknowledged. However, while programmes for education of genetic counsellors exist in a number of countries, these do not conform to any specific international standards. As genetic techniques, educational standards and professional standards have been evolved, and with increasing mobility of genetic counsellors, it is of great importance to have some comparison of education and training between different countries. This systematic review was conducted to determine the components of educational programmes for genetic counsellors worldwide that have been published in peer-reviewed literature. Databases were searched for studies published in English from 2000 to 2014 related to the topic. We identified 406 potential papers, of these, 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings indicate that, in most cases, the theoretical components of genetic counsellor programmes conform to the recommendations and requirements of relevant professional bodies. However, clinical preparation of genetic counsellors in real-life professional practice settings seems to be less well addressed as this is essential to ensure genetic counsellors are able to provide safe patient care after graduation. Further work to gain agreement internationally on genetic counsellor education is needed. PMID:26452349

  3. Using lay counsellors to promote community-based voluntary counselling and HIV testing in rural northern Ghana: a baseline survey on community acceptance and stigma.

    PubMed

    Baiden, F; Akanlu, G; Hodgson, A; Akweongo, P; Debpuur, C; Binka, F

    2007-09-01

    Access to voluntary counselling and HIV testing (VCT) remains limited in most parts of Ghana with rural populations being the least served. Services remain facility-based and employ the use of an ever-dwindling number of health workers as counsellors. This study assessed approval for the use of lay counsellors to promote community-based voluntary counselling and testing for HIV and the extent of HIV/AIDS-related stigma in the Kassena-Nankana district of rural northern Ghana. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of the tendency to stigmatize people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Focus group discussions were held and analytical coding of the data performed. The majority (91.1%) of the 403 respondents indicated a desire to know their HIV status. Most (88.1%) respondents considered locations outside of the health facility as preferred places for VCT. The majority (98.7%) of respondents approved the use of lay counsellors. About a quarter (24%) of respondents believed that it was possible to acquire HIV through sharing a drinking cup with a PLWHA. About half (52.1%) of the respondents considered that a teacher with HIV/AIDS should not be allowed to teach, while 77.2% would not buy vegetables from a PLWHA. Respondents who believed that sharing a drinking cup with a PLWHA could transmit HIV infection (OR 2.50, 95%CI 1.52-4.11) and respondents without formal education (OR 2.94, 95%CI 1.38-6.27) were more likely to stigmatize PLWHAs. In contrast, respondents with knowledge of the availability of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs were less likely to do so (OR 0.40, 95%CI 0.22-0.73). Findings from the thirteen focus group discussions reinforced approval for community-based VCT and lay counsellors but revealed concerns about stigma and confidentiality. In conclusion, community-based VCT and the use of lay counsellors may be acceptable options for promoting access. Interventional studies are required to assess

  4. Utilizing Peer Mentor Roles in Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieske, Laura Jo; Benjamin, Mimi

    2015-01-01

    For a number of learning community programs, peer mentors provide an additional layer of staffing support. This chapter highlights peer mentor roles from a sample of programs and suggests important components for the construction of these roles.

  5. Counsellor Education: A Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, William L.; Marks, Stephen E.

    1972-01-01

    This article examines the nature and impact of paradoxical situations in counsellor education. The counsellor educator and trainee are the focus for defining and then examining these dilemmas. (Author)

  6. Peer Groups in Evolution: Inventing Classroom Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Elizabeth

    It can be very difficult for writers to invent classroom communities, to share their writing; it can be especially difficult for anxious young writers who have never before worked in peer groups. Student participation is largely influenced by gender roles shaped by years of socialization. Teachers should not be startled by less female…

  7. Not on Our Backs: Supporting Counsellors in Navigating the Ethics of Multiple Relationships within Queer, Two Spirit, and/or Trans Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Bethan; MacFarlane, Devon A.; Reynolds, Vikki A.; Anderson, Harlene D.

    2013-01-01

    Professional ethical guidelines commonly advise counsellors to avoid dual relationships wherever possible but generally have not provided guidance for situations where this is not feasible. This leaves queer, Two Spirit, and/or trans counsellors open to negative judgements, possible accusations of unprofessionalism, and practices of…

  8. Peer Leadership in School and Community Alcohol Prevention Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komro, Kelli A.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Veblen-Mortenson, Sara; Williams, Carolyn L.; Roel, Joseph P.

    1999-01-01

    Describes peer leadership components within a community-wide trial to prevent alcohol use and related youth problems. Seventh and eighth graders could be elected or volunteer as peer leaders. Surveys indicated that at baseline, both types of leaders had fewer problem behaviors than non-peer leaders. Following the 7th-grade curriculum, alcohol use…

  9. Peer Learning Community Guide. CEELO FastFact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilder, Diane; Brown, Kirsty Clarke; Gillaspy, Kathi

    2014-01-01

    States and technical assistance centers have asked the Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) for guidance on establishing and maintaining a peer learning community (PLC). This document is designed to delineate the steps to establish and sustain a Peer Learning Community (PLC). It begins with a definition of a PLC and then presents…

  10. Providing interoperability of eHealth communities through peer-to-peer networks.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Ozgur; Dogac, Asuman; Eichelberg, Marco

    2010-05-01

    Providing an interoperability infrastructure for Electronic Healthcare Records (EHRs) is on the agenda of many national and regional eHealth initiatives. Two important integration profiles have been specified for this purpose, namely, the "Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) Cross-enterprise Document Sharing (XDS)" and the "IHE Cross Community Access (XCA)." IHE XDS describes how to share EHRs in a community of healthcare enterprises and IHE XCA describes how EHRs are shared across communities. However, the current version of the IHE XCA integration profile does not address some of the important challenges of cross-community exchange environments. The first challenge is scalability. If every community that joins the network needs to connect to every other community, i.e., a pure peer-to-peer network, this solution will not scale. Furthermore, each community may use a different coding vocabulary for the same metadata attribute, in which case, the target community cannot interpret the query involving such an attribute. Yet another important challenge is that each community may (and typically will) have a different patient identifier domain. Querying for the patient identifiers in the target community using patient demographic data may create patient privacy concerns. In this paper, we address each of these challenges and show how they can be handled effectively in a superpeer-based peer-to-peer architecture. PMID:20403793

  11. Classroom Community and Peer Culture in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lash, Martha

    2008-01-01

    This study reflects a naturalistic, interpretive 5-month study in a public school morning kindergarten regarding the children's social development and creation of a peer culture during the transitional months into public education. The main focus of the research was the children's perspectives on these transitions and their evolving classroom…

  12. Assisting Problem Gamblers in the Gaming Venue: A Counsellor Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hing, Nerilee; Nuske, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Governments now recognise gambling as a social and public health issue that invites a collaborative approach to responsible gambling and help-seeking involving the gambling industry, gambling help agencies and the wider community. In this paper, we report on findings from interviews with 23 counsellors working in Queensland Gambling Help agencies…

  13. Effective Clinical Supervision for Professional School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberman, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    A long-standing problem for practising professional school counsellors is the lack of clinical supervision. Many school counsellors receive supervision from inadequate sources, such as principals and guidance directors, who often lack training and experience in the field of counselling. School counsellors are more skilled in assisting students…

  14. Health related virtual communities and electronic support groups: systematic review of the effects of online peer to peer interactions

    PubMed Central

    Eysenbach, Gunther; Powell, John; Englesakis, Marina; Rizo, Carlos; Stern, Anita

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compile and evaluate the evidence on the effects on health and social outcomes of computer based peer to peer communities and electronic self support groups, used by people to discuss health related issues remotely. Design and data sources Analysis of studies identified from Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Evidence Based Medicine Reviews, Electronics and Communications Abstracts, Computer and Information Systems Abstracts, ERIC, LISA, ProQuest Digital Dissertations, Web of Science. Selection of studies We searched for before and after studies, interrupted time series, cohort studies, or studies with control groups; evaluating health or social outcomes of virtual peer to peer communities, either as stand alone interventions or in the context of more complex systems with peer to peer components. Main outcome measures Peer to peer interventions and co-interventions studied, general characteristics of studies, outcome measures used, and study results. Results 45 publications describing 38 distinct studies met our inclusion criteria: 20 randomised trials, three meta-analyses of n of 1 trials, three non-randomised controlled trials, one cohort study, and 11 before and after studies. Only six of these evaluated “pure” peer to peer communities, and one had a factorial design with a “peer to peer only” arm, whereas 31 studies evaluated complex interventions, which often included psychoeducational programmes or one to one communication with healthcare professionals, making it impossible to attribute intervention effects to the peer to peer community component. The outcomes measured most often were depression and social support measures; most studies did not show an effect. We found no evidence to support concerns over virtual communities harming people. Conclusions No robust evidence exists of consumer led peer to peer communities, partly because most peer to peer communities have been evaluated only in conjunction with more complex interventions or

  15. Counsellors becoming Counsellor Educators: A New Zealand Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocket, Kathie; Kotze, Elmarie

    2012-01-01

    The international literature on adjunct faculty in higher education, including professional education, does not yet cover counsellor education in particular, although many programmes rely on the teaching services of experienced practitioners in adjunct faculty positions. This article reports on a small, exploratory study conducted with adjunct…

  16. Guidance Counsellor Strategies for Handling Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power-Elliott, Michleen; Harris, Gregory E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory-descriptive study was to examine how guidance counsellors in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador would handle a specific verbal-relational bullying incident. Also of interest was guidance counsellor involvement and training in bullying programmes and Positive Behaviour Supports. Data for this study was…

  17. An Interpretive Account of Counsellor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Using a hermeneutic approach to inquiry, the author interviewed 8 counsellors in training to gain an understanding of the question, "How do counsellors in training develop, and how do they make sense of what they are doing/what is happening to them?" Their accounts were integrated into a single emerging story that captures their experience and the…

  18. Ethical Considerations of Social Networking for Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, William Edgar Vernon

    2010-01-01

    The use of online social networking websites has increased among Canadians in recent years. There are many professional and ethical implications for counsellors who use these sites (Boyd, 2007). Although they offer advantages to counsellors, their use can also raise issues around ethical conduct. Because the counselling literature has not yet…

  19. Ethics in Counsellor Education: A Sample Orientation Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Ruth Bergen

    2009-01-01

    This project draws attention to ethics in counsellor education, showing that ethics is critical to the formation of new counsellors, not simply an add-on component in counsellor training. This project demonstrates that beginning counsellors, before they commence employment, must have a strong ethical foundation. It examines both formal counsellor…

  20. Cancer Screening Among Peer-Led Community Wellness Center Enrollees.

    PubMed

    Rockson, Lois E; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Pratt, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests health disparities exist in services for individuals with mental disorders served by the public mental health system. The current study assessed the use of cancer screening services among New Jersey residents in publicly funded mental health programs. Self-administered written surveys were completed by 148 adults using peer-led community wellness centers throughout New Jersey. Information was collected on (a) the use of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening services; (b) barriers to receiving preventive services; and (c) perceptions of overall health. More males than females participated in the study, with equal participation among White and African American individuals. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders were the most common self-reported psychiatric condition. Colorectal cancers had lower screening levels compared to those of the general population. Physicians not advising patients to complete tests emerged as a main cause of low screening rates. Wellness initiatives designed by peers collaborating with health care providers may improve adherence to preventive cancer screening measures. PMID:26935189

  1. Violent Victimization in the Community and Children's Subsequent Peer Rejection: The Mediating Role of Emotion Dysregulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Brynn M.; Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Nakamoto, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a short-term longitudinal study of the relation between violent victimization in the community and peer rejection among 199 children (mean age = 9.02 years) attending two urban Los Angeles area elementary schools. We used a multi-informant approach to assess victimization by community violence, peer group victimization, peer…

  2. Peer Counselling Empowerment and Ethical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakaria, Noor Syamilah

    2007-01-01

    Peer counselling empowerment entails specific considerations of the training process as peer counsellors. Specific issues related to such empowerment are discussed in light of the counselling profession. Subsequently, ethical considerations pertaining to peer counselling such as confidentiality, dual relationships, competency and vicarious…

  3. Psychological Counseling Processes of Prospective Psychological Counsellors: An Investigation of Client-Counsellor Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanberk, Ismail; Akbas, Turan

    2015-01-01

    The general purpose of this study is to investigate the client-counsellor interaction in the psychological counseling process at the verbal behavior level. The study also aims to analyze the relationship between the behaviors observed in the process with both clients and counsellors' evaluations of sessions and whether changes were observed in…

  4. School Counsellors Working with Immigrant Pupils: Changes in Their Approaches after 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Counselling culturally diverse populations poses several challenges for mental health professionals in schools as well as the wider community. In 1998, the author interviewed counsellors working in Israeli schools, and categorised their approaches to immigrant pupils in four broad categories: culturally encapsulated assimilator, self-facilitator,…

  5. Making Teaching Community Property: A Menu for Peer Collaboration and Peer Review. AAHE Teaching Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchings, Pat

    A collection of program descriptions and case studies in college faculty peer collaboration and peer review includes: "Setting a Scholarly Tone: Teaching Circles in the History Department at Kent State University"; "Fostering Collective Responsibility for Student Learning: Teaching Seminars in the University of North Carolina at Charlotte…

  6. Teaching Functional Community Skills to Autistic Children Using Nonhandicapped Peer Tutors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blew, Priscilla A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Two autistic children (8 and 5 years old) were paired with normal peers who, after pretraining sessions, taught community skills to the autistic children. Results demonstrated that no identified skills were acquired during baseline and modeling conditions. However, direct instruction of each child by a peer tutor resulted in learning and…

  7. Counsellors Respond to the DSM-IV-TR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Tom; Gaete, Joaquin; Sametband, Ines N.; French, Jared; Eeson, Jen

    2012-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) is an administrative fact for many counsellors. This psychiatric approach to formulating client concerns runs counter to those used by counsellors of many approaches (e.g., systemic, feminist). Using an online survey of counsellors (N = 116), invited contributions to a website…

  8. Confidentiality and Informed Consent: School Counsellors' Perceptions of Ethical Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Ron; Lehr, Andria; Sumarah, John

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the findings of in-depth interviews with school counsellors in Nova Scotia on issues related to confidentiality and informed consent. Of the 224 school counsellors in the province, 43 counsellors, representing all school boards, agreed to a 45-minute semi-structured telephone interview focusing on their current practices…

  9. The Challenge of Prejudice: Counsellors' Talk about Challenging Clients' Prejudices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spong, Sheila J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the implications for training and practice of counsellors' responses to the notion of challenging clients' prejudices. It explores tensions in counselling discourse between social responsibility, responsibility to the client and responsibility for one's self as counsellor. Three focus groups of counsellors were asked whether a…

  10. Utilizing Urban Women as Peer Trainers in Behavioral Community Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Linda P.

    Many more people are in need of rehabilitation, social services, and education than there are professionals available to provide help. This gap in service has led to the exploration and utilization of nonprofessionals to fill these roles. Many of these nonprofessionals are peers of the needy people. This adds the advantage of "peer relationships"…

  11. Peer education for advance care planning: volunteers’ perspectives on training and community engagement activities

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Jane E; Almack, Kathryn; Kennedy, Sheila; Froggatt, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Background Peer education by volunteers may aid attitudinal change, but there is little understanding of factors assisting the preparation of peer educators. This study contributes to conceptual understandings of how volunteers may be prepared to work as peer educators by drawing on an evaluation of a training programme for peer education for advance care planning (ACP). Objectives To report on volunteers’ perspectives on the peer education training programme, their feelings about assuming the role of volunteer peer educators and the community engagement activities with which they engaged during the year after training. To examine broader implications for peer education. Design Participatory action research employing mixed methods of data collection. Participants Twenty-four older volunteers and eight health and social care staff. Data collection methods Evaluative data were gathered from information provided during and at the end of training, a follow-up survey 4 months post-training; interviews and focus groups 6 and 12 months post-training. Findings Volunteers’ personal aims ranged from working within their communities to using what they had learnt within their own families. The personal impact of peer education was considerable. Two-thirds of volunteers reported community peer education activities 1 year after the training. Those who identified strongly with a community group had the most success. Conclusion We reflect on the extent to which the programme aided the development of ‘critical consciousness’ among the volunteers: a key factor in successful peer education programmes. More research is needed about the impact on uptake of ACP in communities. PMID:21615641

  12. Governing through community allegiance: a qualitative examination of peer research in community-based participatory research

    PubMed Central

    Guta, Adrian; Flicker, Sarah; Roche, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The disappointing results of many public health interventions have been attributed in part to the lack of meaningful community engagement in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of these initiatives. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative research paradigm that directly involves community members in all aspects of the research process. Their involvement is often said to be an empowering experience that builds capacity. In this paper, we interrogate these assumptions, drawing on interview data from a qualitative study investigating the experiences of 18 peer researchers (PRs) recruited from nine CBPR studies in Toronto, Canada. These individuals brought to their respective projects experience of homelessness, living with HIV, being an immigrant or refugee, identifying as transgender, and of having a mental illness. The reflections of PRs are compared to those of other research team members collected in separate focus groups. Findings from these interviews are discussed with an attention to Foucault's concept of ‘governmentality’, and compared against popular community-based research principles developed by Israel and colleagues. While PRs spoke about participating in CBPR initiatives to share their experience and improve conditions for their communities, these emancipatory goals were often subsumed within corporatist research environments that limited participation. Overall, this study offers a much-needed theoretical engagement with this popular research approach and raises critical questions about the limits of community engagement in collaborative public health research. PMID:24273389

  13. Governing through community allegiance: a qualitative examination of peer research in community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Guta, Adrian; Flicker, Sarah; Roche, Brenda

    2013-12-01

    The disappointing results of many public health interventions have been attributed in part to the lack of meaningful community engagement in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of these initiatives. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative research paradigm that directly involves community members in all aspects of the research process. Their involvement is often said to be an empowering experience that builds capacity. In this paper, we interrogate these assumptions, drawing on interview data from a qualitative study investigating the experiences of 18 peer researchers (PRs) recruited from nine CBPR studies in Toronto, Canada. These individuals brought to their respective projects experience of homelessness, living with HIV, being an immigrant or refugee, identifying as transgender, and of having a mental illness. The reflections of PRs are compared to those of other research team members collected in separate focus groups. Findings from these interviews are discussed with an attention to Foucault's concept of 'governmentality', and compared against popular community-based research principles developed by Israel and colleagues. While PRs spoke about participating in CBPR initiatives to share their experience and improve conditions for their communities, these emancipatory goals were often subsumed within corporatist research environments that limited participation. Overall, this study offers a much-needed theoretical engagement with this popular research approach and raises critical questions about the limits of community engagement in collaborative public health research. PMID:24273389

  14. Mobilizing Lithuanian Health Professionals as Community Peer Leaders for AIDS Prevention: An International Primary Health Care Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norr, Kathleen F.; McElmurry, Beverly J.; Slutas, Frances M.; Christiansen, Carol D.; Misner, Susan J.; Marks, Beth A.

    2001-01-01

    Using primary health care and peer leadership models, U.S. nurses trained Lithuanian health professionals as community peer leaders in AIDS prevention. A national continuing education program is in place to sustain the initiative in Lithuania. (SK)

  15. Building Social Capital Through a Peer-Led Community Health Workshop: A Pilot with the Bhutanese Refugee Community.

    PubMed

    Im, Hyojin; Rosenberg, Rachel

    2016-06-01

    Despite the high health and mental health care needs, resettled refugees often face cultural and linguistic challenges that hinder the access to appropriate and timely interventions and services. Additionally, such concepts as preventive health or mental health treatment are foreign to this population, which creates additional burdens to the refugee community that already have difficulty navigating a complex health care system in the U.S. To address multiple and complex gaps in health and mental health support for the refugee community, requested is an innovative approach that can convey culturally responsive and effective interventions for health promotion, such as peer-based health education. Few studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of peer-led community health interventions with refugee populations in the U.S. resettlement context. However, peer-led interventions have been shown to be effective when working with cultural minorities and interventions in an international context. Adopting a social capital framework, the current study conducted qualitative evaluation on the impact of a pilot peer-led community health workshop (CHW) in the Bhutanese refugee community. A hybrid thematic analysis of focus group discussion data revealed the improvement in health promotion outcomes and health practice, as well as perceived emotional health. The results also showed that the peer-led CHW provided a platform of community building and participation, while increasing a sense of community, sense of belonging and unity. The findings posit that a peer-led intervention model provides culturally responsive and effective tools for building social capital and promoting community health in the refugee community. PMID:26578350

  16. Investigating a Peer-to-Peer Community Service Learning Model for LIS Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Heather L.; Freund, Luanne; Jantzi, Leanna; Sinanan, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    This research explores the professionalization of Library and Information Science (LIS) students who participated in a peer-tutoring service, "Research Rescue." Research Rescue was a collaboration of the Chapman Learning Commons and the School of Library, Archival and Information Studies (SLAIS) at the University of British Columbia. The…

  17. Career Counsellors and Suicide Risk Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popadiuk, Natalee Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Recent discussions suggest that career counsellors need to be trained in more holistic frameworks in order to deal with the career and psychological issues of their clients. In particular, research shows a strong connection between employment and suicidality, including changes in socioeconomic status, disruption in employment, sudden unemployment,…

  18. Problematic Internet Use: Perceptions of Addiction Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acier, Didier; Kern, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing number of publications on problematic Internet use (PIU), there is no consensus on the nature of the phenomenon, its constituent criteria, and its clinical threshold. This qualitative study examines the perceptions of addiction counsellors who have managed individuals with PIU in Quebec (Canada). Four focus groups were conducted…

  19. Academic Procrastination: The Perspective of University Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrzek, Justine; Grunschel, Carola; Fries, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antecedents and consequences of academic procrastination in students who frequent university counselling in regard to this issue. To undertake this, semi-structured interviews with 12 experienced university counsellors in German universities were conducted. A qualitative content analysis resulted in…

  20. Peer Assisted Learning in Fleximode: Developing an Online Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huijser, Henk; Kimmins, Lindy; Evans, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests that peer-assisted learning schemes on campus help students establish social networks which can have a positive influence on their learning achievements. At the University of Southern Queensland (USQ), the majority of students are off campus, which raises the urgent question: how to harness the advantages of Meet-Up (formerly…

  1. Parents and peer group as mediators of the effect of community structure on adolescent problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Simons, R L; Johnson, C; Beaman, J; Conger, R D; Whitbeck, L B

    1996-02-01

    Used a sample of 207 single-parent families residing in 104 small, Midwestern communities to test hypotheses regarding the link between community context and adolescent conduct problems and psychological distress. For boys, community disadvantage had a direct affect on psychological distress, while it indirectly boosted the probability of conduct problems by disrupting parenting and increasing affiliation with deviant peers. Community disadvantage was unrelated to the deviant behavior or emotional well-being of girls. Proportion of single-parent households in the community had a direct effect on girls' conduct problems. It also contributed indirectly to girls' conduct problems by increasing the probability of involvement with deviant peers. Possible explanations for these gender differences are provided. PMID:8712184

  2. Critical Social Network Analysis in Community Colleges: Peer Effects and Credit Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González Canché, Manuel S.; Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses the importance of conducting critical social network analysis (CSNA) in higher education. To illustrate the benefits of CSNA, the authors use existing institutional data to examine peer effects in community colleges. The chapter ends with a discussion of the implications of using a CSNA approach to measure inequities in…

  3. New Zealand Youth Benefit from Being Connected to Their Family, School, Peer Group and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Paul E.; Pryor, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Data were obtained from about 1,700 New Zealand adolescents annually for three years to assess their connectedness to family, school, peer group and community as well as other indicators of adolescent functioning. Key results were that a sense of connection predicted better psychological wellbeing over time; in turn, wellbeing predicted higher…

  4. (Re)Defining Masculinity through Peer Interactions: Latino Men in Texas Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sáenz, Victor B.; Mayo, Jeff R.; Miller, Ryan A.; Rodriguez, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a phenomenological approach to examine how Latino male students at community colleges engage with their male peers. The analysis utilizes a male gender role conflict (MGRC) framework and employs cultural conceptions of masculinity, specifically machismo and caballerismo. Practitioners and researchers might leverage positive aspects…

  5. Implementation of Peer-Assisted Learning in an Intermediate Algebra Course at a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to determine how peer-assisted learning (PAL) could be implemented to support improved academic achievement, persistence, and attitudes toward math for community college students in an intermediate developmental algebra course. Students in two sections of an intermediate algebra course, with an…

  6. Israeli Counsellors Facing Terrorism: Coping and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Hellman, Shoshana

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined the characteristics and functioning of 12 Israeli school counsellors located at different stages of professional development who worked in schools affected by terrorist attacks. Semi-structured interviews explored the counsellors professional behaviour, activities, and coping with terror and its effects. Consensual…

  7. School Counsellors' Involvement in the Process of Inclusion in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erhard, Rachel; Umanksy, Tami

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to identify variables affecting the attitudes and involvement of school counsellors in the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular classrooms. The sample included 220 primary and middle school counsellors in Israel. Two specially constructed questionnaires (i.e., the Involvement in Inclusion Questionnaire…

  8. Turkish School Counsellors and Counselling Students' Knowledge of Adolescent Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyez, Digdem Müge; Bas, Asli Uz

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the knowledge of Turkish high school counsellors and counselling students about adolescence suicide. The sample consisted of 71 school counsellors and 82 third and fourth year psychology counselling students who completed the Adolescent Suicide Behavior Questionnaire. The results showed that although…

  9. A Narrative Study of Counsellors' Understandings of Inuit Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wihak, Christine; Merali, Noorfarah

    2005-01-01

    Eight non-Indigenous counsellors who temporarily lived in Nunavut to serve Inuit clients were interviewed regarding what they learned about Inuit spirituality during their cultural immersion experience. They were also asked about how they applied their understandings of the Inuit spiritual worldview in their professional practice. Counsellors'…

  10. Principals' Perceptions of the School Counsellor Role in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghamdi, Nawal G.; Riddick, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Many factors in Saudi society have led to a need for counselling services in educational institutions. However, concerns remain that the role of school counsellors in that setting is unclear. An aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of principals concerning the actual and ideal role of intermediate girls school counsellors in Saudi…

  11. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson "et al." ("Counsellor Education & Supervision" 41: 120-130, 1992) was…

  12. A peer-driven mentoring case management community reentry model: an application for jails and prisons.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Earl H; Warner-Robbins, Carmen; McClean, Christopher; Macatula, Liza; Conklin, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Welcome Home Ministries (WHM) is a peer-driven reentry program for women reentering the community from jail and prison. One of the major contributing factors to a high recidivism rate is the presenting issue of co-occurring disorders stemming from early childhood abuse and trauma found in 85% of the women seeking the assistance of WHM. The peers within WHM, having experienced mental health issues, substance abuse, and incarceration themselves, identified and developed a specific reentry program for this population. This article presents the results of a yearlong study that addresses the following: (1) the issue of co-occurring disorders; (2) the impact of early childhood trauma and abuse on the rate of incarceration; (3) the outcomes for restoration and recovery; and (4) the desire of the women to give back to the community. PMID:19752632

  13. Peer-Mentored Preparedness (PM-Prep): A New Disaster Preparedness Program for Adults Living Independently in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenman, David Paul; Bazzano, Alicia; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Tseng, Chi-hong; Lewis, Mary-Ann; Lamb, Kerry; Lehrer, Danise

    2014-01-01

    The authors studied a health promotion program called PM-Prep (Peer-Mentored Prep), which was designed to improve disaster preparedness among adults living independently in the community. PM-Prep consists of four 2-hour classes co-taught by a health educator and peer-mentors. Adults were randomly assigned to an experimental arm or a wait-list…

  14. An Examination of Peer, Family, and Community Context Risk Factors for Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Intentions in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nargiso, Jessica E.; Friend, Karen; Florin, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between peer, family, and community context risk factors and alcohol use; gender is examined as a potential moderator of these relationships. Hierarchical logistic regressions conducted in a sample of 781 seventh grade students found that normative beliefs about peers' alcohol use emerged as the most…

  15. ADHD Symptoms and Peer Relations of Children in a Community Sample: Examining Associated Problems, Self-Perceptions, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Henricsson, Lisbeth; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2005-01-01

    This study examined children's peer relations in relation to gender, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), associated behaviour problems, prosociality, and self-perceptions, in a community sample. Six hundred and thirty-five 12-year-old children (314 girls) provided peer nominations and rated feelings of loneliness and…

  16. Peer Support for Diabetes Management in Primary Care and Community Settings in Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xuefeng; Wang, Zhimin; Fisher, Edwin B.; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We evaluated a peer leader–support program (PLSP) for diabetes self-management in China in terms of acceptability and feasibility; implementation; perceived advantages; disadvantages and barriers; reach and recruitment; effectiveness in terms of diabetes knowledge and clinical impacts; adoption; and sustainability. METHODS Within each of 3 cities in Anhui Province, 2 subcommunities were randomly assigned to usual care or PLSP. Peer leaders and staff of Community Health Service Centers (CHSCs) co-led biweekly educational meetings. Peer leaders also led biweekly discussion meetings, promoted regular care through the CHSCs, organized informal health promotion activities (eg, walking and tai chi groups), and provided informal individual support to participants through casual contact. RESULTS Qualitative evaluations indicated acceptance of and positive responses to the program among patients, peer leaders, and CHSC staff. Implementation was successful in 2 of 3 subcommunities, the third failing for lack of staff resources. Reported advantages included peer support as a bridge between CHSCs and their patients. In 2 sites where the PLSP was implemented, analyses controlling for baseline differences and site showed significant benefits for PLSP relative to controls (P <0.05) for knowledge, self-efficacy, BMI, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and both fasting and 2-hour post-prandial blood glucose. The Anhui Provincial Health Bureau has extended the PLSP model to other communities and to cardiovascular disease prevention and management. CONCLUSION The PLSP was well accepted, feasible given sufficient administrative and staff resources, effective for those who participated, and generalizable to other sites and health problems. PMID:26304972

  17. Peer Mentoring Communities of Practice for Early and Mid-Career Faculty: Broad Benefits from a Research-Oriented Female Peer Mentoring Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Amanda; Shaw, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    In light of recent interest in the limitations of early and mid-career mentoring (Driscoll et al 2009; Trowers 2011), this case study of a women's scholarly activity and goal setting Community of Practice (CoP) indicates that such groups can offer extensive peer mentoring at one teaching-oriented state university in the United States. Using a…

  18. PeerGAD: a peer-review-based and community-centric web application for viewing and annotating prokaryotic genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    D’Ascenzo, Mark D.; Collmer, Alan; Martin, Gregory B.

    2004-01-01

    PeerGAD is a web-based database-driven application that allows community-wide peer-reviewed annotation of prokaryotic genome sequences. The application was developed to support the annotation of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 genome sequence and is easily portable to other genome sequence annotation projects. PeerGAD incorporates several innovative design and operation features and accepts annotations pertaining to gene naming, role classification, gene translation and annotation derivation. The annotator tool in PeerGAD is built around a genome browser that offers users the ability to search and navigate the genome sequence. Because the application encourages annotation of the genome sequence directly by researchers and relies on peer review, it circumvents the need for an annotation curator while providing added value to the annotation data. Support for the Gene Ontology™ vocabulary, a structured and controlled vocabulary used in classification of gene roles, is emphasized throughout the system. Here we present the underlying concepts integral to the functionality of PeerGAD. PMID:15184545

  19. Exposure to Violence in the Community Predicts Friendships with Academically Disengaged Peers During Middle Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, David; Kelly, Brynn M; Mali, Luiza V; Duong, Mylien T

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents who have been exposed to violence in the community often experience subsequent difficulties with academic achievement. Because competence in the classroom is a salient developmental task during the adolescent years, outcomes in this critical context can then have broader implications for social and psychological functioning. In the current study, we tested a hypothesized progression in which the association between violence exposure and deficient achievement is presumed to potentiate friendships with academically disengaged peers. We followed 415 urban adolescents (53 % girls; average age of 14.6 years) for a one-year period, with two annual assessment of psychosocial functioning. Exposure to violence in the community and academic engagement were assessed with a self-report inventory; reciprocated friendships were assessed with a peer interview; and achievement was indexed based on a review of school records. Consistent with our hypotheses, neighborhood violence was associated with deficient classroom achievement. Poor achievement, in turn, mediated associations between community violence exposure and low academic engagement among friends. Our findings highlight pathways though which exposure to community violence potentially predicts later dysfunction. PMID:27138174

  20. Effectiveness of a peer-support community in addiction recovery: participation as intervention.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, Rosemary A; Martin, Linda M; Grosek, Maria; Clarie, Anna June

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to determine whether a peer-support community programme would reduce relapse rates among clients recovering from substance addictions and homelessness and result in increased perceived community affiliation, supportive behaviours, self-determination and quality of life. Mixed methods were utilized including semi-structured interviews, participant observation and a pretest/post-test to evaluate changes on the quality of life rating, the Medical Outcomes Study-Social Support Survey, and the Volitional Questionnaire. Data from the prior year's permanent supportive housing programme were used for comparison of relapse rates. Significant reduction of risk of relapse was found in clients who participated in the programme. Significant differences were found on three subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study-Social Support Survey. Improvement that did not reach statistical significance was seen on the quality of life rating. Qualitative evidence supported improvements in perceived community affiliation and supportive behaviours.Evidence suggests that a peer-supported community programme focused on self-determination can have a significant positive impact on recovery from substance addictions and homelessness. Limitations include a small sample size and lack of a randomized control group. PMID:18844242

  1. Community-Based Health Programmes: Role Perceptions and Experiences of Female Peer Facilitators in Mumbai's Urban Slums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcock, Glyn A.; More, Neena Shah; Patil, Sarita; Porel, Maya; Vaidya, Leena; Osrin, David

    2009-01-01

    Community-based initiatives have become a popular approach to addressing the health needs of underserved populations, in both low- and higher-income countries. This article presents findings from a study of female peer facilitators involved in a community-based maternal and newborn health intervention in urban slum areas of Mumbai. Using…

  2. Peer-supported diabetes prevention program for Turkish- and arabic-speaking communities in australia.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Nabil; Hadj, Elaine; Hussein, Amal; Young, Doris

    2013-01-01

    In Australia, type 2 diabetes and prediabetes are more prevalent in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities than mainstream Australians. Purpose. To develop, implement, and evaluate culturally sensitive peer-supported diabetes education program for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in high-risk middle-aged Turkish- and Arabic-speaking people. Methods. A two-day training program was developed. Ten bilingual peer leaders were recruited from existing health and social networks in Melbourne and were trained by diabetes educators. Each leader recruited 10 high-risk people for developing diabetes. Questionnaires were administered, and height, weight, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and three months after the intervention. The intervention comprised two 2-hour group sessions and 30 minutes reinforcement and support telephone calls. Results. 94 individuals (73% women) completed the program. Three months after the program, the participants' mean body weight (before = 78.1 kg, after = 77.3; Z score = -3.415, P = 0.001) and waist circumference (Z = -2.569, P = 0.004) were reduced, their diabetes knowledge was enhanced, and lifestyle behaviours were significantly improved. Conclusions. A short diabetes prevention program delivered by bilingual peers was associated with improved diabetes awareness, changed lifestyle behaviour, and reduction in body weight 3 months after intervention. The findings are encouraging and should stimulate a larger control-designed study. PMID:24959573

  3. Effect of women’s groups and volunteer peer counselling on rates of mortality, morbidity, and health behaviours in mothers and children in rural Malawi (MaiMwana): a factorial, cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lewycka, Sonia; Mwansambo, Charles; Rosato, Mikey; Kazembe, Peter; Phiri, Tambosi; Mganga, Andrew; Chapota, Hilda; Malamba, Florida; Kainja, Esther; Newell, Marie-Louise; Greco, Giulia; Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Vergnano, Stefania; Osrin, David; Costello, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Women’s groups and health education by peer counsellors can improve the health of mothers and children. We assessed their effects on mortality and breastfeeding rates in rural Malawi. Methods We did a 2×2 factorial, cluster-randomised trial in 185 888 people in Mchinji district. 48 equal-sized clusters were randomly allocated to four groups with a computer-generated number sequence. 24 facilitators guided groups through a community action cycle to tackle maternal and child health problems. 72 trained volunteer peer counsellors made home visits at five timepoints during pregnancy and after birth to support breastfeeding and infant care. Primary outcomes for the women’s group intervention were maternal, perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality rates (MMR, PMR, NMR, and IMR, respectively); and for the peer counselling were IMR and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rates. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered as ISRCTN06477126. Findings We monitored outcomes of 26 262 births between 2005 and 2009. In a factorial model adjusted only for clustering and the volunteer peer counselling intervention, in women’s group areas, for years 2 and 3, we noted non-significant decreases in NMR (odds ratio 0·93, 0·64–1·35) and MMR (0·54, 0·28–1·04). After adjustment for parity, socioeconomic quintile, and baseline measures, effects were larger for NMR (0·85, 0·59–1·22) and MMR (0·48, 0·26–0·91). Because of the interaction between the two interventions, a stratified analysis was done. For women’s groups, in adjusted analyses, MMR fell by 74% (0·26, 0·10–0·70), and NMR by 41% (0·59, 0·40–0·86) in areas with no peer counsellors, but there was no effect in areas with counsellors (1·09, 0·40–2·98, and 1·38, 0·75–2·54). Factorial analysis for the peer counselling intervention for years 1–3 showed a fall in IMR of 18% (0·82, 0·67–1·00) and an improvement in EBF rates (2·42, 1·48–3·96). The

  4. Conduits from community violence exposure to peer aggression and victimization: contributions of parental monitoring, impulsivity, and deviancy.

    PubMed

    Low, Sabina; Espelage, Dorothy

    2014-04-01

    Community violence exposure results in heightened risk for engaging in and being a victim of interpersonal violence. Despite this robust literature, few studies have specifically examined how the relation between community violence exposure, peer aggression, and victimization is modified by individual, peer, and familial influences (considered jointly). In the current study, we used risk and resiliency theory to examine links between community violence exposure and peer aggression and victimization. Impulsivity and parental monitoring were examined as potential moderators of the link between community violence exposure and outcomes, both directly and indirectly via deviant behavior. Survey data on bullying involvement, fighting, deviancy, parental monitoring, and impulsivity were collected on 3 occasions over an 18-month period among a large cohort of adolescents (N = 1,232) in 5th-7th grades. Structural equation modeling suggests that for both male and female adolescents, impulsivity exacerbates the effects of community violence exposure by increasing involvement in deviant behavior. Parental monitoring buffered the effects of community violence exposure on perpetration and victimization (for males and female adolescents) via reduced involvement in deviant behavior. Findings suggest that impulsivity and parental monitoring are implicated in modifying the effects of community violence exposure on both victimization and perpetration through deviancy, although deviancy is not as potent of a predictor for victimization. Thus, prevention efforts would seem to be optimally targeted at multiple ecological levels, including parental involvement and peer networks. PMID:24635595

  5. Teaching doctors to treat doctors: medical student peer counselling.

    PubMed

    Spiro, J H; Roenneburg, M; Maly, B J

    1980-01-01

    Physicians' emotional problems need to be recognized and treated. Intervention and prevention in this problem area have been attempted at the Medical College of Wisconsin through a programme of peer counselling designed to teach student physicians how to recognize and treat emotional difficulties faced by their peers. During the 18 months that the programme has been in operation, 20 peer counsellors reported a total 1,185 hours spent in counselling their peers, lending credence to the speculation that doctors will turn to their peers for help if, in medical school, there is acceptance of fallibility and responsiveness on the part of peers. PMID:24475990

  6. Genetic professionals' views on genetic counsellors: a French survey.

    PubMed

    Cordier, Christophe; Taris, Nicolas; Moldovan, Ramona; Sobol, Hagay; Voelckel, Marie-Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    The genetic counselling profession was established in France in 2004. Eight years later, 122 genetic counsellors have graduated from the unique educational French program which awards the Professional Master Degree of Human Pathology, entitled "Master of Genetic Counselling and Predictive Medicine". As part of a global evaluation of this new profession by health genetic professionals, we undertook a national survey investigating various aspects such as employment, work responsibilities and integration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the views of genetic professionals on the genetic counsellors' role. Of 422 French professionals invited to take part in this study, 126 participated. The survey underlines that this profession is significantly recognized by physicians practicing within genetics departments. French genetic counsellors are allowed to manage consultations independently, without the necessary presence of a qualified medical geneticist but under his or her responsibility. Genetic counsellors participate in a wide range of consultations. They provide both information for relevant and for genetic testing and sometimes disclose the genetic test result to patient. Eventually, the role of genetic counsellors appears to be directly dependent from the relationship of trust between the two health professions. PMID:26280995

  7. The acceptability, feasibility and impact of a lay health counsellor delivered health promoting schools programme in India: a case study evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies in resource-limited settings have shown that there are constraints to the use of teachers, peers or health professionals to deliver school health promotion interventions. School health programmes delivered by trained lay health counsellors could offer a cost-effective alternative. This paper presents a case study of a multi-component school health promotion intervention in India that was delivered by lay school health counsellors, who possessed neither formal educational nor health provider qualifications. Methods The intervention was based on the WHO’s Health Promoting Schools framework, and included health screening camps; an anonymous letter box for student questions and complaints; classroom-based life skills training; and, individual psycho-social and academic counselling for students. The intervention was delivered by a lay school health counsellor who had attained a minimum of a high school education. The counsellor was trained over four weeks and received structured supervision from health professionals working for the implementing NGO. The evaluation design was a mixed methods case study. Quantitative process indicators were collected to assess the extent to which the programme was delivered as planned (feasibility), the uptake of services (acceptability), and the number of students who received corrective health treatment (evidence of impact). Semi-structured interviews were conducted over two years with 108 stakeholders, and were analysed to identify barriers and facilitators for the programme (feasibility), evaluate acceptability, and gather evidence of positive or negative effects of the programme. Results Feasibility was established by the high reported coverage of all the targeted activities by the school health counsellor. Acceptability was indicated by a growing number of submissions to the students’ anonymous letter-box; more students self-referring for counselling services over time; and, the perceived need for the

  8. Beyond the Primary Influences of Parents and Peers on Very Young Adolescent Alcohol Use: Evidence of Independent Community Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dayna T.; Kelly, Adrian B.; Chan, Gary C. K.; Toumbourou, John W.; Patton, George C.; Williams, Joanne W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which young adolescent alcohol use was related to alcohol-related norms and law enforcement of underage alcohol use, after accounting for known strong parent and peer correlates. Our sample consisted of 7,674 students (X-bar age = 12 years) from 30 Australian communities. Two-level (individuals nested within…

  9. Peer Interaction and Social Network Analysis of Online Communities with the Support of Awareness of Different Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Mai, Li-Jung; Lai, Yung-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies related to social-context awareness (SA) and knowledge-context awareness (KA) argued that each (SA or KA) can individually enhance peer interaction in an online learning community, other studies reached opposite conclusions. These conflicting findings likely stem from different experimental settings. Most importantly, few…

  10. Multilevel Modeling of Direct Effects and Interactions of Peers, Parents, School, and Community Influences on Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayberry, Megan L.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Koenig, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a social-ecological model of adolescent substance use. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate how systems, such as parents, peers, schools, and communities, directly influence and interact together to influence adolescent substance use. Participants included 14,548 (50.3% female) middle school students who were 78.6% White,…

  11. International Students in Transnational Mobility: Intercultural Connectedness with Domestic and International Peers, Institutions and the Wider Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Ly Thi; Pham, Lien

    2016-01-01

    International students' connectedness with their peers, institutions and the broader community significantly affects their learning and wellbeing. It is important to understand their multiple desires for intercultural connectedness in order to nurture it. This paper analyses the motives and nature of international students' intercultural…

  12. EFL Arab Learners' Peer Revision of Writing in a Facebook Group: Contributions to Written Texts and Sense of Online Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razak, Norizan Abdul; Saeed, Murad Abdu

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated peer writing revision among English as foreign language (EFL) Arab students in a Facebook group. Specifically, it aimed to identify the text revisions made by the learners and to determine their contributions to the learners' written texts and sense of online community outside the college classroom context.…

  13. Attitudes about violence and involvement in peer violence among youth: findings from a high-risk community.

    PubMed

    Ali, Bina; Swahn, Monica H; Sterling, Kymberle L

    2011-12-01

    Peer violence perpetration and victimization are the most common types of violence among youth. This study determined the associations among violent attitudes toward peers, involvement in peer violence perpetration, and experience with peer violence victimization among boys and girls in a high-risk, urban community. Analyses were based on data from the 2004 Youth Violence Survey, which was administered to over 80% of public school students in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N = 4,131) in a disadvantaged, urban, school district in the USA. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the associations between attitudes in support of violence and involvement in violent behaviors. Results show that among youth, attitudes supporting boys hitting boys significantly increased the odds of peer violence perpetration after controlling for potential confounders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07, 1.72). However, stratified analyses for boys and girls show that attitudes supporting boys hitting boys increased the odds of peer violence perpetration for girls only after controlling for potential confounders (AOR, 1.49; 95% CI = 1.05, 2.13). The findings demonstrate that there are important differences between boys and girls in terms of their associations with violent attitudes and involvement in actual violent behaviors. However, additional research is needed to determine how attitude modifications can be incorporated into youth violence prevention programs. PMID:21785901

  14. An Online Peer Assisted Learning Community Model and its Application in ZJNU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaofeng, Ruan; Yeyu, Lin

    2007-01-01

    Peer coaching, or peer assisting, was established in 1970s by Joyce and Showers. Initially used in teachers' professional development, it refers to a process that two or more teacher peers evaluate current practice mutually; expand skills, extract and build new skills; share ideas, and review & solve problems of classroom teaching in a way of…

  15. Preparing Counsellors for Interprofessional Collaboration through Supervision and Lateral Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Nancy; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly

    2010-01-01

    Interprofessional collaboration is emerging as a best practice in health care. For counsellors to work effectively alongside professionals from other disciplines, they need to be educated about the value of collaborative practice and the roles, responsibilities, and expertise that they bring to interprofessional teams. Supervision practices in…

  16. Roles and Competencies of Academic Counsellors in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Sanjaya

    2005-01-01

    Academic counsellors or tutors are engaged as a link between learners and distance teaching institutions. They perform various roles such as facilitating learning of subject matter content, assessing assignments, providing motivation and encouragement, and supervising research/term papers/project work. Each of these roles requires specific…

  17. Counsellors' Personal Experience and Appraisal of "My Career Chapter"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlveen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated a qualitative career assessment and counselling procedure that was founded upon a constructivist, narrative approach to career counselling, "My Career Chapter: A Dialogical Autobiography" (McIlveen, 2006). Counsellors were trained in the use of the procedure and then applied it to themselves in an intensive workshop format.…

  18. Practical Strategies for School Counsellor Leadership: The Leadership Challenge Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillingford, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    It is crucial to the progression of the school counselling profession that counsellors-in-training receive the training, knowledge, and practice in leadership that they need to counter systemic challenges that they may face. Effective leadership practices have been shown in research to be instrumental in promoting program delivery success in the…

  19. An Holistic Approach for Counsellors: Embracing Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Rosslyn; O'Brien, Patrick John

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores a range of therapeutic modalities used by counsellors of children and positions those modalities within Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Research by O'Brien ("Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence and its implications for the counselling of children." Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of…

  20. Adversarial Growth in Telephone Counsellors: Psychological and Environmental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Julian; Whelan, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the level of adversarial growth among telephone counsellors, and to examine the influence of psychological and environmental factors on growth. In particular, the effect of compassion fatigue, empathy, environmental support and calls per shift on posttraumatic growth was assessed. Sixty-four telephone…

  1. Professional Characteristics of Canadian Counsellors: Results of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazzola, Nicola; Smith, J. David; Kearney, M. Kate; King-Andrews, Heather L.

    2010-01-01

    With statutory regulation of mental health professions clearly at the forefront in many Canadian jurisdictions, counselling appears to be experiencing internal tensions regarding its vision and direction. The goal of this study was to collect data directly from Canadian counsellors to more clearly define the current practices of counselling in…

  2. Ethical Dilemmas of Turkish Counsellors: A Critical Incidents Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivis-Cetinkaya, Rahsan

    2015-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas from a national purposive sample of Turkish counsellors (N = 172) were collected using critical incidents technique. Content analysis was performed with open coding guided by the classification of American Counseling Association code of ethics. Incidents regarding confidentiality and privacy (56.4%), with 37.1% involving incidents…

  3. A Peer-led Diabetes Education Program in a Homeless Community to Improve Diabetes Knowledge and Empowerment.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sage; Keep, Suzanne; Edie, Alison; Couzens, Suzan; Pereira, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Peer-led diabetes education has been shown to be as effective, or more effective, than traditional education in improving glycemic control and diabetes self-care measures. A 4-week peer-led diabetes education program was conducted in a homeless community in Grand Rapids, Michigan to increase diabetes knowledge and empowerment. Knowledge scores increased significantly during sessions covering signs, symptoms, and complications of diabetes and diabetes medications (ps <.05). Empowerment scores after attending the 4-week program were significantly increased when compared to scores prior to the first session (p = .027). Field notes and postimplementation focus group support increased empowerment and knowledge among participants. PMID:27074403

  4. Empowering the people: Development of an HIV peer education model for low literacy rural communities in India

    PubMed Central

    Van Rompay, Koen KA; Madhivanan, Purnima; Rafiq, Mirriam; Krupp, Karl; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Selvam, Durai

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite ample evidence that HIV has entered the general population, most HIV awareness programs in India continue to neglect rural areas. Low HIV awareness and high stigma, fueled by low literacy, seasonal migration, gender inequity, spatial dispersion, and cultural taboos pose extra challenges to implement much-needed HIV education programs in rural areas. This paper describes a peer education model developed to educate and empower low-literacy communities in the rural district of Perambalur (Tamil Nadu, India). Methods From January to December 2005, six non-governmental organizations (NGO's) with good community rapport collaborated to build and pilot-test an HIV peer education model for rural communities. The program used participatory methods to train 20 NGO field staff (Outreach Workers), 102 women's self-help group (SHG) leaders, and 52 barbers to become peer educators. Cartoon-based educational materials were developed for low-literacy populations to convey simple, comprehensive messages on HIV transmission, prevention, support and care. In addition, street theatre cultural programs highlighted issues related to HIV and stigma in the community. Results The program is estimated to have reached over 30 000 villagers in the district through 2051 interactive HIV awareness programs and one-on-one communication. Outreach workers (OWs) and peer educators distributed approximately 62 000 educational materials and 69 000 condoms, and also referred approximately 2844 people for services including voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), care and support for HIV, and diagnosis and treatment of sexually-transmitted infections (STI). At least 118 individuals were newly diagnosed as persons living with HIV (PLHIV); 129 PLHIV were referred to the Government Hospital for Thoracic Medicine (in Tambaram) for extra medical support. Focus group discussions indicate that the program was well received in the communities, led to improved health awareness, and also

  5. Counsellor Education as Humanist Colonialism: Seeking Post-Colonial Approaches to Educating Counsellors by Exploring Pathways to an Indigenous Aesthetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Randolph

    2008-01-01

    This narrative reflection emerged during a time of personally reconnecting with Mi'kmaq First Nation culture and heritage while working in the mainstream roles of counsellor educator and educationalist in Australia. The essay expresses turning points along a path of increasing political and social discomfort with the status quo in counsellor…

  6. Peer-mentored preparedness (PM-Prep): a new disaster preparedness program for adults living independently in the community.

    PubMed

    Eisenman, David Paul; Bazzano, Alicia; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Lewis, Mary-Ann; Lamb, Kerry; Lehrer, Danise

    2014-02-01

    The authors studied a health promotion program called PM-Prep (Peer-Mentored Prep), which was designed to improve disaster preparedness among adults living independently in the community. PM-Prep consists of four 2-hour classes co-taught by a health educator and peer-mentors. Adults were randomly assigned to an experimental arm or a wait-list control arm. Earthquake safety knowledge and preparedness supplies were assessed prior to the intervention and at 1 month after the intervention (N  =  82). Adults in the experimental arm significantly increased preparedness by 19 percentage points, from 56% to 75% completed (p < .0001), and improved their knowledge by 8 percentage points, from 79% to 87% correct (p  =  .001). This is the first peer-mentored, targeted, and tailored disaster preparedness program tested with this population. PMID:24635691

  7. The Evolution of Peer Run Sober Housing as a Recovery Resource for California Communities

    PubMed Central

    Wittman, Friedner D.; Polcin, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Sober living houses (SLHs) are alcohol- and drug-free living environments that offer social support to persons attempting to abstain from alcohol and drugs. They use a peer-oriented, social model approach that emphasizes mutual support, financial self-sufficiency, and resident involvement in decision making and management of the facility. Although they represent an important response to the increasing call for more services that help sustain abstinence from drugs and alcohol over time, they are an under recognized and underutilized recovery resource. The purpose of this paper is to trace the evolution of sober living houses in California from the early influences of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in the 1930’s to the establishment of current SLH associations, such as the Sober Living Network in Southern California. The paper describes key events and policies that influenced SLHs. Although initial research on outcomes of SLH residents has been very encouraging, there is a need for more research to guide improvement of structure and operations. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for the growth of recovery services and for community housing policy. PMID:25477748

  8. Peer Support Training Improved the Glycemic Control, Insulin Management, and Diabetic Behaviors of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Rural Communities of Central China: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Kaiqin; Ren, Yanlei; Luo, Zhongmei; Du, Kun; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Background The efficacy of peer support in Chinese diabetes patients is still uncertain. The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of a peer support program on the outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes who received community-based insulin therapy in rural communities of central China. Material/Methods Two hundred and eight eligible patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned into the traditional training group (control group, n=111) and peer support intervention group (peer group, n=97) between June 2013 and January 2014 in 2 rural communities of Jingzhou area, China. Both groups received 3-month traditional training, followed by another 4-month traditional training or peer support training, respectively. At baseline and 7 months after treatment, the blood glycemic level was evaluated by biochemical detection. Capacities of self-management and knowledge related to insulin usage were assessed by questionnaire survey. Results Ninety-seven and ninety patients completed this study in the control group and peer group, respectively. There was no significant difference in age, gender, diabetes duration, insulin usage time, and complications between the 2 groups at baseline (P>0.05). Compared with the control group, peer group patients achieved a more significant decrease in blood glycosylated hemoglobin levels (P<0.05), increase in knowledge related to insulin usage, and increase of diabetes self-management ability (P<0.05). Conclusions Peer support intervention effectively improves outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes in rural communities of central China. PMID:26808489

  9. Factors Associated with Peer HIV Prevention Outreach in Drug-Using Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latkin, Carl A.; Hua, Wei; Davey, Melissa A.

    2004-01-01

    Peer education is a critical approach to HIV prevention. The current study evaluated 156 peer outreach educators 6 months after their 10-session training. Specifically, we examined factors associated with talking to network members about HIV-related topics as well as distributing risk reduction materials. Overall, current drug users were less…

  10. Peer Support.

    PubMed

    Forchuk, Cheryl; Solomon, Michelle; Viran, Tazim

    2016-01-01

    The Mental Health Commission of Canada defines peer support as "a supportive relationship between people who have a lived experience in common … in relation to a mental health challenge or illness … related to their own mental health or that of a loved one" (Sunderland et al. 2013: 11). In Ontario, a key resource for peer support is the Ontario Peer Development Initiative (OPDI), which is an umbrella organization of mental health Consumer/Survivor Initiatives (CSIs) and peer support organizations across the province of Ontario. Member organizations are run by and for people with lived experience of a mental health or addiction issue and provide a wide range of services and activities within their communities. The central tenet of member organizations is the common understanding that people can and do recover with the proper supports in place and that peer support is integral to successful recovery. Nationally, Peer Support Accreditation and Certification Canada has recently been established. The relatively new national organization focuses on training and accrediting peer support workers. This paper focuses on a range of diverse peer support groups and CSIs that operate in London and surrounding areas. PMID:26854546

  11. Surveying the Extent of, and Attitudes Towards, the Use of Prayer as a Spiritual Intervention among British Mainstream Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubi, Peter M.

    2004-01-01

    A questionnaire was sent to 578 BACP Accredited Counsellors and 122 CMCS Approved Counsellors to survey the use, and attitudes to the use, of prayer as a spiritual intervention in British mainstream counselling. The data reveal that prayer influences the practice of a significant number of mainstream counsellors at a philosophical, a covert and an…

  12. Life outside the 50-Minute Hour: The Personal Lives of Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Barbara Sampaio Alhanati; Black, Timothy G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects that becoming and being a professional counsellor, including training and professional practice, can have on one's personal life. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six professional counsellors, asking how their training and professional practice has affected their personal lives. Qualitative…

  13. "I Was Overcome with Joy at that Moment": Successful Experiences of School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilat, Itzhak; Rosenau, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by positive psychology, the present research explores the manner in which school counsellors perceive the meaning of success in their work. Data were collected by means of a narrative questionnaire in which 66 school counsellors were requested to write a detailed description of a well-remembered successful experience and to answer two…

  14. School Counsellors' Understanding of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: Experiences and International Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Jamie M.; Heath, Nancy L.; Toste, Jessica R.; Ross, Shana

    2011-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a concern among professionals working with youth. The present study examined school counsellors' experiences, training and school preparedness, perceived knowledge, beliefs, and intervention approaches related to NSSI. Participants were 470 school counsellors (417 female, 53 male) from across North America (156…

  15. The Practice and Perceptions of School Counsellors: A View from Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuwerke, Wade; Shi, Qi

    2010-01-01

    The profession of school counselling in China is in relative infancy. A qualitative analysis of in-person interviews with fourteen high school counsellors sought to identify salient factors currently facing the profession in two urban Chinese schools. The counsellors described the development and practice of school counselling as well as their own…

  16. Psychopharmacology Training and Canadian Counsellors: Are We Getting What We Want and Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, David; Wong-Wylie, Gina

    2008-01-01

    The psychopharmacology training experiences and attitudes of Canadian counsellors were the focus of our national Internet-based survey. This study was part of a larger investigation on Canadian counsellors' attitudes, practices, and training experiences related to clients on antidepressants. Results of the current study indicate Canadian…

  17. Narratives of Developing Counsellors' Preferred Theories of Counselling Storied through Text, Metaphor, and Photographic Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong-Wylie, Gina

    2006-01-01

    Reflective practice is integral for developing counsellors to maintain self-awareness and to recognize influences upon ones personal theory of counselling. In this exploratory narrative inquiry research, four doctoral level counselling psychologists participated to uncover "What are the personal stories of developing counsellors and in what ways…

  18. Alberta High School Counsellors' Knowledge of Homosexuality and Their Attitudes toward Gay Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…

  19. Opportunities and Challenges: School Guidance Counsellors' Perceptions of Counselling Students Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasheen, Kevin; Campbell, Marilyn A.; Shochet, Ian

    2013-01-01

    School guidance counsellors worldwide seek ways of providing appropriate professional assistance to all students. While young people integrate online technology into their daily lives and go online for information and to communicate with each other, school counsellors in Australia are not offering online support to students. This cross-sectional…

  20. The Route to "Inclusive Counselling": Counsellors' Perceptions of Disability Inclusion in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakiz, Halis; Woods, Charlotte; Sart, Hande; Ersahin, Zehra; Aftab, Raiha; Koç, Nizamettin; Sariçam, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    The present research highlights new challenges and opportunities faced by counsellors in relation to the movement to include students with disabilities within mainstream schools launched by the Ministry of Education in Turkey. The main purpose of the study was to examine perceptions of counsellors in relation to this movement. Interviews were…

  1. Exploring Ethical Dilemmas for Principals Arising from Role Conflict with School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimber, Megan; Campbell, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Acting in the best interests of students is central to the moral and ethical work of schools. Yet tensions can arise between principals and school counsellors as they work from at times opposing professional paradigms. In this article we report on principals' and counsellors' responses to scenarios covering confidentiality and the law,…

  2. Genetic counsellors in Sweden: their role and added value in the clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Pestoff, Rebecka; Ingvoldstad, Charlotta; Skirton, Heather

    2016-03-01

    Genetic testing is becoming more commonplace in general and specialist health care and should always be accompanied by genetic counselling, according to Swedish law. Genetic counsellors are members of the multi-disciplinary team providing genetic counselling. This study examined the role and added value of genetic counsellors in Sweden, using a cross-sectional on-line survey. The findings showed that the genetic counsellors added value in the clinical setting by acting as the 'spider-in-the-web' regarding case management, having a more holistic, ethical and psychological perspective, being able to offer continuous support and build a relationship with the patient, and being more accessible than medical geneticists. The main difference between a genetic counsellor and medical geneticist was that the doctor had the main medical responsibility. Thus genetic counsellors in Sweden contribute substantially to the care of patients in the clinical genetic setting. PMID:26014428

  3. In Pursuit of Theoretical Ground in Behavior Change Support Systems: Analysis of Peer-to-Peer Communication in a Health-Related Online Community

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Nathan; Cohen, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background Research studies involving health-related online communities have focused on examining network structure to understand mechanisms underlying behavior change. Content analysis of the messages exchanged in these communities has been limited to the “social support” perspective. However, existing behavior change theories suggest that message content plays a prominent role reflecting several sociocognitive factors that affect an individual’s efforts to make a lifestyle change. An understanding of these factors is imperative to identify and harness the mechanisms of behavior change in the Health 2.0 era. Objective The objective of this work is two-fold: (1) to harness digital communication data to capture essential meaning of communication and factors affecting a desired behavior change, and (2) to understand the applicability of existing behavior change theories to characterize peer-to-peer communication in online platforms. Methods In this paper, we describe grounded theory–based qualitative analysis of digital communication in QuitNet, an online community promoting smoking cessation. A database of 16,492 de-identified public messages from 1456 users from March 1-April 30, 2007, was used in our study. We analyzed 795 messages using grounded theory techniques to ensure thematic saturation. This analysis enabled identification of key concepts contained in the messages exchanged by QuitNet members, allowing us to understand the sociobehavioral intricacies underlying an individual’s efforts to cease smoking in a group setting. We further ascertained the relevance of the identified themes to theoretical constructs in existing behavior change theories (eg, Health Belief Model) and theoretically linked techniques of behavior change taxonomy. Results We identified 43 different concepts, which were then grouped under 12 themes based on analysis of 795 messages. Examples of concepts include “sleepiness,” “pledge,” “patch,” “spouse,” and

  4. Ethnic Peer Preferences among Asian American Adolescents in Emerging Immigrant Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Thompson, Taylor L.

    2011-01-01

    Growing diversity and evidence that diverse friendships enhance psychosocial success highlight the importance of understanding adolescents' ethnic peer preferences. Using social identity and social contact frameworks, the ethnic preferences of 169 Asian American adolescents (60% female) were examined in relation to ethnic identity, perceived…

  5. Promoting Positive Peer Interaction through Cooperative Learning, Community Building, Higher-Order Thinking and Conflict Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Kathryn R.

    Research shows that probable causes for disruptive classroom behavior are broken social bonds, violent environment, stress and conflict, and inadequate curriculum coupled with ineffective teaching methods. This report discusses a program to decrease negative peer interaction in order to improve academic achievement and interpersonal relationships.…

  6. Feasibility of a Web-Based Training System for Peer Community Health Advisors in Cancer Early Detection Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Sherie Lou Z.; Tagai, Erin K.; Wang, Min Qi; Scheirer, Mary Ann; Slade, Jimmie L.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the feasibility of a Web-based portal for training peer community health advisors (CHAs). We conducted a community-based implementation trial in African American churches between 2012 and 2014. The Web-based portal allows CHAs to log in and view 13 training videos, preparing them to deliver 3 cancer early detection workshops in their churches. Of 8 churches, 6 completed the training, each certifying 2 CHAs. These CHAs took an average of 26 days to complete the training, requiring little technical assistance. Additional technical assistance was required to implement the workshops. The Web-based system appears to be a feasible method for training lay individuals for the CHA role and has implications for increasing the reach of evidence-based interventions. PMID:25320894

  7. A Case Study of Peer Educators in a Community-Based Program to Reduce Teen Pregnancy: Selected Characteristics Prior to Training, Perceptions of Training and Work, and Perceptions of How Participation in the Program Has Affected Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beshers, Sarah C.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation is a case study of peer educators in a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program. Research questions focused on identifying ways in which peer educators differed from other teens and exploring the perceptions of the peer educators about their experience in the program and the ways in which it has affected them. Data were…

  8. MAppERS: a peer-produced community for emergency support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigerio, Simone; Schenato, Luca; Bianchizza, Chiara; Del Bianco, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    A general trend in European governance tends to shift responsibilities in territorial management from national central authorities to local/regional levels and to the citizens as first actors of Civil Protection. Prevention is a long term goal that rests not only on the capacities of professional operators and volunteers, but that has to necessarily imply the involvement and awareness of the citizens over the territory they inhabit. In fact people often do not have chance to interact in the surveillance of the territory and only face risks when they have to bear impacts on their lives. Involvement of population creates more cost-effective and context-specific strategies of territorial surveillance and management. A collaborative user environment is useful for emergency response and support in the wake of disasters, feeding updated information on the ground directly to on-site responders. MAppERS (Mobile Application for Emergency Response and Support) is a EU project (funded under programme 2013-2015 Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection, ECHO A5) which empowers citizens as "crowd-sourced mappers" through the development of a smart phone application able to collect GPS-localised and detailed parameters, that can then be sent from citizens to civil protection operators in a contest of geospatial response. The process of app design includes feedback from citizens, involving them in training courses on the monitoring of the territory as long term objective of raising public awareness and participation from the citizens, as actors in a networked disaster response community. The project proceeds from the design and testing of the smart phone applications (module MAppERS-V for volunteers, module MAppERS-C for citizens) according to software engineering environment (Android and Iphone SDK). Information exchange and data transfer need clearness and efficiency; thus a previous research is conducted on the cost-effectiveness of already existing practices for territorial

  9. Rural Community Characteristics, Economic Hardship, and Peer and Parental Influences in Early Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Haan, Laura; Boljevac, Tina; Schaefer, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The study explores how differences in rural community contexts relate to early adolescent alcohol use. Data were gathered from 1,424 adolescents in the sixth through eighth grades in 22 rural Northern Plains communities, as well as 790 adults, parents, teachers, and community leaders. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that community…

  10. Enhancing Connectedness Through Peer Training for Community-Dwelling Older People: A Person Centred Approach.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Oliver K; Bernoth, Maree; Dietsch, Elaine; Cleary, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    Social interaction and connectedness is important to the mental health and wellbeing of older people. The aim of this research study was to facilitate and increase opportunities for social connectedness for older people living in regional areas through the use of technology training. Weekly technology training sessions were conducted at a Seniors Citizen's Club with a peer trainer (an experienced, retired computer teacher) and sessions were attended not only by the six study participants, but also by other club members, with up to 15 club members participating in sessions. Data analysis involved all documents generated by the project, including the individual interviews, researcher observations of training sessions, reports from the peer trainer and weekly diaries maintained by participants. Findings demonstrated that computer training at the Senior Citizens Club helped participants build group cohesion and to form tiered connections with partners, family, and friends with whom they no longer live. When the trainer is seen as a peer, and training is person-centred, older people are more receptive to learning, exploring, and experimenting with technology. Although only six people were involved in the in-depth evaluation part of the study, voluntary training with the trainer in the absence of any funding continues even to this present time. The outcome of this research reinforces the potential for technology facilitated tiered connectivity to enhance the quality of life for older people living in regional and rural Australia. PMID:27050818

  11. Promoting Professional Identity: A Within Group Comparison of Wiki-Based and Traditional Assignments on School Counselling Students' Learning, Sense of Community and Computer Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda J.; Pritchard, Tracey; McComb-Beverage, Shanna; Schellenberg, Rita

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare traditional and non-traditional instructional practices used in a counsellor education programme to determine their effect on pre-service school counsellors' learning and sense of community, thus leading to enhanced professional identity. Traditional and non-traditional assignments were examined: (a) a…

  12. The effects of modelling on the contingent praise of mental retardation counsellors.

    PubMed Central

    Gladstone, B W; Spencer, C J

    1977-01-01

    A multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of a simple modelling procedure on the contingent praise of five counsellors while they conducted hygiene-training sessions in toothbrushing and hand-and-face washing with severely retarded children. After varying numbers of baseline sessions, each counsellor watched a model who conducted a series of toothbrushing sessions, in which he conspicuously praised correct toothbrushing responses and approximations to correct responses. No modelling occurred during hand-and-face washing sessions. As a result of several exposures to the model's performance, levels of response-contingent praise provided by four of the five counsellors during toothbrushing sessions increased sharply over baseline. The levels of counsellor praise showed parallel increases during hand-and-face washing sessions. A two-week followup showed that the levels of praise obtained through modelling were maintained in the model's absence. PMID:845099

  13. Role of Parent and Peer Relationships and Individual Characteristics in Middle School Children's Behavioral Outcomes in the Face of Community Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzinger, Suzanne; Feldman, Richard S.; Rosario, Margaret; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines processes linking inner-city community violence exposure to subsequent internalizing and externalizing problems. Hypothesized risk and protective factors from 3 ecological domains--children's parent and peer relationships and individual characteristics--were examined for mediating, moderating, or independent roles in predicting…

  14. Successful dissemination of a community-based strength training program for older adults by peer and professional leaders: the people exercising program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility of a model for disseminating community-based strength training programs for older adults through leadership training of both laypersons or "peers" and health and fitness professionals. DESIGN: Longitudinal study conducted from January 2005 to December 2006....

  15. Counsellors' Focus on Competitive Employment for People with Severe Mental Illness: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour in Vocational Rehabilitation Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaeps, Jeroen; Neyens, Inge; van Weeghel, Jaap; Van Audenhove, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Although the evidence-based Individual Placement and Support programme highlights the importance of the vocational rehabilitation (VR) counsellors' focus on competitive employment during career counselling, studies have shown that counsellors do not always target such jobs. This study examines which determinants affect the counsellors' intentions…

  16. Peer-Led, Empowerment-Based Approach to Self-Management Efforts in Diabetes (PLEASED): A Randomized Controlled Trial in an African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tricia S.; Funnell, Martha M.; Sinco, Brandy; Spencer, Michael S.; Heisler, Michele

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We compared a 3-month diabetes self-management education (DSME) program followed by a 12-month peer support intervention with a 3-month DSME program alone in terms of initial and sustained improvements in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Secondary outcomes were risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes distress, and social support. METHODS We randomized 106 community-dwelling African American adults with type 2 diabetes to a 3-month DSME program followed by 12 months of weekly group sessions and supplementary telephone support delivered by peer leaders or to a 3-month DSME program with no follow-up peer support. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 3, 9, and 15 months. RESULTS No changes in HbA1c were observed at 3 months or at 15 months for either group. The peer support group either sustained improvement in key CVD risk factors or stayed the same while the control group worsened at 15 months. At 15 months, the peer-support group had significantly lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (−15 mg/dL, P = .03), systolic blood pressure (−10 mm Hg, P = .01), diastolic blood pressure (−8.3 mm Hg, P = .001), and body mass index (−0.8 kg/m2, P = .032) than the DSME-alone group. CONCLUSIONS In this population of African American adults, an initial DSME program, whether or not followed by 12 months of peer support, had no effect on glycemic control. Participants in the peer-support arm of the trial did, however, experience significant improvements in some CVD risk factors or stay approximately the same while the control group declined. PMID:26304969

  17. "She's Not Going to Leave Me"--Counsellors' Feelings on Ending Therapy with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamford, Judi; Akhurst, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to explore the impact of ending therapy on counsellors working with children in schools. Five counsellors were interviewed and their responses were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four master themes emerged, one of which, empathic identification, is the focus of this paper. The findings of this study…

  18. Religiosity Gap Reversed: How Religious Counsellors' Belief System Presents When Working with Clients in a Non-Religious Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motalová, Katarína; Rihácek, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Most studies exploring the religiosity gap are concerned with non-religious counsellors and religious clients. Approaching this phenomenon from a reversed perspective, this study explores how counsellors' religiosity presents when working with clients in a predominantly non-religious environment. Semi-structured interviews with 11 Czech…

  19. Assessment in the Digital Age: An Overview of Online Tools and Considerations for School Psychologists and School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellins, Laura

    2015-01-01

    With recent developments in technology, online tests and digital tools offer school psychologists and school counsellors alternate modes of assessment. These new technologies have the potential to increase accessibility to tests (through greater portability), allow school psychologists and school counsellors to service more students (through…

  20. Peer Support for Achieving Independence in Diabetes (Peer-AID): Design, methods and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial of community health worker assisted diabetes self-management support

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Karin; Drain, Nathan; Robinson, June; Kapp, Janet; Hebert, Paul; Taylor, Leslie; Silverman, Julie; Kiefer, Meghan; Lessler, Dan; Krieger, James

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives Community health workers (CHWs) may be an important mechanism to provide diabetes self-management to disadvantaged populations. We describe the design and baseline results of a trial evaluating a home-based CHW intervention. Methods & Research Design Peer Support for Achieving Independence in Diabetes (Peer-AID) is a randomized, controlled trial evaluating a home-based CHW-delivered diabetes self-management intervention versus usual care. The study recruited participants from 3 health systems. Change in A1c measured at 12 months is the primary outcome. Change in blood pressure, lipids, health care utilization, health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and diabetes self-management behaviors at 12 months are secondary outcomes. Results A total of 1,438 patients were identified by medical record review as potentially eligible, 445 patients were screened by telephone for eligibility and 287 were randomized. Groups were comparable at baseline on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. All participants were low-income and were from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. The mean A1c was 8.9%, mean BMI was above the obese range, and non-adherence to diabetes medications was high. The cohort had high rates of co-morbid disease and low self-reported health status. Although one-third reported no health insurance, the mean number of visits to a physician in the past year was 5.7. Trial results are pending. Conclusions Peer-AID recruited and enrolled a diverse group of low income participants with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and delivered a home-based diabetes self-management program. If effective, replication of the Peer-AID intervention in community based settings could contribute to improved control of diabetes in vulnerable populations. PMID:24956324

  1. The Promotive and Protective Effects of Family Factors in the Context of Peer and Community Risks for Aggression.

    PubMed

    Kramer-Kuhn, Alison M; Farrell, Albert D

    2016-04-01

    A clearer understanding of the promotive factors that reduce adolescents' involvement in aggression and the protective factors that mitigate the influence of risk factors that emerge during adolescence is needed to inform prevention efforts. This study examined the promotive and protective influences of family factors on physical aggression using data collected from aggressive and socially-influential adolescents (N = 537; 35 % female) at the beginning of sixth grade and at three subsequent waves across the following 3 years. Family characteristics (i.e., better family functioning, higher perceived parental support for nonviolence, and lower parental support for fighting) at the start of the sixth grade exerted promotive effects that reduced levels of aggression at subsequent waves. Some support was also found for protective influences. A foundation of good family functioning at the start of sixth grade buffered adolescents from the risks from delinquent peers, from the spring of sixth grade to the spring of seventh grade. Low parental support for fighting reduced risks associated with witnessing community violence, from the fall to the spring of sixth grade, but at low levels of risk only. These findings suggest that interventions targeting high-risk adolescents might benefit by enhancing both promotive and protective family factors. PMID:26885829

  2. CES4Health.info: an online tool for peer reviewed publication and dissemination of diverse products of community-engaged scholarship.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Catherine; Seifer, Sarena D; Gelmon, Sherril B; Ryan, Katharine; McGinley, Piper

    2011-01-01

    Community-engaged scholarship (CES)-research, teaching, programmatic and other scholarly activities conducted through partnerships between academic and community partners-may result in innovative applied products such as manuals, policy briefs, curricula, videos, toolkits, and websites. Without accepted mechanisms for peer-reviewed publication and dissemination, these products often do not "count" toward faculty promotion and tenure (P&T) and have limited opportunities for broad impact. This paper reports on CES4Health.info, a unique online tool for peer-reviewed publication and dissemination of products of CES in forms other than journal articles. In its first year, CES4Health.info has published 24 products and documented the satisfaction of users, authors, and reviewers. PMID:21623022

  3. Promoting Darfuri women's psychosocial health: developing a war trauma counsellor training programme tailored to the person.

    PubMed

    Badri, Alia; Crutzen, Rik; Eltayeb, Shahla; Van den Borne, Hw

    2013-01-01

    Women are considered special groups who are uniquely vulnerable in the context of war exposures. To effectively target the resources aimed at mitigating mental health consequences and optimising and maximising the use of mental health provisions, culturally relevant war trauma counsellor training is required. The objectives of this study are to promote a new philosophy in the Sudanese mental health care by introducing an integrative approach for targeted prevention and tailored treatments to the Darfuri person in a cost-effective way. Furthermore, the study provides evidence- and theory-based guidelines for developing a war trauma counsellor training programme in Sudan, mainly based on qualitative and quantitative studies among war-affected Darfuri female students. Cultural conceptualisations such as gender roles and religious expectations as well as theories that emphasise resilience and other psychosocial adaptation skills have been operationalised to reflect the totality of the Darfuri women's experiences. Furthermore, the results of four interrelated studies among war-traumatised undergraduate Darfuri women who are internally displaced provide the basis that guides an outline for qualification development, capacity building and skills consolidation among Sudanese mental health care providers. Explicit war-related psychosocial needs assessment tools, specific war-related trauma counsellor training and particular counsellor characteristics, qualities and awareness that pertain to strengthening the efficacy of war trauma Sudanese counsellors are recommended. The aim is to produce expertly trained war trauma counsellors working with war-affected Darfuri women in particular and with regards to their helpfulness in responding to the psychosocial needs of war-exposed Sudanese in general. PMID:23531430

  4. Adolescent Peer Relationships and Emerging Adult Romantic Styles: A Longitudinal Study of Youth in an Italian Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhariwal, Amrit; Connolly, Jennifer; Paciello, Marinella; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2009-01-01

    This study extends understanding of romantic development in the emerging adult years by using an 8-year longitudinal design in Italy. Peer groups at age 13, interpersonal functioning and emotion regulation at age 17, and romantic styles at age 21 were measured in 388 youth. Early peer groups were shown to be indirectly associated with two romantic…

  5. Effects of Communities of Reflecting Peers on Student-Teacher Development--Including In-Depth Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fund, Zvia

    2010-01-01

    Despite continuing interest in teacher reflection and an extensive body of research on peer assessment, the interaction between these areas has not been sufficiently investigated. This study on reflection and peer feedback is part of an ongoing action research addressing the design and pedagogical model of a theoretically oriented teacher training…

  6. Analyzing the Latent Emotional Transfer Pattern (LETP) of a Learning Community in an Online Peer-Assessment Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Huei-Tse; Cheng, Kun-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Peer assessment is utilized extensively in digital learning, and many studies have examined the positive influences of online peer assessment on learning (eg, Tseng & Tsai, 2007). However, other studies indicate that this type of activity has negative influences. For example, students may question the fairness of an assessment or disagree with…

  7. HIV and infant feeding counselling: challenges faced by nurse-counsellors in northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Leshabari, Sebalda C; Blystad, Astrid; de Paoli, Marina; Moland, Karen M

    2007-01-01

    Background Infant feeding is a subject of worry in prevention of mother to child transmission (pMTCT) programmes in settings where breastfeeding is normative. Nurse-counsellors, expected to counsel HIV-positive women on safer infant feeding methods as defined in national/international guidelines, are faced with a number of challenges. This study aims to explore the experiences and situated concerns of nurses working as infant feeding counsellors to HIV-positive mothers enrolled in pMTCT programmes in the Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 25 nurse-counsellors at four pMTCT sites. Interviews were handwritten and FGDs were tape-recorded and transcribed, and the programme Open Code assisted in sorting and structuring the data. Analysis was performed using 'content analysis.' Results The findings revealed a high level of stress and frustration among the nurse-counsellors. They found themselves unable to give qualified and relevant advice to HIV-positive women on how best to feed their infants. They were confused regarding the appropriateness of the feeding options they were expected to advise HIV-positive women to employ, and perceived both exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive replacement feeding as culturally and socially unsuitable. However, most counsellors believed that formula feeding was the right way for an HIV-positive woman to feed her infant. They expressed a lack of confidence in their own knowledge of HIV and infant feeding, as well as in their own skills in assessing a woman's possibilities of adhering to a particular method of feeding. Moreover, the nurses were in general not comfortable in their newly gained role as counsellors and felt that it undermined the authority and trust traditionally vested in nursing as a knowledgeable and caring profession. Conclusion The findings illuminate the immense burden placed on nurses in their role as

  8. Successful dissemination of a community-based strength training program for older adults by peer and professional leaders: the people exercising program.

    PubMed

    Layne, Jennifer E; Sampson, Susan E; Mallio, Charlotte J; Hibberd, Patricia L; Griffith, John L; Das, Sai Krupa; Flanagan, William J; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this longitudinal study was to determine the feasibility of a model for disseminating community-based strength training programs for older adults through leadership training of laypersons or "peers" and health and fitness professionals. The intervention consisted of a progressive strength training, balance, and flexibility exercise program and a leader training and certification workshop. Feasibility was defined as 75% or more of individuals who completed leader training establishing or teaching at least two 12-week strength training classes within 1 year. Program dissemination was quantified as the number of classes established between January 2005 and December 2006. Demographic characteristics and health status of leaders and program participants were evaluated. Two hundred forty-four leaders (peers, n=149; professionals, n=95) were trained and certified. Seventy-nine percent of all leaders (n=193) met the feasibility criteria of establishing or teaching strength training classes. There was no difference in the percentage of peer leaders (80%, n=119) and professional leaders (78%, n=74) who established or taught classes (P5.71) despite significant differences in their demographic and health profiles. Ninety-seven self-sustaining strength training classes were established in senior and community centers, and 2,217 older adults (women, n=1,942; men, n=275) aged 50 to 97 with multiple chronic medical conditions enrolled. In conclusion, training peer and professional leaders is a feasible and successful model for disseminating a community strength training program for older adults. Widespread dissemination of this program has significant public health implications for increasing physical activity participation by older adults. PMID:19112654

  9. The Life Story Board: A Feasibility Study of a Visual Interview Tool for School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Robert M.; Medina, Maria Fernanda; Mignone, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the findings of a pilot study of the Life Story Board (LSB), a novel visual information system with a play board and sets of magnetic cards designed to be a practical clinical tool for counsellors, therapists, and researchers. The LSB is similar to a multidimensional genogram, and serves as a platform to depict personal…

  10. Teachers Turning for Help to School Counsellors and Colleagues: Toward a Mapping of Relevant Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have reported teaching to be a stressful occupation. One of the most valuable coping strategies that teachers may employ is turning for help when pressed. This research is aimed at encouraging a deeper understanding of the factors related to teacher's actual turning for help to a school counsellor or to a teacher colleague. 281…

  11. The Role of the School Counsellor in the Singapore Secondary School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kok, Jin Kuan

    2013-01-01

    This is a case study from Singapore. The purpose of the study is to critically enquire into the ways in which school counsellors working in Singapore's secondary school system describe and experience their role, and to identify key themes arising from the study. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 participants, and an adapted grounded…

  12. Establishing Best Practice in School Counselling via Collaborative Leadership in the Counsellor-School Administrator Dyad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reavie, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    School counselling services in Canada are inconsistent due to differing provincial guidelines. The lack of a national school counselling model and inconsistent provincial guidelines results in limited awareness of best practice and inconsistent services for students. Administrators and school counsellors have differing perspectives related to the…

  13. Personal Development in Counsellor Training: Towards a Clarification of Inter-Related Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donati, Mark; Watts, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Despite its widely acknowledged importance to effective therapeutic practice across theoretical orientations, it has been suggested that counsellor "personal development" remains a poorly defined area of training, and that the concept is itself endowed with numerous implicit meanings. In an attempt to move towards a more explicit and rigorous…

  14. Empathy and Emotional Intelligence among Eastern and Western Counsellor Trainees: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young Kaelber, Kara A.; Schwartz, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored degree of empathy and emotional intelligence among Thai (n?=?48) and American (n?=?53) counsellor trainees to determine if differences in Eastern and Western cultural orientations (e.g., interdependent versus independent self-construals) affect foundational counselling skills. Results indicated that Western trainees showed…

  15. The Role of School Counsellors and Psychologists in Supporting Transgender People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Damien W.; Bartholomaeus, Clare

    2015-01-01

    As growing numbers of transgender people--including students, parents, and educators--become visible within schools, so comes with this the requirement that schools ensure their full inclusion. This article suggests that school counsellors and psychologists have an important role to play in supporting transgender people within schools. As an…

  16. Scottish Secondary School Students' Preferences for Location, Format of Counselling and Sex of Counsellor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Mick

    2006-01-01

    Within the United Kingdom there is a significant revival of therapeutic counselling services in schools. This study looks at three factors which may affect students' willingness to attend such a service: location of the service (school-based or external); format (individual or group); and sex of counsellor. The views of 584 students from four…

  17. Supervision and the Management of Vicarious Traumatisation among Australian Telephone and Online Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlonger, Brett; Taylor, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of supervision on the management of vicarious traumatisation among telephone and online counsellors on BoysTown Helplines. BoysTown Helplines include Kids Helpline, a 24-hour national counselling service for young people aged 5-25 years of age, and Parentline (PL), a counselling service for parents in…

  18. Suffering Loves and Needs Company: Buddhist and Daoist Perspectives on the Counsellor as Companion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Avraham; Bai, Heesoon

    2008-01-01

    Mindful of living in a multicultural and cross-cultural society, this article introduces and presents Buddhist and Daoist philosophy, psychology, and practice along with the potential for their application in psychotherapy within the context of the theme of the psychotherapist or counsellor accompanying the suffering person. The theoretical…

  19. Abusive Partner Relationships in Secondary Schools: Identification and Intervention Strategies for School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protivnak, Jake J.; McRoberts, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    School counsellors occasionally encounter students who are involved in abusive partner relationships that negatively impact their academic, career, and personal/social development. This article will briefly discuss the prevalence and types of abusive student relationships, strategies to assess for both victim and perpetrator, and professional…

  20. Training to Be a Volunteer Rape Crisis Counsellor: A Qualitative Study of Women's Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rath, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This is an account of a qualitative study designed to elicit and analyse the narratives of women who had trained to be volunteer counsellors at a Rape Crisis centre. Little prior research has focused on the experiences of workers in Rape Crisis centres and this project was designed to explore women's experiences in ways that were meaningful to…

  1. School Counsellors' Perceptions on Working with Student High-Risk Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gregory E.; Jeffery, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The current exploratory-descriptive study used a survey design method to examine guidance counsellors' and educational psychologists' perceptions of their preparation, motivation, and effectiveness in preventing, assessing, and intervening into student high-risk behaviour. The study also explored training associated with addressing high-risk…

  2. Reconsidering Sexual Identities: Intersectionality Theory and the Implications for Educating Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheshire, Liane C.

    2013-01-01

    Counselling programs in Canada provide minimal training relating to lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) issues and cultures. This article presents a theoretical argument proposing that counselling programs move away from educating counsellors about LGB issues through specialized courses based on multicultural approaches of difference and diversity…

  3. Working with Clients Who Engage in Self-Harming Behaviour: Experiences of a Group of Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Claudine

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the experiences of a group of counsellors regarding working with clients who engage in self-harming behaviour, in order to gain an understanding of what it is like to work with this client group. A series of six individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out, which were then transcribed and analysed…

  4. Emotions Experienced by Learners and Their Development through Communication with the Tutor-Counsellor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalogiannakis, Michail; Touvlatzis, Sotiris

    2015-01-01

    The effective communication between the learners and the tutor-counsellor has been proved to significantly promote the positive emotions, reduce the negative ones and reinforce the learners' participation in a distance learning program. The main purpose of our research is to investigate the emotions experienced by the learners of the Hellenic Open…

  5. Experiences of Burnout, Self-Care, and Recovery of Female University Counsellors in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yii-Nii

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the burnout, self-care, and recovery experiences of female university counsellors working at a university counselling centre in Taiwan. The 9 participants had an average age of 42.44 years and had worked at the centre for an average of 11.3 years. A qualitative method of phenomenology with in-depth…

  6. Child Sexual Abuse Reporting Behaviour by School Counsellors and Their Need for Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Padayachi, Usha K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine a statewide sample of school counsellors' reporting behaviour of suspected cases of child sexual abuse, and their need for further education in this area. Design: A questionnaire using four hypothetical vignettes on child sexual abuse requested information on the degree of suspicion, reporting behaviour and familiarity with…

  7. Weekend Formats in Counsellor Education: A Case Example in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, John; Silliker, S. Alan

    2006-01-01

    Various course and program formats have been developed to better meet the needs of graduate students. One of them is the development of weekend-only courses and programs. This article examines one weekend counsellor education format in the United States, the St. Bonaventure University program offered in the Buffalo (New York) area, in detail. This…

  8. Impact of Community Based Peer Support in Type 2 Diabetes: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial of Individual and/or Group Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, David; Prevost, A. Toby; Bunn, Chris; Holman, Daniel; Parker, Richard A.; Cohn, Simon; Donald, Sarah; Paddison, Charlotte A. M.; Ward, Candice; Robins, Peter; Graffy, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes peer support, where one person with diabetes helps guide and support others, has been proposed as a way to improve diabetes management. We have tested whether different diabetes peer support strategies can improve metabolic and/or psychological outcomes. Methods People with type 2 diabetes (n = 1,299) were invited to participate as either ‘peer’ or ‘peer support facilitator’ (PSF) in a 2x2 factorial randomised cluster controlled trial across rural communities (130 clusters) in England. Peer support was delivered over 8–12 months by trained PSFs, supported by monthly meetings with a diabetes educator. Primary end point was HbA1c. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, diabetes distress, blood pressure, waist, total cholesterol and weight. Outcome assessors and investigators were masked to arm allocation. Main factors were 1:1 or group intervention. Analysis was by intention-to-treat adjusting for baseline. Results The 4 arms were well matched (Group n = 330, 1:1(individual) n = 325, combined n = 322, control n = 322); 1035 (79•7%) completed the mid-point postal questionnaire and 1064 (81•9%) had a final HbA1c. A limitation was that although 92.6% PSFs and peers were in telephone contact, only 61.4% of intervention participants attended a face to face session. Mean baseline HbA1c was 57 mmol/mol (7•4%), with no significant change across arms. Follow up systolic blood pressure was 2•3mm Hg (0.6 to 4.0) lower among those allocated group peer-support and 3•0mm Hg (1.1 to 5.0) lower if the group support was attended at least once. There was no impact on other outcomes by intention to treat or significant differences between arms in self-reported adherence or medication. Conclusions Group diabetes peer support over 8–12 months was associated with a small improvement in blood pressure but no other significant outcomes. Long term benefits should be investigated. Trial Registration ISRCTN.com ISRCTN6696362166963621 PMID

  9. Effectiveness and Feasibility of Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation to Adolescent Girls and Boys through Peer Educators at Community Level in the Tribal Area of Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shobha P; Shah, Pankaj; Desai, Shrey; Modi, Dhiren; Desai, Gaytri; Arora, Honey

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anemia during adolescence affects growth and development of girls and boys increasing their vulnerability to dropping out-of-school. Hence investing in preventing anemia during adolescence is critical for their survival, growth and development. Objective: To find out the burden of anemia on adolescent age group in the tribal area of Jhagadia block and to assess the change in the hemoglobin level through the weekly Iron and Folic Acid IFA (DOTS) directly observed treatment supplementation under Supervision by Peer Educators at Community level among adolescents. Methods: Community based intervention study conducted with adolescents (117 girls and 127 boys) aged 10-19 years, through supplementation of IFA (DOTS) by trained Peer Educators for 52 weeks in 5 tribal villages of Jhagadia. Hemoglobin level was determined by HemoCue method before and after intervention and sickle cell anemia by Electrophoresis method. Primary data on hemoglobin and number of tablets consumed was collected and statistically analyzed in SPSS 16.0 software by applying paired t-test. Results: The overall findings suggest that the prevalence of anemia reduced from 79.5% to 58% among adolescent girls and from 64% to 39% among boys. Mean rise of hemoglobin seen was 1.5 g/dl among adolescent boys and 1.3 g/dl among girls. A significant association was found in change in hemoglobin before and after intervention (P = 0.000) Conclusion: Prevalence of anemia among girls and boys can be reduced in their adolescent phase of life, through weekly supplementation of iron folic acid tablets under direct supervision and Nutrition Education by Peer Educator at community level. PMID:27051093

  10. Enhancing the Reading of Peer-Reviewed Research in the Teaching English as a Second Language Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Marian J.; Abbott, Marilyn L.; Hatami, Sarvenaz

    2013-01-01

    Adult ESL instructors' engagement with research can enhance instruction but is "a minority activity in our field" (Borg, 2010, p391). We explored instructors' engagement with research; applied linguists' and instructors' conceptions of teacher-friendly, peer-reviewed research articles; and academics' commitment…

  11. A Community-based Participatory Research Approach to the Development of a Peer Navigator Health Promotion Intervention for People with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Susan D.; Gillenwater, Gwen; Toatley, Sherwood; Rodgers, Marka D.; Todd, Nathan; Epperly, Diane; Andrews, Jeannette O.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent trends indicate research targeting outcomes of importance to people with disabilities, such as spinal cord injury (SCI), may be best informed by those individuals; however, there are very few published rehabilitation intervention studies that include people with disabilities in the research process in a role beyond study participant. Objective To describe a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to the development and pilot testing of an intervention using community-based Peer Navigators with SCI to provide health education to individuals with SCI, with the goal of reducing preventable secondary conditions and rehospitalizations, and improving community participation. Methods A CBPR framework guides the research partnership between academic researchers and a community-based team of individuals who either have SCI or provide SCI-related services. Using this framework, the processes of our research partnership supporting the current study are described including: partnership formation, problem identification, intervention development, and pilot testing of the intervention. Challenges associated with CBPR are identified. Results Using CBPR, the SCI Peer Navigator intervention addresses the partnership’s priority issues identified in the formative studies. Utilization of the framework and integration of CBPR principles into all phases of research have promoted sustainability of the partnership. Recognition of and proactive planning for challenges that are commonly encountered in CBPR, such as sharing power and limited resources, has helped sustain our partnership. Conclusions The CBPR framework provides a guide for inclusion of individuals with SCI as research partners in the development, implementation, and evaluation of interventions intended to improve outcomes after SCI. PMID:25224988

  12. On the sovereignty of school rhetoric: Representations of science among scientists and guidance counsellors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larochelle, Marie; Désautels, Jacques

    1998-03-01

    This article sheds light on views held by actors who enjoy a certain degree of institutional legitimacy for “talking about science,” either as practitioners in the field of science or as guidance counsellors working with youths interested in having a science-related career. One hundred and seven scientists and technologists who worked either in a university or industrial research centre and 182 guidance counsellors working in high school settings participated in our survey; the main instrument for data collection was a questionnaire developed using the bank of items from “VOSTS.” Excepting a few aspects of the production of scientific knowledge, the predominant tendency suggests that both professional groups share a relatively similar discursive outlook on science—an outlook which presents a “family resemblance” with the usual school rhetoric on the exceptional status of science.

  13. A study of the practice of individual genetic counsellors and genetic nurses in Europe.

    PubMed

    Skirton, Heather; Cordier, Christophe; Lambert, Debby; Hosterey Ugander, Ulrika; Voelckel, Marie-Antoinette; O'Connor, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Advances in genetics have meant that the genetic services are now accessed by increasing numbers of patients. One way of dealing with the pressure on services without jeopardising patient care is the inclusion of nonmedical genetic counsellors and genetic nurses in the genetic services team. However, a cohesive approach to the profession has been lacking in Europe, and an educational programme and registration system for European practitioners is required. The aim of this study was to ascertain the type of work undertaken by genetic nurses and counsellors in Europe and the context in which they practised. We used a cross-sectional survey design to collect data from 213 practitioners, either genetic nurses or genetic counsellors, from 18 European countries. Respondents completed the survey online, and data were analysed using descriptive statistics and cross-tabulations. The majority were involved in undertaking the initial contact with the patient (89.9 %) and explaining the genetic test to the patient (91.5 %), while 74 % ordered tests and 91.4 % obtained informed consent for such tests. Psychological support before and after genetic testing was provided by 80.2 % of respondents, and 82.1 % reported regularly managing cases autonomously. While the genetic counselling profession is barely established in some countries, counsellors are able to contribute substantially to patient care as part of the multi-disciplinary team. Further efforts to establish the profession at the European level through a registration process will enhance the confidence in this new group of allied health professionals. PMID:23055100

  14. Developmental Associations Between Externalizing Behaviors, Peer Delinquency, Drug Use, Perceived Neighborhood Crime, and Violent Behavior in Urban Communities

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Brook, Judith S.; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Saar, Naomi S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the precursors of violent behavior among urban, racial/ethnic minority adults. Data are from an on-going study of male and female African Americans and Puerto Ricans, interviewed at four time waves, Time 1-Time 4 (T1-T4), from adolescence to adulthood. Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze the developmental pathways, beginning in mid-adolescence (T1; X̄ age=14.0 years), to violent behavior in adulthood (T4; X̄ age=29.2 years). The variables assessed were: components of externalizing behaviors (i.e., rebelliousness, delinquency; T1, T3); illicit drug use (T2); peer delinquency (T2); perceived neighborhood crime (T4); and violent behavior (T3, T4). Results showed that the participants' externalizing behaviors (rebelliousness and delinquency) were relatively stable from mid-adolescence (T1; X̄ age=14.0 years) to early adulthood (T3; X̄ age=24.4 years). The participants' externalizing behaviors in mid-adolescence also had a direct pathway to peer delinquency in late adolescence (T2; X̄ age=19.1 years). Peer delinquency, in turn, had a direct pathway to the participants' illicit drug use in late adolescence (T2), and to externalizing behaviors in early adulthood (T3). The participants' illicit drug use (T2; X̄ age=19.1 years) had both direct and indirect paths to violent behavior in adulthood (T4). The participants' externalizing behaviors in early adulthood (T3) were linked with violent behavior at T3, and perceived neighborhood crime (T4), both of which had direct pathways to violent behavior in adulthood (T4). The findings suggest developmental periods during which externalizing behaviors, exposure to delinquent peers, illegal drug use, and neighborhood crime could be targeted by prevention and intervention programs in order to reduce violent behavior. PMID:21544831

  15. Developmental associations between externalizing behaviors, peer delinquency, drug use, perceived neighborhood crime, and violent behavior in urban communities.

    PubMed

    Brook, David W; Brook, Judith S; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Saar, Naomi S

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the precursors of violent behavior among urban, racial/ethnic minority adults. Data are from an on-going study of male and female African Americans and Puerto Ricans, interviewed at four time waves, Time 1-Time 4 (T1-T4), from adolescence to adulthood. Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze the developmental pathways, beginning in mid-adolescence (T1; age = 14.0 years), to violent behavior in adulthood (T4; age = 29.2 years). The variables assessed were: components of externalizing behaviors (i.e., rebelliousness, delinquency; T1, T3); illicit drug use (T2); peer delinquency (T2); perceived neighborhood crime (T4); and violent behavior (T3, T4). Results showed that the participants' externalizing behaviors (rebelliousness and delinquency) were relatively stable from mid-adolescence (T1; age = 14.0 years) to early adulthood (T3; age = 24.4 years). The participants' externalizing behaviors in mid-adolescence also had a direct pathway to peer delinquency in late adolescence (T2; age = 19.1 years). Peer delinquency, in turn, had a direct pathway to the participants' illicit drug use in late adolescence (T2), and to externalizing behaviors in early adulthood (T3). The participants' illicit drug use (T2; age = 19.1 years) had both direct and indirect paths to violent behavior in adulthood (T4). The participants' externalizing behaviors in early adulthood (T3) were linked with violent behavior at T3, and perceived neighborhood crime (T4), both of which had direct pathways to violent behavior in adulthood (T4). The findings suggest developmental periods during which externalizing behaviors, exposure to delinquent peers, illegal drug use, and neighborhood crime could be targeted by prevention and intervention programs in order to reduce violent behavior. PMID:21544831

  16. Integrating the Public in Mosquito Management: Active Education by Community Peers Can Lead to Significant Reduction in Peridomestic Container Mosquito Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  17. Integrating the public in mosquito management: active education by community peers can lead to significant reduction in peridomestic container mosquito habitats.

    PubMed

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  18. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Denise Moreno; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica D; Vea, Lourdes; Estrella-Sánchez, Rocío; Wolf, Ann Marie A; Kilungo, Aminata; Spitz, Anna H; Betterton, Eric A

    2015-09-01

    Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras) can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered "hard-to-reach" by government-led programs. PMID:26371028

  19. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Ramírez, Denise; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica D.; Vea, Lourdes; Estrella-Sánchez, Rocío; Wolf, Ann Marie A.; Kilungo, Aminata; Spitz, Anna H.; Betterton, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras) can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered “hard-to-reach” by government-led programs. PMID:26371028

  20. [Influence of Counsellor- and Intervention Variables on Motivation to Change Following a Brief Motivational Intervention to Reduce Risky Alcohol Use].

    PubMed

    Diestelkamp, Silke; Wartberg, Lutz; Arnaud, Nicolas; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Influence of Counsellor- and Intervention Variables on Motivation to Change Following a Brief Motivational Intervention to Reduce Risky Alcohol Use Brief interventions are recommended for prevention and early intervention of risky alcohol use. However, evidence of their effectiveness, in particular for children and adolescents, is heterogeneous. Analysis of counsellor and intervention variables may provide insights into mechanisms of action in brief interventions and thereby contribute to an enhanced effectiveness. We analyzed data of N = 141 children and adolescents who were treated for acute alcohol intoxication in the emergency department. Study participants received a brief motivational intervention to reduce risky alcohol use during hospitalization. We applied multiple regression analysis to examine counsellor variables (empathy, affirmation, competence, congruence) and intervention variables (readiness and confidence ruler, decisional balance, goal agreement) as predictors of motivation to change. Higher scores on the basic therapeutic skill "positive affirmation" (R2 = 7.1 %; p < .01), finishing the intervention with a written goal agreement (R2 = 2.9 %; p < .05) and younger age were associated with greater readiness to change (R2 = 10.2 %; p < .01). Therefore, a special focus should be put on the counsellor skill "positive affirmation" when training new counsellors. Results also indicate that younger patients respond stronger to a brief intervention in this context. PMID:27595811

  1. The Comparison of the Effects of a Didactic Stress Management Program and Group Counselling on the Coping Strategies of School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coban, Aysel Esen; Hamamci, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a didactic stress management program, group counselling, and a control group on school counsellors' stress coping strategies. Thirty-four school counsellors were randomly assigned to either a didactic stress management group, group counselling, or a control group. The didactic stress management…

  2. The Role of Personal Development Groups in Counsellor Training: Understanding Factors Contributing to Self-Awareness in the Personal Development Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennie, Clare

    2007-01-01

    Personal development groups (PD groups) are widely employed in counsellor training with the aim of developing the self-awareness of trainee counsellors, and the intention of this paper is to open a discussion forum of the use of these groups and understand their use more fully. A quantitative and qualitative approach was employed in this study,…

  3. Viewing Peer-Reviewed Literature about the Community College: Portrayal of a Sector in Higher Education Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Barbara K.; Bragg, Debra; Kinnick, Mary

    To determine how community colleges are portrayed in academic journals, three core higher education journals and three community college journals were examined during the publication years 1990-2000. Information was sought about authorship, institutional affiliation, topics, research methods, and scope of empirical articles. Results indicated that…

  4. Exploring the Meso-System: The Roles of Community, Family, and Peers in Adolescent Delinquency and Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emilie Phillips; Faulk, Monique; Sizer, Monteic A.

    2016-01-01

    Community contexts are important ecological settings related to problem behavior and positive youth development (PYD). While substantial work has focused on neighborhood disadvantage, the current study explores the role of community assets, specifically linkages to important institutional resources and people in those settings. These concepts are…

  5. Outcomes of a Peer Support Program in Multiple Sclerosis in an Australian Community Cohort: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives. This pilot study evaluated the impact of a peer support program on improving multiple sclerosis (MS) related psychological functions (depression, anxiety, and stress) and enhancing quality of life. Methodology. Participants (n = 33) were recruited prospectively and received an 8-week group face-to-face peer support program. Assessments were at baseline (T1), 6 weeks after program (T2), and 12 months after program (T3), using validated questionnaires: Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), McGill Quality of Life (MQOL), and Brief COPE. Results. Participants' mean age was 52; the majority were female (64%) and married (64%). Median time since MS diagnosis was 16 years. At T2, participants reported improved psychological functioning (DASS “depression,” “anxiety,” and “stress” subscales, z values −2.36, −2.22, and −2.54, moderate effect sizes (r) 0.29, 0.28, and 0.32, resp.) and quality of life (MQOL SIS z score −2.07, r = 0.26) and were less likely to use “self-blame” as a coping mechanism (Brief COPE z score −2.37, r = 0.29). At T3, the positive improvements in stress (DASS stress subscale z score −2.41, r = 0.31) and quality of life were maintained (MQOL SIS, z score −2.30, r = 0.29). There were no adverse effects reported. PMID:26316989

  6. Using Peer Groups in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kammer, Carol Highsmith

    1982-01-01

    The author cites studies that demonstrate the value of peer group techniques for reinforcing learning in educational settings. She reviews the literature on peer group learning in nursing education, and presents a peer group teaching-learning strategy that she developed for a course in community health and psychiatric nursing. (Author/CT)

  7. The Relationship Between Perceived Influence Measures and Member Attitudes of (A) Policy Agreement, (B) Superior-Subordiante Relations, and (C) Peer Relations in Selected Community College Departments in Maryland -- A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Gordon

    An investigation was made of influence in 77 academic departments of 11 community colleges in Maryland. The purposes of the investigation were to examine the relationship of perceived measures of influence to member attitudes of (a) policy agreement, (b) superior-subordinate relations, (c) peer relations; to examine the aslopes of the distribution…

  8. Positive Peer Support or Negative Peer Influence? The Role of Peers among Adolescents in Recovery High Schools

    PubMed Central

    Karakos, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from previous research suggests that peers at times exert negative influence and at other times exert positive influence on drug and alcohol use among adolescents in recovery. This study explores recovery high school staff members' perceptions of peer support among students in recovery high schools using qualitative interview data. Themes of peer support are discussed in terms of positive peer support, negative peer influence, peer relationships, and sense of community. In general, recovery school staff members discuss peers in the school as sources of positive support and peers outside the schools as sources of risky influence. Themes and quotes are presented to highlight the diverse ways that staff members discussed peer influence. Limitations of this study and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:24839335

  9. Promoting Darfuri women’s psychosocial health: developing a war trauma counsellor training programme tailored to the person

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Women are considered special groups who are uniquely vulnerable in the context of war exposures. To effectively target the resources aimed at mitigating mental health consequences and optimising and maximising the use of mental health provisions, culturally relevant war trauma counsellor training is required. The objectives of this study are to promote a new philosophy in the Sudanese mental health care by introducing an integrative approach for targeted prevention and tailored treatments to the Darfuri person in a cost-effective way. Furthermore, the study provides evidence- and theory-based guidelines for developing a war trauma counsellor training programme in Sudan, mainly based on qualitative and quantitative studies among war-affected Darfuri female students. Cultural conceptualisations such as gender roles and religious expectations as well as theories that emphasise resilience and other psychosocial adaptation skills have been operationalised to reflect the totality of the Darfuri women’s experiences. Furthermore, the results of four interrelated studies among war-traumatised undergraduate Darfuri women who are internally displaced provide the basis that guides an outline for qualification development, capacity building and skills consolidation among Sudanese mental health care providers. Explicit war-related psychosocial needs assessment tools, specific war-related trauma counsellor training and particular counsellor characteristics, qualities and awareness that pertain to strengthening the efficacy of war trauma Sudanese counsellors are recommended. The aim is to produce expertly trained war trauma counsellors working with war-affected Darfuri women in particular and with regards to their helpfulness in responding to the psychosocial needs of war-exposed Sudanese in general. PMID:23531430

  10. Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith J.

    2009-01-01

    Peer assessment is an arrangement for learners to consider and specify the level, value, or quality of a product or performance of other equal-status learners. Products to be assessed can include writing, oral presentations, portfolios, test performance, or other skilled behaviors. Peer assessment can be summative or formative. A formative view is…

  11. Do counsellors in general practice surgeries and clinical psychologists in the National Health Service see the same patients?

    PubMed Central

    Burton, M V; Sadgrove, J; Selwyn, E

    1995-01-01

    An audit was conducted of a counsellor's work over the period 1989-1993 at two general practice surgeries in Coventry. Comparative data were available for general practitioner (GP)-referred patients seen in the district clinical psychology department in Coventry during 1988-1992. The counsellor saw significantly more patients referred with anxiety, depression, marital problems, child management and physical illness than did psychologists, whilst psychologists saw significantly more patients with relationship problems and personality disorders. To the question, 'Are these services effective?' the answer is yes, both services are effective, but they are treating different patient populations. PMID:7769604

  12. Contributions of Peer Support to Health, Health Care, and Prevention: Papers from Peers for Progress

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Edwin B.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Ibarra, Leticia; Cherrington, Andrea L.; Elder, John P.; Tang, Tricia S.; Heisler, Michele; Safford, Monika M.; Simmons, David

    2015-01-01

    SUBSTANTIAL evidence documents the benefits of peer support provided by community health workers, lay health advisors, promotores de salud, and others. The papers in this supplement, all supported by the Peers for Progress program of the American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation, contribute to the growing body of literature addressing the efficacy, effectiveness, feasibility, reach, sustainability, and adoption of peer support for diabetes self-management. They and additional papers supported by Peers for Progress contribute to understanding how peer support can be implemented in real world settings. Topics include examination of the peers who provide peer support, reaching the hardly reached, success factors in peer support interventions, proactive approaches, attention to emotions, peer support in behavioral health, dissemination models and their application in China, peer support in the patient-centered medical home, research challenges, and policy implications. PMID:26304968

  13. The Role of Community, Family, Peer, and School Factors in Group Bullying: Implications for School-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Michael J.; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Smith, Megan L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although an ecological perspective suggests the importance of multiple levels of intervention, most bullying research has emphasized individual- and school-focused strategies. This study investigated community and family factors that influence school efforts to reduce odds of group bullying behavior and victimization. Methods: We used…

  14. Peer Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... and behaviors. This is often positive — it's human nature to listen to and learn from other people ... Responding to peer pressure is part of human nature — but some people are more likely to give ...

  15. The Effects of Counsellor Gender and Problem Type on Help-Seeking Attitudes among Turkish High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz-Gozu, Hamide

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores gender differences in help-seeking attitudes and the effects of counsellor gender and problem type on those attitudes among Turkish high school students. The Attitudes towards Seeking Help Scale and a survey instrument concerning related factors were administered to 342 adolescents. ANOVAs show that male and female…

  16. International Registry of Counsellor Education Programs: CACREP's Contribution to the Development of Counseling as a Global Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanard, Rebecca Powell

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the issues and challenges involved in the development of the counseling profession internationally and the role that quality assurance plays in its development. It chronicles the development of the International Registry for Counsellor Education Programs and its contributions, a critical analysis of the strengths and…

  17. Stress Coping Strategies among Guidance Counsellors in the Performance of Their Jobs in Secondary Schools Delta North Senatorial District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onoyase, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The study was set out to investigate stress coping strategies among Guidance Counsellors in the performance of their jobs. One research question and four hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Two instruments were used to collect data for the study. One hundred and ten copies of the instruments were administered on one hundred and ten…

  18. "Have You Talked with a Teacher Yet?": How Helpline Counsellors Support Young Callers Being Bullied at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danby, Susan; Butler, Carly W.; Emmison, Michael

    2011-01-01

    When seeking help and support about being bullied, children and young people weigh up the benefits and risks of talking to their friends, parents, teachers and counsellors about their experiences. The focus of this article is calls to an Australian helpline for children and young people where the strategy of "talking to the teacher" is discussed…

  19. Digital Divide in the Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Counsellor Education in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyo, Mfon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated digital divide in the utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in counsellor education in Nigerian universities. It had two research questions and two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. It adopted a survey design and used ICT Utilization Questionnaire (IUQ) in gathering data from the…

  20. Psycho-Educational Assessment of Specific Learning Disabilities: Views and Practices of Australian Psychologists and Guidance Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meteyard, John D.; Gilmore, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This article reports an investigation of the views and practices of 203 Australian psychologists and guidance counsellors with respect to psycho-educational assessment of students with specific learning disabilities (SLDs). Results from an online survey indicated that practitioners draw upon a wide range of theoretical perspectives when…

  1. Secondary Trauma and Job Burnout and Associated Factors among HIV Lay Counsellors in Nkangala District, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltzer, Karl; Matseke, Gladys; Louw, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate secondary trauma and job burnout and associated factors in a sample of 71 HIV lay counsellors in South Africa. Results indicate that 49.5% were not satisfied with their work environment and 51.4% were potentially secondary traumatic stress cases. In univariate analysis, seeing more HIV counselling and testing…

  2. The School Counsellor and Students' Career Choice in High School: The Assessor's Perspective in a Ghanaian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoah, Samuel Asare; Kwofie, Isaac; Kwofie, Faustina Akosua Agyeiwaa

    2015-01-01

    School counsellors play significant role in the total development of students in respect to career choices. In view of that career development interventions are provide to support the provision of information to guide students make well informed choices in personal, academic and social aspects. This study thus, aimed to examine whether the role of…

  3. Personality Traits and Socio-Demographic Variables as Correlates of Counselling Effectiveness of Counsellors in Enugu State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyekuru, Bruno U.; Ibegbunam, Josephat

    2015-01-01

    Quality personality traits and socio-demographic variables are essential elements of effective counselling. This correlational study investigated personality traits and socio-demographic variables as predictors of counselling effectiveness of counsellors in Enugu State. The instruments for data collection were Personality Traits Assessment Scale…

  4. Being "chill" with teachers and "frozen" by peers in science: overcoming social and educational barriers in a learning community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hannah; Scantlebury, Kathryn

    2013-09-01

    This forum discusses the issue of `othering' and how intersectionality is a useful analytical framework for understanding the students' immigrant experiences in, and out of, the science classroom. We use a feminist perspective to discuss Minjung's study because gender is a key aspect of one's identity other aspects such as race, religion, socio-economic status, and age have assumed a significant status in gender studies. Lastly we examine the supports and barriers that cliques can produce and propose the importance of building a learning community in the science classroom to engage all students.

  5. Differences between children and adolescents who commit suicide and their peers: A psychological autopsy of suicide victims compared to accident victims and a community sample

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about the circumstances related to suicide among children and adolescents 15 years and younger. Methods We conducted a psychological autopsy, collecting information from parents, hospital records and police reports on persons below the age of 16 who had committed suicide in Norway during a 12-year period (1993-2004) (n = 41). Those who committed suicide were compared with children and adolescents who were killed in accidents during the same time period (n = 43) and with a community sample. Results: Among the suicides 25% met the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis and 30% had depressive symptoms at the time of death. Furthermore, 60% of the parents of the suicide victims reported the child experienced some kind of stressful conflict prior to death, whereas only 12% of the parents of the accident victims reported such conflicts. Conclusion One in four suicide victims fulfilled the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis. The level of sub-threshold depression and of stressful conflict experienced by youths who committed suicide did not appear to differ substantially from that of their peers, and therefore did not raise sufficient concern for referral to professional help. PMID:22216948

  6. Peer-Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith, Ed.; Ehly, Stewart, Ed.

    Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL) involves students consciously assisting others to learn, and in so doing, learning more effectively themselves. PAL encompasses peer tutoring, peer modeling, peer education, peer counseling, peer monitoring, and peer assessment, which are differentiated from other more general "cooperative learning" methods. This book…

  7. EMPATHY : A COMPARITIVE STUDY OF PROFESSIONALS AND TRAINED LAY COUNSELLORS USING HYPOTHETICAL SITUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, L.S.S.

    1990-01-01

    SUMMARY The study was conducted on 12 professionals and 12 trained lay counsellors. The two groups were matched for sex (7 males and 5 females) and their mean age was 27.5 and 32.25 years respectively. Ten hypothetical problem situationts were given and empathy was assessed using, accurate empathy rating scale by two independent raters. The inter rater reliability was found to be quite high (.61 significant at .01 level). There was no significant difference between the two groups and the sex groups. On comparing the results with the scores on audiotaped interview, there, was no significant correlations obtained between the two methods. Problems involved in assessing empathy from questionnaire and suggestions for further research are also discussed. PMID:21927433

  8. Dealing with Peer Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Dealing With Peer Pressure KidsHealth > For Kids > Dealing With Peer Pressure ... Let's talk about how to handle it. Defining Peer Pressure Peers influence your life, even if you ...

  9. The uncertain future of lay counsellors: continuation of HIV services in Lesotho under pressure.

    PubMed

    Bemelmans, Marielle; Goux, Delphine; Baert, Saar; van Cutsem, Gilles; Motsamai, Mabaruti; Philips, Mit; van Damme, Wim; Mwale, Hilary; Biot, Marc; van den Akker, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Between 2006 and 2011, when antiretroviral therapy (ART) was scaled up in a context of severe human resources shortages, transferring responsibility for elements in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care from conventional health workers to lay counsellors (LCs) contributed to increased uptake of HIV services in Lesotho. HIV tests rose from 79 394 in 2006 to 274 240 in 2011 and, in that same period, the number of people on ART increased from 17 352 to 83 624. However, since 2012, the jobs of LCs have been at risk because of financial and organizational challenges. We studied the role of LCs in HIV care in Lesotho between 2006 and 2013, and discuss potential consequences of losing this cadre. Methods included a case study of LCs in Lesotho based on: (1) review of LC-related health policy and planning documents, (2) HIV programme review and (3) workload analysis of LCs. LCs are trained to provide HIV testing and counselling (HTC) and ART adherence support. Funded by international donors, 487 LCs were deployed between 2006 and 2011. However, in 2012, the number of LCs decreased to 165 due to a decreasing donor funds, while administrative and fiscal barriers hampered absorption of LCs into the public health system. That same year, ART coverage decreased from 61% to 51% and facility-based HTC decreased by 15%, from 253 994 in 2011 to 215 042 tests in 2012. The workload analysis indicated that LCs work averagely 77 h per month, bringing considerable relief to the scarce professional health workforce. HIV statistics in Lesotho worsened dramatically in the recent era of reduced support to LCs. This suggests that in order to ensure access to HIV care in an under-resourced setting like Lesotho, a recognized and well-supported counsellor cadre is essential. The continued presence of LCs requires improved prioritization, with national and international support. PMID:26546581

  10. Counsellors contact dementia caregivers - predictors of utilisation in a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Counselling of family members is an established procedure in the support of dementia patients' relatives. In absence of widespread specialised dementia care services in most countries, however, counselling services are often not taken up or only very late in the course of the disease. Object In order to promote acceptance of this service, a new counselling concept was implemented where general practitioners recommended family counsellors, who then actively contacted the family caregivers to offer counselling ("Counsellors Contact Caregivers", CCC). The research questions were: To what extent can the rate of family counselling be increased by CCC? What are the predictors for usage of this form of family counselling? Methods The study started in June 2006 in Middle Franconia for patients with mild to moderate dementia. At baseline, 110 family caregivers were offered counselling based on the CCC guideline. Data was analysed from 97 patient-caregiver dyads who received counselling for one year. The mean age of the patients with dementia (67 women and 30 men) was 80.7 years (SD = 6.2). The mean age of their primary family caregivers (68 women, 23 men) was 60.8 years (SD = 13.8). Results 35 family members (36%) made use of more extensive counselling (more than one personal contact). By contrast, 29 family members (30%) had no personal contact or only one personal contact (33 cases, 34%). The factors "spouse" (p = .001) and "degree of care" (p = .005) were identified as significant predictors for acceptance of extensive counselling. Conclusions Actively contacting patients and their caregivers is a successful means of establishing early and frequent contact with family members of patients with mild to moderate dementia. Use of extensive counselling is made especially by spouses of patients requiring intensified care. Trial Registration ISRCTN68329593 PMID:20470365

  11. A Qualitative Assessment of a Community Antiretroviral Therapy Group Model in Tete, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Rasschaert, Freya; Telfer, Barbara; Lessitala, Faustino; Decroo, Tom; Remartinez, Daniel; Biot, Marc; Candrinho, Baltazar; Mbofana, Francisco; Van Damme, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Background To improve retention on ART, Médecins Sans Frontières, the Ministry of Health and patients piloted a community-based antiretroviral distribution and adherence monitoring model through Community ART Groups (CAG) in Tete, Mozambique. By December 2012, almost 6000 patients on ART had formed groups of whom 95.7% were retained in care. We conducted a qualitative study to evaluate the relevance, dynamic and impact of the CAG model on patients, their communities and the healthcare system. Methods Between October 2011 and May 2012, we conducted 16 focus group discussions and 24 in-depth interviews with the major stakeholders involved in the CAG model. Audio-recorded data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a grounded theory approach. Results Six key themes emerged from the data: 1) Barriers to access HIV care, 2) CAG functioning and actors involved, 3) Benefits for CAG members, 4) Impacts of CAG beyond the group members, 5) Setbacks, and 6) Acceptance and future expectations of the CAG model. The model provides cost and time savings, certainty of ART access and mutual peer support resulting in better adherence to treatment. Through the active role of patients, HIV information could be conveyed to the broader community, leading to an increased uptake of services and positive transformation of the identity of people living with HIV. Potential pitfalls included limited access to CAG for those most vulnerable to defaulting, some inequity to patients in individual ART care and a high dependency on counsellors. Conclusion The CAG model resulted in active patient involvement and empowerment, and the creation of a supportive environment improving the ART retention. It also sparked a reorientation of healthcare services towards the community and strengthened community actions. Successful implementation and scalability requires (a) the acceptance of patients as partners in health, (b) adequate resources, and (c) a well-functioning monitoring and management

  12. Reflections on Ideological Consistency between Community-Based Research and Counselling Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gregory E.

    2009-01-01

    Community-based research (CBR) and counselling practice share multiple skill sets and ideological tenets. In addition, CBR offers an approach to research that can be highly conducive to effective counselling-related research. Despite these consistencies and benefits, counsellors and counselling students have underutilized this approach to…

  13. Counselling, Suicide Risk Assessment, and Retention in a Community College (2004-2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on Suicide Risk Assessment (SRA) protocols completed by counsellors for 153 students who presented with suicidal ideation at a community college counselling centre during a five year period. This study sought to: determine the number of students presenting with suicidal ideation annually; identify the types of interventions used…

  14. Recommendations for peer-to-peer support for NICU parents.

    PubMed

    Hall, S L; Ryan, D J; Beatty, J; Grubbs, L

    2015-12-01

    Peer-to-peer support provided by 'veteran' neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) parents to those with current NICU babies is a legitimate and unique form of support that can complement or supplement, but not replace, services provided by professional NICU staff. Peer support can be delivered through hospital- or community-based programs that offer one-to-one in-person or telephone matches, or support groups that meet in-person or via the Internet. Issues in program development, volunteer training and program operation are discussed. Recommendations for offering peer support to all NICU parents as an integral component of family-centered care and comprehensive family support are presented. PMID:26597805

  15. Recommendations for peer-to-peer support for NICU parents

    PubMed Central

    Hall, S L; Ryan, D J; Beatty, J; Grubbs, L

    2015-01-01

    Peer-to-peer support provided by ‘veteran' neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) parents to those with current NICU babies is a legitimate and unique form of support that can complement or supplement, but not replace, services provided by professional NICU staff. Peer support can be delivered through hospital- or community-based programs that offer one-to-one in-person or telephone matches, or support groups that meet in-person or via the Internet. Issues in program development, volunteer training and program operation are discussed. Recommendations for offering peer support to all NICU parents as an integral component of family-centered care and comprehensive family support are presented. PMID:26597805

  16. The Case for Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benard, Bonnie

    "Peer resource" refers to any program that uses children and youth to work with or help other children and youth; programs such as youth service, cooperative learning, peer tutoring, cross-age tutoring, peer helping, peer mediation, peer leadership, and youth involvement. This paper advocates the adoption of a peer resource model of education in…

  17. Community-based approaches for prevention of mother to child transmission in resource-poor settings: a social ecological review

    PubMed Central

    Busza, Joanna; Walker, Damilola; Hairston, Alana; Gable, Alicia; Pitter, Christian; Lee, Stephen; Katirayi, Leila; Simiyu, Rogers; Mpofu, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Numerous barriers to optimal uptake of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) services occur at community level (i.e., outside the healthcare setting). To achieve elimination of paediatric HIV, therefore, interventions must also work within communities to address these barriers and increase service use and need to be informed by evidence. This paper reviews community-based approaches that have been used in resource-limited settings to increase rates of PMTCT enrolment, retention in care and successful treatment outcomes. It aims to identify which interventions work, why they may do so and what knowledge gaps remain. Methods First, we identified barriers to PMTCT that originate outside the health system. These were used to construct a social ecological framework categorizing barriers to PMTCT into the following levels of influence: individual, peer and family, community and sociocultural. We then used this conceptual framework to guide a review of the literature on community-based approaches, defined as interventions delivered outside of formal health settings, with the goal of increasing uptake, retention, adherence and positive psychosocial outcomes in PMTCT programmes in resource-poor countries. Results Our review found evidence of effectiveness of strategies targeting individuals and peer/family levels (e.g., providing household HIV testing and training peer counsellors to support exclusive breastfeeding) and at community level (e.g., participatory women’s groups and home-based care to support adherence and retention). Evidence is more limited for complex interventions combining multiple strategies across different ecological levels. There is often little information describing implementation; and approaches such as “community mobilization” remain poorly defined. Conclusions Evidence from existing community approaches can be adapted for use in planning PMTCT. However, for successful replication of evidence-based interventions to

  18. Peer Relations in Peer Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riese, Hanne; Samara, Akylina; Lillejord, Solvi

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades, much research on peer learning practices has been conducted. Quantitative, experimental designs focusing on problems of cause and effect dominate. Consequently, effects on achievement are well documented, as is the influence of different conditions on the effect rate. In spite of the general acknowledgment of the importance…

  19. A Study of Peer Tutor Training Programs: A League Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Ellen

    Designed to examine the nature and extent of peer tutoring and tutor training at community colleges, this report reviews the literature on the topic, describes a national study conducted by the League for Innovation in the Community College (LICC), and reports on a survey of the attitudes of peer tutors at Johnson County Community College (JCCC)…

  20. Opposites Detract: Middle School Peer Group Antipathies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona

    2010-01-01

    This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish ninth-grade middle school students (mean age = 15.0 years). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youths in actor…

  1. Writing Quality Peer Reviews of Research Manuscripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Phillip; Graber, Kim C.; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is an important mechanism for advancing knowledge in a manner deemed as acceptable by the research community. It can also serve the function of providing guidance to an author(s) to improve the likelihood that manuscripts will be accepted in peer reviewed journals. There is, however, little assistance for new or existing reviewers of…

  2. Peer Managed Token Economies: Evaluation and Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedell, Jeffrey R.; Archer, Robert P.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicate equivalent levels of patient performance when contingent reinforcement in a residential token economy program was controlled by either patient peer groups or staff. Patients in a peer-managed program showed positive ward behavior, reductions in psychosocial problems, and increase in potential for adjusting to community life.…

  3. Independent Study, Fieldwork, and Peer Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Paul G.

    1986-01-01

    Independent study, fieldwork, and peer teaching are particularly well suited to helping outstanding students learn, interact collaboratively, and become contributing members of the academic community. Study options, elements of a study contract, and other components are described. (MSE)

  4. The "Peer" in "Peer Review"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Gad; Bertoluci, Jaime; Bury, Bruce; Hansen, Robert W.; Jehle, Robert; Measey, John; Moon, Brad R.; Muths, Erin; Zuffi, Marco A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review is the best available mechanism for assessing and improving the quality of scientific work. As herpetology broadens its disciplinary and geographic boundaries, high-quality external review is ever more essential. We are writing this editorial jointly because the review process has become increasingly difficult. The resulting delays slow publication times, negatively affect performance reviews, tenure, promotions, and grant proposal success. It harms authors, agencies, and institutions (Ware 2011).

  5. Looking for sufficient change: Evaluation of counsellor training for STI syndromic management in India.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Melita; Kadyan, Nisha; Chalil, Sumitha; Prasad, Turlapati L N; Singh, Aman Kumar

    2016-10-01

    In India, public health care of Sexually Transmitted Infections is delivered through Designated STI/RTI Clinics (DSRCs) using syndromic management. This paper describes efforts, over three years, to improve in-service training for counsellors positioned at DSRCs-using a data approach. The programme managers realised, through rigorous monitoring of initial induction training reports that, while knowledge and attitudes of most trainees had improved as evident from t-tests, at least one-quarter scored worse on post-training assessments (n=859). Therefore, they undertook a survey using a competency approach to diagnose what critical competencies are influenced through training: counselling skills, risk reduction suggestions, labelling male and female anatomy, record-keeping and STI patient education (n=132). Survey results demonstrated that trainees failed to pass a two-thirds cutoff score in most competencies. These findings led the programme managers to modify training and implement tighter quality measures. In the second round of training - refresher training - outcomes on competency assessments before and after training showed more acceptable performance (n=833). The paper describes how programme managers, after an acceptance of such initial short-comings, developed customized assessments when literature provided limited guidance and how they worked to achieve change that was acceptable for programme needs. PMID:27372031

  6. Rehabilitation counsellors: incorporation of assistive technology device selection and referrals into professional practice.

    PubMed

    Barzegarian, Behnush; Sax, Caren L

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to determine how well graduates of a rehabilitation counselling master programme were prepared to work with clients in assistive technology (AT) device selection or referral of resources. Specifically, inquiry was conducted as to how graduates have incorporated AT into their professional practice, their level of comfort with exploring AT solutions, and whether they felt additional training was needed. METHODS. The methodology used was an online survey of multiple choice and text boxes sent to rehabilitation counselling graduates. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used to provide the range of responses. Trends were analysed to highlight differences between various factors. RESULTS. Responses indicated that graduates did find the dedicated AT course helpful in learning about the AT process. However, a number of respondents were not comfortable in participating in the AT process and were not incorporating the AT process into their work. CONCLUSIONS. Future studies should explore the role of AT acquisition from the perspective of rehabilitation counsellors and also examine why graduates are not incorporating the AT process. Respondents indicated the need for continuing education and professional development in this area. PMID:21561317

  7. Straddling the Gap: How Second-Year Peers Empower First-Year Students to Participate in a Community of Independent Learning by Means of the Educative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Transition from school or college to university is a time of great anxiety for many first-year undergraduates: some studies illustrate the emphasis which students place on finding new friends and securing a consistent social life; the importance of which resonates more with peers than with parents or lecturers. This has to be accomplished…

  8. Youth Who are "Disconnected" and Those Who Then Reconnect: Assessing the Influence of Family, Programs, Peers and Communities. Research Brief. Publication #2009-37

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hair, Elizabeth C.; Moore, Kristin A.; Ling, Thomson J.; McPhee-Baker, Cameron; Brown, Brett V.

    2009-01-01

    The transition to adulthood can be a turbulent time. To succeed in this transition, adolescents and emerging adults must advance in several areas of development, such as education, work, financial autonomy, romantic relationships, peer involvement, citizenship, and avoidance of destructive health behaviors. However, some young people who have…

  9. Adaptive search in mobile peer-to-peer databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfson, Ouri (Inventor); Xu, Bo (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Information is stored in a plurality of mobile peers. The peers communicate in a peer to peer fashion, using a short-range wireless network. Occasionally, a peer initiates a search for information in the peer to peer network by issuing a query. Queries and pieces of information, called reports, are transmitted among peers that are within a transmission range. For each search additional peers are utilized, wherein these additional peers search and relay information on behalf of the originator of the search.

  10. Opposites Detract: Middle School Peer Group Antipathies

    PubMed Central

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona

    2010-01-01

    This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish 9th grade middle school students (M = 15.0 years-old). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youth in actor groups (nominators) that predicted antipathy for youth in target groups (nominatees) on the basis of target group characteristics. Most antipathies were based on dissimilarity between groups representing the mainstream culture and groups opposed to it. The higher a peer group's school burnout, the more its members disliked students in peer groups with higher school grades and students in peer groups with higher sports participation. Conversely, the higher a peer group's school grades, the more its members disliked students in peer groups with higher school burnout. Students in peer groups with less problem behavior disliked students in peer groups with more problem behavior. There was some evidence of rivalry within the mainstream culture: The higher a group's school grades, the more its members disliked those in groups whose members participated in sports. PMID:20378125

  11. Peer-review thoughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Bill; Goodman, Maurice

    2016-03-01

    In reply to the news article on challenges for peer-review by Michael Banks “Peer review under the spotlight” (February pp12-13), the editorial by Matin Durrani “Handle with care” cautioning against reforming peer review too fast (February p15) and Robert P Crease's article “Peer review's value” (February p17).

  12. Trends in Peer Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith J.

    2005-01-01

    Developments in forms of peer learning 1981-2006 are reviewed, focusing mainly on peer tutoring, cooperative learning, and peer assessment. Types and definitions of peer learning are explored, together with questions of implementation integrity and consequent effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Benefits to helpers are now emphasised at least as…

  13. Medical journal peer review: process and bias.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Kaye, Alan D; Boswell, Mark V; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2015-01-01

    Scientific peer review is pivotal in health care research in that it facilitates the evaluation of findings for competence, significance, and originality by qualified experts. While the origins of peer review can be traced to the societies of the eighteenth century, it became an institutionalized part of the scholarly process in the latter half of the twentieth century. This was a response to the growth of research and greater subject specialization. With the current increase in the number of specialty journals, the peer review process continues to evolve to meet the needs of patients, clinicians, and policy makers. The peer review process itself faces challenges. Unblinded peer review might suffer from positive or negative bias towards certain authors, specialties, and institutions. Peer review can also suffer when editors and/or reviewers might be unable to understand the contents of the submitted manuscript. This can result in an inability to detect major flaws, or revelations of major flaws after acceptance of publication by the editors. Other concerns include potentially long delays in publication and challenges uncovering plagiarism, duplication, corruption and scientific misconduct. Conversely, a multitude of these challenges have led to claims of scientific misconduct and an erosion of faith. These challenges have invited criticism of the peer review process itself. However, despite its imperfections, the peer review process enjoys widespread support in the scientific community. Peer review bias is one of the major focuses of today's scientific assessment of the literature. Various types of peer review bias include content-based bias, confirmation bias, bias due to conservatism, bias against interdisciplinary research, publication bias, and the bias of conflicts of interest. Consequently, peer review would benefit from various changes and improvements with appropriate training of reviewers to provide quality reviews to maintain the quality and integrity of

  14. The Healthy Activity Program lay counsellor delivered treatment for severe depression in India: systematic development and randomised evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Neerja; Anand, Arpita; Dimidjian, Sona; Shinde, Sachin; Weobong, Benedict; Balaji, Madhumitha; Hollon, Steven D.; Rahman, Atif; Wilson, G. Terence; Verdeli, Helena; Araya, Ricardo; King, Michael; Jordans, Mark J. D.; Fairburn, Christopher; Kirkwood, Betty; Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Background Reducing the global treatment gap for mental disorders requires treatments that are economical, effective and culturally appropriate. Aims To describe a systematic approach to the development of a brief psychological treatment for patients with severe depression delivered by lay counsellors in primary healthcare. Method The treatment was developed in three stages using a variety of methods: (a) identifying potential strategies; (b) developing a theoretical framework; and (c) evaluating the acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of the psychological treatment. Results The Healthy Activity Program (HAP) is delivered over 6–8 sessions and consists of behavioral activation as the core psychological framework with added emphasis on strategies such as problem-solving and activation of social networks. Key elements to improve acceptability and feasibility are also included. In an intention-to-treat analysis of a pilot randomised controlled trial (55 participants), the prevalence of depression (Beck Depression Inventory II ⩾19) after 2 months was lower in the HAP than the control arm (adjusted risk ratio = 0.55, 95% CI 0.32–0.94, P = 0.01). Conclusions Our systematic approach to the development of psychological treatments could be extended to other mental disorders. HAP is an acceptable and effective brief psychological treatment for severe depression delivered by lay counsellors in primary care. PMID:26494875

  15. 2006 Annual Merit Review & Peer Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Each year hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Hydrogen Program are reviewed for their merit during an Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting. The 2006 Annual Merit Review, held May 16-19, 2006 in Arlington, Va., showcased approximately 250 projects. Principal investigators presented their project status and results in oral and poster presentations, which are available in the 2006 Annual Merit Review Proceedings. A panel of more than 150 community experts peer reviewed two-t

  16. Re-Evaluating the Significance of Phonemic Awareness and Phonics in Literacy Teaching: The Shared Role of School Counsellors and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Julie; Colmar, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This article examines recent research and developments relating to the role of phonemic awareness and phonics in early literacy education and the relevance of these findings for school counsellors and teachers. It defines and reviews the role of phonemic awareness and phonics in theoretical models of reading processes, including whole-language,…

  17. "At Risk of Harm"? An Exploratory Survey of School Counsellors in the UK, Their Perceptions of Confidentiality, Information Sharing and Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Peter; Palmer, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to explore perceptions of UK school counsellors of confidentiality and information sharing in therapeutic work with children and young people, using qualitative methods. The research design employed a two-stage process, using questionnaires and follow-up interviews, with a small, non-random sample of school…

  18. "The Weight of Class": Clients' Experiences of How Perceived Differences in Social Class between Counsellor and Client Affect the Therapeutic Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balmforth, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The impact of a difference in social class on the therapeutic relationship has received less attention than other differences between counsellor and client, such as gender, race and sexual orientation. In this qualitative research study six clients who identified as working class were interviewed about their experience of a therapeutic…

  19. Lay Counsellor-Based Risk Reduction Intervention with HIV Positive Diagnosed Patients at Public HIV Counselling and Testing Sites in Mpumalanga, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltzer, Karl; Tabane, Cily; Matseke, Gladys; Simbayi, Leickness

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, fidelity, and effect of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction intervention delivered to HIV-infected patients by lay counsellors during routine HIV counselling and testing (HCT) public service in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Methods: A total of 488 HIV-infected patients, aged 18 years and older,…

  20. PKI-based security for peer-to-peer information sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Berket, Karlo; Essiari, Abdelilah; Muratas, Artur

    2004-05-02

    The free flow of information is the feature that has made peer-to-peer information sharing applications popular. However, this very feature holds back the acceptance of these applications by the corporate and scientific communities. In these communities it is important to provide confidentiality and integrity of communication and to enforce access control to shared resources. We present a number of security mechanisms that can be used to satisfy these security requirements. Our solutions are based on established and proven security techniques and we utilize existing technologies when possible. As a proof of concept, we have developed an information sharing system, called scishare, which integrates a number of these security mechanisms to provide a secure environment for information sharing. This system will allow a broader set of user communities to benefit from peer-to-peer information sharing.

  1. A Study of the Effects of the Implementation of Small Peer Led Collaborative Group Learning on Students in Developmental Mathematics Courses at a Tribal Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Dianna Dawn Tiahrt

    2010-01-01

    College students needing remediation in mathematics are a problem at nearly all colleges and universities but are immense at community colleges where large numbers of students enroll in developmental mathematics courses. This issue for Native American students at Tribal Community Colleges has an enormous effect on future opportunities in…

  2. Enriching Patient-Centered Medical Homes Through Peer Support

    PubMed Central

    Daaleman, Timothy P.; Fisher, Edwin B.

    2015-01-01

    Peer supporters are recognized by various designations—community health workers, promotores de salud, lay health advisers—and are community members who work for pay or as volunteers in association with health care systems or nonprofit community organizations and often share ethnicity, language, and socioeconomic status with the mentees that they serve. Although emerging evidence demonstrates the efficacy of peer support at the community level, the adoption and implementation of this resource into patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) is still under development. To accelerate that integration, this article addresses three major elements of peer support interventions: the functions and features of peer support, a framework and programmatic strategies for implementation, and fiscal models that would support the sustained viability of peer support programs within PCMHs. Key functions of peer support include assistance in daily management of health-related behaviors, social and emotional support, linkage to clinical care, and longitudinal or ongoing support. An organizational model of innovation implementation provides a useful framework for determining how to implement and evaluate peer support programs in PCMHs. Programmatic strategies that can be useful in developing peer support programs within PCMHs include peer coaching or mentoring, group self-management training, and programs designed around the telephone and information technology. Fiscal models for peer support programs include linkages with hospital or health care systems, service- or community-based nonprofit organizations, and partnerships between health care systems and community groups. Peer support promises to enrich PCMHs by activating patients in their self-care, providing culturally sensitive outreach, and opening the way for partnerships with community-based organizations. PMID:26304975

  3. Enriching Patient-Centered Medical Homes Through Peer Support.

    PubMed

    Daaleman, Timothy P; Fisher, Edwin B

    2015-08-01

    Peer supporters are recognized by various designations-community health workers, promotores de salud, lay health advisers-and are community members who work for pay or as volunteers in association with health care systems or nonprofit community organizations and often share ethnicity, language, and socioeconomic status with the mentees that they serve. Although emerging evidence demonstrates the efficacy of peer support at the community level, the adoption and implementation of this resource into patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) is still under development. To accelerate that integration, this article addresses three major elements of peer support interventions: the functions and features of peer support, a framework and programmatic strategies for implementation, and fiscal models that would support the sustained viability of peer support programs within PCMHs. Key functions of peer support include assistance in daily management of health-related behaviors, social and emotional support, linkage to clinical care, and longitudinal or ongoing support. An organizational model of innovation implementation provides a useful framework for determining how to implement and evaluate peer support programs in PCMHs. Programmatic strategies that can be useful in developing peer support programs within PCMHs include peer coaching or mentoring, group self-management training, and programs designed around the telephone and information technology. Fiscal models for peer support programs include linkages with hospital or health care systems, service- or community-based nonprofit organizations, and partnerships between health care systems and community groups. Peer support promises to enrich PCMHs by activating patients in their self-care, providing culturally sensitive outreach, and opening the way for partnerships with community-based organizations. PMID:26304975

  4. Nuevo Amanecer: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Community-Based, Peer-Delivered Stress Management Intervention to Improve Quality of Life in Latinas With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ortíz, Carmen; Santoyo-Olsson, Jasmine; Stewart, Anita L.; Gregorich, Steven; Lee, Howard E.; Durón, Ysabel; McGuire, Peggy; Luce, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a community-based, translational stress management program to improve health-related quality of life in Spanish-speaking Latinas with breast cancer. Methods. We adapted a cognitive–behavioral stress management program integrating evidence-based and community best practices to address the needs of Latinas with breast cancer. Spanish-speaking Latinas with breast cancer were randomly assigned to an intervention or usual-care control group. Trained peers delivered the 8-week intervention between February 2011 and February 2014. Primary outcomes were breast cancer–specific quality of life and distress, and general symptoms of distress. Results. Of 151 participants, 95% were retained at 6 months (between May 2011 and May 2014). Improvements in quality of life from baseline to 6 months were greater for the intervention than the control group on physical well-being, emotional well-being, breast cancer concerns, and overall quality of life. Decreases from baseline to 6 months were greater for the intervention group on depression and somatization. Conclusions. Results suggest that translation of evidence-based programs can reduce psychosocial health disparities in Latinas with breast cancer. Integration of this program into community-based organizations enhances its dissemination potential. PMID:25905829

  5. o'Peer: open peer review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    I have built a "demonstration" website at http://oPeer.org to illustrate how peer review and publication might be improved relative to the current model, which was designed and implemented in an era when scientific communication was either face-to-face or relied upon human delivery of ink marks on dead trees.

  6. What is the role of a case manager in community aged care? A qualitative study in Australia.

    PubMed

    You, Emily Chuanmei; Dunt, David; Doyle, Colleen

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to explore the perceptions of case managers about their roles in providing community aged care in Australia. Purposeful sampling was used and 33 qualitative semi-structured interviews with 47 participants were conducted. Participants were drawn from a list of all case managers working in aged care organisations that provided publicly funded case-managed community aged care programmes in the State of Victoria, Australia. Participant selection criteria included age, gender, job titles, professional backgrounds, practice locations, organisational attributes and organisational size. Data collection was implemented between September 2012 and March 2013. Thematic analysis was performed. Participants believed that case managers performed diverse roles based on clients' needs. They also articulated 16 important roles of case managers, including advisors, advocates, carers, communicators, co-ordinators, educators, empowering clients, engaging clients and families, liaising with people, managing budgets, navigators, negotiators, networking with people, facilitators, problem solvers and supporters. However, they were concerned about brokers, mediators and counsellors in terms of the terminology or case managers' willingness to perform these roles. Moreover, they perceived that neither gatekeepers nor direct service provision was case managers' role. The findings of this study suggest that case managers working in community aged care sectors may be more effective if they practised the 16 roles aforementioned. With the value of helping rather than obstructing clients to access services, they may not act as gatekeepers. In addition, they may not provide services directly as opposed to their peers working in medical care settings. The findings will also assist organisations to design job descriptions specifying case managers' roles and associated job responsibilities. Clear job descriptions will further benefit the organisations in staff recruitment, orientation

  7. Peer Leadership Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Nikki; Hachmeister, Paula

    This is a manual for peer counselors and parents in an alcohol and drug abuse prevention program for teenagers. The document opens with the training objectives for the peer helpers: to know yourself, to be a resource, and to promote and establish a drug-free peer group and drug-free activities in school. Discussion on these topics is provided: (1)…

  8. Peer Influence and Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Crystal; Simpson, Shelly; Najera, John; Weiner, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that peer influence can be negative, by increasing the likelihood that a youth will engage in high-risk behaviors and make risky decisions. However, peer influence can also be positive and protect a youth from these same high-risk activities. This article examines the extent of peer influence and then describes the Alternative…

  9. Peer relations in childhood.

    PubMed

    Hay, Dale F; Payne, Alexandra; Chadwick, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    We present a developmental model that describes normal peer relations and highlights processes that underlie the emergence of problems with peers in childhood. We propose that children's relationships with peers begin in the first years of life, with stable individual differences and preferences for particular peers emerging by three years of age. Social skills that facilitate peer relationships consolidate in the preschool years, during which time peer groups become structured with respect to friendship groups, gender, and dominance relations; some children begin to be rejected by their peers. In later childhood some children develop entrenched problems with peer relationships, in terms of loneliness, bullying and victimisation. Underlying cognitive and emotional processes that facilitate successful peer relationships at all ages are identified, and the extent to which peer relations play a causal role in the genesis of disorder is evaluated. A review of the evidence suggests that, rather than a simple pathway from problematic peer relations to disorder, there is a reciprocal relationship between children's problems with peers and their psychological problems from infancy to adolescence. PMID:14959804

  10. The future of mental health care: peer-to-peer support and social media

    PubMed Central

    Naslund, J. A.; Aschbrenner, K. A.; Marsch, L. A.; Bartels, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims People with serious mental illness are increasingly turning to popular social media, including Facebook, Twitter or YouTube, to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health conditions. This emerging form of unsolicited communication among self-forming online communities of patients and individuals with diverse health concerns is referred to as peer-to-peer support. We offer a perspective on how online peer-to-peer connections among people with serious mental illness could advance efforts to promote mental and physical wellbeing in this group. Methods In this commentary, we take the perspective that when an individual with serious mental illness decides to connect with similar others online it represents a critical point in their illness experience. We propose a conceptual model to illustrate how online peer-to-peer connections may afford opportunities for individuals with serious mental illness to challenge stigma, increase consumer activation and access online interventions for mental and physical well-being. Results People with serious mental illness report benefits from interacting with peers online from greater social connectedness, feelings of group belonging and by sharing personal stories and strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of living with a mental illness. Within online communities, individuals with serious mental illness could challenge stigma through personal empowerment and providing hope. By learning from peers online, these individuals may gain insight about important health care decisions, which could promote mental health care seeking behaviours. These individuals could also access interventions for mental and physical wellbeing delivered through social media that could incorporate mutual support between peers, help promote treatment engagement and reach a wider demographic. Unforeseen risks may include exposure to misleading information, facing hostile or derogatory comments from others, or

  11. NASA Product Peer Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenks, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  12. Defining Peer-to-Peer Learning--From an Old "Art of Practice" to a New Mode of Forest Owner Extension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamunen, Katri; Appelstrand, Marie; Hujala, Teppo; Kurttila, Mikko; Sriskandarajah, Nadarajah; Vilkriste, Lelde; Westberg, Lotten; Tikkanen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper explores the concept of peer-to-peer learning (P2PL) in the context of North-European small-scale forest owners. The aim is to develop a framework for initiating new and evaluating already existing forest owners' P2PL communities. Design: Previous studies of peer-learning are used to determine and justify eight dimensions for…

  13. PEER REVIEW PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    MOGHISSI, A ALAN; LOVE, BETTY R; STRAJA, SORIN R

    2007-09-29

    The Institute for Regulatory Science (RS) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) jointly estab lished a peer-review program. As the program evolved, four types of review were established. A process for stakeholder participation in peer review eetings was also developed. While a committee established by the ASME provided oversight to the peer-review process, the RSI managed the day-to-day operations of peer review panels. In addition to the reports resulting from peer review of specific projects, several documents were prepared to facilitate the review process, all of which were widely distributed.

  14. A Case Study of an Undergraduate Engineering Peer Tutoring Group: An Investigation of the Structure of a Community of Practice and the Value Members Gain from Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke Douglas, Tameka Sharona

    2010-01-01

    "Shaping the Future", the 1996 report to the National Science Foundation (NSF), called for the research community to identify and characterize practical solutions for developing "supportive" and "excellent" learning experiences for all students in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (SME). The recommendation was that we "start with…

  15. Literacy and Community. The Twentieth Yearbook: A Peer Reviewed Publication of the College Reading Association, 1998. [Papers from the College Reading Association Conference, 1997].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturtevant, Elizabeth G., Ed.; Dugan, JoAnn, Ed.; Linder, Patricia, Ed.; Linek, Wayne M., Ed.

    This 20th Yearbook of the College Reading Association reflects the theme of "community" again and again, in diverse ways. First in the yearbook are the Presidential Address by Marino C. Alvarez, "Adolescent Literacy: Are We in Contact?" and the three Keynote Addresses: "My Life in Reading" (J. Chall); "A Social-Constructivist View of Family…

  16. Building Literacy Communities. The Thirty-Second Yearbook: A Doubled Peer Reviewed Publication of the Association of Literacy Educators and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Susan, Ed.; Morrison, Timothy, Ed.; Martin, Linda, Ed.; Boggs, Merry, Ed.; Raine, I. LaVerne, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    For its 53rd annual meeting, the Association of Educators and Researchers met in Charlotte, North Carolina at the Marriott Charlotte City Center. This year's conference theme was "Building Literacy Communities", which was also used as the title for this year's Yearbook, Volume 32. This organization has long been the home of some of the nation's…

  17. Developing Internet Communication and Peer Support in a Statewide Child Care Community for Participants in a Child Development Associate (CDA) Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Steven

    This applied dissertation project was designed to improve communication systems among child care providers previously and currently enrolled in a statewide Child Development Associate (CDA) training program as a pilot project to promote communication among the statewide child care community as a whole. Communications systems within the CDA…

  18. Professionalizing the Role of Peer Leaders in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowling, Bethany; Doyle, Maureen; Taylor, Jennifer; Antes, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to improve retention in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors frequently utilize peer mentors and/or leaders. At Northern Kentucky University, the STEM Ambassador (SA) program involves students in the creation of a STEM community through multifaceted roles as mentors, peer-learning facilitators, and social…

  19. Peer Influence and Drug Use among Adolescents in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, B. E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Sampled 1,004 eighth and tenth graders in 23 rural communities to examine peer influence and drug use. Students who perceived higher degree of drug use among friends and who received more information about drugs from friends used drugs more frequently. Findings support theory that peer pressure is related to drug abuse. (Author/NB)

  20. Academic Peer Instruction: Reference and Training Manual (with Answers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaritsky, Joyce; Toce, Andi

    2013-01-01

    This manual consists of an introduction to our Academic Peer Instruction (API) program at LaGuardia Community College, a compilation of the materials we have developed and use for training of our tutors (with answers), and a bibliography. API is based on an internationally recognized peer tutoring program, Supplemental Instruction. (Contains 6…

  1. Parents and Peers as Social Influences to Deter Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Emily C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Henson, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Growth curve analyses were used to investigate parents' and peers' influence on adolescents' choice to abstain from antisocial behavior in a community-based sample of 416 early adolescents living in the Southeastern United States. Participants were primarily European American (91%) and 51% were girls. Both parents and peers were important…

  2. Problem Youths or Problem Solvers? Building Resilience through Peer Helping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasmund, William; Copas, Randy

    1994-01-01

    Briefly reviews Positive Peer Culture (PPC) program employed in residential treatment centers, group homes, and schools, that focuses explicitly on peer group to create therapeutic community with unified staff and student goals. Presents question-and-answer session with six adolescent male participants in PPC program. (NB)

  3. Unleashing the Power of Young Women through Peer Helping Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Richard; Steiner, Mary E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the application of the Positive Peer Culture (PPC) treatment methodology to a population of troubled girls in a residential setting. The peer group utilizes naturally occurring problems as vehicles to teach girls about errors in behavior and thinking. Community activities are used to practice newly obtained prosocial behaviors. (LSR)

  4. Reviewing post-publication peer review

    PubMed Central

    Knoepfler, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Post-publication peer review (PPPR) is transforming how the life sciences community evaluates published manuscripts and data. Unsurprisingly, however, PPPR is experiencing growing pains, and some elements of the process distinct from standard pre-publication review remain controversial. I discuss the rapid evolution of PPPR, its impact, and the challenges associated with it. PMID:25851694

  5. A Fresh Approach to Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, John

    2013-01-01

    Bullying often persists in spite of formal programs targeting this problem. Supportive school and classroom communities enlist brave peers in consoling, encouraging, and befriending victims, which removes the status that fuels bullies. For the past 18 years, this author has worked in multiple children's agencies and schools, studying bullying…

  6. CHAMPS: Peer Leadership Program. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallenari, Alison; Epps, Pat

    CHAMPS Peer Leadership is a program for the prevention of drug, alcohol, and tobacco use, and other negative behaviors and issues facing children. The program asks children to take responsibility for themselves and make positive changes in their schools and communities. Students who have process skills such as goal setting, team building,…

  7. The Adolescent Relational Dialectic and the Peer Roots of Adult Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.; Chango, Joanna; Szwedo, David

    2014-01-01

    The long-term import of a fundamental challenge of adolescent social development--establishing oneself as a desirable peer companion while avoiding problematic behaviors often supported within peer groups--was examined in a community sample of 184 adolescents, followed from ages 13 to 23, along with parents, peers, and romantic partners. The…

  8. Peer Review in Class: Metrics and Variations in a Senior Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankulov, Krassimir; Couto, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Peer reviews are the generally accepted mode of quality assessment in scholarly communities; however, they are rarely used for evaluation at college levels. Over a period of 5 years, we have performed a peer review simulation at a senior level course in molecular genetics at the University of Guelph and have accumulated 393 student peer reviews.…

  9. Peer-Led Interventions to Reduce HIV Risk of Youth: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Barnett, Jessica Penwell

    2010-01-01

    One approach in HIV prevention programming targeting youth is to use peer leaders in what is referred to as peer education programming. This paper critically reviews and synthesizes the results and lessons learned from 24 evaluated peer-led programs with an HIV/AIDS risk reduction component that target youth in the communities where they live and…

  10. Converting Peer Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Audrey

    1997-01-01

    Reports on research on peer helping programs and describes a peer tutoring program in three New York City high schools. Results illustrate the importance of youth participation in meaningful roles. Notes that programs in which youth help youth could do many positive things, especially in urban schools. (SLD)