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Sample records for community prevention intervention

  1. Community-based Injury Prevention Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Terry P.; MacKay, J. Morag; Moher, David; Walker, Annie; Jones, Alison L.

    2000-01-01

    Reviewed 32 studies that evaluated the impact of community-based injury prevention efforts on childhood injuries, safety behaviors, and adoption of safety devices. Interventions targeted schools, municipalities, and cities. This approach effectively increased some safety practices (e.g, bicycle helmet and car seat use) but not others. Common…

  2. Community violence: causes, prevention, and intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, C. C.

    1997-01-01

    This article presents some pragmatic schemata for understanding various types and motivations for violence. This understanding is essential to frame prevention, intervention, and postvention strategies designed to reduce the phenomena of violence in our society. Each category of violence lists examples of prevention, intervention, and postvention strategies. This article is intended to broaden the understanding of violence so that strategies to address violence will become more specific and measurable. PMID:9347679

  3. Intervention Costs From Communities Putting Prevention to Work

    PubMed Central

    Khavjou, Olga A.; Bradley, Christina; Neuwahl, Simon; Hoerger, Thomas J.; Bellard, David; Cash, Amanda J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded 50 communities to participate in the Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) program. CPPW supported community-based approaches to prevent or delay chronic disease and promote wellness by reducing tobacco use and obesity. We collected the direct costs of CPPW for the 44 communities funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and analyzed costs per person reached for all CPPW interventions and by intervention category. Methods From 2011 through 2013, we collected quarterly data on costs from the 44 CPPW ARRA-funded communities. We estimated CPPW program costs as spending on labor; consultants; materials, travel, and services; overhead activities; and partners plus the value of in-kind donations. We estimated communities’ costs per person reached for each intervention implemented and compared cost allocations across communities that focused on reducing tobacco use, or obesity, or both. Analyses were conducted in 2014; costs are reported in 2012 dollars. Results The largest share of CPPW total costs of $363 million supported interventions in communities that focused on obesity ($228 million). Average costs per person reached were less than $5 for 84% of tobacco-related interventions, 88% of nutrition interventions, and 89% of physical activity interventions. Costs per person reached were highest for social support and services interventions, almost $3 for tobacco‑use interventions and $1 for obesity prevention interventions. Conclusions CPPW cost estimates are useful for comparing intervention cost per person reached with health outcomes and for addressing how community health intervention costs vary by type of intervention and by community size. PMID:27468157

  4. Funding of community-based interventions for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Poku, Nana K; Bonnel, René

    2016-07-01

    Since the start of the HIV epidemic, community responses have been at the forefront of the response. Following the extraordinary expansion of global resources, the funding of community responses rose to reach at least US$690 million per year in the period 2005-2009. Since then, many civil society organisations (CSOs) have reported a drop in funding. Yet, the need for strong community responses is even more urgent, as shown by their role in reaching the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Fast-Track targets. In the case of antiretroviral treatment, interventions need to be adopted by most people at risk of HIV in order to have a substantial effect on the prevention of HIV at the population level. This paper reviews the published literature on community responses, funding and effectiveness. Additional funding is certainly needed to increase the coverage of community-based interventions (CBIs), but current evidence on their effectiveness is extremely mixed, which does not provide clear guidance to policy makers. This is especially an issue for adolescent girls and young women in Eastern and Southern Africa, who face extremely high infection risk, but the biomedical prevention tools that have been proven effective for the general population still remain pilot projects for this group. Research is especially needed to isolate the factors affecting the likelihood that interventions targeting this group are consistently successful. Such work could be focused on the community organisations that are currently involved in delivering gender-sensitive interventions. PMID:27399046

  5. Community based interventions for the prevention and control of tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, an estimated 8.6 million people developed tuberculosis (TB) and 1.3 million died from the disease. With its recent resurgence with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); TB prevention and management has become further challenging. We systematically evaluated the effectiveness of community based interventions (CBI) for the prevention and treatment of TB and a total of 41 studies were identified for inclusion. Findings suggest that CBI for TB prevention and case detection showed significant increase in TB detection rates (RR: 3.1, 95% CI: 2.92, 3.28) with non-significant impact on TB incidence. CBI for treating patients with active TB showed an overall improvement in treatment success rates (RR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.11) and evidence from a single study suggests significant reduction in relapse rate (RR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.39). The results were consistent for various study design and delivery mechanism. Qualitative synthesis suggests that community based TB treatment delivery through community health workers (CHW) not only improved access and service utilization but also contributed to capacity building and improving the routine TB recording and reporting systems. CBI coupled with the DOTS strategy seem to be an effective approach, however there is a need to evaluate various community-based integrated delivery models for relative effectiveness. PMID:25136445

  6. Community-based prevention marketing: organizing a community for health behavior intervention.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Carol A; Brown, Kelli R McCormack; McDermott, Robert J; Forthofer, Melinda S; Bumpus, Elizabeth C; Calkins, Susan A; Zapata, Lauren B

    2007-04-01

    This article describes the application and refinement of community-based prevention marketing (CBPM), an example of community-based participatory research that blends social marketing theories and techniques and community organization principles to guide voluntary health behavior change. The Florida Prevention Research Center has worked with a community coalition in Sarasota County, Florida to define locally important health problems and issues and to develop responsive health-promotion interventions. The CBPM framework has evolved as academic and community-based researchers have gained experience applying it. Community boards can use marketing principles to design evidence-based strategies for addressing local public health concerns. Based on 6 years of experience with the "Believe in All Your Possibilities" program, lessons learned that have led to revision and improvement of the CBPM framework are described. PMID:16923844

  7. A COMMUNITY PREVENTION INTERVENTION TO REDUCE YOUTH FROM INHALING AND INGESTING HARMFUL LEGAL PRODUCTS

    PubMed Central

    JOHNSON, KNOWLTON; COURSER, MATTHEW; HOLDER, HAROLD; MILLER, BRENDA; OGILVIE, KRISTEN; MOORE, ROLAND; COLLINS, DAVID; SALTZ, BOB; OGILVIE, DIANE; SAYLOR, BRIAN

    2008-01-01

    Youth use of harmful legal products, including inhaling or ingesting everyday household products, prescription drugs, and over-the-counter drugs, constitutes a growing health problem for American society. As such, a single targeted approach to preventing such a drug problem in a community is unlikely to be sufficient to reduce use and abuse at the youth population level. Therefore, the primary focus of this article is on an innovative, comprehensive, community-based prevention intervention. The intervention described here is based upon prior research that has a potential of preventing youth use of alcohol and other legal products. It builds upon three evidence-based prevention interventions from the substance abuse field: community mobilization, environmental strategies, and school-based prevention education intervention. The results of a feasibility project are presented and the description of a planned efficacy trial is discussed. PMID:18047181

  8. Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention and Intervention in a Community Setting: Perspectives of Young Adults and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martsolf, Donna S.; Colbert, Crystal; Draucker, Claire B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent dating violence (ADV) is a significant community problem. In this study, we examine the perspectives of two groups (young adults who experienced ADV as teens and professionals who work with teens) on ADV prevention/intervention in a community context. We interviewed 88 young adults and 20 professionals. Our research team used Thorne's…

  9. Intervention Mapping as a Participatory Approach to Developing an HIV prevention Intervention in Rural African American Communities

    PubMed Central

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Akers, Aletha; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara; Wynn, Mysha; Muhammad, Melvin; Stith, Doris

    2011-01-01

    Southeastern states are among the hardest hit by the HIV epidemic in this country, and racial disparities in HIV rates are high in this region. This is particularly true in our communities of interest in rural eastern North Carolina. Although most recent efforts to prevent HIV attempt to address multiple contributing factors, we have found few multilevel HIV interventions that have been developed, tailored or tested in rural communities for African Americans. We describe how Project GRACE integrated Intervention Mapping (IM) methodology with community based participatory research (CBPR) principles to develop a multi-level, multi-generational HIV prevention intervention. IM was carried out in a series of steps from review of relevant data through producing program components. Through the IM process, all collaborators agreed that we needed a family-based intervention involving youth and their caregivers. We found that the structured approach of IM can be adapted to incorporate the principles of CBPR. PMID:20528128

  10. Introduction to ecological description of a community intervention: building prevention through collaborative field based research.

    PubMed

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V

    2014-09-01

    This special issue of the American Journal of Community Psychology is the result of a 18-year partnership with Alaska Native communities using collaborative field based research methods. Its goal is to provide a case study fulfilling the spirit of ecological inquiry, offering a detailed and nuanced description of a community intervention. The articles describe the nature of our work, including some of our successes, as well as challenges, dilemmas, and even disappointments we experienced along the way. Our primary aim was to develop and assess the feasibility of a complex, multi-level intervention to increase protective factors hypothesized to reduce suicide and alcohol abuse among rural Yup'ik Alaska Native youth ages 12-18. The articles that follow include descriptions of the cultural context, relevant literature and project history, our methods of community engagement in measurement development strategies, an empirical test of the prevention model that guided the intervention, the development and implementation of the intervention, a feasibility and impact assessment, and an evaluation of community engagement. A final article summarizes what is generalizable from the work in field based intervention research with rural and culturally distinct populations, and future prospects for decolonizing community intervention research methods. These papers raise important issues, including (1) need for deep, contextual ecological descriptions, (2) reconceptualization of time in the research relationship, (3) distinctions between populations and communities, and (4) the conflict between values of communities and intervention science. PMID:24912872

  11. Introduction to Ecological Description of a Community Intervention: Building Prevention through Collaborative Field Based Research

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.

    2014-01-01

    This special issue of the American Journal of Community Psychology is the result of a 18-year partnership with Alaska Native communities using collaborative field based research methods. Its goal is to provide a case study fulfilling the spirit of ecological inquiry, offering a detailed and nuanced description of a community intervention. The articles describe the nature of our work, including some of our successes, as well as challenges, dilemmas, and even disappointments we experienced along the way. Our primary aim was to develop and assess the feasibility of a complex, multi-level intervention to increase protective factors hypothesized to reduce suicide and alcohol abuse among rural Yup’ik Alaska Native youth ages 12 to 18. The articles that follow include descriptions of the cultural context, relevant literature and project history, our methods of community engagement in measurement development strategies, an empirical test of the prevention model that guided the intervention, the development and implementation of the intervention, a feasibility and impact assessment, and an evaluation of community engagement. A final article summarizes what is generalizable from the work in field based intervention research with rural and culturally distinct populations, and future prospects for decolonizing community intervention research methods. These papers raise important issues, including (1) need for deep, contextual ecological descriptions, (2) reconceptualization of time in the research relationship, (3) distinctions between populations and communities, and (4) the conflict between values of communities and intervention science. PMID:24912872

  12. A typology of practice narratives during the implementation of a preventive, community intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Traditional methods of process evaluation encompass what components were delivered, but rarely uncover how practitioners position themselves and act relative to an intervention being tested. This could be crucial for expanding our understanding of implementation and its contribution to intervention effectiveness. Methods We undertook a narrative analysis of in-depth, unstructured field diaries kept by nine community development practitioners for two years. The practitioners were responsible for implementing a multi-component, preventive, community-level intervention for mothers of new babies in eight communities, as part of a cluster randomised community intervention trial. We constructed a narrative typology of approaches to practice, drawing on the phenomenology of Alfred Schutz and Max Weber's Ideal Type theory. Results Five types of practice emerged, from a highly 'technology-based' type that was faithful to intervention specifications, through to a 'romantic' type that held relationships to be central to daily operations, with intact relationships being the final arbiter of intervention success. The five types also differed in terms of how others involved in the intervention were characterized, the narrative form (e.g., tragedy, satire) and where and how transformative change in communities was best created. This meant that different types traded-off or managed the priorities of the intervention differently, according to the deeply held values of their type. Conclusions The data set constructed for this analysis is unique. It revealed that practitioners not only exercise their agency within interventions, they do so systematically, that is, according to a pattern. The typology is the first of its kind and, if verified through replication, may have value for anticipating intervention dynamics and explaining implementation variation in community interventions. PMID:20003399

  13. Parental engagement and barriers to participation in a community-based preventive intervention.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Julia L; Carpenter, Johanna L; LaForett, Doré R; Cohen, Jeremy S

    2009-09-01

    This study examined parent characteristics and barriers to participation in a community-based preventive intervention with a sample of 201 parents from low-income and predominantly ethnic minority backgrounds. Person-centered analyses revealed five subgroups of parents who demonstrated variability in their parent characteristics, which included psychological resources and level of parental involvement in education. Group membership was associated with differences in school involvement and use of the psychoeducational intervention at home, after accounting for the number of barriers to engagement. For the intervention attendance variable, greater number of barriers was associated with decreased attendance only for parents in the resilient subgroup and the psychologically distressed subgroup. Attendance remained constant across levels of barriers for the other three subgroups of parents. The results of the study inform theory and practice regarding how to tailor preventive interventions to accommodate subgroups of parents within populations that experience barriers to accessing mental health services. PMID:19533328

  14. Testing to Prevent Colon Cancer: Results From a Rural Community Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Westfall, John M.; Zittleman, Linda; Sutter, Christin; Emsermann, Caroline B.; Staton, Elizabeth W.; Van Vorst, Rebecca; Dickinson, L. Miriam

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Despite tests that can detect and enable removal of precancerous polyps, effectively preventing this disease, screening for colon cancer lags behind other cancer screening. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a community-based participatory approach to increase colon cancer screening. METHODS Using a community-based participatory research approach, the High Plains Research Network and their Community Advisory Council developed a multicomponent intervention—Testing to Prevent Colon Cancer—to increase colon cancer screening. A controlled trial compared 9 intervention counties in northeast Colorado with 7 control counties in southeast Colorado. We performed a baseline and postintervention random digit–dial telephone survey and conducted both intent-to-treat and on-treatment analyses. RESULTS In all, 1,050 community members completed a preintervention questionnaire and 1,048 completed a postintervention questionnaire. During the study period, there was a 5% absolute increase in the proportion of respondents who reported ever having had any test in the intervention region (from 76% to 81%) compared with no increase in the control region (77% at both time points) (P = .22). No significant differences between these groups were found in terms of being up to date generally or on specific tests. The extent of exposure to intervention materials was associated with a significant and cumulative increase in screening. CONCLUSIONS This community-based multicomponent intervention engaged hundreds of community members in wide dissemination aimed at increasing colorectal cancer screening. Although we did not find any statistically significant differences, the findings are consistent with an intervention-related increase in screening and provide preliminary evidence on the effectiveness of such interventions to improve colon cancer screening. PMID:24218373

  15. Religious communities and HIV prevention: an intervention-study using a human rights-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, V.; Garcia, J.; Rios, L.F.; Santos, A.O.; Terto, V.; Munõz-Laboy, M.

    2011-01-01

    Religious communities have been a challenge to HIV prevention globally. Focusing on the acceptability component of the right to health, this intervention study examined how local Catholic, Evangelical and Afro-Brazilian religious communities can collaborate to foster young people’s sexual health and ensure their access to comprehensive HIV prevention in their communities in Brazil. This article describes the process of a three-stage sexual health promotion and HIV prevention initiative that used a multicultural human rights approach to intervention. Methods included 27 in-depth interviews with religious authorities on sexuality, AIDS prevention and human rights, and training 18 young people as research-agents, who surveyed 177 youth on the same issues using self-administered questionnaires. The results, analysed using a rights-based perspective on health and the vulnerability framework, were discussed in daylong interfaith workshops. Emblematic of the collaborative process, workshops are the focus of the analysis. Our findings suggest that this human rights framework is effective in increasing inter-religious tolerance and in providing a collective understanding of the sexuality and prevention needs of youth from different religious communities, and also serves as a platform for the expansion of state AIDS programmes based on laical principles. PMID:20373192

  16. Translation of an Effective Tai Chi Intervention Into a Community-Based Falls-Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Glasgow, Russell; Mack, Karin A.; Sleet, David; Fisher, K. John; Kohn, Melvin A.; Millet, Lisa M.; Mead, Jennifer; Xu, Junheng; Lin, Mei-Li; Yang, Tingzhong; Sutton, Beth; Tompkins, Yvaughn

    2008-01-01

    Tai Chi—Moving for Better Balance, a falls-prevention program developed from a randomized controlled trial for community-based use, was evaluated with the RE-AIM framework in 6 community centers. The program had a 100% adoption rate and 87% reach into the target older adult population. All centers implemented the intervention with good fidelity, and participants showed significant improvements in health-related outcome measures. This evidence-based tai chi program is practical to disseminate and can be effectively implemented and maintained in community settings. PMID:18511723

  17. Using community readiness key informant assessments in a randomized group prevention trial: impact of a participatory community-media intervention.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D; Edwards, Ruth W; Plested, Barbara A; Thurman, Pamela J; Kelly, Kathleen J; Comello, Maria Leonora G; Keefe, Thomas J

    2005-02-01

    This study examines the role of key informant community readiness assessments in a randomized group trial testing the impact of a participatory community-media intervention (which was also complemented by in-school efforts). These assessments were used to help match communities in random assignment, as a source of formative data about the community, as the basis for a coalition-building workshop, and as an evaluation tool, with a follow-up set of surveys approximately 2 years after the baseline survey. Results of the nested, random effects analysis indicated that the intervention influenced community knowledge of efforts and (at marginally significant levels) improved prevention leadership quality and community climate supportive of prevention efforts. There was evidence that the professional affiliation of informants in some cases had an effect on their assessments, which could be controlled in the analysis. The authors conclude that key informant community readiness assessments can usefully serve to supplement aggregated measures of individual attitudes and behavior (reported elsewhere for this study) in evaluating community-based interventions. PMID:15751598

  18. People Awakening: Collaborative Research to Develop Cultural Strategies for Prevention in Community Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Beehler, Sarah; Rowe, Hillary L.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and suicide create immense health disparities among Alaska Native people. The People Awakening project is a long-term collaboration between Alaska Native (AN) communities and university researchers seeking to foster health equity through development of positive solutions to these disparities. These efforts initiated a research relationship that identified individual, family, and community protective factors from AUD and suicide. AN co-researchers next expressed interest in translating these findings into intervention. This led to development of a strengths-based community intervention that is the focus of the special issue. The intervention builds these protective factors to prevent AUD and suicide risk within AN youth, and their families and communities. This review provides a critical examination of existing literature and a brief history of work leading to the intervention research. These work efforts portray a shared commitment of university researchers and community members to function as co-researchers, and to conduct research in accord with local Yup’ik cultural values. This imperative allowed the team to navigate several tensions we locate in a convergence of historical and contemporary ecological contextual factors inherent in AN tribal communities with countervailing constraints imposed by Western science. PMID:24903819

  19. People awakening: collaborative research to develop cultural strategies for prevention in community intervention.

    PubMed

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Beehler, Sarah; Rowe, Hillary L

    2014-09-01

    The consequences of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and suicide create immense health disparities among Alaska Native people. The People Awakening project is a long-term collaboration between Alaska Native (AN) communities and university researchers seeking to foster health equity through development of positive solutions to these disparities. These efforts initiated a research relationship that identified individual, family, and community protective factors from AUD and suicide. AN co-researchers next expressed interest in translating these findings into intervention. This led to development of a strengths-based community intervention that is the focus of the special issue. The intervention builds these protective factors to prevent AUD and suicide risk within AN youth, and their families and communities. This review provides a critical examination of existing literature and a brief history of work leading to the intervention research. These work efforts portray a shared commitment of university researchers and community members to function as co-researchers, and to conduct research in accord with local Yup'ik cultural values. This imperative allowed the team to navigate several tensions we locate in a convergence of historical and contemporary ecological contextual factors inherent in AN tribal communities with countervailing constraints imposed by Western science. PMID:24903819

  20. The Mpowerment Project: a community-level HIV prevention intervention for young gay men.

    PubMed Central

    Kegeles, S M; Hays, R B; Coates, T J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Since young gay men are engaging in alarmingly high rates of unsafe sex and few seek help for changing risky behaviors, community-level programs to prevent infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among them are urgently needed. METHODS. We developed and implemented a community-level HIV prevention program in a midsized Oregon community. The peer-led program had three components: out-reach, small groups, and a publicity campaign. Independently from the prevention program, a cohort of young gay men (n = 300) was surveyed in this and in a similar comparison community pre- and postintervention. RESULTS. Following intervention, the proportion of men engaging in any unprotected anal intercourse decreased from 41.0% to 30.0% (-27% from baseline), decreased from 20.2% to 11.1% (-45% from baseline) with nonprimary partners, and decreased from 58.9% to 44.7% (-24% from baseline) with boyfriends. No significant changes occurred in the comparison community over the same period. CONCLUSIONS. This prevention approach effectively led to HIV risk reduction. To reach risk-taking young gay men, HIV prevention activities must be embedded in social activities and community life. PMID:8712273

  1. Preventing malaria in pregnancy through community-directed interventions: evidence from Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite massive anti-malaria campaigns across the subcontinent, effective access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) among pregnant women remain low in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The slow uptake of malaria prevention products appears to reflect lack of knowledge and resistance to behavioural change, as well as poor access to resources, and limited support of programmes by local communities and authorities. Methods A recent community-based programme in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is analysed to determine the degree to which community-directed interventions can improve access to malaria prevention in pregnancy. Six local government areas in Southern Nigeria were selected for a malaria in pregnancy prevention intervention. Three of these local government areas were selected for a complementary community-directed intervention (CDI) programme. Under the CDI programme, volunteer community-directed distributors (CDDs) were appointed by each village and kindred in the treatment areas and trained to deliver ITNs and IPTp drugs as well as basic counseling services to pregnant women. Findings Relative to women in the control area, an additional 7.4 percent of women slept under a net during pregnancy in the treatment areas (95% CI [0.035, 0.115], p-value < 0.01), and an additional 8.5 percent of women slept under an ITN after delivery and prior to the interview (95% CI [0.045, 0.122], p-value < 0.001). The effects of the CDI programme were largest for IPTp adherence, increasing the fraction of pregnant women taking at least two SP doses during pregnancy by 35.3 percentage points [95% CI: 0.280, 0.425], p-value < 0.001) relative to the control group. No effects on antenatal care attendance were found. Conclusion The presented results suggest that the inclusion of community-based programmes can substantially increase effective access to malaria prevention, and also increase access to formal health care access in

  2. Impact of a two-city community cancer prevention intervention on African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Daniel S.; Fort, Jane G.; Ahmed, Nasar U.; Semenya, Kofi A.; Schreiber, George B.; Perry, Shelley; Guillory, Joyce

    2005-01-01

    We report the first multisite, multicomponent community intervention trial to focus on cancer prevention in African Americans. The project explored the potential of historically black medical schools to deliver health information to their local communities and used a community-based participatory research approach. The intervention consisted of culturally sensitive messages at appropriate educational levels delivered over an 18-month period and tested in predominantly black census tracts in Nashville, TN and Atlanta, GA. Chattanooga, TN and Decatur, GA served as comparison cities. Results were evaluated by pre- and postintervention random-digit dial telephone surveys. The intervention cities showed an increase in reported contact with or knowledge of the project. There was little or no effect on knowledge or attitudes in the intervention cities. Compared to Chattanooga, Nashville showed an increase in percentage of women receiving Pap smears. Compared to Decatur, Atlanta showed an increase in percentage of age-appropriate populations receiving digital rectal exams, colorectal cancer screenings and mammograms. The results of this community intervention trial demonstrated modest success and are encouraging for future efforts of longer duration. PMID:16334495

  3. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in a multi-centre European project: the IDEFICS intervention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. The aim of the present manuscript was to describe the content and developmental process of the IDEFICS intervention. Methods The intervention mapping protocol (IMP) was used to develop the community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in 3 to 10 years old children. It is a theory- and evidence-based tool for the structured planning and development of health promotion programs that requires the completion of six different steps. These steps were elaborated by two coordinating centers and discussed with the other participating centers until agreement was reached. Focus group research was performed in all participating centers to provide an informed basis for intervention development. Results The application of the IMP resulted in an overall intervention framework with ten intervention modules targeting environmental and personal factors through the family, the school and the community. The summary results of the focus group research were used to inform the development of the overall intervention. The cultural adaptation of the overall intervention was realised by using country specific focus group results. The need for cultural adaptation was considered during the entire process to improve program adoption and implementation. A plan was developed to evaluate program effectiveness and quality of implementation. Conclusions The IDEFICS project developed a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity by using to

  4. Multilevel perspectives on community intervention: an example from an Indo-US HIV prevention project in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Schensul, Stephen L; Saggurti, Niranjan; Singh, Rajendra; Verma, Ravi K; Nastasi, Bonnie K; Mazumder, Papiya Guha

    2009-06-01

    This paper explores the meaning and applicability of multilevel interventions and the role of ethnography in identifying intervention opportunities and accounting for research design limitations. It utilizes as a case example the data and experiences from a 6-year, NIMH-funded, intervention to prevent HIV/STI among married men in urban poor communities in Mumbai, India. The experiences generated by this project illustrate the need for multilevel interventions to include: (1) ethnographically driven formative research to delineate appropriate levels, stakeholders and collaborators; (2) identification of ways to link interventions to the local culture and community context; (3) the development of a model of intervention that is sufficiently flexible to be consistently applied to different intervention levels using comparable culturally congruent concepts and approaches; (4) mechanisms to involve community residents, community based organizations and community-based institutions; and (5) approaches to data collection that can evaluate the impact of the project on multiple intersecting levels. PMID:19357946

  5. "Whole-of-Community" Obesity Prevention: A Review of Challenges and Opportunities in Multilevel, Multicomponent Interventions.

    PubMed

    Ewart-Pierce, Ella; Mejía Ruiz, María José; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-09-01

    The causes of obesity worldwide are complex and multilevel, including changing food environments, physical activity levels, policies, and food production systems. This intricate context requires multilevel and multicomponent (MLMC) interventions to improve health outcomes. We conducted a literature review of MLMC interventions for obesity prevention and mitigation; 14 studies meeting search criteria were identified. We found examples of successes in preventing obesity, reducing overweight, improving healthful behaviors, and enhancing some psychosocial indicators. Of eight studies that reported health and behavioral results, five showed no significant impact and three showed reductions in obesity. Four studies showed significant improvement in dietary behavior, and five reported significant desirable effects in physical activity or screen time. Five studies reported psychosocial impacts, and three of these showed significant improvements. MLMC approaches show promising results, particularly when they are able to integrate components at the policy, community, and interpersonal levels. PMID:27379620

  6. Community-based interventions to prevent fatal overdose from illegal drugs: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Okolie, Chukwudi; Evans, Bridie Angela; John, Ann; Moore, Chris; Russell, Daphne; Snooks, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Drug overdose is the most frequent cause of death among people who misuse illegal drugs. People who inject these drugs are 14–17 times more likely to die than their non-drug using peers. Various strategies to reduce drug-related deaths have failed to meet target reductions. Research into community-based interventions for preventing drug overdose deaths is promising. This review seeks to identify published studies describing community-based interventions and to evaluate their effectiveness at reducing drug overdose deaths. Methods and analysis We will systematically search key electronic databases using a search strategy which groups terms into four facets: (1) Overdose event, (2) Drug classification, (3) Intervention and (4) Setting. Searches will be limited where possible to international literature published in English between 1998 and 2014. Data will be extracted by two independent reviewers using a predefined table adapted from the Cochrane Collaboration handbook. The quality of included studies will be evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. We will conduct a meta-analysis for variables which can be compared across studies, using statistical methods to control for heterogeneity where appropriate. Where clinical or statistical heterogeneity prevents a valid numerical synthesis, we will employ a narrative synthesis to describe community-based interventions, their delivery and use and how effectively they prevent fatal overdoses. Ethics and dissemination We will publish findings from this systematic review in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and present results at national and international conferences. It will be disseminated electronically and in print. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42015017833. PMID:26534734

  7. Community based interventions for the prevention and control of Non-Helmintic NTD

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to systematically analyze the effectiveness of community based interventions (CBI) for the prevention and control of non-helminthic diseases including dengue, trypanosomiasis, chagas, leishmaniasis, buruli ulcer, leprosy and trachoma. We systematically reviewed literature published up to May 2013 and included 62 studies in this review. Findings from our review suggest that CBI including insecticide spraying; insecticide treated bednets and curtains; community education and cleanliness campaigns; chemoprophylaxis through mass drug administration; and treatment have the potential to reduce the incidence and burden of non-helminthic diseases. Lack of data limited the subgroup analysis for integrated and non-integrated delivery strategies however, qualitative synthesis suggest that integrated delivery is more effective when compared to vertical interventions; however, such integration was possible only because of the existing vertical vector control programs. Community delivered interventions have the potential to achieve wider coverage and sustained community acceptance. Eradicating these diseases will require a multipronged approach including drug administration, health education, vector control and clean water and sanitation facilities. This would require high level governmental commitment along with strong partnerships among major stakeholders. PMID:25114794

  8. Impact of community-based interventions for the prevention and control of malaria on intervention coverage and health outcomes for the prevention and control of malaria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and management of malaria. We conducted a systematic review and identified 42 studies for inclusion. Twenty-five of the included studies evaluated the impact of the community-based distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), or impregnated bed sheets; 14 studies evaluated intermittent preventive therapy (IPT) delivered in community settings; two studies focused on community-based education for malaria prevention; and one study evaluated environmental management through drain cleaning. Our analysis suggests that, overall, the community-based delivery of interventions to prevent and control malaria resulted in a significant increase in ITNs ownership (RR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.86, 2.52) and usage (RR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.48, 2.11). However, usage of ITNs was limited to two-thirds of the population who owned them. Community-based strategies also led to a significant decrease in parasitemia (RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.42, 0.74), malaria prevalence (RR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.73), malaria incidence (RR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.90), and anemia prevalence (RR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.97). We found a non-significant impact on splenomegaly, birth outcomes (low birth weight, prematurity, stillbirth/miscarriage), anthropometric measures (stunting, wasting, and underweight), and mortality (all-cause and malaria-specific). The subgroup analysis suggested that community-based distribution of ITNs, impregnated bed sheets and IRS, and IPT are effective strategies. Qualitative synthesis suggests that high coverage could be achieved at a lower cost with the integration of CBIs with existing antenatal care and immunization campaigns. Community-based delivery of interventions to prevent and control malaria are effective strategies to improve coverage and access and reduce malaria burden, however, efforts should also be concerted to prevent over diagnosis and

  9. Theoretical rationale of community intervention for the prevention and control of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    MacLean, D R

    1994-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability in the developed world, accounting for slightly more than 40% of all mortality. Along with the resultant disability of those who survive with the disease it costs the health care system in Canada approximately $17 billion on an annual basis. The known risk factors for cardiovascular disease are widespread within the population; in Canada, approximately 70% of individuals have one or more of the major risk factors. Research over the past 25 years has disclosed that a significant proportion of the cause of heart disease and its risk factors are rooted in the unhealthy habits of average living in conjunction with unfavorable physical, economic and psychosocial environments. The primary prevention of cardiovascular disease has focused on individual risk factor change combined with approaches to community organization in an effort to produce a more conducive environment for behavior change to be carried out. First-generation community programs for cardiovascular disease prevention, as illustrated by the North Karelia Project, Stanford Five City Project and others in the United States, have relied heavily on social learning theory as advanced by Bandura, from Stanford University. Second-generation prevention programs, such as the Nova Scotia Heart Health Program, have relied on these theories as well as theories of participation and community development in the prevention of major noncommunicable diseases. This paper gives an overview of the theoretical basis of community intervention programs for cardiovascular disease. Included will be a discussion of some of the various theoretical approaches used in Canada and the United States and elsewhere over the past 25 years. PMID:7919078

  10. Assessing implementation fidelity and adaptation in a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Richards, Zoe; Kostadinov, Iordan; Jones, Michelle; Richard, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret

    2014-12-01

    Little research has assessed the fidelity, adaptation or integrity of activities implemented within community-based obesity prevention initiatives. To address this gap, a mixed-method process evaluation was undertaken in the context of the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) initiative. An ecological coding procedure assessed fidelity and adaptation of activity settings, targets and strategies implemented in the second year of four communities. Implementation integrity reflected fidelity and adaptation to local context, whereas efforts resulting in significant deviations from the original plan were deemed to lack fidelity and integrity. Staff implemented 284 strategies in 205 projects. Results show that 68.3 and 2.1% of strategies were implemented with fidelity or adapted, respectively. Overall, 70.4% of all strategies were implemented with integrity. Staff experienced barriers with 29.6% of strategies. Chi-square analyses show statistically significant associations between implementation integrity and strategy type, intervention and behavioural targets. These relationships are weak to modest. The strongest relationship was found between implementation integrity and proximal target. Staff experienced implementation barriers at the coalition, policy, organization, interpersonal and community levels. The greatest range of barriers was encountered working with organizations. To overcome these barriers, staff took greater ownership, invested more time, persisted and allocated more financial resources. PMID:25214513

  11. Impact of a Community-Based Prevention Marketing Intervention to Promote Physical Activity among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Granner, Michelle L.; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E.; Bryant, Carol A.; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-01-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral…

  12. REDUCING ADOLESCENT USE OF HARMFUL LEGAL PRODUCTS: INTERMEDIATE EFFECTS OF A COMMUNITY PREVENTION INTERVENTION

    PubMed Central

    Gruenewald, Paul J.; Johnson, Knowlton; Shamblen, Steven R.; Ogilvie, Kristen A.; Collins, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study describes preliminary results from a preventive intervention to reduce the use of Harmful Legal Products (HLPs such as inhalants and over the counter drugs) among 5th through 7th grade students in three Alaskan rural communities. The intervention had two primary components, an environmental strategy (ES) to reduce access to HLPs at home, in schools, and from retail outlets and a school-based curriculum intended to enhance knowledge about HLP use and problems and improve refusal skills and assertiveness (ThinkSmart). Methods Two waves of survey data were collected from 5th, 6th and 7th grade students in all schools in all three communities assessing knowledge of HLP risks, use of refusal skills, assertiveness, peer attitudes and use of HLPs, perceived availability of HLPs, and intent to use and avoid use of HLPs in the future. Scales for the measurement of each dimension of risk and protective factors for HLP use were developed and tested. All were demonstrated to have good internal reliability (α > 0.70). Pretest surveys were given in classrooms in each school, the ES and ThinkSmart interventions fielded, then a pretest given one year later. Results A simple pretest – post-test design enabled preliminary tests of program effects on these intermediate variables related to HLP use. Evidence was found for significant increases in knowledge about HLP use and risks and decreases in perceived availability of HLP products in the home and at school. These effects were differentiated across grade groups, reflecting differential exposure to the ThinkSmart program. Discussion The results of this preliminary study provide encouragement to pursue mixed environmental and school-based strategies for the reduction of HLP use among young people in these Alaskan rural communities. As a preliminary feasibility study, the absence of a control group by which to assess preliminary effects on intermediate variables should lend some skepticism to these observed

  13. A Fire Department Community Health Intervention to Prevent Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Following a Hurricane

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew; Jenkins, J Lee; Seaman, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Portable generators are commonly used during electrical service interruptions that occur following large storms such as hurricanes. Nearly all portable generators use carbon based fuels and produce deadly carbon monoxide gas. Despite universal warnings to operate these generators outside only, the improper placement of generators makes these devices the leading cause of engine related carbon monoxide deaths in the United States. The medical literature reports many cases of Carbon Monoxide (CO) toxicity associated with generator use following hurricanes and other weather events. This paper describes how Howard County, Maryland Fire and Rescue (HCFR) Services implemented a public education program that focused on prevention of Carbon Monoxide poisoning from portable generator use in the wake of events where electrical service interruptions occurred or had the potential to occur. A major challenge faced was communication with those members of the population who were almost completely dependent upon electronic and wireless technologies and were without redundancies. HCFR utilized several tactics to overcome this challenge including helicopter based surveillance and the use of geocoded information from the electrical service provider to identify outage areas. Once outage areas were identified, HCFR personnel conducted a door-to-door canvasing of effected communities, assessing for hazards and distributing information flyers about the dangers of generator use. This effort represents one of the first reported examples of a community-based endeavor by a fire department to provide proactive interventions designed to prevent carbon monoxide illness. PMID:24596660

  14. Community-based interventions for the prevention and control of helmintic neglected tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to systematically analyze the effectiveness of community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and control of helminthiasis including soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) (ascariasis, hookworms, and trichuriasis), lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, dracunculiasis, and schistosomiasis. We systematically reviewed literature published before May 2013 and included 32 studies in this review. Findings from the meta-analysis suggest that CBIs are effective in reducing the prevalence of STH (RR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.54), schistosomiasis (RR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.50), and STH intensity (SMD: −3.16, 95 CI: −4.28, −2.04). They are also effective in improving mean hemoglobin (SMD: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.20, 0.47) and reducing anemia prevalence (RR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.85, 0.96). However, it did not have any impact on ferritin, height, weight, low birth weight (LBW), or stillbirths. School-based delivery significantly reduced STH (RR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.63) and schistosomiasis prevalence (RR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.75), STH intensity (SMD: −0.22, 95% CI: −0.26, −0.17), and anemia prevalence (RR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.81, 0.94). It also improved mean hemoglobin (SMD: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.32). We did not find any conclusive evidence from the quantitative synthesis on the relative effectiveness of integrated and non-integrated delivery strategies due to the limited data available for each subgroup. However, the qualitative synthesis from the included studies supports community-based delivery strategies and suggests that integrated prevention and control measures are more effective in achieving greater coverage compared to the routine vertical delivery, albeit it requires an existing strong healthcare infrastructure. Current evidence suggests that effective community-based strategies exist and deliver a range of preventive, promotive, and therapeutic interventions to combat helminthic neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). However, there is a need to

  15. Prevention of Dengue Fever: An Exploratory School-Community Intervention Involving Students Empowered as Change Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayawardene, Wasantha P.; Lohrmann, David K.; YoussefAgha, Ahmed H.; Nilwala, Dayani C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) are epidemic and endemic in tropical and subtropical countries including Sri Lanka. Numerous structural and community interventions have been shown to be effective in interrupting the life cycle of mosquitoes that transmit DF/DHF; however, these interventions are not always implemented…

  16. Implementation and Evaluation of the Keep It Up! Online HIV Prevention Intervention in a Community-Based Setting.

    PubMed

    Greene, George J; Madkins, Krystal; Andrews, Katie; Dispenza, Jill; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Once HIV prevention programs have proven efficacy in research settings, it is important that ongoing data are collected to demonstrate effects in public health applications, yet such evaluations are rare in the published literature. This project describes the adaptation, implementation, and outcome evaluation of the Keep It Up! (KIU!) online HIV prevention intervention as a prevention service delivered in a community-based organization. Compared to pilot research examining KIU! feasibility and efficacy, intervention outcomes were robust to service delivery and client characteristics. In a sample of ethnically and racially diverse young men who have sex with men (N = 343), the intervention produced significant decreases in condomless anal sex acts with casual male partners at the 3-month follow-up compared to baseline (p < .05). In both qualitative and quantitative measures, participants reported that the intervention was highly acceptable and valuable to their sexual health needs. PMID:27244191

  17. Impact of a community-based prevention marketing intervention to promote physical activity among middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Patricia A; Burroughs, Ericka L; Granner, Michelle L; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E; Bryant, Carol A; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-06-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral intervention and were exposed to a media campaign. They were compared to cross-sectional survey samples at pre- (n = 245) and postprogram (n = 820) from the media exposed county and a no-intervention county (n = 234 pre, n = 822 post). Women in the behavioral intervention had statistically significant positive changes on physical activity minutes, walking, park and trail use, knowledge of mapped routes and exercise partner, and negative change on exercise self-efficacy. Media exposed women had statistically significant pre- to postprogram differences on knowledge of mapped routes. No-intervention women had significant pre- to postprogram differences on physical activity minutes, walking, and knowledge of mapped routes. PMID:19875639

  18. "Let's Talk about Drugs": Pilot Study of a Community-Level Drug Prevention Intervention Based on Motivational Interviewing Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbery, Natasha; McCambridge, Jim; Strang, John

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The feasibility of a community-level drug prevention intervention based upon the principles of motivational interviewing within a further education college was investigated in a pilot study. Design/methodology/approach: The implementation over the course of a single term of "Let's Talk about Drugs" was studied with both action research…

  19. Process evaluation of a community-based intervention program: Healthy Youth Healthy Communities, an adolescent obesity prevention project in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Waqa, Gade; Moodie, Marj; Schultz, Jimaima; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-12-01

    Nearly one-half of the adult population in Fiji between the ages of 15-64 years is either overweight or obese; and rates amongst school children have, on average, doubled during the last decade. There is an urgent need to scale up the promotion of healthy behaviors and environments using a multi-sectoral approach. The Healthy Youth Healthy Community (HYHC) project in Fiji used a settings approach in secondary schools and faith-based organizations to increase the capacity of the whole community, including churches, mosques and temples, to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity, and to prevent unhealthy weight gain in adolescents aged 13-18 years. The team consisted of a study manager, project coordinator and four research assistants (RAs) committed to planning, designing and facilitating the implementation of intervention programs in collaboration with other stakeholders, such as the wider school communities, government and non-governmental organizations and business partners. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and analyzed by dose, frequency and reach for each specific strategy. The Fiji Action Plan included nine objectives for the school settings; four were based on nutrition and two on physical activity in schools, plus three general objectives, namely capacity building, social marketing and evaluation. Long-term change in nutritional behavior was difficult to achieve; a key contributor to this was the unhealthy food served in the school canteens. Whilst capacity-building proved to be one of the best mechanisms for intervening, it is important to consider the cultural and social factors influencing health behaviors and affecting specific groups. PMID:24469301

  20. Laying the Groundwork for an HIV Prevention Intervention: A Descriptive Profile of the Los Angeles House and Ball Communities

    PubMed Central

    Kipke, Michele D.; Kubicek, Katrina; Supan, Jocelyn; Weiss, George; Schrager, Sheree

    2012-01-01

    African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM) represent the largest proportion of new HIV infections among MSM. While evidence-based interventions are lacking, all too often HIV interventions are implemented in a community without thoroughly understanding its needs, risks and assets. AAYMSM are not homogenous; subgroups exist that may require different approaches to be effective. The House and Ball communities represent one such subgroup. A community-engaged, mixed-methods approach was used. Participant observations, qualitative interviews (N=26), and a survey at House/Ball events (N=252) were completed. Survey data broadly describe the community. For example: 69% of survey respondents identify as gay; 25% as bisexual; 13% reported recent use of ecstasy and 11% recently participated in sex exchange. The depth of qualitative data is key for intervention development. For example, while the survey provides broad descriptions of respondents’ involvement in the House and Ball communities, leaders provided in-depth descriptions of the structure of the House and Ball scene –something vital to the development of HIV prevention programs within these communities. This kind of rigorous study is recommended prior to implementing an intervention. Findings are discussed in relation to leveraging the communities’ supportive aspects to design culturally relevant HIV prevention programs. PMID:22699855

  1. Epidemic Impacts of a Community Empowerment Intervention for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Generalized and Concentrated Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Andrea L.; Pretorius, Carel; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan; Decker, Michele R.; Sherman, Susan G.; Sweat, Michael; Poteat, Tonia; Butler, Jennifer; Oelrichs, Robert; Semini, Iris; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sex workers have endured a high burden of HIV infection in and across HIV epidemics. A comprehensive, community empowerment-based HIV prevention intervention emphasizes sex worker organization and mobilization to address HIV risk and often includes community-led peer education, condom distribution, and other activities. Meta-analysis of such interventions suggests a potential 51% reduction in inconsistent condom use. Mathematical modeling exercises provide theoretical insight into potential impacts of the intervention on HIV incidence and burden in settings where interventions have not yet been implemented. Methods We used a deterministic model, Goals, to project the impact on HIV infections when the community empowerment interventions were scaled up among female sex workers in Kenya, Thailand, Brazil, and Ukraine. Modeling scenarios included expansion of the comprehensive community empowerment-based HIV prevention intervention from baseline coverage over a 5-year period (5–65% in Kenya and Ukraine; 10–70% in Thailand and Brazil), while other interventions were held at baseline levels. A second exercise increased the intervention coverage simultaneously with equitable access to ART for sex workers. Impacts on HIV outcomes among sex workers and adults are observed from 2012–2016 and, compared to status quo when all interventions are held constant. Results Optimistic but feasible coverage (65%–70%) of the intervention demonstrated a range of impacts on HIV: 220 infections averted over 5 yrs. among sex workers in Thailand, 1,830 in Brazil, 2,220 in Ukraine, and 10,800 infections in Kenya. Impacts of the intervention for female sex workers extend to the adult population, cumulatively averting 730 infections in Thailand to 20,700 adult infections in Kenya. Impacts vary by country, influenced by HIV prevalence in risk groups, risk behaviors, intervention use, and population size. Discussion A community empowerment approach to HIV prevention and

  2. Project Salud: Using community-based participatory research to culturally adapt an HIV prevention intervention in the Latino migrant worker community

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Jesús; Serna, Claudia A; de La Rosa, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Despite the unique and challenging circumstances confronting Latino migrant worker communities in the U.S., debate still exists as to the need to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions for dissemination with this population. Project Salud adopted a community-based participatory research model and utilized focus group methodology with 83 Latino migrant workers to explore the relevance of culturally adapting an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention to be disseminated within this population. Findings from this study indicate that, despite early reservations, Latino migrant workers wanted to participate in the cultural adaptation that would result in an intervention that was culturally relevant, respectful, responsive to their life experiences, and aligned with their needs. This study contributes to the cultural adaptation/fidelity debate by highlighting the necessity of exploring ways to develop culturally adapted interventions characterized by high cultural relevance without sacrificing high fidelity to the core components that have established efficacy for evidence-based HIV prevention interventions. PMID:24489998

  3. Assessing Implementation Fidelity and Adaptation in a Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Zoe; Kostadinov, Iordan; Jones, Michelle; Richard, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Little research has assessed the fidelity, adaptation or integrity of activities implemented within community-based obesity prevention initiatives. To address this gap, a mixed-method process evaluation was undertaken in the context of the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) initiative. An ecological coding procedure assessed…

  4. Developing a Family-Based HIV Prevention Intervention in Rural Kenya: Challenges in Conducting Community-Based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Puffer, Eve S.; Pian, Jessica; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A.; Broverman, Sherryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating power imbalances between APs and the CAC; CAC members’ shifting roles as part of the CAC and wider community; and anticipated challenges in decision making about sustainability. Factors contributing to ethical dilemmas included low access to education, scarcity of financial resources, and the shortage of HIV-related services despite high prevalence. PMID:23651936

  5. Developing a family-based HIV prevention intervention in rural Kenya: challenges in conducting community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Puffer, Eve S; Pian, Jessica; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A; Broverman, Sherryl A

    2013-04-01

    Community-Based Participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating power imbalances between APs and the CAC; CAC members' shifting roles as part of the CAC and wider community; and anticipated challenges in decision making about sustainability. Factors contributing to ethical dilemmas included low access to education, scarcity of financial resources, and the shortage of HIV-related services despite high prevalence. PMID:23651936

  6. An urban community-based cancer prevention screening and health education intervention in Chicago.

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, L P; Phillips, C W; Ansell, D; Whitman, S; Ebie, N; Chen, E

    1989-01-01

    Most types of cancer are disproportionately present in black populations. Among all ethnic and racial groups, black people have the highest incidence of all types of cancer combined, experiencing the highest mortality and the worst survival rate. A major intervention effort has begun in Chicago, targeting women living in 10 south side community areas whose populations are almost all black and among the poorest in the city. The purposes of the intervention are to develop and evaluate ways to reduce morbidity and mortality from breast and cervical cancer. Three outcome measures are being used, the proportion of women who receive Papanicolaou smears, breast examinations, and mammograms; the scores derived from a knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey; and the stage of diagnosed cancer. The results are being evaluated in three locations, the 10 target community areas, a Chicago Health Department clinic located in the community, and Fantus Clinic at Cook County Hospital. The intervention consists of reducing barriers to care at both public clinic sites and delivering education and information within the community. Public health outreach workers who are culturally sensitive to the population bring word of the program to places frequented by women, including local businesses (such as beauty shops, grocery stores, pharmacies, and currency exchanges), public housing developments (one being the largest in the country), and facilities belonging to city services programs. The intervention was developed to permit its ready adoption in similar environments should the evaluation results prove its usefulness. PMID:2511585

  7. PROJECT SALUD: EFFICACY OF A COMMUNITY-BASED HIV PREVENTION INTERVENTION FOR HISPANIC MIGRANT WORKERS IN SOUTH FLORIDA

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Jesús; De La Rosa, Mario; Serna, Claudia A.

    2014-01-01

    Project Salud evaluates the efficacy of a community-based intervention to reduce risk behaviors and enhance factors for HIV-preventative behaviors. A randomized controlled trial of 278 high risk Latino migrant workers was conducted between 2008 and 2010. Participants completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview questionnaire at baseline and 3- and 9-month post-intervention follow-ups. Participants were randomly assigned to the community-based intervention (A-SEMI) or the health promotion condition (HPC). Both interventions consisted of four 2.5–hour interactive sessions and were structurally equivalent in administration and format. Relative to the comparison condition, A-SEMI participants reported more consistent condom use, were less likely to report never having used condoms, and were more likely to have used condoms at last sexual encounter during the past 90 and 30 days. A-SEMI participants also experienced a positive change in regard to factors for HIV-preventive behaviors over the entire 9-month period. Our results support the implementation of community-based, culturally tailored interventions among Latino migrant workers. PMID:24059875

  8. Intervention Mapping as a Participatory Approach to Developing an HIV Prevention Intervention in Rural African American Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Akers, Aletha; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara; Wynn, Mysha; Muhammad, Melvin; Stith, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Southeastern states are among the hardest hit by the HIV epidemic in this country, and racial disparities in HIV rates are high in this region. This is particularly true in our communities of interest in rural eastern North Carolina. Although most recent efforts to prevent HIV attempt to address multiple contributing factors, we have found few…

  9. Strategies used by community-based organizations to evaluate their locally developed HIV prevention interventions: Lessons learned from the CDC's innovative interventions project.

    PubMed

    Painter, Thomas M; Ngalame, Paulyne M; Lucas, Basil; Lauby, Jennifer L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2010-10-01

    Community-based organizations (CBOs) play an important role in health promotion efforts and the delivery of HIV prevention interventions for at-risk minority populations. CBOs may also develop their own interventions but often lack the capacity or funds to rigorously evaluate them. The Innovative Interventions project of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded three CBOs to rigorously evaluate the efficacy of interventions they had developed and were delivering to Black women, Black men who have sex with men (MSM), and adolescent males in juvenile justice settings, respectively. The evaluation results have been reported elsewhere. This article describes operational issues that the CBOs identified as being particularly salient to their evaluations and the strategies they developed to address the issues and successfully complete their evaluations. These issues included the development of organizational capacity to conduct a rigorous outcome evaluation, difficulties with recruitment and retention of evaluation participants, and the use of process monitoring data to improve intervention delivery. The strategies described in this article can be used by CBOs when evaluating their locally developed HIV prevention interventions and may be of interest to funding agencies and researchers that collaborate with CBOs to evaluate their interventions. PMID:20973660

  10. Assessing Interorganizational Networks as a Dimension of Community Capacity: Illustrations from a Community Intervention to Prevent Lead Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Helen Harber; Kegler, Michelle Crozier

    2004-01-01

    Network analysis is often cited as a method for assessing collaboration among organizations as an indicator of community capacity. The purpose of this study was to (1) document patterns of collaboration in organizational networks related to lead poisoning prevention in a Native American community and (2) examine measurement issues in using…

  11. A Randomized-Controlled, Pilot Intervention on Diabetes Prevention and Healthy Lifestyles in the New York City Korean Community

    PubMed Central

    Zanowiak, Jennifer M.; Wyatt, Laura C.; Chun, Kay; Lee, Linda; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2014-01-01

    Asian Americans experience diabetes at a higher rate than non-Hispanic whites. Diabetes prevention programs using lifestyle interventions have been shown to produce beneficial results, yet there have been no culturally-tailored programs for diabetes prevention in the Korean community. We explore the impact and feasibility of a pilot Community Health Worker (CHW) intervention to improve health behaviors and promote diabetes prevention among Korean Americans using a randomized controlled trial. Between 2011 and 2012, a total of 48 Korean Americans at risk for diabetes living in New York City (NYC) participated in the intervention. Participants were allocated to treatment or control groups. A community-based participatory research approach guided development of the intervention, which consisted of 6 workshops held by CHWs on diabetes prevention, nutrition, physical activity, diabetes complications, stress and family support, and access to health care. Changes over 6 months were examined for clinical measurements (weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol); health behaviors (physical activity, nutrition, food behaviors, diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, and mental health); and health access (insurance and self-reported health). In this small pilot study, changes were seen in weight, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, physical activity nutrition, diabetes knowledge, and mental health. Qualitative findings provide additional contextual information that inform ways in which CHWs may influence health outcomes. These findings demonstrate that a diabetes prevention program can be successful among a Korean American population in NYC, and important insight is provided for ways that programs can be tailored to meet the needs of vulnerable populations. PMID:23813322

  12. A Community Prevention Intervention to Reduce Youth from Inhaling and Ingesting Harmful Legal Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Knowlton; Courser, Matthew; Holder, Harold; Miller, Brenda; Ogilvie, Kristen; Moore, Roland; Collins, David; Saltz, Bob; Ogilvie, Diane; Saylor, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Youth use of harmful legal products, including inhaling or ingesting everyday household products, prescription drugs, and over-the-counter drugs, constitutes a growing health problem for American society. As such, a single targeted approach to preventing such a drug problem in a community is unlikely to be sufficient to reduce use and abuse at the…

  13. Results of the NIMH Collaborative HIV/STD Prevention Trial of a Community Popular Opinion Leader Intervention

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether community populations in Community Popular Opinion Leader (C-POL) intervention venues showed greater reductions in sexual risk practices and lower HIV/STD incidence than those in comparison venues. Methods A 5-country group-randomized trial, conducted from 2002 to 2007, enrolled cohorts from 20 to 40 venues in each country. Venues, matched within country on sexual risk and other factors, were randomly assigned within matched pairs to the C-POL community intervention or an AIDS education comparison. All participants had access to condoms and were assessed with repeated in-depth sexual behavior interviews, STD/HIV testing and treatment, and HIV/STD risk reduction counseling. Sexual behavior change and HIV/STD incidence were measured over two years. Results Both intervention and comparison conditions showed declines of approximately 33% in risk behavior prevalence and had comparable disease incidence within and across countries, target populations, and types of venues. Conclusions The community-level intervention did not produce greater behavioral risk and disease incidence reduction than the comparison condition, perhaps due to the intensive prevention services received by all participants during the assessment. Repeated, detailed self-review of risk behavior practices coupled with HIV/STD testing, treatment, HIV risk reduction counseling, and condom access can themselves substantially change behavior and disease acquisition. PMID:20354444

  14. Using Community Based Participatory Research to Create a Culturally Grounded Intervention for Parents and Youth to Prevent Risky Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Felipe González; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Harthun, Mary L.; Valdez, Hector

    2011-01-01

    The principal goal of this article is to contribute to the field of prevention science by providing a sequential description of how Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) was used to develop a parent education curriculum aimed at preventing and decreasing adolescent drug use and risky sexual behaviors. CBPR principles are outlined, and information is provided on the unique contributions of researchers and community members who came together to develop this parent education program. Focus group information is presented as an exemplar to illustrate how thematic content from focus groups was used to inform the development of this parent education curriculum. A step by step description is given to facilitate replication of this process by other prevention researchers who are interested in applying this CBPR approach to develop a culturally responsive parent education intervention. PMID:21107693

  15. A University and Community-Based Organization Collaboration to Build Capacity to Develop, Implement, and Evaluate an Innovative HIV Prevention Intervention for an Urban African American Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliva, Geraldine; Rienks, Jennifer; Udoh, Ifeoma; Smith, Carla Dillard

    2005-01-01

    Through forming a collaborative relationship to develop, pilot and evaluate an innovative bio-psycho-behavioral (BPB) HIV prevention intervention, capacity was built in developing an effective intervention and conducting community based research at both the California Prostitutes Prevention and Education Project (CAL-PEP) and the University of…

  16. Community-Based Interventions to Decrease Obesity and Tobacco Exposure and Reduce Health Care Costs: Outcome Estimates From Communities Putting Prevention to Work for 2010–2020

    PubMed Central

    Orenstein, Diane; Honeycutt, Amanda; Bradley, Christina; Trogdon, Justin; Kent, Charlotte K.; Wile, Kristina; Haddix, Anne; O’Neil, Dara; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW), a $485 million program to reduce obesity, tobacco use, and exposure to secondhand smoke. CPPW awardees implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental changes to sustain reductions in chronic disease risk factors. This article describes short-term and potential long-term benefits of the CPPW investment. Methods We used a mixed-methods approach to estimate population reach and to simulate the effects of completed CPPW interventions through 2020. Each awardee developed a community action plan. We linked plan objectives to a common set of interventions across awardees and estimated population reach as an early indicator of impact. We used the Prevention Impacts Simulation Model (PRISM), a systems dynamics model of cardiovascular disease prevention, to simulate premature deaths, health care costs, and productivity losses averted from 2010 through 2020 attributable to CPPW. Results Awardees completed 73% of their planned objectives. Sustained CPPW improvements may avert 14,000 premature deaths, $2.4 billion (in 2010 dollars) in discounted direct medical costs, and $9.5 billion (in 2010 dollars) in discounted lifetime and annual productivity losses through 2020. Conclusion PRISM results suggest that large investments in community preventive interventions, if sustained, could yield cost savings many times greater than the original investment over 10 to 20 years and avert 14,000 premature deaths. PMID:27055264

  17. Efficacy of a Group-Based Multimedia HIV Prevention Intervention for Drug-Involved Women under Community Supervision: Project WORTH

    PubMed Central

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Hunt, Tim; Epperson, Matt; Shaw, Stacey A.; Rowe, Jessica; Almonte, Maria; Witte, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Importance This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. Objective We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health) among drug-involved women under community supervision. Design, Setting, Participants, and Intervention We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1) a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH); (2) a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3) a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n = 237) and 63% (n = 194) had multiple sex partners. Results Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (β = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02–0.18) and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.57–0.90). Conclusion and Relevance The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest that WORTH may

  18. Systematic review of mental health and well-being outcomes following community-based obesity prevention interventions among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hoare, Erin; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper aimed to systematically evaluate the mental health and well-being outcomes observed in previous community-based obesity prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Setting Systematic review of literature from database inception to October 2014. Articles were sourced from CINAHL, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, all of which were accessed through EBSCOhost. The Cochrane Database was also searched to identify all eligible articles. PRISMA guidelines were followed and search terms and search strategy ensured all possible studies were identified for review. Participants Intervention studies were eligible for inclusion if they were: focused on overweight or obesity prevention, community-based, targeted adolescents (aged 10–19 years), reported a mental health or well-being measure, and included a comparison or control group. Studies that focused on specific adolescent groups or were treatment interventions were excluded from review. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes were measures of mental health and well-being, including diagnostic and symptomatic measures. Secondary outcomes included adiposity or weight-related measures. Results Seven studies met the inclusion criteria; one reported anxiety/depressive outcomes, two reported on self-perception well-being measures such as self-esteem and self-efficacy, and four studies reported outcomes of quality of life. Positive mental health outcomes demonstrated that following obesity prevention, interventions included a decrease in anxiety and improved health-related quality of life. Quality of evidence was graded as very low. Conclusions Although positive outcomes for mental health and well-being do exist, controlled evaluations of community-based obesity prevention interventions have

  19. Formative research to develop a community-based intervention for chronic disease prevention in Guatemalan school-age children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, even in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Recent trends in health promotion emphasize community-based interventions as an important strategy for improving health outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct formative research regarding the perceptions of NCD risk factors, their influencing factors, and community resources available to aid the development and implementation of a community-based intervention with school-age children. Methods Focus group discussions (n = 18), home visits (n = 30), and individual semi-structured interviews (n = 26) were conducted in three urban communities in Guatemala with school-age children (10–12 years of age), teachers, parents, and local community members (i.e., school principals, school food kiosk vendors, religious leaders, authority representatives). All focus groups and interviews were transcribed verbatim for thematic analysis. Results Children, parents, and teachers have general knowledge about modifiable risk factors. Adults worried more about tobacco use, as compared to unhealthy diet and physical inactivity in children. Participants identified features at the intrapersonal (e.g., negative emotional state), interpersonal (e.g., peers as role models), and organizational and community levels (e.g., high levels of crime) that influence these risk factors in children. School committees, religious leaders, and government programs and activities were among the positive community resources identified. Conclusions These findings should help researchers in Guatemala and similar LMIC to develop community-based interventions for NCD prevention in school-age children that are effective, feasible, and culturally acceptable. PMID:24485389

  20. An innovative community-oriented approach to prevention and early intervention with refugees in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nazzal, Kristel Heidi; Forghany, Marzieh; Geevarughese, M Charis; Mahmoodi, Venus; Wong, Jorge

    2014-11-01

    Thousands of refugees from around the world resettle in the United States every year. Many refugees suffer from mental health disorders as a result of experiences living in or escaping from their turbulent homelands, and many also experience mental health issues as they settle in their new host countries. As such, it is important to intervene during the early stages of refugee resettlement to help prevent or mitigate mental illness symptoms. However, because of several access and utilization barriers, such as stigma, refugees are not apt to receive needed mental health services. Moreover, the traditional Western model of treatment can be culturally incongruent with refugee practices. Alternative, culturally sensitive, community-based approaches must be considered. This article presents a community-oriented prevention and early intervention model that can be used with newly arrived refugees with limited English proficiency. Goals of the model are to increase knowledge of mental health and mental health service options to refugees, as well as support the process of adjusting to life in the United States. The New Refugee Services Project, developed by the Center for Survivors of Torture department of Asian Americans for Community Involvement (AACI) in San Santa Clara County, California is presented as an example case study. The structure outlined in this article aims to support the development, implementation, and assessment of future preventative interventions for refugee populations. PMID:25384000

  1. Librarian-initiated HIV/AIDS prevention intervention program outcome in rural communities in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajuwon, G A; Komolafe-Opadeji, H O; Ikhizama, B

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to meet the HIV/AIDS information and service needs of citizens living in selected rural, underserved communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a librarian-initiated intervention program (pre-post) study of heads of rural households in Oyo State. A questionnaire was used for pre- and post-intervention assessment. The education covered knowledge about HIV/AIDS, routes of transmission, prevention strategies, and attitude toward persons living with HIV. It increased participants' knowledge about AIDS and improved attitude toward those living with HIV. Provision and dissemination of information on HIV/AIDS through librarians to rural settlers is an important prevention strategy and librarians can make major contributions. PMID:25228485

  2. Prevention of HIV/AIDS in Native American communities: promising interventions.

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Irene S.; Jumper-Thurman, Pamela

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article presents the latest data on trends in AIDS prevalence among Native American men and women and discusses problems of classification, data collection, factors that contribute to high risk, and factors that affect prevention and intervention. It presents a model for building effective prevention and intervention strategies. OBSERVATIONS: The number of people in the United States diagnosed with AIDS has risen by less than 5% per year since 1992, and the slowdown is estimated to continue in coming years. Among Native Americans, however, the number of people diagnosed with AIDS rose 8% in 1997, and nonwhites accounted for more than one-half of all reported AIDS cases through December 2000. For Native Americans, the rate of growth in AIDS prevalence has been steadily increasing since the early 1980s, and AIDS is now the ninth leading killer of Native Americans between the ages of 15 and 44. Factors that contribute to high risk include poverty, homophobia, denial, and mistrust. CONCLUSIONS: Effective strategies must include efforts to reduce the risk factors for AIDS. Future research should honor and celebrate diversity among people as an empowering force that facilitates collaboration and shared learning with tribes. PMID:12435833

  3. A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies to Prevent Hospitalizations of Community-dwelling Older Adults With Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Debnam, Katrina J.; Anderson, Lynda A.; Owens, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct a systematic literature review to determine if there were any intervention strategies that had any measurable effect on acute-care hospitalizations among community-dwelling adults with dementia. Design: Studies were identified by a professional research librarian and content experts. Setting: Community dwelling. Participants: Participants were diagnosed with dementia, severity ranging from mild to severe, and were recruited from health care and community agencies. Measurements: A study met the inclusion criteria if it: (a) was published in English; (b) included a control or comparison group; (c) published outcome data from the intervention under study; (d) reported hospitalization as one of the outcomes; (e) included community-dwelling older adults; and (f) enrolled participants with dementia. Ten studies met all inclusion criteria. Results: Of the 10 studies included, most assessed health services use (ie, hospitalizations) as a secondary outcome. Participants were recruited from a range of health care and community agencies, and most were diagnosed with dementia with severity ratings ranging from mild to severe. Most intervention strategies consisted of face-to-face assessments of the persons living with dementia, their caregivers, and the development and implementation of a care plan. A significant reduction in hospital admissions was not found in any of the included studies, although 1 study did observe a reduction in hospital days. Conclusions: The majority of studies included hospitalizations as a secondary outcome. Only 1 intervention was found to have an effect on hospitalizations. Future work would benefit from strategies specifically designed to reduce and prevent acute hospitalizations in persons with dementia. PMID:25588136

  4. Community interventions for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Parker, Donna R; Assaf, Annlouise R

    2005-12-01

    Review of the community-based CVD intervention programs suggests that a number of components have been successful using varying methods and materials for CVD risk reduction. It should be noted, however, that in multi-intervention programs it is often difficult to determine which components of the intervention were responsible for the overall success of the study. The community-based approach to CVD prevention is generalizable, cost-effective (because of the use of mass communication methods), and has the potential for modifying the environment and influencing health policies. Based on the experiences and successes of a number of community projects, recommendations have been proposed for developing future programs. Although they are not totally comprehensive, it has been suggested that a community-based intervention program should consider the following recommendations: 1) An understanding of the community: the needs and priorities of the community should be assessed, and close collaboration with individuals from the community, including community leaders, opinion leaders, community health care providers, and community organizations from various sectors of the community, should be consulted. Efforts should be focused on underserved and vulnerable populations. 2) Inclusion of community activities: these activities should be integrated within the context of the community environment, including primary health care services, voluntary organizations, grocery stores, restaurants, work sites, schools, and local media. 3) Inclusion mass media messages: the mass media can provide information and reinforcement of the behavior change. 4) Develop cost-effective interventions to assure that the community is exposed to an effective dose of the intervention. 5) Work with community organizations to help change social and physical environments to make them more conducive to health and healthy life-styles changes. 6) Develop a reliable monitoring and evaluation system: monitor the

  5. Implementing trials of complex interventions in community settings: The USC – Rancho Los Amigos Pressure Ulcer Prevention Study (PUPS)

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Florence; Pyatak, Elizabeth A.; Carlson, Mike; Blanche, Erna Imperatore; Vigen, Cheryl; Hay, Joel; Mallinson, Trudy; Blanchard, Jeanine; Unger, Jennifer B.; Garber, Susan L.; Diaz, Jesus; Florindez, Lucia I.; Atkins, Michal; Rubayi, Salah; Azen, Stanley Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Randomized trials of complex, non-pharmacologic interventions implemented in home and community settings, such as the University of Southern California (USC)–Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center (RLANRC) Pressure Ulcer Prevention Study (PUPS), present unique challenges with respect to: (a) participant recruitment and retention, (b) intervention delivery and fidelity, (c) randomization and assessment, and (d) potential inadvertent treatment effects. Purpose We describe the methods employed to address the challenges confronted in implementing PUPS. In this randomized controlled trial, we are assessing the efficacy of a complex, preventive intervention in reducing the incidence of, and costs associated with, the development of medically serious pressure ulcers in people with spinal cord injury. Method Individuals with spinal cord injury recruited from RLANRC were assigned to either a 12-month preventive intervention group or a standard care control group. The primary outcome is the incidence of serious pressure ulcers with secondary endpoints including ulcer-related surgeries, medical treatment costs, and quality of life. These outcomes are assessed at 12 and 24 months after randomization. Additionally, we are studying the mediating mechanisms that account for intervention outcomes. Results PUPS has been successfully implemented, including recruitment of the target sample size of 170 participants, assurance of the integrity of intervention protocol delivery with an average 90% treatment adherence rate, and enactment of the assessment plan. However, implementation has been replete with challenges. To meet recruitment goals, we instituted a five-pronged approach customized for an underserved, ethnically diverse population. In intervention delivery, we increased staff time to overcome economic and cultural barriers to retention and adherence. To ensure treatment fidelity and replicability, we monitored intervention protocol delivery in accord

  6. Feasibility of a Community Intervention for the Prevention of Suicide and Alcohol Abuse with Yup’ik Alaska Native Youth: The Elluam Tungiinun and Yupiucimta Asvairtuumallerkaa Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mohatt, Gerald V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2014-01-01

    The Elluam Tungiinun and Yupiucimta Asvairtuumallerkaa studies evaluated the feasibility of a community intervention to prevent suicide and alcohol abuse among rural Yup’ik Alaska Native youth in two remote communities. The intervention originated in an Indigenous model of protection, and its development used a community based participatory research (CBPR) process. Feasibility assessment aimed to assess the extent to which (1) the intervention could be implemented in rural Alaska Native communities, and (2) the intervention was capable of producing measurable effects. Scales maximally sensitive to change were derived from earlier measurement work, and the study contrasted implementation process and outcomes across the two communities. In one community, medium dose response effects (d = .30–.50), with dose defined as number of intervention activities attended, were observed in the growth of intermediate protective factors and ultimate variables. In the other community, medium dose effects were observed for one intermediate protective factor variable, and small dose effects were observed in ultimate variables. Differences across communities in resources supporting intervention explain these contrasting outcomes. Results suggest implementation in these rural Alaska settings is feasible when sufficient resources are available to sustain high levels of local commitment. In such cases, measureable effects are sufficient to warrant a prevention trial. PMID:24952248

  7. Feasibility of a community intervention for the prevention of suicide and alcohol abuse with Yup'ik Alaska Native youth: the Elluam Tungiinun and Yupiucimta Asvairtuumallerkaa studies.

    PubMed

    Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2014-09-01

    The Elluam Tungiinun and Yupiucimta Asvairtuumallerkaa studies evaluated the feasibility of a community intervention to prevent suicide and alcohol abuse among rural Yup'ik Alaska Native youth in two remote communities. The intervention originated in an Indigenous model of protection, and its development used a community based participatory research process. Feasibility assessment aimed to assess the extent to which (1) the intervention could be implemented in rural Alaska Native communities, and (2) the intervention was capable of producing measurable effects. Scales maximally sensitive to change were derived from earlier measurement work, and the study contrasted implementation process and outcomes across the two communities. In one community, medium dose response effects (d = .30-.50), with dose defined as number of intervention activities attended, were observed in the growth of intermediate protective factors and ultimate variables. In the other community, medium dose effects were observed for one intermediate protective factor variable, and small dose effects were observed in ultimate variables. Differences across communities in resources supporting intervention explain these contrasting outcomes. Results suggest implementation in these rural Alaska settings is feasible when sufficient resources are available to sustain high levels of local commitment. In such cases, measureable effects are sufficient to warrant a prevention trial. PMID:24952248

  8. Assessing the Effectiveness of a Community Intervention for Monkeypox Prevention in the Congo Basin

    PubMed Central

    Kinzoni, Eric A.; Gallagher, Seamus; Ibata, Saturnin R.; Badinga, Nkenda; Molouania, Trolienne M.; Mabola, Fredy S.; Mombouli, Jean V.; Carroll, Darin S.; MacNeil, Adam; Benzekri, Noelle A.; Moses, Cynthia; Damon, Inger K.; Reynolds, Mary G.

    2011-01-01

    Background In areas where health resources are limited, community participation in the recognition and reporting of disease hazards is critical for the identification of outbreaks. This is particularly true for zoonotic diseases such as monkeypox that principally affect people living in remote areas with few health services. Here we report the findings of an evaluation measuring the effectiveness of a film-based community outreach program designed to improve the understanding of monkeypox symptoms, transmission and prevention, by residents of the Republic of the Congo (ROC) who are at risk for disease acquisition. Methodology/Principal Findings During 90 days, monkeypox outreach was conducted for ∼23,860 people in northern ROC. Two hundred seventy-one attendees (selected via a structured sample) were interviewed before and after participating in a small-group outreach session. The proportion of interviewees demonstrating monkeypox-specific knowledge before and after was compared. Significant gains were measured in areas of disease recognition, transmission, and mitigation of risk. The ability to recognize at least one disease symptom and a willingness to take a family member with monkeypox to the hospital increased from 49 and 45% to 95 and 87%, respectively (p<0.001, both). Willingness to deter behaviors associated with zoonotic risk, such as eating the carcass of a primate found dead in the forest, remained fundamentally unchanged however, suggesting additional messaging may be needed. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that our current program of film-based educational activities is effective in improving disease-specific knowledge and may encourage individuals to seek out the advice of health workers when monkeypox is suspected. PMID:22028942

  9. Rebuilding from Resilience: Research Framework for a Randomized Controlled Trial of Community-led Interventions to Prevent Domestic Violence in Aboriginal Communities1

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Neil; Shea, Beverley; Amaratunga, Carol; McGuire, Patricia; Sioui, Georges

    2010-01-01

    This research framework, which competed successfully in the 2008 CIHR open operating grants competition, focuses on protocols to measure the impact of community-led interventions to reduce domestic violence in Aboriginal communities. The project develops and tests tools and procedures for a randomized controlled trial of prevention of family violence. Women’s shelters mainly deal with victims of domestic violence, and the framework also addresses other types of domestic violence (male and female children, elderly, and disabled). The partner shelters are in Aboriginal communities across Canada, on and off reserve, in most provinces and territories. The baseline study applies a questionnaire developed by the shelters. Testing the stepped wedge design in an Aboriginal context, shelters randomized themselves to two waves of intervention, half the shelters receiving the resources for the first wave. A repeat survey after two years will measure the difference between first wave and second wave, after which the resources will shift to the second wave. At least two Aboriginal researchers will complete their doctoral studies in the project. The steering committee of 12 shelter directors guides the project and ensures ethical standards related to their populations. Each participating community and the University of Ottawa reviewed and passed the proposal. PMID:20975853

  10. CHOICES: An Empirically Supported Intervention for Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Shannon K.; Velasquez, Mary M.; von Sternberg, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Examples of behavioral interventions that are efficacious in the research setting as well as practical and translatable to the "real-world" are critically needed as models for social work researchers and clinicians. This article presents the Changing High-Risk Alcohol Use and Improving Contraception Effectiveness Study (CHOICES)…

  11. 'Proyecto Orgullo', an HIV prevention, empowerment and community mobilisation intervention for gay men and transgender women in Callao/Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Maiorana, Andres; Kegeles, Susan; Salazar, Ximena; Konda, Kelika; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Cáceres, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We used qualitative, quantitative, and observational methods to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of Proyecto Orgullo (PO), a pilot community mobilisation intervention to decrease sexual risk, promote health-seeking behaviours, and facilitate personal and community empowerment among gay men (GM) and transgender women (TW) in Peru. PO was adapted from Mpowerment and Hermanos de Luna y Sol, two US interventions. PO included six interrelated core elements: (1) Self-reflection Small Group sessions; (2) Supporting peers in HIV prevention; (3) Mobilisation Activities addressing HIV, GM/TW issues, and community empowerment; (4) A Core Group (staff + GM/TW volunteers) designing/implementing those activities; (5) A Project Space; (6) Publicity. PO included specific components for TW, but promoted that GM/TW, who historically have not worked well together, collaborate for a common goal. We found that PO was embraced by GM/TW. PO positively influenced GM/TW's HIV prevention beliefs, self-efficacy, and behaviours; provided social support and created community; facilitated individual and community empowerment; achieved that GM/TW collaborate; and established a functional Community Centre for socialising/conducting mobilisation activities. Community mobilisation strategies, lacking from HIV prevention efforts in Peru but considered key to HIV prevention, can help improve health-seeking behaviours and consolidate social norms supporting preventive behaviours among GM/TW. PMID:27373578

  12. The conceptual framework and assessment methodology for the systematic reviews of community-based interventions for the prevention and control of infectious diseases of poverty

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual framework and the methodology used to guide the systematic reviews of community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and control of infectious diseases of poverty (IDoP). We adapted the conceptual framework from the 3ie work on the ‘Community-Based Intervention Packages for Preventing Maternal Morbidity and Mortality and Improving Neonatal Outcomes’ to aid in the analyzing of the existing CBIs for IDoP. The conceptual framework revolves around objectives, inputs, processes, outputs, outcomes, and impacts showing the theoretical linkages between the delivery of the interventions targeting these diseases through various community delivery platforms and the consequent health impacts. We also describe the methodology undertaken to conduct the systematic reviews and the meta-analyses. PMID:25105014

  13. The conceptual framework and assessment methodology for the systematic reviews of community-based interventions for the prevention and control of infectious diseases of poverty.

    PubMed

    Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual framework and the methodology used to guide the systematic reviews of community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and control of infectious diseases of poverty (IDoP). We adapted the conceptual framework from the 3ie work on the 'Community-Based Intervention Packages for Preventing Maternal Morbidity and Mortality and Improving Neonatal Outcomes' to aid in the analyzing of the existing CBIs for IDoP. The conceptual framework revolves around objectives, inputs, processes, outputs, outcomes, and impacts showing the theoretical linkages between the delivery of the interventions targeting these diseases through various community delivery platforms and the consequent health impacts. We also describe the methodology undertaken to conduct the systematic reviews and the meta-analyses. PMID:25105014

  14. Individualization of a Manualized Pressure Ulcer Prevention Program: Targeting Risky Life Circumstances Through a Community-Based Intervention for People with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Vaishampayan, Ashwini; Clark, Florence; Carlson, Mike; Blanche, Erna Imperatore

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To sensitize practitioners working with individuals with spinal cord injury to the complex life circumstances that are implicated in the development of pressure ulcers, and to document the ways that interventions can be adapted to target individual needs. Methods Content analysis of weekly fidelity/ quality control meetings that were undertaken as part of a lifestyle intervention for pressure ulcer prevention in community-dwelling adults with spinal cord injury. Results Four types of lifestyle-relevant challenges to ulcer prevention were identified: risk-elevating life circumstances, communication difficulties, equipment problems, and individual personality issues. Intervention flexibility was achieved by changing the order of treatment modules, altering the intervention content or delivery approach, or going beyond the stipulated content. Conclusion Attention to recurrent types of individual needs, along with explicit strategies for tailoring manualized interventions, has potential to enhance pressure ulcer prevention efforts for adults with spinal cord injury. Target audience This continuing education article is intended for practitioners interested in learning about a comprehensive, context-sensitive, community-based pressure ulcer prevention program for people with spinal cord injury. Objectives After reading this article, the reader should be able to: Describe some of the contextual factors that increase pressure ulcer risk in people with spinal cord injury living in the community.Distinguish between tailored and individualized intervention approaches.Identify the issues that must be taken into account to design context-sensitive, community-based pressure ulcer prevention programs for people with spinal cord injury.Describe approaches that can be used to individualize manualized interventions. PMID:21586911

  15. School and Community Interventions To Prevent Serious and Violent Offending. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Richard F.; Loeber, Rolf; McKinney, Kay C.

    Recent research indicates that children exposed to certain risk factors in their families, at school, among their peers, and in their communities are at greater risk of becoming serious violent juvenile (SVJ) offenders. The Study Group on Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders, a group of 22 researchers convened by the Office of Juvenile Justice…

  16. Project Northland in Croatia: A Community-Based Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abatemarco, Diane J.; West, Bernadette; Zec, Vesna; Russo, Andrea; Sosiak, Persis; Mardesic, Vedran

    2004-01-01

    War and social transition in Croatia have increased unemployment and rates of substance abuse. A decrease in prevention programs places adolescents at an increased risk. Data collected from the 2002 Split Youth Behavior Risk Survey (YRBS) showed that adolescents are at risk for alcohol use and related problems. Thus, there is a need to strengthen…

  17. Developing community-based preventive interventions in Hong Kong: a description of the first phase of the family project

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper describes the development of culturally-appropriate family-based interventions and their relevant measures, to promote family health, happiness and harmony in Hong Kong. Programs were developed in the community, using a collaborative approach with community partners. The development process, challenges, and the lessons learned are described. This experience may be of interest to the scientific community as there is little information currently available about community-based development of brief interventions with local validity in cultures outside the West. Methods The academic-community collaborative team each brought strengths to the development process and determined the targets for intervention (parent-child relationships). Information from expert advisors and stakeholder discussion groups was collected and utilized to define the sources of stress in parent-child relationships. Results Themes emerged from the literature and discussion groups that guided the content of the intervention. Projects emphasized features that were appropriate for this cultural group and promoted potential for sustainability, so that the programs might eventually be implemented at a population-wide level. Challenges included ensuring local direction, relevance and acceptability for the intervention content, engaging participants and enhancing motivation to make behavior changes after a brief program, measurement of behavior changes, and developing an equal partner relationship between academic and community staff. Conclusions This work has public health significance because of the global importance of parent-child relationships as a risk-factor for many outcomes in adulthood, the need to develop interventions with strong evidence of effectiveness to populations outside the West, the potential application of our interventions to universal populations, and characteristics of the interventions that promote dissemination, including minimal additional costs for

  18. Enhancement of a Locally Developed HIV Prevention Intervention for Hispanic/Latino MSM: A Partnership of Community-Based Organizations, a University, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Freeman, Arin; Sun, Christina J; Garcia, Manuel; Painter, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, no efficacious behavioral HIV/STD prevention interventions are currently available for use with this vulnerable population. We describe the enhancement of HOLA en Grupos, a community-based behavioral HIV/STD prevention intervention for Spanish-speaking Hispanic/Latino MSM that is currently being implemented and evaluated in North Carolina with support from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Our intervention enhancement process included incorporating local data on risks and context; identifying community needs and priorities; defining intervention core elements and key characteristics; developing a logic model; developing an intervention logo; enhancing intervention activities and materials; scripting intervention delivery; expanding the comparison intervention; and establishing a materials review committee. If the CDC-sponsored evaluation determines that HOLA en Grupos is efficacious, it will be the first such behavioral HIV/STD prevention intervention to be identified for potential use with Hispanic/Latino MSM, thereby contributing to the body of evidence-based resources that may be used for preventing HIV/STD infection among these MSM and their sex partners. PMID:26241382

  19. A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of a Community-Based HIV Prevention Intervention for Mexican American Female Adolescents: The SHERO's Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Gary W.; Bangi, Audrey K.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Doll, Mimi; Pedraza, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a quasi-experimental evaluation of a community-based, culturally and ecologically tailored HIV prevention intervention for Mexican American female adolescents grounded in the AIDS risk reduction model. A total of 378 Mexican American female adolescents (mean age = 15.2) participated in either the nine-session SHERO's (a…

  20. HIV prevention interventions to reduce sexual risk for African Americans: the influence of community-level stigma and psychological processes.

    PubMed

    Reid, Allecia E; Dovidio, John F; Ballester, Estrellita; Johnson, Blair T

    2014-02-01

    Interventions to improve public health may benefit from consideration of how environmental contexts can facilitate or hinder their success. We examined the extent to which efficacy of interventions to improve African Americans' condom use practices was moderated by two indicators of structural stigma-Whites' attitudes toward African Americans and residential segregation in the communities where interventions occurred. A previously published meta-analytic database was re-analyzed to examine the interplay of community-level stigma with the psychological processes implied by intervention content in influencing intervention efficacy. All studies were conducted in the United States and included samples that were at least 50% African American. Whites' attitudes were drawn from the American National Election Studies, which collects data from nationally representative samples. Residential segregation was drawn from published reports. Results showed independent effects of Whites' attitudes and residential segregation on condom use effect sizes. Interventions were most successful when Whites' attitudes were more positive or when residential segregation was low. These two structural factors interacted: Interventions improved condom use only when communities had both relatively positive attitudes toward African Americans and lower levels of segregation. The effect of Whites' attitudes was more pronounced at longer follow-up intervals and for younger samples and those samples with more African Americans. Tailoring content to participants' values and needs, which may reduce African Americans' mistrust of intervention providers, buffered against the negative influence of Whites' attitudes on condom use. The structural factors uniquely accounted for variance in condom use effect sizes over and above intervention-level features and community-level education and poverty. Results highlight the interplay of social identity and environment in perpetuating intergroup disparities

  1. Interventions to prevent or reduce the level of frailty in community-dwelling older adults: a protocol for a scoping review of the literature and international policies

    PubMed Central

    Puts, Martine T E; Toubasi, Samar; Atkinson, Esther; Ayala, Ana Patricia; Andrew, Melissa; Ashe, Maureen C; Bergman, Howard; Ploeg, Jenny; McGilton, Katherine S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With ageing comes increased vulnerability such that older adults’ ability to recover from acute illnesses, fall-related injuries and other stresses related to the physical ageing processes declines. This increased vulnerability, also known as frailty, is common in older adults and associated with increased healthcare service use and adverse health outcomes. Currently, there is no overview of available interventions to prevent or reduce the level of frailty (as defined by study's authors) which will help healthcare providers in community settings caring for older adults. We will address this gap by reviewing interventions and international polices that are designed to prevent or reduce the level of frailty in community-dwelling older adults. Methods and analysis We will conduct a scoping review using the updated guidelines of Arksey and O'Malley to systematically search the peer-reviewed journal articles to identify interventions that aimed to prevent or reduce the level of frailty. We will search grey literature for international policies. The 6-stage scoping review model involves: (1) identifying the research question; (2) identifying relevant studies; (3) selecting studies; (4) charting the data; (5) collating, summarising and reporting the results and (6) consulting with key stakeholders. Ethics and dissemination Our scoping review will use robust methodology to search for available interventions focused on preventing or reducing the level of frailty in community-dwelling older adults. We will consult with stakeholders to find out whether they find the frailty interventions/policies useful and to identify the barriers and facilitators to their implementation in Canada. We will disseminate our findings to relevant stakeholders at local, national and international levels by presenting at relevant meetings and publishing the findings. Our review will identify gaps in research and provide healthcare providers and policymakers with an overview of

  2. Preventing Diabetes: Early Versus Late Preventive Interventions.

    PubMed

    Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Schwarz, Peter E H

    2016-08-01

    There are a number of arguments in support of early measures for the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), as well as for concepts and strategies at later intervention stages. Diabetes prevention is achievable when implemented in a sustainable manner. Sustainability within a T2D prevention program is more important than the actual point in time or disease process at which prevention activities may start. The quality of intervention, as well as its intensity, should vary with the degree of the identified T2D risk. Nevertheless, preventive interventions should start as early as possible in order to allow a wide variety of relatively low- and moderate-intensity programs. The later the disease risk is identified, the more intensive the intervention should be. Public health interventions for diabetes prevention represent an optimal model for early intervention. Late interventions will be targeted at people who already have significant pathophysiological derangements that can be considered steps leading to the development of T2D. These derangements may be difficult to reverse, but the worsening of dysglycemia may be halted, and thus the clinical onset of T2D can be delayed. PMID:27440823

  3. CHOICES: an integrated behavioral intervention to prevent alcohol-exposed pregnancies among high-risk women in community settings.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Mary M; von Sternberg, Kirk; Parrish, Danielle E

    2013-01-01

    CHOICES is an integrated behavioral intervention for prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure in women at high risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancies. The intervention uses motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral strategies, and targets adoption of effective contraception and reduction of alcohol use. The CHOICES intervention includes four manual-guided counseling sessions delivered by behavioral health counselors and one contraceptive session with a family planning clinician. CHOICES's efficacy has been established through a series of randomized controlled trials in settings including primary care, university hospital-based obstetrical/gynecology practices, urban jails, substance abuse treatment settings, and a media-recruited sample in three large cities. This article describes the CHOICES line of research including the epidemiology, feasibility, and efficacy studies. It also details the CHOICES intervention and the components of each session. In addition, the authors describe current studies testing modifications of the CHOICES intervention, the dissemination efforts to date, and implications for social work practice. PMID:23731416

  4. The Development of a Community-Based, Pharmacist-Provided Falls Prevention MTM Intervention for Older Adults: Relationship Building, Methods, and Rationale

    PubMed Central

    Mott, David A.; Martin, Beth; Breslow, Robert; Michaels, Barb; Kirchner, Jeff; Mahoney, Jane; Margolis, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this article are to discuss the process of community engagement experienced to plan and implement a pilot study of a pharmacist-provided MTM intervention focused on reducing the use of medications associated with falling, and to present the research methods that emerged from the community engagement process to evaluate the feasibility, acceptance, and preliminary impact of the intervention. Key lessons learned from the community engagement process also are presented and discussed. The relationship building and planning process took twelve months. The RE-AIM framework broadly guided the planning process since an overarching goal for the community partners was developing a program that could be implemented and sustained in the future. The planning phase focused on identifying research questions that were of most interest to the community partners, the population to study, the capacity of partners to perform activities, process evaluation. Much of the planning phase was accomplished with face-to-face meetings. After all study processes, study materials, and data collection tools were developed, a focus group of older adults who represented the likely targets of the MTM intervention provided feedback related to the concept and process of the intervention. Nine key lessons were identified from the community engagement process. One key to successful community engagement is partners taking the time to educate each other about experiences, processes, and success and failures. Additionally, partners must actively listen to each other to better understand barriers and facilitators that likely will impact the planning and implementation process. Successful community engagement will be important to develop both formative and summative evaluation processes that will help to produce valid evidence about the effectiveness of pharmacists in modifying drug therapy and preventing falls as well as promote adoption and implementation of the intervention in other

  5. School-Based Intervention as a Component of a Comprehensive Community Program for Overweight and Obesity Prevention, Sousse, Tunisia, 2009–2014

    PubMed Central

    Msakni, Zineb; Zammit, Nawel; Bhiri, Sana; Harrabi, Imed; Boughammoura, Lamia; Slama, Slim; Larbi, Chaieb; Ghannem, Hassen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Combating obesity at an early age, by improving physical activity and nutrition-related behaviors, is vital to the prevention of more critical health concerns in adulthood. This intervention study evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based component of a community behavioral intervention on overweight and obesity rates of adolescents in Sousse, Tunisia. Methods A quasi-experimental school-based intervention was conducted with an intervention group (in Sousse Jawhara and Sousse Riadh) and a control group (in Sousse Msaken). The intervention (which was a physical activity and nutrition program) lasted 3 years, with data at preintervention collected during the 2009–2010 school year and at postintervention collected during the 2013–2014 school year. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis were used to determine the effect of the intervention on risk of excess weight. Results Results showed a significant increase in fruit and vegetable intake by the intervention group (P = .04). The intervention group had an increase in students in the normal weight category (P = .03) and a decrease in students in the overweight category (P = .03).The intervention effect was a protective factor against excess weight for the participating schoolchildren (OR, 0.84; P = .02). Conclusion This study showed that a school-based intervention is successful in increasing healthy dietary habits and in reducing risk of excess weight. It also showed the importance of a multisectoral approach to provide an environment conducive to healthy behaviors for adolescents. PMID:26402050

  6. A Community-Based Intervention to Prevent Obesity Beginning at Birth among American Indian Children: Study Design and Rationale for the PTOTS study

    PubMed Central

    Karanja, Njeri; Aickin, Mikel; Lutz, Tam; Mist, Scott; Jobe, Jared B.; Maupomé, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors associated with adult obesity have early antecedents, yet few studies have focused on obesity prevention interventions targeting very young children. Efforts to prevent obesity beginning at birth seem particularly important in populations at risk for early-onset obesity. National estimates indicate that American Indian (AI) children have higher rates of overweight and obesity than children of other races/ethnicities. The Prevention of Toddler Obesity and Teeth Health Study (PTOTS) is a community-partnered randomized controlled trial designed to prevent obesity beginning at birth in AI children. PTOTS was developed to test the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention designed to: promote breastfeeding, reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, appropriately time the introduction of healthy solid foods, and counsel parents to reduce sedentary lifestyles in their children. A birth cohort of 577 children from five AI tribes is randomized by tribe to either the intervention (three tribes) or the comparison condition (two tribes). The strengths and weaknesses of PTOTS include a focus on a critical growth phase, placement in the community, and intervention at many levels, using a variety of approaches. PMID:23001689

  7. Expanding the role of primary care in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity: a review of clinic- and community-based recommendations and interventions.

    PubMed

    Vine, Michaela; Hargreaves, Margaret B; Briefel, Ronette R; Orfield, Cara

    2013-01-01

    Although pediatric providers have traditionally assessed and treated childhood obesity and associated health-related conditions in the clinic setting, there is a recognized need to expand the provider role. We reviewed the literature published from 2005 to 2012 to (1) provide examples of the spectrum of roles that primary care providers can play in the successful treatment and prevention of childhood obesity in both clinic and community settings and (2) synthesize the evidence of important characteristics, factors, or strategies in successful community-based models. The review identified 96 articles that provide evidence of how primary care providers can successfully prevent and treat childhood obesity by coordinating efforts within the primary care setting and through linkages to obesity prevention and treatment resources within the community. By aligning the most promising interventions with recommendations published over the past decade by the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and other health organizations, we present nine areas in which providers can promote the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity through efforts in clinical and community settings: weight status assessment and monitoring, healthy lifestyle promotion, treatment, clinician skill development, clinic infrastructure development, community program referrals, community health education, multisector community initiatives, and policy advocacy. PMID:23710345

  8. Expanding the Role of Primary Care in the Prevention and Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Review of Clinic- and Community-Based Recommendations and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Margaret B.; Briefel, Ronette R.; Orfield, Cara

    2013-01-01

    Although pediatric providers have traditionally assessed and treated childhood obesity and associated health-related conditions in the clinic setting, there is a recognized need to expand the provider role. We reviewed the literature published from 2005 to 2012 to (1) provide examples of the spectrum of roles that primary care providers can play in the successful treatment and prevention of childhood obesity in both clinic and community settings and (2) synthesize the evidence of important characteristics, factors, or strategies in successful community-based models. The review identified 96 articles that provide evidence of how primary care providers can successfully prevent and treat childhood obesity by coordinating efforts within the primary care setting and through linkages to obesity prevention and treatment resources within the community. By aligning the most promising interventions with recommendations published over the past decade by the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and other health organizations, we present nine areas in which providers can promote the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity through efforts in clinical and community settings: weight status assessment and monitoring, healthy lifestyle promotion, treatment, clinician skill development, clinic infrastructure development, community program referrals, community health education, multisector community initiatives, and policy advocacy. PMID:23710345

  9. [Bullying: Prevention and intervention strategies].

    PubMed

    Christaki, M

    2007-04-01

    Bullying can be defined as when one (or more) individual engages in aggressive behaviour against another individual who seem to be unable to defend himself. This action is intentional and persistent and creates great distress and fear. There are not specific statistics in Greece but recent researches from EKKE showed that one out of four children in Athens have been bullied physically. Bullying is a multifaceted and complex problem. Modern psychological perspectives emphasize that aggressive and violent behaviours are learned responses to frustration. Learning occurs by observing models of such behaviour in the family, in the neighbourhood, in school. Ignoring the problem gives a bad example. Prevention and intervention strategies should include the family, the school personnel and the children. Bullying has negative effects on the physical and mental health of the child and it can also cost his life, some kids commit suicide. Therefore intervention strategies need to develop in the communities. The aim is to create a -physically and psychologically- safe environment. PMID:22466519

  10. Enhancement of a locally developed HIV prevention intervention for Hispanic/Latino MSM: A partnership of community-based organizations, a university, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Freeman, Arin; Sun, Christina J.; Garcia, Manuel; Painter, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, no efficacious behavioral interventions are currently available for use with this vulnerable population. We describe the development and enhancement of HOLA en Grupos, a community-based behavioral HIV/STD prevention intervention for Spanish-speaking Hispanic/Latino MSM that is currently being implemented and evaluated. Our enhancement process included incorporating local data on risks and context; identifying community priorities; defining intervention core elements and key characteristics; developing a logic model; developing an intervention logo; enhancing intervention activities and materials; scripting intervention delivery; expanding the comparison intervention; and establishing a materials review committee. If efficacious, HOLA en Grupos will be the first behavioral intervention to be identified for potential use with Hispanic/Latino MSM, thereby contributing to the body of evidence-based resources that may be used for preventing HIV/STD infection among these MSM and their sex partners. PMID:26241382

  11. Community Intervention in the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Richard L.

    Previous and present relationships between colleges and their communities are examined to determine the various forms of intervention, both social and economic, that will shape this relationship in the future. Four forms of community intervention are identified. (1) By its participation in college programs and services, the community is the…

  12. Community-based HIV prevention interventions that combat anti-gay stigma for men who have sex with men and for transgender women.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Sean; Valadéz, Robert; Ibarrola, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have been disproportionately affected by HIV since the onset of the epidemic. Public health discourse about prevention has traditionally focused on individual risk behavior and less on the socio-structural factors that place MSM at increased risk of infection. Anti-gay bias and stigma are key structural drivers of HIV and must therefore be treated as a public health threat. Community-based prevention intervention programs that affirm the healthy formation of gay and transgender identities are strongly needed. Gay affirming school-based interventions and resiliency-focused social marketing campaigns have shown positive impact on health outcomes and should be implemented on a broader scale to challenge anti-gay stigma. PMID:23151921

  13. HIV prevention and care services for female sex workers: efficacy of a targeted community-based intervention in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Traore, Isidore T; Meda, Nicolas; Hema, Noelie M; Ouedraogo, Djeneba; Some, Felicien; Some, Roselyne; Niessougou, Josiane; Sanon, Anselme; Konate, Issouf; Van De Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe; Nagot, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although interventions to control HIV among high-risk groups such as female sex workers (FSW) are highly recommended in Africa, the contents and efficacy of these interventions are unclear. We therefore designed a comprehensive dedicated intervention targeting young FSW and assessed its impact on HIV incidence in Burkina Faso. Methods Between September 2009 and September 2011 we conducted a prospective, interventional cohort study of FSW aged 18 to 25 years in Ouagadougou, with quarterly follow-up for a maximum of 21 months. The intervention combined prevention and care within the same setting, consisting of peer-led education sessions, psychological support, sexually transmitted infections and HIV care, general routine health care and reproductive health services. At each visit, behavioural characteristics were collected and HIV, HSV-2 and pregnancy were tested. We compared the cohort HIV incidence with a modelled expected incidence in the study population in the absence of intervention, using data collected at the same time from FSW clients. Results The 321 HIV-uninfected FSW enrolled in the cohort completed 409 person-years of follow-up. No participant seroconverted for HIV during the study (0/409 person-years), whereas the expected modelled number of HIV infections were 5.05/409 person-years (95% CI, 5.01–5.08) or 1.23 infections per 100 person-years (p=0.005). This null incidence was related to a reduction in the number of regular partners and regular clients, and by an increase in consistent condom use with casual clients (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.19; 95% CI, 1.16–4.14, p=0.01) and with regular clients (aOR=2.18; 95% CI, 1.26–3.76, p=0.005). Conclusions Combining peer-based prevention and care within the same setting markedly reduced the HIV incidence among young FSW in Burkina Faso, through reduced risky behaviours. PMID:26374604

  14. Comprehensive geriatric assessment, multifactorial interventions and nurse-led care coordination to prevent functional decline in community-dwelling older persons: protocol of a cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Functional decline in community-dwelling older persons is associated with the loss of independence, the need for hospital and nursing-home care and premature death. The effectiveness of multifactorial interventions in preventing functional decline remains controversial. The aim of this study is to investigate whether functional decline in community-dwelling older persons can be delayed or prevented by a comprehensive geriatric assessment, multifactorial interventions and nurse-led care coordination. Methods/Design In a cluster randomized controlled trial, with the general practice as the unit of randomization, 1281 participants from 25 general practices will be enrolled in each condition to compare the intervention with usual care. The intervention will focus on older persons who are at increased risk for functional decline, identified by an Identification of Seniors at Risk Primary Care (ISAR-PC) score (≥ 2). These older persons will receive a comprehensive geriatric assessment, an individually tailored care and treatment plan, consisting of multifactorial, evidence-based interventions and subsequent nurse-led care coordination. The control group will receive 'care as usual' by the general practitioner (GP). The main outcome after 12 months is the level of physical functioning on the modified Katz-15 index score. The secondary outcomes are health-related quality of life, psychological and social functioning, healthcare utilization and institutionalization. Furthermore, a process evaluation and cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed. Discussion This study will provide new knowledge regarding the effectiveness and feasibility of a comprehensive geriatric assessment, multifactorial interventions and nurse-led elderly care in general practice. Trial registration NTR2653 Grant Unrestricted grant 'The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and development' no 313020201 PMID:22462516

  15. A Community-Engaged Approach to Developing an mHealth HIV/STI and Drug Abuse Preventive Intervention for Primary Care: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, Jose A; Fessler, Kathryn; Delva, Jorge; Nelson, Annabelle; Nurenberg, Rachel; Mendoza Lua, Frania; Alers-Rojas, Francheska; Salas-Wright, Christopher P

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite ongoing prevention efforts, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STIs) and drug use remain public health concerns. Urban adolescents, many of whom are underserved and racial minorities, are disproportionately affected. Recent changes in policy, including the Affordable Care Act, and advances in technology provide HIV/STI and drug abuse prevention scientists with unique opportunities to deliver mobile health (mHealth) preventive interventions in primary care. Objectives The purpose of this community-engaged study was to develop an mHealth version of the Storytelling for Empowerment preventive intervention for primary care (hereinafter referred to as “S4E”). Methods A total of 29 adolescents were recruited from a youth-centered primary care clinic in Southeast, Michigan, to participate in qualitative interviews. Participants were predominantly African American (n=19, 65.5%) and female (n=21, 72.4%) with a mean age of 16.23 (SD 2.09). The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), in conjunction with agile software development and the recommended core prevention principles of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) were employed during S4E development. CBPR principles are aimed at improving the effectiveness of research by addressing locally relevant health problems, working with community strengths, and translating basic science into applied research. Complementing this approach, the NIDA prevention principles are derived from decades of drug abuse prevention research aimed at increasing the effectiveness and uptake of programs, through the development of culturally specific interventions and ensuring the structure, content, and delivery of the intervention fit the needs of the community. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results A total of 5 themes emerged from the data: (1) acceptability of the mHealth app to adolescents in primary care, (2) inclusion of a risk assessment to improve clinician

  16. A community based prevention of weight gain intervention (Mothers In Motion) among young low-income overweight and obese mothers: design and rationale

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over 45% of American women 20–39 years old are at risk for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other health conditions because they are overweight or obese. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is disproportionately high among low-income women. This paper describes the study design and rationale of a community based intervention (Mothers In Motion, MIM) aimed to prevent weight gain among low-income overweight and obese mothers18-39 years old by promoting stress management, healthy eating, and physical activity. Methods/Design Peer recruiters approach participants from 5 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in Michigan. The MIM delivers theory-based, culturally-sensitive intervention messages via a combination of DVDs and peer support group teleconferences (PSGTs). The DVD features African American and white overweight and obese WIC mothers who participated in a healthy lifestyle intervention patterned after MIM. The PSGTs are led by paraprofessionals from Michigan State University Extension and WIC providers in Michigan who are trained in motivational interviewing and group facilitation skills. Participants are randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 350) or comparison group (n = 175). The intervention group receives a 16-week intervention on a weekly or bi-weekly basis. Participants are asked to watch 10 MIM DVD chapters at home and join 10 PSGT sessions by phone. The comparison group receives printed educational materials. The primary outcome is body weight. Secondary outcomes include dietary fat, fruit, and vegetable intake; physical activity; stress, and affect. Mediators are self-efficacy, emotional coping response, social support, and autonomous motivation. Telephone interviews and in-person data collection at WIC offices occur at 3 time points: baseline, immediately, and 3 months after the 16-week intervention. Discussion If MIM shows effectiveness, it could have a favorable

  17. A meta-analysis of direct and mediating effects of community coalitions that implemented science-based substance abuse prevention interventions.

    PubMed

    Collins, David; Johnson, Knowlton; Becker, Betsy Jane

    2007-01-01

    This article reports results of a meta-analysis of the effects of a set of community coalitions that implemented science-based substance use prevention interventions as part of a State Incentive Grant (SIG) in Kentucky. The analysis included assessment of direct effects on prevalence of substance use among adolescents as well as assessment of what "risk" and "protective" factors mediated the coalition effects. In addition, we tested whether multiple science-based prevention interventions enhanced the effects of coalitions on youth substance use. Short-term results (using 8th-grade data) showed no significant decreases in six prevalence of substance use outcomes -- and, in fact, a significant though small increase in prevalence of use of one substance (inhalants). Sustained results (using 10th-grade data), however, showed significant, though small decreases in three of six substance use outcomes -- past month prevalence of cigarette use, alcohol use, and binge drinking. We found evidence that the sustained effects on these three prevalence outcomes were mediated by two posited risk factors: friends' drug use and perceived availability of drugs. Finally, we found that the number of science-based prevention interventions implemented in schools within the coalitions did not moderate the effects of the coalitions on the prevalence of drug use. Study limitations are noted. PMID:17613959

  18. A community-based intervention for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in the slums of Nairobi: the SCALE UP study protocol for a prospective quasi-experimental community-based trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The burden of cardiovascular disease is rising in sub-Saharan Africa with hypertension being the main risk factor. However, context-specific evidence on effective interventions for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in resource-poor settings is limited. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of one such intervention—the “Sustainable model for cardiovascular health by adjusting lifestyle and treatment with economic perspective in settings of urban poverty”. Methods/Design Design: A prospective quasi-experimental community-based intervention study. Setting: Two slum settlements (Korogocho and Viwandani) in Nairobi, Kenya. Study population: Adults aged 35 years and above in the two communities. Intervention: The intervention community (Korogocho) will be exposed to an intervention package for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease that comprises awareness campaigns, household screening for cardiovascular diseases risk factors, and referral and treatment of people with high cardiovascular diseases risk at a primary health clinic. The control community (Viwandani) will continue accessing the usual standard of care for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Kenya. Data: Demographic and socioeconomic data; anthropometric and clinical measurements including blood pressure. Population-based data will be collected at the baseline and endline—12 months after implementing the intervention. These data will be collected from a random sample of 1,610 adults aged 35 years and above in the intervention and control sites at both baseline and endline. Additionally, operational (including cost) and clinic-based data will be collected on an ongoing basis. Main outcomes: (1) A positive difference in the change in the proportion of the intervention versus control study populations that are at moderate or high risk of cardiovascular disease; (2) a difference in the change in mean systolic blood pressure in the

  19. Feasibility and Initial Efficacy Evaluation of a Community-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Lifestyle Intervention to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain During Pregnancy in Latina Women.

    PubMed

    Gesell, Sabina B; Katula, Jeffrey A; Strickland, Carmen; Vitolins, Mara Z

    2015-08-01

    About 48 % of US women gain more weight during pregnancy than recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Excessive gestational weight gain is a major risk factor for obesity in both women and offspring over their lifetimes, and should be avoided. This study was designed to test the feasibility and initial efficacy of a prenatal behavioral intervention in a sample of low-income, predominantly Latina women. The intervention was delivered in groups of 8-10 women in a community recreation center, and structured to reduce the proportion of women who gained weight in excess of IOM guidelines. Recruitment targets were met in 3 months: 135 pregnant women (>10 and <28 weeks) were randomly assigned to receive a 12-week intervention (n = 68) or usual care (n = 67). Retention rate was 81 %. On average, women attended 4 of 12 group sessions, and each session had 4 of the 8-10 assigned participants in attendance. Initial efficacy analyses were based on 87 women. Compared to usual care, fewer normal-weight women in the intervention exceeded IOM recommendations (47.1 % usual care vs. 6.7 % intervention; absolute difference 40.4 %; p = .036). Recommendations for recruitment, retention, and delivery are discussed. A community-based cognitive-behavioral lifestyle intervention during pregnancy was feasible in a hard-to-reach, high-risk population of low-income Latina women, and showed efficacy in preventing excessive gestational weight gain. Due to frequently changing work schedules, strategies are needed to either increase attendance at group sessions (e.g., within a group prenatal care format) or to build core skills necessary for behavior change through other modalities. PMID:25874878

  20. Impact evaluation of a community-based intervention for prevention of cardiovascular diseases in the slums of Nairobi: the SCALE-UP study

    PubMed Central

    van de Vijver, Steven; Oti, Samuel Oji; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Agyemang, Charles; Egondi, Thaddaeus; van Charante, Eric Moll; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Hankins, Catherine; Tanovic, Zlata; Ezeh, Alex; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Stronks, Karien

    2016-01-01

    Background A combination of increasing urbanization, behaviour change, and lack of health services in slums put the urban poor specifically at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a community-based CVD prevention intervention on blood pressure (BP) and other CVD risk factors in a slum setting in Nairobi, Kenya. Design Prospective intervention study includes awareness campaigns, household visits for screening, and referral and treatment of people with hypertension. The primary outcome was overall change in mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), while secondary outcomes were changes in awareness of hypertension and other CVD risk factors. We evaluated the intervention's impact through consecutive cross-sectional surveys at baseline and after 18 months, comparing outcomes of intervention and control group, through a difference-in-difference method. Results We screened 1,531 and 1,233 participants in the intervention and control sites. We observed a significant reduction in mean SBP when comparing before and after measurements in both intervention and control groups, −2.75 mmHg (95% CI −4.33 to −1.18, p=0.001) and −1.67 mmHg (95% CI −3.17 to −0.17, p=0.029), respectively. Among people with hypertension at baseline, SBP was reduced by −14.82 mmHg (95% CI −18.04 to −11.61, p<0.001) in the intervention and −14.05 (95% CI −17.71 to −10.38, p<0.001) at the control site. However, comparing these two groups, we found no difference in changes in mean SBP or hypertension prevalence. Conclusions We found significant declines in SBP over time in both intervention and control groups. However, we found no additional effect of a community-based intervention involving awareness campaigns, screening, referral, and treatment. Possible explanations include the beneficial effect of baseline measurements in the control group on behaviour and related BP levels, and the limited success of treatment and suboptimal adherence in

  1. Primary prevention for risk factors of ischemic stroke with Baduanjin exercise intervention in the community elder population: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke is a major cause of death and disability in the world, and the prevalence of stroke tends to increase with age. Despite advances in acute care and secondary preventive strategies, primary prevention should play the most significant role in the reduction of the burden of stroke. As an important component of traditional Chinese Qigong, Baduanjin exercise is a simple, safe exercise, especially suitable for older adults. However, current evidence is insufficient to inform the use of Baduanjin exercise in the prevention of stroke. The aim of this trail is to systematically evaluate the prevention effect of Baduanjin exercise on ischemic stroke in the community elder population with high risk factors. Methods A total of 170 eligible participants from the community elder population will be randomly allocated into the Baduanjin exercise group and usual physical activity control group in a 1:1 ratio. Besides usual physical activity, participants in the Baduanjin exercise group will accept a 12-week Baduanjin exercise training with a frequency of five days a week and 40 minutes a day. Primary and secondary outcomes will be measured at baseline, 13 weeks (at end of intervention) and 25 weeks (after additional 12-week follow-up period). Discussion This study will be the randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin exercise for primary prevention of stroke in community elder population with high risk factors of stroke. The results of this trial will help to establish the optimal approach for primary prevention of stroke. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003588. Registration date: 24 July, 2013. PMID:24712684

  2. The Impact of Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Diseases Interventions to Prevent Malaria Fever in Children Less than Five Years Old in Bauchi State of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria accounts for about 300,000 childhood deaths and 30% of under-five year old mortality in Nigeria annually. We assessed the impact of intervention strategies that integrated Patent Medicines Vendors into community case management of childhood-diseases, improved access to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and distributed bed nets to households. We explored the influence of household socioeconomic characteristics on the impact of the interventions on fever in the under-five year olds in Bauchi State Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional case-controlled, interventional study, which sampled 3077 and 2737 under-5 year olds from 1,588 and 1601 households in pre- and post-intervention periods respectively, was conducted from 2013 to 2015. Difference-in-differences and logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the impact attributable to the interventions: integrated community case management of childhood illness which introduced trained public and private sector health providers and the possession of nets on the prevalence of fever. Results Two-week prevalence of fever among under-fives declined from 56.6% at pre-intervention to 42.5% at post-intervention. Fever-prevention fraction attributable to nets was statistically significant (OR = 0.217, 95% CI: 0.08–0.33). Children in the intervention group had significantly fewer incidence of fever than children in the control group had (OR = 0.765, 95% CI: 0.67–0.87). Although being in the intervention group significantly provided 23.5% protection against fever (95% CI: 0.13–0.33), the post-intervention likelihood of fever was also significantly less than at pre-intervention (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.50–0.65). The intervention protection fraction against fever was statistically significant at 43.4% (OR = 0.434, 95% CI: 0.36–0.50). Logistic regression showed that the odds of fever were lower in households with nets (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60–0.88), among children whose mothers had higher

  3. The rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of PREVENT-DM: A community-based comparative effectiveness trial of lifestyle intervention and metformin among Latinas with prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Perez, Alberly; Alos, Victor A; Scanlan, Adam; Maia, Catarina M; Davey, Adam; Whitaker, Robert C; Foster, Gary D; Ackermann, Ronald T; O'Brien, Matthew J

    2015-11-01

    Promotora Effectiveness Versus Metformin Trial (PREVENT-DM) is a randomized comparative effectiveness trial of a lifestyle intervention based on the Diabetes Prevention Program delivered by community health workers (or promotoras), metformin, and standard care. Eligibility criteria are Hispanic ethnicity, female sex, age ≥ 20 years, fluent Spanish-speaking status, BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2), and prediabetes. We enrolled 92 participants and randomized them to one of the following three groups: standard care, DPP-based lifestyle intervention, or metformin. The primary outcome of the trial is the 12-month difference in weight between groups. Secondary outcomes include the following cardiometabolic markers: BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and insulin. PREVENT-DM participants are socioeconomically disadvantaged Latinas with a mean annual household income of $15,527 ± 9922 and educational attainment of 9.7 ± 3.6 years. Eighty-six percent of participants are foreign born, 20% have a prior history of gestational diabetes, and 71% have a first-degree relative with diagnosed diabetes. At baseline, PREVENT-DM participants had a mean age of 45.1 ± 12.5 years, weight of 178.8 ± 39.3 lbs, BMI of 33.3 ± 6.5 kg/m(2), HbA1c of 5.9 ± 0.2%, and waist circumference of 97.4 ± 11.1cm. Mean baseline levels of other cardiometabolic markers were normal. The PREVENT-DM study successfully recruited and randomized an understudied population of Latinas with prediabetes. This trial will be the first U.S. study to test the comparative effectiveness of metformin and lifestyle intervention versus standard care among prediabetic adults in a "real-world" setting. PMID:26597415

  4. Effectiveness of a community-based positive prevention intervention for people living with HIV who are not receiving antiretroviral treatment: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sarna, Avina; Luchters, Stanley; Musenge, Eustasius; Okal, Jerry; Chersich, Matthew; Tun, Waimar; Mall, Sabine; Kingola, Nzioki; Kalibala, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: We report effectiveness of an HIV-prevention intervention delivered by community health workers (CHWs) in Mombasa, Kenya, to PLHIV who have not initiated or who have discontinued ART—an often difficult-to-reach population because they fall outside the ambit of health care and prevention services. Methods: A 2-arm cohort study assessed a structured risk-reduction intervention involving at least 4 one-to-one counseling sessions and personalized support. The control group received standard prevention services. CHWs recruited treatment-naïve people living with HIV (PLHIV) or those who had previously taken antiretroviral drugs. Data were analyzed using a Propensity Score Matched (PSM)-sample to control for baseline differences between the groups. Results: 634 PLHIV were recruited and followed for 6 months. Median age was 35 years, and 74.3% were female. Participants in the intervention group reported reduced risky sexual behaviors both at endline compared with baseline and compared with the control group. At endline, in the PSM analysis, participants in the intervention arm were less likely than participants in the control group to report unprotected sex with a spouse (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03-0.24), and they reported fewer unprotected sex acts (12.3% versus 46.0%, respectively; OR = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.09-0.29; P<0.001). Further, 92.4% of participants in the intervention group reported zero unsafe sex acts (with partners of negative or unknown HIV status) compared with 70.8% in the control group (P<0.001), and more participants in the intervention arm were receiving ART (34.3% versus 12.7%, respectively; P<0.001). Conclusion: CHWs effectively reached PLHIV who had never received or who had discontinued ART, and they delivered a risk-reduction intervention that led to declines in reported sexual risk behaviors, as well as to increases in ART uptake. A scaled-up intervention warrants consideration

  5. Implementation Fidelity in Community-Based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Breitenstein, Susan M.; Gross, Deborah; Garvey, Christine; Hill, Carri; Fogg, Louis; Resnick, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Implementation fidelity is the degree to which an intervention is delivered as intended and is critical to successful translation of evidence-based interventions into practice. Diminished fidelity may be why interventions that work well in highly controlled trials may fail to yield the same outcomes when applied in real life contexts. The purpose of this paper is to define implementation fidelity and describe its importance for the larger science of implementation, discuss data collection methods and current efforts in measuring implementation fidelity in community-based prevention interventions, and present future research directions for measuring implementation fidelity that will advance implementation science. PMID:20198637

  6. Community-wide interventions for tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Cummings, K M

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the rationale and evidence supporting community-wide interventions for tobacco control. Data were collected from published evaluation studies, government reports, and commentaries that describe the use of community-based approaches to tobacco control. Community-wide interventions attempt to change tobacco use in populations--not just individuals--and have increasingly begun to focus on influencing policies that promote and/or tolerate tobacco use. Examples of community-based tobacco-control activities include organizing community groups to advocate adoption of tobacco-control ordinances (e.g., smoke-free restaurants, ban on self-service tobacco displays); media advocacy to raise public awareness about illegal tobacco sales to minors; paid counter-advertising; and sponsorship of community-wide stop-smoking events such as a quit-and-win contest. Evidence in support of the effectiveness of community-based interventions to reduce smoking is found in the consistently sharper decline in tobacco consumption observed in states that have invested in comprehensive tobacco-prevention and control programs compared to those that have not. However, the results from several randomized controlled trials of community-based tobacco-control interventions have been disappointing in demonstrating large-scale changes in tobacco use. Although there appears to be a wide consensus that community-based approaches to tobacco control are an important part of a comprehensive program to reduce tobacco use, the essential elements and methods of implementation of some community-based tobacco-control efforts are less well defined. Also, given the dynamic nature of community tobacco-control interventions, the traditional randomized controlled trial model probably is not applicable for evaluation purposes. It is more likely that research models based on time-series designs will be most applicable for evaluating the impact of community-based interventions. PMID:11072415

  7. Environmental and health disparities in residential communities of New Orleans: the need for soil lead intervention to advance primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Howard W; Gonzales, Christopher R; Powell, Eric T; Mielke, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Urban environments are the major sites for human habitation and this study evaluates soil lead (Pb) and blood Pb at the community scale of a U.S. city. There is no safe level of Pb exposure for humans and novel primary Pb prevention strategies are requisite to mitigate children's Pb exposure and health disparities observed in major cities. We produced a rich source of environmental and Pb exposure data for metropolitan New Orleans by combining a large soil Pb database (n=5467) with blood Pb databases (n=55,551 pre-Katrina and 7384 post-Katrina) from the Louisiana Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program (LACLPPP). Reanalysis of pre- and post-Hurricane Katrina soil samples indicates relatively unchanged soil Pb. The objective was to evaluate the New Orleans soil Pb and blood Pb database for basic information about conditions that may merit innovative ways to pursue primary Pb exposure prevention. The city was divided into high (median census tract soil≥100 mg/kg) and low Pb areas (median census tract soil<100mg/kg). Soil and blood Pb concentrations within the high and low Pb areas of New Orleans were analyzed by permutation statistical methods. The high Pb areas are toward the interior of the city where median soil Pb was 367, 313, 1228, and 103 mg/kg, respectively for samples collected at busy streets, residential streets, house sides, and open space locations; the low Pb areas are in outlying neighborhoods of the city where median soil Pb was 64, 46, 32, and 28 mg/kg, respectively for busy streets, residential streets, house sides, and open spaces (P-values<10(-16)). Pre-Katrina children's blood Pb prevalence of ≥5 μg/dL was 58.5% and 24.8% for the high and low Pb areas, respectively compared to post-Katrina prevalence of 29.6% and 7.5%, for high and low Pb areas, respectively. Elevated soil Pb permeates interior areas of the city and children living there generally lack Pb safe areas for outdoor play. Soil Pb medians in outlying areas were safer by

  8. A Community-Based, Environmental Chronic Disease Prevention Intervention to Improve Healthy Eating Psychosocial Factors and Behaviors in Indigenous Populations in the Canadian Arctic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Erin L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention--Healthy Foods North--was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two…

  9. Using communities that care for community child maltreatment prevention.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Amy M; Haggerty, Kevin P; de Haan, Benjamin; Catalano, Richard F; Vann, Terri; Vinson, Jean; Lansing, Michaele

    2016-03-01

    The prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) disorders among children and adolescents is a national priority. One mode of implementing community-wide MEB prevention efforts is through evidence-based community mobilization approaches such as Communities That Care (CTC). This article provides an overview of the CTC framework and discusses the adaptation process of CTC to prevent development of MEBs through preventing child abuse and neglect and bolstering child well-being in children aged 0 to 10. Adaptations include those to the intervention itself as well as those to the evaluation approach. Preliminary findings from the Keeping Families Together pilot study of this evolving approach suggest that the implementation was manageable for sites, and community board functioning and community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention in pilot sites looks promising. Implications and next steps are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26963184

  10. Evaluation of an HIV prevention intervention for African Americans and Hispanics: findings from the VOICES/VOCES Community-based Organization Behavioral Outcomes Project.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Holly H; Patel-Larson, A; Green, K; Shapatava, E; Uhl, G; Kalayil, E J; Moore, A; Williams, W; Chen, B

    2011-11-01

    There is limited knowledge about whether the delivery of evidence-based, HIV prevention interventions in 'real world' settings will produce outcomes similar to efficacy trial outcomes. In this study, we describe longitudinal changes in sexual risk outcomes among African American and Hispanic participants in the Video Opportunities for Innovative Condom Education and Safer Sex (VOICES/VOCES) program at four CDC-funded agencies. VOICES/VOCES was delivered to 922 high-risk individuals in a variety of community settings such as substance abuse treatment centers, housing complex centers, private residences, shelters, clinics, and colleges. Significant risk reductions were consistently observed at 30- and 120-days post-intervention for all outcome measures (e.g., unprotected sex, self-reported STD infection). Risk reductions were strongest for African American participants, although Hispanic participants also reported reducing their risky behaviors. These results suggest that, over a decade after the first diffusion of VOICES/VOCES across the U.S. by CDC, this intervention remains an effective tool for reducing HIV risk behaviors among high-risk African American and Hispanic individuals. PMID:21573724

  11. SUICIDE PREVENTION AS A COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: UNDERSTANDING CIRCUMPOLAR YOUTH SUICIDE PREVENTION THROUGH COMMUNITY LEVEL OUTCOMES

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Team, People Awakening; Allen, James

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Community-based models have become increasingly prominent in prevention, and have special relevance for suicide prevention in circumpolar Indigenous communities. It follows that outcomes from circumpolar suicide prevention programs might be more completely understood at the community level. We present here a methodology for analysis at this level. This paper seeks to understand a cultural prevention program for rural Yup'ik youth in Alaska targeting suicide and co-occurring alcohol abuse as a community development process through changes at the community level. Study Design Quasi-experimental design with assessment at pre- and post-intervention or at 4 time points. The community development process for this project began in October 2004. The first program baseline assessment began in November 2006, prior to prevention activities with youth and parents, and the post-intervention assessment concluded in March 2008. Methods Five key informants pre- and post-intervention completed a community readiness assessment, which is a structured procedure assessing a community's awareness of suicide as an issue and its organizational readiness for prevention programming. Forty-three adult caregivers or sponsors of youth in the prevention program completed an assessment of behaviours that contributed to community protective factors from youth suicide and alcohol abuse at 4 time points before, during and after the intervention. The 54 youth who participated in the prevention program completed an assessment of community protective factors, also at 4 time points before, during and after the intervention. The community protective factors from suicide that were assessed included safety, enforcement of alcohol prohibitions, role models, support and opportunities for youth. Results Community readiness for the prevention efforts increased to new developmental stages of readiness post-intervention, and a trend in the data suggested community protective factors increased in the

  12. eHealth interventions for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly changing media landscape and proliferation of new technologies creates vast new opportunities for HIV prevention. The fast growth of the relatively new eHealth field is a testament to the excitement and promise of these new technologies. eHealth interventions in HIV prevention tested to date include computer- and Internet-based interventions; chat room interventions; text messaging interventions; and social media. The current article provides a brief review of these types of interventions in HIV prevention, including their unique advantages and evidence of efficacy. Implications for future research in the eHealth HIV prevention field are discussed. PMID:22519523

  13. Long-Term Effectiveness of a Lifestyle Intervention for the Primary Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in a Low Socio-Economic Community – An Intervention Follow-Up Study on Reunion Island

    PubMed Central

    Fianu, Adrian; Bourse, Léa; Naty, Nadège; Le Moullec, Nathalie; Lepage, Benoît; Lang, Thierry; Favier, François

    2016-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention research, evidence for maintenance of risk factor reduction after three years of follow-up is needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of a combined lifestyle intervention aiming at controlling body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) in non-diabetic, overweight/obese adults living in a low socio-economic community. On Reunion Island, 445 adults living in deprived areas, aged 18–40 and at high-risk for T2D, were included in an intervention versus control trial for primary prevention (2001–2002). The intervention promoted a healthy diet and moderate regular physical activity, through actions strengthening individuals or community and improving living conditions. The control group received a one-shot medical information and nutritional advices. After the end of the trial (2003), 259 of the subjects participated in a follow-up study (2010–2011). The outcomes were the nine-year changes from baseline in BW, body mass index (BMI) and WC measurements, separately. Statistical analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis, using available and imputed datasets. At inclusion, T2D risk factors were prevalent: family history of diabetes in first-degree relatives (42%), women with a personal history of gestational diabetes (11%), total obesity (43%, median BMI 29.1 kg/m²) and central obesity (71%). At follow-up, the adjusted effect on imputed dataset was significant for WC -2.4 cm (95% confidence interval: -4.7 to -0.0 cm, p = 0.046), non-significant for BW -2.2 kg (-4.6 to +0.2 kg, p = 0.073) and BMI -0.81 kg/m² (-1.69 to +0.08 kg/m², p = 0.074). A specific long-term effect was the increased likelihood of reduction in adiposity: BW loss, BMI reduction, and WC reduction were more frequent in the intervention group. In the context of low socio-economic communities, our data support the assumption of long-term effect of lifestyle interventions targeting total obesity and central

  14. Long-Term Effectiveness of a Lifestyle Intervention for the Primary Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in a Low Socio-Economic Community--An Intervention Follow-Up Study on Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Fianu, Adrian; Bourse, Léa; Naty, Nadège; Le Moullec, Nathalie; Lepage, Benoît; Lang, Thierry; Favier, François

    2016-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention research, evidence for maintenance of risk factor reduction after three years of follow-up is needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of a combined lifestyle intervention aiming at controlling body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) in non-diabetic, overweight/obese adults living in a low socio-economic community. On Reunion Island, 445 adults living in deprived areas, aged 18-40 and at high-risk for T2D, were included in an intervention versus control trial for primary prevention (2001-2002). The intervention promoted a healthy diet and moderate regular physical activity, through actions strengthening individuals or community and improving living conditions. The control group received a one-shot medical information and nutritional advices. After the end of the trial (2003), 259 of the subjects participated in a follow-up study (2010-2011). The outcomes were the nine-year changes from baseline in BW, body mass index (BMI) and WC measurements, separately. Statistical analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis, using available and imputed datasets. At inclusion, T2D risk factors were prevalent: family history of diabetes in first-degree relatives (42%), women with a personal history of gestational diabetes (11%), total obesity (43%, median BMI 29.1 kg/m²) and central obesity (71%). At follow-up, the adjusted effect on imputed dataset was significant for WC -2.4 cm (95% confidence interval: -4.7 to -0.0 cm, p = 0.046), non-significant for BW -2.2 kg (-4.6 to +0.2 kg, p = 0.073) and BMI -0.81 kg/m² (-1.69 to +0.08 kg/m², p = 0.074). A specific long-term effect was the increased likelihood of reduction in adiposity: BW loss, BMI reduction, and WC reduction were more frequent in the intervention group. In the context of low socio-economic communities, our data support the assumption of long-term effect of lifestyle interventions targeting total obesity and central obesity two

  15. Effect of a community intervention programme promoting social interactions on functional disability prevention for older adults: propensity score matching and instrumental variable analyses, JAGES Taketoyo study

    PubMed Central

    Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori; Aida, Jun; Takeda, Tokunori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Background The efficacy of promoting social interactions to improve the health of older adults is not fully established due to residual confounding and selection bias. Methods The government of Taketoyo town, Aichi Prefecture, Japan, developed a resident-centred community intervention programme called ‘community salons’, providing opportunities for social interactions among local older residents. To evaluate the impact of the programme, we conducted questionnaire surveys for all older residents of Taketoyo. We carried out a baseline survey in July 2006 (prior to the introduction of the programme) and assessed the onset of functional disability during March 2012. We analysed the data of 2421 older people. In addition to the standard Cox proportional hazard regression, we conducted Cox regression with propensity score matching (PSM) and an instrumental variable (IV) analysis, using the number of community salons within a radius of 350 m from the participant's home as an instrument. Results In the 5 years after the first salon was launched, the salon participants showed a 6.3% lower incidence of functional disability compared with non-participants. Even adjusting for sex, age, equivalent income, educational attainment, higher level activities of daily living and depression, the Cox adjusted HR for becoming disabled was 0.49 (95% CI 0.33 to 0.72). Similar results were observed using PSM (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.83) and IV-Cox analysis (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.74). Conclusions A community health promotion programme focused on increasing social interactions among older adults may be effective in preventing the onset of disability. PMID:25888596

  16. [Community interventions in school].

    PubMed

    Martínez Riera, José Ramón

    2011-01-01

    The school plays a prominent role in the health of the community since it is where you identify address, teach and modify many of the habits and behaviors that can achieve good health both individually and collectively. It should be noted the important role, as co-teachers, nurses have in the EPS in school, in conjunction with other professional health teams. In Spain today the figure of the school nurse can exist only in privately managed schools and-or foreign origin (French School, European School British Institute, etc.), Or in special schools, and have not developed indicators of activity and quality no evidence could be measured and relevance. Therefore, it has conducted a literature review on the school nurse in the countries where it is consolidated in order to identify both the reasons for its existence and effectiveness. The most important conclusion is worth noting that in Spain the figure of the school nurse, as a freelancer isolated from the health team is unfounded since there is a network of well structured and accessible care and community nurses have the skills to to cover health needs at school, from a holistic perspective. In addition the specialty of Family and Community Nursing was established as a key element in this regard. PMID:21428009

  17. Prevention at Community Colleges. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    According to "Community College Student Alcohol Use: Developing Context-Specific Evidence and Prevention Approaches," community colleges have traditionally had a threefold mission that includes preparing students for transfer to four-year colleges, developmental education, and workforce preparation. The researchers point out that the demographic…

  18. Why Small is Too Small a Term: Prevention Science for Health Disparities, Culturally Distinct Groups, and Community-Level Intervention.

    PubMed

    Henry, David; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Allen, James

    2015-10-01

    Implications of the Advancing Small Sample Prevention Science Special Section are discussed. Efficiency and precision are inadequately considered in many current prevention-science methodological approaches. As a result, design and analytic practices pose difficulties for the study of contextual factors in prevention, which often involve small samples. Four primary conclusions can be drawn from the Special Section. First, contemporary statistical and measurement approaches provide a number of underutilized opportunities to maximize power. These strategies maximize efficiencies by optimizing design and resource allocation parameters, allowing for the detection of effects with small samples. Second, several alternative research designs provide both rigor and further optimize efficiencies through more complete use of available information, allowing study of important questions in prevention science for which only small samples may be accessible. Third, mixed methods hold promise for enhancing the utility of qualitative data in studies with small samples. Finally, Bayesian analytic approaches, through their use of prior information, allow for even greater efficiencies in work with small samples, and through their introduction in the routines of mainstream software packages, hold particular promise as an emergent methodology in prevention research. PMID:26228478

  19. A community-based, environmental chronic disease prevention intervention to improve healthy eating psychosocial factors and behaviors in indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Mead, Erin L; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-10-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention-Healthy Foods North-was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two comparison communities) in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, Canada, in 2008. The 12-month program was developed from theory (social cognitive theory and social ecological models), formative research, and a community participatory process. It included an environmental component to increase healthy food availability in local stores and activities consisting of community-wide and point-of-purchase interactive educational taste tests and cooking demonstrations, media (e.g., radio ads, posters, shelf labels), and events held in multiple venues, including recreation centers and schools. The intervention was evaluated using pre- and postassessments with 246 adults from intervention and 133 from comparison communities (311 women, 68 men; mean age 42.4 years; 78.3% retention rate). Outcomes included psychosocial constructs (healthy eating knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions), frequency of healthy and unhealthy food acquisition, healthiness of commonly used food preparation methods, and body mass index (kg/m(2)). After adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic status, and body mass index variables, respondents living in intervention communities showed significant improvements in food-related self-efficacy (β = 0.15, p = .003) and intentions (β = 0.16, p = .001) compared with comparison communities. More improvements from the intervention were seen in overweight, obese, and high socioeconomic status respondents. A community-based, multilevel intervention is an effective strategy to improve psychosocial factors for healthy nutritional behavior change to reduce chronic disease in indigenous Arctic populations

  20. A Community-Based Intervention to Prevent Obesity Beginning at Birth among American Indian Children: Study Design and Rationale for the PTOTS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karanja, Njeri; Aickin, Mikel; Lutz, Tam; Mist, Scott; Jobe, Jared B.; Maupome, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors associated with adult obesity have early antecedents, yet few studies have focused on obesity prevention interventions targeting very young children. Efforts to prevent obesity beginning at birth seem particularly important in populations at risk for early-onset obesity. National estimates indicate that…

  1. HIV Prevention for Adults With Criminal Justice Involvement: A Systematic Review of HIV Risk-Reduction Interventions in Incarceration and Community Settings

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Dora; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    We summarized and appraised evidence regarding HIV prevention interventions for adults with criminal justice involvement. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that evaluated an HIV prevention intervention, enrolled participants with histories of criminal justice involvement, and reported biological or behavioral outcomes. We used Cochrane methods to screen 32 271 citations from 16 databases and gray literature. We included 37 trials enrolling n = 12 629 participants. Interventions were 27 psychosocial, 7 opioid substitution therapy, and 3 HIV-testing programs. Eleven programs significantly reduced sexual risk taking, 4 reduced injection drug risks, and 4 increased testing. Numerous interventions may reduce HIV-related risks among adults with criminal justice involvement. Future research should consider process evaluations, programs involving partners or families, and interventions integrating biomedical, psychosocial, and structural approaches. PMID:25211725

  2. HIV prevention for adults with criminal justice involvement: a systematic review of HIV risk-reduction interventions in incarceration and community settings.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Kristen; Dumont, Dora; Operario, Don

    2014-11-01

    We summarized and appraised evidence regarding HIV prevention interventions for adults with criminal justice involvement. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that evaluated an HIV prevention intervention, enrolled participants with histories of criminal justice involvement, and reported biological or behavioral outcomes. We used Cochrane methods to screen 32,271 citations from 16 databases and gray literature. We included 37 trials enrolling n = 12,629 participants. Interventions were 27 psychosocial, 7 opioid substitution therapy, and 3 HIV-testing programs. Eleven programs significantly reduced sexual risk taking, 4 reduced injection drug risks, and 4 increased testing. Numerous interventions may reduce HIV-related risks among adults with criminal justice involvement. Future research should consider process evaluations, programs involving partners or families, and interventions integrating biomedical, psychosocial, and structural approaches. PMID:25211725

  3. Fifty communities putting prevention to work: accelerating chronic disease prevention through policy, systems and environmental change.

    PubMed

    Bunnell, Rebecca; O'Neil, Dara; Soler, Robin; Payne, Rebecca; Giles, Wayne H; Collins, Janet; Bauer, Ursula

    2012-10-01

    The burden of preventable chronic diseases is straining our nation's health and economy. Diseases caused by obesity and tobacco use account for the largest portions of this preventable burden. CDC funded 50 communities in 2010 to implement policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) interventions in a 2-year initiative. Funded communities developed PSE plans to reduce obesity, tobacco use, and second-hand smoke exposure for their combined 55 million residents. Community outcome objectives and milestones were categorized by PSE interventions as they related to media, access, promotion, pricing, and social support. Communities estimated population reach based on their jurisdiction's census data and target populations. The average proportion of each community's population that was reached was calculated for each intervention category. Outcome objectives that were achieved within 12 months of program initiation were identified from routine program records. The average proportion of a community's jurisdictional population reached by a specific intervention varied across interventions. Mean population reach for obesity-prevention interventions was estimated at 35%, with 14 (26%) interventions covering over 50% of the jurisdictional populations. For tobacco prevention, mean population reach was estimated at 67%, with 16 (84%) interventions covering more than 50% of the jurisdictional populations. Within 12 months, communities advanced over one-third of their obesity and tobacco-use prevention strategies. Tobacco interventions appeared to have higher potential population reach than obesity interventions within this initiative. Findings on the progress and potential reach of this major initiative may help inform future chronic disease prevention efforts. PMID:22323099

  4. A community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda (the SASA! Study): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gender based violence, including violence by an intimate partner, is a major global human rights and public health problem, with important connections with HIV risk. Indeed, the elimination of sexual and gender based violence is a core pillar of HIV prevention for UNAIDS. Integrated strategies to address the gender norms, relations and inequities that underlie both violence against women and HIV/AIDS are needed. However there is limited evidence about the potential impact of different intervention models. This protocol describes the SASA! Study: an evaluation of a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda. Methods/Design The SASA! Study is a pair-matched cluster randomised controlled trial being conducted in eight communities in Kampala. It is designed to assess the community-level impact of the SASA! intervention on the following six primary outcomes: attitudes towards the acceptability of violence against women and the acceptability of a woman refusing sex (among male and female community members); past year experience of physical intimate partner violence and sexual intimate partner violence (among females); community responses to women experiencing violence (among women reporting past year physical/sexual partner violence); and past year concurrency of sexual partners (among males). 1583 women and men (aged 18–49 years) were surveyed in intervention and control communities prior to intervention implementation in 2007/8. A follow-up cross-sectional survey of community members will take place in 2012. The primary analysis will be an adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, comparing outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. Complementary monitoring and evaluation and qualitative research will be used to explore and describe the process of intervention implementation and the pathways through which change is achieved. Discussion This is one of few

  5. Community-based InterVentions to prevent serIous Complications (CIVIC) following spinal cord injury in Bangladesh: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad S; Harvey, Lisa A; Rahman, Md. Akhlasur; Muldoon, Stephen; Islam, Md. Shofiqul; Jan, Stephen; Taylor, Valerie; Cameron, Ian D; Chhabra, Harvinder Singh; Lindley, Richard I; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Li, Qiang; Dhakshinamurthy, Murali; Herbert, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In low-income and middle-income countries, people with spinal cord injury (SCI) are vulnerable to life-threatening complications after they are discharged from hospital. The aim of this trial is to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an inexpensive and sustainable model of community-based care designed to prevent and manage complications in people with SCI in Bangladesh. Methods and analysis A pragmatic randomised controlled trial will be undertaken. 410 wheelchair-dependent people with recent SCI will be randomised to Intervention and Control groups shortly after discharge from hospital. Participants in the Intervention group will receive regular telephone-based care and three home visits from a health professional over the 2 years after discharge. Participants in the Control group will receive standard care, which does not involve regular contact with health professionals. The primary outcome is all-cause mortality at 2 years. Recruitment started on 12 July 2015 and the trial is expected to take 5 years to complete. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee at the site in Bangladesh and from the University of Sydney, Australia. The study will be conducted in compliance with all stipulations of its protocol, the conditions of ethics committee approval, the NHMRC National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research (2007), the Note for Guidance on Good Clinical Practice (CPMP/ICH-135/95) and the Bangladesh Guidance on Clinical Trial Inspection (2011). The results of the trial will be disseminated through publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals and presentations at scientific conferences. Trial registration numbers ACTRN12615000630516, U1111-1171-1876. PMID:26743709

  6. Adolescent Suicide: Detection, Intervention, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popenhagen, Mark P.; Qualley, Roxanne M.

    1998-01-01

    Presents six myths of suicide are discussed. Risk factors, methods of detection of suicidal behavior, intervention techniques, and prevention of adolescent suicide. Characteristics of school-based suicide-prevention programs and appropriate teacher interventions are presented. A list of warning signs and two "no suicide" contracts are appended.…

  7. Engaging Communities to Prevent Underage Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Hawkins, J. David; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Community-based efforts offer broad potential for achieving population-level reductions in alcohol misuse among youth and young adults. A common feature of successful community strategies is reliance on local coalitions to select and fully implement preventive interventions that have been shown to be effective in changing factors that influence risk of youth engaging in alcohol use, including both proximal influences and structural and/or environmental factors related to alcohol use. Inclusion of a universal, school-based prevention curriculum in the larger community-based effort is associated with the reduction of alcohol use by youth younger than 18 years of age and can help reach large numbers of youth with effective alcohol misuse prevention. PMID:22330215

  8. An STD/HIV prevention intervention framework.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D A; Scribner, R

    2000-01-01

    Historically, interventions to prevent STD/HIV transmission have been categorized by program methodology rather than defining the content and nature of the intervention. A new taxonomy is needed to help expand the scope of interventions that can be used to prevent STD and HIV transmission. The taxonomy defines two major types of interventions, individual-level and structural level. The former targets risk factors attributable to individuals. Structural interventions target conditions outside the control of the individual. Individual-level interventions focus on counseling, screening, and treatment. They include psychological and biological interventions. Structural-level interventions address accessibility of relevant consumer products (condoms, needles), physical structures (e.g. blighted and abandoned housing, lighting, design of social facilities), social structures (policies that facilitate or constrain behaviors such as supervision of youth, and enforcement of alcohol beverage laws); and media messages (messages and images in the broadcast and print media that portray high-risk behaviors as positive and without serious consequences). A new taxonomy not only clarifies the content of preventive interventions but highlights neglected strategies involving individual biological interventions and structural interventions to prevent STD/HIV transmission. PMID:12240881

  9. Keeping the Spirit of Community Partnerships Alive in the Scale Up of HIV/AIDS Prevention: Critical Reflections on the Roll Out of DEBI (Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions)

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rogério M.; Hunter, Joyce; Rapkin, Bruce; Remien, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    DEBI, or the Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions is the largest centralized effort to diffuse evidence-based prevention science to fight HIV/AIDS in the United States. DEBI seeks to ensure that the most effective science-based prevention interventions are widely implemented across the country in community-based organizations. Thus, this is a particularly timely juncture in which to critically reflect on the extent to which known principles of community collaboration have guided key processes associated with the DEBI rollout. We review the available evidence on how the dissemination of packaged interventions is necessary but not sufficient for ensuring the success of technology transfer. We consider additional principles that are vital for successful technology transfer, which were not central considerations in the rollout of the DEBI initiative. These issues are: (1) community perceptions of a top-down mode of dissemination; (2) the extent to which local innovations are being embraced, bolstered, or eliminated; and (3) contextual and methodological considerations that shape community preparedness. Consideration of these additional factors is necessary in order to effectively document, manage, and advance the science of dissemination and technology transfer in centralized prevention efforts within and outside of HIV/AIDS. PMID:18612809

  10. Receipt of HIV prevention interventions is more common in community-based clinics than in primary care or acute care settings for Black men who have sex with men in the District of Columbia.

    PubMed

    Levy, Matthew E; Watson, Christopher Chauncey; Glick, Sara Nelson; Kuo, Irene; Wilton, Leo; Brewer, Russell A; Fields, Sheldon D; Criss, Vittoria; Magnus, Manya

    2016-05-01

    Characterization of structural barriers that impede the receipt of HIV prevention and care services is critical to addressing the HIV epidemic among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). This study investigated the utilization of HIV prevention and general care services among a non-clinic-based sample of BMSM who reported at least one structural barrier to engagement in care. Proportions of participants who had received HIV prevention services and general care services in different settings were compared using Fisher's exact test and correlates of service receipt were assessed using logistic regression. Among 75 BMSM, 60% had accessed a community-based clinic, 21% had accessed a primary care setting, and 36% had accessed an acute care setting in the last 6 months. Greater proportions of participants who had accessed community-based clinics received HIV prevention services during these visits (90%) compared to those who had accessed primary care (53%) and acute care (44%) settings (p = .005). Opportunities for BMSM to receive HIV prevention interventions differed by care setting. Having access to health care did not necessarily facilitate the uptake of HIV prevention interventions. Further investigation of the structurally rooted reasons why BMSM are often unable to access HIV prevention services is warranted. PMID:26643856

  11. Prevention and intervention programs for juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade researchers have identified intervention strategies and program models that reduce delinquency and promote pro-social development. Preventing delinquency, says Peter Greenwood, not only saves young lives from being wasted, but also prevents the onset of adult criminal careers and thus reduces the burden of crime on its victims and on society. It costs states billions of dollars a year to arrest, prosecute, incarcerate, and treat juvenile offenders. Investing in successful delinquency-prevention programs can save taxpayers seven to ten dollars for every dollar invested, primarily in the form of reduced spending on prisons. According to Greenwood, researchers have identified a dozen "proven" delinquency-prevention programs. Another twenty to thirty "promising" programs are still being tested. In his article, Greenwood reviews the methods used to identify the best programs, explains how program success is measured, provides an overview of programs that work, and offers guidance on how jurisdictions can shift toward more evidence-based practices The most successful programs are those that prevent youth from engaging in delinquent behaviors in the first place. Greenwood specifically cites home-visiting programs that target pregnant teens and their at-risk infants and preschool education for at-risk children that includes home visits or work with parents. Successful school-based programs can prevent drug use, delinquency, anti-social behavior, and early school drop-out. Greenwood also discusses community-based programs that can divert first-time offenders from further encounters with the justice system. The most successful community programs emphasize family interactions and provide skills to the adults who supervise and train the child. Progress in implementing effective programs, says Greenwood, is slow. Although more than ten years of solid evidence is now available on evidence-based programs, only about 5 percent of youth who should be eligible

  12. Communication Skills for Preventive Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Catherine E.; O'Donnell, Joseph F.; Novack, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    Defines and examines a communication model for enhancing the provision and adoption of preventive practices in the primary care setting and discusses teaching that model in the medical school context. Methods for integrating communication skills for prevention into the medical school curriculum are discussed, using examples from Dartmouth (New…

  13. Estimating the Costs of Preventive Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael; Porter, Michele M.; Ayers, Tim S.; Kaplan, Debra L.; Sandler, Irwin

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this article is to improve the practice and reporting of cost estimates of prevention programs. It reviews the steps in estimating the costs of an intervention and the principles that should guide estimation. The authors then review prior efforts to estimate intervention costs using a sample of well-known but diverse studies. Finally,…

  14. Long-term efficacy of a rural community-based integrated intervention for prevention and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cluster randomized controlled trial in China's rural areas.

    PubMed

    Yuan, X; Tao, Y; Zhao, J P; Liu, X S; Xiong, W N; Xie, J G; Ni, W; Xu, Y J; Liu, H G

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a rural community-based integrated intervention for early prevention and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in China. This 18-year cluster-randomized controlled trial encompassing 15 villages included 1008 patients (454 men and 40 women in the intervention group [mean age, 54 ± 10 years]; 482 men and 32 women in the control group [mean age, 53 ± 10 years]) with confirmed COPD or at risk for COPD. Villages were randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group, and study participants residing within the villages received treatment accordingly. Intervention group patients took part in a program that included systematic health education, smoking cessation counseling, and education on management of COPD. Control group patients received usual care. The groups were compared after 18 years regarding the incidence of COPD, decline in lung function, and mortality of COPD. COPD incidence was lower in the intervention group than in the control group (10% vs 16%, <0.05). A decline in lung function was also significantly delayed in the intervention group compared to the control group of COPD and high-risk patients. The intervention group showed significant improvement in smoking cessation compared with the control group, and smokers in the intervention group had lower smoking indices than in the control group (350 vs 450, <0.05). The intervention group also had a significantly lower cumulative COPD-related death rate than the control group (37% vs 47%, <0.05). A rural community-based integrated intervention is effective in reducing the incidence of COPD among those at risk, delaying a decline in lung function in COPD patients and those at risk, and reducing mortality of COPD. PMID:26352697

  15. Long-term efficacy of a rural community-based integrated intervention for prevention and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cluster randomized controlled trial in China's rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, X.; Tao, Y.; Zhao, J.P.; Liu, X.S.; Xiong, W.N.; Xie, J.G.; Ni, W.; Xu, Y.J.; Liu, H.G.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a rural community-based integrated intervention for early prevention and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in China. This 18-year cluster-randomized controlled trial encompassing 15 villages included 1008 patients (454 men and 40 women in the intervention group [mean age, 54 ± 10 years]; 482 men and 32 women in the control group [mean age, 53 ± 10 years]) with confirmed COPD or at risk for COPD. Villages were randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group, and study participants residing within the villages received treatment accordingly. Intervention group patients took part in a program that included systematic health education, smoking cessation counseling, and education on management of COPD. Control group patients received usual care. The groups were compared after 18 years regarding the incidence of COPD, decline in lung function, and mortality of COPD. COPD incidence was lower in the intervention group than in the control group (10% vs 16%, <0.05). A decline in lung function was also significantly delayed in the intervention group compared to the control group of COPD and high-risk patients. The intervention group showed significant improvement in smoking cessation compared with the control group, and smokers in the intervention group had lower smoking indices than in the control group (350 vs 450, <0.05). The intervention group also had a significantly lower cumulative COPD-related death rate than the control group (37% vs 47%, <0.05). A rural community-based integrated intervention is effective in reducing the incidence of COPD among those at risk, delaying a decline in lung function in COPD patients and those at risk, and reducing mortality of COPD. PMID:26352697

  16. Prevention and Intervention Programs for Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade researchers have identified intervention strategies and program models that reduce delinquency and promote pro-social development. Preventing delinquency, says Peter Greenwood, not only saves young lives from being wasted, but also prevents the onset of adult criminal careers and thus reduces the burden of crime on its victims…

  17. Community partnerships in preventing childhood lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Dugbatey, K.; Evans, R.G.; Lienhop, M.T.; Stelzer, M.

    1995-11-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is an environmental health problem that has no socio-economic, racial/ethnic, or regional boundaries. Because the key element in the exposure pathway is lead-based paint, it is more likely to impact inner city urban populations than those living in suburban areas. Suburban development primarily occurred after lead was removed from lead-based paint. It is maximally effective to adopt strategies that promote grassroots community development in designing preventive interventions. This paper reviews such a strategy for building community partnerships that have been instrumental in the development and implementation of an innovative lead education program. Saint Louis University School of Public Health reaches out to private and public nonprofit community organizations in this community-based lead education program.

  18. [Childhood obesity prevention from a community view].

    PubMed

    Ariza, Carles; Ortega-Rodríguez, Eduard; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Valmayor, Sara; Juárez, Olga; Pasarín, M Isabel

    2015-04-01

    The percentage of failure and relapse in the treatment of obesity is high. Where possible, the preferred strategy for preventing obesity is to modify eating habits and lifestyles. This article aims to provide a framework for evidence on the most effective interventions for addressing childhood obesity, both from a prevention point of view, as well as reducing it, when it is already established. After a review of the scientific literature, the issues that must be considered both in the universal and selective prevention of childhood obesity are presented. Also, in light of the controversy over the tools for measuring and controlling the problem, some clarification is provided on the criteria. Finally, the approach to the prevention of overweight and obesity with a community perspective is separated, with two short protocols being offered with diagrams of the basic procedure to follow. PMID:25835135

  19. Diabetes Prevention for Latino Youth: Unraveling the Intervention "Black Box".

    PubMed

    Shaibi, Gabriel Q; Konopken, Yolanda P; Nagle-Williams, Allison; McClain, Darya D; Castro, Felipe Gonzalez; Keller, Colleen S

    2015-11-01

    The translation of research findings into sustainable health promotion and disease prevention programs in community settings remains a challenge. This report describes the process of substantiating a community-developed diabetes prevention program for Latino youth through research. Included are design considerations, measurement strategies, and the context through which the project is culturally grounded for relevance and fit within a local community. The process included (1) refining the program to include salient, stakeholder-identified behavioral components; (2) refining the collaborative effort to embrace the capacity for facilitating relevant behavior change on targeted health-related outcomes to enhance intervention effectiveness; and (3) including the accurate assessment of intervention efficacy via precise assessment of diabetes-related health outcomes. We explain the process of collaborating with community partners to enhance the cultural relevance and sustainability of intervention effects on both individuals and communities. We discuss the rationale for empirical support for academic-community collaborations that function in both a "top-down" and a "bottom-up" manner to advance the science and practice of sustainable and efficacious community health promotion. PMID:26324123

  20. Diabetes Prevention Interventions in Latin American Countries: a Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Heisler, Michele; Kaselitz, Elizabeth; Rana, Gurpreet K; Piette, John D

    2016-09-01

    Public policies, population health initiatives, and targeted behavioral change interventions for individuals at risk for developing diabetes are all essential for diabetes prevention in Latin American countries (LACs). This scoping review examines (1) the current evidence on diabetes prevention policies and interventions in LACs to identify components of effective diabetes prevention models in those countries and (2) effective diabetes prevention interventions targeting Latino populations in the USA to explore possible lessons from these interventions for LACs. Diabetes prevention programs in LACs evaluated to date consist of short-term health professional-led face-to-face behavioral counseling sessions. Intervention components of US-based programs for Latinos that might benefit diabetes prevention programs in Latin America include (1) deployment of community health workers ("promotoras") for diabetes screening and delivery of lifestyle modification programs, (2) multiple modes of program delivery beyond face-to-face sessions, (3) information technology to automate and enhance program delivery, (4) leveraging of pre-existing familial relationships to engage in and sustain lifestyle modifications, and (5) innovative environmental change strategies such as collaborations with local food stores and markets to promote healthy behaviors. PMID:27424069

  1. Youth Homelessness: Early Intervention & Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Chris; MacKenzie, David

    The issue of youth homelessness in Australia is examined in the context of relevant social and educational policies. The exploration is based on 8 years of research into the situation of homeless youth in Australia involving several studies, including a study of school students in 9 communities and field visits to 100 schools. In 1994, researchers…

  2. SOMOS: Evaluation of an HIV Prevention Intervention for Latino Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega, Miriam Y.; Spieldenner, Andrew R.; DeLeon, Dennis; Nieto, Bolivar X.; Stroman, Carolyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Latino gay men face multiple barriers to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, in particular a lack of intervention programs that integrate prevention messages with cultural norms and address issues of social marginalization from multiple communities (gay community and Latino community), homophobia and racism. In order to address these…

  3. Bullying in Middle Schools: Prevention and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milsom, Amy; Gallo, Laura L.

    2006-01-01

    A main characteristic of a bully is his or her need to gain control over another. Bullies can gain control over others through physical force or threats, verbal teasing, and exclusion from peers. This article talks about bullying in United States middle schools, and prevention and intervention strategies for bullying. In this article, the authors…

  4. Faith community/parish nurse literature: exciting interventions, unclear outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dandridge, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Faith community/parish nurses provide a variety of services thought to yield positive health outcomes. An integrative literature review was conducted to identify interventions most commonly used by parish nurses in the United States and determine the value of the parish nurse in health promotion and disease prevention. A review of 22 articles published 2008 to 2013 revealed that parish nurses are providing a wealth of interventions to diverse populations but are not successfully evaluating outcomes. PMID:24693612

  5. Identification of structural interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention: the concept mapping exercise.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Quader, Abu S; Collins, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Structural interventions have been defined as those prevention interventions that include physical, social, cultural, organizational, community, economic, legal, and policy factors. In an effort to examine the feasibility, evaluability, and sustainability of structural interventions for HIV prevention, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented a project that involved asking experts in HIV prevention and other areas of public health-including injury and violence prevention, tobacco control, drug abuse, and nutrition-to provide input on the identification of structural interventions based on the aforementioned definition. The process resulted in a list of 123 interventions that met the definition. The experts were asked to group these interventions into categories based on similarity of ideas. They were also asked to rate these interventions in terms of impact they would have, if implemented, on reducing HIV transmission. The findings highlight the need for conducting further research on structural interventions, including feasibility of implementation and effectiveness of reducing HIV transmission risks. PMID:22043093

  6. Developmental Science and Preventive Interventions for Children at Environmental Risk

    PubMed Central

    Guralnick, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The current status of preventive intervention programs for young children at environmental risk designed to reduce the school readiness gap is examined in the context of developmental science. A review of program effectiveness suggests that future progress may depend upon committing to a specific developmental approach consistent with the knowledge base of developmental science and establishing a generally agreed upon and unambiguous framework, set of goals, and associated mechanisms. The Developmental Systems Approach is suggested as one model that is consistent with developmental and existing intervention science, supporting an emphasis on program continuity, relationships, and comprehensiveness. A long-term plan for community-based systems development is presented. PMID:26213447

  7. Developing preventive mental health interventions for refugee families in resettlement.

    PubMed

    Weine, Stevan Merrill

    2011-09-01

    In refugee resettlement, positive psychosocial outcomes for youth and adults depend to a great extent on their families. Yet refugee families find few empirically based services geared toward them. Preventive mental health interventions that aim to stop, lessen, or delay possible negative individual mental health and behavioral sequelae through improving family and community protective resources in resettled refugee families are needed. This paper describes 8 characteristics that preventive mental health interventions should address to meet the needs of refugee families, including: Feasibility, Acceptability, Culturally Tailored, Multilevel, Time Focused, Prosaicness, Effectiveness, and Adaptability. To address these 8 characteristics in the complex environment of refugee resettlement requires modifying the process of developmental research through incorporating innovative mental health services research strategies, including: resilience framework, community collaboration, mixed methods with focused ethnography, and the comprehensive dynamic trial. A preventive intervention development cycle for refugee families is proposed based on a program of research on refugees and migrants using these services research strategies. Furthering preventive mental health for refugee families also requires new policy directives, multisystemic partnerships, and research training. PMID:21884078

  8. ENSURING IT WORKS: A COMMUNITY-BASED APPROACH TO HIV PREVENTION INTERVENTION DEVELOPMENT FOR MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN IN CHENNAI, INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Beena; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Closson, Elizabeth F.; Johnson, Carey V.; Menon, Sunil; Mani, Jamuna; Vijaylakshmi, R.; Dilip, Meenalochini; Betancourt, Theresa; Safren, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India have an HIV seroprevalence 22 times greater than the country’s general population and face unique challenges that may hinder the effectiveness of current HIV prevention efforts. To obtain an understanding of the logistical and sociocultural barriers MSM experience while accessing HIV prevention services, focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted with 55 MSM in Chennai, India. Qualitative data were analyzed using descriptive qualitative content analysis. Sixty-five percent of participants identified as kothi (receptive partners), 9% as panthi (insertive partners), 22% as double decker (receptive and insertive), and 4% did not disclose. Themes included: (a) fatigue with current HIV risk reduction messages; (b) increased need for non-judgmental and confidential services; and (c) inclusion of content that acknowledges individual and structural-level determinants of risk such as low self-esteem, depression, and social discrimination. MSM interventions may benefit from approaches that address multilevel psychosocial factors, including skills building and strategies to foster self-acceptance and increased social support. PMID:23206199

  9. Ensuring it works: a community-based approach to HIV prevention intervention development for men who have sex with men in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Beena; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Mayer, Kenneth H; Closson, Elizabeth F; Johnson, Carey V; Menon, Sunil; Mani, Jamuna; Vijaylakshmi, R; Dilip, Meenalochini; Betancourt, Theresa; Safren, Steven A

    2012-12-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India have an HIV seroprevalence 22 times greater than the country's general population and face unique challenges that may hinder the effectiveness of current HIV prevention efforts. To obtain an understanding of the logistical and sociocultural barriers MSM experience while accessing HIV prevention services, focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted with 55 MSM in Chennai, India. Qualitative data were analyzed using descriptive qualitative content analysis. Sixty-five percent of participants identified as kothi (receptive partners), 9% as panthi (insertive partners), 22% as double decker (receptive and insertive), and 4% did not disclose. Themes included: (a) fatigue with current HIV risk reduction messages; (b) increased need for non-judgmental and confidential services; and (c) inclusion of content that acknowledges individual and structural-level determinants of risk such as low self-esteem, depression, and social discrimination. MSM interventions may benefit from approaches that address multilevel psychosocial factors, including skills building and strategies to foster self-acceptance and increased social support. PMID:23206199

  10. Investigating combination HIV prevention: isolated interventions or complex system

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Graham; Reeders, Daniel; Dowsett, Gary W.; Ellard, Jeanne; Carman, Marina; Hendry, Natalie; Wallace, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Treatment as prevention has mobilized new opportunities in preventing HIV transmission and has led to bold new UNAIDS targets in testing, treatment coverage and transmission reduction. These will require not only an increase in investment but also a deeper understanding of the dynamics of combining behavioural, biomedical and structural HIV prevention interventions. High-income countries are making substantial investments in combination HIV prevention, but is this investment leading to a deeper understanding of how to combine interventions? The combining of interventions involves complexity, with many strategies interacting with non-linear and multiplying rather than additive effects. Discussion Drawing on a recent scoping study of the published research evidence in HIV prevention in high-income countries, this paper argues that there is a gap between the evidence currently available and the evidence needed to guide the achieving of these bold targets. The emphasis of HIV prevention intervention research continues to look at one intervention at a time in isolation from its interactions with other interventions, the community and the socio-political context of their implementation. To understand and evaluate the role of a combination of interventions, we need to understand not only what works, but in what circumstances, what role the parts need to play in their relationship with each other, when the combination needs to adapt and identify emergent effects of any resulting synergies. There is little development of evidence-based indicators on how interventions in combination should achieve that strategic advantage and synergy. This commentary discusses the implications of this ongoing situation for future research and the required investment in partnership. We suggest that systems science approaches, which are being increasingly applied in other areas of public health, could provide an expanded vocabulary and analytic tools for understanding these

  11. Developmental approach to prevent adolescent suicides: research pathways to effective upstream preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Wyman, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    The 2012 National Strategy for Suicide Prevention expands the current suicide prevention paradigm by including a strategic direction aimed at promoting healthy populations. Childhood and adolescence are key suicide prevention window periods, yet knowledge of suicide prevention pathways through universal interventions is limited (Aspirational Goal 11). Epidemiologic evidence suggests that prevention programs in normative social systems such as schools are needed for broad suicide prevention impact. Prevention trial results show that current universal prevention programs for children and young adolescents are effective in reducing adolescent emotional and behavioral problems that are risk factors for suicidal behavior, and in the case of the Good Behavior Game, suicide attempts. A developmentally sequenced upstream suicide prevention approach is proposed: (1) childhood programs to strengthen a broad set of self-regulation skills through family and school-based programs, followed by (2) adolescent programs that leverage social influences to prevent emerging risk behaviors such as substance abuse and strengthen relationships and skills. Key knowledge breakthroughs needed are evidence linking specific intervention strategies to reduced suicidal behaviors and mortality and their mechanisms of action. Short- and long-term objectives to achieve these breakthroughs include combining evidence from completed prevention trials, increasing motivators for prevention researchers to assess suicide-related outcome, and conducting new trials of upstream interventions in populations using efficient designs acceptable to communities. In conclusion, effective upstream prevention programs have been identified that modify risk and protective factors for adolescent suicide, and key knowledge breakthroughs can jump-start progress in realizing the suicide prevention potential of specific strategies. PMID:25145747

  12. Community Colleges--Prevention Challenges. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on prevention challenges facing community colleges. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Prevention at Community Colleges; (2) Q&A With William Auvenshine; (3) Chancellor's Initiative at the University of Wisconsin-Stout; (4) Alcohol Marketing in the Digital Age; and (5) Higher Education…

  13. Intervention Fidelity for a Complex Behaviour Change Intervention in Community Pharmacy Addressing Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…

  14. Cyber Bullying Prevention: Intervention in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ming-Shinn; Zi-Pei, Wu; Svanström, Leif; Dalal, Koustuv

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the cyber bullying prevention WebQuest course implementation. Methodology/Findings The study adopted the quasi-experimental design with two classes made up of a total of 61 junior high school students of seventh grade. The study subjects comprised of 30 students from the experimental group and 31 students from the control group. The experimental group received eight sessions (total 360 minutes) of the teaching intervention for four consecutive weeks, while the control group did not engage in any related courses. The self-compiled questionnaire for the student’s knowledge, attitudes, and intentions toward cyber bullying prevention was adopted. Data were analysed through generalized estimating equations to understand the immediate results on the student’s knowledge, attitudes, and intentions after the intervention. The results show that the WebQuest course immediately and effectively enhanced the knowledge of cyber bullying, reduced the intentions, and retained the effects after the learning. But it produced no significant impact on the attitude toward cyber bullying. Conclusions/Significance The intervention through this pilot study was effective and positive for cyber bulling prevention. It was with small number of students. Therefore, studies with large number of students and long experimental times, in different areas and countries are warranted. PMID:23724018

  15. [Using a structural alternative (non-medical) in the "capillary" screening of arterial hypertension in a community. Means of intervention and evaluation in preventive cardiology].

    PubMed

    Pilotto, L; Ambrosio, G B; Zamboni, S; Prattichizzo, F; Cognolato, E; Paruzzolo, P

    1983-03-17

    A "Community Control Programme of Hypertension" has been implemented in a Northern Italian population as part of an international co-operative pilot project promoted by World Health Organization. The programme was planned to last five years. Three years after the start we performed what we called a "capillary" screening in the community involved in the project. In fact a team of physicians and medical students moved about in the villages of the area where extemporary ambulances were set up with the aim of identifying new hypertensives, evaluating the state of the control of hypertension as compared with the situation at the outset of the study and, more generally, as a means of strengthening the ties between the project organization and the community. In doing so we also evaluated the feasibility of an alternative approach, based upon the cooperation with an organization outside the health service system, namely the Catholic Church, to achieve the set aims in a very religious population as ours. The parish priests of the villages did eagerly cooperate with our work both in the form of propaganda and in making available the parish buildings in which the ambulances were set up. We examined 1306 subjects (47.3% males), of whom 39.5% were hypertensives ("casual" blood pressure at or above 160 or 95 or treated). Of all the hypertensives, 28.6% were new hypertensives ("unaware"), 45.3% were being treated and 13.7% had a blood pressure lower than 160/95 mmHg while under treatment "effectively treated"); 16%, though, had blood pressure values at or above 200 or 120 mmHg. The state of control of hypertension was better in women and with increasing age. As compared with the findings at the outset of the study, 27,6% more "aware", 23.9% more treated and 9.6% more "effectively treated" hypertensives were found. Using the support of an alternative (non-medical) organization in a programme of preventive medicine in the community has proved to be, in our experience, a feasible

  16. Community psychology: individuals and interventions in community context.

    PubMed

    Trickett, Edison J

    2009-01-01

    Community psychology has historically focused on understanding individual behavior in sociocultural context, assessing high-impact contexts, and working in and with communities to improve their resources and influence over their futures. This review adopts an ecological perspective on recent developments in the field, beginning with philosophy of science and progressing through a series of substantive research and intervention domains that characterize current work. These domains include research on the ecology of lives, the assessment of social settings and their impact on behavior, culture and diversity as expressed in the community research process, and community intervention. PMID:19035828

  17. Societal interventions to prevent child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Hay, T; Jones, L

    1994-01-01

    A framework for understanding child maltreatment in terms of complex and interacting factors from the individual to the societal level can aid in conceptualizing and implementing prevention efforts. Research on interventions at the societal level can guide a broad range of activities, increasing their effectiveness and viability. Fundamental approaches include evaluation of specific interventions and systems-level research on implementation and development of best practice in prevention activities for different portions of society. Research can indicate the roles that each individual, agency, organization, community, and level of government can play. The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child provides a useful framework for societal level change to improve the welfare of children and families. PMID:7924560

  18. School-based obesity prevention interventions: practicalities and considerations.

    PubMed

    Jones, R A; Lubans, D R; Morgan, P J; Okely, A D; Parletta, N; Wolfenden, L; de Silva-Sanigorski, A; Gibbs, L; Waters, E

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric obesity continues to be a major public health concern. Once established it is difficult to treat, therefore well-designed and evaluated prevention interventions are vitally important. Schools have an important role in the prevention of childhood obesity, however, their involvement can be limited by a number of constraints and barriers, which need to be considered when designing interventions. Members of the Prevention Stream of the Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network have extensive experience in implementing and evaluating school-based obesity prevention initiatives. Based on their collective experience and evidence from implementation research, the aim of this paper was to highlight six areas to consider when designing, implementing and evaluating obesity prevention initiatives in schools. Further, this paper aimed to provide guidance for overcoming some of the challenges and barriers faced in school-based obesity prevention research. The six key areas discussed include: design and analysis; school-community engagement; planning and recruitment; evaluation; implementation; and feedback and sustainability. PMID:25263839

  19. Building Xperience: a multilevel alcohol and drug prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Sarah; Schensul, Jean J; Snyder, Leslie B; Bermudez, Alessandro; D'Alessandro, Nicole; Morgan, Damion Sincere

    2009-06-01

    "Xperience" is an innovative alcohol and drug prevention program that has adopted a multilevel, community-based strategy to promote drug-and-alcohol free social activities, venues and norms among urban youth ages 14-20. The intervention aims to strengthen protective factors and reduce risk factors for alcohol and other substance use among high school age youth by addressing multiple factors at the individual, peer, community and city level. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the process of building the different levels of this intervention during the 3-year formative phase. We will explain: (1) Why we chose to adopt a multilevel and participatory strategy, (2) Formative research leading to the intervention model, (3) The theoretical framework underlying the methodology, (4) Pilot intervention development (Years One and Two), (5) Current program methods and outcome goals, and lastly, (6) Some of the lessons learned, goals achieved, and plans for the future. This descriptive account of building a multilevel intervention aims to serve as a useful guide for others wishing to develop similar approaches, and for theorizing about some of the common challenges involved in this process. PMID:19381797

  20. Feasibility, acceptability and outcomes at a 12-month follow-up of a novel community-based intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes in adults at high risk: mixed methods pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Linda; Ryan, Vicky; White, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives and design Lifestyle interventions can prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adults with impaired glucose tolerance. In a mixed methods pilot study, we aimed to assess the feasibility, acceptability and outcomes at a 12-month follow-up of a behavioural intervention for adults at risk of T2D. Participants Adults aged 45–65 years with a Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) ≥11. Setting The intervention was delivered in leisure and community settings in a local authority that ranks in the 10 most socioeconomically deprived in England. Intervention A 10-week supported programme to promote increased physical activity (PA), healthy eating and weight loss was delivered by fitness trainers as twice-weekly group PA or cookery sessions, each followed by behavioural counselling with support to 12 months. Outcome measures We assessed feasibility and acceptability of the intervention, and change in behavioural and health-related outcomes at 6 and 12 months. Results From 367 registers of interest, 218 participants were recruited to the programme with baseline mean (SD): age 53.6 (6) years, FINDRISC 13.9 (3.1), body mass index 33.5 (5.9) kg/m2, waist circumference 108.1 (13.7) cm, PA levels (self-report): daily total 49.1 (5.9) metabolic-equivalent (MET) h/day. Follow-up at 12 months was completed by 134 (61%) participants, with an estimated mean (95% CI) change from baseline in weight −5.7 (−7.8 to −2.8); −2.8 (−3.8 to −1.9) kg, waist circumference −7.2 (−9.2 to −5.2); −6.0 (−7.1 to −5.0) cm, and PA level 7.9 (5.8 to 10.1); 6.7 (5.2 to 8.2) MET h/day equivalent, for men and women, respectively (from covariance pattern mixed models). Participants reported an enjoyable, sociable and supportive intervention experience. Conclusions Participants’ views indicated a high level of intervention acceptability. High retention and positive outcomes at 12 months provide encouraging indications of the feasibility and potential effectiveness

  1. Effect of Self-Efficacy on Weight Loss: A Psychosocial Analysis of a Community-Based Adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Emily A.; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G.; Ackermann, Ronald T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention delivery by YMCA staff to brief counseling alone (control) in 92 adults at risk for diabetes (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2, ≥ 2 diabetes risk factors, and a random capillary blood glucose of 110–199 mg/dl). Self-efficacy was measured using the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A paired t test was used to determine within-group changes in self-efficacy and weight at 6 and 12 months. Using a fitted model, we estimated how much of an increase in self-efficacy was related to a 5% weight reduction at 6 and 12 months. Results. Self-efficacy was associated with a 5% reduction in baseline weight at 6 and 12 months but was not related to fat intake. Conclusion. These findings suggest that it is important to assess the level of self-efficacy when counseling adults at high risk for diabetes about weight loss. Certain aspects of self-efficacy seem to play a greater role, depending on the stage of weight loss. PMID:25647049

  2. Implementing a community intervention program for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    High rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among low income African American and Latinos are well documented. While health promotion interventions leading to personal behavior change are known to reduce CVD in white, middle class, more educated populations, these approaches have not been widely tested in poor, minority ethnic communities. This paper describes a community intervention program to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors in East Harlem, a low income New York City community in Manhattan, whose population is 53% Latino and 39% African American. This primary prevention model seeks to change attitudes, norms and values regarding behaviors that contribute to chronic disease within a defined population through initiating changes in the social, educational, cultural and physical environment. Environmental and organizational conditions that predict successful outcomes for the model and strategies, methods and skills, borrowed from social work and other behavioral sciences to implement and institutionalize community wide lifestyle changes, are highlighted. PMID:12365749

  3. HIV prevention with male prostitutes and patrons of hustler bars: replication of an HIV preventive intervention.

    PubMed

    Miller, R L; Klotz, D; Eckholdt, H M

    1998-02-01

    The core objectives of this study were to document the process by which a community-based organization replicated and adapted an experimentally developed intervention to its own use and to explore the effectiveness of that HIV prevention program for male prostitutes and other patrons in New York City "hustler" bars. The intervention model employed was based on previous research with gay men (Kelly, St. Lawrence, Diaz, et al., 1991; Kelly, St. Lawrence, Stevenson, et al., 1992) and inspired by diffusion of innovation theory (Rogers, 1995). The effects of the current intervention were assessed on a sample of 1,741 male prostitutes and bar patrons. Analyses indicated significant reductions in paid, unprotected sexual intercourse and oral sex following the intervention. Analyses further indicated that the data were partially consistent with the program's model, which specified that norms were the putative mediator of behavior change in the intervention. Also, the intervention's effects varied by bar and by participants' race/ethnicity. Data support the utility of the intervention model for an urban sample of men at high risk for HIV infection. The importance of exploring the mechanisms that underlie the intervention is discussed. PMID:9574500

  4. A systematic review of psychosocial suicide prevention interventions for youth.

    PubMed

    Calear, Alison L; Christensen, Helen; Freeman, Alexander; Fenton, Katherine; Busby Grant, Janie; van Spijker, Bregje; Donker, Tara

    2016-05-01

    Youth suicide is a significant public health problem. A systematic review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of school, community and healthcare-based interventions in reducing and preventing suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and deliberate self-harm in young people aged 12-25 years. PsycInfo, PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched to the end of December 2014 to identify randomised controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for youth suicide. In total, 13,747 abstracts were identified and screened for inclusion in a larger database. Of these, 29 papers describing 28 trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the current review. The results of the review indicated that just over half of the programs identified had a significant effect on suicidal ideation (Cohen's d = 0.16-3.01), suicide attempts (phi = 0.04-0.38) or deliberate self-harm (phi = 0.29-0.33; d = 0.42). The current review provides preliminary support for the implementation of universal and targeted interventions in all settings, using a diverse range of psychosocial approaches. Further quality research is needed to strengthen the evidence-base for suicide prevention programs in this population. In particular, the development of universal school-based interventions is promising given the potential reach of such an approach. PMID:26472117

  5. Sustainability of an in-home fire prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Duchossois, Gina P; Nance, Michael L; Garcia-Espana, J Felipe; Flores, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Residential fires remain a challenge in many parts of the United States. This project assessed the sustainability of a community-based fire prevention intervention on household fire safety knowledge and practices. The design was a prospective, cohort study including preintervention and postintervention surveys, which assessed participants' fire safety knowledge and behavior. The implementation of an in-home visit to educate parents of third- and fourth-grade students on escape planning coupled with the installation of smoke alarms can be successful in increasing basic fire safety knowledge and household fire safety practices. PMID:20029281

  6. Aligning Cost Assessment with Community-Based Participatory Research: The Kin Keeper (superscript SM) Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meghea, Cristian Ioan; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The few existing economic evaluations of community-based health promotion interventions were reported retrospectively at the end of the trial. We report an evaluation of the costs of the Kin Keeper(superscript SM) Cancer Prevention Intervention, a female family-focused educational intervention for underserved women applied to increase breast and…

  7. Outcomes of an HIV Prevention Peer Group Intervention for Rural Adults in Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaponda, Chrissie P. N.; Norr, Kathleen F.; Crittenden, Kathleen S.; Norr, James L.; McCreary, Linda L.; Kachingwe, Sitingawawo I.; Mbeba, Mary M.; Jere, Diana L. N.; Dancy, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate a six-session peer group intervention for HIV prevention among rural adults in Malawi. Two rural districts were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. Independent random samples of community adults compared the districts at baseline and at 6 and 18 months postintervention.…

  8. Campus and Community Coalitions. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on campus and community coalitions. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Campus and Community Coalitions: Implementing Environmental Prevention Strategies (John D. Clapp); (2) Campus Brief: University of Rhode Island; (3) International Town & Gown Association; (4) Q&A With Traci Toomey and…

  9. Community Interventions to Create Change in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Lorna H., Ed.

    This book is devoted to interventions that help to make a difference in the lives of children. Children have many challenges, some of which cannot be addressed effectively during the school day. The role of community psychologists has become increasingly important in helping to meet the social and emotional needs of children. This book presents…

  10. Community Interventions to Support Grandparent Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minkler, Meredith; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Brookdale Grandparent Caregiver Information Project tracked 124 community interventions/service programs for grandparents raising grandchildren. Found that, among programs, lack of funding and institutional support, and the consequent inability to provide child care, were among key obstacles faced, whereas while sponsorship by health and social…

  11. Aligning cost assessment with community-based participatory research: the Kin KeeperSM intervention.

    PubMed

    Meghea, Cristian Ioan; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2015-04-01

    The few existing economic evaluations of community-based health promotion interventions were reported retrospectively at the end of the trial. We report an evaluation of the costs of the Kin Keeper(SM) Cancer Prevention Intervention, a female family-focused educational intervention for underserved women applied to increase breast and cervical cancer screening by enhancing cancer literacy. The cost analysis was performed from the perspective of a health organization with established community partnerships adding the Kin Keeper family intervention in the future to an existing community health worker program. The cost of delivering the Kin Keeper intervention, including two cancer education home visits, was $151/family. Kin Keeper is an inexpensive educational intervention delivered by community health workers to promote breast and cervical screening, with strong fidelity and quality. Prospecting cost evaluations of community-based interventions are needed for making informed timely decisions on the adaptation and expansion of such programs. PMID:25394822

  12. Best Practices in School Crisis Prevention and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Lazarus, Philip J., Jr., Ed.; Jimerson, Shane R., Ed.

    This publication on best practices in crisis prevention and intervention is divided among the concepts of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. The introductory chapter examines crisis theory and establishes a foundation for the comprehensive crisis prevention and intervention team. It also attempts to bridge the gap between theory and…

  13. Childhood injury prevention: intervention in the Bedouin city of Rahat.

    PubMed

    Hemmo-Lotem, Michal; Merrick, Efrat; Endy-Findling, Liri; Freh, Aziza Abu; Jinich-Aronowitz, Claudia; Korn, Liat; Merrick, Joav

    2005-08-01

    For several years, the National Center for Children's Health and Safety (Beterem) has worked on many levels to promote safety and prevent injury of the children in Israel. As part of intervention programs in 20 communities around Israel, this paper describes a 1-year, multidisciplinary, multistrategic childhood safety promotion and injury prevention project. The project took place in the Bedouin city of Rahat in the Southern part of Israel, the Negev, conducted by a local safety coordinator. This specific intervention study took place from March 2003 to March 2004. The main goal was to identify hazards and dangerous obstacles in public places in Rahat, then remove or repair the obstacles found, in order to secure a safe public environment for children. "Obstacle" was defined as any barrier that could endanger the safety of a child. Ten examples are used to illustrate this applied research project, and 80% of the problems were solved within the project period (time to solve between 1 week to 3 months, depending on various factors). We recommend the involvement of a safety coordinator from the community to focus on safety hazards for children, the use of a documentation diary to log the time frame, and also the use of pictures to illustrate the hazards and the changes, or to use as arguments in the lobbying process. PMID:16088342

  14. The IDEFICS intervention trial to prevent childhood obesity: Design and study methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the major research dimensions of the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study involved the development, implementation and evaluation of a setting-based community-oriented intervention program for primary prevention...

  15. Engaging community-based organizations in fall prevention education.

    PubMed

    Kramer, B Josea; Vivrette, Rebecca L; Rubenstein, Laurence Z

    2011-01-01

    Falls are a major public health problem for older adults, and community-based organizations play a key role in educating seniors about falls prevention (FP). We conducted a qualitative process evaluation at six sites to report community-based centers' perspectives on adoption, adaptation, and sustainability of an evidence-based multifactorial FP model. Wide dissemination of new health-oriented programs requires marketing to center directors, who must consider sustainability options. The diversity and independence of community-based organizations, together with current staffing and funding limitations, suggest that fidelity to multifactorial evidence-based interventions will be difficult to achieve. PMID:21598150

  16. Using the PEN-3 Model to Plan Culturally Competent Domestic Violence Intervention and Prevention Services in Chinese American and Immigrant Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yick, Alice G.; Oomen-Early, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is two-fold. First, it applies the PEN-3 model to the topic of domestic violence within the Chinese American and Chinese immigrant community. The PEN-3 model was developed by Collins Airhihenbuwa, and it focuses on placing culture at the forefront of health promotion. It consists of three dimensions: cultural…

  17. Types of Interventions for Smoking Prevention and Cessation in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nădăşan, Valentin; Chirvăsuţă, Radu; Ábrám, Zoltan; Mihăicuţă, Ştefan

    2015-01-01

    Smoking among children and adolescents is a pressing public health issue that demands the development, improvement and implementation of programmes aimed at the prevention and cessation of smoking on a global scale. The objective of our article is to review the main types of interventions for smoking prevention and cessation among children and adolescents. These interventions are based on a wide variety of approaches and include school-based programmes, primary and secondary care-based interventions, programmes targeting parents and family, community-based programmes, social marketing programmes and media campaigns, legislative interventions and computer and other IT-based interventions. Generally, there is still a paucity of low level evidence regarding the efficacy of most smoking prevention and cessation programmes for children and adolescents except for a few particular types of interventions that are reasonably well documented. PMID:26738374

  18. A Review of Culturally Targeted/Tailored Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Interventions for Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nisha; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Emerging racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco use behaviors and resulting long-term health outcomes highlight the importance of developing culturally tailored/targeted tobacco prevention and cessation interventions. This manuscript describes the efficacy and the components of prevention and cessation interventions developed for minority adolescents. Methods: Thirteen studies focused on culturally tailoring and targeting tobacco prevention/cessation interventions were selected and information on intervention design (type, number of sessions), setting (school or community), theoretical constructs, culture-specific components (surface/deep structures), and treatment outcomes were extracted. Results: Of the 13 studies, 5 focused on prevention, 4 on cessation, and 4 combined prevention and cessation, and most of the studies were primarily school-based, while a few used community locations. Although diverse minority groups were targeted, a majority of the studies (n = 6) worked with Hispanic adolescents. The most common theoretical construct examined was the Social Influence Model (n = 5). The overall findings indicated that culturally tailoring cessation interventions did not appear to improve tobacco quit rates among minority adolescents, but culturally tailored prevention interventions appeared to produce lower tobacco initiation rates among minority adolescents than control conditions. Conclusions: The results of review suggest that there is a critical need to develop better interventions to reduce tobacco use among minority adolescents and that developing a better understanding of cultural issues related to both cessation and initiation of tobacco use among minority populations is a key component of this endeavor. PMID:22614548

  19. Systematic Review of Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Studies

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Jodi; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee; Wang, Youfa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study systematically reviewed community-based childhood obesity prevention programs in the United States and high-income countries. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library for relevant English-language studies. Studies were eligible if the intervention was primarily implemented in the community setting; had at least 1 year of follow-up after baseline; and compared results from an intervention to a comparison group. Two independent reviewers conducted title scans and abstract reviews and reviewed the full articles to assess eligibility. Each article received a double review for data abstraction. The second reviewer confirmed the first reviewer’s data abstraction for completeness and accuracy. RESULTS: Nine community-based studies were included; 5 randomized controlled trials and 4 non–randomized controlled trials. One study was conducted only in the community setting, 3 were conducted in the community and school setting, and 5 were conducted in the community setting in combination with at least 1 other setting such as the home. Desirable changes in BMI or BMI z-score were found in 4 of the 9 studies. Two studies reported significant improvements in behavioral outcomes (1 in physical activity and 1 in vegetable intake). CONCLUSIONS: The strength of evidence is moderate that a combined diet and physical activity intervention conducted in the community with a school component is more effective at preventing obesity or overweight. More research and consistent methods are needed to understand the comparative effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programs in the community setting. PMID:23753099

  20. Context and group dynamics in a CBPR-developed HIV prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Corbett, A Michelle; Bodnar, Gloria; Zuniga, Maria Ofelia; Guevara, Carmen Eugenia; Rodriguez, Karla; Navas, Verónica

    2016-03-01

    This paper will explore in detail the effects of context and group dynamics on the development of a multi-level community-based HIV prevention intervention for crack cocaine users in the San Salvador Metropolitan Area, El Salvador. Community partners included residents from marginal communities, service providers from the historic center of San Salvador and research staff from a non-profit organization. The community contexts from which partners came varied considerably and affected structural group dynamics, i.e. who was identified as community partners, their research and organizational capacity, and their ability to represent their communities, with participants from marginal communities most likely to hold community leadership positions and be residents, and those from the center of San Salvador most likely to work in religious organizations dedicated to HIV prevention or feeding indigent drug users. These differences also affected the intervention priorities of different partners. The context of communities changed over time, particularly levels of violence, and affected group dynamics and the intervention developed. Finally, strategies were needed to elicit input from stakeholders under-represented in the community advisory board, in particular active crack users, in order to check the feasibility of the proposed intervention and revise it as necessary. Because El Salvador is a very different context than that in which most CBPR studies have been conducted, our results reveal important contextual factors and their effects on partnerships not often considered in the literature. PMID:25070835

  1. Results From a Lay Health Advisor Intervention to Prevent Lead Poisoning Among Rural Native American Children

    PubMed Central

    Kegler, Michelle Crozier; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We tested the effectiveness of a community-based lay health advisor intervention for primary prevention of lead poisoning among Native American children who lived in a former mining area. Methods. We conducted cross-sectional population-based blood lead assessments of Native American and White children aged 1 to 6 years and in-person caregiver interviews before (n=331) and after (n=387) a 2-year intervention. Results. Mean childhood blood lead levels decreased and selected preventive behaviors improved for both Native American and White (comparison) communities. Several short-term outcomes also improved from pre- to postintervention, but only knowledge and hand-washing self-efficacy increased more among Native Americans than among Whites. Conclusions. Our findings provide limited support for the effectiveness of lay health advisor interventions as a primary lead poisoning prevention strategy for Native American communities. PMID:15451742

  2. Preventing skin cancer: findings of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services On reducing Exposure to Ultraviolet Light.

    PubMed

    Saraiya, Mona; Glanz, Karen; Briss, Peter; Nichols, Phyllis; White, Cornelia; Das, Debjani

    2003-10-17

    Rates of skin cancer, the most common cancer in the United States, are increasing. The most preventable risk factor for skin cancer is unprotected ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Seeking to identify effective approaches to reducing the incidence of skin cancer by improving individual and community efforts to reduce unprotected UV exposure, the Task Force on Community Preventive Services conducted systematic reviews of community interventions to reduce exposure to ultraviolet light and increase protective behaviors. The Task Force found sufficient evidence to recommend two interventions that are based on improvements in sun protective or "covering-up" behavior (wearing protective clothing including long-sleeved clothing or hats): educational and policy approaches in two settings--primary schools and recreational or tourism sites. They found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of a range of other population-based interventions and recommended additional research in these areas: educational and policy approaches in child care centers, secondary schools and colleges, recreational or tourism sites for children, and workplaces; interventions conducted in health-care settings and targeted to both providers and children's parents or caregivers; media campaigns alone; and community wide multicomponent interventions. This report also presents additional information regarding the recommended community interventions, briefly describes how the reviews were conducted, provides resources for further information, and provides information that can help in applying the interventions locally. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force conducted a systematic review of counseling by primary care clinicians to prevent skin cancer (CDC. Counseling to prevent skin cancer: recommendation and rationale of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. MMWR 2003;52[No. RR-15]:13-17), which is also included in this issue, the first jointly released findings from the Task Force on Community

  3. Recruitment for Health Disparities Preventive Intervention Trials: The Early Childhood Caries Collaborating Centers

    PubMed Central

    Casciello, Alana; Gansky, Stuart A.; Henshaw, Michelle; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Rasmussen, Margaret; Garcia, Raul I.; Albino, Judith; Batliner, Terrence S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Four trials of interventions designed to prevent early childhood caries are using community-engagement strategies to improve recruitment of low-income, racial/ethnic minority participants. The trials are being implemented by 3 centers funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research and known as the Early Childhood Caries Collaborating Centers (EC4): the Center for Native Oral Health Research at the University of Colorado, the Center to Address Disparities in Children’s Oral Health at the University of California San Francisco, and the Center for Research to Evaluate and Eliminate Dental Disparities at Boston University. Community Context The community contexts for the EC4 trials include urban public housing developments, Hispanic communities near the US–Mexican border, and rural American Indian reservations. These communities have a high prevalence of early childhood caries, suggesting the need for effective, culturally acceptable interventions. Methods Each center’s intervention(s) used community-based participatory research approaches, identified community partners, engaged the community through various means, and developed communication strategies to enhance recruitment. Outcome All 3 centers have completed recruitment. Each center implemented several new strategies and approaches to enhance recruitment efforts, such as introducing new communication techniques, using media such as radio and newspapers to spread awareness about the studies, and hosting community gatherings. Interpretation Using multiple strategies that build trust in the community, are sensitive to cultural norms, and are adaptable to the community environment can enhance recruitment in underserved communities. PMID:25101490

  4. Community-Based Prevention Specialist. Participant Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Research Corp., Bethesda, MD.

    This participant manual is designed to assist substance abuse prevention specialists in the development of knowledge and skills in implementing community-based programs through an entry-level course. The manual initially concentrates on a basic, generic approach to community work, and reviews course goals and objectives. The nine training modules…

  5. Drug Free Communities Support Program. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Administered by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), in partnership with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), the Drug Free Communities Support Program (DFC) is a federal grant program that provides funding to community-based coalitions that organize to prevent youth substance use. Since the…

  6. Building Community Capacity for Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabol, William J.; Coulton, Claudia J.; Korbin, Jill E.

    2004-01-01

    The capacity of communities to prevent violence is examined from three perspectives: youth violence, child maltreatment, and intimate partner violence. The analysis suggests that community social control and collective efficacy are significant protective factors for all three types of violence, but these need to be further distinguished for their…

  7. Community-Based Prevention Specialist. Trainer Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Research Corp., Bethesda, MD.

    This trainer manual is designed to assist facilitators in the design of entry-level courses and programs for substance abuse prevention specialists. The manual initially concentrates on a basic, generic approach to community work, and introduces the knowledge and skills needed to implement substance abuse prevention programs by using the community…

  8. [Individual, community, regulatory, and systemic approaches to tobacco control interventions].

    PubMed

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    During the 60s and the 70s strategies for decreasing initiation or quitting have been developed, in order to find those with high success rates. Unfortunately, interventions with an individual approach involved few smokers, so their impact in decreasing smoking prevalence was limited. The socio-ecological model offers a theoretical framework to community interventions for smoking cessation developed during the 80s, in which smoking was considered not only an individual, but also a social problem. In the 80s and the 90s smoking cessation community trials were developed, such as the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT). Afterwards, policy interventions (price policy; smoking bans in public places; advertising bans; bans of sales to minors) were developed, such as the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study for Cancer Prevention (ASSIST). California has been the first State all over the world to develop a comprehensive Tobacco Control Program in 1988, becoming the place for an ever-conducted natural experiment. All policy interventions in tobacco control have been finally grouped together in the World Health Organization - Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC), the first Public Health Treaty. Study designs have changed, according to the individual, community, or regulatory approaches: the classical randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in which the sampling unit is the individual, have been carried out for the evaluation of smoking cessation treatments, whereas cluster RCTs, in which the sampling unit is the community, have been conducted for evaluating community interventions, such as COMMIT. Finally, quasi-experimental studies (before/after study; prospective cohorts, both with a control group), in which the observational unit is a State, have been used for evaluating tobacco control policies, such as ASSIST and the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project. Although the successes of the last 20 years, tobacco

  9. Community Engagement in Youth Violence Prevention: Crafting Methods to Context.

    PubMed

    Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Bacallao, Martica; Brown, Shelli; Bower, Meredith; Zimmerman, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the Youth Violence Prevention Centers (YVPC) Program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is to reduce youth violence in defined high-risk communities through the implementation and evaluation of comprehensive, evidence based prevention strategies. Within this common framework, each YVPC varies in its structure and methods, however all engage communities in multiple ways. We explore aspects of community engagement employed by three centers that operate in very different contexts: a rural county in North Carolina; a suburban area of Denver, Colorado; and an urban setting in Flint, Michigan. While previous research has addressed theories supporting community involvement in youth violence prevention, there has been less attention to the implementation challenges of achieving and sustaining participation. In three case examples, we describe the foci and methods for community engagement in diverse YVPC sites and detail the barriers and facilitating factors that have influenced implementation. Just as intervention programs may need to be adapted in order to meet the needs of specific populations, methods of community engagement must be tailored to the context in which they occur. We discuss case examples of community engagement in areas with varying geographies, histories, and racial and ethnic compositions. Each setting presents distinct challenges and opportunities for conducting collaborative violence prevention initiatives and for adapting engagement methods to diverse communities. Although approaches may vary depending upon local contexts, there are certain principles that appear to be common across cultures and geography: trust, transparency, communication, commitment. We also discuss the importance of flexibility in community engagement efforts. PMID:26965101

  10. 76 FR 4115 - Meeting of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Meeting of the Task Force on Community...) announces the next meeting of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services (Task Force). The Task Force... interventions in public health and health promotion. During this meeting the Task Force will consider...

  11. 76 FR 55394 - Meeting of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Meeting of the Task Force on Community...) announces the next meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force). The Task Force--an... interventions in public health and health promotion. During this meeting, the Task Force will consider...

  12. Provider Perspectives on Evidence-Based HIV Prevention Interventions: Barriers and Facilitators to Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, community-based organizations (CBOs) have been key players in combating this disease through grassroots prevention programs and close ties to at-risk populations. Increasingly, both funding agencies and public health institutions require that CBOs implement evidence-based HIV prevention interventions, most of which are researcher developed. However, after completing training for these evidence-based interventions (EBIs), agencies may either abandon plans to implement them or significantly modify the intervention. Based on 22 semistructured interviews with HIV prevention service providers, this article explores the barriers and facilitators to dissemination and implementation of EBIs included in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions (DEBI) program. Results suggest that there is a tension between the need to implement interventions with fidelity and the lack of guidance on how to adapt the interventions for their constituencies and organizational contexts. Findings suggest the need for HIV prevention intervention development and dissemination that integrate community partners in all phases of research and dissemination. PMID:21323564

  13. Homocysteine lowering interventions for preventing cardiovascular events

    PubMed Central

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Solà, Ivan; Lathyris, Dimitrios; Salanti, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease such as coronary artery disease, stroke and congestive heart failure, is a leading cause of death worldwide. A postulated risk factor is elevated circulating total homocysteine (tHcy) levels which is influenced mainly by blood levels of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12), folic acid (vitamin B9) and pyridoxine (vitamin B6). There is uncertainty regarding the strength of association between tHcy and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Objectives To assess the clinical effectiveness of homocysteine-lowering interventions (HLI) in people with or without pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on The Cochrane Library (issue 3 2008), MEDLINE (1950 to August 2008), EMBASE (1988 to August 2008), and LILACS (1982 to September 2, 2008). We also searched in Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED; 1985 to August 2008), ISI Web of Science (1993 to August 2008), and the Cochrane Stroke Group Specialised Register (April 2007). We hand searched pertinent journals and the reference lists of included papers. We also contacted researchers in the field. There was no language restriction in the search. Selection criteria We included randomised clinical trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of HLI for preventing cardiovascular events with a follow-up period of 1 year or longer. We considered myocardial infarction and stroke as the primary outcomes. We excluded studies in patients with end-stage renal disease. Data collection and analysis We independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We estimated relative risks (RR) for dichotomous outcomes. We measured statistical heterogeneity using I2. We used a random-effects model to synthesise the findings. Main results We included eight RCTs involving 24,210 participants with a low risk of bias in general terms. HLI did not reduce the risk of non-fatal or fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or

  14. Community Disasters, Psychological Trauma, and Crisis Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Boscarino, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The current issue of International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience is focused on community disasters, the impact of trauma exposure, and crisis intervention. The articles incorporated include studies ranging from the World Trade Center disaster to Hurricane Sandy. These studies are related to public attitudes and beliefs about disease outbreaks, the impact of volunteerism following the World Trade Center attacks, alcohol misuse among police officers after Hurricane Katrina, posttraumatic stress disorder after Hurricane Sandy among those exposed to the Trade Center disaster, compassion fatigue and burnout among trauma workers, crisis interventions in Eastern Europe, and police officers' use of stress intervention services. While this scope is broad, it reflects the knowledge that has emerged since the Buffalo Creek and Chernobyl catastrophes, to the more recent Hurricane Katrina and Sandy disasters. Given the current threat environment, psychologists, social workers, and other providers need to be aware of these developments and be prepared to mitigate the impact of psychological trauma following community disasters, whether natural or man-made. PMID:25983663

  15. [Educational activity and psychosocial prevention : a model of intervention.].

    PubMed

    Plamondon, G; Plamondon, L

    1981-01-01

    The authors describe the socio-economic conditions of the retired in 1980 (poverty, poor health, lack of adequate services, etc.) and explain how these conditions are related to capitalist social organization. Their analysis leads them to set down the principal goal of the community workers in regard to the elderly population as follows : contribute to the organization and to the development of conditions favorable to the mobilization of the retired and elderly workers who, as a group, have the greatest potential for changing their conditions. To attain this long-term objective, the pre-retirement clientele possess the most favorable potential, and this is why the retirement preparation intervention is defined in an educationel orientation of psycho-social prevention. Seconding to the authors, the apprenticeships showed permit the elderly to assume both personal and collective control - thereby making it possible to transform the existing conditions. PMID:17093720

  16. A Randomized Trial of a Multifaceted Intervention to Reduce Falls among Community-Dwelling Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Patrick J.; Vazquez, Laurie; Tonner, Chris; Stevens, Judy A.; Fineman, Norman; Ross, Leslie K.

    2010-01-01

    Using a randomized controlled trial, we tested the efficacy of a fall prevention intervention to reduce falls among adults in a community-based health promotion program. Adults aged 65 and older within two counties were recruited (control n = 257; intervention n = 286). After 12 months, there was a significant decrease in the number of falls in…

  17. Promoting Physical Activity among Youth through Community-Based Prevention Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Carol A.; Courtney, Anita H.; McDermott, Robert J.; Alfonso, Moya L.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Nickelson, Jen; Brown, Kelli R. McCormack; DeBate, Rita D.; Phillips, Leah M.; Thompson, Zachary; Zhu, Yiliang

    2010-01-01

    Background: Community-based prevention marketing (CBPM) is a program planning framework that blends community-organizing principles with a social marketing mind-set to design, implement, and evaluate public health interventions. A community coalition used CBPM to create a physical activity promotion program for tweens (youth 9-13 years of age)…

  18. Installing the Communities that Care Prevention System: Implementation Progress and Fidelity in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinby, Rose K.; Hanson, Koren; Brooke-Weiss, Blair; Arthur, Michael W.; Hawkins, J. David; Fagan, Abigail A.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the degree to which high fidelity implementation of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention operating system was reached during the first 18 months of intervention in 12 communities in the Community Youth Development Study, a 5-year group randomized controlled trial designed to test the efficacy of the CTC system. CTC…

  19. SOMOS: evaluation of an HIV prevention intervention for Latino gay men.

    PubMed

    Vega, Miriam Y; Spieldenner, Andrew R; DeLeon, Dennis; Nieto, Bolivar X; Stroman, Carolyn A

    2011-06-01

    Latino gay men face multiple barriers to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, in particular a lack of intervention programs that integrate prevention messages with cultural norms and address issues of social marginalization from multiple communities (gay community and Latino community), homophobia and racism. In order to address these specific issues, a multilayered HIV intervention was designed to incorporate and integrate psychosocial and community factors through multiple session groups, social marketing and community presentations. Participants learned strategies for effective community leadership and were encouraged to provide HIV education and address internalized homophobia in their communities. There were a total of 113 Latino gay male participants. Pretests and post-tests at 90-day follow-up were administered to measure knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to HIV infection, self-efficacy, internalized homophobia and connectedness (i.e. gay community affiliation and social provisions); a risk index was calculated to measure level of behavioral risk for HIV infection. Participants demonstrated lower risk indices and a decrease in partners at 3 and 6 months after the intervention. There was also an increase in reported social support resources, along with an increase in group identification. Connectedness was a strong predictor of the number of sexual partners at the 90-day follow-up. This homegrown program represents a culturally responsive, highly needed and relevant intervention that should be subjected to further rigorous testing. PMID:21059799

  20. Resources and obstacles to developing and implementing a structural intervention to prevent HIV in San Salvador, El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Corbett, A Michelle; Bodnar, Gloria; Rodriguez, Karla; Guevara, Carmen E

    2010-02-01

    HIV prevention researchers have increasingly advocated structural interventions that address factors in the social, political and economic context to reduce disparities of HIV/AIDS among disadvantaged populations. This paper draws on data collected in three different types of low-income communities (n=6) in the San Salvador metropolitan area in El Salvador. Nine focus group discussions were conducted between January 2006 and July 2007, 6 with community leaders, and 3 with crack cocaine users, as well as in-depth interviews with 20 crack users and crack dealers. We explore opportunities and barriers to the implementation of a community-level, structural intervention. We first analyze the different forms of leadership, and other community resources including existing HIV prevention activities that could potentially be used to address the related problems of crack use and HIV in the communities, and the structural factors that may act as barriers to capitalizing on communities' strengths in interventions. Each of the communities studied demonstrated different resources that stem from each community's unique history and geographic location. HIV testing and prevention resources varied widely among the communities, with resources concentrated in one Older Central community despite a strong need in all communities. In many communities, fear of gang violence and non-responsiveness by government agencies to communities' needs have discouraged community organizing. In the discussion, we offer concrete suggestions for developing and implementing structural interventions to reduce HIV risks that use communities' different but complementary resources. PMID:19910099

  1. Prevention system mediation of communities that care effects on youth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Eric C; Hawkins, J David; Rhew, Isaac C; Shapiro, Valerie B; Abbott, Robert D; Oesterle, Sabrina; Arthur, Michael W; Briney, John S; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-10-01

    This study examined whether the significant intervention effects of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system on youth problem behaviors observed in a panel of eighth-grade students (Hawkins et al. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 163:789-798 2009) were mediated by community-level prevention system constructs posited in the CTC theory of change. Potential prevention system constructs included the community's degree of (a) adoption of a science-based approach to prevention, (b) collaboration on prevention activities, (c) support for prevention, and (d) norms against adolescent drug use as reported by key community leaders in 24 communities. Higher levels of community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention and support for prevention in 2004 predicted significantly lower levels of youth problem behaviors in 2007, and higher levels of community norms against adolescent drug use predicted lower levels of youth drug use in 2007. Effects of the CTC intervention on youth problem behaviors by the end of eighth grade were mediated fully by community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention. No other significant mediated effects were found. Results support CTC's theory of change that encourages communities to adopt a science-based approach to prevention as a primary mechanism for improving youth outcomes. PMID:23828448

  2. Interventions to prevent tenant evictions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Holl, Marieke; van den Dries, Linda; Wolf, Judith R L M

    2016-09-01

    Tenant evictions are a significant cause of homelessness. As evictions are a traumatic experience for those being evicted and involve high costs, preventing evictions is vital and should be part of local and national policy. In order to develop and implement preventive practices and policies, it is essential to know which interventions are effective in preventing evictions. However, little is known about these interventions. Therefore, a systematic search of the international literature, providing an overview of interventions to prevent evictions published in scientific journals and reporting on their (cost-)effectiveness, was conducted. Nine electronic databases and Google Scholar were searched for peer-reviewed and non-reviewed publications describing research into interventions to prevent tenant evictions published in English between January 1985 and May 2012. Two researchers reviewed titles, abstracts and full-text articles and eventually seven publications describing eight interventions to prevent tenant evictions were analysed. The eight interventions vary widely in terms of their target population, focus, type of support and duration, which makes comparison of results difficult. Only three effect studies on preventive interventions regarding tenant evictions were found; two researchers assessed their quality. One of these studies was of insufficient quality to assess the effectiveness of the intervention described. Legal assistance and debt advice are promising interventions that seem to be effective in decreasing the risk of eviction. The effectiveness of the other five interventions cannot be determined. More methodologically sound research into the prevention of tenant evictions is needed and future research will have to clarify what works for whom, in which context. PMID:26109137

  3. E-Health Interventions for Suicide Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J.; O’Dea, Bridianne

    2014-01-01

    Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals’ posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain. PMID:25119698

  4. E-health interventions for suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J; O'Dea, Bridianne

    2014-08-01

    Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals' posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain. PMID:25119698

  5. Global cardiovascular disease prevention: a call to action for nursing: community-based and public health prevention initiatives.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Barbara J; Himmelfarb, Cheryl Dennison; Lira, Maria Teresa; Meininger, Janet C; Pradhan, Sala Ray; Sikkema, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Policy changes are necessary to promote cardiovascular disease prevention. These will involve community-based and public health initiatives for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. In this article, we discuss such interventions, community-based participatory research that has been conducted in this area, and implications for capacity building in genetics research. Finally, areas for future research in this area will be identified. PMID:21659811

  6. Prevention System Mediation of Communities That Care Effects on Youth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, J. David; Rhew, Isaac C.; Shapiro, Valerie B.; Abbott, Robert D.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Arthur, Michael W.; Briney, John S.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether the significant intervention effects of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system on youth problem behaviors observed in a panel of eighth-grade students (Hawkins et al. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 163:789–798 2009) were mediated by community-level prevention system constructs posited in the CTC theory of change. Potential prevention system constructs included the community’s degree of (a) adoption of a science-based approach to prevention, (b) collaboration on prevention activities, (c) support for prevention, and (d) norms against adolescent drug use as reported by key community leaders in 24 communities. Higher levels of community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention and support for prevention in 2004 predicted significantly lower levels of youth problem behaviors in 2007, and higher levels of community norms against adolescent drug use predicted lower levels of youth drug use in 2007. Effects of the CTC intervention on youth problem behaviors by the end of eighth grade were mediated fully by community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention. No other significant mediated effects were found. Results support CTC’s theory of change that encourages communities to adopt a science- based approach to prevention as a primary mechanism for improving youth outcomes. PMID:23828448

  7. Developing Empirically Based, Culturally Grounded Drug Prevention Interventions for Indigenous Youth Populations

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Pel, Suzanne; McClain, Latoya L.; Hill, Amber P.; Hayashida, Janai K. P.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the relevance of a culturally grounded approach toward drug prevention development for indigenous youth populations. This approach builds drug prevention from the “ground up” (ie, from the values, beliefs, and worldviews of the youth that are the intended consumers of the program), and is contrasted with efforts that focus on adapting existing drug prevention interventions to fit the norms of different youth ethnocultural groups. The development of an empirically based drug prevention program focused on rural Native Hawaiian youth is described as a case example of culturally grounded drug prevention development for indigenous youth, and the impact of this effort on the validity of the intervention and on community engagement and investment in the development of the program are discussed. Finally, implications of this approach for behavioral health services and the development of an indigenous prevention science are discussed. PMID:23188485

  8. Teenage Suicide: Identification, Intervention and Prevention. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Lori J.

    This fact sheet provides data on the incidence of teenage suicide and describes the stressors which can lead to suicide. Suicide as a three-step process is discussed and warning signs are identified. Counseling interventions are listed and suggestions for preventive efforts by community members, mental health professionals, school personnel,…

  9. Crisis Prevention and Intervention in the Classroom: What Teachers Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damiani, Victoria B.

    2006-01-01

    Schools are among the safest places in America, however, every year school children are affected by stressful events. Whether there is war in another country or death in the schoolyard, these events can interfere with learning and may have long-term effects on children and communities. "Crisis Prevention and Intervention in the Classroom" will…

  10. CHILE: An Evidence-Based Preschool Intervention for Obesity Prevention in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sally M.; Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. Methods: CHILE uses a…

  11. Strengthening Rural Schools: Training Paraprofessionals in Crisis Prevention and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Melissa; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Stott, Kathryn A.

    The long-term effects of crisis and tragedy can be improved significantly by immediate intervention and emergency mental health services. Providing crisis intervention in rural schools poses challenges related to lack of financial resources, community resources, and trained personnel; isolation of rural schools; and long distances between school…

  12. The Peru Cervical Cancer Prevention Study (PERCAPS): Community Based Participatory Research in Manchay, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Kimberly L.; Abuelo, Carolina; Chyung, Eunice; Salmeron, Jorge; Belinson, Suzanne E; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Ortiz, Carlos Santos; Vallejos, Maria Jose; Belinson, Jerome L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cervical cancer is a preventable disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. While technology for early detection continues to improve, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers. Community Based Participatory Research is an approach to research which focuses on collaboration with the community to surmount these barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of Community Based Participatory Research techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for cervical cancer prevention in Manchay, Peru. Methods/materials HPV self-sampling and cryotherapy were utilized for the screen/treat intervention, and the Gardasil vaccine was utilized for the vaccine intervention. Community health workers from Manchay participated in a 3-day educational course, designed by the research team. The community health workers then decided how to implement the interventions in their community. The success of the program was measured by: 1) the ability of the community health workers to determine an implementation plan, 2) the successful use of research forms provided, 3) participation and retention rates, and 4) satisfaction of the participants. Results 1) The community health workers used a door-to-door approach through which participants were successfully registered and both interventions were successfully carried out; 2) registration forms, consent forms, and result forms were utilized correctly with minimal error; 3) screen/treat intervention: 97% of registered participants gave an HPV sample, 94% of HPV positive women were treated, and 90% returned for 6-month follow-up; vaccine intervention: 95% of registered girls received the 1st vaccine, 97% of those received the 2nd vaccine, and 93% the 3rd; 4) 96% of participants in the screen/treat intervention reported high satisfaction. Conclusion Community Based Participatory Research techniques successfully helped to implement a screen

  13. Psychological Interventions with AIDS and HIV: Prevention and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Debra A.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that research to date has yielded important findings for primary prevention efforts for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and has identified psychological dimensions relevant to mental health interventions for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Sees pressing need for more systematic intervention outcome research in…

  14. Screening and Brief Interventions: Research Update. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Developed in 1993 at the University of Washington, Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) is a preventive intervention program to reduce drinking and enhance awareness about alcohol-related issues. BASICS targets college students who are considered at risk because of heavy drinking behaviors. The brief intervention…

  15. Efficacy of a Preventive Intervention for Youths Living with HIV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Lee, Martha B.; Murphy, Debra A.; Futterman, Donna; Duan, Naihua; Birnbaum, Jeffrey M.; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2001-01-01

    Examined HIV transmission behaviors and health practices among HIV-infected youths over 15 months following participation in a preventive intervention that emphasized coping with HIV and reducing risky behaviors. The intervention resulted in increases in social support coping and reductions in risky sexual and lifestyle behaviors specifically…

  16. Preventive Intervention in Families at Risk: The Limits of Liberalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snik, Ger; De Jong, Johan; Van Haaften, Wouter

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing call for preventive state interventions in so-called families at risk - that is, interventions before any overt harm has been done by parents to their children or by the children to a third party, in families that are statistically known to be liable to harm children. One of the basic principles of liberal morality, however,…

  17. Nutritional interventions for Alzheimer's prevention: a clinical precision medicine approach.

    PubMed

    Schelke, Matthew W; Hackett, Katherine; Chen, Jaclyn L; Shih, Chiashin; Shum, Jessica; Montgomery, Mary E; Chiang, Gloria C; Berkowitz, Cara; Seifan, Alon; Krikorian, Robert; Isaacson, Richard Scott

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major source of morbidity and mortality, with the disease burden expected to rise as the population ages. No disease-modifying agent is currently available, but recent research suggests that nutritional and lifestyle modifications can delay or prevent the onset of AD. However, preventive nutritional interventions are not universally applicable and depend on the clinical profile of the individual patient. This article reviews existing nutritional modalities for AD prevention that act through improvement of insulin resistance, correction of dyslipidemia, and reduction of oxidative stress, and discusses how they may be modified on the basis of individual biomarkers, genetics, and behavior. In addition, we report preliminary results of clinical application of these personalized interventions at the first AD prevention clinic in the United States. The use of these personalized interventions represents an important application of precision medicine techniques for the prevention of AD that can be adopted by clinicians across disciplines. PMID:27116241

  18. Dating Violence Prevention Programming: Directions for Future Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Zucosky, Heather; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Cornelius, Tara L.; Sage, Chelsea; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Dating violence among college students is a widespread and destructive problem. The field of dating violence has seen a substantial rise in research over the past several years, which has improved our understanding of factors that increase risk for perpetration. Unfortunately, there has been less attention paid to dating violence prevention programming, and existing programs have been marred with methodological weaknesses and a lack of demonstrated effectiveness in reducing aggression. In hopes of sparking new research on dating violence prevention programs, the current review examines possible new avenues for dating violence prevention programming among college students. We discuss clinical interventions that have shown to be effective in reducing a number of problematic behaviors, including motivational interventions, dialectical behavior therapy, mindfulness, and bystander interventions, and how they could be applied to dating violence prevention. We also discuss methodological issues to consider when implementing dating violence prevention programs. PMID:22773916

  19. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH WITHIN THE FEDERAL COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the primary ongoing programs for promotion and encouragement of pollution prevention research is a cooperative program between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Federal community at large. EPA’s Waste Reduction Evaluations At Federal Sites (WREAFS) Pro...

  20. Art Works! Prevention Programs for Youth & Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Paula

    This book presents model programs that use art in prevention programs for youth. When faced with the serious threats that drugs, violence, and alienation pose for children, communities creatively respond by combining resources and talents. Their lessons are highlighted in this book, and these programs should encourage new collaborations for the…

  1. Suicide Prevention and Community-Level Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hourani, Laurel L.; Davidson, Lucy; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Patel, Nita; Marshall, Maureen; Crosby, Alex E.

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to develop a set of easily obtainable, relevant measures of a community's condition that could be used to guide its suicide prevention efforts. Existing data were gathered across 159 Georgia counties for nine potential social indicators (rates of net migration, divorce, unemployment, violent crimes reported, driving under the…

  2. Participation and Diffusion Effects of a Peer-Intervention for HIV Prevention among Adults in Rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Crittenden, Kathleen S.; Kaponda, Chrissie P. N.; Jere, Diana L.; McCreary, Linda L.; Norr, Kathleen F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines whether a peer group intervention that reduced self-reported risky behaviors for rural adults in Malawi also had impacts on non-participants in the same communities. We randomly assigned two districts to the intervention and control conditions, and conducted surveys at baseline and 18 months post-intervention using unmatched independent random samples of intervention and control communities in 2003-2006. The six-session peer group intervention was offered to same-gender groups by trained volunteers. In this analysis, we divided the post-intervention sample into three exposure groups: 243 participants and 170 non-participants from the intervention district (total n=415) and 413 control individuals. Controlling for demographics and participation, there were significant favorable diffusion effects on five partially overlapping behavioral outcomes: partner communication, ever used condoms, unprotected sex, recent HIV test, and a community HIV prevention index. Non-participants in the intervention district had more favorable outcomes on these behaviors than survey respondents in the control district. One behavioral outcome, community HIV prevention, showed both participation and diffusion effects. Participating in the intervention had a significant effect on six psychosocial outcomes: HIV knowledge (two measures), hope, condom attitudes, and self-efficacy for community HIV prevention and for safer sex; there were no diffusion effects. This pattern of results suggests that the behavioral changes promoted in the intervention spread to others in the same community, most likely through direct contact between participants and non-participants. These findings support the idea that diffusion of HIV-related behavior changes can occur for peer group interventions in communities, adding to the body of research supporting diffusion of innovations theory as a robust approach to accelerating change. If diffusion occurs, peer group intervention may be more cost

  3. Resources and obstacles to developing and implementing a structural intervention to prevent HIV in San Salvador, El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, A. Michelle; Bodnar, Gloria; Rodriguez, Karla; Guevara, Carmen E

    2009-01-01

    HIV prevention researchers have increasingly advocated structural interventions that address factors in the social, political and economic context to reduce disparities of HIV/AIDS among disadvantaged populations. This paper draws on data collected in three different types of low-income communities (n=6) in the San Salvador metropolitan area in El Salvador. Nine focus group discussions were conducted between January 2006 - July 2007, six with community leaders, and three with crack cocaine users, as well as in-depth interviews with 20 crack users and crack dealers. We explore opportunities and barriers to the implementation of a community-level, structural intervention. We first analyze the different forms of leadership, and other community resources including existing HIV prevention activities that could potentially be used to address the related problems of crack use and HIV in the communities, and the structural factors that may act as barriers to capitalizing on communities’ strengths in interventions. Each of the communities studied demonstrated different resources that stem from each community's unique history and geographic location. HIV testing and prevention resources varied widely among the communities, with resources concentrated in one Older Central community despite a strong need in all communities. In many communities, fear of gang violence and non-responsiveness by government agencies to communities’ needs have discouraged community organizing. In the discussion, we offer concrete suggestions for developing and implementing structural interventions to reduce HIV risks that use communities’ different but complementary resources. PMID:19910099

  4. School Interventions To Prevent Youth Suicide. Technical Assistance Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    This guide lists information and resources concerning school interventions to prevent youth suicide. Part 1 includes articles related to youth suicide, depression, and violence, along with a listing of basic facts, statistics, and myths about suicide. A general model of youth suicide is included followed by information on prevention. Part 2…

  5. The Multicultural Model in Chemical Abuse Prevention and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold-Ezekoye, Stephanie

    1985-01-01

    Applies the concept of multiculturalism to chemical abuse prevention and intervention programs. Provides a model for implementation and describes projects with a similar conceptual basis. Acknowledges the cultural foundations for developing positive self-understanding. Promotes the development of culture-specific prevention strategies. (Author/LHW)

  6. Advancing the Science of Community-Level Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Beehler, Sarah; Deutsch, Charles; Green, Lawrence W.; Hawe, Penelope; McLeroy, Kenneth; Miller, Robin Lin; Rapkin, Bruce D.; Schensul, Jean J.; Schulz, Amy J.; Trimble, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    Community interventions are complex social processes that need to move beyond single interventions and outcomes at individual levels of short-term change. A scientific paradigm is emerging that supports collaborative, multilevel, culturally situated community interventions aimed at creating sustainable community-level impact. This paradigm is rooted in a deep history of ecological and collaborative thinking across public health, psychology, anthropology, and other fields of social science. The new paradigm makes a number of primary assertions that affect conceptualization of health issues, intervention design, and intervention evaluation. To elaborate the paradigm and advance the science of community intervention, we offer suggestions for promoting a scientific agenda, developing collaborations among professionals and communities, and examining the culture of science. PMID:21680923

  7. Community Mobilization and Readiness: Planning Flaws which Challenge Effective Implementation of 'Communities that Care' (CTC) Prevention System.

    PubMed

    Basic, Josipa

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the experience of implementing a community approach to drug use and youth delinquency prevention based on the 'Communities that Care' (CTC) system implemented in one Croatian county consisting of 12 communities, 2002 to 2013 (Hawkins, 1999; Hawkins & Catalano, 2004). This overview explores selected critical issues which are often not considered in substance use(r) community intervention planning, implementation as well as in associated process and outcome assessments. These issues include, among others, the mobilization process of adequate representation of people; the involvement of relevant key individual and organizational stakeholders and being aware of the stakeholders' willingness to participate in the prevention process. In addition, it is important to be aware of the stakeholders' knowledge and perceptions about the 'problems' of drug use and youth delinquency in their communities as well as the characteristics of the targeted population(s). Sometimes there are community members and stakeholders who block needed change and therefore prevention process enablers and 'bridges' should be involved in moving prevention programming forward. Another barrier that is often overlooked in prevention planning is community readiness to change and a realistic assessment of available and accessible resources for initiating the planned change(s) and sustaining them. All of these issues have been found to be potentially related to intervention success. At the end of this article, I summarize perspectives from prevention scientists and practitioners and lessons learned from communities' readiness research and practice in Croatian that has international relevance. PMID:26222776

  8. Environmental interventions to enhance student adjustment: implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Berryhill, Joseph C; Prinz, Ronald J

    2003-06-01

    School settings, often the sites for the prevention of adverse outcomes or the promotion of adjustment, are usually not the actual targets of such interventions. However, some interventions focus on modifying the school or classroom environments themselves. This review examines such approaches, and considers how school regularities that might undermine student adjustment are addressed. The environmental interventions are clustered in terms of focus: on student-student interactions, on teacher and peer influences, and on organizational function and structure. Reasons for the paucity of environmental change efforts and the inherent difficulties are discussed, and recommendations for creating ways to undertake future environmental interventions in schools are offered. PMID:12751877

  9. 75 FR 32186 - Task Force on Community Preventive Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Task Force on Community Preventive Services Name: Task Force on Community Preventive Services meeting. Times and Dates: 8 a.m.-5:30 p.m. EST, June...: The mission of the Task Force is to develop and publish the Guide to Community Preventive...

  10. Narrative Means to Preventative Ends: A Narrative Engagement Framework for Designing Prevention Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a Narrative Engagement Framework (NEF) for guiding communication-based prevention efforts. This framework suggests that personal narratives have distinctive capabilities in prevention. The paper discusses the concept of narrative, links narrative to prevention, and discusses the central role of youth in developing narrative interventions. As illustration, the authors describe how the NEF is applied in the keepin’ it REAL adolescent drug prevention curriculum, pose theoretical directions, and offer suggestions for future work in prevention communication. PMID:23980613

  11. Discussed Issues in Preventive Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocak, Sakire

    2011-01-01

    The growing number of studies in the field of prevention science and related advancements in evidence based programs leads to some discussions about the fundamental issues such as efficacy, effectiveness, dissemination, adaptation, fidelity and continuity in recent years. In this article it is intended to report the common views of early childhood…

  12. The Violence Prevention Community Meeting: A Multi-Site Study

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Marilyn; Ridenour, Marilyn; Hendricks, Scott; Rierdan, Jill; Zeiss, Robert; Schmidt, Satu; Lovelace, Jeff; Amandus, Harlan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Violence Prevention Community Meeting (VPCM) is a specialized form of community meeting in which avoiding violence and promoting non-violent problem solving and interpersonal civility are focal points. A nationwide study to assess the VPCM as an effective intervention to reduce workplace violence was undertaken. Participants Seven acute locked psychiatric units of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) throughout the United States participated in the study. Methods All patients and all staff on the seven in-patient locked psychiatry units participated in the intervention (VPCM) or as a control (treatment as usual). The study was 21 weeks at each site. The three time periods were pre-treatment weeks 1 – 3, treatment weeks 4 – 18, and post-treatment weeks 19 – 21. The VPCM was conducted during the treatment weeks. Results Overall rates of aggression declined by 0.6% (95%CI: −5.6%, 6.5%; nonsignificant) per week in the intervention hospitals and by 5.1% (95%CI: 0.4%, 9.6%; significant) per week for the control hospitals. Conclusions Aggression decreased for both the intervention and control hospitals which could be due to enrollment in a research study and thus being more aware of their ability to address workplace violence at their site. PMID:27256945

  13. Prevention trial in the Cherokee Nation: design of a randomized community trial.

    PubMed

    Komro, Kelli A; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Boyd, Misty; Boyd, B J; Kominsky, Terrence; Pettigrew, Dallas; Tobler, Amy L; Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D; Livingston, Melvin D; Livingston, Bethany; Molina, Mildred M Maldonado

    2015-02-01

    Despite advances in prevention science and practice in recent decades, the U.S. continues to struggle with significant alcohol-related risks and consequences among youth, especially among vulnerable rural and Native American youth. The Prevention Trial in the Cherokee Nation is a partnership between prevention scientists and Cherokee Nation Behavioral Health to create, implement, and evaluate a new, integrated community-level intervention designed to prevent underage drinking and associated negative consequences among Native American and other youth living in rural high-risk underserved communities. The intervention builds directly on results of multiple previous trials of two conceptually distinct approaches. The first is an updated version of CMCA, an established community environmental change intervention, and the second is CONNECT, our newly developed population-wide intervention based on screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) research. CMCA direct-action community organizing is used to engage local citizens to address community norms and practices related to alcohol use and commercial and social access to alcohol among adolescents. The new CONNECT intervention expands traditional SBIRT to be implemented universally within schools. Six key research design elements optimize causal inference and experimental evaluation of intervention effects, including a controlled interrupted time-series design, purposive selection of towns, random assignment to study condition, nested cohorts as well as repeated cross-sectional observations, a factorial design crossing two conceptually distinct interventions, and multiple comparison groups. The purpose of this paper is to describe the strong partnership between prevention scientists and behavioral health leaders within the Cherokee Nation, and the intervention and research design of this new community trial. PMID:24615546

  14. Culturally responsive suicide prevention in indigenous communities: unexamined assumptions and new possibilities.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Lisa M; Gone, Joseph P

    2012-05-01

    Indigenous communities have significantly higher rates of suicide than non-Native communities in North America. Prevention and intervention efforts have failed to redress this disparity. One explanation is that these efforts are culturally incongruent for Native communities. Four prevalent assumptions that underpin professional suicide prevention may conflict with local indigenous understandings about suicide. Our experiences in indigenous communities led us to question assumptions that are routinely endorsed and promoted in suicide prevention programs and interventions. By raising questions about the universal relevance of these assumptions, we hope to stimulate exchange and inquiry into the character of this devastating public health challenge and to aid the development of culturally appropriate interventions in cross-cultural contexts. PMID:22420786

  15. Culturally Responsive Suicide Prevention in Indigenous Communities: Unexamined Assumptions and New Possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Gone, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Indigenous communities have significantly higher rates of suicide than non-Native communities in North America. Prevention and intervention efforts have failed to redress this disparity. One explanation is that these efforts are culturally incongruent for Native communities. Four prevalent assumptions that underpin professional suicide prevention may conflict with local indigenous understandings about suicide. Our experiences in indigenous communities led us to question assumptions that are routinely endorsed and promoted in suicide prevention programs and interventions. By raising questions about the universal relevance of these assumptions, we hope to stimulate exchange and inquiry into the character of this devastating public health challenge and to aid the development of culturally appropriate interventions in cross-cultural contexts. PMID:22420786

  16. A Review of HIV Prevention Interventions for Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Angela; Fasciano, John; Brown, Larry K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To conduct a critical review of all HIV prevention intervention studies conducted with adolescents in juvenile justice settings to inform future intervention development. Method PubMed and PsycInfo database searches were conducted for peer-reviewed, published HIV prevention intervention studies with juvenile offenders. Results Sixteen studies were identified (N = 3,700 adolescents). Half of the projects utilized rigorous methodologies to determine intervention effect on behavior change, such as conducting a randomized controlled trial (n = 8). Nine studies reported behaviors at least 3 months post-intervention and five out of nine showed decreases in sexual risk behavior. Conclusions Several HIV prevention programs with juvenile offenders have led to sexual risk reduction, although effect sizes are modest. Most existing programs have neglected to address the impact of family, mental health, and substance use on HIV risk. More work is needed to develop evidence-based interventions that include HIV prevention strategies relevant and appropriate for the juvenile justice setting. PMID:19741021

  17. Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Clasen, Thomas F; Alexander, Kelly T; Sinclair, David; Boisson, Sophie; Peletz, Rachel; Chang, Howard H; Majorin, Fiona; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea is a major cause of death and disease, especially among young children in low-income countries. In these settings, many infectious agents associated with diarrhoea are spread through water contaminated with faeces. In remote and low-income settings, source-based water quality improvement includes providing protected groundwater (springs, wells, and bore holes), or harvested rainwater as an alternative to surface sources (rivers and lakes). Point-of-use water quality improvement interventions include boiling, chlorination, flocculation, filtration, or solar disinfection, mainly conducted at home. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (11 November 2014), CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library, 7 November 2014), MEDLINE (1966 to 10 November 2014), EMBASE (1974 to 10 November 2014), and LILACS (1982 to 7 November 2014). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, contacted researchers and organizations working in the field, and checked references from identified studies through 11 November 2014. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) comparing interventions aimed at improving the microbiological quality of drinking water with no intervention in children and adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used meta-analyses to estimate pooled measures of effect, where appropriate, and investigated potential sources of heterogeneity using subgroup analyses. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results Forty-five cluster-RCTs, two quasi-RCTs, and eight CBA studies, including over 84,000 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Most included studies were conducted in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs) (50 studies) with

  18. HIV risk and preventive interventions in transgender women sex workers

    PubMed Central

    Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Radix, Anita; Borquez, Annick; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Deutsch, Madeline B; Khan, Sharful Islam; Winter, Sam; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, transgender women who engage in sex work have a disproportionate risk for HIV compared with natal male and female sex workers. We reviewed recent epidemiological research on HIV in transgender women and show that transgender women sex workers (TSW) face unique structural, interpersonal, and individual vulnerabilities that contribute to risk for HIV. Only six studies of evidence-based prevention interventions were identified, none of which focused exclusively on TSW. We developed a deterministic model based on findings related to HIV risks and interventions. The model examines HIV prevention approaches in TSW in two settings (Lima, Peru and San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify which interventions would probably achieve the UN goal of 50% reduction in HIV incidence in 10 years. A combination of interventions that achieves small changes in behaviour and low coverage of biomedical interventions was promising in both settings, suggesting that the expansion of prevention services in TSW would be highly effective. However, this expansion needs appropriate sustainable interventions to tackle the upstream drivers of HIV risk and successfully reach this population. Case studies of six countries show context-specific issues that should inform development and implementation of key interventions across heterogeneous settings. We summarise the evidence and knowledge gaps that affect the HIV epidemic in TSW, and propose a research agenda to improve HIV services and policies for this population. PMID:25059941

  19. HIV risk and preventive interventions in transgender women sex workers.

    PubMed

    Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Radix, Anita; Borquez, Annick; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Deutsch, Madeline B; Khan, Sharful Islam; Winter, Sam; Operario, Don

    2015-01-17

    Worldwide, transgender women who engage in sex work have a disproportionate risk for HIV compared with natal male and female sex workers. We reviewed recent epidemiological research on HIV in transgender women and show that transgender women sex workers (TSW) face unique structural, interpersonal, and individual vulnerabilities that contribute to risk for HIV. Only six studies of evidence-based prevention interventions were identified, none of which focused exclusively on TSW. We developed a deterministic model based on findings related to HIV risks and interventions. The model examines HIV prevention approaches in TSW in two settings (Lima, Peru and San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify which interventions would probably achieve the UN goal of 50% reduction in HIV incidence in 10 years. A combination of interventions that achieves small changes in behaviour and low coverage of biomedical interventions was promising in both settings, suggesting that the expansion of prevention services in TSW would be highly effective. However, this expansion needs appropriate sustainable interventions to tackle the upstream drivers of HIV risk and successfully reach this population. Case studies of six countries show context-specific issues that should inform development and implementation of key interventions across heterogeneous settings. We summarise the evidence and knowledge gaps that affect the HIV epidemic in TSW, and propose a research agenda to improve HIV services and policies for this population. PMID:25059941

  20. Working with Families to Prevent Obesity: A Community-Campus Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dart, Lyn; Frable, Pamela Jean; Bradley, Patricia J.; Bae, Sejong; Singh, Karan

    2005-01-01

    University faculty and community agencies collaborated to design and implement Healthy Weigh/El camino saludable, a family-focused obesity prevention and intervention program in a low-income, urban community at high risk for obesity and related chronic disease. Hispanic and African American families participated in 12 weekly sessions. Offered in…

  1. Harnessing peer networks as an instrument for AIDS prevention: results from a peer-driven intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Broadhead, R S; Heckathorn, D D; Weakliem, D L; Anthony, D L; Madray, H; Mills, R J; Hughes, J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Since 1985, community outreach efforts to combat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among injecting drug users (IDUs) in the United States have overwhelmingly depended on a provider-client model that relies on staffs of professional outreach workers. We report on a comparison of this traditional outreach model with an innovative social network model, termed "a peer-driven intervention" (PDI). The latter provides IDUs with guidance and structured incentives that permit them to play a much more active role in the outreach process, thereby harnessing peer pressure on behalf of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention efforts. METHODS: We compare the performance of a traditional outreach intervention (TOI) and a PDI that were implemented in medium-sized towns in eastern and central Connecticut. Comparisons are based on the number and representativeness of IDUs recruited at each site, the effectiveness of HIV prevention education, compliance rates with AIDS risk reduction recommendations, and relative cost. The analyses are based on 522 initial interviews and 190 six-month follow-up interviews conducted during the first two years of each intervention's operation. RESULTS: Both interventions produced significant reductions in HIV risk behaviors, as measured using self-reports. The PDI outperformed the traditional intervention with respect to the number of IDUs recruited, the ethnic and geographic representativeness of the recruits, and the effectiveness of HIV prevention education. In addition, the costs of recruiting IDUs into the intervention and educating them about HIV in the community was only one-thirtieth as much in the PDI as in the traditional intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that given guidance and nominal incentives, IDUs can play a more extensive role in community outreach efforts than the traditional model allows. The findings also suggest that both interventions reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors, but the PDI reaches

  2. Mathematics Intervention for Prevention of Neurocognitive Deficits in Childhood Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Moore (Ki), Ida M.; Hockenberry, Marilyn J.; Anhalt, Cynthia; McCarthy, Kathy; Krull, Kevin R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that CNS treatment is associated with cognitive and academic impairment, interventions to prevent or mitigate these problems are limited. The purpose was to determine if early intervention can prevent declines in mathematics abilities. Procedures Fifty-seven children with ALL were enrolled and randomized to a Mathematics Intervention or Standard Care. Subjects completed neurocognitive assessments prior to the intervention, post intervention, and one year later. Parents received written results and recommendations for use with their school. The Mathematics Intervention was based on Multiple Representation Theory and delivered individually over one year. Results Thirty-two of 57 subjects completed the study and were included in data analyses. These 32 subjects completed all neurocognitive assessments and, for those in the intervention group, 40–50 hours of the mathematics intervention. There were no group differences on relevant demographic variables; risk stratification; number of intrathecal methotrexate injections or high dose systemic methotrexate. Significant improvements in calculation and applied mathematics from baseline to post-intervention (p = 0.003 and 0.002, respectively) and in visual working memory from baseline to one year follow-up (p = 0.02) were observed in the Intervention but not the Standard Care group. Results from repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated significant between group differences for applied mathematics (F[2, 29] 12.47, p<0.001) and visual working memory (F[2 29]= 5.53, p=0.009). Conclusions The Mathematics Intervention improved mathematics abilities and visual working memory compared to standard care. Future studies are needed to translate the Mathematics Intervention into a “virtual” delivery method more readily available to parents and children. PMID:21938763

  3. Community-Based Prevention Programs for Anxiety and Depression in Youth: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Helen; Pallister, Emma; Smale, Stephanie; Hickie, Ian B.; Calear, Alison L.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of prevention and early intervention programs for young people and adolescents once they leave or dropout from school. The effectiveness of 18 anxiety and 26 depression studies addressing prevention in community programs were identified using systematic review methodology. Anxiety and depression symptoms…

  4. 77 FR 4561 - Meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... Task Force AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human...) announces the next meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (CPSTF). The Task Force--an... interventions in public health and health promotion. During this meeting, the Task Force will consider...

  5. Providing Effective Early Intervention Vocational Rehabilitation at the Community Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaire, Saralynn J.; Niu, Jingbo; Zhu, Yanyan; Brett, Belle

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the translation of positive research findings about a job retention intervention for persons with chronic illnesses to rehabilitation practice. A program to provide the intervention was developed and marketed in the community. Fifty-seven consumers with chronic illnesses received the intervention provided…

  6. An Evaluation Framework for Obesity Prevention Policy Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Sommers, Janice; Vu, Maihan; Jernigan, Jan; Payne, Gayle; Thompson, Diane; Heiser, Claire; Farris, Rosanne; Ammerman, Alice

    2012-01-01

    As the emphasis on preventing obesity has grown, so have calls for interventions that extend beyond individual behaviors and address changes in environments and policies. Despite the need for policy action, little is known about policy approaches that are most effective at preventing obesity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and others are funding the implementation and evaluation of new obesity prevention policies, presenting a distinct opportunity to learn from these practice-based initiatives and build the body of evidence-based approaches. However, contributions from this policy activity are limited by the incomplete and inconsistent evaluation data collected on policy processes and outcomes. We present a framework developed by the CDC-funded Center of Excellence for Training and Research Translation that public health practitioners can use to evaluate policy interventions and identify the practice-based evidence needed to fill the gaps in effective policy approaches to obesity prevention. PMID:22742594

  7. Increasing the prevalence of successful children: The case for community intervention research

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, Anthony; Metzler, Carol W.; Ary, Dennis V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper makes a case for research on community interventions on child rearing. Sufficient evidence has accumulated about the development of children's problem behavior to justify evaluating efforts to reduce the prevalence of these problems in whole communities. The contextual risk factors for diverse child behavior problems are well understood, and interventions to ameliorate individual risk factors have been developed and evaluated. Because interventions with individual children have proven to be efficacious, it is now appropriate to direct energy toward reducing the prevalence of children with behavior problems. At the same time, existing interventions have limitations. Community interventions may be needed to modify the larger social context for families. This paper enumerates possible components of a community intervention to improve child-rearing outcomes. Existing evidence indicates that communities would benefit from making parent training and family support programs available to parents. Validated methods of identifying and remediating academic and behavioral problems in schools are available, but influencing schools to adopt them remains a problem. Community organizing could mobilize communities to allocate the resources necessary to support such parenting and schooling programs as well as encourage their adoption. Media campaigns could foster community support and directly influence parenting practices. Efforts to modify peer influences to use illicit substances have received empirical support; similar efforts may be relevant to preventing other problems. The development of a science of community interventions on child rearing is hampered by overreliance on randomized control trials. For this reason, two examples of time-series experimental evaluations of community intervention components are described here. PMID:22478196

  8. Interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Muktabhant, Benja; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Ngamjarus, Chetta; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is associated with multiple maternal and neonatal complications. However, interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy have not been adequately evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy and associated pregnancy complications. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (20 October 2011) and MEDLINE (1966 to 20 October 2011). Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials of interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed for inclusion all potential studies we identified as a result of the search strategy. At least two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We have presented results using risk ratio (RR) for categorical data and mean difference for continuous data. We analysed data using a fixed-effect model. Main results We included 28 studies involving 3976 women; 27 of these studies with 3964 women contributed data to the analyses. Interventions focused on a broad range of interventions. However, for most outcomes we could not combine data in a meta-analysis, and where we did pool data, no more than two or three studies could be combined for a particular intervention and outcome. Overall, results from this review were mainly not statistically significant, and where there did appear to be differences between intervention and control groups, results were not consistent. For women in general clinic populations one (behavioural counselling versus standard care) of three interventions examined was associated with a reduction in the rate of excessive weight gain (RR 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.95); for women in high-risk groups no intervention appeared to reduce excess weight gain. There were

  9. Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Approach to Prevention Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarski, John S.; Smyth, Nancy J.

    1994-01-01

    Presents data on the extent, nature, and consequences of adolescent substance abuse. Definition of substance abuse is considered. Discusses primary and secondary prevention programs, including programs targeting high-risk youth, school and peer group, families, and communities. Outlines tertiary prevention efforts and emphasizes the need for…

  10. Interventions to prevent child maltreatment and associated impairment.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, Harriet L; Wathen, C Nadine; Barlow, Jane; Fergusson, David M; Leventhal, John M; Taussig, Heather N

    2009-01-17

    Although a broad range of programmes for prevention of child maltreatment exist, the effectiveness of most of the programmes is unknown. Two specific home-visiting programmes-the Nurse-Family Partnership (best evidence) and Early Start-have been shown to prevent child maltreatment and associated outcomes such as injuries. One population-level parenting programme has shown benefits, but requires further assessment and replication. Additional in-hospital and clinic strategies show promise in preventing physical abuse and neglect. However, whether school-based educational programmes prevent child sexual abuse is unknown, and there are currently no known approaches to prevent emotional abuse or exposure to intimate-partner violence. A specific parent-training programme has shown benefits in preventing recurrence of physical abuse; no intervention has yet been shown to be effective in preventing recurrence of neglect. A few interventions for neglected children and mother-child therapy for families with intimate-partner violence show promise in improving behavioural outcomes. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for sexually abused children with symptoms of post-traumatic stress shows the best evidence for reduction in mental-health conditions. For maltreated children, foster care placement can lead to benefits compared with young people who remain at home or those who reunify from foster care; enhanced foster care shows benefits for children. Future research should ensure that interventions are assessed in controlled trials, using actual outcomes of maltreatment and associated health measures. PMID:19056113

  11. Burnout and Doctors: Prevalence, Prevention and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shailesh

    2016-01-01

    Doctors are exposed to high levels of stress in the course of their profession and are particularly susceptible to experiencing burnout. Burnout has far-reaching implications on doctors; patients and the healthcare system. Doctors experiencing burnout are reported to be at a higher risk of making poor decisions; display hostile attitude toward patients; make more medical errors; and have difficult relationships with co-workers. Burnout among doctors also increases risk of depression; anxiety; sleep disturbances; fatigue; alcohol and drug misuse; marital dysfunction; premature retirement and perhaps most seriously suicide. Sources of stress in medical practice may range from the emotions arising in the context of patient care to the environment in which doctors practice. The extent of burnout may vary depending on the practice setting; speciality and changing work environment. Understanding dynamic risk factors associated with burnout may help us develop strategies for preventing and treating burnout. Some of these strategies will be reviewed in this paper. PMID:27417625

  12. HIV prevention: integrating biomedical and behevioral interventions.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Carlos

    Recommendations for HIV prevention in clinical care settings by an IAS-USA panel were recently published. They include recommendations on HIV testing, antiretroviral therapy initiation, risk-reduction counseling, and antiretroviral therapy adherence counseling for HIV-infected individuals. For individuals at risk for HIV infection, recommendations for preexposure prophylaxis, other risk-reduction strategies, adherence counseling, and postexposure prophylaxis are included. Many HIV-infected individuals in the United States are not fully engaged in HIV care and are not virologically suppressed, thus a crucial component of efforts to reduce HIV transmission is moving patients through the HIV care continuum. This article summarizes an IAS-USA continuing education webinar presented by Carlos del Rio, MD, in September 2014. PMID:25612180

  13. Designs for Evaluating the Community-Level Impact of Comprehensive Prevention Programs: Examples from the CDC Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Albert D; Henry, David; Bradshaw, Catherine; Reischl, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    This article discusses the opportunities and challenges of developing research designs to evaluate the impact of community-level prevention efforts. To illustrate examples of evaluation designs, we describe six projects funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to evaluate multifaceted approaches to reduce youth violence in high-risk communities. Each of these projects was designed to evaluate the community-level impact of multiple intervention strategies to address individual and contextual factors that place youth at risk for violent behavior. Communities differed across projects in their setting, size, and how their boundaries were defined. Each project is using multiple approaches to compare outcomes in one or more intervention communities to those in comparison communities. Five of the projects are using comparative interrupted time-series designs to compare outcomes in an intervention community to matched comparison communities. A sixth project is using a multiple baseline design in which the order and timing of intervention activities is randomized across three communities. All six projects are also using regression point displacement designs to compare outcomes within intervention communities to those within broader sets of similar communities. Projects are using a variety of approaches to assess outcomes including archival records, surveys, and direct observations. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the designs of these projects and illustrate the challenges of designing high-quality evaluations of comprehensive prevention approaches implemented at the community level. PMID:26957507

  14. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Arthur W.

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  15. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  16. Conceptualizing Community Mobilization for HIV Prevention: Implications for HIV Prevention Programming in the African Context

    PubMed Central

    Lippman, Sheri A.; Maman, Suzanne; MacPhail, Catherine; Twine, Rhian; Peacock, Dean; Kahn, Kathleen; Pettifor, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Community mobilizing strategies are essential to health promotion and uptake of HIV prevention. However, there has been little conceptual work conducted to establish the core components of community mobilization, which are needed to guide HIV prevention programming and evaluation. Objectives We aimed to identify the key domains of community mobilization (CM) essential to change health outcomes or behaviors, and to determine whether these hypothesized CM domains were relevant to a rural South African setting. Method We studied social movements and community capacity, empowerment and development literatures, assessing common elements needed to operationalize HIV programs at a community level. After synthesizing these elements into six essential CM domains, we explored the salience of these CM domains qualitatively, through analysis of 10 key informant in-depth-interviews and seven focus groups in three villages in Bushbuckridge. Results CM domains include: 1) shared concerns, 2) critical consciousness, 3) organizational structures/networks, 4) leadership (individual and/or institutional), 5) collective activities/actions, and 6) social cohesion. Qualitative data indicated that the proposed domains tapped into theoretically consistent constructs comprising aspects of CM processes. Some domains, extracted from largely Western theory, required little adaptation for the South African context; others translated less effortlessly. For example, critical consciousness to collectively question and resolve community challenges functioned as expected. However, organizations/networks, while essential, operated differently than originally hypothesized - not through formal organizations, but through diffuse family networks. Conclusions To date, few community mobilizing efforts in HIV prevention have clearly defined the meaning and domains of CM prior to intervention design. We distilled six CM domains from the literature; all were pertinent to mobilization in rural

  17. The "10 Keys" to Healthy Aging: 24-Month Follow-Up Results from an Innovative Community-Based Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robare, Joseph F.; Bayles, Constance M.; Newman, Anne B.; Williams, Kathy; Milas, Carole; Boudreau, Robert; McTigue, Kathleen; Albert, Steven M.; Taylor, Christopher; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate a prevention program to reduce risk factors for common diseases among older individuals in a lower income community. This randomized community-based study enrolled older adults into a Brief Education and Counseling Intervention or a Brief Education and Counseling Intervention plus a physical activity and…

  18. Barriers to Conducting a Community Mobilization Intervention among Youth in a Rural South African Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Kevin A.; Kriel, Anita J.; Richter, Linda M.

    2005-01-01

    In the face of extreme poverty and inequality in South Africa, community mobilization interventions represent an important way in which people can be empowered to improve their life. Successfully conducting community mobilization interventions in rural South African communities requires anticipating and addressing a number of potential barriers in…

  19. Prioritizing risk factors to identify preventive interventions for economic assessment

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Tony; Foster, Rachel H; Hadorn, David; Vos, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore a risk factor approach for identifying preventive interventions that require more in-depth economic assessment, including cost-effectiveness analyses. Methods A three-step approach was employed to: (i) identify the risk factors that contribute most substantially to disability-adjusted life years (DALYs); (ii) re-rank these risk factors based on the availability of effective preventive interventions warranting further cost-effectiveness analysis (and in some instances on evidence from existing cost-effectiveness analyses); and (iii) re-rank these risk factors in accordance with their relative contribution to health inequalities. Health inequalities between the Māori and non-Māori populations in New Zealand were used by way of illustration. Findings Seven of the top 10 risk factors prioritized for research on preventive interventions in New Zealand were also among the 10 risk factors most highly ranked as contributing to DALYs in high-income countries of the World Health Organization’s Western Pacific Region. The final list of priority risk factors included tobacco use; alcohol use; high blood pressure; high blood cholesterol; overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity. All of these factors contributed to health inequalities. Effective interventions for preventing all of them are available, and for each risk factor there is at least one documented cost-saving preventive intervention. Conclusion The straightforward approach to prioritizing risk factors described in this paper may be applicable in many countries, and even in those countries that lack the capacity to perform additional cost-effectiveness analyses, this approach will still make it possible to determine which cost-effective interventions should be implemented in the short run. PMID:22423159

  20. Preventing Falls in Older Adults Who Live in Community Settings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preventing Falls in Older Adults Who Live in Community Settings: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Summaries ... full report is titled “Prevention of Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force ...

  1. Culturally Tailored Depression/Suicide Prevention in Latino Youth: Community Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ford-Paz, Rebecca E; Reinhard, Christine; Kuebbeler, Andrea; Contreras, Richard; Sánchez, Bernadette

    2015-10-01

    Latino adolescents are at elevated risk for depression and suicide compared to other ethnic groups. Project goals were to gain insight from community leaders about depression risk factors particular to Latino adolescents and generate innovative suggestions to improve cultural relevance of prevention interventions. This project utilized a CBPR approach to enhance cultural relevance, acceptability, and utility of the findings and subsequent program development. Two focus groups of youth and youth-involved Latino community leaders (n = 18) yielded three overarching themes crucial to a culturally tailored depression prevention intervention: (1) utilize a multipronged and sustainable intervention approach, (2) raise awareness about depression in culturally meaningful ways, and (3) promote Latino youth's social connection and cultural enrichment activities. Findings suggest that both adaptation of existing prevention programs and development of hybrid approaches may be necessary to reduce depression/suicide disparities for Latino youth. One such hybrid program informed by community stakeholders is described. PMID:24132548

  2. The Community-based Participatory Intervention Effect of “HIV-RAAP”

    PubMed Central

    Yancey, Elleen M.; Mayberry, Robert; Armstrong-Mensah, Elizabeth; Collins, David; Goodin, Lisa; Cureton, Shava; Trammell, Ella H.; Yuan, Keming

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To design and test HIV-RAAP (HIV/AIDS Risk Reduction Among Heterosexually Active African American Men and Women: A Risk Reduction Prevention Intervention) a coeducational, culture- and gender-sensitive community-based participatory HIV risk reduction intervention. Methods A community-based participatory research process included intervention development and implementation of a 7-session coeducational curriculum conducted over 7 consecutive weeks. Results The results indicated a significant intervention effect on reducing sexual behavior risk (P=0.02), improving HIV risk knowledge (P=0.006), and increasing sexual partner conversations about HIV risk reduction (P= 0.001). Conclusions The HIV-RAAP intervention impacts key domains of heterosexual HIV transmission. PMID:22488405

  3. Development and use of role model stories in a community level HIV risk reduction intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Corby, N H; Enguídanos, S M; Kay, L S

    1996-01-01

    A theory-based HIV prevention intervention was implemented as part of a five-city AIDS Community Demonstration Project for the development and testing of a community-level intervention to reduce AIDS risk among historically underserved groups. This intervention employed written material containing stories of risk-reducing experiences of members of the priority populations, in this case, injecting drug users, their female sex partners, and female sex workers. These materials were distributed to members of these populations by their peers, volunteers from the population who were trained to deliver social reinforcement for interest in personal risk reduction and the materials. The participation of the priority populations in the development and implementation of the intervention was designed to increase the credibility of the intervention and the acceptance of the message. The techniques involved in developing role-model stories are described in this paper. PMID:8862158

  4. School Psychology Services: Community-Based, First-Order Crisis Intervention during the Gulf War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingman, Avigdor

    1992-01-01

    Examines the community-based mental health preventive measures undertaken by the school psychology services in response to the missile attacks on Israel during the Gulf War. Attempts to report and delineate the major assumptions and components of some of the key interventions. (Author/NB)

  5. Implementing a Community Intervention to Reduce Young People's Risks for Getting HIV: Unraveling the Complexities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Maretha J.; Schoeman, Johan B.

    2004-01-01

    The ineffectiveness of community-based interventions can often be traced to problems that occur during implementation. In this study, we outline the implementation of a human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) prevention program in an educational setting in South Africa. An action research approach was used in the…

  6. A quarter century of HIV prevention intervention efforts among children and adolescents across the globe.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    In 1988 a group of pediatricians, developmental, clinical, child and social psychologists, anthropologists and health educators began researching in Baltimore, Maryland on an HIV prevention intervention, Focus on Youth. Over the next 25 years the questions being addressed by Focus on Youth, reflected those of the global HIV research experience. During the first phase, the questions being addressed by the broader research community included: Can HIV risk behaviors be purposefully impacted by behavioral interventions? If so, how do successful interventions differ from those that are not effective? Are theory-based interventions more likely to be effective than information-only based interventions? Can theories be translated into culturally and developmentally appropriate interventions including those that are appropriate for children and adolescents? Should parents be involved--and if so, how? During its next phase, the Focus on Youth team increasingly became concerned with a disturbing reality. A large number of interventions had been developed and some had been shown to have evidence of impact. But virtually all of these interventions had been conducted in the USA or Europe. The questions facing researchers included: With the global burden of HIV disproportionately impacting Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC), especially those in southern Africa, the Caribbean and parts of Asia, what is known about the effectiveness of western-based interventions in these culturally, racially and economically disparate settings? With the exciting proliferation of interventions, federal agencies in the USA and international agencies including UNAIDS realized the importance of assessing the research portfolio and developing metrics of effectiveness. The questions during this phase included: What is an "effective" intervention? How are effective interventions implemented in a new setting? This phase merged with the next phase as researchers and public health workers realized that

  7. A quarter-century of HIV prevention intervention efforts among children and adolescents across the globe

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    In 1988 a group of pediatricians, developmental, clinical, child and social psychologists, anthropologists and health educators began researching in Baltimore, Maryland, on an Human Immunodefiency Virus (HIV) prevention intervention, Focus on Youth (FOY). Over the next 25 years, the questions being addressed by FOY reflected those of the global HIV research experience. During the first phase, the questions being addressed by the broader research community included: Can HIV risk behaviors be purposefully impacted by behavioral interventions? If so, how do successful interventions differ from those that are not effective? Are theory-based interventions more likely to be effective than information-only-based interventions? Can theories be translated into culturally and developmentally appropriate interventions including those that are appropriate for children and adolescents? Should parents be involved – and if so, how? During its next phase, the FOY team increasingly became concerned with a disturbing reality. A large number of interventions had been developed and some had been shown to have evidence of impact. But virtually all of these interventions had been conducted in the USA or Europe. The questions facing researchers included: With the global burden of HIV disproportionately impacting low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), especially those in southern Africa, the Caribbean and parts of Asia, what is known about the effectiveness of western-based interventions in these culturally, racially and economically disparate settings? With the exciting proliferation of interventions, federal agencies in the USA and international agencies including Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS realized the importance of assessing the research portfolio and developing metrics of effectiveness. The questions during this phase included: What is an “effective” intervention? How are effective interventions implemented in a new setting? This phase merged with the next

  8. Impact of Mano a Mano Mujer, an HIV Prevention Intervention, on Depressive Symptoms among Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Lara, Loreto; Villegas, Natalia; Bernales, Margarita; Ferrer, Lilian; Kaelber, Lorena; Peragallo, Nilda

    2012-01-01

    Background Worldwide, an in Chile, the number of women living with HIV is increasing. Depression is considered a factor that interferes with HIV prevention. Depression may reach 41% among low income Chilean women. Depressed people are less willing to participate in behaviors that protect them against HIV. Objectives To analyze the impact of Mano a Mano-Mujer (MM-M) on depressive symptoms among Chilean women. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to test the impact of MM-M, an HIV prevention intervention. The research was conducted in Santiago- Chile, a total of 400 women participated in the study (intervention group, n = 182; control group, n = 218). The intervention was guided by the social-cognitive model and the primary health model. The intervention consists of six two-hour sessions delivered in small groups. Sessions covered: HIV prevention, depression, partner's communication, and substance abuse. Face to face interviews were conducted at baseline and at 3 months follow-up Results At 3 months post-intervention, Chilean women who participated in MM-M significantly decreased their reported depressive symptoms. Conclusions MM-M provided significant benefits for women's depression symptoms. This study offers a model that address depression, a risk factor for HIV. It uses nurses as leaders for the screening of depressive symptoms and as facilitators of community interventions. PMID:22452388

  9. Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections, Including HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Willard

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Treatment Guidelines were last updated in 2006. To update the “Clinical Guide to Prevention Services” section of the 2010 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines, we reviewed the recent science with reference to interventions designed to prevent acquisition of STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Major interval developments include (1) licensure and uptake of immunization against genital human papillomavirus, (2) validation of male circumcision as a potent prevention tool against acquisition of HIV and some other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), (3) failure of a promising HIV vaccine candidate to afford protection against HIV acquisition, (4) encouragement about the use of antiretroviral agents as preexposure prophylaxis to reduce risk of HIV and herpes simplex virus acquisition, (5) enhanced emphasis on expedited partner management and rescreening for persons infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, (6) recognition that behavioral interventions will be needed to address a new trend of sexually transmitted hepatitis C among men who have sex with men, and (7) the availability of a modified female condom. A range of preventive interventions is needed to reduce the risks of acquiring STI, including HIV infection, among sexually active people, and a flexible approach targeted to specific populations should integrate combinations of biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions. These would ideally involve an array of prevention contexts, including (1) communications and practices among sexual partners, (2) transactions between individual clients and their healthcare providers, and (3) comprehensive population-level strategies for prioritizing prevention research, ensuring accurate outcome assessment, and formulating health policy. PMID:22080271

  10. Black communities' belief in "AIDS as genocide". A barrier to overcome for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Guinan, M E

    1993-03-01

    The belief that acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a form of genocide targeted at the black population is prevalent in black communities in the United States. Public health authorities are distrusted, in part because of the legacy of the Tuskegee Study of untreated syphilis, a perceived racist experiment. For effective interventions to prevent the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in black communities, genocidal fears and beliefs must be addressed and black community leaders should be involved in planning and implementation. PMID:8269075

  11. Strengthening Schools: Involving Paraprofessionals in Crisis Prevention and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, M.; Ashbaker, B. Y.

    2004-01-01

    Two important questions arise when creating a school crisis plan: (a) Who should be trained as part of the crisis team? and (b) What type of training will be the most effective and practical? The authors suggest that paraprofessionals are a valuable resource to consider for assisting with crisis prevention and intervention. Practical suggestions…

  12. Counseling and Intervention Strategies for Adolescent Suicide Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, Dave

    This monograph concerns the the issue of adolescent suicide and discusses counseling and intervention techniques to prevent suicide among teenagers. Fourteen myths and misconceptions about suicide are explained. A profile of a potential suicide attempter is presented, and issues of behavioral indications, verbal cues, motivations and cognitive…

  13. An HIV-Preventive Intervention for Youth Living with HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Marguerita; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Tevendale, Heather

    2007-01-01

    As the number of youth infected with HIV rises, secondary prevention programs are needed to help youth living with HIV meet three goals: (1) increase self-care behaviors, medical adherence, and health-related interactions; (2) reduce transmission acts; and (3) enhance their quality of life. This article describes an intervention program for youth…

  14. Developmental Science and Preventive Interventions for Children at Environmental Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The current status of preventive intervention programs designed to reduce the school readiness gap for young children at environmental risk is examined in the context of developmental science. A review of program effectiveness suggests that future progress in this area should be grounded in a knowledge base that adopts the framework of…

  15. Investments in Prevention: The Prevention of Learning and Behavior Problems in Young Children. Intervention Report I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vleet, Phyllis, Ed.; Brownbridge, Robert, Ed.

    In this paper, the reader can see how the beginnings of organization in one community helped to develop a program focusing on young children. The needs of all young children can be pivotal in marshalling a community's resources toward concerted action. The PACE I.D. Center was set up specifically for early identification and intervention designed…

  16. Preventing Obesity Across Generations: Evidence for Early Life Intervention.

    PubMed

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel

    2016-03-18

    To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life. PMID:26989828

  17. Methodology for a Community Based Stroke Preparedness Intervention: The ASPIRE Study

    PubMed Central

    Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Clair, Shauna St; Wing, Jeffrey J; Fernandez, Stephen; Gibbons, Chris; Hsia, Amie W.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Kidwell, Chelsea S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Acute stroke education has focused on stroke symptom recognition. Lack of education about stroke preparedness and appropriate actions may prevent people from seeking immediate care. Few interventions have rigorously evaluated preparedness strategies in multiethnic community settings. Methods The Acute Stroke Program of Interventions Addressing Racial and Ethnic Disparities (ASPIRE) project is a multi-level program utilizing a community engaged approach to stroke preparedness targeted to underserved black communities in the District of Columbia (DC). This intervention aimed to decrease acute stroke presentation times and increase intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) utilization for acute ischemic stroke. Results Phase 1 included: 1) enhancement of EMS focus on acute stroke; 2) hospital collaborations to implement and/or enrich acute stroke protocols and transition DC hospitals toward Primary Stroke Center certification; and 3) pre-intervention acute stroke patient data collection in all 7 acute care DC hospitals. A community advisory committee, focus groups, and surveys identified perceptions of barriers to emergency stroke care. Phase 2 included a pilot intervention and subsequent citywide intervention rollout. A total of 531 community interventions were conducted with over 10,256 participants reached; 3289 intervention evaluations were performed, and 19,000 preparedness bracelets and 14,000 stroke warning magnets were distributed. Phase 3 included an evaluation of EMS and hospital processes for acute stroke care and a yearlong post-intervention acute stroke data collection period to assess changes in IV tPA utilization. Conclusions We report the methods, feasibility, and pre-intervention data collection efforts of the ASPIRE intervention. PMID:24876243

  18. Creating Qungasvik (a Yup'ik intervention "toolbox"): case examples from a community-developed and culturally-driven intervention.

    PubMed

    Rasmus, Stacy M; Charles, Billy; Mohatt, Gerald V

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a Yup'ik Alaska Native approach to suicide and alcohol abuse prevention that resulted in the creation of the Qungasvik, a toolbox promoting reasons for life and sobriety among youth. The Qungasvik is made up of thirty-six modules that function as cultural scripts for creating experiences in Yup'ik communities that build strengths and protection against suicide and alcohol abuse. The Qungasvik manual represents the results of a community based participatory research intervention development process grounded in culture and local process, and nurtured through a syncretic blending of Indigenous and Western theories and practices. This paper will provide a description of the collaborative steps taken at the community-level to develop the intervention modules. This process involved university researchers and community members coming together and drawing from multiple sources of data and knowledge to inform the development of prevention activities addressing youth suicide and alcohol abuse. We will present case examples describing the development of three keystone modules; Qasgiq (The Men's House), Yup'ik Kinship Terms, and Surviving Your Feelings. These modules each are representative of the process that the community co-researcher team took to develop and implement protective experiences that: (1) create supportive community, (2) strengthen families, and (3) give individuals tools to be healthy and strong. PMID:24764018

  19. Effectiveness and implementation of an obesity prevention intervention: the HeLP-her Rural cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To impact on the obesity epidemic, interventions that prevent weight gain across populations are urgently needed. However, even the most efficacious interventions will have little impact on obesity prevention unless they are successfully implemented in diverse populations and settings. Implementation research takes isolated efficacy studies into practice and policy and is particularly important in obesity prevention where there is an urgent need to accelerate the evidence to practice cycle. Despite the recognised need, few obesity prevention interventions have been implemented in real life settings and to our knowledge rarely target rural communities. Methods Here we describe the rationale, design and implementation of a Healthy Lifestyle Program for women living in small rural communities (HeLP-her Rural). The primary goal of HeLP-her Rural is to prevent weight gain using a low intensity, self-management intervention. Six hundred women from 42 small rural communities in Australia will be randomised as clusters (n-21 control towns and n = 21 intervention towns). A pragmatic randomised controlled trial methodology will test efficacy and a comprehensive mixed methods community evaluation and cost analysis will inform effectiveness and implementation of this novel prevention program. Discussion Implementing population interventions to prevent obesity is complex, costly and challenging. To address these barriers, evidence based interventions need to move beyond isolated efficacy trials and report outcomes related to effectiveness and implementation. Large pragmatic trials provide an opportunity to inform both effectiveness and implementation leading to potential for greater impact at the population level. Pragmatic trials should incorporate both effectiveness and implementation outcomes and a multidimensional methodology to inform scale-up to population level. The learnings from this trial will impact on the design and implementation of population

  20. Factors That Influence HIV Risk among Hispanic Female Immigrants and Their Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Amy M.; Zule, William A.; Karg, Rhonda S.; Browne, Felicia A.; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2012-01-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing minority group in North Carolina with increasing incidence of HIV infection. Gender roles, cultural expectations, and acculturation of women may explain some of Hispanic women's risks. The perspectives of Hispanic female immigrants and community-based providers were sought to identify services they offer, understand HIV risk factors, and support the adaptation of a best-evidence HIV behavioural intervention for Hispanic women. Two sets of focus groups were conducted to explicate risks and the opportunities to reach women or couples and the feasibility to conduct HIV prevention in an acceptable manner. Salient findings were that Hispanic female immigrants lacked accurate HIV/AIDS and STI knowledge and that traditional gender roles shaped issues surrounding sexual behaviour and HIV risks, as well as condom use, partner communication, and multiple sexual partnerships. Intervention implications are discussed such as developing and adapting culturally appropriate HIV prevention interventions for Hispanics that address gender roles and partner communication. PMID:22518308

  1. A systematic community-based participatory approach to refining an evidence-based community-level intervention: the HOLA intervention for Latino men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Duck, Stacy; García, Manuel; Downs, Mario; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Alegría-Ortega, José; Miller, Cindy; Boeving Allen, Alex; Gilbert, Paul A; Marsiglia, Flavio F

    2013-07-01

    Our community-based participatory research partnership engaged in a multistep process to refine a culturally congruent intervention that builds on existing community strengths to promote sexual health among immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). The steps were the following: (1) increase Latino MSM participation in the existing partnership, (2) establish an Intervention Team, (3) review the existing sexual health literature, (4) explore needs and priorities of Latino MSM, (5) narrow priorities based on what is important and changeable, (6) blend health behavior theory with Latino MSM's lived experiences, (7) design an intervention conceptual model, (8) develop training modules and (9) resource materials, and (10) pretest and (11) revise the intervention. The developed intervention contains four modules to train Latino MSM to serve as lay health advisors known as Navegantes. These modules synthesize locally collected data with other local and national data; blend health behavior theory, the lived experiences, and cultural values of immigrant Latino MSM; and harness the informal social support Latino MSM provide one another. This community-level intervention is designed to meet the expressed sexual health priorities of Latino MSM. It frames disease prevention within sexual health promotion. PMID:23075504

  2. A systematic community-based participatory approach to refining an evidence-based community-level intervention: The HOLA intervention for Latino men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Duck, Stacy; Garcia, Manuel; Downs, Mario; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Alegria-Ortega, Jose; Miller, AAS, Cindy; Boeving Allen, Alex; Gilbert, Paul A.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2014-01-01

    Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership engaged in a multi-step process to refine a culturally congruent intervention that builds on existing community strengths to promote sexual health among immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). The steps were: (1) increase Latino MSM participation in the existing partnership; (2) establish an Intervention Team; (3) review the existing sexual health literature; (4) explore needs and priorities of Latino MSM; (5) narrow priorities based on what is important and changeable; (6) blend health behavior theory with Latino MSM’s lived experiences; (7) design an intervention conceptual model; (8) develop training modules and (9) resource materials; and (10) pretest and (11) revise the intervention. The developed intervention contains four modules to train Latino MSM to serve as lay health advisors (LHAs) known as “Navegantes”. These modules synthesize locally collected data with other local and national data; blend health behavior theory, the lived experiences, and cultural values of immigrant Latino MSM; and harness the informal social support Latino MSM provide one another. This community-level intervention is designed to meet the expressed sexual health priorities of Latino MSM. It frames disease prevention within sexual health promotion. PMID:23075504

  3. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent-child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent-adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID:26916841

  4. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J.; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K. Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent–child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent–adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID

  5. A systematic review of community-based interventions for emerging zoonotic infectious diseases in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Halton, Kate; Sarna, Mohinder; Barnett, Adrian; Leonardo, Lydia; Graves, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Executive Summary Background Southeast Asia has been at the epicentre of recent epidemics of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases. Community-based surveillance and control interventions have been heavily promoted but the most effective interventions have not been identified. Objectives This review evaluated evidence for the effectiveness of community-based surveillance interventions at monitoring and identifying emerging infectious disease; the effectiveness of community-based control interventions at reducing rates of emerging infectious disease; and contextual factors that influence intervention effectiveness. Inclusion criteria Participants Communities in Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. Types of intervention(s) Non-pharmaceutical, non-vaccine, and community-based surveillance or prevention and control interventions targeting rabies, Nipah virus, dengue, SARS or avian influenza. Types of outcomes Primary outcomes: measures: of infection or disease; secondary outcomes: measures of intervention function. Types of studies Original quantitative studies published in English. Search strategy Databases searched (1980 to 2011): PubMed, CINAHL, ProQuest, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, WHOLIS, British Development Library, LILACS, World Bank (East Asia), Asian Development Bank. Methodological quality Two independent reviewers critically appraised studies using standard Joanna Briggs Institute instruments. Disagreements were resolved through discussion. Data extraction A customised tool was used to extract quantitative data on intervention(s), populations, study methods, and primary and secondary outcomes; and qualitative contextual information or narrative evidence about interventions. Data synthesis Data was synthesised in a narrative summary with the aid of tables. Meta-analysis was used to statistically pool quantitative results. Results

  6. Community-based approaches for the prevention of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Molina, M; Gorman, D M

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes what is known about community-based approaches for the prevention of ATOD problems and how the current practices in the field reflect these approaches. The first section of the chapter provides a brief summary of events early in this century when community-based approaches were central to addressing alcohol and other public health problems. The second section contains an overview of current research and empirical findings that yield consensus as to what conceptually and in practice constitutes a comprehensive, community-based prevention program for the prevention of ATOD problems. The third section reviews the literature of existing programs to assess the extent to which they include the salient elements and employ interventions determined to be fundamental to comprehensive community-based prevention programs. The final section discusses some of the challenges that confront researchers and practitioners when developing prevention initiatives and programs in high-risk environments. PMID:8724231

  7. Implications of the results of community intervention trials.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, G; Emmons, K; Hunt, M K; Johnston, D

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the results of population-level interventions conducted in three settings: entire communities, worksites, and schools. Four major conclusions are discussed: (a) Directions for the next generation of community-based interventions include targeting multiple levels of influence; addressing social inequalities in disease risk; involving communities in program planning and implementation; incorporating approaches for "tailoring" interventions; and utilizing rigorous process evaluation. (b) In addition to randomized controlled trials, it is time to use the full range of research phases available, from hypothesis generation and methods development to dissemination research. (c) The public health research agenda may have contributed to observed secular trends by placing behavioral risk factors on the social and media agendas. (d) The magnitude of the results of community intervention trials must be judged according to their potential public health or population-level effects. Small changes at the individual level may result in large benefits at the population level. PMID:9611625

  8. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Develop the PARTNERS Youth Violence Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Stephen S.; Thomas, Duane E.; Vaughn, Nicole A.; Thomas, Nicole A.; MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Freedman, Melanie A.; Abdul-Kabir, Saburah; Woodlock, Joseph; Guerra, Terry; Bradshaw, Ayana S.; Woodburn, Elizabeth M.; Myers, Rachel K.; Fein, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background School-based violence prevention programs have shown promise for reducing aggression and increasing children’s prosocial behaviors. Prevention interventions within the context of urban after-school programs provide a unique opportunity for academic researchers and community stakeholders to collaborate in the creation of meaningful and sustainable violence prevention initiatives. Objectives This paper describes the development of a collaborative between academic researchers and community leaders to design a youth violence prevention/leadership promotion program (PARTNERS Program) for urban adolescents. Employing a community-based participatory research (CBPR) model, this project addresses the needs of urban youth, their families, and their community. Methods Multiple strategies were used to engage community members in the development and implementation of the PARTNERS Program. These included focus groups, pilot testing the program in an after-school venue, and conducting organizational assessments of after-school sites as potential locations for the intervention. Results Community members and academic researchers successfully worked together in all stages of the project development. Community feedback helped the PARTNERS team redesign the proposed implementation and evaluation of the PARTNERS Program such that the revised study design allows for all sites to obtain the intervention over time and increases the possibility of building community capacity and sustainability of programs. Conclusion Despite several challenges inherent to CBPR, the current study provides a number of lessons learned for the continued development of relationships and trust among researchers and community members, with particular attention to balancing the demand for systematic implementation of community-based interventions while being responsive to the immediate needs of the community. PMID:20729611

  9. Effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent female genital mutilation/cutting: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Berg, Rigmor C; Denison, Eva

    2012-06-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is widely considered a human rights infringement, although communities that practice the tradition view it as an integral part of their culture. Given these vastly different views, the effectiveness of efforts to abandon FGM/C is uncertain. We conducted a systematic review of the best available evidence regarding evaluations of interventions to prevent FGM/C, including eight controlled before-and-after studies with 7,042 participants from Africa. Findings indicate that 19 of 49 outcomes (with baseline similarity) were significantly different at study level, mostly favoring the intervention, but results from four meta-analyses showed considerable heterogeneity. The limited effectiveness and weak overall quality of the evidence from the studies appear related to methodological limitations of the studies and shortcomings in the implementation of the interventions. Nevertheless, the findings point to possible advantageous developments from the interventions. PMID:23175952

  10. Nutritional interventions to prevent and rear low-birthweight piglets.

    PubMed

    De Vos, M; Che, L; Huygelen, V; Willemen, S; Michiels, J; Van Cruchten, S; Van Ginneken, C

    2014-08-01

    Selection for hyperprolific sows, as a means of increasing litter size and profit, has resulted in an increased number of low-birthweight (LBW) piglets. These LBW piglets might suffer from increased morbidity and mortality during the early neonatal period. In addition, they show reduced growth performance, meat and carcass quality, which leads to an important economic loss for the farmer in the post-natal period. Therefore, nutritional interventions can be undertaken to prevent and rear LBW piglets. In the first part of this review, the preventive strategies at the sow level will be discussed. Approaches in preventing LBW piglets are to optimize the intrauterine environment via supplementing the sow during gestation. In the second part of this review, the interventions at the piglet level will be described. To increase the survival and growth rates of LBW piglets, one must focus on ensuring adequate colostrum and milk intake. Interventions include supplementing piglets, split nursing, split weaning and cross-fostering. Additional interventions increasing the probability of optimal post-natal food intake will be discussed. PMID:24118084

  11. Community Intervention Model to Reduce Inappropriate Antibiotic Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alder, Stephen; Wuthrich, Amy; Haddadin, Bassam; Donnelly, Sharon; Hannah, Elizabeth Lyon; Stoddard, Greg; Benuzillo, Jose; Bateman, Kim; Samore, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Inter-Mountain Project on Antibiotic Resistance and Therapy (IMPART) is an intervention that addresses emerging antimicrobial resistance and the reduction of unnecessary antimicrobial use. Purpose: This study assesses the design and implementation of the community intervention component of IMPART. Methods: The study was conducted…

  12. Community Therapeutic Intervention for Women Healing from Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Paula T.

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates a community-based group therapy intervention designed to address specific needs of women in transition as compared to women also in transition, engaged in a traditional, nonclinical women's program. Both interventions were found to increase social network size, decrease social isolation, and decrease financial stress. The…

  13. Physical activity interventions to prevent falls among older people: update of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sherrington, C; Lord, S R; Finch, C F

    2004-04-01

    Injuries resulting from falls are a significant public health issue, particularly for older people. This review provides an update of the evidence on the effects of various physical activity (PA) or exercise intervention strategies for the prevention of unintentional falls among older people. Six systematic reviews, and three randomised controlled trials not incorporated in previous reviews, were located with a literature search. There is clear evidence that a targeted supervised home exercise program of strength and balance exercise and walking practice, prescribed by a trained health professional, can prevent falls among older community dwellers. There is also an indication that untargeted group exercise (ie, not individually prescribed) can prevent falls among community dwellers, particularly if it involves Tai Chi or other exercises which challenge balance. There is some indication that individual prescription of PA is more important in frailer groups. Further investigation is required to establish the effects of PA in residential aged care, and the relative effects of different types of PA in different populations. In addition, multidisciplinary, multifactorial. health/environmental risk factor screening/intervention programs have been found to be effective in preventing falls. For many individuals with physical risk factors for falls (eg, impaired strength, balance or functional ability), PA alone is likely to reduce the risk of falls. For those with additional risk factors (eg, visual impairments, psychoactive medication use), other interventions may also be required. PMID:15214601

  14. Community Interventions to Improve Glycemic Control in African Americans With Type 2 Diabetes: A Systemic Review

    PubMed Central

    Smalls, Brittany L.; Walker, Rebekah J.; Bonilha, Heather S.; Campbell, Jennifer A.; Egede, Leonard E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of published community interventions to evaluate different components of community interventions and their ability to positively impact glycemic control in African Americans with T2DM. Methods: Medline, PsychInfo, and CINAHL were searched for potentially eligible studies published from January 2000 through January 2012. The following inclusion criteria were established for publications: (1) describe a community intervention, not prevention; (2) specifically indicate, in data analysis and results, the impact of the community intervention on African American adults, 18 years and older; (3) measure glycemic control (HbA1C) as an outcome measure; and (4) involve patients in a community setting, which excludes hospitals and hospital clinics. Results: Thirteen studies out of 9,233 articles identified in the search met the predetermined inclusion criteria. There were 5 randomized control trials and 3 reported improved glycemic control in the intervention group compared to the control group at the completion of the study. Of the 8 studies that were not randomized control trials, 6 showed a statistically significant change in HbA1C. Conclusion: In general, the community interventions assessed led to significant reductions in HbA1C in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Community health workers did not have a greater impact on glycemic control in this sample. The findings of this study provides insight for designing community-based interventions in the future, such as including use of multiple delivery methods, consideration of mobile device software, nutritionist educator, and curriculum-based approaches. PMID:26156923

  15. Reduction of Family Violence in Aboriginal Communities: A Systematic Review of Interventions and Approaches1

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Beverley; Nahwegahbow, Amy; Andersson, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Many efforts to reduce family violence are documented in the published literature. We conducted a systematic review of interventions intended to prevent family violence in Aboriginal communities. We retrieved studies published up to October 2009; 506 papers included one systematic review, two randomized controlled trials, and fourteen nonrandomized studies or reviews. Two reviews discussed interventions relevant to primary prevention (reducing the risk factors for family violence), including parenting, role modelling, and active participation. More studies addressed secondary prevention (where risk factors exist, reducing outbreaks of violence) such as restriction on the trading hours for take away alcohol and home visiting programs for high risk families. Examples of tertiary prevention (preventing recurrence) include traditional healing circles and group counselling. Most studies contributed a low level of evidence. PMID:21052554

  16. Suicide Prevention Referrals in a Mobile Health Smoking Cessation Intervention.

    PubMed

    Christofferson, Dana E; Hamlett-Berry, Kim; Augustson, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Automated mobile health (mHealth) programs deliver effective smoking cessation interventions through text message platforms. Smoking is an independent risk factor for suicide, so the Department of Veterans Affairs incorporated information about the Veterans Crisis Line into its SmokefreeVET smoking cessation text messaging program. Almost 7% of all SmokefreeVET enrollees have accessed this information. Because of the reach and automated nature of this and similar programs, we recommend including a referral to a suicide prevention hotline for all smoking cessation mHealth interventions. PMID:26066949

  17. A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial of an Interpersonal Violence Prevention Program With a Mexican American Community

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Patricia J.; Lesser, Janna; Cheng, An-Lin; Osóos-Sánchez, Manuel; Martinez, Elisabeth; Pineda, Daniel; Mancha, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Using methods of community-based participatory research, a prospective randomized controlled trial of a violence prevention program based on Latino cultural values was implemented with elementary school children in a Mexican American community. Community members participated in intervention program selection, implementation, and data collection. High-risk students who participated in the program had greater nonviolent self-efficacy and demonstrated greater endorsement of program values than did high-risk students in the control group. This collaborative partnership was able to combine community-based participatory research with a rigorous study design and provide sustained benefit to community partners. PMID:20531101

  18. Family-Based Preventive Interventions: Can the Onset of Suicidal Ideation and Behavior Be Prevented?

    PubMed

    Reider, Eve E; Sims, Belinda E

    2016-04-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death for youth aged 10-24. Research informed prevention efforts have the opportunity to decrease risk for suicidal ideation and behavior before it is manifested. Indeed, there is a small body of research findings demonstrating both proximal and distal effects of preventive interventions delivered in childhood and adolescence on suicidal ideation and/or behavior. These efforts build off of other secondary analyses of prevention research that has demonstrated benefits for multiple types of youth outcomes. This supplement provides "proof of concept" that family-based preventive interventions aimed at reducing a number of risk factors for suicide (e.g., substance use, externalizing, and internalizing behavior) can prevent suicidal ideation and behaviors. PMID:27094108

  19. Effectiveness of a Lifestyle Intervention Program among Persons at High Risk for Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadheim, Liane M.; Brewer, Kari A.; Kassner, Darcy R.; Vanderwood, Karl K.; Hall, Taryn O.; Butcher, Marcene K.; Helgerson, Steven D.; Harwell, Todd S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of translating the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention into practice in a rural community. Methods: In 2008, the Montana Diabetes Control Program worked collaboratively with Holy Rosary Healthcare to implement an adapted group-based DPP lifestyle intervention. Adults at high risk for…

  20. Advancing HIV/AIDS prevention among American Indians through capacity building and the community readiness model.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Pamela Jumper; Vernon, Irene S; Plested, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Although HIV/AIDS prevention has presented challenges over the past 25 years, prevention does work! To be most effective, however, prevention must be specific to the culture and the nature of the community. Building the capacity of a community for prevention efforts is not an easy process. If capacity is to be sustained, it must be practical and utilize the resources that already exist in the community. Attitudes vary across communities; resources vary, political climates are constantly varied and changing. Communities are fluid-always changing, adapting, growing. They are "ready" for different things at different times. Readiness is a key issue! This article presents a model that has experienced a high level of success in building community capacity for effective prevention/intervention for HIV/AIDS and offers case studies for review. The Community Readiness Model provides both quantitative and qualitative information in a user-friendly structure that guides a community through the process of understanding the importance of the measure of readiness. The model identifies readiness- appropriate strategies, provides readiness scores for evaluation, and most important, involves community stakeholders in the process. The article will demonstrate the importance of developing strategies consistent with readiness levels for more cost-effective and successful prevention efforts. PMID:17159467

  1. Peer Outreach Work as Economic Activity: Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions among Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    George, Annie; Blankenship, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers’ economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers’ relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers. PMID:25775122

  2. Investing in communities: evaluating the added value of community mobilization on HIV prevention outcomes among FSWs in India.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Anne Sebert; Galavotti, Christine; Hastings, Philip; Narayanan, Pradeep; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2014-04-01

    Community mobilization often requires greater time and resource investments than typical interventions, yet few evaluations exist to justify these investments. We evaluated the added benefit of community mobilization on HIV prevention outcomes among female sex workers (FSWs) using a composite measure of volunteer participation in program committees by FSWs. After adjusting for treatment propensity, we used multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) to test our program theory. We hypothesized that stronger community mobilization would be associated with increased levels of consistent condom use and with increased levels of perceived fairness, mediated by psychosocial processes. Community mobilization had an indirect effect on consistent condom use mediated through social cohesion and an indirect effect on perceived fairness mediated by collective efficacy. Our results suggest higher levels of community mobilization help improve condom use and reduce perceived discrimination beyond the effects of the core HIV intervention program. We recommend further testing of this model. PMID:24129843

  3. School Violence Prevention: The Role of the Women's Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tite, Rosonna

    2005-01-01

    School violence has many faces and many casualties. In varying degrees it touches students, parents, educators and communities of every school world wide. At the local level, communities are seen as playing a significant role in violence prevention. Generally, community-based violence prevention approaches involve the assessment of local problems,…

  4. Mobilizing Communities To Prevent Juvenile Crime. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bownes, Donna; Ingersoll, Sarah

    Through Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs (Community Prevention Grants), the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) allocated $20 million in fiscal year 1997 to states to complement law enforcement and justice system efforts by helping local communities foster strong families and nurture…

  5. Cost-effectiveness of two interventions for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Vlassoff, Michael; Diallo, Alioune; Philbin, Jesse; Kost, Kathryn; Bankole, Akin

    2016-01-01

    Objective While several clinical studies have compared the prophylactic efficacy of oxytocin and misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), no studies have examined these interventions at the community level. This cost-effectiveness analysis is the first to do so. Methods This cost-effectiveness study accompanied a randomized trial comparing the prophylactic effectiveness of misoprostol with that of oxytocin conducted in rural Senegal from June to September 2013 of consenting women delivering in maternity huts. We compared the two interventions, with PPH referrals to a higher level facility being the outcome measure. We calculated costs and effects for two hypothetical cohorts of women delivering during a one-year period, each receiving one of the interventions. A third cohort simulated current standard of care (SOC). A sensitivity analysis was performed to estimate the impact of variation in model assumptions. Results The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) for the misoprostol intervention was USD 40 per PPH case averted and USD 120 for oxytocin. In all scenarios, the misoprostol intervention dominated except in the worst-case scenario, where the oxytocin intervention was slightly more cost-effective. Conclusion Our findings suggest that use of misoprostol for PPH prevention would be cost-effective in countries with inadequate maternal health care. PMID:26952348

  6. Resource-Based Intervention: Success with Community-Centered Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrey, Michelle Kerber; Leginus, Mary Anne; Cecere, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In this commentary the authors share their experiences on the design and implementation of community-centered early intervention programs in Prince George's County, MD. Their aim in designing community-centered programs was to provide infants and toddlers opportunities for learning, language, and motor development in natural environments with…

  7. Physical Training as a Substance Abuse Prevention Intervention for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collingwood, Thomas R.; Sunderlin, Jeff; Reynolds, Roger; Kohl, Harold W., III

    2000-01-01

    Presents program evaluation data from school and community application of a physical fitness drug prevention program. Results reveal significant increases in physical activity and physical fitness. Youth self-report data indicates significant decreases in risk factors such as low self-concept, poor school attendance, anxiety, depression, and…

  8. Changing community readiness to prevent the abuse of inhalants and other harmful legal products in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Kristen A; Moore, Roland S; Ogilvie, Diane C; Johnson, Knowlton W; Collins, David A; Shamblen, Stephen R

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents results from an application of the Community Readiness Model (CRM) as part of a multi-stage community mobilization strategy to engage community leaders, retailers, parents, and school personnel in preventing youth use of inhalants and other harmful legal products in rural Alaska. The CRM is designed to assess readiness to address a single social problem, based on a limited set of key informant interviews. In this study, researchers conducted 32 baseline and 34 post-intervention community readiness assessment interviews in four rural Alaskan communities. These interviews with key informants from the communities were coded and analyzed using CRM methods to yield readiness scores for each community. The aggregate results were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), and the individual community scores were analyzed in the context of the overall study. Significant positive changes in community readiness were found across six readiness dimensions as well as for the overall readiness score. Variation in the degree of changes in readiness across the four communities is attributed to differences in the intervention's implementation. The implications of these results include the potential for CRM assessments to serve as an integral component of a community mobilization strategy and also to offer meaningful feedback to communities participating in prevention research. PMID:18392927

  9. Interim outcomes for a community-based program to prevent perinatal HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Santelli, J S; Celentano, D D; Rozsenich, C; Crump, A D; Davis, M V; Polacsek, M; Augustyn, M; Rolf, J; McAlister, A L; Burwell, L

    1995-06-01

    The AIDS Prevention for Pediatric Life Enrichment (APPLE) project is a community-based program to prevent perinatal HIV infection by preventing infection in women. One project component tested a primary prevention model developed from principles of cognitive social learning theory which used street outreach and community-targeted small media materials to increase the use of condoms. Formative research was used to explore community perceptions about HIV/AIDS and to design media materials. Program evaluation employed a two-community, time series, quasi-experimental design. Annual street surveys samples individuals in areas where they were likely to encounter outreach workers. Baseline surveys found substantial pre-programmatic behavior change. After two years considerable APPLE name recognition (40%), contact with media materials (63%), and contact with outreach workers (36%) were found and norms reflecting social acceptability of condoms were more positive among women in the intervention community. Condom use at last sexual encounter rose in both communities but was significantly higher in the intervention community. Condom use also was higher among women who reported exposure to either small media or small media plus street outreach. Other self-reported HIV-prevention behaviors did not show change in the initial period. PMID:7646945

  10. A community intervention for behaviour modification: an experience to control cardiovascular diseases in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-communicable Disease (NCD) is increasingly burdening developing countries including Indonesia. However only a few intervention studies on NCD control in developing countries are reported. This study aims to report experiences from the development of a community-based pilot intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD), as initial part of a future extended PRORIVA program (Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Yogyakarta, Indonesia) in an urban area within Jogjakarta, Indonesia. Methods The study is quasi-experimental and based on a mixed design involving both quantitative and qualitative methods. Four communities were selected as intervention areas and one community was selected as a referent area. A community-empowerment approach was utilized to motivate community to develop health promotion activities. Data on knowledge and attitudes with regard to CVD risk factors, smoking, physical inactivity, and fruit and vegetable were collected using the WHO STEPwise questionnaire. 980 people in the intervention areas and 151 people in the referent area participated in the pre-test. In the post-test 883 respondents were re-measured from the intervention areas and 144 respondents from the referent area. The qualitative data were collected using written meeting records (80), facilitator reports (5), free-listing (112) and in-depth interviews (4). Those data were analysed to contribute a deeper understanding of how the population perceived the intervention. Results Frequency and participation rates of activities were higher in the low socioeconomic status (SES) communities than in the high SES communities (40 and 13 activities respectively). The proportion of having high knowledge increased significantly from 56% to 70% among men in the intervention communities. The qualitative study shows that respondents thought PRORIVA improved their awareness of CVD and encouraged them to experiment healthier behaviours. PRORIVA was perceived as a

  11. Emotion processes in normal and abnormal development and preventive intervention.

    PubMed

    Izard, Carroll E; Fine, Sarah; Mostow, Allison; Trentacosta, Christopher; Campbell, Jan

    2002-01-01

    We present an analysis of the role of emotions in normal and abnormal development and preventive intervention. The conceptual framework stems from three tenets of differential emotions theory (DET). These principles concern the constructs of emotion utilization; intersystem connections among modular emotion systems, cognition, and action; and the organizational and motivational functions of discrete emotions. Particular emotions and patterns of emotions function differentially in different periods of development and in influencing the cognition and behavior associated with different forms of psychopathology. Established prevention programs have not emphasized the concept of emotion as motivation. It is even more critical that they have generally neglected the idea of modulating emotions, not simply to achieve self-regulation, but also to utilize their inherently adaptive functions as a means of facilitating the development of social competence and preventing psychopathology. The paper includes a brief description of a theory-based prevention program and suggestions for complementary targeted interventions to address specific externalizing and internalizing problems. In the final section, we describe ways in which emotion-centered preventions can provide excellent opportunities for research on the development of normal and abnormal behavior. PMID:12549703

  12. Evidence-based HIV/STD prevention intervention for black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Jeffrey H; Painter, Thomas M; Tomlinson, Hank L; Alvarez, Maria E

    2014-04-18

    This report summarizes published findings of a community-based organization in New York City that evaluated and demonstrated the efficacy of the Many Men, Many Voices (3MV) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention intervention in reducing sexual risk behaviors and increasing protective behaviors among black men who have sex with men (MSM). The intervention addressed social determinants of health (e.g., stigma, discrimination, and homophobia) that can influence the health and well-being of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection. This report also highlights efforts by CDC to disseminate this evidence-based behavioral intervention throughout the United States. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion to provide an example of a program that might be effective for reducing HIV infection- and STD-related disparities in the United States. 3MV uses small group education and interaction to increase knowledge and change attitudes and behaviors related to HIV/STD risk among black MSM. Since its dissemination by CDC in 2004, 3MV has been used in many settings, including health department- and community-based organization programs. The 3MV intervention is an important component of a comprehensive HIV and STD prevention portfolio for at-risk black MSM. As CDC continues to support HIV prevention programming consistent with the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and its high-impact HIV prevention approach, 3MV will remain an important tool for addressing the needs of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection and other STDs. PMID:24743663

  13. Cutoff Designs for Community-Based Intervention Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pennell, Michael L.; Hade, Erinn M.; Murray, David M.; Rhoda, Dale A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Public health interventions are often designed to target communities defined either geographically (e.g., cities, counties) or socially (e.g., schools or workplaces). The group randomized trial (GRT) is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating these interventions. However, community leaders may object to randomization as some groups may be denied a potentially beneficial intervention. Under a regression discontinuity design (RDD), individuals may be assigned to treatment based on the levels of a pretest measure, thereby allowing those most in need of the treatment to receive it. In this article, we consider analysis, power, and sample size issues in applying the RDD and related cutoff designs in community-based intervention studies. We examine the power of these designs as a function of intraclass correlation, number of groups, and number of members per group and compare results to the traditional GRT. PMID:21500240

  14. Clinical pharmacist interventions on an assertive community treatment team.

    PubMed

    Gable, Kelly N; Stunson, Mary Janet

    2010-08-01

    Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) is a community-based treatment approach intended to help in the recovery and rehabilitation of clients with severe and persistent mental illnesses. A clinical pharmacist is not routinely a member of an ACT team. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the role of a pharmacist by reviewing recommendations and interventions made by a clinical pharmacist on an ACT team. Information was gathered through a chart review of clients at Community Alternatives in St. Louis, Missouri. All recommendations and interventions performed by the clinical pharmacist between February 1, 2008 and July 31, 2008 were recorded. A total of 341 interventions and recommendations for 29 clients were completed by the pharmacist. Medication management, medication adjustment recommendations, and mental health assessments were the most frequent interventions. This study suggests a clinical pharmacist can be beneficial to an ACT team and provide diverse services to both clients and other team members. PMID:19809876

  15. Prevention and Management of Infectious Complications of Percutaneous Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Steven Y.; Philip, Asher; Richter, Michael D.; Gupta, Sanjay; Lessne, Mark L.; Kim, Charles Y.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious complications following interventional radiology (IR) procedures can cause significant patient morbidity and, potentially, mortality. As the number and breadth of IR procedures grow, it becomes increasingly evident that interventional radiologists must possess a thorough understanding of these potential infectious complications. Furthermore, given the increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, emphasis on cost containment, and attention to quality of care, it is critical to have infection control strategies to maximize patient safety. This article reviews infectious complications associated with percutaneous ablation of liver tumors, transarterial embolization of liver tumors, uterine fibroid embolization, percutaneous nephrostomy, percutaneous biliary interventions, central venous catheters, and intravascular stents. Emphasis is placed on incidence, risk factors, prevention, and management. With the use of these strategies, IR procedures can be performed with reduced risk of infectious complications. PMID:26038616

  16. The 'third wave' of HIV prevention: filling gaps in integrated interventions, knowledge, and funding.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Jaime

    2012-07-01

    There is growing optimism in the global health community that the HIV epidemic can be halted. After decades of relying primarily on behavior change to prevent HIV transmission, a second generation of prevention efforts based on medical or biological interventions such as male circumcision and preexposure prophylaxis--the use of antiretroviral drugs to protect uninfected, at-risk individuals--has shown promising results. This article calls for a third generation of HIV prevention efforts that would integrate behavioral, biological, and structural interventions focused on the social, political, and environmental underpinnings of the epidemic, making use of local epidemiological evidence to target affected populations. In this third wave, global programs should deliver HIV prevention services together with cost-effective interventions for reproductive health and for tuberculosis, malaria, and other diseases. Additionally, new efforts are needed to address gaps in HIV prevention research, evaluation, and implementation. Increased and sustained funding, along with evidence-based allocation of funds, will be necessary to accelerate the decline in new HIV infections. PMID:22778344

  17. Development of the Community Health Improvement Navigator Database of Interventions.

    PubMed

    Roy, Brita; Stanojevich, Joel; Stange, Paul; Jiwani, Nafisa; King, Raymond; Koo, Denise

    2016-02-26

    With the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the requirements for hospitals to achieve tax-exempt status include performing a triennial community health needs assessment and developing a plan to address identified needs. To address community health needs, multisector collaborative efforts to improve both health care and non-health care determinants of health outcomes have been the most effective and sustainable. In 2015, CDC released the Community Health Improvement Navigator to facilitate the development of these efforts. This report describes the development of the database of interventions included in the Community Health Improvement Navigator. The database of interventions allows the user to easily search for multisector, collaborative, evidence-based interventions to address the underlying causes of the greatest morbidity and mortality in the United States: tobacco use and exposure, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity. PMID:26917110

  18. Community How To Guide On Underage Drinking Prevention: Prevention & Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.

    Underage drinking prevention has two goals: prevent harm to the individual drinker and prevent harm to society. Modern prevention programs should be measured not by their intentions, but by their consequences: reducing the number of criminal events, reducing the amount of harm to individuals, and reducing the harm to society. This guide discusses…

  19. Mediators and Moderators of the Effectiveness of a Community Health Worker Intervention That Improved Dietary Outcomes in Pregnant Latino Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Megha K.; Kieffer, Edith C.; Choi, Hwajung; Schumann, Christina; Heisler, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pregnancy is an opportune time to initiate diabetes prevention strategies for minority and underserved women, using culturally tailored interventions delivered by community health workers. A community-partnered randomized controlled trial (RCT) with pregnant Latino women resulted in significantly improved vegetable, fiber, added sugar,…

  20. Conducting HIV Interventions for Asian Pacific Islander Men Who Have Sex with Men: Challenges and Compromises in Community Collaborative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Operario, Don; Nemoto, Tooru; Ng, Terence; Syed, Javid; Mazarei, Mazdak

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the process of implementing a community collaborative HIV prevention intervention research project targeting Asian and Pacific Islander (API) men who have sex with men (MSM). This article traces the genesis of the project--which linked university researchers with an API-focused community based organization--starting from its…

  1. Childhood obesity prevention: an intervention targeting primary caregivers of school children.

    PubMed

    Bruss, Mozhdeh B; Michael, Timothy J; Morris, Joseph R; Applegate, Brooks; Dannison, Linda; Quitugua, Jackie A; Palacios, Rosa T; Klein, David J

    2010-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) was used to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a culturally relevant, science-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), a US Commonwealth in the western Pacific. This cognitive behavioral lifestyle intervention, Project Familia Giya Marianas (PFGM), was offered during the 2005-2007 school years in all CNMI public elementary schools over eight sessions to primary caregivers of 3rd grade children (N = 407). A crossover design was utilized with half of the schools offering the intervention in the Fall term, while the other half delivered the sessions in the Spring term. The primary outcome measure was change in BMI z-score. There was an intervention-dependent effect on BMI z-score, with program impact being a function of baseline BMI and the number of lessons attended. This effect was most apparent in students whose baseline BMI z-score was in healthy range (>/=5 to <85 percentile). In both Asian and Pacific Island groups, children whose caregivers completed 5-8 lessons experienced a significant change in BMI z-score as compared to those with 0 lessons (P < 0.05). Research that integrates multidisciplinary and multimethod approaches is effective in identifying and/or devising solutions to address a complex condition such as childhood obesity. PFGM demonstrated that community participation can be successfully utilized in the development and implementation of childhood obesity prevention programs. PMID:19424164

  2. Interventions to prevent skin cancer by reducing exposure to ultraviolet radiation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Saraiya, Mona; Glanz, Karen; Briss, Peter A; Nichols, Phyllis; White, Cornelia; Das, Debjani; Smith, S Jay; Tannor, Bernice; Hutchinson, Angela B; Wilson, Katherine M; Gandhi, Nisha; Lee, Nancy C; Rimer, Barbara; Coates, Ralph C; Kerner, Jon F; Hiatt, Robert A; Buffler, Patricia; Rochester, Phyllis

    2004-12-01

    The relationship between skin cancer and ultraviolet radiation is well established. Behaviors such as seeking shade, avoiding sun exposure during peak hours of radiation, wearing protective clothing, or some combination of these behaviors can provide protection. Sunscreen use alone is not considered an adequate protection against ultraviolet radiation. This report presents the results of systematic reviews of effectiveness, applicability, other harms or benefits, economic evaluations, and barriers to use of selected interventions to prevent skin cancer by reducing exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The Task Force on Community Preventive Services found that education and policy approaches to increasing sun-protective behaviors were effective when implemented in primary schools and in recreational or tourism settings, but found insufficient evidence to determine effectiveness when implemented in other settings, such as child care centers, secondary schools and colleges, and occupational settings. They also found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of interventions oriented to healthcare settings and providers, media campaigns alone, interventions oriented to parents or caregivers of children, and community-wide multicomponent interventions. The report also provides suggestions for areas for future research. PMID:15556744

  3. Effects of the Communities That Care Prevention System on Youth Reports of Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, B. K. Elizabeth; Gloppen, Kari M.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Many interventions seeking to reduce problem behaviors and promote healthy youth development target both risk and protective factors, yet few studies have examined the effect of preventive interventions on overall levels of protection community wide. In a community-randomized controlled trial, this study tested the effect of Communities That Care (CTC) on protective factors in 24 communities across 7 states. Data on protective factors were collected from a panel of 4,407 youths in CTC and control communities followed from Grade 5 through Grade 8. Hierarchical linear modeling compared mean levels of 15 protective factors derived from the social development model in CTC and control communities in Grade 8, adjusted for individual and community characteristics and baseline levels of protective factors in Grade 5. Global test statistics were calculated to examine effects on protection overall and by domain. Analyses across all protective factors found significantly higher levels of overall protection in CTC compared to control communities. Analyses by domain found significantly higher levels of protection in CTC than control communities in the community, school, and peer/individual domains, but not in the family domain. Significantly higher levels of opportunities for prosocial involvement in the community, recognition for prosocial involvement in school, interaction with prosocial peers, and social skills among CTC compared to control youth contributed to the overall and domain specific results. This is consistent with CTC’s theory of change, which posits that strengthening protective factors is a mechanism through which CTC prevents behavior problems. PMID:25366931

  4. Effects of the communities that care prevention system on youth reports of protective factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, B K Elizabeth; Gloppen, Kari M; Rhew, Isaac C; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David

    2015-07-01

    Many interventions seeking to reduce problem behaviors and promote healthy youth development target both risk and protective factors, yet few studies have examined the effect of preventive interventions on overall levels of protection community wide. In a community-randomized controlled trial, this study tested the effect of Communities That Care (CTC) on protective factors in 24 communities across seven states. Data on protective factors were collected from a panel of 4407 youths in CTC and control communities followed from grade 5 through grade 8. Hierarchical linear modeling compared mean levels of 15 protective factors derived from the social development model in CTC and control communities in grade 8, adjusted for individual and community characteristics and baseline levels of protective factors in grade 5. Global test statistics were calculated to examine effects on protection overall and by domain. Analyses across all protective factors found significantly higher levels of overall protection in CTC compared to control communities. Analyses by domain found significantly higher levels of protection in CTC than control communities in the community, school, and peer/individual domains, but not in the family domain. Significantly higher levels of opportunities for prosocial involvement in the community, recognition for prosocial involvement in school, interaction with prosocial peers, and social skills among CTC compared to control youth contributed to the overall and domain-specific results. This is consistent with CTC's theory of change, which posits that strengthening protective factors is a mechanism through which CTC prevents behavior problems. PMID:25366931

  5. Community readiness for change and youth violence prevention: a tale of two cities.

    PubMed

    Parker, Robert Nash; Alcaraz, Roxanna; Payne, Pedro R

    2011-09-01

    This case study identifies a situation in which there exists a set of preconditions for the successful application of evidence based practice to bear on the community based problem of youth violence. The concept of readiness to change and its impact on the success or failure of interventions designed to change harmful or dangerous behavior among individuals is well established and understood in intervention research. In recent years this concept has been discussed and developed in the community intervention and harm reduction literatures. The current study is one of a community where an attempt was made to identify community levels of harm, develop a strategic plan to reduce the source of harm, and develop, implement, and evaluate youth violence prevention interventions. Over more than 5 years of involvement by university based researchers and community partners, the effort was largely unsuccessful. The events of this project are discussed within the context of the Community Readiness Model Edwards et al. (J Community Psychol 28(3): 291-307, 2000) and we present a narrative that helps to highlight the reasons for the relative lack of success of the effort. We suggest additional strategies and actions that might have helped to overcome the lack of readiness of this particular community to reduce the harms associated with youth violence. Suggestions that may improve chances for a more successful set of outcomes for other communities in similar states of readiness to change and with similar challenges are given. PMID:21203826

  6. Outside-of-school time obesity prevention and treatment interventions in African American youth.

    PubMed

    Barr-Anderson, D J; Singleton, C; Cotwright, C J; Floyd, M F; Affuso, O

    2014-10-01

    Outside-of-school time (OST; i.e. before/after-school hours, summer time), theory-based interventions are potential strategies for addressing increased obesity among African American youth. This review assessed interventions across multiple settings that took place during OST among African American youth aged 5-18 years old. Seven databases were searched for studies published prior to October 2013; 28 prevention and treatment interventions that assessed weight or related behaviours as a primary or secondary outcome were identified. Overall, these studies reported heterogeneous intervention length, theoretical frameworks, methodological quality, outcomes, cultural adaption and community engagement; the latter two attributes have been identified as potentially important intervention strategies when working with African Americans. Although not always significant, generally, outcomes were in the desired direction. When examining programmes by time of intervention (i.e. after-school, summer time, time not specified or multiple time periods), much of the variability remained, but some similarities emerged. After-school studies generally had a positive impact on physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption and caloric intake, or body composition. The single summer time intervention showed a trend towards reduced body mass index. Overall findings suggest that after-school and summer programmes, alone or perhaps in combination, offer potential benefits for African American youth and could favourably influence diet and physical activity behaviour. PMID:25196405

  7. Optimization of Multicomponent Behavioral and Biobehavioral Interventions for the Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Collins, Linda M; Kugler, Kari C; Gwadz, Marya Viorst

    2016-01-01

    To move society toward an AIDS-free generation, behavioral interventions for prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS must be not only effective, but also cost-effective, efficient, and readily scalable. The purpose of this article is to introduce to the HIV/AIDS research community the multiphase optimization strategy (MOST), a new methodological framework inspired by engineering principles and designed to develop behavioral interventions that have these important characteristics. Many behavioral interventions comprise multiple components. In MOST, randomized experimentation is conducted to assess the individual performance of each intervention component, and whether its presence/absence/setting has an impact on the performance of other components. This information is used to engineer an intervention that meets a specific optimization criterion, defined a priori in terms of effectiveness, cost, cost-effectiveness, and/or scalability. MOST will enable intervention science to develop a coherent knowledge base about what works and does not work. Ultimately this will improve behavioral interventions systematically and incrementally. PMID:26238037

  8. [Effective interventions to prevent health damage related to ultraviolet exposure: a review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Nguyen Thanh, Viêt; Clément, Juliette; Haroutunian, Laetitia; Léon, Christophe; Arwidson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the current scientific knowledge on health promotion interventions designed to prevent health damage caused by natural ultraviolet (UV) exposure. The current state of knowledge in this area was assessed using a specific method including a review of literature reviews and a classification of health promotion interventions identified using scientific databases. We found a large number of promising programmes. Briefly, some interventions based on environmental changes and provision of shade were considered to be promising. Health education programmes delivered at school have been proven to be effective in various settings, from nursery school to college. Some parentbased interventions designed to promote children's sun protection behaviours have been shown to be relevant. Appearance-based actions, using for instance photoaging information, may be effective. Finally, some multi-component interventions in community settings appear to be promising. These findings present a number of limitations due to the marked diversity of outcome measures and the general quality of the documents reviewed. Furthermore, most interventions are poorly described in the reviews. The present study should therefore be considered to be a first step that needs to be completed by a more detailed description of the promising interventions and of their transposition to the French context. PMID:26751922

  9. Outcomes of Community-Based Screening for Depression and Suicide Prevention among Japanese Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Fujita, Motoi; Goto, Masahiro; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Sakashita, Tomoe

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we evaluate outcomes of a community-based program to prevent suicide among elderly individuals aged 65 and older. Design and Methods: We used a quasi-experimental design with intervention and referent municipalities. The program included a 7-year implementation of depression screening with follow-up by general practitioners…

  10. Prevention Service System Transformation Using "Communities That Care"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eric C.; Hawkins, J. David; Arthur, Michael W.; Briney, John S.; Fagan, Abigail A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines prevention system transformation as part of a community-randomized controlled trial of Communities That Care (CTC). Using data from surveys of community leaders, we examine differences between CTC and control communities 4.5 years after CTC implementation. Significantly higher levels of adopting a science-based approach to…

  11. Community Involvement in Dengue Outbreak Control: An Integrated Rigorous Intervention Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hualiang; Liu, Tao; Song, Tie; Lin, Lifeng; Xiao, Jianpeng; Lin, Jinyan; He, Jianfeng; Zhong, Haojie; Hu, Wenbiao; Deng, Aiping; Peng, Zhiqiang; Ma, Wenjun; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-01-01

    Background An explosive outbreak of dengue fever occurred in Guangdong Province, China in 2014. A community-based integrated intervention was applied to control this outbreak in the capital city Guangzhou, where dengue epidemic was mainly caused by imported cases. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a time series generalized additive model based on meteorological factors to assess the effectiveness of this intervention. The results showed that there was significant reduction in mosquito density following the intervention, and there was a 70.47% (95% confidence interval: 66.07%, 74.88%) reduction in the reported dengue cases compared with the predicted cases after 12 days since the beginning of the intervention, we estimated that a total of 23,302 dengue cases were prevented. Conclusions This study suggests that an integrated dengue intervention program has significant effects to control a dengue outbreak in areas where dengue epidemic was mainly caused by imported dengue cases. PMID:27548481

  12. Effectiveness of an Ongoing, Community-Based Breast Cancer Prevention Program for Korean American Women.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eun; Choi, Ga-Young; Cho, Ji Young

    2016-02-01

    The study evaluates the effectiveness of an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program offered by a local social services agency in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Korean American women who participated in this breast cancer prevention program were compared with those who did not participate in their knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors. The study found that the intervention group was more knowledgeable on breast cancer and related services and reported more positive attitudes toward breast cancer screening services than the comparison group. The participants in the intervention group were also more likely to plan to receive a mammogram than those in the comparison group. However, significant differences were not observed in the two groups in their intention to receive a clinical breast examination. The study findings suggest that an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program can be an effective method of addressing breast cancer prevention disparities observed among Korean American women. PMID:26946886

  13. Applying drug dependence research to prevention interventions in Spain.

    PubMed

    Espada, José P; Lloret, Daniel; García del Castillo, José A

    2008-06-01

    This article examines the status of evidence-based interventions for preventing drug dependence in Spain. The evolution of the perception that the Spanish have of the problem and how this has influenced prevention efforts is described. An analysis is made of how programs designed to prevent drug use have been translated from the field of experimental research to implementation. The characteristics of evidence-based programs developed in Spain are outlined, analyzing their efficacy and the adaptations of programs from other countries to the Spanish context. Most have been school based, although some family and leisure-time based programs also have been developed. The processes for translation and cultural adaptation of evidence-based programs are described. Finally, pending aspects of the adaptation of research in drug dependence within Spain are discussed. PMID:18349352

  14. Food-based nutrition interventions at community level.

    PubMed

    Morón, Cecilio

    2006-08-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations promotes nutrition interventions considering food as the basis for action, given the strategic role of food and the agricultural sector to improve food security for the community; thus, a large number of people, especially the poor, who participate directly or indirectly in agricultural activities are able to obtain benefits from its multifunctional character. Food-based nutrition interventions have the purpose of improving food production and availability, processing and conservation, supply and commercialization, as well as access and food consumption. The basis of this focus is community and local government participation in the planning, execution, supervision and evaluation of specific interventions. Food-based nutrition interventions include the development of community gardens and farms in urban and rural areas; hydroponic gardens and other related initiatives in urban and periurban agriculture; as well as the promotion of traditional crops with nutritional value and the development of small agro-industries. Food-based nutrition interventions can be implemented to improve the food supply in street and itinerant markets, town squares and rural markets, and street food sales. In all food-based interventions, food safety and quality control must be taken into consideration throughout the food chain. The interventions on nutrition education increase the family's capacity to improve access to and consumption of food. Food-based dietary guidelines and nutrition education in schools are highlighted, as well as the utilization of school gardens. PMID:16923244

  15. When can I help? A conceptual framework for the prevention of sexual violence through bystander intervention.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Sarah; Banyard, Victoria L

    2012-01-01

    The bystander intervention approach is gaining popularity as a means for engaging communities in sexual assault prevention, especially on college campuses. Many bystander programs are teaching community members how to intervene without first assisting them to identify the full range of opportunities when they can intervene. In this article, the authors review the literature on sexual violence bystander intervention and present a conceptual framework that lays out a continuum of bystander opportunities ranging from reactive situations after an assault has occurred, to situations before an assault has occurred (posing high to low risk to victims), as well as proactive situations where no risk to the victim is present. The implications of this typology are discussed in the context of program development, evaluation, and further research. PMID:22096017

  16. The challenge of promoting interventions to prevent disease in impoverished populations in rural western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Katharine; Person, Bobbie; Faith, Sitnah H; Otieno, Ronald; Quick, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Poverty is a critical social determinant of health. A particular approach toward mitigating inequitable access to health services in Kenya has been through a community-based distribution program implemented by the Safe Water and AIDS Project (SWAP) that has achieved modest uptake of public health interventions. To explore reasons for modest uptake, we asked program participants about child health problems, daily tasks, household expenditures, and services needed by their communities. Respondents identified child health problems consistent with health data and reported daily tasks, expenses, and needed services that were more related to basic needs of life other than health. These findings highlight the challenges of implementing potentially self-sustaining preventive interventions at scale in poor populations in the developing world. PMID:24188638

  17. The Challenge of Promoting Interventions to Prevent Disease in Impoverished Populations in Rural Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Person, Bobbie; Faith, Sitnah H.; Otieno, Ronald; Quick, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Poverty is a critical social determinant of health. A particular approach toward mitigating inequitable access to health services in Kenya has been through a community-based distribution program implemented by the Safe Water and AIDS Project (SWAP) that has achieved modest uptake of public health interventions. To explore reasons for modest uptake, we asked program participants about child health problems, daily tasks, household expenditures, and services needed by their communities. Respondents identified child health problems consistent with health data and reported daily tasks, expenses, and needed services that were more related to basic needs of life other than health. These findings highlight the challenges of implementing potentially self-sustaining preventive interventions at scale in poor populations in the developing world. PMID:24188638

  18. Interventions to combat or prevent drug counterfeiting: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie A; Fadlallah, Racha; Oliver, Sandy; Saleh, Nadine; El-Bawab, Lamya; Rizk, Rana; Farha, Aida; Hamra, Rasha

    2015-01-01

    Objective Drug counterfeiting has serious public health and safety implications. The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to combat or prevent drug counterfeiting. Data sources We searched multiple electronic databases and the grey literature up to March 2014. Two reviewers completed, in duplicate and independently, the study selection, data abstraction and risk of bias assessment. Study eligibility criteria, participants and interventions We included randomised trials, non-randomised studies, and case studies examining any intervention at the health system-level to combat or prevent drug counterfeiting. Outcomes of interest included changes in failure rates of tested drugs and changes in prevalence of counterfeit medicines. We excluded studies that focused exclusively on substandard, degraded or expired drugs, or that focused on medication errors. Appraisal and synthesis We assessed the risk of bias in each included study. We reported the results narratively and, where applicable, we conducted meta-analyses. Results We included 21 studies representing 25 units of analysis. Overall, we found low quality evidence suggesting positive effects of drug registration (OR=0.23; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.67), and WHO-prequalification of drugs (OR=0.06; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.35) in reducing the prevalence of counterfeit and substandard drugs. Low quality evidence suggests that licensing of drug outlets is probably ineffective (OR=0.66; 95% CI 0.41 to 1.05). For multifaceted interventions (including a mix of regulations, training of inspectors, public-private collaborations and legal actions), low quality evidence suggest they may be effective. The single RCT provided moderate quality evidence of no effect of ‘two extra inspections’ in improving drug quality. Conclusions Policymakers and stakeholders would benefit from registration and WHO-prequalification of drugs and may also consider multifaceted interventions

  19. Effectiveness of Non-Pharmacological Interventions to Prevent Falls in Older People: A Systematic Overview. The SENATOR Project ONTOP Series

    PubMed Central

    Rimland, Joseph M.; Abraha, Iosief; Dell’Aquila, Giuseppina; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso; Soiza, Roy; Gudmusson, Adalsteinn; Petrovic, Mirko; O’Mahony, Denis; Todd, Chris; Cherubini, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Falls are common events in older people, which cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Non-pharmacological interventions are an important approach to prevent falls. There are a large number of systematic reviews of non-pharmacological interventions, whose evidence needs to be synthesized in order to facilitate evidence-based clinical decision making. Objectives To systematically examine reviews and meta-analyses that evaluated non-pharmacological interventions to prevent falls in older adults in the community, care facilities and hospitals. Methods We searched the electronic databases Pubmed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PEDRO and TRIP from January 2009 to March 2015, for systematic reviews that included at least one comparative study, evaluating any non-pharmacological intervention, to prevent falls amongst older adults. The quality of the reviews was assessed using AMSTAR and ProFaNE taxonomy was used to organize the interventions. Results Fifty-nine systematic reviews were identified which consisted of single, multiple and multifactorial non-pharmacological interventions to prevent falls in older people. The most frequent ProFaNE defined interventions were exercises either alone or combined with other interventions, followed by environment/assistive technology interventions comprising environmental modifications, assistive and protective aids, staff education and vision assessment/correction. Knowledge was the third principle class of interventions as patient education. Exercise and multifactorial interventions were the most effective treatments to reduce falls in older adults, although not all types of exercise were equally effective in all subjects and in all settings. Effective exercise programs combined balance and strength training. Reviews with a higher AMSTAR score were more likely to contain more primary studies, to be updated and to perform meta-analysis. Conclusions The aim of this overview of

  20. Dietary, non-microbial intervention to prevent Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric diseases

    PubMed Central

    Han, Young-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Jeong, Migyeong; Yoo, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Won-Hee; Shin, Seok-Pyo; Ko, Weon-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection as the major cause of gastroduodenal disorders including acute and chronic gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer, chronic atrophic gastritis, and gastric cancer almost three decades ago, the possibility of preventing these clinical diseases through eradicating H. pylori has been the focus of active research, but soon debate in the scientific community, though eradication opens the feasibility of cancer prevention and the removal of bacteria significantly prevents development or recurrence of peptic ulcer diseases and some clinical diseases, was proposed due to uncertainty in either achievement of complete eradication or inefficacy in cancer prevention with eradication alone. Still its linkage to gastric cancer is incontestable. Since the multiple combination of bacterial factors, environmental insults, and the host immune response that drives the initiation and progression of mucosal atrophy, metaplasia, and dysplasia toward gastric cancer is intervened, simple eradication deemed the feasibility of cancer prevention. Therefore, our group open strong hypothesis that non-microbial, dietary approach might be the alternate, for which several interventions of nutritional components can highlight rejuvenation of chronic atrophic gastritis as well as amelioration of H. pylori-associated procarcinogenic inflammation. In this review article, the experience and outcome regarding nutritional application to rejuvenate gastric atrophy will be introduced, using Korean red ginseng, garlic extracts, cancer preventive Korea kimchi, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), special form of licorice, and probiotics. The detailed influence of dietary intervention and bacterial eradication therapy on disease progression and reversibility of premalignant lesions are discussed. PMID:26207250

  1. Dietary, non-microbial intervention to prevent Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric diseases.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Jeong, Migyeong; Yoo, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Won-Hee; Shin, Seok-Pyo; Ko, Weon-Jin; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection as the major cause of gastroduodenal disorders including acute and chronic gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer, chronic atrophic gastritis, and gastric cancer almost three decades ago, the possibility of preventing these clinical diseases through eradicating H. pylori has been the focus of active research, but soon debate in the scientific community, though eradication opens the feasibility of cancer prevention and the removal of bacteria significantly prevents development or recurrence of peptic ulcer diseases and some clinical diseases, was proposed due to uncertainty in either achievement of complete eradication or inefficacy in cancer prevention with eradication alone. Still its linkage to gastric cancer is incontestable. Since the multiple combination of bacterial factors, environmental insults, and the host immune response that drives the initiation and progression of mucosal atrophy, metaplasia, and dysplasia toward gastric cancer is intervened, simple eradication deemed the feasibility of cancer prevention. Therefore, our group open strong hypothesis that non-microbial, dietary approach might be the alternate, for which several interventions of nutritional components can highlight rejuvenation of chronic atrophic gastritis as well as amelioration of H. pylori-associated procarcinogenic inflammation. In this review article, the experience and outcome regarding nutritional application to rejuvenate gastric atrophy will be introduced, using Korean red ginseng, garlic extracts, cancer preventive Korea kimchi, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), special form of licorice, and probiotics. The detailed influence of dietary intervention and bacterial eradication therapy on disease progression and reversibility of premalignant lesions are discussed. PMID:26207250

  2. A systematic review of suicide prevention interventions targeting indigenous peoples in Australia, United States, Canada and New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Indigenous peoples of Australia, Canada, United States and New Zealand experience disproportionately high rates of suicide. As such, the methodological quality of evaluations of suicide prevention interventions targeting these Indigenous populations should be rigorously examined, in order to determine the extent to which they are effective for reducing rates of Indigenous suicide and suicidal behaviours. This systematic review aims to: 1) identify published evaluations of suicide prevention interventions targeting Indigenous peoples in Australia, Canada, United States and New Zealand; 2) critique their methodological quality; and 3) describe their main characteristics. Methods A systematic search of 17 electronic databases and 13 websites for the period 1981–2012 (inclusive) was undertaken. The reference lists of reviews of suicide prevention interventions were hand-searched for additional relevant studies not identified by the electronic and web search. The methodological quality of evaluations of suicide prevention interventions was assessed using a standardised assessment tool. Results Nine evaluations of suicide prevention interventions were identified: five targeting Native Americans; three targeting Aboriginal Australians; and one First Nation Canadians. The main intervention strategies employed included: Community Prevention, Gatekeeper Training, and Education. Only three of the nine evaluations measured changes in rates of suicide or suicidal behaviour, all of which reported significant improvements. The methodological quality of evaluations was variable. Particular problems included weak study designs, reliance on self-report measures, highly variable consent and follow-up rates, and the absence of economic or cost analyses. Conclusions There is an urgent need for an increase in the number of evaluations of preventive interventions targeting reductions in Indigenous suicide using methodologically rigorous study designs across geographically

  3. How Does the Fast Track Intervention Prevent Adverse Outcomes in Young Adulthood?

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Lucy C; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2016-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown that childhood interventions can foster improved outcomes in adulthood. Less well understood is precisely how-that is, through which developmental pathways-these interventions work. This study assesses mechanisms by which the Fast Track project (n = 891), a randomized intervention in the early 1990s for high-risk children in four communities (Durham, NC; Nashville, TN; rural PA; and Seattle, WA), reduced delinquency, arrests, and general and mental health service utilization in adolescence through young adulthood (ages 12-20). A decomposition of treatment effects indicates that about a third of Fast Track's impact on later crime outcomes can be accounted for by improvements in social and self-regulation skills during childhood (ages 6-11), such as prosocial behavior, emotion regulation, and problem solving. These skills proved less valuable for the prevention of general and mental health problems. PMID:26670938

  4. Maltreatment in Infancy: A Developmental Perspective on Prevention and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Harden, Brenda Jones; Buhler, Andrea; Parra, Laura Jimenez

    2016-10-01

    Burgeoning research has documented high rates of maltreatment during the first 3 years of life. Early exposure to maltreatment is related to a host of negative physical, developmental, and mental health outcomes in childhood and adulthood. Scientists have documented the "biological embedding" of maltreatment, including alterations in the structures and processes of the young brain. Maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, which manifests in contexts of family poverty, inadequate parental knowledge and skill regarding child development and caregiving, social isolation of parents, disruptions in parent-child relationships, compromised parental psychological functioning, and concrete issues that affect parenting. Capitalizing on research on young child maltreatment, interventions have been designed to ameliorate infant/toddler maltreatment, buffer young children against the effects of maltreatment, and promote the well-being of maltreated young children. There is a growing empirical base on interventions to address early maltreatment within the context of a public health prevention framework. Primary prevention programs aim to reduce the incidence of maltreatment and related outcomes for infants, toddlers, and their families through the implementation of population-based programs, such as home visiting and early care and education programs. Secondary prevention models target families with specific risk factors associated with maltreatment, such as maternal depression. Tertiary programs generally entail involuntary services, designed to prevent maltreatment recurrence and to improve parenting skills through therapeutic approaches targeting the parent-child dyad. Empirical knowledge about maltreated young children and their families and interventions to support them can inform the design and delivery of child welfare services. PMID:27580663

  5. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  6. Reducing Internalizing Symptoms among High-Risk, Hispanic Adolescents: Mediators of a Preventive Family Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Perrino, Tatiana; Brincks, Ahnalee; Howe, George; Brown, C. Hendricks; Prado, Guillermo; Pantin, Hilda

    2016-01-01

    Familias Unidas is a family-focused preventive intervention that has been found to reduce drug use and sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic adolescents. In some trials, Familias Unidas has also been found to be efficacious in reducing adolescent internalizing symptoms (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms), even though the intervention did not specifically target internalizing symptoms. This study examines potential mediators or mechanisms by which Familias Unidas influences internalizing symptoms, specifically the role of intervention-targeted improvements in parent-adolescent communication and reductions in youth externalizing behaviors. A total of 213 Hispanic eighth grade students with a history of externalizing behavior problems and their primary caregivers were recruited from the public school system. Participants, with a mean age of 13.8 years, were randomized into the Familias Unidas intervention or community practice control condition, and assessed at baseline, 6-months, 18-months, and 30-months post-baseline. A cascading mediation model was tested in which the Familias Unidas intervention was hypothesized to decrease adolescent internalizing symptoms through two mediators: improvements in parent-adolescent communication leading to decreases in externalizing behaviors. Findings show that the intervention had significant direct effects on youth internalizing symptoms at 30-months post-baseline. In addition, the cascading mediation model was supported in which the Familias Unidas intervention predicted significant improvements in parent-adolescent communication at 6-months, subsequently decreasing externalizing behaviors at 18-months, and ultimately reducing youth internalizing symptoms at 30-months post-baseline. Implications for prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:27154768

  7. Reducing Internalizing Symptoms Among High-Risk, Hispanic Adolescents: Mediators of a Preventive Family Intervention.

    PubMed

    Perrino, Tatiana; Brincks, Ahnalee; Howe, George; Brown, C Hendricks; Prado, Guillermo; Pantin, Hilda

    2016-07-01

    Familias Unidas is a family-focused preventive intervention that has been found to reduce drug use and sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic adolescents. In some trials, Familias Unidas has also been found to be efficacious in reducing adolescent internalizing symptoms (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms), even though the intervention did not specifically target internalizing symptoms. This study examines potential mediators or mechanisms by which Familias Unidas influences internalizing symptoms, specifically the role of intervention-targeted improvements in parent-adolescent communication and reductions in youth externalizing behaviors. A total of 213 Hispanic eighth grade students with a history of externalizing behavior problems and their primary caregivers were recruited from the public school system. Participants, with a mean age of 13.8 years, were randomized into the Familias Unidas intervention or community practice control condition and assessed at baseline, 6, 18, and 30 months post-baseline. A cascading mediation model was tested in which the Familias Unidas intervention was hypothesized to decrease adolescent internalizing symptoms through two mediators: improvements in parent-adolescent communication leading to decreases in externalizing behaviors. Findings show that the intervention had significant direct effects on youth internalizing symptoms at 30 months post-baseline. In addition, the cascading mediation model was supported in which the Familias Unidas intervention predicted significant improvements in parent-adolescent communication at 6 months, subsequently decreasing externalizing behaviors at 18 months, and ultimately reducing youth internalizing symptoms at 30 months post-baseline. Implications for prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:27154768

  8. Severe Reading Difficulties--Can They Be Prevented? A Comparison of Prevention and Intervention Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Donna M.; Vellutino, Frank R.; Small, Sheila G.; Fanuele, Diane P.; Sweeney, Joan M.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a preventative program delivered in kindergarten to children who were identified as being at risk for experiencing reading difficulties. It also examined the effects of two 1st-grade intervention programs delivered to children who demonstrated substantial difficulty with reading development at the beginning of…

  9. Preventing Problem Behaviors: Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Level Prevention Interventions for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Tary J.; Sugai, George

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare changes in social skills, problem behaviors, and academic competence for kindergarten or first grade students identified as being at risk for serious behavior problems who received primary, secondary, or tertiary level preventive interventions. Of the 93 participants in this study, 73% were male; 86% were…

  10. Family-Based HIV Preventive Intervention: Child Level Results from the CHAMP Family Program

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Cami K.; Baptiste, Donna; Traube, Dorian; Paikoff, Roberta L.; Madison-Boyd, Sybil; Coleman, Doris; Bell, Carl C.; Coleman, Ida; McKay, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Social indicators suggest that African American adolescents are in the highest risk categories of those contracting HIV/AIDS (CDC, 2001). The dramatic impact of HIV/AIDS on urban African American youth have influenced community leaders and policy makers to place high priority on programming that can prevent youth’s exposure to the virus (Pequegnat & Szapocznik, 2000). Program developers are encouraged to design programs that reflect the developmental ecology of urban youth (Tolan, Gorman-Smith, & Henry, 2003). This often translates into three concrete programmatic features: (1) Contextual relevance; (2) Developmental-groundedness; and (3) Systemic Delivery. Because families are considered to be urban youth’s best hope to grow up and survive multiple-dangers in urban neighborhoods (Pequegnat & Szapocznik, 2000), centering prevention within families may ensure that youth receive ongoing support, education, and messages that can increase their capacity to negotiate peer situations involving sex. This paper will present preliminary data from an HIV/AIDS prevention program that is contextually relevant, developmentally grounded and systematically-delivered. The collaborative HIV/AIDS Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP) is aimed at decreasing HIV/AIDS risk exposure among a sample of African American youth living in a poverty-stricken, inner-city community in Chicago. This study describes results from this family-based HIV preventive intervention and involves 88 African American pre-adolescents and their primary caregivers. We present results for the intervention group at baseline and post intervention. We compare post test results to a community comparison group of youth. Suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:20852742

  11. Family-Based HIV Preventive Intervention: Child Level Results from the CHAMP Family Program.

    PubMed

    McBride, Cami K; Baptiste, Donna; Traube, Dorian; Paikoff, Roberta L; Madison-Boyd, Sybil; Coleman, Doris; Bell, Carl C; Coleman, Ida; McKay, Mary M

    2007-05-01

    Social indicators suggest that African American adolescents are in the highest risk categories of those contracting HIV/AIDS (CDC, 2001). The dramatic impact of HIV/AIDS on urban African American youth have influenced community leaders and policy makers to place high priority on programming that can prevent youth's exposure to the virus (Pequegnat & Szapocznik, 2000). Program developers are encouraged to design programs that reflect the developmental ecology of urban youth (Tolan, Gorman-Smith, & Henry, 2003). This often translates into three concrete programmatic features: (1) Contextual relevance; (2) Developmental-groundedness; and (3) Systemic Delivery. Because families are considered to be urban youth's best hope to grow up and survive multiple-dangers in urban neighborhoods (Pequegnat & Szapocznik, 2000), centering prevention within families may ensure that youth receive ongoing support, education, and messages that can increase their capacity to negotiate peer situations involving sex.This paper will present preliminary data from an HIV/AIDS prevention program that is contextually relevant, developmentally grounded and systematically-delivered. The collaborative HIV/AIDS Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP) is aimed at decreasing HIV/AIDS risk exposure among a sample of African American youth living in a poverty-stricken, inner-city community in Chicago. This study describes results from this family-based HIV preventive intervention and involves 88 African American pre-adolescents and their primary caregivers. We present results for the intervention group at baseline and post intervention. We compare post test results to a community comparison group of youth. Suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:20852742

  12. Adoption of Self-management Interventions for Prevention and Care

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Ingram, Barbara L.; Swendeman, Dallas; Lee, Adabel

    2013-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of spiraling healthcare costs can be attributed to chronic diseases, making prevention and management of chronic conditions one of our highest healthcare priorities, especially as we organize for patient-centered medical homes. Collaborative patient self-management in primary care has been repeatedly demonstrated to be efficacious in reducing both symptoms and increasing quality of life, yet there is no consensus on what, how, when, and by whom self-management programs are best implemented. In this article, we argue that self-management interventions effectively span the continuum of prevention and disease management. Self-management interventions rest on a foundation of five core actions: 1) activate motivation to change; 2) apply domain-specific information from education and self-monitoring; 3) develop skills; 4) acquire environmental resources; and 5) build social support. A range of delivery vehicles, including group interventions, primary care providers, and advanced wireless technology, are described and evaluated in terms of diffusion and cost-containment goals. PMID:23148958

  13. [Learning to prevent dehydration in distant Mexican communities and markets].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Larrauri, S; Alvarez Larrauri, C; Jufresa Carreras, J

    1994-06-01

    Child mortality due to diarrheal diseases is high in Mexico. Official records reported 14,000 children died in 1990 of this cause. Yet, we do not know the real extent of the problem since unregistered child deaths in our countryside seem to be far more frequent than acknowledged by government information. Most of these deaths occur among poor peasants and indigenous people living far from medical services. There are more than 100,000 communities with less than 500 inhabitants. This population does not benefit from medical services due to several problems, such as accessibility and linguistic and cultural gaps. In order to promote Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) within these communities, the authors implemented an education strategy, aimed at this specific population, to enhance their learning of prevention of diarrhea and dehydration, and thereby to increase their use of ORT. While rendering account of research devised to prove the extensibility to larger scales of methods formerly tried at an experimental (pilot) level, this paper further discusses and reinforces the contribution of the insights of a critical sociology epistemological framework in planning and conducting sociological interventions in the field of health as well as in any other field. The basic assumption of this point of view is that to adopt rationalized solutions to their problems (e.g. the prevention of dehydration of their children by means of the ORT) people should have the opportunity to deliberate rationally about them in order to be able to justify or validate their actions regarding the course of events and the opinions and norms of their closest community.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8036530

  14. Reducing Youth Gun Violence. Part One--An Overview [and] Part Two--Prevention and Intervention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvoy, Alan, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document contains two issues of a journal on reducing youth gun violence, reprinted from a report by the U.S. Department of Justice. The first issue, part one, provides an overview of programs and initiatives. The second issue, part two, describes prevention and intervention programs. To reduce violence and build healthy communities requires…

  15. Maximizing the impact of HIV prevention efforts: Interventions for couples

    PubMed Central

    Medley, Amy; Baggaley, Rachel; Bachanas, Pamela; Cohen, Myron; Shaffer, Nathan; Lo, Ying-Ru

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts to increase access to HIV testing and counseling services, population coverage remains low. As a result, many people in sub-Saharan Africa do not know their own HIV status or the status of their sex partner(s). Recent evidence, however, indicates that as many as half of HIV-positive individuals in ongoing sexual relationships have an HIV-negative partner and that a significant proportion of new HIV infections in generalized epidemics occur within serodiscordant couples. Integrating couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC) into routine clinic- and community-based services can significantly increase the number of couples where the status of both partners is known. Offering couples a set of evidence-based interventions once their HIV status has been determined can significantly reduce HIV incidence within couples and if implemented with sufficient scale and coverage, potentially reduce population-level HIV incidence as well. This article describes these interventions and their potential benefits. PMID:23656251

  16. Response to Intervention: Preventing and Remediating Academic Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jack M; Vaughn, Sharon

    2009-04-01

    We address the advantages and challenges of service delivery models based on student response to intervention (RTI) for preventing and remediating academic difficulties and as data sources for identification for special education services. The primary goal of RTI models is improved academic and behavioral outcomes for all students. We review evidence for the processes underlying RTI, including screening and progress monitoring assessments, evidence-based interventions, and schoolwide coordination of multitiered instruction. We also discuss the secondary goal of RTI, which is to provide data for identification of learning disabilities (LDs). Incorporating instructional response into identification represents a controversial shift away from discrepancies in cognitive skills that have traditionally been a primary basis for LD identification. RTI processes potentially integrate general and special education and suggest new directions for research and public policy related to LDs, but the scaling issues in schools are significant and more research is needed on the use of RTI data for identification. PMID:21765862

  17. Response to Intervention: Preventing and Remediating Academic Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    We address the advantages and challenges of service delivery models based on student response to intervention (RTI) for preventing and remediating academic difficulties and as data sources for identification for special education services. The primary goal of RTI models is improved academic and behavioral outcomes for all students. We review evidence for the processes underlying RTI, including screening and progress monitoring assessments, evidence-based interventions, and schoolwide coordination of multitiered instruction. We also discuss the secondary goal of RTI, which is to provide data for identification of learning disabilities (LDs). Incorporating instructional response into identification represents a controversial shift away from discrepancies in cognitive skills that have traditionally been a primary basis for LD identification. RTI processes potentially integrate general and special education and suggest new directions for research and public policy related to LDs, but the scaling issues in schools are significant and more research is needed on the use of RTI data for identification. PMID:21765862

  18. Mobile Phone Interventions for the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Linda G; Beatty, Alexis; Stafford, Zoey; Whooley, Mary A

    2016-01-01

    Mobile health in the form of text messaging and mobile applications provides an innovative and effective approach to promote prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, the magnitude of these effects is unclear. Through a comprehensive search of databases from 2002-2016, we conducted a quantitative systematic review. The selected studies were critically evaluated to extract and summarize pertinent characteristics and outcomes. A large majority of studies (22 of 28, 79%) demonstrated text messaging, mobile applications, and telemonitoring via mobile phones were effective in improving outcomes. Some key factors associated with successful interventions included personalized messages with tailored advice, greater engagement (2-way text messaging, higher frequency of messages), and use of multiple modalities. Overall, text messaging appears more effective than smartphone-based interventions. Incorporating principles of behavioral activation will help promote and sustain healthy lifestyle behaviors in patients with CVD that result in improved clinical outcomes. PMID:27001245

  19. Methods for Linking Community Views to Measureable Outcomes in a Youth Violence Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Catherine C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A.; Walker, Alia; Branas, Charles C.; TenHave, Thomas R.; Vaughn, Nicole A.; Leff, Stephen S.; Hausman, Alice J.

    2013-01-01

    Background All parties in community–academic partnerships have a vested interest prevention program success. Markers of success that reflect community’s experiences of programmatic prevention success are not always measurable, but critically speak to community-defined needs. Objective The purpose of this manuscript was to (1) describe our systematic process for linking locally relevant community views (community-defined indicators) to measurable outcomes in the context of a youth violence prevention program and (2) discuss lessons learned, next steps, and recommendations for others trying to replicate a similar process. Methods A research team composed of both academic and community researchers conducted a systematic process of matching community-defined indicators of youth violence prevention programmatic success to standardized youth survey items being administered in the course of a program evaluation. The research team of three community partners and Five academic partners considered 43 community-defined indicators and 208 items from the youth surveys being utilized within the context of a community-based aggression prevention program. At the end of the matching process, 92 youth survey items were identified and agreed upon as potential matches to 11 of the community-defined indicators. Conclusions We applied rigorous action steps to match community-defined indicators to survey data collected in the youth violence prevention intervention. We learned important lessons that inform recommendations for others interested in such endeavors. The process used to derive and assess community-defined indicators of success emphasized the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and use of existing and available data to reduce participant burden. PMID:23221296

  20. Making a Difference: Young People in Community Crime Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Jean F.; Calhoun, John C.

    This document discusses the involvement of teenagers in community crime prevention. It gives the justification, methods, successes, and problems of crime prevention programs in which young people participate. Several reasons for involving teenagers are given: teenagers need to develop a sense of community, they are often the victims of crime, and…

  1. Directory of Community Crime Prevention Programs: National and State Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockard, James L.; And Others

    Hundreds of community crime prevention programs are currently operating at the national, state and local levels. Many of these are staffed by citizens and local civic-action groups. Others are operated by government agencies. This directory of national and state community crime prevention programs includes organization name and title, address and…

  2. Type 2 diabetes can be prevented with early pharmacological intervention.

    PubMed

    DeFronzo, Ralph A; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad

    2011-05-01

    In the U.S., ∼ 21 × 10(6) individuals have type 2 diabetes, and twice as many have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Approximately 40-50% of individuals with IGT will progress to type 2 diabetes over their lifetime. Therefore, treatment of high-risk individuals with IGT to prevent type 2 diabetes has important medical, economic, social, and human implications. Weight loss, although effective in reducing the conversion of IGT to type 2 diabetes, is difficult to achieve and maintain. Moreover, 40-50% of IGT subjects progress to type 2 diabetes despite successful weight reduction. In contrast, pharmacological treatment of IGT with oral antidiabetic agents that improve insulin sensitivity and preserve β-cell function--the characteristic pathophysiological abnormalities present in IGT and type 2 diabetes--uniformly have been shown to prevent progression of IGT to type 2 diabetes. The most consistent results have been observed with the thiazolidinediones (Troglitazone in the Prevention of Diabetes [TRIPOD], Pioglitazone in the Prevention of Diabetes [PIPOD], Diabetes Reduction Assessment with Ramipril and Rosiglitazone Medication [DREAM], and Actos Now for the Prevention of Diabetes [ACT NOW]), with a 50-70% reduction in IGT conversion to diabetes. Metformin in the U.S. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) reduced the development of type 2 diabetes by 31% and has been recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) for treating high-risk individuals with IGT. The glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs, which augment insulin secretion, preserve β-cell function, and promote weight loss, also would be expected to be efficacious in preventing the progression of IGT to type 2 diabetes. Because individuals in the upper tertile of IGT are maximally/near-maximally insulin resistant, have lost 70-80% of their β-cell function, and have an ∼ 10% incidence of diabetic retinopathy, pharmacological intervention, in combination with diet plus exercise, should be instituted. PMID

  3. Behavioral community intervention to reduce the risk of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Lombard, D; Neubauer, T E; Canfield, D; Winett, R A

    1991-01-01

    Peer leader modeling, posted feedback, posted goals, and a commitment raffle were used at two swimming pools to increase behaviors associated with skin cancer prevention. During the intervention condition, pool lifeguards modeled the protective behaviors by wearing sunglasses, t-shirts, and hats, using zinc oxide and sunscreen, and staying in the shade. Children and adolescents (1 to 16 years old) increased their use of two or more protective behaviors from a baseline mean of 6.5% to 26.9% during the intervention. Adults (older than 16 years) increased their protective behaviors from a baseline mean of 22% to 37.95% during the intervention. The lifeguards increased their use of all the protective behaviors from a baseline mean of 16.7% to 63.5% during intervention. Ways to improve and expand this intervention are discussed. PMID:1797771

  4. The Effects of Training Community Leaders in Prevention Science: Communities that Care in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Anderson, Amy; Babinski, Leslie

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of training community leaders in prevention science in the context of the Communities That Care (CTC) model fo community empowerment. Data from an evaluation of CTC in 21 Pennsylvania communities and interviews with 203 community leaders show that training is positively, although modestly, associated with participant attitudes…

  5. Preventing neonaticide by early detection and intervention in student pregnancy. .

    PubMed

    Platt, Lois M

    2014-11-01

    Pregnant students are the population group most likely to commit neonaticide, murder of an infant younger than 24 hours old. Denial by the student, lack of early pregnancy detection, and poor social support contribute to this disorder. As the health care professionals with whom the student has the most contact, school nurses are in an excellent position to prevent neonaticide through provision of health education, early detection of pregnancy, and intervention with students and their families to assist them in making healthy choices. PMID:25417331

  6. [Nutritional dynamic monitoring during pregnancy: a personalized intervention of prevention].

    PubMed

    De Cristofaro, Paolo; Pompilii, Sonia; Di Bonifacio, M Teresa; Malatesta, Guido; Pantoni, Natascia; Xhebraj, Elona; Dragani, Beatrice

    2008-06-01

    Obesity is an increasing condition spreading out in all of the world, independently by race, sex and age. Obesity in pregnancy represent a risk condition for both mother and her offspring. All of the studies are observational and show intervention strategies on weight gain improvement during gestational period, a current topic, but still controversial. Our study is based on nutritional dynamic monitoring during pregnancy in order to improve health and wellbeing status of both mother and her offspring, through an early and efficacy prevention. PMID:18710061

  7. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Bazzell, Anya; Dean, Juanita; McLawhorn, James T.; Stroud, Jareese Lee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW-) led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW. PMID:27493797

  8. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions.

    PubMed

    Blanks, Starla Hairston; Treadwell, Henrie; Bazzell, Anya; Graves, Whitney; Osaji, Olivia; Dean, Juanita; McLawhorn, James T; Stroud, Jareese Lee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW-) led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW. PMID:27493797

  9. Prevention of Methamphetamine Abuse: Can Existing Evidence Inform Community Prevention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Johanna; Fisher, Deborah A.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S.

    2008-01-01

    Little research exists on effective strategies to prevent methamphetamine production, distribution, sales, use, and harm. As a result, prevention practitioners (especially at the local level) have little guidance in selecting potentially effective strategies. This article presents a general causal model of methamphetamine use and harms that…

  10. Meta-Analysis of Single-Session Behavioral Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections: Implications for Bundling Prevention Packages

    PubMed Central

    Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Pellowski, Jennifer A.; Sagherian, Michael J.; Warren, Michelle; Popat, Ami R.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based, single-session behavioral interventions are urgently needed for preventing the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To estimate the efficacy of single-session, behavioral interventions for STI prevention, we collected data from 29 single-session interventions (20 studies; n = 52 465) with an STI outcome. Infection with an STI was 35% less likely (odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval = 0.55–0.77) among intervention group participants than among control group participants. Single-session interventions offer considerable benefits in terms of disease prevention and create minimal burden for both the patient and the provider. Brief and effective STI prevention interventions are a valuable tool and can be readily adapted to bolster the benefits of biomedical technologies focusing on the prevention of HIV and other STIs. PMID:22994247

  11. Early childhood obesity prevention in low-income, urban communities.

    PubMed

    Dawson-McClure, Spring; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Theise, Rachelle; Palamar, Joseph J; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Barajas, R Gabriela; Calzada, Esther J

    2014-01-01

    Given the disproportionately high rates of obesity-related morbidity among low-income, ethnic minority youth, obesity prevention in this population is critical. Prior efforts to curb childhood obesity have had limited public health impact. The present study evaluates an innovative approach to obesity prevention by promoting foundational parenting and child behavioral regulation. This pre-post intervention study evaluated an enhanced version of ParentCorps with 91 families of pre-Kindergarten students in low-income, urban communities. Assessments included tests of knowledge and parent report. Consistent with findings from two randomized controlled trials of ParentCorps, parent knowledge and use of foundational parenting practices increased and child behavior problems decreased. Child nutrition knowledge and physical activity increased and television watching decreased; for boys, sleep problems decreased. Comparable benefits occurred for children at high risk for obesity based on child dysregulation, child overweight, and parent overweight. Results support a "whole child," family-centered approach to health promotion in early childhood. PMID:24702665

  12. Community Development Strategies To Prevent Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategy Alert, 1992

    1992-01-01

    How community-based groups are confronting and preventing alcohol and other drug problems and related crime in their communities is the focus of this publication. A wide range of approaches and strategies, used by 10 nonprofit, community-based organizations representative of urban and rural areas, are presented. Case studies describe two community…

  13. Realistic outcomes: lessons from community-based research and demonstration programs for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Mittelmark, M B; Hunt, M K; Heath, G W; Schmid, T L

    1993-01-01

    Public health departments nation-wide are implementing community-based cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs. Many such programs are turning for guidance to three research and demonstration projects: the Stanford Five City Project, the Pawtucket Heart Health Program, and the Minnesota Heart Health Program. This article summarizes some of the lessons learned in these projects and recommends strategies for the new generation of CVD prevention programs. The core of a successful program is the community organization process. This involves identification and activation of key community leaders, stimulation of citizens and organizations to volunteer time and offer resources to CVD prevention, and the promotion of prevention as a community theme. A wide range of intervention settings are available for health promotion. As is true for the workplace, places of worship are receptive to health promotion programs and have access to large numbers of people. Mass media are effective when used in conjunction with complementary messages delivered through other channels, such as school programs, adult education programs, and self-help programs. Community health professionals play a vital role in providing program endorsement and stimulating the participation of other community leaders. School-based programs promote long-term behavior change and reach beyond the school to actively involve parents. Innovative health promotion contests have widespread appeal and promote participation in other community interventions. In the area of evaluation, health program participation rates are appropriate primary outcome measures in most community-oriented prevention programs. Other program evaluation priorities include community analysis and formative evaluation, providing data to fine-tune interventions and define the needs and preferences of the community. It is premature to comment conclusively on the effectiveness of community-based CVD prevention programs in reducing population

  14. Effectiveness of Interventions, Programs and Strategies for Gender-based Violence Prevention in Refugee Populations: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Tappis, Hannah; Freeman, Jeffrey; Glass, Nancy; Doocy, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gender based violence (GBV) remains one of the most serious threats to the health and safety of women and girls worldwide. The problem is even more pronounced in refugee populations where women and girls are at increased risk of violence. In 2015, UNHCR reported the highest number of forcibly displaced people in recorded history. Despite growing need, there have been few rigorous evaluations of interventions aimed at primary GBV prevention and no systematic reviews of GBV prevention efforts specifically focused on refugee populations; reviews to date have primarily examined prevention of conflict related sexual violence, with very limited focus on other forms of GBV such as intimate partner violence Methods: This study reviewed the scientific literature addressing strategies for primary prevention of GBV and their effectiveness among refugee populations over the past ten years (2006 to 2015). Narrative content analysis methods were used to extract findings related to prevention activities/programs recommended by the global humanitarian community, such as sociocultural norms change, rebuilding family and community support structures, improving accountability systems, designing effective services and facilities, working with formal and traditional legal systems, monitoring and documenting GBV, and/or engaging men and boys in GBV prevention and response. Results: Study findings indicate that a range of GBV prevention activities recommended by the global humanitarian community are currently being applied in a variety of settings. However, there remains a limited body of evidence on the effectiveness of GBV prevention programs, interventions, and strategies, especially among refugee populations. Conclusion: Commonly agreed upon standards or guidelines for evaluation of GBV prevention programming, and publication of evaluations conducted using these guidelines, could assist humanitarian stakeholders to build and disseminate an evidence base of effective GBV

  15. Connect: An Effective Community-Based Youth Suicide Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Gretchen; Baber, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention is an important public health issue. However, few prevention programs are theory driven or systematically evaluated. This study evaluated Connect, a community-based youth suicide prevention program. Analysis of pre and posttraining questionnaires from 648 adults and 204 high school students revealed significant changes in…

  16. Feasibility of Group Lifestyle Intervention for Diabetes Prevention in Arab Americans

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, Linda A.; Pinelli, Nicole R.; Brown, Morton B.; Funnell, Martha M.; Anderson, Robert; Hammad, Adnan; Herman, William H.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS To assess the feasibility and acceptability of a community-based, culturally-specific, Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)-adapted, group lifestyle intervention in Arab-Americans. METHODS Overweight (BMI≥27 kg/m2) Arab-Americans aged ≥30 years and without a history of diabetes were recruited to participate in a 24-week group lifestyle intervention. The DPP core-curriculum was culturally rewritten, translated into Arabic, and delivered in weekly sessions over a 12-week period. Follow-up was performed at week-24. The primary goals were to achieve ≥7% weight loss and ≥150 minutes/week of physical activity. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed. RESULTS Of the 71 participants (mean age±SD 47±10 years, 38% males), 44% achieved ≥7% weight loss, 59% achieved ≥5% reduction in weight, and 78% reached the physical activity goal of ≥150-minutes/week. The mean±SD weight loss was 5.2±4.4 kg at week-24 (p<0.0001), Marked reduction in body measurements, daily energy and fat intake were noted. Retention was high with 86% completing the intervention. CONCLUSIONS This trial demonstrates that a culturally-specific, DPP-adapted, group lifestyle intervention implemented in a community setting is feasible and effective in Arab-Americans. PMID:21168232

  17. Testing the universality of the effects of the communities that care prevention system for preventing adolescent drug use and delinquency.

    PubMed

    Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David; Fagan, Abigail A; Abbott, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F

    2010-12-01

    Universal community-oriented interventions are an important component in the prevention of youth health and behavior problems. Testing the universality of the effects of an intervention that was designed to be universal is important because it provides information about how the program operates and for whom and under what conditions it is most effective. The present study examined whether the previously established significant effects of the universal, community-based Communities That Care (CTC) prevention program on the prevalence of substance use and the variety of delinquent behaviors held equally for boys and girls and in risk-related subgroups defined by early substance use, early delinquency, and high levels of community-targeted risk at baseline. Interaction analyses of data from a panel of 4,407 students followed from Grade 5 to Grade 8 in the first randomized trial of CTC in 12 matched community pairs suggests that CTC reduced students' substance use and delinquency equally across risk-related subgroups and gender, with two exceptions: The effect of CTC on reducing substance use in 8th grade was stronger for boys than girls and the impact of CTC on reducing 8th-grade delinquency was stronger for students who were nondelinquent at baseline. PMID:20422289

  18. Community Post-Tornado Support Groups: Intervention and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Susan; And Others

    Post-tornado support groups were organized by the Greene County, North Carolina disaster coordinators and the Pitt County outreach workers from the Community Mental Health Center sponsored tornado follow-up project. The most significant intervention used was the emphasis on creating a climate of group support by establishing a forum for…

  19. The Healthy Children, Strong Families Intervention: Design and Community Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Alexandra K.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Cronin, Kate A.; Prince, Ronald J.; Wubben, Deborah P.; Parker, Tassy; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy Children, Strong Families (HCSF) is a 2-year, community-driven, family-based randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention conducted in partnership with four Wisconsin American Indian tribes. HCSF is composed of 1 year of targeted home visits to deliver nutritional and physical activity curricula. During Year 1, trained…

  20. Evaluation of a Community-Based Aging Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Wang, Chun-Hou; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Chen; Wang, Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the outcome and process of a community-based aging intervention program for the elderly in Taiwan. The program included education on nutrition and dietary behavior and on physical activities. Outcome and process evaluations were conducted. The program may have had some effects on decreasing some dietary behavioral problems and…

  1. Prevent Wounds by Conducting a Comprehensive Foot Examination and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Burdette-Taylor, Michele Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Lower extremity wounds and falls are on the rise with the demographics and projected aging population. Diabetes and heart disease supersede cancer deaths. A basic foot exam—performed routinely on patients identified as high risk allows time for early intervention and prevention. A Certified Foot and Nail Care Nurse (CFCN) who evaluates clients on a regular basis, conducts a comprehensive lower extremity exam for loss of protective sensation (LOPS) and compromised peripheral blood flow is more likely to provide needed care in a timely manner. Why a nurse? Because nurses who have the level of education, expertise through acquired training, and are board certified are competent to assess, educate, provide intervention, and refer. Utilizing CFCNs is cost-effective and efficient. CFCN is utilized as a member of the multidisciplinary team. Nurses are educators and education is an effective method for prevention. Nurses, as the most trusted health care provider, communicate, establish rapport, and develop sustaining relationships. Utilizing the Wound Ostomy Continence Nurses’ Credentialing Board (WOCNCB) CFCN raises the standard of care substantially and reduces overall costs to life, limbs, and dollars. This innovation in practice improves outcomes, patient satisfaction, and safety while reducing hospital admissions.

  2. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART): an intervention to build community resilience to disasters.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Van Horn, Richard L; Klomp, Richard W; Norris, Fran H; Reissman, Dori B

    2013-01-01

    Community resilience has emerged as a construct to support and foster healthy individual, family, and community adaptation to mass casualty incidents. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) is a publicly available theory-based and evidence-informed community intervention designed to enhance community resilience by bringing stakeholders together to address community issues in a process that includes assessment, feedback, planning, and action. Tools include a field-tested community resilience survey and other assessment and analytical instruments. The CART process encourages public engagement in problem solving and the development and use of local assets to address community needs. CART recognizes 4 interrelated domains that contribute to community resilience: connection and caring, resources, transformative potential, and disaster management. The primary value of CART is its contribution to community participation, communication, self-awareness, cooperation, and critical reflection and its ability to stimulate analysis, collaboration, skill building, resource sharing, and purposeful action. PMID:23524306

  3. Community capacity for sustainability of nutrition and physical activity interventions in small, rural communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rural communities would seem to present a challenge for sustainability of interventions because of resource limitations. This session will examine ways in which capacity for sustainability has been emphasized as part of nutrition and physical activity interventions in three rural Mississippi River D...

  4. Sustainability of Tailored Goal Oriented Community Brief Intervention Model among risky drinkers in community in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Areesantichai, Chitlada; Perngparn, Usaneya; Pilley, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Tailored Goal Oriented Community Brief Intervention Model (TGCBI), first implemented as culturally secure and acceptable to communities in Thailand, is designed in 2 stages or levels: community level, a culturally secure approach to motivate participants to reconsider their drinking behavior; individual level, involved in the key messages received from the community level together with additional input focused towards individuals. TGCBI's effectiveness was measured by the number of abstinent drinkers and number of alcohol-free months among those who continued to drink at followup in two communities that originally had high prevalence of risky drinking. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to investigate the intervention effect. Results indicated that the number of participants who stopped drinking 6 months later and the number of alcohol-free months during followup were significantly greater (P < 0.05) for 47 participants in the intervention group compared to the control group (n = 50). TGCBI results in sustainable drinking cessation. PMID:23956984

  5. Interventions for encouraging sexual behaviours intended to prevent cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Jonathan P; Frampton, Geoff K; Harris, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the key risk factor for cervical cancer. Continuing high rates of HPV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young people demonstrate the need for effective behavioural interventions. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for young women to encourage safer sexual behaviours to prevent transmission of STIs (including HPV) and cervical cancer. Search methods Systematic literature searches were performed on the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 4, 2009) Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Review Group (CGCRG) Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Social Science Citation Index and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI) up to the end of 2009. All references were screened for inclusion against selection criteria. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural interventions for young women up to the age of 25 years that included, amongst other things, information provision about the transmission and prevention of STIs. Trials had to measure behavioural outcomes (e.g. condom use) and/or biological outcomes (e.g. incidence of STIs, cervical cancer). Data collection and analysis A narrative synthesis was conducted. Meta-analysis was not considered appropriate due to heterogeneity between the interventions and trial populations. Main results A total of 5271 references were screened and of these 23 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Most were conducted in the USA and in health-care clinics (e.g. family planning). The majority of interventions provided information about STIs and taught safer sex skills (e.g. communication), occasionally supplemented with provision of resources (e.g. free sexual health services). They were heterogeneous in duration, contact time, provider, behavioural aims and outcomes. A variety of STIs were addressed including HIV and chlamydia. None of the trials explicitly

  6. Integrating Behavioral HIV Interventions into Biomedical Prevention Trials with Youth: Lessons from Chicago’s Project PrEPare

    PubMed Central

    Hosek, Sybil G.; Green, Keith R.; Siberry, George; Lally, Michelle; Balthazar, Christopher; Serrano, Pedro A.; Kapogiannis, Bill

    2013-01-01

    On the heels of several trials demonstrating the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and the recent approval by the FDA of the supplemental indication for Truvada as PrEP, researchers, advocates, and community providers are calling for the investigation of implementation strategies that combine behavioral interventions with biomedical prevention. This paper describes the modification and integration of an evidence-based group-level intervention into a small PrEP pilot trial with young men who have sex with men (YMSM). The behavioral intervention as well as ongoing risk reduction counseling sessions were found to be highly acceptable among a sample of racially diverse YMSM. PMID:24223514

  7. Community-Initiated Urban Development: An Ecological Intervention

    PubMed Central

    March, Tanya L.; Bontempo, Brian D.

    2006-01-01

    Neglected urban environments have been linked to social isolation, depression, and other health problems. In Portland, OR in 2003, an intervention was implemented and evaluated in three neighborhoods with the objective of promoting community participation in urban renewal and engaging residents in the construction of attractive urban places. Municipal officials approved and permitted community-designed street murals, public benches, planter boxes, information kiosks with bulletin boards, trellises for hanging gardens, all positioned in the public right-of-way. Residents within a two-block radius of the three sites were systematically sampled and interviewed before (N = 325) and after (N = 349) the intervention, of which, 265 individuals completed both surveys of the panel study. After the intervention, multivariate results revealed improvements in mental health (p = 0.03), increased sense of community (p < 0.01), and an overall expansion of social capital (p = 0.04). Through community empowerment, participation, and collective action, the strategy successfully engaged residents in restoring neighborhoods, with direct benefits to community well-being. PMID:17123178

  8. Preventive Interventions and Sustained Attachment Security in Maltreated Children

    PubMed Central

    Stronach, Erin Pickreign; Toth, Sheree L.; Rogosch, Fred; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen-month-old maltreated infants (n = 137) and their mothers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: child-parent psychotherapy (CPP), psychoeducational parenting intervention (PPI), and community standard (CS). A fourth group of nonmaltreated infants (n =52) and their mothers served as a normative comparison (NC) group. A prior investigation found that the CPP and PPI groups demonstrated substantial increases in secure attachment at post-intervention, whereas this change was not found in the CS and NC groups. The current investigation involved the analysis of data obtained at a follow-up assessment that occurred 12-months after the completion of treatment. At follow-up, children in the CPP group had higher rates of secure and lower rates of disorganized attachment than did children in the PPI or CS groups. Rates of disorganized attachment did not differ between the CPP and NC groups. Intention-to-treat analyses (ITT) also showed higher rates of secure attachment at follow-up in the CPP group relative to the PPI and CS groups. However, groups did not differ on disorganized attachment. Both primary and ITT analyses demonstrated that maternal reported child behavior problems did not differ among the four groups at the follow-up assessment. This is the first investigation to demonstrate sustained attachment security in maltreated children 12 months after the completion of an attachment theory-informed intervention. Findings also suggest that, while effective in the short term, parenting interventions alone may not be effective in maintaining secure attachment in children over time. PMID:24229539

  9. A new approach to prevent HIV transmission: Project Protect intervention for recently infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Vasylyeva, T.I.; Friedman, S.R.; Smyrnov, P.; Bondarenko, K.

    2015-01-01

    Past research suggests that as many as 50% of onward human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmissions occur during acute and recent HIV infection. It is clearly important to develop interventions which focus on this highly infectious stage of HIV infection to prevent further transmission in the risk networks of acutely and recently infected individuals. Project Protect tries to find recently and acutely infected individuals and prevents HIV transmission in their risk networks. Participants are recruited by community health outreach workers at community-based HIV testing sites and drug users’ community venues, by coupon referrals and through referrals from AIDS clinics. When a network with acute/recent infection is identified, network members are interviewed about their risky behaviors, network information is collected, and blood is drawn for HIV testing. Participants are also educated and given prevention materials (condoms, syringes, educational materials); HIV-infected participants are referred to AIDS clinics and are assisted with access to care. Community alerts about elevated risk of HIV transmission are distributed within the risk networks of recently infected. Overall, 342 people were recruited to the project and screened for acute/recent HIV infection. Only six index cases of recent infection (2.3% of all people screened) were found through primary screening at voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) sites, but six cases of recent infection were found through contact tracing of these recently infected participants (7% of network members who came to the interview). Combining screening at VCT sites and contact tracing the number of recently infected people we located as compared to VCT screening alone. No adverse events were encountered. These first results provide evidence for the theory behind the intervention, i.e., in the risk networks of recently infected people there are other people with recent HIV infection and they can be successfully located

  10. Spatial Analysis in Support of Community Health Intervention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Eric S.; South, Andrew P.; Jones, David E.; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Huo, Shuyan; Liu, Lin; Greenberg, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Using vital records and census data representing 165,136 singleton births from 2003–2006, geospatial filtering and density estimates enabled the calculation of preterm birth rates at each geographical point within three urban Ohio counties. Adjusted attributable risk calculations were used to identify risk factors associated with regions of high and low rates of preterm birth. Among the three counties, affected populations varied in size as well as in demographic composition. Variation in the risk factors from one region to another suggests that a single one size fits all intervention strategy would be unlikely to efficiently or effectively impact the complex preterm birth problem. Although more useful in areas with a heterogeneous distribution of preterm birth, application of the presented approach supports the development of efficient community-level health intervention strategies by identifying communities with the highest potential impact and allowing for the prioritization of efforts on specific risk factors within those communities. PMID:23304301

  11. Preventing Violence Among High-Risk Youth and Communities with Economic, Policy, and Structural Strategies.

    PubMed

    Massetti, Greta M; David-Ferdon, Corinne

    2016-02-12

    Youth violence is preventable, and the reduction of health disparities is possible with evidence-based approaches. Achieving community-wide reductions in youth violence and health disparities has been limited in part because of the lack of prevention strategies to address community risk factors. CDC-supported research has resulted in three promising community-level approaches: Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) in Los Angeles, California; alcohol policy to reduce youth access in Richmond, Virginia; and the Safe Streets program in Baltimore, Maryland. Evaluation findings indicated that BIDs in Los Angeles were associated with a 12% reduction in robberies (one type of violent crime) and an 8% reduction in violent crime overall. In Richmond's alcohol policy program, investigators found that the monthly average of ambulance pickups for violent injuries among youth aged 15-24 years had a significantly greater decrease in the intervention (19.6 to 0 per 1,000) than comparison communities (7.4 to 3.3 per 1,000). Investigators of Safe Streets found that some intervention communities experienced reductions in homicide and/or nonfatal shootings, but results were not consistent across communities. Communitywide rates of violence can be changed in communities with disproportionately high rates of youth violence associated with entrenched health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantage. Community-level strategies are a critical part of comprehensive approaches necessary to achieve broad reductions in violence and health disparities. PMID:26916848

  12. Smoking cessation as a therapeutic and preventive intervention: a meeting report.

    PubMed

    Nardini, S; Castellani, P; Carrozzi, L

    2001-12-01

    In November 2000, a meeting took place on "Smoking cessation as a therapeutic and preventive intervention". The venue of the meeting was Venice, in the old Monastery of the Isola San Giorgio, and it was jointly organised by the Italian Association of Hospital Pulmonologists (AIPO) and the European Section of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT--Europe). The meeting was also sponsored by the European Respiratory Society (ERS). The importance of the topic cannot be underestimated. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO) tobacco smoking is the most important cause of preventable death in the industrialised world. When tobacco smoking constitutes a repetitive and compulsive behaviour, for instance when a person continues smoking when suffering from a smoking related disease, it is due to tobacco dependence, which both WHO and the American Psychiatric Association classify as a disease. Tobacco smoking is not only a disease in itself but can also cause other diseases, such as chronic obstructive lung disease, lung cancer and cardiovascular disease, and can worsen pre-existent disease, e.g. asthma. In the WHO European region, according to WHO estimates, tobacco smoking causes at least 1,200,000 deaths each year (14% of all deaths). So far, a preventive strategy based on protection of children and adolescents from initiation has not worked in decreasing the prevalence among young generations. Even with the best educational programs success is partial and ephemeral. Smoking cessation with behavioural and pharmacological aid is a well established therapeutic intervention, supported by strong scientific evidence. But smoking cessation can also be a preventive intervention, because it can reduce the prevalence of smokers in a community. Obviously, smoking cessation is to be used together with all other interventions recognized as effective in tobacco control (cigarette and tobacco product pricing, regulatory approaches, smoking bans, health

  13. Preventable obstetrical interventions: how many caesarean sections can be prevented in Canada?

    PubMed

    Rossignol, Michel; Moutquin, Jean-Marie; Boughrassa, Faiza; Bédard, Marie-Josée; Chaillet, Nils; Charest, Christiane; Ciofani, Luisa; Dumas-Pilon, Maxine; Gagné, Guy-Paul; Gagnon, Andrée; Gagnon, Raymonde; Senikas, Vyta

    2013-05-01

    Public health authorities have been alarmed by the progressive rise in rates of Caesarean section in Canada, approaching one birth in three in several provinces. We aimed therefore to consider what were preventable obstetrical interventions in women with a low-risk pregnancy and to propose an analytic framework for the reduction of the rate of CS. We obtained statistical variations of CS rates over time, across regions, and within professional practices from MED-ÉCHO, the Quebec hospitalization database, from 1969 to 2009. Data were extracted from a recent systematic review of the cascade of obstetrical interventions to calculate the population-attributable fractions for each intervention associated with an increased probability of CS. We thereby identified expectant management (as an alternative to labour induction) and planned vaginal birth after CS as the leading strategies for potentially reducing rates of CS in women at low risk. For vaginal birth after CS, an increase to its 1995 level could lower the current CS rate of 23.2% (2009 to 2010) to 21.0%. Other alternatives to obstetrical interventions with a potential for lowering CS rates included non-pharmacological pain control methods (such as continuous support during childbirth) in addition to usual care, intermittent auscultation of the fetal heart (instead of electronic fetal monitoring), and multidisciplinary internal quality assessment audits. We believe, therefore, that the concept of preventable CS is supported by empirical evidence, and we identified realistic strategies to maintain a CS rate in Quebec near 20%. PMID:23756274

  14. Call for research on bystander intervention to prevent sexual violence: the role of campus environments.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    An important next step for the field is to determine what setting-level factors beyond the individual are critical to fostering campus environments that support pro-social, helpful bystander intervention action to prevent sexual violence. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide a research agenda to investigate key areas of the campus environment and their potential influence on bystander intervention. To create the research agenda, a number of steps were followed including: (1) systematically reviewing the larger bystander literature to identify key environmental areas, (2) assessing what research is available specific to college campuses and sexual assault in each of these areas, and (3) outlining future research to address each of these areas on college campuses and determine their applicability to sexual violence situations. Five main groups of factors were found to influence bystander intervention beyond the individual, group and situational levels, including: social norms, sense of community, pro-social modeling, policies, and the physical environment. Certain areas of research on environmental influences on bystander intervention are more developed such as social norms, with little research on areas such as policies and the physical environment. However, further research is needed in each of the identified five areas to help identify how college campuses can support bystander intervention. PMID:25896230

  15. Reducing cancer risk in rural communities through supermarket interventions.

    PubMed

    McCool, Barent N; Lyford, Conrad P; Hensarling, Natalie; Pence, Barbara; McCool, Audrey C; Thapa, Janani; Belasco, Eric; Carter, Tyra M

    2013-09-01

    Cancer risk is high, and prevention efforts are often minimal in rural communities. Feasible means of encouraging lifestyles that will reduce cancer risk for residents of rural communities are needed. This project developed and tested a model that could be feasibly adopted by rural communities to reduce cancer risk. This model focuses on incorporating multi-faceted cancer risk education in the local supermarket. As the supermarket functions both as the primary food source and an information source in small rural communities, the supermarket focus encourages the development of a community environment supportive of lifestyles that should reduce residents' risk for cancer. The actions taken to implement the model and the challenges that communities would have in implementing the model are identified. PMID:23677516

  16. Technology-based Interventions for Preventing and Treating Substance Use Among Youth.

    PubMed

    Marsch, Lisa A; Borodovsky, Jacob T

    2016-10-01

    Preventing or mitigating substance use among youth generally involves 3 different intervention frameworks: universal prevention, selective prevention, and treatment. Each of these levels of intervention poses unique therapeutic and implementation challenges. Technology-based interventions provide solutions to many of these problems by delivering evidence-based interventions in a consistent and cost-effective manner. This article summarizes the current state of the science of technology-based interventions for preventing substance use initiation and mitigating substance use and associated consequences among youth. PMID:27613350

  17. Alteration in unhealthy nutrition behaviors in adolescents through community intervention: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadifard, Noushin; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Ghassemi, Gholam Reza; Nouri, Fatemeh; Pashmi, Rezvan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Primary prevention of chronic diseases has been suggested to initiate health promotion activities from childhoods. The impact of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), a comprehensive community trial, on unhealthy snacks and fast food intake changes was evaluated in Iranian adolescents between 2001 and 2007. METHODS Healthy Heart Promotion from Childhood (HHPC) as one of the IHHP interventional projects was conducted in adolescents aged 11-18 years, selected randomly by multistage random sampling. Isfahan and Najafabad districts were intervention areas (IA) and Arak district was reference area (RA). The baseline and post-intervention surveys were conducted on 1941 and 1997 adolescents, respectively. Healthy lifestyle interventions were performed during the 2nd phase of the study targeting about 410000 students in urban and rural areas of the IA via education, environmental and legislation activities. Dietary intake was assessed annually using a fifty-item food frequency questionnaire in both communities. RESULTS The interaction of year×area demonstrated that the consumption of unhealthy snacks decreased significantly in middle school boys of RA compared to IA (P for interaction=0.01). However, middle school girls (P for interaction = 0.002) and both sexes of high school students in IA showed a significant reduction in fast food consumption against RA (P for interaction < 0.001). CONCLUSION The HHPC interventions made some improvement in fast food consumption. It did not show significant decrease regarding unhealthy snacks in adolescents. Proper and higher dose of interventions may be effective in achieving this goal. PMID:23696765

  18. Capacity building for health through community-based participatory nutrition intervention Research in rural communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Building community capacity for health promotion in small rural communities is essential if health promotion research is to yield sustainable outcomes. Since its inception, capacity-building has been a stated goal of the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative, a tri-state collaboration in ...

  19. Capacity building for health through community based participatory nutrition intervention research in rural communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Building community capacity for health promotion in small rural communities is essential if health promotion research is to yield sustainable outcomes. Since its inception, capacity-building has been a stated goal of the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research initiative, a tri-state collaboration in ...

  20. Effects of a Stage-based Alcohol Preventive Intervention for Inner-City Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Carlson, Joan M.; Owen, Deborah M.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Carbonari, Joseph P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines first year outcomes of an alcohol preventive intervention within inner-city middle schools. Results reveal that significantly fewer neighborhood intervention students initiated alcohol use compared to control students. Suggests that a brief, stage-based preventive intervention may result in significant reductions in alcohol initiation and…

  1. A Youth Mentor-Led Nutritional Intervention in Urban Recreation Centers: A Promising Strategy for Childhood Obesity Prevention in Low-Income Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Priscila M.; Steeves, Elizabeth A.; Carnell, Susan; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Trude, Angela C.; Shipley, Cara; Mejía Ruiz, M. J.; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    B'More Healthy Community for Kids (BHCK) is an ongoing multi-level intervention to prevent childhood obesity in African-American low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore city, MD. Although previous nutrition interventions involving peer mentoring of youth have been successful, there is a lack of studies evaluating the influence of cross-age peers…

  2. Knowledge and Use of Intervention Practices by Community-Based Early Intervention Service Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paynter, Jessica M.; Keen, Deb

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated staff attitudes, knowledge and use of evidence-based practices (EBP) and links to organisational culture in a community-based autism early intervention service. An EBP questionnaire was completed by 99 metropolitan and regionally-based professional and paraprofessional staff. Participants reported greater knowledge and use…

  3. Community based intervention to optimize osteoporosis management: randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis-related fractures are a significant public health concern. Interventions that increase detection and treatment of osteoporosis are underutilized. This pragmatic randomised study was done to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted community-based care program aimed at optimizing evidence-based management in patients at risk for osteoporosis and fractures. Methods This was a 12-month randomized trial performed in Ontario, Canada. Eligible patients were community-dwelling, aged ≥55 years, and identified to be at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures. Two hundred and one patients were allocated to the intervention group or to usual care. Components of the intervention were directed towards primary care physicians and patients and included facilitated bone mineral density testing, patient education and patient-specific recommendations for osteoporosis treatment. The primary outcome was the implementation of appropriate osteoporosis management. Results 101 patients were allocated to intervention and 100 to control. Mean age of participants was 71.9 ± 7.2 years and 94% were women. Pharmacological treatment (alendronate, risedronate, or raloxifene) for osteoporosis was increased by 29% compared to usual care (56% [29/52] vs. 27% [16/60]; relative risk [RR] 2.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29 to 3.40). More individuals in the intervention group were taking calcium (54% [54/101] vs. 20% [20/100]; RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.74 to 4.12) and vitamin D (33% [33/101] vs. 20% [20/100]; RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.65). Conclusions A multi-faceted community-based intervention improved management of osteoporosis in high risk patients compared with usual care. Trial Registration This trial has been registered with clinicaltrials.gov (ID: NCT00465387) PMID:20799973

  4. Guide to Pollution Prevention in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppino, Tony; Gilbert, Reg

    The purpose of this guide is to help citizen advocates create and improve the environmental practices of industry and government in the Great Lakes Basin. The practices advocated focus on pollution prevention instead of relying solely on pollution control. An introduction examines the larger issues of pollution prevention and zero discharge as the…

  5. Drug Abuse Prevention For Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besteman, Karst G.

    Drug abuse is not confined to the young, but if a young person between the ages of 8 and 20 can be prevented from abusing drugs, chances are that he/she will never have a serious drug problem. Drug abuse prevention means helping young people develop personal strengths and values to reduce the chance that they will hurt themselves or others by…

  6. Campus and Community Coalitions in AOD Prevention. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Changing the environment that affects decisions about use of alcohol and other drugs has emerged as a key to reducing substance use problems among college and university students. The student environment, however, is not limited to the campus. Education, counseling, and campus-based prevention policies and activities cannot succeed if a campus is…

  7. Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Community Wise: A formative evaluation of a community based health intervention

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Jessell, Lauren; Lassiter, Teri; Benoit, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with histories of incarceration and substance abuse residing in distressed communities often receive suboptimal services partly due to a lack of empirically supported substance abuse treatments targeting this population. Grounded in community-engaged research, we developed Community Wise, a manualized, 12-week, group behavioral intervention. The intervention aims to reduce substance use frequency, HIV/HCV risk behaviors, and reoffending among individuals with histories of substance abuse and incarceration. Thirty six individuals were recruited to participate in a formative evaluation of Community Wise processes and outcomes. Analysis showed significantly lower post-intervention number of cigarettes smoked per day, days using an illicit drug, money spent on illegal drugs, and rearrests. Based on the evaluation, the research team made the following changes: 1) added a session on sexuality; 2) increased the number of sessions from 12 to 15; and 3) modified strategies to help participants develop and implement capacity building projects. PMID:26594312

  9. Policies for healthier communities: historical, legal, and practical elements of the obesity prevention movement.

    PubMed

    Graff, Samantha K; Kappagoda, Manel; Wooten, Heather M; McGowan, Angela K; Ashe, Marice

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. population is facing an obesity crisis wrought with severe health and economic costs. Because social and environmental factors have a powerful influence over lifestyle choices, a national obesity prevention strategy must involve population-based interventions targeted at the places where people live, study, work, shop, and play. This means that policy, in addition to personal responsibility, must be part of the solution. This article first describes the emergence of and theory behind the obesity prevention movement. It then explains how government at all levels is empowered to develop obesity prevention policy. Finally, it explores eight attributes of a promising state or local obesity prevention policy and sets the obesity prevention movement in the context of a larger movement to promote healthy communities and prevent chronic disease. PMID:22224883

  10. Community pharmacy interventions for public health priorities: protocol for a systematic review of community pharmacy-delivered smoking, alcohol and weight management interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community pharmacists can deliver health care advice at an opportunistic level, related to prescription or non-prescription medicines and as part of focused services designed to reduce specific risks to health. Obesity, smoking and excessive alcohol intake are three of the most significant modifiable risk factors for morbidity and mortality in the UK, and interventions led by community pharmacists, aimed at these three risk factors, have been identified by the government as public health priorities. In 2008, the Department of Health for England stated that ‘a sound evidence base that demonstrates how pharmacy delivers effective, high quality and value for money services is needed’; this systematic review aims to respond to this requirement. Methods/design We will search the databases MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, IBSS, Sociological Abstracts, Scopus and NHS Economic Evaluation Database for studies that have evaluated interventions based on community pharmacies that aim to target weight management, smoking cessation and alcohol misuse. We will include all randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series (ITS) and repeated measures studies. Data from included studies will be extracted by two independent reviewers and will include study details methods, results, intervention implementation/costs and methodological quality. Meta-analysis will be conducted if appropriate; if not, the synthesis will be restricted to a narrative overview of individual studies looking at the same question. Discussion The review aims to summarise the evidence base on the effectiveness of community pharmacy interventions on health and health behaviours in relation to weight management, smoking cessation and alcohol misuse. It will also explore if, and how, socio-economic status, gender, ethnicity and age moderate the effect of the

  11. The HOPE Social Media Intervention for Global HIV Prevention: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Young, Sean D.; Cumberland, William G.; Nianogo, Roch; Menacho, Luis A.; Galea, Jerome T.; Coates, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media technologies are newly emerging tools that can be used for HIV prevention and testing in low- and middle-income countries, such as Peru. This study examined the efficacy of using the Harnessing Online Peer Education (HOPE) social media intervention to increase HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru. Methods In a cluster randomized controlled trial with concealed allocation, Peruvian MSM from Greater Lima/Callao (N = 556) were randomly assigned to join private intervention or control groups on Facebook for 12 weeks. In the intervention condition, forty-nine Peruvian MSM were trained and randomly assigned to be HIV prevention mentors to participants via Facebook groups over 12 weeks. Control participants received an enhanced standard of care, including standard offline HIV prevention available in Peru as well as participation in Facebook groups (without peer leaders) that provided study updates and HIV testing information. After accepting a request to join the groups, continued participation was voluntary. Participants could request a free HIV test at a local community clinic, and completed questionnaires on HIV risk behaviors and social media use at baseline and 12-week follow-up. Findings Between March 19, 2012, and June 11, 2012, and Sept 26, 2012, and Dec 19, 2012, 556 participants were randomly assigned to intervention groups (N=278) or control groups (N=278); we analyse data for 252 and 246. 43 participants (17%) in the intervention group and 16 (7%) in the control groups got tested for HIV (adjusted odds ratio 2.61, 95% CI 1.55–4.38). No adverse events were reported. Retention at 12-week follow-up was 90%. Across conditions, 7 (87.5%) of the 8 participants who tested positive were linked to care at a local clinic. Interpretation Development of peer-mentored social media communities seemed to be an effective method to increase HIV testing among high-risk populations in Peru.: Results suggest that the HOPE social

  12. Youth Problem Behaviors Eight Years after Implementing the Communities That Care Prevention System in a Community-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, J. David; Oesterle, Sabrina; Brown, Eric C.; Abbott, Robert D.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Importance Community-based efforts to prevent adolescent problem behaviors are essential to promote public health and achieve collective impact community-wide. Objective To test whether the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system reduced levels of risk and adolescent problem behaviors community-wide 8 years after implementation of CTC. Design A community-randomized trial. Setting Twenty-four small towns in 7 states, matched within state, assigned randomly to control or intervention group in 2003. Participants All fifth-grade students attending public schools in study communities in 2003-04 who received consent from their parents to participate (76.4% of eligible population). A panel of 4407 fifth graders was surveyed through 12th grade with 92.5% of the sample participating at the last follow-up. Intervention A coalition of community stakeholders received training and technical assistance to install CTC, used epidemiologic data to identify elevated risk factors and depressed protective factors for adolescent problem behaviors in the community, and implemented tested and effective programs for youths aged 10 to 14, their families, and schools to address their community's elevated risks. Main Outcome Measures Levels of targeted risk; sustained abstinence and cumulative incidence by grade 12 and current prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use, delinquency, and violence in 12th grade. Results By spring of 12th grade, students in CTC communities were more likely than students in control communities to have abstained from: any drug use (RR=1.32; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.63); drinking alcohol (RR=1.31; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.58); smoking cigarettes (RR=1.13; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.27), and engaging in delinquency(RR=1.18; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.26). They were also less likely to ever have committed a violent act (RR=0.86; 95% CI 0.76 to 0.98). There were no significant differences by intervention group in targeted risks, the prevalence of past-month or past-year substance use, or

  13. Translating the Diabetes Prevention Program Into American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Luohua; Manson, Spero M.; Beals, Janette; Henderson, William G.; Huang, Haixiao; Acton, Kelly J.; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The landmark Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) showed that lifestyle intervention can prevent or delay the onset of diabetes for those at risk. We evaluated a translational implementation of this intervention in a diverse set of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP) demonstration project implemented the DPP lifestyle intervention among 36 health care programs serving 80 tribes. A total of 2,553 participants with prediabetes were recruited and started intervention by 31 July 2008. They were offered the 16-session Lifestyle Balance Curriculum and underwent a thorough clinical assessment for evaluation of their diabetes status and risk at baseline, soon after completing the curriculum (postcurriculum), and annually for up to 3 years. Diabetes incidence was estimated. Weight loss, changes in blood pressure and lipid levels, and lifestyle changes after intervention were also evaluated. RESULTS The completion rates of SDPI-DP were 74, 59, 42, and 33% for the postcurriculum and year 1, 2, and 3 assessments, respectively. The crude incidence of diabetes among SDPI-DP participants was 4.0% per year. Significant improvements in weight, blood pressure, and lipid levels were observed immediately after the intervention and annually thereafter for 3 years. Class attendance strongly correlated with diabetes incidence rate, weight loss, and change in systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS Our findings demonstrate the feasibility and potential of translating the lifestyle intervention in diverse AI/AN communities. They have important implications for future dissemination and institutionalization of the intervention throughout the Native American health system. PMID:23275375

  14. Pressure ulcer prevention in the community setting.

    PubMed

    Jones, Donna

    Pressure ulcers are associated with reduced quality of life, affecting individuals physically, socially and emotionally. The financial cost to the NHS of preventing and treating such ulcers is substantial. Although largely preventable, pressure ulcers are still common. The Department of Health is committed to eliminating all avoidable pressure ulcers in NHS-provided care. This article explores methods of preventing pressure ulcers, with particular focus on risk assessment, skin inspection, pressure-relieving measures, nutrition and hydration, and patient and carer education. PMID:24044860

  15. Violence prevention in schools and other community settings: the pediatrician as initiator, educator, collaborator, and advocate.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Brewer, R; Spivak, H

    1994-10-01

    Attention to the problem of youth violence has resulted in a proliferation of violence prevention and intervention strategies. Examined in this paper are those strategies that can be categorized as educational, environmental/technological, and recreational. In the educational category are conflict resolution and mediation, crime prevention and law-related education, handgun violence education, life skills training, self-esteem development, public education, and media education. The environmental/technological category covers a range of strategies: metal detectors, school police, concrete barriers, dress codes, and safe corridor programs, among others. The rather broad recreational category is based upon the importance of physical activity as an outlet for stress and anger and as a component of a multicomponent program. Multi-intervention programs are described as well as some of the major gaps in current violence prevention programming. The suggested role of the pediatrician in violence prevention efforts is described as both initiator and collaborator, as counselor, and as advocate. Because of their great credibility with respect to issues related to children and youth, pediatricians can influence not only parents in their contacts with them in the health care setting, but also school administrators and community leaders. Pediatricians have access to the media, and they can speak to the issue in public forums as well. Furthermore, pediatricians can join existing community efforts to determine ways in which violence prevention and intervention strategies can be incorporated into agency activities. PMID:7936888

  16. Preventing Torture in Nepal: A Public Health and Human Rights Intervention.

    PubMed

    Celermajer, Danielle D; Saul, Jack

    2016-06-01

    In this article we address torture in military and police organizations as a public health and human rights challenge that needs to be addressed through multiple levels of intervention. While most mental health approaches focus on treating the harmful effects of such violence on individuals and communities, the goal of the project described here was to develop a primary prevention strategy at the institutional level to prevent torture from occurring in the first place. Such an approach requires understanding and altering the conditions that cause and sustain "atrocity producing situations" (Lifton 2000, 2004). Given the persistence of torture across the world and its profound health consequences, this is an increasingly important issue in global health and human rights. PMID:27022924

  17. The effectiveness of an education intervention to prevent chlamydia infection among Greenlandic youth.

    PubMed

    Rink, Elizabeth; Montgomery-Andersen, Ruth; Anastario, Mike

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement a sexual health behavioural intervention in Greenland in order to reduce sexually transmitted infection rates among a population of Greenland youth. This behavioural intervention was called Inuulluataarneq (Having the Good Life). Inuulluataarneq's objects included: (1) increase Greenlandic youth's overall knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and sexual health; (2) increase parent/guardian-youth communication about topics related to sexually transmitted infections and sex; and (3) increase consistent condom use among Greenlandic youth. We hypothesised that increased awareness of sexually transmitted infections and sexual health as well as increased communication between parents/guardians and their adolescent children would influence sexual risk behaviour and reduce sexually transmitted infections among our sample population, with a focus on urine samples of chlamydia infection. Results indicate that the influence of having a parent/guardian to speak with about topics related to sex, including the consequences of pregnancy, are key protective factors in reducing sexually transmitted infections among Greenlandic youth. Inuulluataarneq demonstrates that intensive short-term education and skill-building delivered by a trained community member is an effective sexually transmitted infection prevention intervention method among young Inuit populations who live in small isolated Arctic communities. PMID:24713230

  18. CHILE: An Evidence-Based Preschool Intervention for Obesity Prevention in Head Start

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. METHODS CHILE uses a socio-ecological approach to improve dietary intake and increase physical activity. The intervention includes: a classroom curriculum; teacher and food service training; family engagement; grocery store participation; and health care provider support. RESULTS Lessons learned from CHILE include: the need to consider availability of recommended foods; the necessity of multiple training sessions for teachers and food service; the need to tailor the family events to local needs; consideration of the profit needs of grocery stores; and sensitivity to the time constraints of health care providers. CONCLUSIONS HS can play an important role in preventing obesity in children. CHILE is an example of a feasible intervention that addresses nutrition and physical activity for preschool children that can be incorporated into HS curricula and aligns with HS national performance standards. PMID:23343323

  19. [Integrative neuroimaging for schizophrenia targeting early intervention and prevention (IN-STEP)].

    PubMed

    Kasai, Kiyoto

    2010-11-01

    The editorial of the new-year issue of Nature 2010 features "A decade for psychiatric disorders". The DALY estimation clearly shows that psychiatric disorders are the top source for burden of diseases to the individual life and society. Schizophrenia is a most devastating psychiatric disorder in which the onset is usually at youth and the cognitive dysfunction persists for life-long in some patients. Schizophrenia is associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities. It has been unknown whether post-onset progressive pathology is also present in schizophrenia until the recent sophistication of in vivo neuroimaging techniques. Longitudinal neuroimaging studies on first-episode schizophrenia have shown a progressive deterioration of structure and function of neocortical regions in the early stage of the disorder. Insult to dendritic spines through glutamatergic dysfunction may underlie this process, which may in turn be a promising molecular target for intervention to improve the functional outcome of schizophrenia. More recently, the question of whether early intervention can be targeted at prodromal stage of schizophrenia has called special attention in psychiatry. In University of Tokyo, the integrative neuroimaging studies for schizophrenia targeting early intervention and prevention (IN-STEP) is ongoing. Through these efforts, we would like to contribute to the establishment of "youth mental health", where every youth in the community can know, prevent, and have easy access to needs- and value-based services, and pursue mental well-being and recovery. PMID:21921453

  20. The Healthy Children, Strong Families intervention: design and community participation.

    PubMed

    Adams, Alexandra K; LaRowe, Tara L; Cronin, Kate A; Prince, Ronald J; Wubben, Deborah P; Parker, Tassy; Jobe, Jared B

    2012-08-01

    Healthy Children, Strong Families (HCSF) is a 2-year, community-driven, family-based randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention conducted in partnership with four Wisconsin American Indian tribes. HCSF is composed of 1 year of targeted home visits to deliver nutritional and physical activity curricula. During Year 1, trained community mentors work with 2-5-year-old American Indian children and their primary caregivers to promote goal-based behavior change. During Year 2, intervention families receive monthly newsletters and attend monthly group meetings to participate in activities designed to reinforce and sustain changes made in Year 1. Control families receive only curricula materials during Year 1 and monthly newsletters during Year 2. Each of the two arms of the study comprises 60 families. Primary outcomes are decreased child body mass index (BMI) z-score and decreased primary caregiver BMI. Secondary outcomes include: increased fruit/vegetable consumption, decreased TV viewing, increased physical activity, decreased soda/sweetened drink consumption, improved primary caregiver biochemical indices, and increased primary caregiver self-efficacy to adopt healthy behaviors. Using community-based participatory research and our history of university-tribal partnerships, the community and academic researchers jointly designed this randomized trial. This article describes the study design and data collection strategies, including outcome measures, with emphasis on the communities' input in all aspects of the research. PMID:22956296

  1. Effects of Adolescent Universal Substance Misuse Preventive Interventions on Young Adult Depression Symptoms: Mediational Modeling.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard; Mason, W Alex; Randall, G Kevin; Redmond, Cleve; Schainker, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Depression symptoms are associated with impairments in functioning and have substantial health and economic consequences. Universal substance misuse prevention programs have shown effects on non-targeted mental health-related symptoms, but long-term effects are understudied. This cluster randomized controlled trial examined effects of both the LifeSkills Training (LST) and Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10-14 (SFP 10-14) interventions, delivered during seventh grade, on age 22 young adult depression symptoms. The study was conducted in US rural Midwestern communities with a randomly-selected sample from a larger study (N = 670). Experimental conditions were LST+SFP 10-14, LST-only, and a control condition. Effects on age 22 depression symptoms were hypothesized as mediated through effects on age 21 relationship problems and illicit use of substances. Structural equation modeling with manifest and latent variables was conducted to test hypotheses; the intervention conditions were combined and compared with the control condition because analyses indicated a comparable pattern of effects between intervention conditions. Significant indirect intervention effects were found on age 22 depression symptoms via effects on the mediating variables (indirect effect: β = -0.06, 95 % CI [-0.10, -0.01], p = 0.011). Effect sizes for the young adult variables were between d = 0.17 and 0.29, which can be considered small, but nontrivial, especially in the context of public health benefits. Results support scaled-up implementation of school-based and family-focused universal substance misuse preventive interventions. PMID:25795013

  2. Developing Primary Intervention Strategies to Prevent Allergic Disease.

    PubMed

    Rueter, Kristina; Haynes, Aveni; Prescott, Susan L

    2015-07-01

    Allergic diseases are a major cause of morbidity in the developed world, now affecting up to 40 % of the population with no evidence that this is abating. If anything, the prevalence of early onset allergic diseases such as eczema and food allergy appears to be still increasing. This is almost certainly due to the changing modern environment and lifestyle factors, acting to promote immune dysfunction through early perturbations in immune maturation, immune tolerance and regulation. This early propensity to inflammation may also have implications for the rising risk of other inflammatory non-communicable diseases (NCDs) later in life. Identifying risk factors and pathways for preventing early onset immune disease like allergy is likely to have benefits for many aspects of human health, particularly as many NCDs share similar risk factors. This review focuses on recent advances in primary intervention strategies for promoting early immune health and preventing allergic disease, highlighting the current evidence-based guidelines where applicable and areas requiring further investigation. PMID:26143389

  3. Barriers to prostate cancer prevention and community recommended health education strategies in an urban African American community in Jackson, Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T; Tataw, David B

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of survey research in collaboration with the African American urban community of Georgetown, Jackson, Mississippi to identify and understand prostate cancer knowledge, resource utilization, and health education strategies considered most effective in reaching the community with prostate cancer prevention messages. The study revealed profound needs in disease identification and resources awareness and utilization. Barriers to utilization were identified by participants to include lack of self-efficacy, low self-esteem, lack of trust in the health care system, limited knowledge of prostate pathology, and limited ability to pay. Participants' recommended strategies for reaching the community with prostate cancer education include traditional and nontraditional strategies. The list of recommendations exclude modern-day outlets such as handheld devices, Twitter, Facebook, blogs, wikis, and other Internet-based outlets. The findings provide a road map for program development and an intervention research agenda custom-tailored to the Georgetown community of Jackson, Mississippi. PMID:23805806

  4. Family Violence and the Need for Prevention Research in First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Communities1

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Neil; Nahwegahbow, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Existing sources produce widely varying estimates of family violence in First Nations, Inuit, and Métis communities; taken together, they imply a convincing if poorly quantified higher risk of family violence in Aboriginal communities, with the greater burden borne by women. With the accelerating HIV epidemic in some Aboriginal communities, prevention of domestic violence takes on even greater urgency. Five planks in a prevention research platform include: training emerging researchers from all Aboriginal groups to promote culturally specific research; systematic review of unpublished and published knowledge of interventions that reduce domestic violence; intervention theory development specific to each community; attention to the particular ethical issues; and methods development focused on interventions. PMID:20975851

  5. Evaluating Multimedia Interventions in Community-Based Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Mary Anne; Skiba, Diane; Lester, Jerry

    1993-01-01

    The Healthy Touch™ Series of multimedia programs has been developed, implemented, and evaluated in selected community clinics over the past year. A high-tech effort in carrying out the design and evaluation of the programs has resulted in a new intervention in clinical care with positive outcomes for both patients and staff. Utilization of the technology has opened up the opportunity to provide consistent, individualized, and enjoyable programs that invite easy patient participation.

  6. The effect of a community-based cardiovascular disease prevention project in a Danish municipality.

    PubMed

    Osler, M; Jespersen, N B

    1993-09-01

    A community-based project for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases was undertaken in 1989 in a rural Danish municipality (Slangerup) with about 8000 inhabitants. Project goals were to draw attention to project activities and improve smoking, eating and exercise behaviours. The intervention was planned using the social learning theory, a communication-behaviour change model and community organisation principle. The strategy used for intervention involved both mass communication and active involvement of the local population in group activities. The objectives of the intervention were assessed by data obtained from representative cross-section surveys in intervention and a control area at baseline (1989) and one year later. More respondents in the intervention (82%) than control (67%) area were aware of local health projects. Ten % reported that they stopped smoking within the last year, 39% ate less fat, and 28% did more exercise, with no differences between intervention and control area. Several explanations are proposed for the limited effect of the project on behaviours. One possible explanation is that the project almost ended up being a pure mass media campaign which may increase awareness, but, as experience shows, may have limited influence on adoption of new behaviour. The Danish population around 1990 is very well informed and educated in this field due to earlier nationwide interventions. No further behavioural effects are obtainable with mass media campaigns. PMID:8222768

  7. Community Perspectives on Communication Strategies for Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Rural Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm. PMID:26192335

  8. A Community Prevention Approach to Peaceful Schools: Application of Wakanheza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Christina L.; Lee, Serita; Mattaini, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Schools have long recognized the importance of creating climates that are peaceful, laying the groundwork for good student academic learning. This article explores the work of a large urban school district as it applies a community violence prevention model developed by the local county public health department to create peaceful communities.…

  9. The Wellness Mobile: Bringing Preventative Health Services to Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilson, Ralph; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The Wellness Mobile transports medical supplies, equipment, informational materials, and staff to rural Saskatchewan communities to assist them in developing wellness programs that stress disease prevention. Staff from the Wellness Mobile offer health-risk screening and appraisal to community members and work with local practitioners and schools…

  10. A Community Case Study on Underage Drinking Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.

    The National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives (NAGHSR), with funding from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), pilot tested a comprehensive underage drinking prevention program in a number of communities across the country. In 1995, NAGHSR launched the effort in five communities, which received…

  11. Engaging Community-Based Organizations in Fall Prevention Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, B. Josea; Vivrette, Rebecca L.; Rubenstein, Laurence Z.

    2011-01-01

    Falls are a major public health problem for older adults, and community-based organizations play a key role in educating seniors about falls prevention (FP). We conducted a qualitative process evaluation at six sites to report community-based centers' perspectives on adoption, adaptation, and sustainability of an evidence-based multifactorial FP…

  12. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Approved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    On June 24, 2013, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Board of Scientific Advisors approved the creation of the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP). NCORP will bring state-of-the art cancer prevention, control, treatment and imaging clinical trials, cancer care delivery research, and disparities studies to individuals in their own communities. |

  13. Impact of community-based interventions on HIV knowledge, attitudes, and transmission

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, an estimated 35.3 million people lived with HIV, while approximately two million new HIV infections were reported. Community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and control of HIV allow increased access and ease availability of medical care to population at risk, or already infected with, HIV. This paper evaluates the impact of CBIs on HIV knowledge, attitudes, and transmission. We included 39 studies on educational activities, counseling sessions, home visits, mentoring, women’s groups, peer leadership, and street outreach activities in community settings that aimed to increase awareness on HIV/AIDS risk factors and ensure treatment adherence. Our review findings suggest that CBIs to increase HIV awareness and risk reduction are effective in improving knowledge, attitudes, and practice outcomes as evidenced by the increased knowledge scores for HIV/AIDS (SMD: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.25, 1.07), protected sexual encounters (RR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.25), condom use (SMD: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.03, 1.58), and decreased frequency of sexual intercourse (RR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.96). Analysis shows that CBIs did not have any significant impact on scores for self-efficacy and communication. We found very limited evidence on community-based management for HIV infected population and prevention of mother- to-child transmission (MTCT) for HIV-infected pregnant women. Qualitative synthesis suggests that establishment of community support at the onset of HIV prevention programs leads to community acceptance and engagement. School-based delivery of HIV prevention education and contraceptive distribution have also been advocated as potential strategies to target high-risk youth group. Future studies should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of community delivery platforms for prevention of MTCT, and various emerging models of care to improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. PMID:25126420

  14. Development and Implementation of a Summer Youth Nutrition Education and Physical Activity Intervention in a Rural Mississippi Delta Community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to implement a sustainable community-based sport intervention that encourages physical activity and healthy eating, with potential for preventing obesity among children ages 5-12 years. Presented is descriptive information of the development of a summer nutrition and physical activit...

  15. A Decrease in Suicide Rates in Japanese Rural Towns after Community-Based Intervention by the Health Promotion Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motohashi, Yutaka; Kaneko, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Hisanaga

    2007-01-01

    A community-based intervention study for suicide prevention was conducted in six towns (total population 43,964) in Akita Prefecture of Japan according to a quasi-experimental design to reduce suicide rates in rural towns. Public awareness raising activities using a health promotion approach emphasizing the empowerment of residents and civic…

  16. Prevention of HIV/AIDS Education in Rural Communities II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This second special issue of the Health Education Monograph Series on HIV/AIDS Prevention in Rural Communities presents seven articles: (1) "Preventing Maternal-Infant Transmission of HIV: Social and Ethical Issues" (James G. Anderson, Marilyn M. Anderson, and Tara Booth); (2) "HIV Infection in Diverse Rural Population: Migrant Farm Workers in…

  17. Title V Community Prevention Grants Program. 2000 Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliber Associates, Fairfax, VA.

    This seventh annual report describes activities and accomplishments of grant activities funded under Title V, the Community Prevention Grants Program; procedures for disseminating grant products and research findings; activities conducted to develop policy and coordinate federal agency and interagency efforts related to delinquency prevention; and…

  18. Prevention of HIV/AIDS Education in Rural Communities III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This third special issue of the Health Education Monograph Series on HIV/AIDS Prevention in Rural Communities presents 9 articles on: "Rural Adolescent Views of HIV Prevention: Focus Groups at Two Indiana Rural 4-H Clubs" (William L. Yarber and Stephanie A. Sanders); "Implementing HIV Education: Beyond Curriculum" (Susan Frelick Wooley);…

  19. Frameworks: A Community-Based Approach to Preventing Youth Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baber, Kristine; Bean, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    Few youth suicide prevention programs are theory based and systematically evaluated. This study evaluated the pilot implementation of a community-based youth suicide prevention project guided by an ecological perspective. One hundred fifty-seven adults representing various constituencies from educators to health care providers and 131 ninth-grade…

  20. Implementation of the Communities That Care Prevention System by Coalitions in the Community Youth Development Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Michael W.; Hawkins, J. David; Brown, Eric C.; Briney, John S.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Abbott, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Although advances in prevention science over the past two decades have produced a growing list of tested and effective programs and policies for preventing adolescent delinquency and drug use, widespread dissemination and high-quality implementation of effective programs and policies in communities has not been achieved. The Community Youth…

  1. HIV Prevention Strategies for Community Colleges: Lessons Learned from Bridges to Healthy Communities. AACC Project Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottenritter, Nan; Barnett, Lynn

    The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) instituted the Bridges to Healthy Communities project in 1995 as part of a 5-year strategy to develop campus-based programs for preventing HIV infection and related health problems among college students. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sponsored the national effort through…

  2. Breaking the silence of child sexual abuse in the Caribbean: a community-based action research intervention model.

    PubMed

    Reid, Sandra D; Reddock, Rhoda; Nickenig, Tisha

    2014-01-01

    In Trinidad and Tobago, little data exists on child sexual abuse, although there are many anecdotal reports of high prevalence. The Breaking the Silence Gender and Community Empowerment Model is a multidisciplinary intervention to prevent and respond to child sexual abuse in Trinidad and Tobago. It is an innovative, gender-sensitive intervention that uses a community based action research methodology anchored in a national framework. Preliminary evaluation of the Breaking the Silence model shows increased knowledge of child sexual abuse, increased willingness to discuss child sexual abuse, and an impact that goes beyond the target communities. This model can be replicated in communities to prevent and respond to child sexual abuse and adapted to address other sensitive social issues in the Caribbean. PMID:24745546

  3. Estimating the Effect of a Community-Based Intervention with Two Communities

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Maya; Zheng, Wenjing

    2014-01-01

    Due to the need to evaluate the effectiveness of community-based programs in practice, there is substantial interest in methods to estimate the causal effects of community-level treatments or exposures on individual level outcomes. The challenge one is confronted with is that different communities have different environmental factors affecting the individual outcomes, and all individuals in a community share the same environment and intervention. In practice, data are often available from only a small number of communities, making it difficult if not impossible to adjust for these environmental confounders. In this paper we consider an extreme version of this dilemma, in which two communities each receives a different level of the intervention, and covariates and outcomes are measured on a random sample of independent individuals from each of the two populations; the results presented can be straightforwardly generalized to settings in which more than two communities are sampled. We address the question of what conditions are needed to estimate the causal effect of the intervention, defined in terms of an ideal experiment in which the exposed level of the intervention is assigned to both communities and individual outcomes are measured in the combined population, and then the clock is turned back and a control level of the intervention is assigned to both communities and individual outcomes are measured in the combined population. We refer to the difference in the expectation of these outcomes as the marginal (overall) treatment effect. We also discuss conditions needed for estimation of the treatment effect on the treated community. We apply a nonparametric structural equation model to define these causal effects and to establish conditions under which they are identified. These identifiability conditions provide guidance for the design of studies to investigate community level causal effects and for assessing the validity of causal interpretations when data are

  4. The diffusion of a community-level HIV intervention for women: lessons learned and best practices.

    PubMed

    King, Winifred; Nu'Man, Jeanette; Fuller, Talleria R; Brown, Mari; Smith, Shuenae; Howell, A Vyann; Little, Stacey; Patrick, Patricia; Glover, LaShon

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Early in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States, relatively few women were diagnosed with HIV infection and AIDS. Today, the epidemic represents a growing and persistent health threat to women in the United States, especially young women and women of color. In 2005, the leading cause of HIV infection among African American women and Latinas was heterosexual contact. In addressing HIV prevention needs among women, community-level strategies are needed to increase consistent condom use by women and their partners and to change community norms to support safer sex behaviors. The Real AIDS Prevention Project (RAPP) is a community-based HIV prevention intervention for women and their partners. RAPP is based on a community mobilization model that involves a combination of activities, including street outreach, one-on-one discussions called stage-based encounters, role model stories, community networks, and small group activities. The objectives of RAPP are to increase consistent condom use by women and their partners and change community norms associated with perceptions of condom use and high-risk behaviors in an effort to make safer sex practice more acceptable. This paper describes the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP) effort to nationally diffuse RAPP from March 2003 through May 2007 and lessons learned from that diffusion experience. The paper specifically discusses (1) collaborating and planning with researchers, (2) a diffusion needs assessment that was designed to assess prior implementation experiences among select agencies, (3) developing the intervention package, (4) developing and piloting training for community-based organizations (CBOs), (5) a rollout of national trainings for health departments and community-based organizations interested in implementing RAPP, and (6) ongoing quality assurance activities and the provision of technical assistance and support. RAPP has been proven effective

  5. Partnership Working in Community Alcohol Prevention Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastache, Claudia; Mistral, Willm; Velleman, Richard; Templeton, Lorna

    2008-01-01

    The National Alcohol Harm Reduction Strategy for England places much emphasis on creating partnerships at both national and local levels between government, the drinks industry, health services, police, individuals and communities to tackle alcohol misuse and associated harm and disorder. This article describes the characteristic structures and…

  6. The Healthy Children, Strong Families Intervention: Design and Community Participation

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Alexandra K.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Cronin, Kate A.; Prince, Ronald J.; Wubben, Deborah P.; Parker, Tassy; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy Children, Strong Families (HCSF) is a 2-year, community-driven, family-based randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention conducted in partnership with four Wisconsin American Indian tribes. HCSF is composed of 1 year of targeted home visits to deliver nutritional and physical activity curricula. During Year 1, trained community mentors work with 2–5-year-old American Indian children and their primary caregivers to promote goal-based behavior change. During Year 2, intervention families receive monthly newsletters and attend monthly group meetings to participate in activities designed to reinforce and sustain changes made in Year 1. Control families receive only curricula materials during Year 1 and monthly newsletters during Year 2. Each of the two arms of the study comprises 60 families. Primary outcomes are decreased child BMI z-score and decreased primary caregiver BMI. Secondary outcomes include: increased fruit/vegetable consumption, decreased TV viewing, increased physical activity, decreased soda/sweetened drink consumption, improved primary caregiver biochemical indices, and increased primary caregiver self-efficacy to adopt healthy behaviors. Using community-based participatory research and our history of university–tribal partnerships, the community and academic researchers jointly designed this randomized trial. This article describes the study design and data collection strategies, including outcome measures, with emphasis on the communities’ input in all aspects of the research. PMID:22956296

  7. Suicide Prevention in a Diverse Campus Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadick, Richard; Akhter, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    As the college population in the United States rapidly diversifies, leaders of successful campus suicide prevention programs are recognizing the importance of targeting specific groups of students. Recent estimates from the National Center for Education Statistics indicated that in 2008 more than one-third (36.7 percent) of college students…

  8. HIV risk behaviors, knowledge, and prevention education among offenders under community supervision: a hidden risk group.

    PubMed

    Belenko, Steven; Langley, Sandra; Crimmins, Susan; Chaple, Michael

    2004-08-01

    Numerous studies have established that incarcerated populations are at substantial risk for HIV infection. In response, many jails and prisons have increased HIV prevention and related services. However, although twice as many offenders are under community supervision as are incarcerated at any given time, HIV prevention needs have been largely ignored among probationers and parolees, and little is known about their HIV risk behaviors or HIV prevention needs. Compared with inmates, probationers and parolees have substantially greater opportunities to engage in HIV risk behaviors. In the present study, we describe HIV risk behaviors, knowledge, and prevention education experiences of probationers and parolees in New York City. We find that probationers and parolees have high rates of unprotected sex, and limited current exposure to effective HIV education and prevention interventions. Probation and parole departments need to improve HIV training for officers and make HIV risk reduction services more available. PMID:15342338

  9. Enhancing fire department home visiting programs: results of a community intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Gielen, Andrea C; Shields, Wendy; Frattaroli, Shannon; McDonald, Eileen; Jones, Vanya; Bishai, David; O'Brocki, Raymond; Perry, Elise C; Bates-Hopkins, Barbara; Tracey, Pat; Parsons, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of an enhanced fire department home visiting program on community participation and installation of smoke alarms, and describes the rate of fire and burn hazards observed in homes. Communities were randomly assigned to receive either a standard or enhanced home visiting program. Before implementing the program, 603 household surveys were completed to determine comparability between the communities. During a 1-year intervention period, 171 home visits took place with 8080 homes. At baseline, 60% of homes did not have working smoke alarms on every level, 44% had unsafe water temperatures, and 72% did not have carbon monoxide alarms. Residents in the enhanced community relative to those in the standard community were significantly more likely to let the fire fighters into their homes (75 vs 62%). Among entered homes, those in the enhanced community were significantly more likely to agree to have smoke alarms installed (95 vs 92%), to be left with a working smoke alarm on every level of the home (84 vs 78%), and to have more smoke alarms installed per home visited (1.89 vs 1.74). The high baseline rates of home hazards suggest that fire department home visiting programs should take an "all hazards" approach. Community health workers and community partnerships can be effective in promoting fire departments' fire and life safety goals. Public health academic centers should partner with the fire service to help generate evidence on program effectiveness that can inform decision making about resource allocation for prevention. PMID:23237821

  10. Dynamic Simulation of Crime Perpetration and Reporting to Examine Community Intervention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Yonas, Michael A.; Burke, Jessica G.; Brown, Shawn T.; Borrebach, Jeffrey D.; Garland, Richard; Burke, Donald S.; Grefenstette, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Develop a conceptual computational agent-based model (ABM) to explore community-wide versus spatially focused crime reporting interventions to reduce community crime perpetrated by youth. Methods Agents within the model represent individual residents and interact on a two-dimensional grid representing an abstract community. Juvenile agents are assigned initial random probabilities of perpetrating a crime and adults are assigned random probabilities of witnessing and reporting crimes. The agents’ behavioral probabilities modify depending upon the individual’s experience with criminal behavior and punishment, and exposure community crime interventions. Cost-effectiveness analyses assessed the impact of activating different percentages of adults to increase reporting and reduce community crime activity. Community-wide interventions were compared with spatially focused interventions, in which activated adults were focused in areas of highest crime prevalence. Results The ABM suggests that both community-wide and spatially focused interventions can be effective in reducing overall offenses, but their relative effectiveness may depend on the intensity and cost of the interventions. While spatially focused intervention yielded localized reductions in crimes, such interventions were shown to move crime to nearby communities. Community-wide interventions can achieve larger reductions in overall community crime offenses than spatially focused interventions, as long as sufficient resources are available. Conclusion The ABM demonstrates that community-wide and spatially focused crime strategies produce unique intervention dynamics influencing juvenile crime behaviors through the decisions and actions of community adults. It shows how such models might be used to investigate community-supported crime intervention programs by integrating community input and expertise and provides a simulated setting for assessing dimensions of cost comparison and intervention

  11. Helping northern Ethiopian communities reduce childhood mortality: population-based intervention trial.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammed; Asefaw, Teklehaimanot; Byass, Peter; Beyene, Hagos; Pedersen, F. Karup

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: More than 10 million children die each year mostly from preventable causes and particularly in developing countries. WHO guidelines for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) are intended to reduce childhood mortality and are being implemented in Ethiopia. As well as specific clinical interventions, the role of the community in understanding and acting on childhood sickness is an important factor in improving survival. This trial sought to assess the effect on survival of community-based health promotion activities. METHODS: Two districts in northern Ethiopia were studied, each with a random sample of more than 4000 children less than 5 years old. Regular six-monthly visits were made to document deaths among children. After the first year, communities in one district were educated about issues of good childcare and caring for sick children while the other district received this information only after the trial ended. FINDINGS: Although overall mortality was higher in the post-intervention period, most of the increase was seen in the control area. A Cox proportional hazards model gave an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.66 (95% confidence interval = 0.46-0.95) for the intervention area compared with the control area in the post-intervention period, with no significant pre-intervention difference. Significant survival advantages were found for females, children of younger fathers, those with married parents, those living in larger households, and those whose nearest health facility was a health centre. For all of the children who died, only 44% of parents or caregivers had sought health care before the child's death. CONCLUSION: This non-specific community-based public health intervention, as an addition to IMCI strategies in local health facilities, appears to have significantly reduced childhood mortality in these communities. The possibility that such interventions may not effectively reach certain social groups (for example single parents) is

  12. Nurses' Perceptions of Implementing Fall Prevention Interventions to Mitigate Patient-Specific Fall Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Deleise S; Montie, Mary; Conlon, Paul; Reynolds, Margaret; Ripley, Robert; Titler, Marita G

    2016-08-01

    Evidence-based (EB) fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risk factors are readily available but not routinely used in practice. Few studies have examined nurses' perceptions about both the use of these EB interventions and implementation strategies designed to promote their adoption. This article reports qualitative findings of nurses' perceptions about use of EB fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risks, and implementation strategies to promote use of these interventions. The findings revealed five major themes: before-study fall prevention practices, use of EB fall prevention interventions tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors, beneficial implementation strategies, overall impact on approach to fall prevention, and challenges These findings are useful to guide nurses' engagement and use of EB fall prevention practices tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors. PMID:27106881

  13. Photovoice for Healthy Relationships: Community-Based Participatory HIV Prevention in a Rural American Indian Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markus, Susan F.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an example of a culturally responsive, community-based project for addressing social determinants of health in rural American Indian (AI) communities through: 1) empowering youth and community voices to set directions for HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancy prevention and education efforts; 2) using…

  14. Assessing community readiness for overweight and obesity prevention in pre-adolescent girls: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    priority at the local community level. Inconsistent school approaches contributed to tensions between schools and parents regarding school food policies. Conclusions This study has identified the readiness level within a UK community to address the behaviours related to overweight and obesity prevention in pre-adolescent girls. The focus of an intervention in this community should initially be resources and raising awareness of the issue within the community. PMID:24359213

  15. Nutritional programming of coenzyme Q: potential for prevention and intervention?

    PubMed

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Chen, Jian-Hua; Hargreaves, Iain P; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; McConnell, Josie M; Ozanne, Susan E

    2014-12-01

    Low birth weight and rapid postnatal growth increases risk of cardiovascular-disease (CVD); however, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that rats exposed to a low-protein diet in utero that underwent postnatal catch-up growth (recuperated) have a programmed deficit in cardiac coenzyme Q (CoQ) that was associated with accelerated cardiac aging. It is unknown whether this deficit occurs in all tissues, including those that are clinically accessible. We investigated whether aortic and white blood cell (WBC) CoQ is programmed by suboptimal early nutrition and whether postweaning dietary supplementation with CoQ could prevent programmed accelerated aging. Recuperated male rats had reduced aortic CoQ [22 d (35±8.4%; P<0.05); 12 m (53±8.8%; P<0.05)], accelerated aortic telomere shortening (P<0.01), increased DNA damage (79±13% increase in nei-endonucleaseVIII-like-1), increased oxidative stress (458±67% increase in NAPDH-oxidase-4; P<0.001), and decreased mitochondrial complex II-III activity (P<0.05). Postweaning dietary supplementation with CoQ prevented these detrimental programming effects. Recuperated WBCs also had reduced CoQ (74±5.8%; P<0.05). Notably, WBC CoQ levels correlated with aortic telomere-length (P<0.0001) suggesting its potential as a diagnostic marker of vascular aging. We conclude that early intervention with CoQ in at-risk individuals may be a cost-effective and safe way of reducing the global burden of CVDs. PMID:25172893

  16. Long-term protective factor outcomes of evidence-based interventions implemented by community teams through a community-university partnership.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Cleve; Spoth, Richard L; Shin, Chungyeol; Schainker, Lisa M; Greenberg, Mark T; Feinberg, Mark

    2009-09-01

    It is becoming increasingly common for community teams or coalitions to implement programming for children and families designed to promote positive youth development and prevent adolescent problem behaviors. However, there has been only limited rigorous study of the effectiveness of community teams' programming efforts to produce positive outcomes. This study employed a community-level randomized control design to examine protective parent and youth skills outcomes of evidence-based preventive interventions selected from a menu and delivered by community teams supported by a community-university partnership model called PROSPER. Twenty-eight rural communities in two states were randomized across intervention and control conditions. Data were collected through written questionnaires that were completed by approximately 12,000 middle school students in the fall of the 6th grade, prior to intervention delivery, and again in the spring of the 7th, 8th, and 9th grades. Positive intervention effects were found for youth, parent, and family outcomes (e.g., association with antisocial peers, child management, parent-child affective quality) at each post-intervention assessment point. Improvements in these family and youth skill outcomes are expected to support long-term reductions of adolescent problem behaviors, such as substance abuse. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: In this important and well controlled trial, the authors demonstrate that university partnership-supported community teams, especially when supported with ongoing technical assistance, can continue to produce positive outcomes even after much of the control over delivery of programs is turned over to representatives of the communities in which they are implemented. PMID:19669885

  17. Diabetes Prevention Program Community Outreach Perspectives on Lifestyle Training and Translation

    PubMed Central

    Venditti, Elizabeth M.; Kramer, M. Kaye

    2013-01-01

    The gap between what is known from clinical efficacy research and the systematic community translation of diabetes prevention programs is narrowing. During the past 5 years, numerous randomized and nonrandomized dissemination studies have evaluated the modified delivery of structured Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) interventions in diverse real-world settings. Programs of sufficient dose and duration, implemented with fidelity, have reported weight losses in the range of 4%–7% with associated improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors at 6 and 12 months from baseline. The current article describes some of the experiences and perspectives of a team of University of Pittsburgh researchers as they have engaged in these efforts. PMID:23498296

  18. Preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus: a call for personalized intervention.

    PubMed

    Glauber, Harry; Karnieli, Eddy

    2013-01-01

    In parallel with the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide, especially in younger people, there has been a dramatic increase in recent decades in the incidence and prevalence of metabolic consequences of obesity, in particular prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Although approximately one-third of US adults now meet one or more diagnostic criteria for prediabetes, only a minority of those so identified as being at risk for DM2 actually progress to diabetes, and some may regress to normal status. Given the uncertain prognosis of prediabetes, it is not clear who is most likely to benefit from lifestyle change or medication interventions that are known to reduce DM2 risk. We review the many factors known to influence risk of developing DM2 and summarize treatment trials demonstrating the possibility of preventing DM2. Applying the concepts of personalized medicine and the potential of "big data" approaches to analysis of massive amounts of routinely gathered clinical and laboratory data from large populations, we call for the development of tools to more precisely estimate individual risk of DM2. PMID:24355893

  19. Delivering interventions to reduce the global burden of stillbirths: improving service supply and community demand

    PubMed Central

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Darmstadt, Gary L; Haws, Rachel A; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Lawn, Joy E

    2009-01-01

    impact of the wide-scale implementation of these strategies on stillbirth rates. Strategies to improve quality of care by upgrading the skills of community cadres have shown demonstrable impact on perinatal mortality, particularly in conjunction with health systems strengthening and facilitation of referrals. Neonatal resuscitation training for physicians and other health workers shows potential to prevent many neonatal deaths currently misclassified as stillbirths. Perinatal audit systems, which aim to improve quality of care by identifying deficiencies in care, are a quality improvement measure that shows some evidence of benefit for changes in clinical practice that prevent stillbirths, and are strongly recommended wherever practical, whether as hospital case review or as confidential enquiry at district or national level. Conclusion Delivering interventions to reduce the global burden of stillbirths requires action at all levels of the health system. Packages of interventions should be tailored to local conditions, including local levels and causes of stillbirth, accessibility of care and health system resources and provider skill. Antenatal care can potentially serve as a platform to deliver interventions to improve maternal nutrition, promote behaviour change to reduce harmful exposures and risk of infections, screen for and treat risk factors, and encourage skilled attendance at birth. Following the example of high-income countries, improving intrapartum monitoring for fetal distress and access to Caesarean section in low-/middle-income countries appears to be key to reducing intrapartum stillbirth. In remote or low-resource settings, families and communities can be galvanised to demand and seek quality care through financial incentives and health promotion efforts of local cadres of health workers, though these interventions often require simultaneous health systems strengthening. Perinatal audit can aid in the development of better standards of care, improving

  20. A community assessment to inform a multi-level intervention to reduce CVD risk and risk disparities in a rural community

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Maihan B.; Garcia, Beverly A.; McGuirt, Jared T.; Braxton, Danielle; Hengel, Constance E.; Huff, Joey V.; Keyserling, Thomas C.; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2014-01-01

    In order to complete a formative evaluation to identify community-level assets and barriers to healthy lifestyle choices, we conducted qualitative interviews, community audits, and secondary data analyses. We solicited local leaders’ perspectives regarding ‘win-ability’ of obesity prevention policy options. Participants noted that many resources were available, yet a barrier was high cost. There were more parks per capita in low-income areas, but they were of lower quality. The most winnable obesity prevention policy was incentives for use of food from local farms. Results are being used to inform an intervention to reduce CVD risk in a rural eastern North Carolina. PMID:23455684

  1. Testing Mediators of Intervention Effects in Randomized Controlled Trials: An Evaluation of Three Depression Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a new 5-step method for testing mediators hypothesized to account for the effects of depression prevention programs. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, at-risk teens with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…

  2. Professional Development in Implementing and Sustaining Multitier Prevention Models: Implications for Response to Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Volpiansky, Paula; Clements, Melissa; Ball, Carrie

    2007-01-01

    We provide an overview of the role professional development plays in multitiered prevention and intervention models. Specifically, professional development is discussed within the context of establishing sustainable improvement in schools as professionals implement multitiered models of prevention and intervention services, programs, and practices…

  3. Program Evaluation of the "PREPaRE" School Crisis Prevention and Intervention Training Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Serwacki, Michelle L.; Brock, Stephen E.; Savage, Todd A.; Woitaszewski, Scott A.; Louvar Reeves, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study details a program evaluation of the "PREPaRE School Crisis Prevention and Intervention Training Curriculum" ("PREPaRE"), conducted in the United States and Canada between 2009 and 2011. Significant improvements in crisis prevention and intervention attitudes and knowledge were shown among 875 "Crisis Prevention…

  4. A community-based heart disease intervention: predictors of change.

    PubMed Central

    Winkleby, M A; Flora, J A; Kraemer, H C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This paper presents a prospective examination of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and physiologic characteristics associated with positive change in cardiovascular disease risk factors during a 6-year multiple risk factor intervention study. METHODS. Data are presented on 221 women and 190 men (aged 25 through 74 years) who participated in four cohort surveys (1979 through 1985). A signal detection model was used to identify baseline variables that best divide the sample into subgroups on the basis of the probability of positive change in a composite risk factor score. RESULTS. Sixty-nine percent of the respondents showed a positive change in risk factor score during the intervention. The subgroup with the highest proportion of positive changers (83%) was composed of older adults (> 55 years) with the highest perceived risk, highest health media use, and highest blood pressure and cholesterol levels. The subgroup with the lowest proportion of positive changers (42%) was the least educated, was the most likely to be Hispanic, and had the lowest health knowledge and self-efficacy scores. CONCLUSIONS. The differing composition of subgroups who respond or do not respond to community cardiovascular disease interventions illustrates the need to develop specific interventions that target different age, socioeconomic, and cultural subgroups. PMID:8179046

  5. FAMILY EATS: A WEB-BASED CANCER PREVENTION INTERVENTION FOR AFRICAN-AMERICAN FAMILIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low participation rates for community-based interventions suggest the need for other intervention channels. The internet provides convenience through home access. This study tested the feasibility of an eight-session internet-based parent-targeted intervention for African-American families to promot...

  6. Community College Presidents' Role in Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William

    2006-01-01

    This publication is designed to guide presidents of community colleges and their administrative staff as they focus on alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse prevention. The first section reviews the challenges facing community colleges in reducing student substance use and the strengths the colleges draw on in addressing it. The second section…

  7. Preventing Children's Aggression: Outcomes of an Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Corpuz, Randy; Schwartz, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Mothers of medically at-risk infants were randomly assigned to a Healthy Start intervention (HV) or a cognitive reframing intervention (HV+). Outcome measures were taken at the conclusion of the intervention (1 year) and at the 3-year follow-up visit. At age 3, children in the HV+ condition (in comparison with those in the HV condition) showed…

  8. Enhancing Documentation of Pressure Ulcer Prevention Interventions: A Quality Improvement Strategy to Reduce Pressure Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Therese M; Thompson, Susan L; Halvorson, Anna M; Zeitler, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers requires the implementation of evidence-based interventions. A quality improvement project was conducted to provide nurses with data on the frequency with which pressure ulcer prevention interventions were performed as measured by documentation. Documentation reports provided feedback to stakeholders, triggering reminders and reeducation. Intervention reports and modifications to the documentation system were effective both in increasing the documentation of pressure ulcer prevention interventions and in decreasing the number of avoidable hospital-acquired pressure ulcers. PMID:26863048

  9. Community-based interventions and alcohol, tobacco and other drugs: foci, outcomes and implications.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Norman; Haydon, Emma

    2006-11-01

    The social, health and economic burdens from alcohol, tobacco and other drugs have impacts globally, national and locally. Effective interventions are needed at each level in order to reduce the extensive harm and attendant costs. This paper examines four topics: options available to the local community, evidence of effectiveness, links between local experiences and national and regional initiatives and implications for future research and intervention. It appears that there are a substantial number of options available at the local level. However, evaluation of them is not standard practice, and the results of the higher quality evaluations indicate that many, but not all, interventions have modest or equivocal impact. There is also not a consistent relationship between local and national interventions, although some themes are apparent: in tobacco control there may be good synergy across jurisdictional levels, for alcohol there is evidence that as national control measures are eroded local communities are encouraged or required to take up these agendas, and with regard to illicit drugs there may be tension between law enforcement priorities at the national level and harm reduction orientations locally. Future initiatives need to have appropriate evaluations as a standardised part of prevention initiatives, and include the development of national databases of what is going on locally. These initiatives should promote national policies that include setting parameters and guidelines, but nevertheless do not dictate specific steps and strategies how to achieve local goals in reducing risk and harm. PMID:17132579

  10. The Early Risers Preventive Intervention: Testing for Six-year Outcomes and Mediational Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernat, Debra H.; August, Gerald J.; Hektner, Joel M.; Bloomquist, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    We examined effects of the Early Risers "Skills for Success" early-age-targeted prevention program on serious conduct problems following 5 years of continuous intervention and one year of follow-up. We also examined if intervention effects on proximally-targeted variables found after 3 years mediated intervention effects on conduct problems found…

  11. The Effects of Interventions to Prevent Substance Use among Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karki, Suyen; Pietila, Anna-Maija; Lansimies-Antikainen, Helena; Varjoranta, Pirjo; Pirskanen, Marjatta; Laukkanen, Eila

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to describe and evaluate the effects of interventions used for preventing or reducing substance use among adolescents under 18 years of age. Studies (N = 27) available in CINAHL and PubMed from 2007 to 2010 were included. Results showed that family-based interventions and combined interventions have significant…

  12. Replicating a Teen HIV/STD Preventive Intervention in a Multicultural City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Beadnell, Blair A.; Wilsdon, Anthony; Higa, Darrel; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Casey, Erin A.

    2007-01-01

    Although there are now several adolescent HIV and STD preventive interventions of demonstrated efficacy in the literature, little is understood about the portability of these interventions. This study replicated Stanton's Focus on Kids intervention, developed for inner city African American adolescents, in a different population, transferring it…

  13. Randomized Trial of a Broad Preventive Intervention for Mexican American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Nancy A.; Dumka, Larry E.; Millsap, Roger E.; Gottschall, Amanda; McClain, Darya B.; Wong, Jessie J.; German, Miguelina; Mauricio, Anne M.; Wheeler, Lorey; Carpentier, Francesca D.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This randomized trial of a family-focused preventive intervention for Mexican American (MA) adolescents evaluated intervention effects on adolescent substance use, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and school discipline and grade records in 8th grade, 1 year after completion of the intervention. The study also examined…

  14. School factors as barriers to and facilitators of a preventive intervention for pediatric type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    School-based interventions are essential to prevent pediatric obesity and type 2 diabetes. School environmental factors influence implementation of these interventions. This article examines how school factors acted as barriers to and facilitators of the HEALTHY intervention. The HEALTHY study was a...

  15. A "Common Factors" Approach to Developing Culturally Tailored HIV Prevention Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owczarzak, Jill; Phillips, Sarah D.; Filippova, Olga; Alpatova, Polina; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Zub, Tatyana; Aleksanyan, Ruzanna

    2016-01-01

    The current dominant model of HIV prevention intervention dissemination involves packaging interventions developed in one context, training providers to implement that specific intervention, and evaluating the extent to which providers implement it with fidelity. Research shows that providers rarely implement these programs with fidelity due to…

  16. Preventing and reducing violence against women: innovation in community-level studies.

    PubMed

    Taft, Angela; Small, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious global problem that damages the health and prosperity of individuals, their families, community, and society. WHO endorses an 'ecological model,' which states that there are multi-level intersecting factors enabling perpetration and victimization of violence. Intervention science to prevent or reduce the problem is in its infancy, and the few existing intervention studies have been targeted at the individual level. In a recent study published in BMC Medicine, Abramsky et al. bring innovation to the field, targeting their intervention trial "SASA!" in Kampala Uganda at all ecological levels, but particularly at the community level. Recruiting and training both male and female community leaders and activists who enabled group and media discussions, the authors focused on the beneficial and abusive detrimental uses of power rather than commencing with the central issue of gender inequality. SASA! successfully reduced community attitudes to tolerance of violence and inequality, men's sexual risk behaviors, and women's experience of physical violence. The study also improved the communities' response to victimized women. SASA! has promise for adaptation and replication in low, middle and high income countries. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/122. PMID:25286152

  17. Clinical and Community Delivery Systems for Preventive Care

    PubMed Central

    Krist, Alex H.; Shenson, Douglas; Woolf, Steven H.; Bradley, Cathy; Liaw, Winston R.; Rothemich, Stephen F.; Slonim, Amy; Benson, William; Anderson, Lynda A.

    2015-01-01

    Although clinical preventive services (CPS)—screening tests, immunizations, health behavior counseling, and preventive medications—can save lives, Americans receive only half of recommended services. This "prevention gap," if closed, could substantially reduce morbidity and mortality. Opportunities to improve delivery of CPS exist in both clinical and community settings, but these activities are rarely coordinated across these settings, resulting in inefficiencies and attenuated benefits. Through a literature review, semi-structured interviews with 50 national experts, field observations of 53 successful programs, and a national stakeholder meeting, a framework to fully integrate CPS delivery across clinical and community care delivery systems was developed. The framework identifies the necessary participants, their role in care delivery, and the infrastructure, support, and policies necessary to ensure success. Essential stakeholders in integration include clinicians; community members and organizations; spanning personnel and infrastructure; national, state, and local leadership; and funders and purchasers. Spanning personnel and infrastructure are essential to bring clinicians and communities together and to help patients navigate across care settings. The specifics of clinical–community integrations vary depending on the services addressed and the local context. Although broad establishment of effective clinical–community integrations will require substantial changes, existing clinical and community models provide an important starting point. The key policies and elements of the framework are often already in place or easily identified. The larger challenge is for stakeholders to recognize how integration serves their mutual interests and how it can be financed and sustained over time. PMID:24050428

  18. Approaches to Measuring the Extent and Impact of Environmental Change in Three California Community-Level Obesity Prevention Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Sarah E.; Rauzon, Suzanne; Yoshida, Sallie C.; Schwartz, Pamela M.; Boyle, Maria; Beery, William L.; Craypo, Lisa; Solomon, Loel

    2010-01-01

    Despite growing support among public health researchers and practitioners for environmental approaches to obesity prevention, there is a lack of empirical evidence from intervention studies showing a favorable impact of either increased healthy food availability on healthy eating or changes in the built environment on physical activity. It is therefore critical that we carefully evaluate initiatives targeting the community environment to expand the evidence base for environmental interventions. We describe the approaches used to measure the extent and impact of environmental change in 3 community-level obesity-prevention initiatives in California. We focus on measuring changes in the community environment and assessing the impact of those changes on residents most directly exposed to the interventions. PMID:20935262

  19. Primary Care Interventions to Prevent or Treat Traumatic Stress in Childhood: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Anna; Fothergill, Kate E.; Wilcox, Holly C.; Coleclough, Elizabeth; Horwitz, Russell; Ruble, Anne; Burkey, Matthew D.; Wissow, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary care interventions addressing child traumatic stress exist but their range and effectiveness is unclear. Objectives To systematically assess the evidence base for prevention and treatment of child traumatic stress in primary care settings. Data Sources PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus, Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, the National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices, the National Child Traumatic Stress Network website, Google search. Study Eligibility Criteria, Participants, and Interventions Studies were eligible for inclusion if they described the results of intervention studies in a primary care setting addressing child traumatic stress. Study participants could include primary care providers, pediatric patients, and their parents or other caregivers. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Each study was assessed for inclusion and each included study was assessed for risk of bias by two reviewers. Results We found 12 articles describing 10 different studies that met the inclusion criteria. The intervention approaches taken in the studies were diverse and included the implementation of screening programs/tools, training clinicians to recognize and discuss psychosocial issues with patients and their families, and providing primary care professionals with community resource lists. Nine out of 10 studies included in the review reported favorable results. Limitations Studies included in the review had relatively short follow-up periods and the diversity of studies identified precluded the possibility of conducting a meta-analysis. Conclusions and Implications of Key Findings Findings suggest that interventions in pediatric primary care settings are feasible and can favorably impact clinical practices and families’ outcomes. PMID:26344717

  20. AFRICAN-AMERICAN AND HISPANIC-AMERICAN ADOLESCENTS, HIV INFECTION, AND PREVENTIVE INTERVENTION

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Orlandi, Mario A.; Schilling, Robert F.; Gordon, Adam N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers strategies for preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among African-American and Hispanic-American adolescents. We describe culturally sensitive interventions based on social learning theory. The interventions combine elements of cognitive-behavioral skills for problem solving, coping, and interpersonal communication with elements of ethnic pride and HIV facts. The paper discusses the strengths and limitations of skills intervention for AIDS prevention and concludes with directions for research. PMID:2288812

  1. Creating Qungasvik (A Yup’ik Intervention “Toolbox”): Case Examples from a Community-Developed and Culturally-Driven Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Rasmus, Stacy M.; Charles, Billy; Mohatt, Gerald V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Yup’ik Alaska Native approach to suicide and alcohol abuse prevention that resulted in the creation of the Qungasvik, a toolbox promoting reasons for life and sobriety among youth. The Qungasvik is made up of thirty-six modules that function as cultural scripts for creating experiences in Yup’ik communities that build strengths and protection against suicide and alcohol abuse. The Qungasvik manual represents the results of a community based participatory research intervention development process grounded in culture and local process, and nurtured through a syncretic blending of Indigenous and Western theories and practices. This paper will provide a description of the collaborative steps taken at the community-level to develop the intervention modules. This process involved university researchers and community members coming together and drawing from multiple sources of data and knowledge to inform the development of prevention activities addressing youth suicide and alcohol abuse. We will present case examples describing the development of three keystone modules; Qasgiq (The Men’s House), Yup’ik Kinship Terms, and Surviving Your Feelings. These modules each are representative of the process that the community co-researcher team took to develop and implement protective experiences that: (1) create supportive community, (2) strengthen families, and (3) give individuals tools to be healthy and strong. PMID:24764018

  2. Learning about Urban Congregations and HIV/AIDS: Community-Based Foundations for Developing Congregational Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, Peter J.; Kanouse, David E.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Castaneda, Laura Werber; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Mata, Michael; Oden, Clyde W.

    2010-01-01

    Religious congregations are important community institutions that could help fight HIV/AIDS; however, barriers exist, particularly in the area of prevention. Formative, participatory research is needed to understand the capacity of congregations to address HIV/AIDS. This article describes a study that used community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches to learn about congregation-sponsored HIV activities. CBPR strategies were used throughout the study, including proposal development, community expert interviews, Community Advisory Board, congregational telephone survey, congregational case studies, and congregational feedback sessions. Involving community consultants, experts, and advisory board members in all stages of the study helped the researchers to conceptualize congregational involvement in HIV, be more sensitive to potential congregational concerns about the research, achieve high response rates, and interpret and disseminate findings. Providing preliminary case findings to congregational participants in an interactive feedback session improved data quality and relationships with the community. Methods to engage community stakeholders can lay the foundation for future collaborative interventions. PMID:20361357

  3. Who to target in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy prevention and how? Risk factors, biomarkers, and intervention study designs.

    PubMed

    Tomson, Torbjörn; Surges, Rainer; Delamont, Robert; Haywood, Serena; Hesdorffer, Dale C

    2016-01-01

    The risk of dying suddenly and unexpectedly is increased 24- to 28-fold among young people with epilepsy compared to the general population, but the incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) varies markedly depending on the epilepsy population. This article first reviews risk factors and biomarkers for SUDEP with the overall aim of enabling identification of epilepsy populations with different risk levels as a background for a discussion of possible intervention strategies. The by far most important clinical risk factor is frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), but nocturnal seizures, early age at onset, and long duration of epilepsy have been identified as additional risk factors. Lack of antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment or, in the context of clinical trials, adjunctive placebo versus active treatment is associated with increased risks. Despite considerable research, reliable electrophysiologic (electrocardiography [ECG] or electroencephalography [EEG]) biomarkers of SUDEP risk remain to be established. This is an important limitation for prevention strategies and intervention studies. There is a lack of biomarkers for SUDEP, and until validated biomarkers are found, the endpoint of interventions to prevent SUDEP must be SUDEP itself. These interventions, be they pharmacologic, seizure-detection devices, or nocturnal supervision, require large numbers. Possible methods for assessing prevention measures include public health community interventions, self-management, and more traditional (and much more expensive) randomized clinical trials. PMID:26749012

  4. Developing measures of community-relevant outcomes for violence prevention programs: a community-based participatory research approach to measurement.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Alice J; Baker, Courtney N; Komaroff, Eugene; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Hohl, Bernadette C; Leff, Stephen S

    2013-12-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research is a research paradigm that encourages community participation in designing and implementing evaluation research, though the actual outcome measures usually reflect the "external" academic researchers' view of program effect and the policy-makers' needs for decision-making. This paper describes a replicable process by which existing standardized psychometric scales commonly used in youth-related intervention programs were modified to measure indicators of program success defined by community partners. This study utilizes a secondary analysis of data gathered in the context of a community-based youth violence prevention program. Data were retooled into new measures developed using items from the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, the Hare Area Specific Self-Esteem Scale, and the Youth Asset Survey. These measures evaluated two community-defined outcome indicators, "More Parental Involvement" and "Showing Kids Love." Results showed that existing scale items can be re-organized to create measures of community-defined outcomes that are psychometrically reliable and valid. Results also show that the community definitions of parent or parenting caregivers exemplified by the two indicators are similar to how these constructs have been defined in previous research, but they are not synonymous. There are nuanced differences that are important and worthy of better understanding, in part through better measurement. PMID:23846829

  5. Fetal alcohol syndrome prevention using community-based narrowcasting campaigns.

    PubMed

    Glik, Deborah; Prelip, Michael; Myerson, Amy; Eilers, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Preventing fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) by encouraging pregnant women to abstain from drinking alcohol competes with commercial alcohol marketing. Two FAS-prevention campaigns using a narrowcast approach among young women of childbearing age in two disadvantaged Southern California communities are compared. The design, implementation process, and degree to which campaigns reached the priority populations are the focus of this article. Formative research shows that young women in disadvantaged communities receive mixed messages about dangers of drinking during pregnancy. A social norms approach using positive role models was the most acceptable message strategy based on materials pretesting. Differences in campaign implementation and distribution strategies between communities were documented through program monitoring. Survey research indicated the more viable messaging and implementation strategies. Findings show that low-cost community campaigns are feasible; however, variations in messaging, distribution strategies, and saturation levels determine whether such campaigns succeed or fail to reach priority populations. PMID:18166669

  6. The family series workshop: a community-based psychoeducational intervention.

    PubMed

    Llanque, Sarah M; Enriquez, Maithe; Cheng, An-Lin; Doty, Leilani; Brotto, Marco A; Kelly, Patricia J; Niedens, Michelle; Caserta, Michael S; Savage, Lynette M

    2015-09-01

    This study describes an evaluation of a community-based psychoeducational intervention, called The Family Series Workshop, for caregivers of community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer's disease or related dementias (ADRD). In a one-group pretest-posttest design, participants (n = 35) attended six weekly sessions. Caregiver stress, coping, and caregiving competence were evaluated along with demographic characteristics of participants. There was a significant improvement found for caregiving competence, and a marginally significant increase in coping with humor. Using regression analysis we also found that coping with humor, along with stress, were significant predictors of caregiving competence. These findings indicate that it is possible to increase caregiving competence utilizing a "grassroots" approach and that it is feasible to hold educational, group discussions on a plethora of challenging caregiving topics. PMID:25609602

  7. The Family Series Workshop: A Community-Based Psychoeducational Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Llanque, Sarah M.; Enriquez, Maithe; Cheng, An-Lin; Doty, Leilani; Brotto, Marco A.; Kelly, Patricia J.; Niedens, Michelle; Caserta, Michael S.; Savage, Lynette M.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes an evaluation of a community-based psychoeducational intervention, called The Family Series Workshop, for caregivers of community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer’s disease or related dementias (ADRD). In a one-group pretest–posttest design, participants (n = 35) attended six weekly sessions. Caregiver stress, coping, and caregiving competence were evaluated along with demographic characteristics of participants. There was a significant improvement found for caregiving competence, and a marginally significant increase in coping with humor. Using regression analysis we also found that coping with humor, along with stress, were significant predictors of caregiving competence. These findings indicate that it is possible to increase caregiving competence utilizing a “grassroots” approach and that it is feasible to hold educational, group discussions on a plethora of challenging caregiving topics. PMID:25609602

  8. Health system and community level interventions for improving antenatal care coverage and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Medley, Nancy; Darzi, Andrea J; Richardson, Marty; Habiba Garga, Kesso; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends at least four antenatal care (ANC) visits for all pregnant women. Almost half of pregnant women worldwide, and especially in developing countries do not receive this amount of care. Poor attendance of ANC is associated with delivery of low birthweight babies and more neonatal deaths. ANC may include education on nutrition, potential problems with pregnancy or childbirth, child care and prevention or detection of disease during pregnancy. This review focused on community-based interventions and health systems-related interventions. Objectives To assess the effects of health system and community interventions for improving coverage of antenatal care and other perinatal health outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (7 June 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised trials and cluster-randomised trials. Trials of any interventions to improve ANC coverage were eligible for inclusion. Trials were also eligible if they targeted specific and related outcomes, such as maternal or perinatal death, but also reported ANC coverage. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Main results We included 34 trials involving approximately 400,000 women. Some trials tested community-based interventions to improve uptake of antenatal care (media campaigns, education or financial incentives for pregnant women), while other trials looked at health systems interventions (home visits for pregnant women or equipment for clinics). Most trials took place in low- and middle-income countries, and 29 of the 34 trials used a cluster-randomised design. We assessed 30 of the 34 trials as of low or unclear overall risk of bias. Comparison 1: One intervention versus no intervention We

  9. Acceptance of preventive measures by individuals, institutions and communities.

    PubMed

    Silversin, J; Kornacki, M J

    1984-09-01

    The acceptance by individuals, institutions and communities of preventive measures for controlling the two most prevalent dental diseases, dental caries and periodontal disease, is limited. A wide gap exists between available preventive methods and their appropriate application. Adoption of preventive dental self-care (tooth brushing, flossing diet modification) is organized around five categories of determinants influencing oral health behaviours: psychological factors; face-to-face interactions between people; broad societal influences; information and the immediate surroundings; and reinforcement schemes. While each of these five categories of determinants influences adoption of the desired behaviours, altering any single factor does not usually result in sustained behaviour change. Institutions (e.g. schools and workplaces) and communities are sites where the determinants of individual behaviours can be altered and preventive services can be delivered. Very little research has been conducted to improve our understanding of the variables which explain why dental health prevention programmes are accepted or rejected by institutions or communities. When programmes are adopted, little is known about the accuracy of their administration or about barriers to, and problems in, their implementation and maintenance. To achieve optimal oral health throughout life, a combination of passive measures (e.g. water fluoridation, school-based fluoride programmes) and active personal behaviours (e.g. oral hygiene, diet control) is required. Therefore, it is essential that researchers and practitioners improve their understanding of the acceptance of passive measures by institutions and communities as well as their understanding of the adoption of active measures by individuals. PMID:6592149

  10. A Community-Based Intervention Increases Physical Activity and Reduces Obesity in School-Age Children in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J.; Østbye, Truls; Evenson, Kelly R.; Neelon, Brian; Martinie, Annie; Bennett, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Community-based interventions are promising approaches to obesity prevention, but few studies have prospectively evaluated them. The aim of this study was to evaluate a natural experiment—a community intervention designed to promote active living and decrease obesity within a small southern town. Methods: In 2011, community leaders implemented the Mebane on the Move intervention—a community-wide effort to promote physical activity (PA) and decrease obesity among residents of Mebane, North Carolina. We measured child PA and BMI before and after the intervention, using a nearby town not implementing an intervention as the comparison. In total, we assessed 64 children from Mebane and 40 from the comparison community 6 months before, as well as 34 and 18 children 6 months after the intervention. We assessed PA with accelerometers worn for 7 days and calculated BMI z-scores using children's height and weight. We conducted multivariable linear regressions examining pre- to postintervention change in minutes of PA and BMI z-score, adjusting for confounders. Results: At follow-up, children in Mebane modestly increased their moderate-to-vigorous PA (1.3 minutes per hour; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 2.3; p=0.03) and vigorous activity (0.8 minutes per hour; 95% CI: 0.1, 1.5; p=0.04) more than comparison children. In intervention children, BMI z-scores decreased 0.5 units (kg/m2; 95% CI: −0.9, −0.02; p=0.045), compared to children in the comparison community. Conclusions: We observed positive effects on PA level and weight status of children in Mebane, despite high rates of attrition, suggesting that the community-based intervention may have been successful. PMID:25938983

  11. Implementing a Community Empowerment Center to Build Capacity for Developing, Implementing, and Sustaining Interventions to Promote Community Health.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Stacy W; Freedman, Darcy A; Pitner, Ronald O; Sharpe, Patricia A; Cole, Jennie Ann; Hastie, Shanna; Hunter, Brittney

    2015-12-01

    The Community Empowerment Center used a community-engaged approach to build capacity among residents to develop and implement interventions focused on creating a healthier environment. The Center partnered with residents living in a public housing community and adjacent low-income neighborhood and provided support through a mini-grant program. A six-session training program guided community members in mini grant development; 25 individuals attended at least one session. Six grant proposals were submitted; three were awarded $12,000 each for intervention implementation. Findings offer a model for engaging residents from low-resource settings in intervention development, implementation, and sustainability for community health promotion. PMID:25962954

  12. Using intervention mapping to develop a culturally appropriate intervention to prevent childhood obesity: the HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Interventions that make extensive use of theory tend to have larger effects on behaviour. The Intervention Mapping (IM) framework incorporates theory into intervention design, implementation and evaluation, and was applied to the development of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for a multi-ethnic population. Methods IM was applied as follows: 1) Needs assessment of the community and culture; consideration of evidence-base, policy and practice; 2) Identification of desired outcomes and change objectives following identification of barriers to behaviour change mapped alongside psychological determinants (e.g. knowledge, self-efficacy, intention); 3) Selection of theory-based methods and practical applications to address barriers to behaviour change (e.g., strategies for responsive feeding); 4) Design of the intervention by developing evidence-based interactive activities and resources (e.g., visual aids to show babies stomach size). The activities were integrated into an existing parenting programme; 5) Adoption and implementation: parenting practitioners were trained by healthcare professionals to deliver the programme within Children Centres. Results HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) is aimed at overweight and obese pregnant women (BMI > 25); consists of 12 × 2.5 hr. sessions (6 ante-natal from 24 weeks; 6 postnatal up to 9 months); it addresses mother’s diet and physical activity, breast or bottle feeding, infant diet and parental feeding practices, and infant physical activity. Conclusion We have demonstrated that IM is a feasible and helpful method for providing an evidence based and theoretical structure to a complex health behaviour change intervention. The next stage will be to assess the impact of the intervention on behaviour change and clinical factors associated with childhood obesity. The HAPPY programme is currently being tested as part of a randomised controlled feasibility

  13. The Process of Adaptation of a Community-Level, Evidence-Based Intervention for HIV-Positive African American Men Who Have Sex with Men in Two Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Beatrice E.; Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Lund, Sharon M.; Hamilton, Autumn R.; Shankle, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the process of adapting a community-level, evidence-based behavioral intervention (EBI), Community PROMISE, for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of the Adaptation Process (MAP) guided the adaptation process for this new target population by two…

  14. Diabetes Prevention in the New York City Sikh Asian Indian Community: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Nadia S.; Zanowiak, Jennifer M.; Wyatt, Laura C.; Kavathe, Rucha; Singh, Hardayal; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2014-01-01

    India has one of the highest burdens of diabetes worldwide, and rates of diabetes are also high among Asian Indian immigrants that have migrated into the United States (U.S.). Sikhs represent a significant portion of Asian Indians in the U.S. Diabetes prevention programs have shown the benefits of using lifestyle intervention to reduce diabetes risk, yet there have been no culturally-tailored programs for diabetes prevention in the Sikh community. Using a quasi-experimental two-arm design, 126 Sikh Asian Indians living in New York City were enrolled in a six-workshop intervention led by community health workers. A total of 108 participants completed baseline and 6-month follow-up surveys between March 2012 and October 2013. Main outcome measures included clinical variables (weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol) and health behaviors (changes in physical activity, food behaviors, and diabetes knowledge). Changes were significant for the treatment group in weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, physical activity, food behaviors, and diabetes knowledge, and between group differences were significant for glucose, diabetes knowledge, portion control, and physical activity social interaction. Retention rates were high. Findings demonstrate that a diabetes prevention program in the Sikh community is acceptable, feasible, and efficacious. PMID:24852392

  15. Urging others to be healthy: "intravention" by injection drug users as a community prevention goal.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Samuel R; Maslow, Carey; Bolyard, Melissa; Sandoval, Milagros; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Neaigus, Alan

    2004-06-01

    "Intravention," prevention activities that are conducted by and sustained through ongoing actions of members of communities-at-risk, is an appropriate goal for HIV intervention activities. Data from 120 injection drug users in a Brooklyn, New York, neighborhood that has seen decreases in HIV prevalence among IDUs and little HIV diffusion to young adults indicate that most of them have recently (3 months) urged other people to engage in one or more self-protective actions. These data suggest that the common image of IDUs as simply being sources of social and medical problems is inaccurate. Research is needed into how to create and diffuse "communities of intravention; " and we suggest that behavioral interventions be evaluated for their success or failure at creating outward-focused health communication by participants as well as for their impact on individual risk behaviors. PMID:15237054

  16. An oral cancer awareness intervention in community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Rogers, S N; Lowe, D; Catleugh, M; Edwards, D

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the impact on 95 community pharmacies of an educational package on awareness of oral cancer, which consisted of a training evening, pharmacy protocol, and information for patients. Results of a questionnaire and the experience of a mystery shopper before the intervention and 6 months later were used to evaluate its effectiveness. Before the intervention 29% of pharmacies advised "my 60-year-old friend who has had an ulcer in his mouth for 4 weeks" to see a doctor or a dentist. Afterwards this rose to 45% w