Science.gov

Sample records for como italy 18-21

  1. 49 CFR 18.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they maintain... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment. 18.21 Section 18.21 Transportation Office... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 18.21...

  2. 49 CFR 18.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they maintain... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment. 18.21 Section 18.21 Transportation Office... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 18.21...

  3. 49 CFR 18.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they maintain... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment. 18.21 Section 18.21 Transportation Office... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 18.21...

  4. 15 CFR 18.21 - Decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decision. 18.21 Section 18.21 Commerce... for Considering Applications § 18.21 Decision. The adjudicative officer shall issue an initial decision on the application within 30 calendar days after completion of proceedings on the application....

  5. 49 CFR 18.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they maintain... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment. 18.21 Section 18.21 Transportation Office... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 18.21...

  6. Recent DDT and PCB contamination in the sediment and biota of the Como Bay (Lake Como, Italy).

    PubMed

    Bettinetti, R; Quadroni, S; Boggio, E; Galassi, S

    2016-01-15

    Due to its peculiar geographical and morphological characteristics, Lake Como (Northern Italy) represents an interesting study-case for investigating the sub-basin scale circulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that, despite being banned since the 1970s, have reached surprisingly high concentrations in some southern alpine lakes as a consequence of their release from melting glaciers in recent years. In particular, the Como Bay, which is located in the city of Como, seems noteworthy because its waters have a longer residence time than the other areas of the lake. The analyses of the historical concentration of PCBs, pp′DDT and its metabolites in a sediment core sampled from the Como Bay covering a time-period from their ban to recent times, showed that the DDTs have never experienced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease over time, with concentrations of the most abundant homologue, pp′DDE, ranging from 27 to 75 ng g(-1) d.w. Conversely PCBs significantly (p < 0.05) decreased towards recent times, reaching concentrations around 80 ng g(-1) d.w. The contribution of high altitude and local sources was recorded also in the food web: both zooplankton and the zooplanktivorous fish agone were mainly contaminated by pp′DDE (81.4 ng g(-1) w.w. and 534.6 ng g(-1) w.w. respectively) and by the PCB metabolite hexa-CB (449.7 ng g(-1) w.w. and 1672.1 ng g(-1) w.w. respectively). The DDT concentrations in the agone (sampled during the years 2006–2009) never exceeded the limits for human consumption in Italy, while concentrations of six selected PCBs exceeded human health advisory recommendations in one of the fish samples analysed, when it was approximately two times higher than the recommended value of 125 ng g(-1) w.w. PMID:26520265

  7. 27 CFR 18.21 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Qualification § 18.21 General. A person who desires to engage in the business of manufacturing concentrate shall submit an application...

  8. 27 CFR 18.21 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Qualification § 18.21 General. A person who desires to engage in the business of manufacturing concentrate shall submit an application...

  9. Italy.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    For "Background Notes" on Italy, the U.S. State Department, Bureau of Public Affairs, covers geography, people, history, government, politics, economy, defense and foreign relations. Italy had 57.3 million persons in 1986, with a growth rate of 2.3%. The life expectancy is 73 years; the infant mortality rate is 14.3/1000 live births. 98% of the people are literate. The current constitutional republic has existed since 1948. Mean per capita income is $6,447. The people work mainly in services (60%), industry (30%) and agriculture (10%). Most of the country is mountainous, without significant food, energy or natural resources, so Italy's central position in the Mediterranean has influenced economic development since ancient times. The nation is highly homogeneous, as the government is centralized. Although there are several influential political parties, the diverse structure of the Christian Democrats has given them power since the war. The current prime minister, Bettino Craxi, is a member of the centralist Italian Socialist Party. The Italian Communist Party is the largest such party in the free world, polling 30% of the vote in 1983. Italy is a member of NATO. PMID:12177926

  10. The stucco decorations from St. Lorenzo in Laino (Como, Italy): The materials and the techniques employed by the "Magistri Comacini".

    PubMed

    Rampazzi, Laura; Rizzo, Biagio; Colombo, Chiara; Conti, Claudia; Realini, Marco; Bartolucci, Ugo; Colombini, Maria Perla; Spiriti, Andrea; Facchin, Laura

    2008-12-01

    The paper reports a cross-cutting and systematic approach to the analytical study of Baroque stucco decorations by Italian artists known as "Magistri Comacini". Samples from the Church of St. Lorenzo in Laino (Como, Italy) were analysed using chemical and mineralogical techniques and the results interpreted with the help of art historians in order to enlighten the artistic techniques. The characterisation of the binder, aggregate and organic fractions was carried out through optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with microprobe, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and laser ablation mass spectrometry equipped with plasma source spectrometry. The results on major, minor and trace components ascertained various recipes. In particular, the investigation of the finishing layers corroborated hypotheses of attribution and chronology and stressed the different skills of the artists working in the building, shedding a light on details of the decoration technique. PMID:19068330

  11. 19 CFR 18.21 - Restricted and prohibited merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Restricted and prohibited merchandise. 18.21 Section 18.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise in Transit...

  12. 19 CFR 18.21 - Restricted and prohibited merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Restricted and prohibited merchandise. 18.21 Section 18.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise in Transit...

  13. 19 CFR 18.21 - Restricted and prohibited merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Restricted and prohibited merchandise. 18.21 Section 18.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise in Transit...

  14. 19 CFR 18.21 - Restricted and prohibited merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restricted and prohibited merchandise. 18.21 Section 18.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise in Transit Through the United States to Foreign Countries §...

  15. 19 CFR 18.21 - Restricted and prohibited merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Restricted and prohibited merchandise. 18.21 Section 18.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise in Transit...

  16. 50 CFR 18.21 - Actions permitted by international treaty, convention, or agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., convention, or agreement. 18.21 Section 18.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Actions permitted by international treaty, convention, or agreement. The Act and these regulations shall..., convention or agreement, or any statute implementing the same, relating to the taking or importation...

  17. 30 CFR 18.21 - Machines equipped with powered dust collectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Machines equipped with powered dust collectors... Construction and Design Requirements § 18.21 Machines equipped with powered dust collectors. Powered dust collectors on machines submitted for approval shall meet the applicable requirements of Part 33 of...

  18. 30 CFR 18.21 - Machines equipped with powered dust collectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machines equipped with powered dust collectors... Construction and Design Requirements § 18.21 Machines equipped with powered dust collectors. Powered dust collectors on machines submitted for approval shall meet the applicable requirements of Part 33 of...

  19. 30 CFR 18.21 - Machines equipped with powered dust collectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Machines equipped with powered dust collectors... Construction and Design Requirements § 18.21 Machines equipped with powered dust collectors. Powered dust collectors on machines submitted for approval shall meet the applicable requirements of Part 33 of...

  20. 30 CFR 18.21 - Machines equipped with powered dust collectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Machines equipped with powered dust collectors... Construction and Design Requirements § 18.21 Machines equipped with powered dust collectors. Powered dust collectors on machines submitted for approval shall meet the applicable requirements of Part 33 of...

  1. 30 CFR 18.21 - Machines equipped with powered dust collectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Machines equipped with powered dust collectors... Construction and Design Requirements § 18.21 Machines equipped with powered dust collectors. Powered dust collectors on machines submitted for approval shall meet the applicable requirements of Part 33 of...

  2. Central Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Clouds and haze cover most of the Italian peninsula in this view of central Italy (41.5N, 14.0E) but the Bay of Naples region with Mt. Vesuvius and the island of Capri are clear. The Adriatic Sea in the background separates Italy from the cloud covered Balkans of eastern Europe and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the foreground lies between the Italian mainland and the off scene islands of Corsica and Sardinia. Several aircraft contrails can also be seen.

  3. Melting of (MgO)n (n=18, 21, and 24) clusters simulated by molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Chen, H. S.; Liu, B. X.; Zhang, C. R.; Li, X. F.; Wang, Y. C.

    2010-05-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are employed to investigate the melting behavior and thermal stability of magnesium oxide clusters (MgO)n (n =18, 21, and 24). The rocksalt and hexagonal tube structures are two dominant low-energy structural motifs for small (MgO)n clusters and it results in the magic sizes n =3k (k is an integer). For n =6, 9, 12, and 15, the rocksalt and hexagonal tube structures have the same topological geometry, but for n ≥18, the two isomers are separated by high energy barriers. The simulations show a one-step melting process for the rocksalt structures of (MgO)18,24 (no perfect rocksalt structure exists for n =21). The melting transition occurs sharply between 1800 and 1950 K for n =24 but gradually from 1400 to 2450 K for n =18. The relative root-mean-square bond length fluctuation reveals a premelting stage from about 700 K to the melting transition for the hexagonal tube structures of all the three clusters. The short-time averages of kinetic energy and a visual molecular dynamics package are used to monitor the structures along the trajectories. The low-energy isomers are identified by the quenching technique and the isomerization processes are traced. The results show that there exists a family of isomers which are only 0.1-0.4 eV higher in energy than the corresponding hexagonal tube structures and separated by low energy barriers. The premelting stage is caused by the isomerizations among these structures. The melting characteristics demonstrated in the simulations are clarified in terms of the energies of the isomers and the energy barriers separating them.

  4. Non-invasive prenatal aneuploidy testing at chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y, using targeted sequencing of polymorphic loci

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Bernhard; Hill, Matthew; Gemelos, George; Demko, Zachary; Banjevic, Milena; Baner, Johan; Ryan, Allison; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Chopra, Nikhil; Dodd, Michael; Levy, Brynn; Rabinowitz, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Objective Develop a non-invasive prenatal test based on analysis of cell-free DNA in maternal blood to detect fetal aneuploidy at chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y. Methods 166 samples from pregnant women, including eleven trisomy 21, three trisomy 18, two trisomy 13, two 45,X, and two 47,XXY samples were analyzed using an informatics-based method. Cell-free DNA from maternal blood was isolated and amplified using a multiplex PCR assay targeting 11,000 SNPs on chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y in a single reaction, then sequenced. A Bayesian-based Maximum Likelihood statistical method was applied to determine the chromosomal count of the five chromosomes interrogated in each sample, along with a sample-specific calculated accuracy for each test result. Results The algorithm correctly reported the chromosome copy number at all five chromosomes in 145 samples that passed a DNA quality test, for a total of 725/725 correct calls. The average calculated accuracy for these samples was 99.92%. Twenty-one samples did not pass the DNA quality test. Conclusions This informatics-based method non-invasively detected fetuses with trisomy 13, 18, and 21, 45,X, and 47,XXY with high sample-specific calculated accuracies for each individual chromosome and across all five chromosomes. PMID:23108718

  5. Venice, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.

    This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne

  6. 18-Substituted steroids: synthesis of 18-hydroxycortisol (11 beta,17 alpha,18,21-tetrahydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dione) and 18-hydroxycortisone (17 alpha,18,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,11,20-trione).

    PubMed

    Gomez-Sanchez, C E; Kirk, D N; Farrant, R D; Milewich, L

    1985-01-01

    The isolation of 18-hydroxycortisol from the urine of patients with primary aldosteronism was recently described and no synthetic procedure was available for its preparation. The C-13 angular methyl group of prednisolone-17 alpha,21-acetonide-11 beta-nitrite was functionalized by photolysis in the presence of oxygen to give the product 18-hydroxy-prednisolone-17 alpha,21-acetonide-18-nitrate. The 18-nitrate was reduced with zinc and ammonium acetate to the corresponding 18-hydroxy compound, 18-hydroxy-prednisolone-17 alpha,21-acetonide. Homogeneous hydrogenation with Tris(triphenyl-phosphine)rhodium (I) chloride as catalyst resulted in the formation of 18-hydroxy-cortisol-17 alpha,21-acetonide. Acid hydrolysis of the latter compound gave 18-hydroxycortisol. Oxidation of 18-hydroxycortisol-17 alpha,21-acetonide with pyridinium dichromate followed by acid hydrolysis gave 18-hydroxycortisone. The 18-hydroxylated steroids exist as the 18,21-hemiacetals. Catalytic reduction with tritium gas with Tris(triphenyl-phosphine)rhodium (I) chloride of 18-hydroxyprednisolone-17 alpha,21-acetonide and acid hydrolysis gave [1,2(3)H]18-hydroxycortisol. PMID:3974224

  7. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Costa Mesa, California, January 18-21, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.; DiBiase, Warren J., Ed.; Crawford, Barbara A., Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the 2001 Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science which was held in Costa Mesa, California, January 18-21, 2001. Papers include: (1) "An Elementary Preservice Teacher's Search for Solutions about the Evolution-Divine Creation Question: The Story of Tracy"…

  8. Inclusion of satellites in an 18/21 translocation chromosome shown by ammonical-silver staining (sat-banding) in case of partial trisomy 18.

    PubMed Central

    Neu, R L; Ortega, C C; Barg, G A; Pinto, W; Gardner, L I; Howell, W M; Denton, T E

    1976-01-01

    A male infant with a partial trisomy 18 and a 46,XY, --21, t(18;21)(18qter replaced by 18q12::21 p13 replaced by 21 qter) chromosome complement is described. The translocation chromosome is of special interest because it includes the satellites of chromosome 21. This was shown by differential satellite staining with the ammoniacal-silver technique. Images PMID:65472

  9. Summary of the Second International Planetary Dunes Workshop: Planetary Analogs - Integrating Models, Remote Sensing, and Field Data, Alamosa, Colorado, USA, May 18-21, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenton, L.K.; Bishop, M.A.; Bourke, M.C.; Bristow, C.S.; Hayward, R.K.; Horgan, B.H.; Lancaster, N.; Michaels, T.I.; Tirsch, D.; Titus, T.N.; Valdez, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Second International Planetary Dunes Workshop took place in Alamosa, Colorado, USA from May 18-21, 2010. The workshop brought together researchers from diverse backgrounds to foster discussion and collaboration regarding terrestrial and extra-terrestrial dunes and dune systems. Two and a half days were spent on five oral sessions and one poster session, a full-day field trip to Great Sand Dunes National Park, with a great deal of time purposefully left open for discussion. On the last day of the workshop, participants assembled a list of thirteen priorities for future research on planetary dune systems. ?? 2010.

  10. Combining TOPEX and SeaWinds Data to Refine Models for Ocean Surface Emissivity: Wind Vector Signatures at 18, 21 and 37 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandemark, D.; Tran, N.; Ruf, C.; Vandemark, Douglas (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    TOPEX Microwave Radiometer (TMR) brightness temperature observations at 18, 21, and 37 GHz have been collocated with near-simultaneous SeaWinds wind vector data as well as with a monthly SST climatological product. The combined data set allows us to study the dependence of ocean surface emissivity (at each frequency) upon both wind speed. Results show clear two-branch wind speed dependence; weak and linear below 6 m/s with an abrupt increase in sensitivity above that point. The analysis also shows that the zenith-directed ocean surface emissivity is polarization dependent above wind speeds of 5-6 m/s with an azimuthal variation related to the wind direction. This last result accords with recent polarimetric radiometer observations collected from aircraft. Implications of these observations to water vapor retrieval algorithms, nadir-viewing polarimetry, and ocean emission modeling will be discussed.

  11. Simultaneous scoring of 10 chromosomes (9,13,14,15,16,18,21,22,X, and Y) in interphase nuclei by using spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Jingly; Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.; Goldberg, James D.; Pedersen, Roger A.

    1999-06-01

    Numerical aberrations involving parts of or entire chromosomes have detrimental effects on mammalian embryonic, and perinatal development. Only few fetuses with chromosomal imbalances survive to term, and their abnormalities lead to stillbirth or cause severely altered phenotypes in the offspring (such as trisomies involving chromosomes 13, 18, 21, and anomalies of X, and Y). Because aneuploidy of any of the 24 chromosomes will have significant consequences, an optimized preimplantation and prenatal genetic diagnosis (PGD) test will score all the chromosomes. Since most cells to be analyzed will be in interphase rather than metaphase, we developed a rapid procedure for the analysis of interphase cells such as lymphocytes, amniocytes, or early embryonic cells (blastomeres). Our approach was based on in situ hybridization of chromosome-specific non-isotopically labeled DNA probes and Spectral Imaging. The Spectral Imaging system uses an interferometer instead of standard emission filters in a fluorescence microscope to record high resolution spectra from fluorescently stained specimens. This bio-imaging system combines the techniques of fluorescence optical microscopy, charged coupled device imaging, Fourier spectroscopy, light microscopy, and powerful analysis software. The probe set used here allowed simultaneous detection of 10 chromosomes (9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22, X, Y) in interphase nuclei. Probes were obtained commercially or prepared in-house. Following 16 - 40 h hybridization to interphase cells and removal of unbound probes, image spectra (range 450 - 850 nm, resolution 10 nm) were recorded and analyzed using an SD200 Spectral Imaging system (ASI, Carlsbad, CA). Initially some amniocytes were unscoreable due to their thickness, and fixation protocols had to be modified to achieve satisfactory results. In summary, this study shows the simultaneous detection of at least 10 different chromosomes in interphase cells using a novel approach for multi

  12. Italy. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    Ever since 1946, increased emigration in Italy has been paralleled by a slow but steady increase in educational activity. In 1971, Law No. 153 was adopted which provides for special educational arrangements to be made for migrant workers and their spouses adopted by the Italian Government are based on the need for Italian children to: (1) be…

  13. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509

  14. Wastewater reuse in Italy.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, S; Cirelli, G L; Indelicato, S

    2001-01-01

    In many parts of Italy, particularly in the South, it has become ever more difficult to meet the water demand. The recent years of drought and the constant increase of water demand for the civil sector have made irrigation supply more problematic. Wastewater reuse could represent a viable solution to meet water demand. The focus of this paper is on the regulation problems, hampering the development of wastewater reuse for irrigation, and on the potentials for reuse, particularly in Southern Italy. Planned exploitation of municipal wastewater could help meeting the irrigation water demand particularly in Southern Italy, where farmers have been practising uncontrolled wastewater reuse for a long time. In Northern and Central Italy, where available water resources generally meet water needs for different purposes, wastewater reuse could play an important role in controlling the pollution of water bodies. Despite the fact that Italian legislation is extremely strict and outdated, for several years in some regions, such as Sicily, wastewater reuse systems have been in operation; furthermore, several projects of wastewater reuse are currently in progress. PMID:11436802

  15. Personal Identity in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…

  16. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem. PMID:24861043

  17. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  18. Mt. Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image of Mt. Vesuvius Italy was acquired September 26, 2000, and covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. The image is centered at 40.8 degrees north latitude, 14.4 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. Cost containment: Europe. Italy.

    PubMed

    Apolone, G; Melotti, R; Repetto, F; Iapichino, G

    1994-08-01

    Through prepaid compulsory insurance managed by the central government, Italy's National Health Service (NHS) provides full coverage, free accessibility, and no or limited copayment by individuals when receiving health services. Although Italy spends less than other countries on health care (< 8% of the country's gross national product), the present NHS faces considerable difficulties, and its performance regarding quality, outcome, and spending has come under question. ICUs account for < 2% of total hospital beds, and the proportion of ICU patients is < 2.5% of all hospital patients (2.5% of all Italian hospital patients receive ICU care at some time during their hospital stay). Information from administrative databases and epidemiologic studies gives an interesting national picture of the situation in Italy regarding admission criteria case mix, and outcomes when compared with data from other countries. Important changes in the financial and institutional framework of the NHS are underway, yielding an unpredictable scenario for the future. Innovations focus mostly on cost containment and quality initiatives. These innovations will likely produce a new health service in which regions will have a more important role than in the past. Actions planned in a large Italian region by the local government are used as an example to explain the potential impact of this new trend on critical care medicine. PMID:8087596

  20. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress. PMID:26401793

  1. TUBERCULOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD OCUPACIONAL

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto. PMID:22858771

  2. A Euploid Line of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Derived from a 43,XX,dup(9q),+12,-14,-15,-18,-21 Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Simone Aparecida Siqueira; Costas, Roberta Montero; Morato-Marques, Mariana; Costa, Silvia; Alegretti, Jose Roberto; Rosenberg, Carla; da Motta, Eduardo Leme Alves; Serafini, Paulo C.; Pereira, Lygia V.

    2015-01-01

    Aneuploid embryos diagnosed by FISH-based preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) have been shown to yield euploid lines of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) with a relatively high frequency. Given that the diagnostic procedure is usually based on the analysis of 1–2 blastomeres of 5 to 10-cell cleavage-stage embryos, mosaicism has been a likely explanation for the phenomena. However, FISH-based PGS can have a significant rate of misdiagnosis, and therefore some of those lines may have been derived from euploid embryos misdiagnosed as aneuploid. More recently, coupling of trophectoderm (TE) biopsy at the blastocyst stage and array-CGH lead to a more informative form of PGS. Here we describe the establishment of a new line of hESCs from an embryo with a 43,XX,dup(9q),+12,-14,-15,-18,-21 chromosomal content based on array-CGH of TE biopsy. We show that, despite the complex chromosomal abnormality, the corresponding hESC line BR-6 is euploid (46,XX). Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis showed that the embryo´s missing chromosomes were not duplicated in BR-6, suggesting the existence of extensive mosaicism in the TE lineage. PMID:26540511

  3. Bringing It All Back Home: An Innovative Approach to the Provision of Tailored Education and Training for Young People--The Experience of the Adult Better Learning and Education (ABLE) 18-21 Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craddock, Fergus

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to give a brief overview of the context to the Adult Better Learning and Education (ABLE) 18-21 programme and the objectives which the programme aimed to fulfil in light of the challenges facing early school leavers. The article will also document the triumphs and challenges experienced by the participants when returning…

  4. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  5. The Language Situation in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosi, Arturo

    2004-01-01

    This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in Italy, within the framework of language policy and language planning. It presents an account of multilingualism, linguistic diversity, social variation, educational issues and phenomena of language contact both within and outside Italy. The four main threads are (1) the current…

  6. The Bologna Process in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballarino, Gabriele; Perotti, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Italy was among the promoters of the Bologna Process and the early adopters of the reform. If one looks at its impact on the formal structure of curricula and study programmes, the reform undertaken under the Bologna banner seems to have been one of the major educational reforms ever achieved in Italy. This article describes how the Bologna…

  7. [Occupational epidemiology in Italy].

    PubMed

    Assennato, G; Bisceglia, L

    2003-01-01

    The development of Occupational Epidemiology in Italy is closely correlated with the political and social awareness of the needs of preventive strategies in the workplace. In the late '60s the Trade Unions supported a model of intervention based on the involvement of the so-called "Homogeneous group of workers" in the validation of the preventive measures taken on the workplace. In spite of the shortcomings of the model, it was extremely effective resulting in enhanced perception of the priority of preventive strategies and in the formation within the National Health Service of the Occupational Health Services. In Italy over the period 1973-2002 there has been an impressive trend of research in field of occupational epidemiology (a search on Medline shows an increasing trend over the years and, in terms of international comparison, higher figures than in Germany, France and Spain). Occupational Epidemiology is now present in the activities of the local Occupational Health Services and in the teaching activities of the Medical Schools throughout the country. PMID:14582235

  8. Gestalt psychology in Italy.

    PubMed

    Verstegen, I

    2000-01-01

    Graz gestalt psychology was introduced into Italy after World War I with Vittorio Benussi's emigration to Padua. His earliest adherent, Cesare Musatti, defended Graz theory, but after Benussi's premature death became an adherent of the Berlin gestalt psychology of Wertheimer-Köhler-Koffka. He trained his two most important students, Fabio Metelli and Gaetano Kanizsa, in orthodox Berlin theory. They established rigid "schools" in Padua and Trieste. The structure of Italian academics allowed for such strict orthodoxy, quite unlike the situation in America, where scientific objectivity mitigated against schools. In the 1960s, some of the students of Metelli and Kanizsa (above all Bozzi) initiated a realist movement-felt in Kanizsa's late work-that was quite independent of that of J. J. Gibson. Finally, more recently, Benussi and Graz theorizing have been embraced again, sentimentally, as a predecedent to Kanizsa-Bozzi. PMID:10653614

  9. Italy: health system review.

    PubMed

    Ferre, Francesca; de Belvis, Antonio Giulio; Valerio, Luca; Longhi, Silvia; Lazzari, Agnese; Fattore, Giovanni; Ricciardi, Walter; Maresso, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Italy is the sixth largest country in Europe and has the second highest average life expectancy, reaching 79.4 years for men and 84.5 years for women in 2011. There are marked regional differences for both men and women in most health indicators, reflecting the economic and social imbalance between the north and south of the country. The main diseases affecting the population are circulatory diseases, malignant tumours and respiratory diseases. Italy's health care system is a regionally based national health service that provides universal coverage largely free of charge at the point of delivery. The main source of financing is national and regional taxes, supplemented by copayments for pharmaceuticals and outpatient care. In 2012, total health expenditure accounted for 9.2 percent of GDP (slightly below the EU average of 9.6 percent). Public sources made up 78.2 percent of total health care spending. While the central government provides a stewardship role, setting the fundamental principles and goals of the health system and determining the core benefit package of health services available to all citizens, the regions are responsible for organizing and delivering primary, secondary and tertiary health care services as well as preventive and health promotion services. Faced with the current economic constraints of having to contain or even reduce health expenditure, the largest challenge facing the health system is to achieve budgetary goals without reducing the provision of health services to patients. This is related to the other key challenge of ensuring equity across regions, where gaps in service provision and health system performance persist. Other issues include ensuring the quality of professionals managing facilities, promoting group practice and other integrated care organizational models in primary care, and ensuring that the concentration of organizational control by regions of health-care providers does not stifle innovation. PMID:25471543

  10. Italy INAF Data Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Italian INAF VLBI Data Center. Our Data Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics.

  11. Lake Garda, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER image was acquired on July 29, 2000 and covers an area of 30 by 57 km in northern Italy. Lake Garda was formed by glaciers during the last Ice Age, and is Italy's largest lake. Lago di Garda lies in the provinces of Verona, Brescia, and Trento, and is 51 kilometers (32 miles) long and from 3 to 18 kilometers (2 to 11 miles) wide. The Sarca is its chief affluent, and the lake is drained southward by the Mincio, which discharges into the Po River. Many villas are situated on its shores. On the peninsula of Sirmione, at the southern end of the lake, are the ruins of a Roman villa and a castle of the Scaligers, an Italian family of the 16th century. The RIGHT image has the land area masked out, and a harsh stretch was applied to the lake values to display variations in sediment load. Also visible are hundreds of boats and their wakes, criss-crossing the lake.

    The image is centered at 45.6 degrees north latitude, 10.6 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for

  12. Italy's Intelligent Educational Training Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    The Intelligent Educational Training Station has been developed in Italy to meet emerging school building needs. The project, for schools from the primary to upper secondary level, proposes flexible architecture for an "intelligent school" network, and was developed by CISEM, the Centre for Educational Innovation and Experimentation of Milan.

  13. Renaissance Neurosurgery: Italy's Iconic Contributions.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Apuzzo, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Various changes in the sociopolitical milieu of Italy led to the increasing tolerance of the study of cadavers in the late Middle Ages. The efforts of Mondino de Liuzzi (1276-1326) and Guido da Vigevano (1280-1349) led to an explosion of cadaver-centric studies in centers such as Bologna, Florence, and Padua during the Renaissance period. Legendary scientists from this era, including Leonardo Da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, Bartolomeo Eustachio, and Costanzo Varolio, furthered the study of neuroanatomy. The various texts produced during this period not only helped increase the understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology but also led to the formalization of medical education. With increased understanding came new techniques to address various neurosurgical problems from skull fractures to severed peripheral nerves. The present study aims to review the major developments in Italy during the vibrant Renaissance period that led to major progress in the field of neurosurgery. PMID:26585723

  14. Overview of plasmapheresis in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tomasini, I

    1993-12-01

    The national law, concerning Blood Transfusion and Blood derivatives in Italy, aims at achieving self-sufficiency and assuring safety of blood, plasma and plasma derivatives, according to EEC ((EE-Directive 89/381) and to the Council of Europe (R-88/4)). According to this law it is the task of the Central National Authority, (ie Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS)), to coordinate the transfusion system nationwide. The adoption and the transmission to the ISS of Regional Blood Registers containing information about the local use of blood and blood derivatives is in progress. Up to now the data are collected from a network among Blood Centers by Società italiana di Immunoematologia e Trasufusione del Sangue-Associazione Italiana Centri Trasfusionali (SIITS-AICT) and these results show that in Italy the incorrect use of plasma and albumin and the insufficient practice of plasmapheresis are the major obstacles to the achievement of self-sufficiency. PMID:8013975

  15. Cowpox Virus in Llama, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Brozzi, Alberto; Eleni, Claudia; Polici, Nicola; D’Alterio, Gianlorenzo; Carletti, Fabrizio; Scicluna, Maria Teresa; Castilletti, Concetta; Capobianchi, Maria R.; Di Caro, Antonino; Autorino, Gian Luca; Amaddeo, Demetrio

    2011-01-01

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) was isolated from skin lesions of a llama on a farm in Italy. Transmission electron microscopy showed brick-shaped particles consistent with orthopoxviruses. CPXV-antibodies were detected in llama and human serum samples; a CPXV isolate had a hemagglutinin sequence identical to CPXV-MonKre08/1–2-3 strains isolated from banded mongooses in Germany. PMID:21801638

  16. Italy INAF Analysis Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activity of the Italian INAF VLBI Analysis Center. Our Analysis Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics. IRA runs the observatories of Medicina and Noto, where two 32-m VLBI AZ-EL telescopes are situated. This report contains the AC's VLBI data analysis activities and shortly outlines the investigations into the co-locations of space geodetic instruments.

  17. Seismic risk perception in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents results of a survey on seismic risk perception in Italy conducted from January 2013 to present . The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 7,000 on-line tests have been compiled. The data collected show that in Italy seismic risk perception is strongly underestimated; 86 on 100 Italian citizens, living in the most dangerous zone (namely Zone 1), do not have a correct perception of seismic hazard. From these observations we deem that extremely urgent measures are required in Italy to reach an effective way to communicate seismic risk. Finally, the research presents a comparison between groups on seismic risk perception: a group involved in campaigns of information and education on seismic risk and a control group.

  18. Italy: An Open Air Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Imagine if you could see the River Styx, bathe in the Fountain of Youth, collect water which enhances fertility, wear a gem that heals bodily ailments, understand how our health is affected by geomagnetic fields, venture close to the flames of Hell on Earth and much, much, more. Know something? These things exist - on Earth - today - in Italy and you can visit them because Italy is an open air museum. Ann C. Pizzorusso, in her recent book, reveals how Italy's geology has affected its art, literature, architecture, religion, medicine and just about everything else. She explores the geologic birth of the land, describing the formation of the Alps and Apennines, romantic bays of Tuscany and Lazio, volcanoes of the south and Caribbean-like beaches of Puglia. But that's not all, from the first pages of this visually stunning book, the reader has the impression of being in an art museum, where one can wander from page to page to satisfy one's curiosity-- guided from time to time by the Etruscan priests, Virgil, Dante, Goethe or Leonardo da Vinci himself. Pizzorusso stitches together widely diverse topics - such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion - using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. Wonderfully illustrated with many photos licensed from Italian museums, HRH Elizabeth II and the Ministero Beni Culturali the book highlights the best works in Italian museums and those outside in the "open air museums." This approach can be used in any other country in the world and can be used for cultural tourism (a tour following the book has been organized for cultural and university groups), an ideal way of linking museums to the surrounding landscape.

  19. Italy

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... hues, because sun glitter (an ensemble of specular reflection points, see below) causes smooth, wet surfaces to look brighter to a ... If the sea surface is calm, a single mirror-like reflection of the sun can be seen at the horizontal specular point. However, ...

  20. International Perspectives on Affirmative Action. A Bellagio Conference (Lake Como, Italy, August 16-20, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.

    This volume presents nine papers read at a conference on affirmative action, sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation and held at Columbia University in August 1982; a preface, summary paper, and list of participants are also included. Each paper addresses the issue of affirmative action within a different country and describes: (1) the policies…

  1. Contributions of local knowledge to the physical limnology of Lake Como, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Laborde, Sarah; Imberger, Jörg; Toussaint, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    This article shows how local knowledge may be valuably integrated into a scientific approach in the study of large and complex hydrological systems where data collection at high resolution is a challenge. This claim is supported through a study of the hydrodynamics of a large lake where qualitative data collected from professional fishers was combined with theory to develop a hypothesis that was then verified by numerical modeling. First the fishermen’s narratives were found to describe with accuracy internal wave motions that were evident in water column temperature records, which revealed their practical knowledge of the lake’s hydrodynamics. Second, local knowledge accounts emphasized the recurrent formation of mesoscale gyres and return flows in certain zones of the lake in stratified conditions, which did not appear in the physical data because of limitations of sampling resolution. We hypothesized that these features developed predominantly because of the interaction of wind-driven internal motions with the lake’s bathymetry, and the Earth’s rotation in the widest areas of the basin. Numerical simulation results corroborated the fishers’ descriptions of the flow paths and supported the hypothesis about their formation. We conclude that the collaboration between scientific and local knowledge groups, although an unusual approach for a physical discipline of the geosciences, is worth exploring in the pursuit of a more comprehensive understanding of complex geophysical systems such as large lakes. PMID:22493231

  2. Rites of passage in Italy.

    PubMed

    Field, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Unlike the vast number of public celebrations in Italy that are almost always associated with specific foods, rites of passage in that country are focused on pivotal private moments after the ceremonial crossing of a threshold; and food may or may not be a primary focus of the event. Recognition of birth, marriage, and death—the three major turning points in the intimate life of a family—may still be observed with dishes or ingredients traceable to the Renaissance, but many older traditions have been modified or forgotten entirely in the last thirty years. Financial constraints once preserved many customs, especially in the south, but regional borders have become porous, and new food trends may no longer reflect the authentic tradition. Can new movements, such as Slow Food, promote ancient values as the form and food of traditional events continue to change? PMID:21495289

  3. Demoiselles and Drafts from Italy and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, M. Dane

    1988-01-01

    Recounts the adventures of a journey taken through France and Italy. Makes an analogy of this trip to that of the one Charles Dickens took in 1844. Describes silicified horizons of the southern Paris Basin, moraines, outcrops, and "Hoodoos." (RT)

  4. [Rosenfeld in Italy (1978 to 1985)].

    PubMed

    de Masi, Franco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I try to throw some light on Rosenfeld's thought and his way of working when he came to Italy. I would like to show, in a sketchy way, the evolution of his thought and in particular the new way he looked at clinical practice at that time. My point is that the Rosenfeld we met in Italy was able to open new horizons in clinical practice, implicitly questioning some of his own or his circle's previous viewpoints. PMID:26595987

  5. Fukushima fallout at Milano, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Alexandra; Manenti, Simone; Gini, Luigi; Groppi, Flavia

    2012-12-01

    The radionuclides (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs were observed in the Milano region (45°) of Italy early after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan. Increased atmospheric radioactivity was observed on an air filter taken on 30 March 2011, while the maximum activity of 467 μBq m(-3) for (131)I was recorded at April 3-4, 2011. The first evidence of Fukushima fallout was confirmed with (131)I and (137)Cs measured in precipitation at two sampling sites at Milano on 28 March, 2011, with the concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs in the rainwater equal to 0.89 Bq L(-1) and 0.12 Bq L(-1), respectively. A sample of dry deposition that was collected 9 days after the first rainfall event of 27-28 March, 2011 showed that the dry deposition was more effective in the case of (137)Cs than it was for (131)I, probably because iodine was mainly in gaseous form whereas caesium was rapidly bound to aerosols and thus highly subject to dry deposition. The relatively high observed values of (137)Cs in grass, soil and fresh goat and cow milk samples were probably from Chernobyl fallout and global fallout from past nuclear tests rather than from the Fukushima accident. Finally, a dose assessment for the region of investigation showed clearly that the detected activities in all environmental samples were very far below levels of concern. PMID:22300481

  6. Health workforce governance in Italy.

    PubMed

    Vicarelli, Giovanna; Pavolini, Emmanuele

    2015-12-01

    More precise health workforce governance has become a prominent issue in healthcare systems. This issue is particularly important in Italy, given its strongly doctor-centered healthcare system and the dramatic aging of its physicians' labor force. Using different sources of information (statistical data, official planning documents and interviews with key informants), the article attempts to answer two questions. Why has the Italian healthcare systems found itself in the situation of a potential drastic reduction in the amount of doctors in the medium term without a rebalancing through a different mix of skills and professionals? How good is the capacity of the Italian healthcare system to plan healthcare workforce needs? The widespread presence of 'older' physicians is the result of the strong entry of doctors into the Italian healthcare system in the 1970s and 1980s. Institutional fragmentation, difficulties in drafting broad healthcare reforms, political instability and austerity measures explain why Italian health workforce forecasting and planning are still unsatisfactory, although recent developments indicate that changes are under way. In order to tackle these problems it is necessary to foster closer cooperation among a wide range of stakeholders, to move from uni-professional to multi-professional health workforce planning, and to partially re-centralise decision making. PMID:26470643

  7. Malaria epidemiological trends in Italy.

    PubMed

    Sabatinelli, G; Majori, G; D'Ancona, F; Romi, R

    1994-08-01

    Based on the official reports received from local health laboratories, an epidemiological analysis of malaria cases reported in Italy from 1989 to 1992 is presented. A total of 1,941 cases were reported, 1,287 among Italians and 654 among foreigners. The incidence of cases was on average 500 per year with a maximum in 1990. A slight, but constant decrease of incidence of malaria cases was recorded in this period among Italian citizens (-21.5%), while the incidence among foreigners increased (+80%). Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 74.2% of total infections, followed by P. vivax (19%). The highest number of cases was imported from Africa (86.5%), followed by Asia, South America, and Oceania. 11 cases were contracted in Europe (transfusion, airport and cryptic malaria). 26 people died from malaria during the four years, with a fatality rate of 2.3% among Italians. Other epidemiological features concerning incidence in the different categories of travellers, countries of infection, clinical and therapeutic aspects of cases, are also discussed. PMID:7843343

  8. New CALLISTO Station in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monstein, Chr.

    2013-10-01

    A new CALLISTO station is now active in Triest/Italy at the Astronomical Observatory premises located in Basovizza. It has been recently installed and set into operation on the 6th September 2013. The antenna has been installed on an old bunker named "Sissi" and is based on a commercial log-periodic antenna from RKB(http://www.rkb./articoli.asp?id=26), operating frequency 130-1000 MHz, gain of about 6-7 dBi. Beam&-width is of 103 degrees in the V plane and of 61 degrees in the H plane. Considering the site location, sun path variations during the year and beam-width, the antenna is installed fixed-mounted pointing towards South with an angle of 45 degrees in the V plane. This should cover all declination of solar path throughout the year with about 7 hours observation time centered around 12.00, local time. The front-end aerial is connected to a low noise preamplifier Mini-Circuits ZX60-33LN with 20dB of gain and 1.1dB of noise figure.

  9. CBRN mobile laboratories in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Giorgio; Giraudi, Giampaolo; Bellino, Mariarosa; Pazienza, Michele; Garibaldi, Claudio; Lancia, Corrado

    2009-05-01

    The paper describes the experiences in Italy with the CBRN (Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear) defense mobile laboratories. These laboratories were constructed by the Italian Army and the Italian Fire Brigades. The purpose of these mobile laboratories is to allow quick transport of the labs to the area of crisis in order to support emergency response in case of CBRN events. The differences between two alternative solutions will be developed in the paper. The first solution is when the lab is to be located in the "dangerous area" (this solution was chosen by the Italian Army) and the alternative approach is to place the mobile lab just outside the dangerous area (this approach was selected by the Italian Fire Brigades). One of the most important devices inside the lab is the isolator (also called "glove box") which allows safe ingress and handling of the "suspicious" samples from the external environment. The isolator has a special chamber for transfer of the sample from the outside. The pressure of the isolator is permanently kept below the air pressure inside the lab by means of one (or more) fan. The operators perform the sample preparations or part of the analysis by handling the sample with the gloves. The material flow inside the lab will be described depending on the kind of identification analysis to be done on the samples. Other devices installed on the mobile CBRN laboratories are: biohazard hood (UE regulation, containment level 2); autoclave; freezer; cleaning skid (tanks, pumps, etc.).

  10. Tuberculosis and leprosy in Italy: new skeletal evidence.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Mauro; Zaio, Paola; Roberts, Charlotte

    2014-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy are infections caused by Mycobacteria. This paper documents new skeletal evidence in Italy from the Iron Age site of Corvaro (Central Italy; 5th century BCE) and the Roman site of Palombara (Central Italy; 4th-5th century CE), and briefly reviews the extant evidence for these infections in Italy. The skeletal evidence for TB in Italy is more ancient than for leprosy, and is more common. The oldest evidence for both mycobacterial diseases is in the North of Italy, but this could be by chance, even if biomolecular models suggest a land route from the East to central Europe, especially for leprosy. PMID:24129278

  11. Foreign children with cancer in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been a noticeable annual increase in the number of children coming to Italy for medical treatment, just like it has happened in the rest of the European Union. In Italy, the assistance to children suffering from cancer is assured by the current network of 54 centres members of the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (AIEOP), which has kept records of all demographic and clinical data in the database of Mod.1.01 Registry since 1989. Methods We used the information stored in the already mentioned database to assess the impact of immigration of foreign children with cancer on centres' activity, with the scope of drawing a map of the assistance to these cases. Results Out of 14,738 cases recorded by all centres in the period from 1999 to 2008, 92.2% were born and resident in Italy, 4.1% (608) were born abroad and living abroad and 3.7% (538) were born abroad and living in Italy. Foreign children cases have increased over the years from 2.5% in 1999 to. 8.1% in 2008. Most immigrant children came from Europe (65.7%), whereas patients who came from America, Asia and Oceania amounted to 13.2%, 10.1%, 0.2%, respectively. The immigrant survival rate was lower compared to that of children who were born in Italy. This is especially true for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients entered an AIEOP protocol, who showed a 10-years survival rate of 71.0% vs. 80.7% (p < 0.001) for immigrants and patients born in Italy, respectively. Conclusions Children and adolescents are an increasingly important part of the immigration phenomenon, which occurs in many parts of the world. In Italy the vast majority of children affected by malignancies are treated in AIEOP centres. Since immigrant children are predominantly treated in northern Italy, these centres have developed a special expertise in treating immigrant patients, which is certainly very useful for the entire AIEOP network. PMID:21923939

  12. John Ray in Italy: lost manuscripts rediscovered

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper discloses the content of two manuscripts of John Ray that have hitherto been unknown to Ray scholars. The manuscripts survive in the Hampshire Record Office, having descended through the Prideaux-Brune family. They record information about Ray's tour of Italy in the 1660s that does not appear in his Observations … made in a journey through … the Low-countries, Germany, Italy and France (1673), including a visit to the museum of Athanasius Kircher in Rome, and provide clues concerning the composition of Ray's 1673 book. PMID:24921104

  13. Gridded monthly temperatures over Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioravanti, G.; Toreti, A.; Fraschetti, P.; Perconti, W.; Desiato, F.

    2010-09-01

    Temperature data represent a relevant source of information for environmental modelling, which usually relies on the availability of regularly distributed datasets. The CRU and the E-OBS archives are two examples of large-scale gridded products available for temperature. In order to fill the gap of having such a dataset freely available at national level, a high resolution (1 km) dataset for the whole Italian territory has been realized, made up of gridded monthly mean temperatures over Italy from 1961 to 2008. Available temperature data are provided by several national and regional networks and are consequently rather discontinuous in time and inhomogeneous in space. For this reason, our approach is based on the use of all data available for each month; this choice limits the consistency of gridded temperatures as time series but guarantees the best possible spatial estimate for each time period. The space interpolation was implemented by means of regression-kriging, a well-known geostatistical approach. Regression kriging is a variant of kriging interpolation which allows to exploit the auxiliary information provided by external variables. In this work, altitude and latitude of the input weather stations were found to be strongly correlated with temperature data and used as independent variables in the regression model. Ordinary kriging was then applied to describe the spatial correlation structure of the regression residuals. For each map, the most appropriate variogram function was estimated by means of an objective algorithm. In order to evaluate the quality of each interpolated surface, a cross validation analysis was performed, whose results were evaluated in terms of root mean square error, mean absolute error and mean squared deviation ratio. RMSE ranges between 1.0 and 1.5 °C, and improves, as expected, over the last years when a greater number of stations are available. The RMSE as function of the season was investigated as well. The monthly maps were

  14. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (JAN 2002) (a) The Contractor represents that...

  15. Campland: Racial Segregation of Roma in Italy. Country Reports Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahn, Claude; Carlisle, Kathryn D.; Fregoli, Claudia; Kiuranov, Deyan; Petrova, Dimitrina

    This report addresses racial segregation and human rights abuses against Roma in Italy, focusing on: "Anti-Gypsyism in Italy"; "Roma in Italy: Racial Segregation"; "Abuses by Police and Judicial Authorities" (e.g., abusive raids and evictions, abusive use of firearms, torture and physical abuse, discriminatory targeting of Roma by police, theft by…

  16. [Inequalities in health in Italy].

    PubMed

    Caiazzo, Antonio; Cardano, Mario; Cois, Ester; Costa, Giuseppe; Marinacci, Chiara; Spadea, Teresa; Vannoni, Francesca; Venturini, Lorenzo

    2004-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequality and its impact on health is a growing concern in the European public health debate. In many countries, the issue is moving away from description towards the identification of the determinants of inequalities and the development of policies explicitly aimed at reducing inequalities in health. In Italy, ten years after the publication of the first report on inequalities in health, this topic is seldom present on the agenda of public policy makers. The purpose of this report is to update the Italian profile of social variation in health and health care in order to stimulate the debate on ways to tackle inequalities in health that are preventable. In the first section of this book, the threefold objective is to describe the principal mechanisms involved in the generation of social inequalities in health (Introduction); to report Italian data on the distribution and magnitude of this phenomenon in the last decade; and to evaluate policies and interventions in both the social (chapter 1.9, Section I) and the health sector (chapter 2.3, Section I), which are potentially useful to reduce health inequalities. It is intended for anyone who is in a position to contribute t o decision-making that will benefit the health of communities. For this reason, chapters are organized by specific determinants of inequalities on which interentions may have an impact. The methodological approach in the second section focuses on the best methods to monitor social inequalities including recommendations on social indicators, sources of information and study models, based on European guidelines revised for the Italian situation. According to data from national and local studies, mortality increases linearly with social disadvantage for a wide range of indicators at both the individual (education, social class, income, quality of housing) and the geographical level (deprivation indexes computed at different levels of aggregation). This positive correlation is evident

  17. Recent trends in chloride and sodium concentrations in the deep subalpine lakes (Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Rogora, Michela; Mosello, Rosario; Kamburska, Lyudmila; Salmaso, Nico; Cerasino, Leonardo; Leoni, Barbara; Garibaldi, Letizia; Soler, Valentina; Lepori, Fabio; Colombo, Luca; Buzzi, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    A growing concern exists about the effects of chloride (Cl) on freshwater systems. Increasing Cl concentrations have been observed in the last few decades in several rivers and lakes, mainly in northern countries. In Italy, present levels and temporal changes of sodium (Na) and Cl in water bodies have rarely been assessed. Based on long-term data for the lakes of the subalpine district in Italy (Maggiore, Lugano, Como, Iseo, Garda), we analyzed trends affecting Cl and Na concentrations during the last 25 years, with the aim of identifying temporal changes and assessing possible causes. An in-depth analysis is presented for Lake Maggiore. Positive temporal Na and Cl trends were evident in all studied lakes, with the trends increasing since early 2000s. Data for Lake Maggiore tributaries showed a clear seasonality (higher values in winter and early spring). The NaCl used as road de-icing agent, together with Cl discharge from wastewater treatment plants, were identified as the main causes for the observed trends. Chloride concentrations in the lakes are below the threshold limit for reduced water quality and below concentrations known to harm aquatic biota. However, considering the relevance of deep subalpine lakes, representing almost 80% of the total freshwater volume in Italy, these trends indicate an important chemical change, which warrants further analysis. PMID:26233742

  18. Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Lazareff, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada. PMID:24791217

  19. Is There an America in Italy's Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, William K.

    2005-01-01

    When the author first heard that Italy wants to adopt the American model of education, his immediate reaction was, "Why would you want to do that?" American schools can scarcely teach students to read and write. American students are abysmally ignorant about history, geography, and world affairs. In international assessments of achievement,…

  20. Linguistic Classification in Italy: Problems and Predictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, John Earl

    1980-01-01

    The schema generally used to describe the linguistic situation in Italy includes two categories: dialetto regionale (regional dialect) and italiano regionale (regional Italian). These stand apart from the widely accepted sociolinguistic model "variety--dialect--language." It is demonstrated that both these categories should be treated simply as…

  1. An Urban Renewal School Project in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    The restoration of an historic school building in Battipaglia, Italy, will provide new public facilities and is hoped to boost urban renewal. The municipality of Battipaglia, in the province of Salerno, held an architectural competition for renovating the E. De Amicis Primary School and the surrounding area. The winning project, submitted by a…

  2. "Intelligent" Primary School Project in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    Construction work is about to begin on a new "intelligent" primary school for 300 students (later to be expanded for 600) in the Municipality of Solaro in the province of Milan. This is the first primary school building in Italy designed according to the principles of the "intelligent school" as defined by the Centre for Educational Innovation and…

  3. School Quality and Family Background in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunello, G.; Checchi, D.

    2005-01-01

    We study whether the combined significant reduction in the pupil-teacher ratio and increase in parental education observed in Italy between the end of the second World War and the end of the 1980s have had a significant impact on the educational attainment and the labor market returns of a representative sample of Italians born between 1941 and…

  4. Education in Italy. Bulletin, 1919, No. 36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Walter A.

    1919-01-01

    The economic and social exigencies brought about for Italy by her entrance into the war in May, 1915, inevitably led her educational thinkers to submit her traditional system of education to more careful scrutiny than ever before, and to recognize how inadequate it was along certain lines to meet the demands thrust upon it by the new conditions.…

  5. Italy's Treasures Are in Their Hands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocca, Francis X.

    2007-01-01

    Each year more than 300 applicants vie for 18 slots at the Central Institute of Restoration, the program responsible for the restoration of many of Italy's greatest works of art, and the training of experts in the repair of objects of artistic and/or cultural significance. Successful candidates must demonstrate knowledge of art history, chemistry,…

  6. Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Yuji; Wakita, Hiroshi ); Nuccio, M.P. ); Italiano, F.

    1989-06-01

    Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not yet confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. The authors report here the {sup 3}H/{sup 4}He ratios of terrestrial gas samples from southern Italy. The observed {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are relatively high in the Eolian volcanic arc region and low in the other areas. Dichotomous explanations are presented. Firstly, volcanic arc-forearc hypothesis suggests the subduction along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc. Secondly, horizontal transport hypothesis is described based on the relationship between the ratios and radial distance from the recent spreading basin in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

  7. Report on religious slaughter practices in Italy.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The term 'religious slaughter' commonly refers to the practice of killing animals without stunning, according to the precepts of Jewish and Muslim religions. The aim of this paper is to assess the situation concerning ritual slaughtering in not-stun bovines, small ruminants, and poultry in Italy in 2012. The study was divided into 2 phases. During the rst phase, preliminary data about all slaughterhouses authorized for ritual slaughter in Italy in 2012 are collected through the compilation of a questionnaire sent to each plants. The second step involved a sampling of not-stun animals religiously slaughtered in 5 selected plants. Authors collected and compiled all informations about management, restrain system and rite taking into account in particular animal welfare. PMID:27033526

  8. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic nematodes in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tarasco, E; Clausi, M; Rappazzo, G; Panzavolta, T; Curto, G; Sorino, R; Oreste, M; Longo, A; Leone, D; Tiberi, R; Vinciguerra, M T; Triggiani, O

    2015-05-01

    An investigation was carried out on the distribution and biodiversity of steinernematid and heterorhabdtid entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in nine regions of Italy in the period 1990-2010. More than 2000 samples were collected from 580 localities and 133 of them yielded EPN specimens. A mapping of EPN distribution in Italy showed 133 indigenous EPN strains belonging to 12 species: 43 isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, 1 of H. downesi, 1 of H. megidis, 51 of Steinernema feltiae, 12 of S. affine, 4 of S. kraussei, 8 of S. apuliae, 5 of S. ichnusae, 3 of S. carpocapsae, 1 of S. vulcanicum, 3 of Steinernema 'isolate S.sp.MY7' of 'S. intermedium group' and 1 of S. arenarium. Steinernematids are more widespread than heterorhabditids and S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora are the most commonly encountered species. Sampling sites were grouped into 11 habitats: uncultivated land, orchard, field, sea coast, pinewood, broadleaf wood, grasslands, river and lake borders, caves, salt pan and moist zones; the soil texture of each site was defined and the preferences of habitat and soil texture of each species was assessed. Except for the two dominant species, S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora, EPN occurrence tends to be correlated with a specific vegetation habitat. Steinernema kraussei, H. downesi and H. megidis were collected only in Sicily and three of the species recently described - S. apuliae, S. ichnusae and S. vulcanicum - are known only from Italy and seem to be endemic. PMID:24721783

  9. Twenty years of paleoseismology in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Paolo; Galadini, Fabrizio; Pantosti, Daniela

    2008-05-01

    Italy has one of the most complete and historically extensive seismic catalogues in the World due to a unique and uninterrupted flow of written sources that have narrated its seismic history since about the end of the Iron Age. Seismic hazard studies have therefore always been mainly based upon this huge mass of data. Nevertheless, the Italian catalogue probably "lacks" many M ≥ 6.5 events, the seismogenetic structures responsible for which are characterized by recurrence times that are longer than the time span covered by our historical sources. For these reasons, and as in other countries, earthquake data that in Italy have been derived from paleoseismological studies should finally become a necessary ingredient in seismic risk assessment. Indeed, over the past 20 years, some hundred trenches have been excavated, supplying reliable and conclusive data on the recent activities of many faults. Through to many robust datings of surface fault events, these studies have provided the ages of several unknown or poorly known M ≥ 6.5 earthquakes. Here, we summarize the state of the art of paleoseismology in Italy, and present a first catalogue of 56 paleoearthquakes (PCI) that occurred mainly in the past 6 kyr. The PCI integrates the historical/instrumental seismic catalogue, and extends it beyond the recurrence time of the seismogenetic faults (2000 ± 1000 yr). We feel confident that the use of the PCI will enhance future probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, and thus contribute to more reliable seismic risk mitigation programs.

  10. [Consistency and dynamics of immigration in Italy].

    PubMed

    Blangiardo, G C; Terzera, L

    2011-01-01

    According to recent data, foreign population currently in Italy is estimated to be 5,3 million, 550,000 irregular. Migration from Eastern Europe has progressively assumed leading position in the Italian panorama, downsizing other origins: betweenn 2005 and 2010, this component passed from 46% to 50,8% of the total immigrants, whereas all the other macro-areas have lost relative importance. Perspectives of slowing down of migration toward Italy could be real only when significant changes would happen in the areas at the origin of migration flow. In fact, if it is true that the demographic surplus from East Europe is bound to decrease through the process of local turnover of work supply, other great regions will show enormous excess of manpower. In North Africa, 3 million new workplaces will yearly be needed just to absorb excess of young workforce; in Latin America, the new workplaces to create will be almost twice as many. The sub Saharan Africa will however be under special observation, with 15-20 million places to create annually to absorb excess of offer. Italy could play as one of the safety valves of emigration. PMID:22187914

  11. Culture and the environment in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, David

    1985-03-01

    This essay evaluates the historical development and current background of human-environment relationships in Italy. The Italian landscape consists of very varied terrain, and periodically suffers from all kinds of natural hazard, especially earthquakes, landslides, floods, and accelerated soil erosion. Some measure of environmental conservation was achieved by the Etruscans and Romans, but the Classical period also marked the beginning of serious lowland waterlogging, malarial infestation, upland soil erosion, and deforestation, which all increased during the Middle Ages. From the Renaissance to the 18th century, there was a diffusion of planned landscapes and carefully managed estates; but by the 20th century, many rural areas could not support growing populations and much land was in need of improvement. Underdevelopment and latifundium agriculture increased the vulnerability to environmental hazards of the Mezzogiorno (Italian South), while the subsequent disappearance of the peasant culture seems not to have led to greatly improved conservation or land management. Poorly farmed or managed landscapes and poorly maintained historic towns have undergone some virtually irreversible degradation, especially with respect to landslides and earthquake damage. Elsewhere in Italy, unchecked urbanization, weak planning laws, and their inadequate enforcement have helped both to reduce environmental quality, by overdevelopment of valued landscapes, and to increase natural disaster vulnerability, by encouraging occupance of natural hazard zones. Although there are signs that the government is beginning to respond to the cumulative effect of environmental degradation, the measures are insufficient to reverse the overall trend toward decadence that characterizes human-land relationships in Italy.

  12. ShakeMap® implementation in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, A.; Quintiliani, M.; Lauciani, V.; Olivieri, M.; Malagnini, L.; Akinci, A.; Moro, M.; Milana, G.; Faenza, L.

    2007-12-01

    Italy is a seismically active country which has been site of several large and extremely damaging earthquakes causing hundreds to tens of thousands of casualties since historical times. In recent years, the "Dipartimento per la Protezione Civile" (DPC; Italian Civil Protection - an office dependent directly from the prime minister) has supported the project S4 driven specifically toward fast assessment of ground motion shaking in Italy in order to organize the emergency and direct the rescue teams. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) has implemented the software package USGS-ShakeMap® to obtain maps of the peak ground motion parameters (PGM), and of the instrumentally derived intensities. The calculation of shakemaps at INGV relies mainly on broadband and strong motion data acquired by the Italian seismic network. Shakemap PGM data feeding relies on two concurrent seismic acquisition systems and maps are be determined as quickly as 5 minutes from origin time automatically or within 30 minutes using manually revised locations for earthquakes occurring on the national territory. In Italy, attenuation has been found to vary between different regions. For the smaller events (up to M 5.5) we have implemented a six-areas regionalized model (three separate sets of equations) following the relations of Malagnini and co-workers (Malagnini, et al., 2000; Malagnini, et al., 2002; Morasca, et al., 2006), the same used by the National Seismic Hazard Working Group (2004) for the compilation of the national hazard map; for larger earthquakes, the strong-motion-based equations by Ambraseys et al. (1996) are used. For the site corrections, we have implemented a classification based on the 1:100,000 geology map of Italy compiled and published by the "Servizio Geologico Nazionale". In this case, the geologic units have been gathered into five different classes A, B, C, D and E according to the EuroCode8 provisions, EC8, after Draft 6 of January 2003 on the base

  13. Italie: Parier sur la formation a distance (Italy: Betting on Distance Teacher Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begioni, Louis

    1993-01-01

    An Italian program providing professional training at a distance for French second-language teachers in Italy is described briefly. The program used teleconferencing to link regional programs for instructional sessions on specific themes. Because of positive response, the program will be continued. (MSE)

  14. Prevalence of prelingual deafness in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bubbico, L; Rosano, A; Spagnolo, A

    2007-02-01

    Neonatal hearing loss is the most frequent sensorial congenital defect in newborns. No data are available on worldwide prevalence of congenital deafness. World Health Organization (WHO) data indicate 1-4 cases per 1000 individuals, with a considerable increase in developing countries. A prevalence exceeding 1 per 1000 however, indicates a serious public health problem calling for urgent attention. Aim of the study was the evaluate the prevalence of prelingual deafness in the Italian population and determine the socio-demographic characteristics of the condition. Data were provided by the National Institute of Social Insurance (INPS) and the Italian Central Statistics Institute (ISTAT) and were collected in 18 out of the 20 Italian regions (98.2% of total population). All subjects recognized as deaf-mute by a special medical committee were included. According to law No. 509/1988, they had to present a mean bilateral sensorineural-hearing impairment, detected in neonatal age, which caused the damage in speech development and equal to 60 dB or more for 500-, 1000- and 2000-Hz frequency tones in the better ear. Prevalence rates were calculated according to region and age bracket using updated population data from census 2001. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical software package. A total of 40,887 cases of prelingual profound sensorineural hearing loss > or =60 dB were detected in Italy in 2003, for a total prevalence rate of 0.72 per 1000. The hearing impairment prevalence differs according to sex. The overall prevalence is 0.78 per 1000 for males and 0.69 per 1000 for females (p < 0.001). The hearing impairment prevalence differs according to region of residence (p < 0.001). The geographic distribution of prelingual deafness was found to be: North 15,644 cases (0.63 per 1000), Central Italy 7111 cases (0.64 per 1000), South and Islands 18,132 (0.87 per 1000). The prelingual hearing loss is highly prevalent in South Italy (Basilicata

  15. Prevalence of prelingual deafness in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bubbico, L; Rosano, A; Spagnolo, A

    2007-01-01

    Summary Neonatal hearing loss is the most frequent sensorial congenital defect in newborns. No data are available on worldwide prevalence of congenital deafness. World Health Organization (WHO) data indicate 1-4 cases per 1,000 individuals, with a considerable increase in developing countries. A prevalence exceeding 1 per 1,000 however, indicates a serious public health problem calling for urgent attention. Aim of the study was the evaluate the prevalence of prelingual deafness in the Italian population and determine the socio-demographic characteristics of the condition. Data were provided by the National Institute of Social Insurance (INPS) and the Italian Central Statistics Institute (ISTAT) and were collected in 18 out of the 20 Italian regions (98.2% of total population). All subjects recognized as deaf-mute by a special medical committee were included. According to law No. 509/1988, they had to present a mean bilateral sensorineural-hearing impairment, detected in neonatal age, which caused the damage in speech development and equal to 60 dB or more for 500-, 1,000- and 2,000-Hz frequency tones in the better ear. Prevalence rates were calculated according to region and age bracket using updated population data from census 2001. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical software package. A total of 40,887 cases of prelingual profound sensorineural hearing loss ≥ 60 dB were detected in Italy in 2003, for a total prevalence rate of 0.72 per 1,000. The hearing impairment prevalence differs according to sex. The overall prevalence is 0.78 per 1,000 for males and 0.69 per 1,000 for females (p < 0.001). The hearing impairment prevalence differs according to region of residence (p < 0.001). The geographic distribution of prelingual deafness was found to be: North 15,644 cases (0.63 per 1,000), Central Italy 7,111 cases (0.64 per 1,000), South and Islands 18,132 (0.87 per 1,000). The prelingual hearing loss is highly prevalent in South Italy

  16. Gypsum karst in Italy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, Jo; Chiarini, Veronica; Columbu, Andrea; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Piccini, Leonardo; Vattano, Marco; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Zini, Luca; Forti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Although outcropping only rarely in Italy, gypsum karst has been described in detail since the early XXth century (Marinelli, 1917). Gypsum caves are now known from almost all Italian regions (Madonia & Forti, 2003), but are mainly localised along the northern border of the Apennine chain (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions), Calabria, and Sicily, where the major outcrops occur. Recently, important caves have also been discovered in the underground gypsum quarries in Piedmont (Vigna et al., 2010). During the late 80s and 90s several multidisciplinary studies have been carried out in many gypsum areas. All this work converged into a comprehensive overview in 2003 (Madonia & Forti, 2003). Further detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia Romagna (Chiesi et al., 2010; Forti & Lucci, 2010; Demaria et al., 2012; De Waele & Pasini, 2013; Ercolani et al., 2013; Columbu et al., 2015; Lucci & Piastra, 2015; Tedeschi et al., 2015) and of Sicily (Madonia & Vattano, 2011). Sinkholes related to Permo-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Zini et al., 2015). This presentation will review the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in Italy focusing on the main new results. References Chiesi M., et al. (2010) - Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, Italy). Hydrogeology Journal, 18, pp. 1111-1124. Columbu A. et al. (2015) - Gypsum caves as indicators of climate-driven river incision and aggradation in a rapidly uplifting region. Geology, 43(6), 539-542. Demaria D. et al. (Eds.) (2012), Le Grotte Bolognesi, GSB-USB, 431 p. De Waele J., Pasini G. (2013) - Intra-messinian gypsum palaeokarst in the northern Apennines and its palaeogeographic implications. Terra Nova 25, pp. 199-205. Ercolani M., et al. (Eds.) (2013), I Gessi e la Cave i Monte Tondo. Studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(26), 559 p

  17. Radioactivity in honey of the central Italy.

    PubMed

    Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central Italy were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always <0.34 and <0.57Bqkg(-1) respectively, (235)U, (228)Th and (232)Th were always <0.007Bqkg(-1). (137)Cs resulted <0.10Bqkg(-1) in all samples. The committed effective doses due to (210)Po from ingestion of honey for infants, children and adults account for 0.002-5.13% of the natural radiation exposure in Italy. The honeys produced in Central Italy were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products. PMID:26920304

  18. Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views. PMID:26319524

  19. Influenza vaccination among the elderly in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Pregliasco, F.; Sodano, L.; Mensi, C.; Selvaggi, M. T.; Adamo, B.; D'Argenio, P.; Giussani, F.; Simonetti, A.; Carosella, M. R.; Simeone, R.; Dentizi, C.; Montanaro, C.; Ponzio, G.

    1999-01-01

    This article surveys the attitudes and perceptions of a random sample of the elderly population in three regions of Italy on the use and efficacy of influenza vaccine. The data were collected by direct interviews using a standard questionnaire. The results show that vaccination coverage against influenza is inadequate (26-48.6%). The major reasons for nonvaccination were lack of faith in the vaccine and disbelief that influenza is a dangerous illness. These data emphasize the need for a systematic education programme targeted at the elderly and the provision of influenza vaccination, with the increased cooperation of general practitioners. PMID:10083710

  20. Italy: abortion and nationalized health care.

    PubMed

    Mori, M

    1984-12-01

    Most of the recent public and scholarly interest in Italy concerning bioethical issues has centered on abortion, general reform of the health care system, and deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill. Medical decisions are thought to concern technical rather than moral issues, and are generally left to physicians. Although ethics is a formal part of the medical curriculum only in Catholic universities, physicians have recently shown more of an interest in bioethical issues, as have philosophers. At present, however, the author is aware of only one non-Catholic institution that is devoted to the study of ethical questions in medicine. PMID:6511373

  1. Genome characterization of feline morbillivirus from Italy.

    PubMed

    Marcacci, Maurilia; De Luca, Eliana; Zaccaria, Guendalina; Di Tommaso, Morena; Mangone, Iolanda; Aste, Giovanni; Savini, Giovanni; Boari, Andrea; Lorusso, Alessio

    2016-08-01

    Feline morbillivirus (FeMV) has been recently identified by RT-PCR in the urine sample of a nephropathic cat in Italy. In this report, we describe the whole genome sequence of strain Piuma/2015 obtained by combination of sequence independent single primer amplification method (SISPA) and next generation sequencing (NGS) starting from RNA purified from the infected urine sample. The existence in Germany and Turkey of FeMVs from cats divergent from Piuma/2015, suggests the presence of FeMV heterogeneity in Europe as it has been described previously in Japan and China. PMID:27155238

  2. Structural social capital and health in Italy.

    PubMed

    Fiorillo, Damiano; Sabatini, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the first empirical assessment of the causal relationship between social capital and health in Italy. The analysis draws on the 2000 wave of the Multipurpose Survey on Household conducted by the Italian Institute of Statistics on a representative sample of the population (n=46,868). Our measure of social capital is the frequency of meetings with friends. Based on IV and bivariate probit estimates, we find that individuals who meet friends every day or more time times a week are approximately 11-16% more likely to report good health. PMID:25805101

  3. Urinary capillariosis in six dogs from Italy

    PubMed Central

    Mariacher, A.; Millanta, F.; Guidi, G.; Perrucci, S.

    2016-01-01

    Canine urinary capillariosis is caused by the nematode Pearsonema plica. P. plica infection is seldomly detected in clinical practice mainly due to diagnostic limitations. This report describes six cases of urinary capillariosis in dogs from Italy. Recurrent cystitis was observed in one dog, whereas another patient was affected by glomerular amyloidosis. In the remaining animals, the infection was considered an incidental finding. Immature eggs of the parasite were observed with urine sediment examination in 3/6 patients. Increased awareness of the potential pathogenic role of P. plica and clinical disease presentation could help identify infected animals. PMID:27354971

  4. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4 Outbreak, Italy, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Garbuglia, Anna R.; Scognamiglio, Paola; Petrosillo, Nicola; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Sordillo, Pasquale; Gentile, Daniele; La Scala, Patrizia; Girardi, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    During 2011, 5 persons in the area of Lazio, Italy were infected with a monophyletic strain of hepatitis E virus that showed high sequence homology with isolates from swine in China. Detection of this genotype in Italy parallels findings in other countries in Europe, signaling the possible spread of strains new to Western countries. PMID:23260079

  5. Young People and Alcohol in Italy: An Evolving Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beccaria, Franca; Prina, Franco

    2010-01-01

    In Italy, commonly held opinions and interpretations about the relationship between young people and alcohol are often expressed as generalizations and approximations. In order to further understanding of the relationship between young people and alcohol in contemporary Italy, we have gathered, compared and discussed all the available data, both…

  6. Reflections of a Lifelong Learner Teaching in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and summarizes the author's experience of teaching in Italy for three months and the impact it had on him and his learning. The author, at the age of 61, lived in Italy for three months and here he reflects on what he learned and how it relates to adult learning theory concepts.

  7. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan (53 FR 32267). On August 30, 1988, Commerce issued an... from Italy and Japan (65 FR 6147, February 8, 2000). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce and... orders on imports of granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan (70 FR 76026)....

  8. Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, Italy, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Lipani, Filippo; Costa, Cecilia; Scarvaglieri, Mariaelisabetta; Balbiano, Rosanna; Carosella, Sinibaldo; Calcagno, Andrea; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Dal Conte, Ivano; Caramello, Pietro; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    During June 9–September 30, 2015, five cases of louseborne relapsing fever were identified in Turin, Italy. All 5 cases were in young refugees from Somalia, 2 of whom had lived in Italy since 2011. Our report seems to confirm the possibility of local transmission of louse-borne relapsing fever. PMID:26812354

  9. The US Mission in Italy's "Partnership for Growth"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spogli, Ronald P.; Truhn, J. Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This paper first examines key differences between the traditional approaches of the USA and Italy in relation to innovation and entrepreneurship. The authors then turn to the specific example of southern Italy, which has experienced higher rates of unemployment, lower US investment and fewer educational and cultural exchanges than the rest of the…

  10. Improving Flood Damage Assessment Models in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadio, M.; Mysiak, J.; Carrera, L.; Koks, E.

    2015-12-01

    The use of Stage-Damage Curve (SDC) models is prevalent in ex-ante assessments of flood risk. To assess the potential damage of a flood event, SDCs describe a relation between water depth and the associated potential economic damage over land use. This relation is normally developed and calibrated through site-specific analysis based on ex-post damage observations. In some cases (e.g. Italy) SDCs are transferred from other countries, undermining the accuracy and reliability of simulation results. Against this background, we developed a refined SDC model for Northern Italy, underpinned by damage compensation records from a recent flood event. Our analysis considers both damage to physical assets and production losses from business interruptions. While the first is calculated based on land use information, production losses are measured through the spatial distribution of Gross Value Added (GVA). An additional component of the model assesses crop-specific agricultural losses as a function of flood seasonality. Our results show an overestimation of asset damage from non-calibrated SDC values up to a factor of 4.5 for tested land use categories. Furthermore, we estimate that production losses amount to around 6 per cent of the annual GVA. Also, maximum yield losses are less than a half of the amount predicted by the standard SDC methods.

  11. Medical Malpractice: The Experience in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    At the present time, legal actions against physicians in Italy number about 15,000 per year, and hospitals spend over €10 billion (~US$15.5 billion) to compensate patients injured from therapeutic and diagnostic errors. In a survey summary issued by the Italian Court for the Rights of the Patient, between 1996 and 2000 orthopaedic surgery was the highest-ranked specialty for the number of complaints alleging medical malpractice. Today among European countries, Italy has the highest number of physicians subject to criminal proceedings related to medical malpractice, a fact that is profoundly changing physicians’ approach to medical practice. The national health system has paid increasingly higher insurance premiums and is having difficulty finding insurance companies willing to bear the risk of monetary claims alleging medical malpractice. Healthcare costs will likely worsen as Italian physicians increasingly practice defensive medicine, thereby overutilizing resources with the goal of documenting diligence, prudence, and skill as defenses against potential litigation, rather than aimed at any patient benefit. To reduce the practice of defensive medicine and healthcare costs, a possible solution could be the introduction of an extrajudicial litigation resolution, as in other civil law countries, and a reform of the Italian judicial system on matters of medical malpractice litigation. PMID:18985423

  12. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    PubMed

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control. PMID:23999330

  13. Mortality from alcohol related disease in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    La Vecchia, C; Decarli, A; Mezzanotte, G; Cislaghi, C

    1986-01-01

    Trends in death certification rates from the five major alcohol related causes of death in Italy (cancers of the mouth or pharynx, oesophagus, larynx, liver and cirrhosis of the liver) were analysed over a period (1955-79) in which per capita alcohol consumption almost trebled. Age standardised mortality from liver cirrhosis almost doubled in males and increased over 70% in females. In males, mortality from cancers of the upper digestive or respiratory tract showed increases of between 27% and 44%, and liver cancer increased by over 100%. In the late 1970s, the four alcohol related cancer sites accounted for about 12% of all cancer deaths in males and 4.5% in females. Mortality from liver cirrhosis alone accounted for 4.8% of all deaths in males (9.2% of manpower years lost) and 2.3% in females (6.3% manpower years lost) in females. These figures were even higher in selected areas of north eastern Italy, where alcohol consumption is greater. In absolute terms, the upward trends observed correspond to about 10,000 excess deaths per year in the late 1970s compared with rates observed two decades earlier and are thus second only to the increase in tobacco related causes of death over the same calendar period. PMID:3772284

  14. [Health conditions of immigrant women in Italy].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, A; Baglio, G; Lispi, L; Guasticchi, G

    2005-01-01

    The number of immigrant women in Italy has increased from 260,000 in 1991 to at least 750,000 in 2003. This article describes the health situation of these women, in particular it deals with reproductive health. Immigrant women are generally young, in good health and they go to the health services mainly for pregnancy, delivery, spontaneous and induced abortion. Forty-eight per cent of acute hospital admissions and 56 per cent of day hospital admissions in 2002 were related to reproduction. Among foreign citizens, the induced abortion rate is three times higher than that reported among Italians, while the risk of spontaneous abortion is similar (97 per thousand and 101 per thousand, respectively). In general, the data show that immigrant women in Italy live in deprived social conditions, which can influence their reproductive choices and their access to health services. In order to take account of their particular needs, it is necessary to modify the health services and plan public health interventions especially for the prevention of induced abortion. PMID:16041925

  15. Energy issues and policies in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Colombo, U.

    1984-01-01

    Italy's energy system, in both its present structure and its evolution following the 1973 energy crisis, bears similarities to those of other Western industrialized countries. However, significant differences underlie these similarities. To understand the Italian energy system and its response to the challenges of the energy crisis of the 1970s, we must view it in historical perspective, with the following factors in mind: the scarcity of domestic natural resources, in particular energy resources; a geographical location at the center of the Mediterranean basin; the belated industrialization of the country; and a strongly centralized system of government decision-making counterpoised by a de facto economic and cultural decentralization. Italy's own energy resources are indeed meager: 205 Mtoe of oil and gas, modest reserves of low calorific value-high sulphur coal, at present hardly exploitable in economic terms, and some hydro/geo/nuclear electric capacity. The contribution of domestic sources to Italian energy supply in the last ten years has always been below 20% (18% in 1983).

  16. Recommendations for pediatric tuberculosis vaccination in Italy.

    PubMed

    Montagnani, Carlotta; Esposito, Susanna; Galli, Luisa; Chiappini, Elena; Principi, Nicola; de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-03-01

    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is still the only vaccine approved for the prevention of tuberculosis (TB), and is widely used in highly endemic countries, where all newborns receive a single intradermal dose immediately after birth; however, the recommendations concerning its use in Europe vary widely from country to country. This document describes the recommendations of a group of Italian scientific societies concerning its pediatric use in Italy, the persistence of the protection it provides, its safety, its interference with tuberculin skin test (TST) responses, and the children who should be vaccinated. The experts conclude that BCG vaccination provides a good level of protection against tuberculous meningitis and disseminated forms, and a fair level of protection against pulmonary disease; the protective effective lasts at least 10 years, and revaccination offers no advantages over a single administration. The vaccine is safe in immunocompetent subjects, and affects the response to a TST for at least 6 y On the basis of these observations, we recommend its use in Italy in all TST-negative immunocompetent newborns and breastfeeding infants aged <6 months, and all TST-negative children aged between 6 months and 5 y who come from highly epidemic areas, or whose parents come from highly endemic areas, or who have been in contact with a family member with active TB without contracting the disease themselves. PMID:26587764

  17. Italy: illegal construction hampers basic services.

    PubMed

    1981-12-01

    Rome illustrates the contradictions in the economic development in Italy. The city is located midway between Italy's most developed region and its southern regions, which lag behind the rest of the country in economic development. The population of Rome is now 3 million. It is the largest city and has the largest land area. Rome accounts for only 5.6% of the total urban population of the country due to the distribution of large and medium-sized cities throughout Italy. In 1964, a public housing construction plan was drafted to meet the needs of lower income groups. It provided for the development, over 10 years, of about 740,000 units distributed throughout 64 new working districts. At the end of the 10-year period allotted for the program, only 25% of the projects were completed or underway. This was due to the lack of government funds for public housing and the lack of political commitment to allocate what little monies were available. This meant that large numbers of immigrants had no chance to obtain housing unless they moved into the illegal buildings located outside the construction zones circumscribed by the Urban Plan, or moved into zones intended for agricultural use. The sale prices of these zones were much lower than the price of the construction zones stipulated by law. The most dangerous consequence of illegal construction is the lack of services. Roads are unpaved and constitute a major source of dust pollution. Other areas of concern are the lack of a public sewer system, solid waste disposal, and the location of worksites near residential areas. After 1978, Rome experienced a marked decline in its growth rate, from 3.2% per year between 1951-1961 to 2.7% per year between 1971-1979. This trend is no longer due to immigration. It is a result of the displacement of people from the inner city. At this time an effort is being made to accommodate the rapid growth of the past while working to improve the quality of life for all residents. PMID:12311449

  18. [Murder. Italy-USA comparative profiles].

    PubMed

    Palermo, George B; Mastronardi, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    This paper, through illustrative cases of homicidal typologies, examines the generally accepted theories on the subject: 1) sociological ones by Lorenz to Sutherland and Cressey, by Berkowitz to Wolfgang and Ferracuti and others; 2) neurobiological ones, which include the involvement of the limbic, hippocampal and parietal lobes of the brain; 3) the psychological (psychodynamic) ones which are not disjoint from the types of individual criminal homicide and related aspects. In the discussion of the types of murders, family and extrafamilial murders are then taken into consideration, with the various meanings of revenge, challenge, other reasons linked to robbery, theft, settling scores leading to youth gangs and drive-by-shootings of marginalized adolescents, crimes related to drugs and to mental disorders. Infanticide and multiple murder, including mass murder and serial killer, conclude the work together with the statistics of murders and family murders in Italy compared to USA, specifically to the crime clock. PMID:23023117

  19. GPR Activities in Italy: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosti, Fabio; Ambrosanio, Michele; Battaglia, Enzo; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; De Carlo, Lorenzo; Matera, Loredana; Prontera, Santo; Sileo, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has been increasingly played an important role over the last 15 years in Italy due to its high reliability in assisting the assessment of the built environment for civil engineering purposes, and in being used for geophysical investigations within many other fields of application. In line with this, original works involving fundamental aspects of this technique and implementing its use more practically in a number of interesting projects have been developed over years, both under a research and an enterprise point of view. This paper will endeavour to review the current status of ground-penetrating radar activities in Italy. Efforts have been devoted to single out the most interesting national research projects, both recent and ongoing, involving ground-penetrating radar in Italy, such as the ARCHEO project in the 90s, funded by the Italian Ministry for Universities, wherein a stepped frequency ultra-wide band radar suited for archaeological surveys was manufactured. In this framework, it is worth citing another important and more recent project, European Community funded, namely, ORFEUS, which started in the late 2006 with the overall aim of providing the capability to locate buried infrastructure accurately and reliably by means of a bore-head ground-penetrating radar for horizontal directional drilling. A review on the main use of this non-destructive technique in management activities of national resources and infrastructures has been also performed, ranging from the applications made by Anas S.p.A., i.e., the main management authority for the Italian road and motorway network, up to private enterprises specialized in both services providing and ground-penetrating radar manufacturing such as, to cite a few, Sineco S.p.A. and IDS Ingegneria dei Sistemi S.p.A., respectively. Current national guidelines, rules or protocols to be followed during radar surveys have been also reviewed. Unlike well-established international standards such as

  20. Women and botany in Risorgimento Italy.

    PubMed

    Logan, Gabriella Berti

    2004-01-01

    The first Italian women described as botanists by their male peers were active during the Risorgimento. They were few in numbers and only one of them, Elisabetta Fiorini, was recognized for her extensive contributions to the field of cryptogams in Italy by being nominated to important Italian scientific academies. No such recognition was ever alloted to the other female botanists who acted as collectors, correspondents and/or patrons to male botanists, had their own garden of exotic plants, or discovered a new species of phanerogams, and occasionally published on the subject. This study will show that a woman could still belong to Italian scientific academies in the nineteenth century, if like Fiorini, she chose to practice science in a way that was considered at par with that of male scientists. PMID:16021769

  1. Geochemistry and habitat of oils in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Novelli, L.; Mattavelli, L.

    1988-02-01

    Most of the onshore and offshore oil occurrences found in Italy have been systematically analyzed by different techniques, i.e., capillary gas chromatography, biological markers, and stable isotopes composition. On the basis of the above analyses, ten different groups of oil have been identified and geographically located. Subsequently, the influence of the various geological settings on generation and migration of these different groups of oils was investigated and is discussed here. In a foredeep regime, the remarkably fast heating rates, due to the rapid burial during late Tertiary, caused a rapid generation of oil mainly in the Triassic carbonate source rocks. Such generation, combined with the high over-burden pressure and a contemporaneous development of an intense tectonic compression, resulted in the expulsion of immature, heavy oils. Examples of this are evident in the central Adriatic Sea, southern Italy, and southeastern Sicily. Due to its complex geological and tectonic history, the Alpine-Apennine chain behaved differently with regard to oil generation and migration in different areas. In fact, the high temperatures reached by the Mesozoic source rocks underneath a stack of allochthonous thrust sheets and the insulating thermal blanket effect exerted by the same sheets on other younger source rocks above gave rise to generally light oils. Furthermore, in this unique geological setting, the most external thrust sheets locally acted as reservoirs of the foredeep regime. Foreland sequences acted as both reservoirs of the foredeep oils and as generative kitchens of liquid hydrocarbons if suitable source rocks were present and adequate burial was reached.

  2. Space Radar Image of Florence, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows land use patterns in and around the city of Florence, Italy, shown here in the center of the image. Florence is situated on a plain in the Chianti Hill region of Central Italy. The Arno River flows through town and is visible as the dark line running from the upper right to the bottom center of the image. The city is home to some of the world's most famous art museums. The bridges seen crossing the Arno, shown as faint red lines in the upper right portion of the image, were all sacked during World War II with the exception of the Ponte Vecchio, which remains as Florence's only covered bridge. The large, black V-shaped feature near the center of the image is the Florence Railroad Station. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This image is centered at 43.7 degrees north latitude and 11.15 degrees east longitude with North toward the upper left of the image. The area shown measures 20 kilometers by 17 kilometers (12.4 miles by 10.6 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received.

  3. Monitoring the Pollino Earthquake Swarm (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, D.; Passarelli, L.; Govoni, A.; Rivalta, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Mercure Basin (MB) and the Castrovillari Fault (CF) in the Pollino range (southern Apennines, Italy) representone of the most prominent seismic gaps in the Italian seismic catalog, with no M>6 earthquakes during the lastcenturies. In recent times, the MB has been repeatedly interested by seismic swarms.The most energetic swarm started in 2010 and still active in 2014. The seismicity culminated in autumn 2012 with a M=5 event on October 25. In contrast, the CF appears aseismic. Only the northern part of the CF has experienced microseismicity.The range host a number of additional sub-parallel faults.Their rheology is unclear. Current debates include the potential of the MB and the CF to host largeearthquakes and the level and the style of deformation.Understanding the seismicity and the behaviour of the faultsis therefore necessary to assess the seismic hazard. The GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and INGV, Italy, have been jointly monitoring the ongoing seismicity using a small-aperture seismic array, integrated in a temporary seismic network. Using the array, we automatically detect about ten times more earthquakes than currently included inlocal catalogues corresponding to completeness above M~0.5.In the course of the swarm, seismicity has mainly migrated within the Mercure Basin.However, the eastward spread towards the northern tio of the CF in 2013 marksa phase with seismicity located outside of the Mercure Basin.The event locations indicate spatially distinct clusters with different mechanisms across the E-W trending Pollino Fault.The clusters differ in strike and dip.Calibration of the local magnitude scale confirms earlier studies further north in the Apennines. The station corrections show N-S variation indicating that the Pollino Fault forms an important structural boundary.

  4. Bangladeshi immigrants in Italy: from geopolitics to micropolitics.

    PubMed

    Knights, M

    1996-01-01

    "Bangladeshis are one of a wide variety of recently established immigrant groups in Italy, analysed here as an example of the interaction of geopolitics, employment and survival strategies, and the micropolitics of the community's organization in Italy. The geopolitics involves events in Bangladesh (change of government), Italy (the Martelli Law and other legislation), Europe (EU and other European policies, and the opening of eastern Europe as a routeway) and the Gulf. The micropolitics concerns mechanisms of immigration, migration sponsorship, connections to Italian political groups and clientelistic relationships within the community. Micropolitics also governs to a large extent the types of mostly informal work done by Bangladeshis in Rome." PMID:12157827

  5. The state of art of shotcrete in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Pelizza, S.; Tesio, G.G.

    1995-12-31

    The paper reports the large experience of use of shotcrete in Italy, both in tunnels and above ground. In tunnelling, for more than 30 years, shotcrete has been used for many hundreds of kilometers of tunnel construction. Technical rules for shotcrete use in Italy do not yet exist. SIG-Italian Tunnelling Society- has formed the Working Group Use of Shotcrete. This working group, operating since 1988, has the specific task to adapt the use of shotcrete to international standards.

  6. [Chagas disease: an emerging public health problem in Italy?].

    PubMed

    Guerri-Guttenberg, R A; Ciannameo, A; Di Girolamo, C; Milei, J J

    2009-03-01

    Chagas' disease is an endemic parasitic illness in the American continent, affecting around 16 to 18 million people. Given that 9.5% of immigrants to Italy are from Latin America and that the infection can be transmitted in non-endemic countries congenitally by organ donations and blood transfusions, Chagas disease should be regarded as an emerging public health problem in Italy. Clinical guidelines as well as health protocols are needed to deal with this rarely recognized disease. PMID:19359818

  7. Geoelectric monitoring of the Bagnaschino landslide (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, Birgit; Supper, Robert; Ottowitz, David; Pfeiler, Stefan; Kim, Jung-Ho; Lovisolo, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Landslides are one of the major natural threats to human lives, settlements and infrastructure. Permanent geoelectrical monitoring using the GEOMON4D instrumentation in combination with high resolution displacement monitoring by means of the DMS system was performed at an active landslide area in Italy (Bagnaschino). These sites are part of a geoelectrical monitoring network of the Geological Survey of Austria, which currently comprises six permanently monitored landslides in Europe. The Bagnaschino site represents a landslide/earthflow reactivated within an old landslide mass. The old landslide is situated on the slopes of the Val Casotto about 4 km SE of Torre Mondovì (NW Italy). Evident indications of deep-seated gravitational deformation suggest that the current slopes are in a condition of limit-equilibrium and are predisposed to slow instability, triggered most probably by rain and/or snow melting and river erosion at the foot. The recent landslide was activated during 1994 rainfall event. It covers an estimated area of 150,000 m² and comprises a displaced material of 1.2 million m³. It endangers a regional road and potential formation of a dam. For the purpose of early warning a DMS monitoring column with 60 m length was installed in October 2008. Total displacement recorded by DMS during the events between 2008 and 2010 was 600 mm. Subsequently, the GEOMON4D geoelectric monitoring system was installed there in 2010. Resistivity measurements are performed along a 224 m long profile, which is oriented parallel to the main movement direction. Its midpoint is next to the DMS station. One set of data comprising around 4000 gradient-type measurements is taken every 4 hours. For power supply a combination of a fuel cell and a solar panel is used. Within the observation interval one distinct displacement event was monitored. This event was accompanied by a decrease of electric resistivity. In addition to our standard analysis of resistivity data (e.g. time

  8. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucia, Leporatti Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata) were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species), Marche (274) and Abruzzo (203). The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised). Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several plants deserve to be taken

  9. Tephrochronology offshore Ischia Island, Tyrrhenian sea, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insinga, Donatella; Sulpizio, Roberto; de Alteriis, Giovanni; Morabito, Simona; Morra, Vincenzo; Sprovieri, Mario; di Benedetto, Claudia; Lubritto, Carmine; Zanchetta, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    the coring site. The definition of the source area of these two major events is still a matter of debate. However, the Somma-Vesuvius complex reasonably sourced the Schiava deposits while a Campi Flegrei provenance for the Codola deposits cannot be ruled out (Di Vito et al., 2008). These latters, known as C10 tephra in the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic sea (Paterne et al., 1988; Giaccio et al., 2008), in particular, represent reliable regional markers for the whole central Mediterranean area. References De Vivo, B., Rolandi, G., Gans, P.B., Calvert, A., Bohrson,W.A., Spera, F.J., Belkin, H.E., 2001. New constraints on the pyroclastic eruptive history of the Campanian volcanic Plain (Italy). Mineralogy and Petrology 73, 47-65. Di Vito,M.A., Sulpizio, R., Zanchetta, G., D'Orazio, M., 2008. The late Pleistocene pyroclastic deposits of the Campanian Plain: newinsights into the explosive activity of Neapolitan volcanoes. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res.177, 19-48. Giaccio, B., Isaia, R., Fedele, F.G., Di Canzio, E., Hoffecker, J., Ronchitelli, A., Sinitsyn, A., Anikovich, M., Lisitsyn, S.N., 2008. The Campanian Ignimbrite and Codola tephra layers: two temporal/stratigraphic markers for the Early Upper Palaeloithic in southern Italy and eastern Europe. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 177, 210-228. Paterne M., Guichard F. & Labeyrie J., 1988. Explosive activity of the south Italian volcanoes during the past 80.000 years as determined by marine tephrochronology. J. Volcanol. Geother. Res. 34, 153-172. Paterne, M., Guichard, F., 1993. Triggering of volcanic pluses in the Campanian area, south Italy, by periodic deep magma in.ux. Journal of Geophysical Research 98 (B2), 1861-1873. Rio, D., Raffi, I., Villa, G., 1990. Pliocene-Pleistocene calcareous nannofossil distribution patterns in the western Mediterranean. In: Kastens, K.A. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. Scientific Results, vol. 107. Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, TX, pp. 513-533. Sulpizio, R., Zanchetta, G

  10. Canine kobuviruses in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Ceci, Chiara; Di Profio, Federica; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2013-09-27

    Canine kobuviruses (CaKVs) are newly recognized picornaviruses recently detected in dogs in the US. By molecular analysis of the whole genome, CaKV that appeared genetically closest to the murine kobuvirus (MuKV) and to the human Aichi virus (AiV), may be classified in the Kobuvirus genus as new genotype (CaKV type 1) within the species Aichivirus A. To date, there are no information on the epidemiology of these novel viruses in other continents. In this study, by screening a collection of 256 dog fecal samples either from diarrhoeic or asymptomatic animals, CaKV was identified in six specimens with an overall prevalence of 2.34% (6/256). All the positive dogs presented diarrhea and were found to be infected by CaKV alone or in mixed infections with canine coronavirus (CCoV) and/or canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). By molecular analysis of the partial 3D gene, all the strains detected displayed a close relatedness with the CaKVs recently identified in the US. This study provides evidence that CaKVs circulate in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy and are not geographically restricted to the North American continent, where they were first signaled. PMID:23806200

  11. Prevalence of congenital muscular dystrophy in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Graziano, Alessandra; Bianco, Flaviana; D'Amico, Adele; Moroni, Isabella; Messina, Sonia; Bruno, Claudio; Pegoraro, Elena; Mora, Marina; Astrea, Guja; Magri, Francesca; Comi, Giacomo P.; Berardinelli, Angela; Moggio, Maurizio; Morandi, Lucia; Pini, Antonella; Petillo, Roberta; Tasca, Giorgio; Monforte, Mauro; Minetti, Carlo; Mongini, Tiziana; Ricci, Enzo; Gorni, Ksenija; Battini, Roberta; Villanova, Marcello; Politano, Luisa; Gualandi, Francesca; Ferlini, Alessandra; Muntoni, Francesco; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Bertini, Enrico; Pane, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We provide a nationwide population study of patients with congenital muscular dystrophy in Italy. Methods: Cases were ascertained from the databases in all the tertiary referral centers for pediatric neuromuscular disorders and from all the genetic diagnostic centers in which diagnostic tests for these forms are performed. Results: The study includes 336 patients with a point prevalence of 0.563 per 100,000. Mutations were identified in 220 of the 336 (65.5%). The cohort was subdivided into diagnostic categories based on the most recent classifications on congenital muscular dystrophies. The most common forms were those with α-dystroglycan glycosylation deficiency (40.18%) followed by those with laminin α2 deficiency (24.11%) and collagen VI deficiency (20.24%). The forms of congenital muscular dystrophy related to mutations in SEPN1 and LMNA were less frequent (6.25% and 5.95%, respectively). Conclusions: Our study provides for the first time comprehensive epidemiologic information and point prevalence figures for each of the major diagnostic categories on a large cohort of congenital muscular dystrophies. The study also reflects the diagnostic progress in this field with an accurate classification of the cases according to the most recent gene discoveries. PMID:25653289

  12. Ionospheric precursors for crustal earthquakes in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, L.; Korsunova, L. P.; Mikhailov, A. V.

    2010-04-01

    Crustal earthquakes with magnitude 6.0>M≥5.5 observed in Italy for the period 1979-2009 including the last one at L'Aquila on 6 April 2009 were considered to check if the earlier obtained relationships for ionospheric precursors for strong Japanese earthquakes are valid for the Italian moderate earthquakes. The ionospheric precursors are based on the observed variations of the sporadic E-layer parameters (h'Es, fbEs) and foF2 at the ionospheric station Rome. Empirical dependencies for the seismo-ionospheric disturbances relating the earthquake magnitude and the epicenter distance are obtained and they have been shown to be similar to those obtained earlier for Japanese earthquakes. The dependences indicate the process of spreading the disturbance from the epicenter towards periphery during the earthquake preparation process. Large lead times for the precursor occurrence (up to 34 days for M=5.8-5.9) tells about a prolong preparation period. A possibility of using the obtained relationships for the earthquakes prediction is discussed.

  13. Legal abortion in Italy: 1980-1981.

    PubMed

    Tosi, S L; Grandolfo, M E; Spinelli, A; O'Reilly, K R; Hogue, C J

    1985-01-01

    In 1980 and 1981, there were 446,430 legal abortions performed in Italy. There were about 345 legal abortions per 1,000 live births in 1980 and 363 in 1981. About 1.6 percent of women aged 15-49 obtained abortions in both years. An analysis of the characteristics of Italian women who obtained abortions indicates that most were married (about 70 percent), aged 18-36 (74 percent), had had less than a high school education (74 percent) and had had at least one previous live birth (70-75 percent). In 1981, 88 percent of abortions were obtained in public hospitals; 58 percent were carried out at eight or fewer weeks of gestation; and 78 percent were performed under general anesthesia. Only 20 percent were performed without an overnight stay in the hospital; and over 40 percent of women were hospitalized for two days or longer. Infection after the abortion was reported in only 0.03 percent of cases in 1981, and hemorrhage was reported in only 0.27 percent. In 1981, between 43 percent and 84 percent of gynecologists (depending on the region of the country) declined to perform abortions on grounds of conscience. PMID:3872230

  14. Underestimation of Invasive Meningococcal Disease in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Nieddu, Francesco; Moriondo, Maria; Indolfi, Giuseppe; Canessa, Clementina; Ricci, Silvia; Bianchi, Leila; Serranti, Daniele; Poggi, Giovanni Maria; Resti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Knowing the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is essential for planning appropriate vaccination policies. However, IMD may be underestimated because of misdiagnosis or insufficiently sensitive laboratory methods. Using a national molecular surveillance register, we assessed the number of cases misdiagnosed and diagnoses obtained postmortem with real-time PCR (rPCR), and we compared sensitivity of rPCR versus culture-based testing. A total of 222 IMD cases were identified: 11 (42%) of 26 fatal cases had been misdiagnosed or undiagnosed and were reclassified as IMD after rPCR showed meningococcal DNA in all available specimens taken postmortem. Of the samples tested with both rPCR and culture, 58% were diagnosed by using rPCR alone. The underestimation factor associated with the use of culture alone was 3.28. In countries such as Italy, where rPCR is in limited use, IMD incidence may be largely underestimated; thus, assessments of benefits of meningococcal vaccination may be prone to error. PMID:26890305

  15. Actinides AMS at CIRCE in Caserta (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cesare, M.; Gialanella, L.; Rogalla, D.; Petraglia, A.; Guan, Y.; De Cesare, N.; D'Onofrio, A.; Quinto, F.; Roca, V.; Sabbarese, C.; Terrasi, F.

    2010-04-01

    The operation of Nuclear Power Plants and atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons performed in the past, together with production, transport and reprocessing of nuclear fuel, lead to the release into the environment of a wide range of radioactive nuclides, such as uranium, plutonium, fission and activation products. These nuclides are present in the environment at ultra trace levels. Their detection requires sensitive techniques like AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry). In order to perform isotopic ratio measurements of the longer-lived actinides, e.g., of 236U relative to the primary 238U and various Pu isotopes relative to 239Pu, an upgrade of the CIRCE accelerator (Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage) in Caserta, Italy, is underway. In this paper we report on the results of simulations aiming to define the best ion optics and to understand the origin of possible measurement background. The design of a high resolution TOF- E (Time of Flight-Energy) detector system is described, which will be used to identify the rare isotopes among interfering background signals.

  16. Prevalence of previously undiagnosed abdominal aortic aneurysms in the area of Como: the ComoCuore "looking for AAA" ultrasonography screening.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Giovanni; Durante, Alessandro; Genchi, Vincenzo; Trabattoni, Loris; Beretta, Sandro; Rovelli, Enza; Foglia-Manzillo, Giovanni; Ferrari, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    The prognosis for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is poor. Long-term follow-up of population-based randomized trials has demonstrated that ultrasound (US) screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) measuring 3 cm or greater decreases AAA-related mortality rates and is cost-effective. We though to prospectively perform during a 26-month period a limited US examination of the infrarenal aorta in volunteers of both gender aged 60-85 years without history of AAA living in the area of Como, Italy. From September 2010 to November 2013 ComoCuore, a no-profit nongovernmental association, enrolled 1555 people (aged 68.8 ± 6.8 years; 48.6 % males). Clinical data and a US imaging of the aorta were collected for each participant. AAA was found in 22 volunteers (1.4 %) mainly males (2.5 % in males vs. 0.4 % in females p = 0.005). Overall, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was higher in patients with vs. without AAA (mean 2.9 ± 3.0 vs. 1.4 ± 1.0 respectively, p < 0.0001). Independent predictors of AAA on multivariate analysis were age (OR 1.14, 1.06-1.22; p < 0.0001), male gender (OR 8.23, 1.79-37.91; p = 0.007), and both current (OR 4.98, 1.57-15.79; p = 0.007) and previous smoking (OR 2.76, 1.12-8.94; p = 0.03). Our study confirms the feasibility of one time US screening for AAA in a large cohort of asymptomatic people. Independent predictors of AAA were male sex, older age and a history of smoking. Accordingly to recent data the prevalence of AAA seems to be declining, maybe due to a reduction of smoking in Italy. PMID:27215751

  17. Second-hand smoke in Italy.

    PubMed

    Gallus, S

    2015-12-01

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) [IARC, 2004]. Of the 5.7 million deaths attributable each year to tobacco smoking, more than 600,000 (i.e., around 1% of all deaths worldwide) refer to subjects who never smoked and that prematurely die due to their lifetime exposure to SHS [WHO, 2012]. Italy has been one of the pioneering countries - and the first large country worldwide - to enact a comprehensive smoke-free legislation in 2005. The law, introduced in order to reduce SHS exposure, banned smoking in indoor public places, including restaurants and bars, and in all workplaces [Gallus et al., 2006]. This legislation has had an undisputed success from a public health perspective: it was widely supported and strongly observed, restaurant and bar owners did not experience any dreaded decline in their business, and tobacco smoking (and its detrimental health effects) substantially decreased [Gallus et al., 2006; Gorini et al., 2007]. More importantly, the regulation has been effective in dramatically reducing SHS exposure [Gorini et al., 2007; Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2012]. Most high- income countries followed Italy in the adoption of similar comprehensive smoking ban legislations over the last decade [IARC, 2009]. These regulations and the information campaigns conducted for their enforcement had also the effect to increase the social unacceptability of SHS and consequently the adoption of voluntary home smoking bans [Ferketich et al., 2014; Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2014]. This notwithstanding, in 2010 specific Italian subpopulations were still frequently exposed to SHS, both in public and private places. In particular, 54% of the young (i.e., age 15-24 years) were still exposed to SHS in any settings, 27% in private houses, and 33% in private cars [Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2012]. The relatively high SHS exposure in private cars is of

  18. Viscosity of Campi Flregrei (Italy) magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiti, Valeria; Vetere, Francesco; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Behrens, Harald; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Freda, Carmela

    2010-05-01

    Viscosity is an important factor governing both intrusive and volcanic processes. The most important parameters governing silicate melts viscosity are bulk composition of melt and temperature. Pressure has only minor effect at crustal depths, whereas crystals and bubbles have significant influence. Among compositional parameters, the water content is critical above all in terms of rheological behaviour of melts and explosive style of an eruption. Consequently, without an appropriate knowledge of magma viscosity depending on the amount of dissolved volatiles, it is not possible to model the processes (i.e., magma ascent, fragmentation, and dispersion) required to predict realistic volcanic scenarios and thus forecast volcanic hazards. The Campi Flegrei are a large volcanic complex (~150 km2) located west of the city of Naples, Italy, that has been the site of volcanic activity for more than 60 ka and represents a potential volcanic hazard owing to the large local population. In the frame of a INGV-DPC (Department of Civil Protection) project devoted to design a multidisciplinary system for short-term volcano hazard evaluation, we performed viscosity measurements, under dry and hydrous conditions, of primitive melt compositions representative of two Campi Flegrei eruptions (Minopoli-shoshonite and Fondo Riccio-latite). Viscosity of the two melts have been investigated in the high temperature/low viscosity range at atmospheric pressure in dry samples and at 0.5 GPa in runs having water content from nominally anhydrous to about 3 wt%. Data in the low temperature/high viscosity range were obtained near the glass transition temperature at atmospheric pressure on samples whose water contents vary from 0.3 up to 2.43 wt%. The combination of high- and low-viscosity data permits a general description of the viscosity as a function of temperature and water content using a modified Tamman-Vogel-Fulcher equation. logν = a+ --b--+ --d--×exp(g × w-) (T - c) (T - e) T (1) where

  19. Analyzing wildfire exposure on Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A.; Arca, Bachisio; Finney, Mark A.; Alcasena, Fermin; Bacciu, Valentina; Duce, Pierpaolo; Munoz Lozano, Olga; Spano, Donatella

    2014-05-01

    We used simulation modeling based on the minimum travel time algorithm (MTT) to analyze wildfire exposure of key ecological, social and economic features on Sardinia, Italy. Sardinia is the second largest island of the Mediterranean Basin, and in the last fifty years experienced large and dramatic wildfires, which caused losses and threatened urban interfaces, forests and natural areas, and agricultural productions. Historical fires and environmental data for the period 1995-2009 were used as input to estimate fine scale burn probability, conditional flame length, and potential fire size in the study area. With this purpose, we simulated 100,000 wildfire events within the study area, randomly drawing from the observed frequency distribution of burn periods and wind directions for each fire. Estimates of burn probability, excluding non-burnable fuels, ranged from 0 to 1.92x10-3, with a mean value of 6.48x10-5. Overall, the outputs provided a quantitative assessment of wildfire exposure at the landscape scale and captured landscape properties of wildfire exposure. We then examined how the exposure profiles varied among and within selected features and assets located on the island. Spatial variation in modeled outputs resulted in a strong effect of fuel models, coupled with slope and weather. In particular, the combined effect of Mediterranean maquis, woodland areas and complex topography on flame length was relevant, mainly in north-east Sardinia, whereas areas with herbaceous fuels and flat areas were in general characterized by lower fire intensity but higher burn probability. The simulation modeling proposed in this work provides a quantitative approach to inform wildfire risk management activities, and represents one of the first applications of burn probability modeling to capture fire risk and exposure profiles in the Mediterranean basin.

  20. Thermoregulation of alpacas bred in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiello, Silvana; Formis, Elena; Barbieri, Sara

    2011-03-01

    The present study monitored daily and seasonal variations of rectal temperature in response to different environmental temperatures in alpacas bred in the Italian Apennines at 300 m a.s.l. In each season, the rectal temperature of 33 clinically healthy alpacas was measured three times/day (morning, midday, afternoon). Ambient temperatures were also recorded. Rectal temperatures ranged from a minimum value of 35.1 to a maximum of 39.4°C, with a maximum daily thermal excursion (ΔTrec) of 3.2°C. Temperatures increased throughout the day, with highly significant differences recorded in both young and adult animals between all the time bands ( P < 0.001). These differences were particularly dramatic for adults in summer, when the mean rectal temperature in the morning was 36.3 ± 0.13°C, probably as a consequence of recent shearing. Significant ΔTrec differences were recorded depending on the season in both young and adult animals ( P < 0.001), with the highest ΔTrec values recorded in summer (although the highest daily ambient excursion value was recorded in winter). In conclusion, similarly to alpacas bred in their natural environment, alpacas bred in Italy show a wide thermal neutrality zone, which is probably an adaptive response, that allows the animals to save energy. In the Italian Apennines, in order to prevent situations of hypothermia, with possible detrimental effects on alpacas' health and welfare, shearing should be carried out only in warm seasons.

  1. Trends in endodontic claims in Italy.

    PubMed

    Pinchi, Vilma; Pradella, Francesco; Gasparetto, Laura; Norelli, Gian-Aristide

    2013-02-01

    According to the scant data available in the literature, endodontic claims are common among dental professional liability cases and the second most common type of claim. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of endodontic claims in Italy and the most frequently disputed errors, and the discussion below includes consideration of ethical and medico-legal aspects thereof. We retrospectively analysed 120 technical reports written on cases of professional malpractice in endodontics in the last 5 years. The complainant patients were males in 22.5% of the cases, while females made up the remaining 77.5%. In the dentist sample, male operators were more often involved in litigation cases (80%) than female operators. The most frequently claimed technical errors were: lack of a complete filling of root canal/s (71.7%), the perforation of tooth structure (12.7%), extrusion of sealing materials beyond the apex of the tooth (9.6%) and the fracture of an endodontic instrument (5.9%). In 1.7% of cases it was found that the expert did not make any errors performing the endodontic therapy. In only very few cases (2.7%) no therapy was considered necessary, while the most common therapeutic solution involved in endodontic misconduct was tooth extraction (53.0%). In many cases the dentist preferred to extract the endodontically undertreated tooth and substitute it prosthetically rather than trying to re-treat it. The discrepancy between the total number of cases examined and those that eventually go to court leads us to believe that the majority of endodontic malpractice cases are resolved in out-of-court settlements. PMID:23410021

  2. Update on the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Italy.

    PubMed

    Conversano, Michele

    2014-05-01

    As in many countries in Western Europe, in Italy tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively rare disease. In the last decade its incidence has remained constant at under 10 cases/100,000 inhabitants, the threshold considered to define a country as low prevalence. The epidemiological picture, however, is very different in the countries of Eastern Europe and in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, where the incidence of TB continues to increase and in some cases is accompanied by the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant TB. The present review describes the epidemiology of TB in Italy. In 2008, the incidence rate was 3.8 cases per 100,000 for people born in Italy, and 50-60 cases per 100,000 for those born abroad. There was an increase in cases from Eastern Europe. The crude mortality rate for TB in 2006 was 0.7 deaths per 100,000 residents. Although TB is a low-prevalence disease in Italy, its epidemiology is changing. Since 1955, more than 160,000 people in Italy have died from this potentially preventable and curable disease. PMID:24788994

  3. Resolving Mantle Flow Beneath Italy: The Scientific Goals of the RETREAT Seismological Deployment, Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Margheriti, L.; Levin, V.; Pondrelli, S.; Plomerova, J.; Lucente, P.; Okaya, D.; Babuska, V.; Amato, A.; Brandon, M. T.; Vecsey, L.; Piana Agostinetti, N.; Piccininni, D.

    2004-12-01

    The Apennines mountains in Italy are associated with subduction by many researchers, motivated by uplift beside thick accretions of sediments in the Po River valley and the Adriatic Sea; deep earthquakes and volcanism in southern Italy, and a long tabular high-wavespeed feature that is observed in mantle tomography from the base of the Apennines to the transition zone. The objective of the RETREAT seismic array is to resolve the pattern of mantle flow associated with the inferred rollback of the Adriatic slab. Because both sides of the active orogen are continental, the Apennines differ from typical oceanic subduction zones. The descent of lithosphere has not, in the historical record, been accompanied by great thrust earthquakes. GPS estimates of convergence are small, no more than a few mm/year. It is not known how much of the crust of the downgoing plate descends with the mantle lithosphere, and how much accretes to the upper crust of the overriding plate. Our seismic results will allow us to resolve the Moho beneath the Apennines and the transition into the actively flowing asthenospheric mantle. Many researchers have argued that subduction of the Adriatic slab has induced a corner flow in the asthenosphere above the slab. Geodynamic modelling suggests that a complex double-cell corner flow is necessary to generate the observed extension of the overriding plate. RETREAT includes broadband seismometers in both 2-D- and linear-arrays that straddle the Apennines and its mantle high-velocity features. In several subduction zones (Kamchatka, Cascadia, Alaska) receiver functions detect P-to-S converted waves from both top and bottom of the subducted oceanic crust. Anisotropy near the top of the slab enhances the P-to-S conversion and suggests the presence of hydrous minerals. If subduction of the full lithosphere is occurring beneath Italy, we expect to observe P-to-S converted phases, with an anisotropic signature, from crust within the subducted lithosphere. Weak

  4. Immigrants’ children’s transition to secondary school in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Barban, Nicola; White, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Choosing a secondary school represents an important step in the lives of students in Italy, in that it has a strong bearing on their ultimate educational achievement and labor force trajectory. In this paper, we analyze the effect of generational status and length of residence on the transition to secondary school among immigrants living in Italy. Using data from the ITAGEN2 follow-up, we analyze scholastic results from the middle school final exam and the choice of secondary school among the adolescents in Italy. Children of immigrants are more likely to have inferior outcomes on the middle school exam and to enroll in vocational and polytechnic schools. Our multivariate results indicate that, after controlling for the family’s human capital and other key background factors, immigrant students show greater propensity to choose a vocational path. Differences between immigrants and natives in secondary school tracks are also manifest when previous scholastic results are taken into account. PMID:25587204

  5. [Aedes albopictus in Italy: an underestimated health problem].

    PubMed

    Romi, R

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990, Ae. albopictus has spread in 9 regions and 30 provinces of the country. This species was introduced in Italy in shipments of scrap tires form the USA. In Italy, Ae. albopictus is the major biting pest throughout much of its range and, although there is no evidence that this mosquito is the vector of human disease in the country, the species might be involved in the transmission of some arboviruses which have been reported in the Mediterranean Basin. Aim of this paper is to provide an update on the distribution of Ae. albopictus in Italy and to renew the interest in a problem frequently underestimated. Public health implications after a ten-year presence of the species are also discussed. PMID:11758282

  6. New species and new records of trichomycetes from Italy.

    PubMed

    Valle, Laia Guardia; Rossi, Walter; Santamaria, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    We present the results obtained from a short survey in central Italy to broaden the poorly known diversity of trichomycetous gut symbionts, members of the Kickxellomycotina, in this country. Among the reported fungi, two new species of Harpellales are described: Harpellomyces aprutinus and Orphella italica, as well as 14 other species that are new for Italy. Among these, the remarkable and rare species Gauthieromyces microsporus is included, previously known only from the type locality in France. One species of Asellariales, Asellaria gramenei, also is reported. Taxonomic and biogeographic implications of these records are discussed. PMID:23233514

  7. [Current status of robotic urologic surgery in Italy].

    PubMed

    Sacco, Emilio; Bientinesi, Riccardo; Bassi, Pier Francesco

    2015-10-01

    The introduction of robot-assisted surgery represents a milestone in the history of surgery. Today, many surgical disciplines make use of the DaVinci robotic system in performing surgery, even complex ones. Italy stands as one of the countries with a greater diffusion of robotics in surgery, particularly in urological surgery. In Italy, every year, numerous urological surgeries are performed with the DaVinci robot; however, costs of this technology are high and, although likely to decrease, constitute a limit to the spread of the same and restricting its use to shared areas. PMID:26429391

  8. Real Time Seismic Loss Estimation in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goretti, A.; Sabetta, F.

    2009-04-01

    By more than 15 years the Seismic Risk Office is able to perform a real-time evaluation of the earthquake potential loss in any part of Italy. Once the epicentre and the magnitude of the earthquake are made available by the National Institute for Geophysiscs and Volca-nology, the model, based on the Italian Geographic Information Sys-tems, is able to evaluate the extent of the damaged area and the consequences on the built environment. In recent years the model has been significantly improved with new methodologies able to conditioning the uncertainties using observa-tions coming from the fields during the first days after the event. However it is reputed that the main challenges in loss analysis are related to the input data, more than to methodologies. Unlike the ur-ban scenario, where the missing data can be collected with enough accuracy, the country-wise analysis requires the use of existing data bases, often collected for other purposed than seismic scenario evaluation, and hence in some way lacking of completeness and homogeneity. Soil properties, building inventory and population dis-tribution are the main input data that are to be known in any site of the whole Italian territory. To this end the National Census on Popu-lation and Dwellings has provided information on the residential building types and the population that lives in that building types. The critical buildings, such as Hospital, Fire Brigade Stations, Schools, are not included in the inventory, since the national plan for seismic risk assessment of critical buildings is still under way. The choice of a proper soil motion parameter, its attenuation with distance and the building type fragility are important ingredients of the model as well. The presentation will focus on the above mentioned issues, highlight-ing the different data sets used and their accuracy, and comparing the model, input data and results when geographical areas with dif-ferent extent are considered: from the urban scenarios

  9. Educational Geophysics at INGV, Rome (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dida Working Group Ingv,.

    2002-12-01

    Italy is a country prone to Earth phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods and landslides that left a trace in the memory of people. About 60% of the Italian territory is classified in the current seismic hazard maps, and large cities as Neaples and Catania are located close to the two largest active volcanoes of Europe (Mt. Vesuvius and Mt. Etna, respectively). Nevertheless, school programs are often inadequate about the natural hazards of the country. For this reason there are many requests from schoolteachers to visit with their classes the academic Institutions and to attend geophysical talks. The working group for educational activities of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica and Vulcanologia promotes and realizes Earth science outreach programs devoted to increase the knowledge of geophysical topics. The educational activity is one of the most important tasks of our Institution together with the research activities and the 24-hours survey of the Italian Seismic Network. The INGV hosts in its headquarter of Rome many visits of primary, secondary and high schools with an increasing demand year by year. Every year about 3,000 students visit our Institute over more than 60 open-days, and we participate to exhibitions and outreach projects organized by several Institutions. We show here what has been done at INGV for the geophysical education, underlining the problems and the successes of these activities. We describe also an educational project developed together with a teacher's team of secondary-school. Aim of this experience was to stimulate the interest of 12-year-old kids to unfamiliar arguments like seismology. The class was introduced to physical topics as waves and wave propagation by means of simple experiments. Then they visited the INGV were the research activities were shown, with emphasis on seismological studies; they were also thought how the Italian Seismic Network monitors earthquakes and how to use the P and S waves for their

  10. 78 FR 57129 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey: Continuation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... of Five-Year Sunset Review, 77 FR 53867 (September 4, 2012); Certain Pasta from Italy and Turkey; and... from Italy and Turkey, 77 FR 53909 (September 4, 2012). \\2\\ See Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey... Order, 78 FR 693 (January 4, 2013); and Certain Pasta From Turkey: Final Results of the Expedited...

  11. Living in Italy. Intercultural Exchange Series. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Annie

    The guide provides a brief introduction to the culture and language of Italy, and is designed for visitors, students, and business travelers. It offers practical information on various aspects of daily living, including: money; food; restaurants; hotels; postal and telecommunications services; transportation; shopping; health and medical care;…

  12. Employment Problems and the Educational System in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birtig, Guido

    1976-01-01

    This article looks at the unemployment problem in Italy and examines the attunement of the educational system to the economy's manpower needs. The journal is available in English, French, and Spanish editions from the International Labour Office Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. (Author/RM)

  13. Psychological Reactions to Crime in Italy: 2002-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amerio, Piero; Roccato, Michele

    2007-01-01

    We performed a secondary analysis of the data collected by the Observatory of the North-West (a mail panel representative of the Italian population over 18), describing the trends in the distribution of fear of crime (FC) and of concern about crime as a social problem (CC) in Italy between the end of 2002 and the beginning of 2004. After analyzing…

  14. Italy Presses Forward in Educating Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giangreco, Michael F.; Doyle, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Italy has a long history of including students with disabilities in general education classes. Their efforts offer unique perspectives and practices from which other countries may benefit. The article highlights four notable attributes about the Italian approach and discusses implications for American schools.

  15. Standpoints on Quality: Listening to Children in Verona, Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcourt, Deborah; Mazzoni, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood research and policy, globally, are focusing increasingly on issues of "quality" in early childhood education. However, much of the focus to date has been on adult notions of quality, with little attention being devoted to children's accounts. Conducted in the context of early childhood education in Verona, Italy, this study offers…

  16. Preschool Handicapped in Italy: A Research-Based Developmental Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecchini, Marco; McCleary, Iva Dene

    1985-01-01

    Integration practices of handicapped children at preschool level and the service model for therapeutic and social assistance in Arezzo, Italy are examined. Case studies of three severely handicapped integrated preschoolers illustrate the model's functionings. Theory and research supporting the model are noted, as is continuing research through…

  17. Teacher Education in Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostinelli, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief analysis of teacher education in five European countries: Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland. In the post-industrial world, the sense of teaching has profoundly changed, influenced by a rapidly evolving socio-economic context. The responses given by each country are different, but two tendencies emerge: on…

  18. School Evaluation and Consultancy in Italy. Sliding Doors towards Privatisation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serpieri, Roberto; Grimaldi, Emiliano; Vatrella, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the increasing centrality assumed by non-educational consultants in the processes of policy design and knowledge production about education in Italy. We identify the recent establishment of the National School Evaluation System as a key policy trajectory and we focus on the case of the last policies to evaluate Italian…

  19. Changes in University Governance in France and in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boffo, Stefano; Dubois, Pierre; Moscati, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    The transformation of higher education systems under the pressure of new needs required by the "society of knowledge" in France and Italy has had a deep effect on the relationship between state and university, and therefore a direct impact on university governance. This article sums up the main results of a research carried out on university…

  20. 75 FR 8114 - Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ..., 2009, the Commission established a schedule for the conduct of the review (74 FR 43155, August 26, 2009... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  1. Inclusive Education in Italy: Description and Reflections on Full Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.; Di Nuovo, Santo

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of students with disabilities when appropriate is an important goal of special education for students with special needs. Full inclusion, meaning no education for any child in a separate setting, is held to be desirable by some, and Italy is likely the nation with an education system most closely approximating full inclusion on the…

  2. A Flexible School for Early Childhood Education in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design of a flexible school for childhood education in Milan, Italy. The architecture of this school takes into account children's development and the different ways they experience space according to their age. The facilities will include not only a nursery school and kindergarten, but also a drop-in day-care centre, a…

  3. The English National Curriculum Assessment System: A Commentary from Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardi, Emma

    2009-01-01

    In Italian secondary schools, it is not literature that is studied but the history of literature; it is not philosophy that is studied but the history of philosophy. Similarly, in higher education, history students even have to take an exam in the history of historiography. This is to say that in Italy, history plays a key cultural role. That is…

  4. Student Politics in Italy: From Utopia to Terrorism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statera, Gianni

    1979-01-01

    The Italian student movement's move from libertarian utopia to political terrorism is analyzed in terms of the social and economic crisis in Italy. This is characterized by the collapse of representative student institutions, the rise of dogmatism and sectarianism, and the glorification of violence as a means of social change. (JMF)

  5. The (Adverse) Effects of Expanding Higher Education: Evidence from Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppedisano, Veruska

    2011-01-01

    Over the period 1995-1998 Italy experienced an expansion of its higher education supply with the aim of reducing regional differences in educational attainment. This paper evaluates the effects of this policy on enrolment, drop out and academic performance. The paper combines differences across provinces in the number of campuses constructed with…

  6. Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

  7. World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federighi, Paolo; And Others

    Nine adult education programs being conducted in Italy are described in the case studies in this packet. The courses range from adult basic education to continuing education courses in languages and management. Most are described in connection with the area of the country in which they are offered. The following programs are profiled: (1) public…

  8. Wound botulism after traumatic open fracture in Italy.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Francesco Giuseppe; Stella, Maria Laura; Astegiano, Sara; Corcione, Silvia; Motta, Ilaria; Decastelli, Lucia; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Seventeen days after a traumatic open fracture, a Clostridium botulinum wound infection was diagnosed, with self-limiting symptoms. This is the first report of wound botulism in Italy and the authors discuss the possible role of aerosolized contamination of the wound prior to hospital admission. PMID:26397301

  9. [Migration, work flexibility and early retirement of nurses in Italy].

    PubMed

    Valenti, A; Boccuni, F; Rondinone, B M; Vonesch, N; Iavicoli, S

    2007-01-01

    Several work organizational changes have been occurring in the health sector in the last years. Workforce is rapidly changing and particularly nurses. In Italy there is a growing shortage of nurses (5,4/1000 inhabitants versus 9,26 in EU25) due mainly to early retirement and insufficient turnover of nurses coming from educational programmes. Work flexibility and facilitation of migration flow of foreigner nurses have been introduced in Italy to face the problem. The present study is aimed at investigating the impact of such a change in the nursing sector in Italy and its possible impact on occupational safety and health. In view of this, the main institutional and category Sources were used. According to IPASVI estimates, the shortage of nurses in Italy is 99,000. Out of a total of 342,000 active professional nurses, 20,000 are foreign, mainly from European countries. Nurses are specially affected by accidents at work, mainly musculoskeletal disorders. The study shows a higher vulnerability of migrated nurses and nurses hired through cooperatives. Therefore urgent measures are needed to promote their integration and assess educational and training needs in the field of health and safety at work. PMID:18409916

  10. HIV Infection among Illegal Migrants, Italy, 2004–2007

    PubMed Central

    Pezzoli, Maria Chiara; El Hamad, Issa; Scarcella, Carmelo; Vassallo, Francesco; Speziani, Fabrizio; Cristini, Graziella; Scolari, Carla; Suligoi, Barbara; Luzi, Anna Maria; Bernasconi, Daniela; Lichtner, Miriam; Manca, Nino; Carosi, Giampiero

    2009-01-01

    To determine HIV prevalence and place of exposure for illegal migrants in Italy, we tested 3,003 illegal adult migrants for HIV; 29 (0.97%) were HIV positive. Antibody avidity index results (indicators of time of infection) were available for 27 of those persons and showed that 6 (22.2%) presumably acquired their infection after migration. PMID:19891869

  11. Old diseases for new nightmares: distemper strikes back in Italy.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Alessio; Savini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the distemper outbreak that affected the population of Apennine wolves (Canis lupus) in Italy during 2013. Distemper, as rabies, is a well-known viral infectious disease that concerns the canine population worldwide and represents a threat for wild species too. Implementation of vaccination and legislation for compulsory vaccination strategies should be achieved in areas with endangered wild species. PMID:24817331

  12. SYMPOSIUM IN ITALY: FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists from Europe, North America and South America convened in Capri, Italy, April 24-28, 2006 for the Ninth International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was Eutrophication: The toxic effects of ammonia, nitrite and th...

  13. Continuing Training in Firms and Trainer Development in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Paola; Marchetti, Aldo

    In Italy, all responsibility for vocational training has been delegated to the regions. At the regional level, three types of training are available: training for work, on-the-job training, and training under special state legislation. No obligation is placed on employers to train the work force. Most worker training is informal and conducted…

  14. The "Accademia della Crusca" in Italy: Past and Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosi, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    An informal organisation that is becoming quite influential in the spread of Italian in Italy, as well as abroad, is the "Accademia della Crusca" which began its activities during the Renaissance, under quite different auspices. Founded in Florence in 1582-1583, this Academy was inspired by the theories of Pietro Bembo (1470-1547), a Venetian who…

  15. Research on inverse methods and optimization in Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larocca, Francesco

    1991-01-01

    The research activities in Italy on inverse design and optimization are reviewed. The review is focused on aerodynamic aspects in turbomachinery and wing section design. Inverse design of blade rows and ducts of turbomachinery in subsonic and transonic regime are illustrated by the Politecnico di Torino and turbomachinery industry (FIAT AVIO).

  16. Attitudes Toward the Spread of English in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulcini, Virginia

    1997-01-01

    Chronicles attitudes toward the spread of English usage in Italy during the twentieth century, focusing on the Americanization of Italian society. Finds two radically different reactions to the penetration of American culture: hostility and xenophobia during the first half of the century, and accommodation and acceptance after World War II. Also…

  17. Racism, "Race" and Ethnographic Research in Multicultural Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobbo, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts: in the first one, after mentioning episodes of violence against immigrants, the author discusses the issues of "race" and racism within the debate on immigration and diversity taking place in Italy. Pointing out a number of relevant indications and reflections that qualify such debate, she argues that the…

  18. Anisakiasis and Gastroallergic Reactions Associated with Anisakis pegreffii Infection, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Fazii, Paolo; De Rosa, Alba; Paoletti, Michela; Megna, Angelo Salomone; Glielmo, Antonio; De Angelis, Maurizio; Costa, Antonella; Meucci, Costantino; Calvaruso, Vito; Sorrentini, Italo; Palma, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Fabrizio; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Human cases of gastric anisakiasis caused by the zoonotic parasite Anisakis pegreffii are increasing in Italy. The disease is caused by ingestion of larval nematodes in lightly cooked or raw seafood. Because symptoms are vague and serodiagnosis is difficult, the disease is often misdiagnosed and cases are understimated. PMID:23621984

  19. Introducing the advanced burn life support (ABLS) course in Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Asta, F; Homsi, J; Clark, P; Buffalo, M C; Melandri, D; Carboni, A; Pinzauti, E; Graziano, A; Masellis, A; Bussolin, L; Messineo, A

    2014-05-01

    Systematic education based on internationally standardized programs is a well-established practice in Italy, especially in the emergency health care system. However, until recently, a specific program to treat burns was not available to guide emergency physicians, nurses, or volunteers acting as first responders. In 2010, two national faculty members, acting as ABA observers, and one Italian course coordinator, trained and certified in the United States, conducted a week-long training program which fully certified 10 Italian instructors. Authorized ABLS provider courses were conducted in Italy between 2010 and 2012, including one organized prior to the 20th annual meeting of the Italian Society of Burns (SIUst). In order to increase the effectiveness and diffusion of the course in Italy, changes were approved by the ABA to accommodate societal differences, including the translation of the manual into Italian. The ABA has also approved the creation and publication of a bilingual ABLS Italian website for the purpose of promoting the ABLS course in Italy. In response to high demand, a second ABLS Instructor course was organized in 2012 and has been attended by physicians and nurses from several Italian burn centers. In the following discourse the experiences of the first 15 Italian ABLS courses will be discussed. PMID:23992873

  20. Italy SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While Italy has implemented some tobacco control policies over the last few decades, which resulted in a decreased smoking prevalence, there is still considerable scope to strengthen tobacco control policies consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO) policy guidelines. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of past and project the effect of future tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality in Italy. Methods To assess, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies, we used the SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy. The model uses population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Italy. Results Significant reductions of smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tobacco price increases, high intensity media campaigns, comprehensive cessation treatment program, strong health warnings, stricter smoke-free air regulations and advertising bans, and youth access laws. With a comprehensive approach, the smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 12% soon after the policies are in place, increasing to a 30% reduction in the next twenty years and a 34% reduction by 30 years in 2040. Without effective tobacco control policies, a total of almost 300 thousand lives will be prematurely lost due to smoking by the year 2040. Conclusion Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model helps identify information gaps in surveillance and evaluation schemes that will promote the effectiveness of future tobacco control policy in Italy. PMID:22931428

  1. A preliminary attempt to determine the landslide hazard in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Determining landslide hazard at the national scale remains a difficult task. However, such a complex task needs to be accomplished to mitigate the landslide consequences, including loss of lives and economic and environmental damages. For administrative purposes, the Italian territory (303,000 km sq.) is subdivided in 20 regions that cover a large variety of natural environments, most of which are subject to landslide hazards. To determine landslide hazard in such a complex and diversified territory, the many natural and anthropogenic variables, and their variations, must be considered. In Italy, the Italian national Civil Protection Department (DPC), an office of the Prime Minister, is in charge of managing natural and human-made hazards, and the associated risk. For landslide (and flood) hazards, the DPC has subdivided the Italian territory into 134 "alert zones" (AZ), decided based on administrative and hydrological criteria. Here, we describe the results of a preliminary effort made by our research group - in the framework of a larger effort to forecast landslide hazard and risk in Italy - to describe landslide hazard in each AZ. For the purpose, we summarized in a specifically designed form the geographical, morphological, geological and landslide information available for each AZ. The form also contains general information on past landslide events and on the vulnerability to landslides of the AZ. We obtained the morphological information from the SRTM DEM with a grid resolution of 90 m × 90 m, and the geological and lithological information from the Geological Map of Italy, at the 1:500,000 scale, published by the Italian Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA). We used the morphological (terrain elevation and terrain gradient) and the lithological information to subdivide the Italian territory in three main morphological domains (plains, hills and mountains), and we computed the proportion of the three domains in each AZ. We

  2. Structure analysis of an Aspergillus flavus kernels population in North Italy. First analysis of an Aspergillus flavus kernels population based on vegetative compatibility groups in Northern Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to gain insight into the causal agents of aflatoxin contamination of maize in Italy, populations of Aspergillus flavus on maize produced in the most affected area were characterized. Forty-six percent of A. flavus, isolated from maize kernels collected in 5 districts of northern Italy betwe...

  3. Como Lo Hago Yo: Mielomeningocele En Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Villavicencio, Ramiro; Quevedo, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Las malformaciones del tubo neural (MTN) representan la segunda causa más frecuente de anomalías congénitas, luego de las cardiopatías. En este grupo se destaca el mielomeningocele (MMC) por su mayor incidencia, y por ser la más incapacitante y la más compleja entre todas las demás malformaciones del sistema nervioso c`entral (SNC). En Bolivia, como en muchos países de Sudamérica, los bajos niveles socio-culturales y la debilidad en el sistema sanitario, hacen que su incidencia y su morbilidad, sean mayores que en las naciones más desarrolladas. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 70 casos de MMC, atendidos por un equipo multidisciplinario en el Hospital Universitario Japonés (HUJ) de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, entre 2008-2011. De ellos, 60 fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Resultados: Se realizaron controles prenatales sólo en 27 mujeres (38.6%), diagnosticándose una disrafia espinal en apenas dos casos (7.4%). La edad de ingreso del MMC en su mayoría fue después de las 24 horas (65.6%), predominando su localización en la región lumbosacra (64.3%). De ellos, 67.2% eran abiertos, presentando un 32.9% un daño neurológico motor parcial mientras que 47.1% tenían paraplejia por debajo de la lesión. De los 70 casos, tres (4.3%) no fueron intervenidos, por presentar defectos congénitos severos o estado general grave. Las principales complicaciones posoperatorias inmediatas fueron: dehiscencia de sutura y/o infección de la herida (16.6%), fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) (10%) e infección del SNC (11.7%). La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue de 7.1% y 3.3%, respectivamente. Al mes de vida presentaban hidrocefalia un 80% de los pacientes operados, colocándose una derivación ventriculoperitoneal (DVP) de presión media. De 9 pacientes que tuvieron un acompanamiento de dos o más años, seis presentaron una médula anclada, que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente. Conclusi

  4. Man-induced low-frequency seismic events in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latorre, Diana; Amato, Alessandro; Cattaneo, Marco; Carannante, Simona; Michelini, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional seismic events in Italy are detected by scanning three years of continuous waveforms recorded by the Italian National Seismic Network. Cross correlation of signal templates with continuous seismic records has evidenced unusual events with similar low-frequency characteristics in several Italian regions. Spectral analysis and spatiotemporal distribution of these events, some of which are previously interpreted as tectonic long-period transients, suggest that they are not natural, but produced by huge cement factories. Since there are at least 57 full-cycle cement plants operating in Italy, each affecting areas of about 1250 to 2800 km2, we argue that significant portions of the Italian territory (23% to 51%) can be affected by this man-made noise. Seismic noise analyses, such as those used for microzonation or crustal structure investigations, as well as data mining techniques used to retrieve anomalous transient signals, should thus take into account this peculiar and pervasive source of seismic waves.

  5. [The Cagliari (Italy) Court authorizes the preimplantation genetic diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Jorqui Azofra, María

    2007-01-01

    Today, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has been greatly accepted within the framework of positive law of many European countries. Nevertheless, in other countries, such as Italy, it is forbidden by law. The ruling of the Civil Court of Cagliari which has authorized its use to a Sardinian couple, has opened, in this way, a small crack to be able to asses possible modifications to the Italian regulation on this matter. This article analyses the ruling of the Civil Court of Cagliari (Italy) from an ethical and legal perspective. The criteria which is used to analyse the legitimacy or illegitimacy of the practice of PGD is analysed. That is, on reasons which could justify or not the transfer of embryos in vitro to the woman. With this objective in mind, the Italian and Spanish normative models which regulates this controversial subject are looked at. As a conclusion, a critical evaluation of the arguments presented is made. PMID:18330104

  6. Sustainability of pasta production under future climate in Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Marta, Anna; Baldi, Ada; Orlandini, Simone; Calanca, Pierluigi; Altobelli, Filiberto

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the impact of future climate on pasta green water footprint (WF) was assessed. The model DSSAT CERES-Wheat was applied to simulate the production of rainfed winter durum wheat in Val d'Orcia (Central Italy), which provides the raw material for making traditional Italian pasta. The model was calibrated and validated for a 15-years period and used to estimate wheat yield and grain green WF. Further, the processing of grain for pasta making was analysed and taken into account for the calculation of the WF of final product. Then, the model was applied on future climate scenarios created with the stochastic generator LARS-WG, starting from a set of ENSEMBLES scenarios. The trend of wheat WF was analysed and the sustainability of the production of pasta in Central Italy was investigated and discussed.

  7. Female genital cutting: a survey among healthcare professionals in Italy.

    PubMed

    Surico, D; Amadori, R; Gastaldo, L B; Tinelli, R; Surico, N

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate the knowledge of female genital cutting (FGC) in a tertiary teaching hospital in Italy. A survey questionnaire on FGC was given to paediatricians, nurses, midwives, gynaecologists and residents in paediatrics and gynaecology in a tertiary teaching hospital in Italy. The results of the survey were then analysed. The results showed that 71.5% (73/102) of healthcare professionals dealt with patients presenting with FGC. Gynaecologists (83%) and paediatric nurses (75%) were the only ones who declared to be aware of Italian law on FGC. In detail, 55% of midwives, 50% of paediatricians, 50% of paediatrician residents and 28.5% of gynaecological residents were aware of this law. The general knowledge of Italian National Guidelines on FGC is even worse: most professionals are not aware of protocols of action. Considering the increasing extension of FGC due to immigration, improvement of care through specialised education of healthcare providers is mandatory. PMID:25265525

  8. A review of recent studies of goitre in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Aurelio; Mortara, Marcello

    1960-01-01

    The prevalence and distribution of both epidemic and endemic goitre in Italy since 1940 are reviewed and the main results of recent research into these two forms of the disease are specified. A number of epidemic outbreaks occurred between 1940 and 1948, all originally in areas of endemic goitre but sometimes spreading to localities from which endemic goitre had practically disappeared. Both persons long resident in these areas and new arrivals were affected, as were domestic animals. Acute goitres showed the same histological features as in the endemic form of the disease. Extrathyroid symptoms were sometimes noted. Studies of endemic goitre have failed to show any clear indication that lack of iodine is responsible for the condition. Epidemiologically, endemic goitre, which remains a predominantly rural disease, seems to be shifting gradually from northern to southern Italy. PMID:13849448

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Donkeys (Equus asinus) in Italy

    PubMed Central

    MACHACOVA, Tereza; BARTOVA, Eva; DI LORIA, Antonio; SEDLAK, Kamil; MARIANI, Ugo; FUSCO, Giovanna; FULGIONE, Domenico; VENEZIANO, Vincenzo; DUBEY, Jitender P.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Toxoplasmosis, an important zoonosis, can be transmitted by eating meat or drinking milk of animals infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Samples were collected from 238 donkeys in the year 2010 in Italy, which included 207 females and 31 males of five breeds and crossbreeds with the average age 9 years (1 month−24 years). Sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a latex agglutination test and the indirect fluorescent antibody test; 5 and 8% seropositivity were recorded, respectively. We found significant correlation between the presence of T. gondii antibodies and sex, age, grazing and presence of cats on the farms and their access to donkey feed. This is the first detection of T. gondii antibodies in donkeys in Italy. PMID:24107428

  10. Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In Italy, malaria was an endemic disease that was eradicated by the mid-20th century. This paper evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic remedies used by folk medicine to cure malaria in Calabria (southern Italy). The data has been collected by analysing works of physicians, ethnographers, folklorists and specialists of the study of Calabrian history between the end of the 19th century and the 20th century. The data collected have allowed us to describe the most common cures used by the Calabrian people to treat malaria and the most evident symptoms of this disease, such as intermittent fever, hepato-spleenomegaly, asthenia and dropsy. This approach uncovered a heterogeneous corpus of empirical, magical and religious remedies, which the authors have investigated as evidences of past "expert medicine" and to verify their real effectiveness in the treatment of malaria. PMID:20849654

  11. Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Tagarelli, Antonio; Piro, Anna

    2010-01-01

    In Italy, malaria was an endemic disease that was eradicated by the mid-20th century. This paper evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic remedies used by folk medicine to cure malaria in Calabria (southern Italy).The data has been collected by analysing works of physicians, ethnographers, folklorists and specialists of the study of Calabrian history between the end of the 19th century and the 20th century. The data collected have allowed us to describe the most common cures used by the Calabrian people to treat malaria and the most evident symptoms of this disease, such as intermittent fever, hepato-spleenomegaly, asthenia and dropsy. This approach uncovered a heterogeneous corpus of empirical, magical and religious remedies, which the authors have investigated as evidences of past "expert medicine" and to verify their real effectiveness in the treatment of malaria. PMID:20849654

  12. Embryo research in Italy: the bioethical and biojuridical debate.

    PubMed

    Palazzani, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the discussion on the status of the human embryo in Italy on a philosophical, socio-ethical and juridical level before, during and after the law (n. 40/2004). Different lines of thought are outlined and critically discussed. The focus is the debate over the so-called embryonic stem cells, pointing out the ethical premises and the juridical implications. The regulations in Italy are analysed in detail, referring to legislation and jurisprudence (showing analogies and differences). In particular the author includes evidence for the debate after the law came in, with specific attention on the question of the use of imported embryonic stem cells and public financing for research and the problem of the use of frozen and non-implantable embryos. PMID:23350215

  13. The fabbrica della penicillina in postwar Italy: an institutionalist approach.

    PubMed

    Taroni, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the motives and long-term effects of the momentous decision to build a world-class biomedical research laboratory, the International Center for Chemical Microbiology, at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità in Rome, rather than develop domestic production of penicillin to meet the needs of a destitute postwar Italy. An institutionalist approach will provide a richer vision of the intersections of scientific and national political history in postwar Italy and the Cold War. The Center failed in its modernising mission due to an insular mentality producing an 'enclosure effect' against the State, the healthcare system and the pharmaceutical industry. The absence of a scientific base together with an economic policy of 'liberal protectionism' that placed premiums on import tariffs and the licensing of foreign products explains the path dependency of the pharmaceutical industry during the postwar years and its demise in the 1960s. PMID:26054217

  14. Trends in phenology of grapevine in North-Eastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitacco, Andrea; Meggio, Franco; Fila, Gianni

    2010-05-01

    Plants are sensitive indicators of climate change and the analysis of shifts in phenological records may help in confirming trends not easily detected by instrumental observations alone. We have analyzed a detailed phenological database for grapevine, using observations collected from 1986 to 2008 in two sites of North-Eastern Italy, on the cultivars Prosecco, Chardonnay, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. Parameters of models for winter dormancy, vegetative growth, and ripening phases have been fitted and validated on a subset, yielding a consistent estimate of chilling and heat requirements. A significant shift of flowering, veraison and harvest dates were observed, reaching almost -1 day per year in the warmer site for the earlier cultivars. While traditional breeding programs have been so far seeking for early ripening capacity, the trends we detected show the close risk of a negative impact of climate change on enological characteristics of grapes even in Northern Italy and the opportunity to look for late-ripening types.

  15. First survey of endoparasites in pet ferrets in Italy.

    PubMed

    d'Ovidio, D; Pepe, P; Ianniello, D; Noviello, E; Quinton, Jean-Francois; Cringoli, G; Rinaldi, L

    2014-06-16

    Endoparasites are infrequently reported in ferrets. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in pet ferrets in southern Italy. Fresh fecal samples were randomly collected from 50 ferrets housed in pet shops or privately owned. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to identify and count helminthic eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts/oocysts. In addition, the samples were analyzed also by the Remel XpectGiardia/Cryptosporidium immunoassay. Intestinal parasites were detected in 15 out of 50 ferrets (30%). Eggs of ancylostomids were found in 28.0% (14/50) of the animals and oocysts of Sarcocystis were detected in one ferret (2.0%). None of the samples was positive for Cryptosporidium or Giardia. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of sarcosporidiosis in a pet ferret in Italy. PMID:24768317

  16. Patterns of Y-STR variation in Italy.

    PubMed

    Brisighelli, F; Blanco-Verea, A; Boschi, I; Garagnani, P; Pascali, V L; Carracedo, A; Capelli, C; Salas, A

    2012-12-01

    The 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) included in the AmpFlSTR Yfiler Amplification Kit (AB Applied Biosystems) (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and GATA H4.1) were typed in 292 samples from seven Italian regions. Population comparisons with other European samples were undertaken; for this purpose, two databases were collated from the literature: (a) 19 population samples including >2900 Yfiler profiles, and (b) 67 population samples including >15,000 minimum haplotype profiles. A total of 276 different Yfiler haplotypes were observed in Italy, and only one of them was shared among our seven population samples. The overall haplotype diversity (0.9996) was comparable to other European samples. AMOVA indicates that among population variance depends on the amount of Y-STRs used, being higher when using minimal haplotypes. This is probably due to the fact that Yfiler profiles are represented by singleton haplotypes in all the population samples raising the diversity values to the maximum theoretical value. AMOVA results seems to depend even more strongly on the amount of population samples used, the among population variance in Italy ranging from 2.82% to 11.03% (using 15 and 32 Italian populations samples, respectively). Variance is not as strongly stratified geographically within Italy, although it is notorious that latitude is more important than longitude in the distribution of variance. The results also indicated that Italy is less stratified than other European samples. The present study contributes to enrich the Y-chromosome databases regarding high-resolution Y-chromosome data sets and demonstrates that extended Y-STR profiles substantially increases the discriminatory capacity in individual identification for forensic purposes. PMID:22487686

  17. [Knowledge of oral hygiene amongst adolescents in Lombardy, Italy].

    PubMed

    Camoni, Nicole; Arpesella, Marisa; Cutti, Sara; Livieri, Monica; Lanati, Niccolò; Tenconi, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated oral hygiene knowledge among a group of 12-year-old students in Lombardy, Italy (n=182). Two different questionnaires were administered, respectively to adolescents and to their parents. Results indicate a low level of general knowledge on this topic. Factors influencing knowledge include the number of learning sources and yearly access to a dental clinic. The described situation highlights the need to implement school-based educational interventions. PMID:26722825

  18. [Planning a Health Residence for Prison Security Measures, Tuscany (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Porfido, Eugenio; Colombai, Renato; Scarpa, Franco; Totaro, Michele; Tani, Luca; Baldini, Claudio; Baggiani, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Health Residences for Prison Security Measures are facilities hosting psychotic persons who have committed crimes and providing them with personalized rehabilitation and treatment plans to promote their reinstatement in society. The aim of this study was to describe the criteria for planning and designing a prison health residence in the Tuscany region (Italy), to be managed by the regional healthcare service, in line with current regulations, with dedicated staff for providing specific treatment plans and programmes. PMID:27510291

  19. The Olympus satellite and satellite direct broadcasting in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, E.; Tirro, S.

    Plans for the development of DBS-TV technology in Italy are discussed from the perspective of the Italian electronics industry, with an emphasis on experimental broadcasts using the Olympus satellite channel assigned to Italy by ESA. Consideration is given to the operating characteristics of PAL, MAC-C, MAC-D2, extended-MAC, and MUSE color-TV systems and their compatibility with DBS; the planned availability of TV channels on Olympus-type and Italsat-type satellites; individual, community, and CATV reception of DBS signals; the projected growth of the DBS audience in Italy, the UK, and the FRG by 1999; and the potential Italian market for satellite receivers and antennas. The need for prompt completion and evaluation of the Olympus experiments and antennas. The need for prompt completion and evaluation of the Olympus experiments (beginning in 1987) and selection of the systems to be implemented, so that the industry can supply the home equipment required on time, is stressed. Tables of numerical data and maps of the Olympus coverage areas are provided.

  20. Intestinal toxemia botulism in Italy, 1984-2005.

    PubMed

    Fenicia, L; Anniballi, F; Aureli, P

    2007-06-01

    Botulism in humans is caused by botulinum neurotoxins, produced in most cases by Clostridium botulinum, although other Clostridia species are implicated as well. Of the five forms of botulism in humans, three are referred to as "infective": wound botulism, infant botulism, and adult intestinal botulism; the latter two forms are also referred to as "intestinal toxemia botulism" because the organism colonizes the lumen of the intestinal tract and produces botulinum neurotoxin in vivo. Twenty-three cases of infant botulism and three cases of adult intestinal botulism occurred in Italy between 1984 and 2005. Microbiological analyses of clinical, environmental, and food samples and analysis of clinical and epidemiological data revealed two main characteristics of intestinal toxemia botulism in Italy that are not common in cases in other countries: the isolation of a strain of C. butyricum that produced botulinum neurotoxin type E in 6 of 26 cases, including two cases of adult intestinal toxemia botulism, and the onset of botulism in these cases with concomitant severe gastrointestinal symptomatology. This report summarizes the microbiological, clinical, and epidemiological data of all cases of intestinal toxemia botulism that have occurred in Italy in the period 1984-2005. PMID:17516104

  1. Medicine and hagiography in Italy c. 800-c. 1000.

    PubMed

    Pilsworth, C

    2000-08-01

    A vast range of sources, from chronicles, hagiography and the liturgy to medical manuscripts and charters, is at our disposal for the study of health and healing in Italy between the ninth and eleventh centuries. What is needed in order to exploit this material is a methodology for the careful examination of sources in their regional, social and political context. I focus on what hagiography can contribute to the study of medicine and disease, discussing in detail two ninth-century episcopal hagiographies, the Milanese second Vita Ambrosii, and the Vita Barbati from Benevento in southern Italy. At the same time, however, I stress the limitations of studying texts in isolation, given that one region, city, or community could be simultaneously producing a number of different kinds of evidence, with possibly more than one view of sickness and healing. There is great potential for medical history in further investigation of the archaeological, liturgical, and charter evidence from early medieval Italy. The study of all surviving manuscripts from this period, not just medical words, can provide a bridge between the detailed examination of a particular text and a discussion of the wider literary and cultural traditions into which they fitted. PMID:14535255

  2. Patient and citizen participation in health care decisions in Italy.

    PubMed

    Goss, Claudia; Renzi, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing recognition in Western healthcare systems of the importance of considering preferences of patients and the public in tailoring health services and treatment plans. The active collaboration between doctor and patient has recently been encouraged through the shared decision-making model. Aim of the present contribution is to describe the current state of patient and public participation in healthcare in Italy. First, we will briefly outline the organization of the Italian National Health Service; second, we will describe the governmental and institutional initiatives regarding participation; third, some examples of associations and initiatives promoting patient participation will be provided; forth, we will report on research projects on patient participation published in peer-reviewed journals; and finally, we will provide some examples on training activities promoting patient participation. The Italian National Health Plan and many regional and local health authorities in Italy explicitly recognize the importance of patient/citizen participation in healthcare decisions at the macro, meso and micro level of decision-making. However, application of a shared model is still at an early stage in Italy. The reported experiences have yielded positive results and have shown that particular attention should be dedicated to more disadvantaged subgroups of the population, involving patient organisations, enhancing patient/citizen knowledge and adopting approaches that take the specific context into account. PMID:17601178

  3. 15. Como gatehouse (outlet tower) and access bridge, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Como gatehouse (outlet tower) and access bridge, looking west from dam crest (Trash rack visible in reservoir pool behind and right of tower) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Como Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  4. Managing induced riverbank filtration (IRF) at the Serchio River well field, Tuscany, Italy (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Ansiati, Alberto; Barbagli, Alessio; Borsi, Iacopo; Costabile, Gennarino; Dietrich, Peter; Mazzanti, Giorgio; Picciaia, Daniele; Bonari, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Along the Serchio River (Tuscany -Italy) a series of well fields is set for an overall amount of about 1 m3/s pumped groundwater providing drinking water for about 300000 people of the coastal Tuscany (mainly to the town of Lucca, Pisa and Livorno). Water is pumped enhancing riverbank filtration into a high yield (10-2 m2/s transmissivity) sand and gravel aquifer by artificially rising river head and setting pumping well fields along the river reach. However, being it unmanaged aquifer recharge, concerns arise both for quality and quantity of the abstracted groundwater. It happens in dry climate extremes (i.e. 2002/2003 or 2011/2012) that Serchio River flow falls below minimum environmental flow (MEF). Long term contamination of river water had been causing contamination of groundwater, as in 2002/2006, when pesticide contaminated surface water was polluting the well fields causing several problems to water supply. Such problems were overcome by setting in place derogatory regulations and then through dissemination and stakeholder activities reducing pesticide presence in surface water (EU LIFE SERIAL WELLFIR project). Although widely adopted, IRF is also not well stated from a regulatory point of view, eventually leading to concerns by a legal point of view. Within the framework of the MARSOL FPVII-ENV-2013 project an experimental site at a well field will be set to demonstrate the feasibility (by a technical, social and market point of view) and the benefits of managing IRF versus the unmanaged option. The Serchio experimental site will involve merging existing and proved technologies to produce a Decision Support System (DSS) based on remote data acquisition and transmission and GIS physically-based fully distributed numerical modeling to continuously monitor and manage well fields, reducing also human operated activities. The DSS along with the installed sensors, data transmission and storage tools will constitute a prototype whose potential market exploitation

  5. Hepatitis E Virus Circulation in Italy: Phylogenetic and Evolutionary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Montesano, Carla; Giovanetti, Marta; Ciotti, Marco; Cella, Eleonora; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Grifoni, Alba; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Angeletti, Silvia; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a major cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries, has been classified into four main genotypes and a number of subtypes. New genotypes have been recently identified in various mammals, including HEV genotype 3, which has a worldwide distribution. It is widespread among pigs in developed countries. Objectives This study investigated the genetic diversity of HEV among humans and swine in Italy. The date of origin and the demographic history of the HEV were also estimated. Materials and Methods A total of 327 HEV sequences of swine and humans from Italy were downloaded from the national centre for biotechnology information. Three different data sets were constructed. The first and the second data set were used to confirm the genotype of the sequences analyzed. The third data set was used to estimate the mean evolutionary rate and to determine the time-scaled phylogeny and demographic history. Results The Bayesian maximum clade credibility tree and the time of the most common recent ancestor estimates showed that the root of the tree dated back to the year 1907 (95% HPD: 1811 - 1975). Two main clades were found, divided into two subclades. Skyline plot analysis, performed separately for human and swine sequences, demonstrated the presence of a bottleneck only in the skyline plot from the swine sequences. Selective pressure analysis revealed only negatively selected sites. Conclusions This study provides support for the hypothesis that humans are probably infected after contact with swine sources. The findings emphasize the importance of checking the country of origin of swine and of improving sanitary control measures from the veterinary standpoint to prevent the spread of HEV infection in Italy. PMID:27226798

  6. PREFACE: XIV Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.

    2014-07-01

    This volume contains the invited and contributed papers presented at the 14th Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy held in Cortona, Italy, from 29-31 October, 2013. The meeting was held at the Palazzone, an elegant Renaissance Villa, commissioned by the Cardinal Silvio Passerini (1469-1529), Bishop of Cortona, and presently owned by the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. The aim of this biennial Conference is to bring together Italian theorists working in various fields of nuclear physics to discuss their latest results and confront their points of view in a lively and informal way. This offers the opportunity to stimulate new ideas and promote collaborations between different research groups. The Conference was attended by 46 participants, coming from 13 Italian Universities and 11 Laboratories and Sezioni of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - INFN. The program of the conference, prepared by the Organizing Committee (Ignazio Bombaci, Aldo Covello, Laura Elisa Marcucci and Sergio Rosati) focused on the following main topics: Few-Nucleon Systems Nuclear Structure Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions and Quark-Gluon Plasma Nuclear Astrophysics Nuclear Physics with Electroweak Probes Structure of Hadrons and Hadronic Matter. In the last session of the Conference there were two invited review talks related to experimental activities of great current interest. Giacomo De Angelis from the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro spoke about the INFN SPES radioactive ion beam project. Sara Pirrone, INFN Sezione di Catania, gave a talk on the symmetry energy and isospin physics with the CHIMERA detector. Finally, Mauro Taiuti (Università di Genova), National Coordinator of the INFN-CSN3 (Nuclear Physics Experiments), reported on the present status and future challenges of experimental nuclear physics in Italy. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of INFN who helped make the conference possible. I Bombaci, A Covello

  7. Human exposure to piroplasms in Central and Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Simona; Calderini, Pietro; Cassini, Rudi; Galuppi, Roberta; Tampieri, Maria Paola; Pietrobelli, Mario; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    TA serosurvey has been conducted in Northern and Central Italy to investigate the presence in humans of antibodies against zoonotic Babesia and Theileria species. The study focused on a total of 432 volunteers, of which 290 were persistently exposed to tick bites because of their jobs (forester employees, livestock keepers, veterinary practitioners, farmers and hunters) and 142 resident in the same area less frequently exposed. An indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for humans was used to detect antibodies to Babesia microti, IFAT tests for veterinary use were modified to detect reactivity to Babesia bovis, Babesia canis and Theileria equi. A laboratory-derived ELISA was employed to detect antibodies to Babesia divergens. Both reactive and 10 negative sera were analysed against plasmodial antigens to evaluate possible aspecificity. A high reactivity to piroplasm antigens was found, showing significant difference between the sera of the two groups of volunteers (24% vs 7.%; p<0.001). No cross-reactivity was observed, while each professional group showed reactivity that would fit with the professional risk exposure. In particular, a high reactivity to B. microti and B. divergens antigens was observed in foresters and hunters (32% and 12%, respectively). This is the first report on the human seroreactivity to piroplasms in Italy; it also provides additional epidemiological information on these tick-borne zoonoses in Europe. Our findings suggest the possible occurrence of piroplasm infections in Italy and alert physicians to consider these otherwise neglected parasitic diseases when dealing with any febrile illness, especially in subjects exposed to tick bites. PMID:24715592

  8. Eucoleus boehmi infection in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Italy.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Fabrizia; Morganti, Giulia; di Cesare, Angela; Lepri, Elvio; Cassini, Rudi; Zanet, Stefania; Deni, Dario; Chiari, Mario; Ferroglio, Ezio

    2014-12-15

    In the last decade an increase of the number of red foxes in anthropized habitats across European countries, including Italy, has been observed. This pones implications in terms of disease transmission between wildlife and domestic animals; in fact, there are evidences of the role of foxes as reservoirs and amplifiers of a broad spectrum of parasites infecting pets. The present study evaluated the prevalence of Eucoleus boehmi, an emerging extra-intestinal nematodes of the Capillariinae subfamily, in red foxes. The nasal passages and sinuses of 179 red foxes culled from several areas of northern and central Italy were inspected and the mucosal surfaces were scrapped and examined for adult nematodes and eggs, microscopically and genetically identified. Overall 55 foxes (30.7%) were found to be infected with E. boehmi, i.e. 27 on inspection of the nasal passages and sinuses and 28 on mucosal flush and scraping. The occurrence of E. boehmi was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated to the sampling location, the age and gender of the animals examined; the higher rates of prevalence were observed in animals culled in Piedmont (43.3%) and in female (60.6%) and adult (38.1%) subjects. A total of 184 adult parasites were recovered, with a mean intensity of infection of 3.34, and a more frequent localization of E. boehmi in the nasal passages rather than in the sinuses. A significant (p < 0.05) relationship was found between the parasite burden and body condition and age of the animals; the intensity of infection was significantly higher in juveniles (mean: 6.3 specimens) and in animals showing poor fox body condition (mean: 7.8 specimens). These results show that E. boehmi is highly prevalent in the red fox populations of certain areas of Italy. Epidemiological implications are discussed, with a special focus on the role that this wild canid may have in the increasing transmission of nasal eucoleosis to domestic dogs. PMID:25458564

  9. Attributable risks for stomach cancer in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, C; D'Avanzo, B; Negri, E; Decarli, A; Benichou, J

    1995-03-16

    The proportions of gastric cancer cases attributable (or attributable risks, AR) to consumption of traditional foods (i.e., pasta, rice and maize), low intake of beta-carotene and vitamin C, short duration of use of an electric refrigerator, low educational level, and family history of gastric cancer were computed using data from a case-control study conducted in Northern Italy. Between 1985 and June 1993 a total of 746 incident, histologically confirmed gastric cancer cases and 2,053 controls admitted to the same network of hospitals for acute, nonneoplastic, non-digestive-tract diseases, unrelated to long-term modifications of diet, were interviewed. The ARs were 48% for low intake of beta-carotene, 40% for high consumption of traditional foods, and 16% for low intake of vitamin C. Overall, these 3 dietary factors explained 73% of the gastric cancer cases in the population. Five percent of all cases were attributable to less than 30 years' use of an electric refrigerator, 15% to low educational level, and 5% to family history of gastric cancer. In individuals over age 60, a greater proportion of cases was attributable to traditional foods, low education and late adoption of electric refrigeration (58% vs. 32% aged under 60), suggesting that correlates of lower social class, influenced lifestyle, and dietary habits more markedly in earlier than in more recent generations. According to our estimates, over 3 quarters of the gastric cancer cases in this area are explainable in terms of the risk factors considered. Increased consumption of vitamin C and beta-carotene, and reduced consumption of traditional foods, would help to avoid over 10,000 out of 14,000 stomach-cancer deaths in Italy every year. Consequently, stomach cancer, which is still the third leading cause of cancer death in Italy, would represent only about 2% of all cancer deaths. PMID:7896439

  10. Productivity improvement by frontier horizontal drilling in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Schenato, A.

    1995-12-31

    Italian domestic activity on horizontal wells has been specially addressed to carbonate reservoir and specifically targeted to re-entry in existing wells. The speech will focus on the specific experience matured in frontier applications in Italy, from 1989 with the short radius drain holes in Sicily, throughout world record deep water short radius in the southern part of Adriatic sea and depth world record medium radius in a HP/HT reservoir in the Po Valley. Production results will be reported as well as the achieved technological aspects.

  11. Sonar investigations in the Laghi di Monticchio (Mt. Vúlture, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Ralph B.

    Sonar profiles across the Lago Grande and Lago Piccolo di Monticchio (two lakes in southern Italy, 20 km S of Melfi) were recorded to get knowledge on the lake basins an their surface prior coring. The combination of echo-graph data with digital landscape modelling was suitable for the detection and interpretation of complex structures of the lake bottom. The interpretation of the model shows the distortion of an old continuous sedimentation by younger tectonic events. The presence of terraces above and below the present-day lake level are interpreted as response to paleoclimatic fluctuations and human activities.

  12. Historical hydrology and database on flood events (Apulia, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonigro, Teresa; Basso, Alessia; Gentile, Francesco; Polemio, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    Historical data about floods represent an important tool for the comprehension of the hydrological processes, the estimation of hazard scenarios as a basis for Civil Protection purposes, as a basis of the rational land use management, especially in karstic areas, where time series of river flows are not available and the river drainage is rare. The research shows the importance of the improvement of existing flood database with an historical approach, finalized to collect past or historical floods event, in order to better assess the occurrence trend of floods, in the case for the Apulian region (south Italy). The main source of records of flood events for Apulia was the AVI (the acronym means Italian damaged areas) database, an existing Italian database that collects data concerning damaging floods from 1918 to 1996. The database was expanded consulting newspapers, publications, and technical reports from 1996 to 2006. In order to expand the temporal range further data were collected searching in the archives of regional libraries. About 700 useful news from 17 different local newspapers were found from 1876 to 1951. From a critical analysis of the 700 news collected since 1876 to 1952 only 437 were useful for the implementation of the Apulia database. The screening of these news showed the occurrence of about 122 flood events in the entire region. The district of Bari, the regional main town, represents the area in which the great number of events occurred; the historical analysis confirms this area as flood-prone. There is an overlapping period (from 1918 to 1952) between old AVI database and new historical dataset obtained by newspapers. With regard to this period, the historical research has highlighted new flood events not reported in the existing AVI database and it also allowed to add more details to the events already recorded. This study shows that the database is a dynamic instrument, which allows a continuous implementation of data, even in real time

  13. Occupational Medicine and Hygiene: applied research in Italy.

    PubMed

    Copello, F; Garbarino, S; Messineo, A; Campagna, M; Durando, P

    2015-01-01

    The goal of Occupational Medicine and Hygiene is that of ensuring safety, health and well-being at workplaces, mainly assessing and preventing existing occupational risks. Scientific research in this field can provide useful arguments and further evidence upon which effective, efficient and sustainable policies and preventive measures have to be chosen and applied by the occupational physician in work-life. This paper summarizes four original studies, conducted in different professional settings across Italy, focusing on critical items, such as stress and violence, biological risks and sleep hygiene. The knowledge obtained can be useful to orientate proper preventive programs aimed at improving workplace health. PMID:26789987

  14. Lead contamination in the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Tirelli, E.; Maestrini, N.; Govoni, S.; Catelli, E.

    1996-05-01

    The main cause of lead poisoning in waterfowl is due to ingestion of spent lead shot in areas of high hunting pressure . Italian literature on this subject is very scarce and the few available studies concern episodic cases. to contribute to the assessment of the impact of lead shot in waterfowl in Italy, systematic research has been carried out on shorebirds caught for ringing in Tiscany and are continuing on dabbling and diving ducks by checking the presence of lead in blood samples and lead shot in the gizzard. This study targets the mallard duck. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. A study of personal income distributions in Australia and Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Anand; Yakovenko, Victor

    2006-03-01

    The study of income distribution has a long history. A century ago, the Italian physicist and economist Pareto proposed that income distribution obeys a universal power law, valid for all time and countries. Subsequent studies proved that only the top 1-3% of the population follow a power law. For USA, the rest 97-99% of the population follow the exponential distribution [1]. We present the results of a similar study for Australia and Italy. [1] A. C. Silva and V. M. Yakovenko, Europhys. Lett.69, 304 (2005).

  16. The Vegetarian Habit in Italy: Prevalence and Characteristics of Consumers.

    PubMed

    Ponzio, Elisa; Mazzarini, Giorgia; Gasperi, Gaia; Bottoni, Maria Chiara; Vallorani, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Many individuals around the world follow vegetarian diet. The aim of this study was to examine the variables associated to a vegetarian diet. Data were drawn from the national cross-sectional survey "Health and use of health care in Italy". Vegetarian habit was prevalent in 0.79% of sample, mainly females. Multivariate model has confirmed the association between vegetarianism and females, age, level of education, marital status separated/divorced/single, diabetes, bad state of perceived health. Little to no research has been conducted in this area until now. As for all types of diet, the vegetarian one should be controlled. PMID:25706105

  17. Reform and Reaction: Creating New Education and Training Structures in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polesel, John

    2006-01-01

    Despite concerns regarding Italy's high levels of early school-leaving, regional differences in educational outcomes and persistent inequalities, efforts to reform the country's complex system of senior secondary schooling have been repeatedly frustrated. Regarded by the left as contributing to the reproduction of social inequalities, Italy's…

  18. Inclusionary Education in Italy: A Literature Review and Call for More Empirical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeny, John C.; Martens, Brian K.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1970s, Italy has had a national policy of integrating nearly all students with disabilities into the general education classroom. As a result, many advocates of inclusion in the United States have identified Italy as an excellent example of how wide-range inclusion can be accomplished. However, some U.S. and Italian educators have…

  19. Higher Education and Employment: The Changing Relationship. Recent Developments in Continuing Professional Education. Country Study: Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avveduto, Sveva; Moscati, Roberto

    This report, one of a series of country studies on higher education and employment particularly in continuing professional education, looks at recent developments in Italy. Following an introduction which offers basic data on higher education in Italy, Chapter I reviews the current challenges and demands facing the Italian system, in particular in…

  20. Myth and Reality: A Response to Lynn on the Determinants of Italy's North-South Imbalances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felice, Emanuele; Giugliano, Ferdinando

    2011-01-01

    In his article "In Italy, North-South differences in IQ predict differences in income, education, infant mortality, stature, and literacy," Richard Lynn claims to have found the reason causing the divergence between the Northern and the Southern regions of Italy. This article identifies the four main hypotheses formulated in his paper and presents…

  1. 76 FR 54207 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Italy: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ..., Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 76 FR 50495 (August 15, 2011) (ITC Final). Therefore, pursuant... (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 30777 (June 2, 2010) (Initiation). Pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act... antidumping duty orders on SSPC from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan pursuant to section...

  2. 77 FR 47816 - Certain Pasta from Italy: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Certain Pasta From Italy, 61 FR 38547 (July 24, 1996). \\2\\ See... and Revocation in Part: Certain Pasta from Italy, 66 FR 65889 (December 21, 2001). On July 18, 2012..., 74 FR 41120 (August 14, 2009). The merchandise subject to this order is currently classifiable...

  3. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... group response to its notice of institution (75 FR 30437, June 1, 2010) was adequate and that the... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... Korea and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy,...

  4. Discourses of Merit. The Hot Potato of Teacher Evaluation in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barzanò, Giovanna; Grimaldi, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    Italy is well known for its difficulty in introducing any educational evaluation system. This paper explores the dynamics which occurred in Italy in 2010-2011, within the context of the umpteenth national pilot of school and staff evaluation. Our research object is an unfinished project, observed in its development. We get close to the struggles…

  5. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for information is... France, Germany, and Italy (52 FR 6995; Italy amended at 52 FR 11299 (April 8, 1987)). On August 12, 1988, Commerce issued an antidumping duty order on imports of brass sheet and strip from Japan (53 FR...

  6. Bambini: Early Care in Education in Pistoia, Italy, A Child-Friendly City. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Gandini, Lella; Peon-Casanova, Luis; Danielson, Jim

    Noting that Maria Montessori pioneered early childhood education (ECE) reform in Italy, and the surge in innovation in ECE after WWII, this videotape describes the early childhood system in the city of Pistoia, Italy, known for its high-quality and innovative services. The 30-minute video offers footage from 2 of the 9 full-day infant toddler…

  7. How to predict Italy L'Aquila M6.3 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Guangmeng

    2016-04-01

    According to the satellite cloud anomaly appeared over eastern Italy on 21-23 April 2012, we predicted the M6.0 quake occurred in north Italy successfully. Here checked the satellite images in 2011-2013 in Italy, and 21 cloud anomalies were found. Their possible correlation with earthquakes bigger than M4.7 which located in Italy main fault systems was statistically examined by assuming various lead times. The result shows that when the leading time interval is set to 23≤ΔT≤45 days, 8 of the 10 quakes were preceded by cloud anomalies. Poisson random test shows that AAR (anomaly appearance rate) and EOR (EQ occurrence rate) is much higher than the values by chance. This study proved the relation between cloud anomaly and earthquake in Italy. With this method, we found that L'Aquila earthquake can also be predicted according to cloud anomaly.

  8. 77 FR 53909 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Institution of Five-year Reviews Concerning the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on imports of certain pasta from Italy and Turkey (61 FR 38544... Italy and Turkey (66 FR 57703). Following the second five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission... on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey (72 FR 58052). The Commission is now conducting third...

  9. Detection of Coronaviruses in Bats of Various Species in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Lelli, Davide; Papetti, Alice; Sabelli, Cristiano; Rosti, Enrica; Moreno, Ana; Boniotti, Maria B.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are natural reservoirs for many mammalian coronaviruses, which have received renewed interest after the discovery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) CoV in humans. This study describes the identification and molecular characterization of alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses in bats in Italy, from 2010 to 2012. Sixty-nine faecal samples and 126 carcasses were tested using pan-coronavirus RT-PCR. Coronavirus RNAs were detected in seven faecal samples and nine carcasses. A phylogenetic analysis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase sequence fragments aided in identifying two alphacoronaviruses from Kuhl’s pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii), three clade 2b betacoronaviruses from lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros), and 10 clade 2c betacoronaviruses from Kuhl’s pipistrelle, common noctule (Nyctalus noctula), and Savi’s pipistrelle (Hypsugo savii). This study fills a substantive gap in the knowledge on bat-CoV ecology in Italy, and extends the current knowledge on clade 2c betacoronaviruses with new sequences obtained from bats that have not been previously described as hosts of these viruses. PMID:24184965

  10. The epidemiology of Varicella Zoster Virus infection in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Gabutti, Giovanni; Rota, Maria C; Guido, Marcello; De Donno, Antonella; Bella, Antonino; Ciofi degli Atti, Marta L; Crovari, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    Background The epidemiological importance of varicella and zoster and the availability of an efficacious and safe vaccine have led to an important international debate regarding the suitability of mass vaccination. The objective of the study was to describe the epidemiology of varicella and zoster in Italy and to determine whether there have been changes with respect to observations provided by an analogous study conducted 8 years ago, in order to define the most appropriate vaccination strategy. Methods A number of data sources were evaluated, a cross-sectional population-based seroprevalence study was conducted on samples collected in 2004, and the results were compared with data obtained in 1996. Results The data from active and passive surveillance systems confirm that varicella is a widespread infectious disease which mainly affects children. VZV seroprevalence did not substantially differ from that found in the previous study. The sero-epidemiological profile in Italy is different from that in other European countries. In particular, the percentage of susceptible adolescents is at least nearly twice as high as in other European countries and in the age group 20–39 yrs, approximately 9% of individuals are susceptible to VZV. Conclusion The results of this study can contribute to evaluating the options for varicella vaccination. It is possible that in a few years, in all Italian Regions, there will exist the conditions necessary for implementing a mass vaccination campaign and that the large-scale availability of MMRV tetravalent vaccines will facilitate mass vaccination. PMID:18954432

  11. Gay and lesbian couples in Italy: comparisons with heterosexual couples.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Paolo; Dèttore, Davide; Lasagni, Irene; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina

    2014-12-01

    Assessing couple relationships across diverse languages and cultures has important implications for both clinical intervention and prevention. This is especially true for nontraditional relationships potentially subject to various expressions of negative societal evaluation or bias. Few empirically validated measures of relationship functioning have been developed for cross-cultural applications, and none have been examined for their psychometric sufficiency for evaluating same-sex couples across different languages and cultures. The current study examined the psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory - Revised (MSI-R), a 150-item 13-scale measure of couple relationship functioning, for its use in assessing the intimate relationships of gay and lesbian couples in Italy. Results for these couples were compared to data from heterosexual married and unmarried cohabiting couples from the same geographical region, as well as to previously published data for gay, lesbian, and unmarried heterosexual couples from the United States. Findings suggest that, despite unique societal pressures confronting Italian same-sex couples, these relationships appear resilient and fare well both overall and in specific domains of functioning compared to heterosexual couples both in Italy and the United States. PMID:24867576

  12. Development of Guidelines for Health Impact Assessment in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bert, Fabrizio; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Di Stanislao, Francesco; Siliquini, Roberta; Tozzi, Quinto; Pizzuti, Renato; Rizzo, Liliana; Scondotto, Salvatore; Bux, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a multidisciplinary method aimed at assessing the health effects of policies, plans, and projects using quantitative, qualitative, and participatory techniques. In many European countries, such as in Italy, there is a lack of implementation of HIA procedures and it would be necessary to develop instruments and protocols in order to improve the specific skills of professionals involved in the assessment process. This article aims to describe the development and implementation of HIA guidelines, promoted by the Italian National Agency for Regional Health Services (AGENAS), in 4 Southern Italian regions. Public health search engine and institutional Web sites were consulted to collect international data existing in this field. Monthly workshops were then organized with regional representatives to discuss the scientific literature and to identify the guidelines' contents: source of data, stakeholders, screening- and scoping-phase checklist tools, priority areas, monitoring, and reporting plans. Four regions (Calabria, Campania, Puglia, and Sicilia) took part in the project. This article describes the methodology of development and implementation of HIA guidelines in the Italian context. The tools created to collect data and assess health consequences (such as screening and scoping grids) are reported. This project represents the first structured initiative proposed and supported by the Ministry of Health aiming to introduce HIA in Italy. HIA should be considered a priority in the public health agenda, as a fundamental instrument in helping decision makers to make choices about alternatives to prevent disease/injury and to actively promote health. PMID:26125232

  13. Estimating temporal changes in extreme rainfall in Sicily Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, Brunella; Aronica, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    An intensification of extreme rainfall events have characterized several areas of peninsular and insular Italy since the early 2000s, suggesting an upward ongoing trend likely driven by climate change. In the present study temporal changes in 1-, 3-, 6-, 12- and 24-hour annual maxima rainfall series from more than 200 sites in Sicily region (Italy) are examined. A regional study is performed in order to reduce the uncertainty in change detection related to the limited length of the available records of extreme rainfall series. More specifically, annual maxima series are treated according to a regional flood index - type approach to frequency analysis, by assuming stationarity on a decadal time scale. First a cluster analysis using at-site characteristics is used to determine homogeneous rainfall regions. Then, potential changes in regional L-moment ratios are analyzed using a 10-year moving window. Furthermore, the shapes of regional growth curves, derived by splitting the records into separate decades, are compared. In addition, a jackknife procedure is used to assess uncertainty in the fitted growth curves and to identify significant trends in quantile estimates. Results reveal that, despite L-moment ratios show a general decreasing trend and that growth curves corresponding to the last decade (2000-2009) are usually less steep than the ones of the previous periods, rainfall quantile estimates have increased during the 2000s due to a large increase in regional average median, mainly in Western Sicily.

  14. Occurrence of mycotoxin in Farro samples from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Castoria, Raffaello; Lima, Giuseppe; Ferracane, Rosalia; Ritieni, Alberto

    2005-02-01

    The occurrence of nine mycotoxins and of contamination by pre- and postharvest fungal pathogens of cereals was investigated in samples of stored Triticum monococcum L., Triticum dicoccon Schrank (emmer), and Triticum spelta L. (spelt). In Italy, all three species are collectively referred to as farro. The samples examined were harvested in summer 2000 from eight different sites in southern Italy. Conventional fluorimetric and diode array-based high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses and HPLC-mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify fumonisin B1 in five samples (up to 70.00 microg/ kg), ochratoxin A in seven samples (up to 4.07 microg/kg), and beauvericin in three samples (up to 4.44 mg/kg). Enniatin B was detected in one sample (30.00 microg/kg), but no zearalenone or fusaproliferin was found. Deoxynivalenol and aflatoxins were not evaluated. The potentially mycotoxigenic fungal species detected were Alternaria alternata, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium tricinctum, Penicillium verrucosum, and Penicillium chrysogenum. This is the first report of the natural occurrence of mycotoxins in farro samples. PMID:15726990

  15. Regional frequency analysis of extreme precipitation for Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestieri, Angelo; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley; Lo Conti, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of extreme precipitation has always been included among most relevant hydrological applications because of the several important activities linked to the availability of tools for the estimation of extreme rainfall quantiles. These activities include the design of hydraulic civil structures and the evaluation and management of hydraulic and hydrological risk. In this study a frequency analysis of annual maxima precipitation measurements has been carried out for the area of Sicily (Italy). A typical hierarchical regional approach has been adopted for the parameter estimation procedure based on the L-moments method. The identification of homogeneous regions within the procedure has been pursued with a data driven procedure constituted by a principal component analysis of an ensemble of selected auxiliary variables, and a K-means cluster analysis algorithm. Auxiliary variables comprise meteo-climatic information and a representation of the average seasonal distribution of intense events. Results have been evaluated by means of a Monte Carlo experiment based on the comparison between at-site and regional fitted frequency distributions. Moreover, results have been compared with previous analyses performed for the same area. The study provides an updated tool for the modelling of extreme precipitation for the area of Sicily (Italy), with different features respect to previous tools both in terms of definition of homogeneous zones and in terms of parameters of the frequency distribution. Meteo-climatic information and the seasonality of extreme events retrieved from the dataset has been proficuously exploited in the analysis.

  16. Detection of coronaviruses in bats of various species in Italy.

    PubMed

    Lelli, Davide; Papetti, Alice; Sabelli, Cristiano; Rosti, Enrica; Moreno, Ana; Boniotti, Maria B

    2013-11-01

    Bats are natural reservoirs for many mammalian coronaviruses, which have received renewed interest after the discovery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) CoV in humans. This study describes the identification and molecular characterization of alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses in bats in Italy, from 2010 to 2012. Sixty-nine faecal samples and 126 carcasses were tested using pan-coronavirus RT-PCR. Coronavirus RNAs were detected in seven faecal samples and nine carcasses. A phylogenetic analysis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase sequence fragments aided in identifying two alphacoronaviruses from Kuhl's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii), three clade 2b betacoronaviruses from lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros), and 10 clade 2c betacoronaviruses from Kuhl's pipistrelle, common noctule (Nyctalus noctula), and Savi's pipistrelle (Hypsugo savii). This study fills a substantive gap in the knowledge on bat-CoV ecology in Italy, and extends the current knowledge on clade 2c betacoronaviruses with new sequences obtained from bats that have not been previously described as hosts of these viruses. PMID:24184965

  17. Health websites in Italy: use, classification and international policy.

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Paola; Maceratini, Riccardo

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss international policy in relation to the use of health websites and we describe the results obtained from application of a search engine to the recognition and classification of health websites in Italy. We then compare the results with health websites in other countries. Effective use of technology has led to medical advances that have not only extended life expectancy, but also fuelled an increasingly well-informed public to expect more and more from today's healthcare providers. As a consequence of the Web's rapid, chaotic growth, the resulting network of information lacks organization and structure and the quest for a method of quickly finding relevant and reliable information is spawning the growth of Internet portal sites. The US and the European Union and now Italy, have established the importance of rules to check the quality of health sites both for the non-professional users (citizens), mainly for privacy and security (for example, of medical records); and for health operators (physicians and others), where the most important thing is to evaluate the quality of content. In June 2001, the search engine used here found 2627 Italian health sites, of which only 46 exhibited the HON Code, and they can be classified into: 1% personal medical sites, 17% health portals, 18%, metasites, 27% documental sites and 37% information sites for health operators and/or for citizens. PMID:12507261

  18. First case report of invasive pseudoterranoviasis in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cavallero, Serena; Scribano, Daniela; D'Amelio, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    Members of the genera Anisakis and Pseudoterranova are the main causative agents of human anisakidosis: the disease is worldwide distributed, with major impact in countries with a large consumption of raw fish. Because of unspecific symptoms and limited diagnostic tools, incidence and burden of disease are probably underestimated. In Italy, all human infestations where the etiological agent has been properly identified, have been associated to the parasitic species Anisakis pegreffii, the most frequent anisakid in the Mediterranean area. Here, an invasive human case of pseudoterranoviasis is described for the first time in Italy: in 2015, a woman was found infected during a colonoscopy scheduled after the occurrence of nonspecific clinical symptoms. The nematode was found penetrating the ascending colon. The identification was performed by sequencing the mitochondrial region cox2 and by comparison to GenBank retrieved material using the BLAST search tool. The sample showed a 99% identity with Pseudoterranova decipiens sensu stricto. The record underlines the potential risk due to the consumption of raw or undercooked imported fishes. PMID:27395343

  19. The climatology of tornadoes and waterspouts in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaiotti, Dario B.; Giovannoni, Mauro; Pucillo, Arturo; Stel, Fulvio

    2007-02-01

    In this work 10 years of reports collected by weather amateurs are used to define a preliminary climatology of tornadoes and waterspouts in Italy. The results show behaviors different from those observed in other countries. Generally, tornadoes and waterspouts are more frequent in late summer and autumn than in the other seasons. The seasonality of tornadoes and waterspouts appears different for different Italian zones, in particular in the Po Valley and Friulian plain and coast (south to the Alps) tornadoes and waterspouts are more frequent in spring and early summer while in the Tirrenian and Ionian coasts (western and southern Italy), tornadoes and waterspouts are more frequent in late summer and autumn. As observed in other studies (Brooks, H., E. and Doswell, C. A. III, 2001. Some aspects of the international climatology of tornadoes by damage classification. Atmos. Res., 56, 191-201.) Italian tornadoes and waterspouts are statistically weaker than in other countries but this difference cannot be completely ascribed to the presence of waterspouts. The "CAPE Storm-Relative-Helicity diagrams" and "Shear Magnitude diagrams" obtained for Italian tornadoes and waterspouts show different characteristics than those obtained for US. The cause of these differences is still unknown, it can rely in the sample selection (problems with the concept of proximity sounding) or in a real climatic effect.

  20. Middle Eocene seagrass facies from Apennine carbonate platforms (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassetti, Laura; Benedetti, Andrea; Brandano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Two stratigraphic sections located in the Latium-Abruzzi (Monte Porchio, Central Apennines, Central Italy) and in the Apulian carbonate platform (S. Cesarea-Torre Tiggiano, Salento, Southern Italy) were measured and sampled to document the sedimentological characteristic and the faunistic assemblages of Middle Eocene seagrass deposits. The faunistic assemblages are dominated by porcellaneous foraminifera Orbitolites, Alveolina, Idalina, Spiroloculina, Quinqueloculina, Triloculina and abundant hooked-shaped gypsinids, associated with hooked red algae and green algae Halimeda. Fabiania, rotaliids and textulariids as well as nummulitids are subordinated. The samples were assigned to Lutetian (SBZ13-16) according to the occurrence of Nummulites cf. lehneri, Alveolina ex. gr. elliptica, Idalina berthelini, Orbitolites complanatus, Slovenites decastroi and Medocia blayensis. At Santa Cesarea reticulate nummulites occur in association with Alveolina spp. and Halkyardia minima marking the lower Bartonian (SBZ17). Three main facies associations have been recognised: I) larger porcellaneous foraminiferal grainstones with orbitolitids and alveolinids deposited into high-energy shallow-water settings influenced by wave processes that reworked the sediments associated with a seagrass; II) grainstone to packstone with small porcellaneous foraminifera and abundant permanently-attached gypsinids deposited in a more protected (e.g., small embayment) in situ vegetated environment; III) bioclastic packstone with parautochthonous material reworked from the seagrass by rip currents and accumulated into rip channels in a slightly deeper environment. The biotic assemblages suggest that the depositional environment is consistent with tropical to subtropical vegetated environments within oligotrophic conditions.

  1. Prevalence of allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Incorvaia, C; Senna, G; Mauro, M; Bonadonna, P; Marconi, I; Asero, R; Nitti, F

    2004-12-01

    The epidemiology of Hymenoptera venom allergy in Europe showed prevalence of systemic reactions of about 3%, but is scantly investigated in Italy. We studied two samples of the general and an at risk population, i.e. the foresters, in northern Italy. A standardized questionnaire dealing with allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings was submitted to the subjects included in the study, who were factory workers in Milan and Verona and foresters in Lombardy. An overall number of 574 subjects participated to the study, 462 (299 males and 163 females, mean age 40.1 yrs, range 20-63 yrs) were factory workers and 112 (all males, mean age 38.8 yrs, range 24-59 yrs) were foresters. Among factory workers, 302 (65.4%) were stung by Hymenoptera, 49 (10.6%) had had large local reactions, and 13 (2.8%) systemic reactions. Among foresters, 76 (67.8%) were stung, 11 (9.8%) had had large local reactions, and 5 (4.5%) systemic reactions. The systemic reactions were life-threatening in 3 (0.6%) industrial workers and 2 (1.8%) foresters. The prevalence of systemic reaction of 2.8% in the general population agrees with the data reported from a number of countries with temperate climate. The prevalence of 4.5% in foresters attributed to this population a risk only slightly increased. PMID:15662965

  2. Obtaining Reimbursement in France and Italy for New Diabetes Products

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Elmar; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key. PMID:25550411

  3. Structural damages of L'Aquila (Italy) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, H.; Bilgin, H.; Yilmaz, S.; Binici, H.; Öztas, A.

    2010-03-01

    On 6 April 2009 an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 occurred in L'Aquila city, Italy. In the city center and surrounding villages many masonry and reinforced concrete (RC) buildings were heavily damaged or collapsed. After the earthquake, the inspection carried out in the region provided relevant results concerning the quality of the materials, method of construction and the performance of the structures. The region was initially inhabited in the 13th century and has many historic structures. The main structural materials are unreinforced masonry (URM) composed of rubble stone, brick, and hollow clay tile. Masonry units suffered the worst damage. Wood flooring systems and corrugated steel roofs are common in URM buildings. Moreover, unconfined gable walls, excessive wall thicknesses without connection with each other are among the most common deficiencies of poorly constructed masonry structures. These walls caused an increase in earthquake loads. The quality of the materials and the construction were not in accordance with the standards. On the other hand, several modern, non-ductile concrete frame buildings have collapsed. Poor concrete quality and poor reinforcement detailing caused damage in reinforced concrete structures. Furthermore, many structural deficiencies such as non-ductile detailing, strong beams-weak columns and were commonly observed. In this paper, reasons why the buildings were damaged in the 6 April 2009 earthquake in L'Aquila, Italy are given. Some suggestions are made to prevent such disasters in the future.

  4. The Establishment of an Operational Earthquake Forecasting System in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, Warner; Lombardi, Anna Maria; Casarotti, Emanuele

    2014-05-01

    Just after the Mw 6.2 earthquake that hit L'Aquila, on April 6 2009, the Civil Protection nominated an International Commission on Earthquake Forecasting (ICEF) that paved the way to the development of the Operational Earthquake Forecasting (OEF), defined as the "procedures for gathering and disseminating authoritative information about the time dependence of seismic hazards to help communities prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes". In this paper we introduce the first official OEF system in Italy that has been developed by the new-born Centro di Pericolosità Sismica at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. The system provides every day an update of the weekly probabilities of ground shaking over the whole Italian territory. In this presentation, we describe in detail the philosophy behind the system, the scientific details, and the output format that has been preliminary defined in agreement with Civil Protection. To our knowledge, this is the first operational system that fully satisfies the ICEF guidelines. Probably, the most sensitive issue is related to the communication of such a kind of message to the population. Acknowledging this inherent difficulty, in agreement with Civil Protection we are planning pilot tests to be carried out in few selected areas in Italy; the purpose of such tests is to check the effectiveness of the message and to receive feedbacks.

  5. Potential SRF generation from a closed landfill in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Passamani, Giorgia; Ragazzi, Marco; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the possibility of producing solid recovered fuel (SRF) and "combustible SRF" from a landfill located in the north of Italy, where the waste is placed in cylindrical wrapped bales. Since the use of landfills for the disposal of municipal solid waste has many technical limitations and is subject to strict regulations and given that landfill post-closure care is very expensive, an interesting solution is to recover the bales that are stored in the landfill. The contents of the bales can then be used for energy recovery after specific treatments. Currently the landfill is closed and the local municipal council together with an environmental agency are considering constructing a mechanical biological treatment (MBT) plant for SRF production. The municipal solid waste that is stored in the landfill, the bio-dried material produced by the hypothetically treated waste in a plant for bio-drying, and the SRF obtained after the post-extraction of inert materials, metals and glass from the bio-dried material were characterized according to the quality and classification criteria of regulations in Italy. The analysis highlighted the need to treat the excavated waste in a bio-drying plant and later to remove the inert waste, metals and glass. Thus in compliance with Italian law, the material has a high enough LHV to be considered as "combustible SRF", (i.e. an SRF with enhanced characteristics). PMID:26209342

  6. ELF signals and EQLs in Central Italy in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidani, Cristiano

    2010-05-01

    Instrumental studies of earthquake electromagnetic phenomena began in the 1800's in Italy. These studies were inspired by several observations reported on in the XVIII century collections of earthquake phenomena and the inventions of the first electric and magnetic instruments. From about fifteen years ago in Italy a VLF electromagnetic monitoring which concerns sub ionospheric channel of propagation has been active. It has produced interesting results in connection with seismic activity. Recently, a continuous monitoring of LF, ELF and SLF electromagnetic signals was started in Central Italy. This was done to verify the usefulness of this research field so to understand earthquake processes and forecasting. The first station started operating near the city of Fermo, in the Marche region in 2006; while a second station started operating in Perugia, in the Umbria region in 2008. The Fermo station was initially set up with only a low frequency amplifier but from mid 2007 it has also been equipped with a long wave radio receiver tuned at 150 KHz. The electrode and the antenna are oriented along a north-south direction. Signals are recorded in wave and spectral image files through a maximal sample frequency of 2-5.5 KHz, so that a maximum signal frequency of 1-2.75 KHz can be analysed, while minimum frequency is limited by amplifier band equal to 4 Hz. The Perugia station was set up with a couple of low frequency amplifiers which work on two orthogonal electrodes, oriented along north-south and east-west directions. At this station the maximum sample frequency is 2-22 KHz so a maximum signal frequency of 1-11 KHz can be analysed, while minimum frequency is limited to 4 Hz. Several signals were recorded before and after the Aquila earthquake and on the occasions of other central Italy seismic swarms in 2009. Here the search for a physical link between seismic events and electromagnetic signals is being carried out. At the opposite end of the electromagnetic spectrum

  7. Morphology and evolution of sulphuric acid caves in South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; De Waele, Jo; Galdenzi, Sandro; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) related to the upwelling of acid water enriched in H2S and CO2 represents an unusual way of cave development. Since meteoric infiltration waters are not necessarily involved in speleogenesis, caves can form without the typical associated karst expressions (i.e. dolines) at the surface. The main mechanism of sulphuric acid dissolution is the oxidation of H2S (Jones et al., 2015) which can be amplified by bacterial mediation (Engel et al., 2004). In these conditions, carbonate dissolution associated with gypsum replacement, is generally believed to be faster than the normal epigenic one (De Waele et al., 2016). In Italy several SAS caves have been identified, but only few systems have been studied in detail: Frasassi and Acquasanta Terme (Marche)(Galdenzi et al., 2010), Monte Cucco (Umbria) (Galdenzi & Menichetti, 1995), and Montecchio (Tuscany) (Piccini et al., 2015). Other preliminary studies have been carried out in Calabria (Galdenzi, 2007) and Sicily (De Waele et al., 2016). Several less studied SAS cave systems located in South Italy, and in particular in Apulia (Santa Cesarea Terme), Sicily (Acqua Fitusa, Acqua Mintina) and Calabria (Mt. Sellaro and Cassano allo Ionio) have been selected in the framework of a PhD thesis on SAS caves and their speleogenesis. Using both limestone tablet weight loss (Galdenzi et al., 2012) and micro erosion meter (MEM) (Furlani et al., 2010) methods the dissolution rate above and under water in the caves will be quantified. Geomorphological observations, landscape analysis using GIS tools, and the analysis of gypsum and other secondary minerals (alunite and jarosite) (stable isotopes and dating) will help to reconstruct the speleogenetic stages of cave formation. Preliminary microbiological analysis will determine the microbial diversity and ecology in the biofilms. References Engel S.A., Stern L.A., Bennett P.C., 2004 - Microbial contributions to cave formation: New insight into sulfuric acid

  8. Managing induced riverbank filtration (IRF) at the Serchio River well field, Tuscany, Italy (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Ansiati, Alberto; Barbagli, Alessio; Borsi, Iacopo; Costabile, Gennarino; Dietrich, Peter; Mazzanti, Giorgio; Picciaia, Daniele; Bonari, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Along the Serchio River (Tuscany -Italy) a series of well fields is set for an overall amount of about 1 m3/s pumped groundwater providing drinking water for about 300000 people of the coastal Tuscany (mainly to the town of Lucca, Pisa and Livorno). Water is pumped enhancing riverbank filtration into a high yield (10-2 m2/s transmissivity) sand and gravel aquifer by artificially rising river head and setting pumping well fields along the river reach. However, being it unmanaged aquifer recharge, concerns arise both for quality and quantity of the abstracted groundwater. It happens in dry climate extremes (i.e. 2002/2003 or 2011/2012) that Serchio River flow falls below minimum environmental flow (MEF). Long term contamination of river water had been causing contamination of groundwater, as in 2002/2006, when pesticide contaminated surface water was polluting the well fields causing several problems to water supply. Such problems were overcome by setting in place derogatory regulations and then through dissemination and stakeholder activities reducing pesticide presence in surface water (EU LIFE SERIAL WELLFIR project). Although widely adopted, IRF is also not well stated from a regulatory point of view, eventually leading to concerns by a legal point of view. Within the framework of the MARSOL FPVII-ENV-2013 project an experimental site at a well field will be set to demonstrate the feasibility (by a technical, social and market point of view) and the benefits of managing IRF versus the unmanaged option. The Serchio experimental site will involve merging existing and proved technologies to produce a Decision Support System (DSS) based on remote data acquisition and transmission and GIS physically-based fully distributed numerical modeling to continuously monitor and manage well fields, reducing also human operated activities. The DSS along with the installed sensors, data transmission and storage tools will constitute a prototype whose potential market exploitation

  9. A unique lower mantle source for Southern Italy volcanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadoux, Anita; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Pinti, Daniele L.; Albarède, Francis

    2007-07-01

    The Southern Italy volcanism is characterized by the unusual occurrence of volcanic rocks with ocean-island basalt (OIB)-like characteristics, in particular at Etna and Iblean Mts in Sicily. The geochemical properties of the source of the Italian magmatism are usually explained by a north-south binary mixing between a mantle- and a crustally-derived end-members. The nature of the mantle end-member is, however, not agreed upon. One type of interpretation invokes a mixture of depleted mantle (DMM) and high U/Pb (HIMU) end-members [Gasperini, D., Blichert-Toft, J., Bosch, D., Del Moro, A., Macera, P., Albarède, F., 2002. Upwelling of deep mantle material through a plate window: Evidence from the geochemistry of Italian basaltic volcanics, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2367-2386], whereas an alternative view holds that the mantle end-member is unique and homogeneous, and similar to the FOZO- or C-type end-member identified in oceanic basalts [Bell, K., Castorina, F., Lavecchia, G., Rosatelli, G., Stoppa, F., 2004. Is there a mantle plume below Italy? EOS 85, 541-547]. Because mixing does not produce linear relationships between the isotopic compositions of different elements, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to the Pb isotope compositions of the Italian volcanics inclusive 36 of Sicily volcanoes. We demonstrate that HIMU cannot be an end-member of the Italian volcanics, but rather that the common component C (˜FOZO), which we interpret as reflecting the lower mantle, best represents the mantle source of the Italian magmatism. Our PCA calculation shows that the first principal component alone, which we take to be a mixture of two geochemical end-members, C and a crustally-derived component, explains 99.4% of the whole data variability. In contrast, the DMM end-member (the second principal component) is only present in the volcanics from the Tyrrhenian Sea floor. The C-like end-member, well represented by the Etna and Iblean Mts (Sicily), has relatively low 3He/ 4

  10. Middle Pleistocene ostracod assemblages from Lake Trasimeno, Perugia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchegiano, Marta; Gliozzi, Elsa; Buratti, Nicoletta; Ariztegui, Daniel; Cirilli, Simonetta

    2014-05-01

    Lake Trasimeno is a meso-eutrophic, shallow (<6 m deep) and large lake (~120km2) located in central Italy, at 259 m above sea level. A preliminary age model based on pollen data for a core retrieved along the present southern shore of the lake (north of the Panicarola town) suggests that the record may be as old as Middle Pleistocene. An ongoing multidisciplinary study of a 175 m long sedimentary core includes magnetic properties, sedimentary microfacies, paleontology, palynology and bulk elemental geochemistry. This contribution focus on the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the topmost 30 m of the core using ostracods. A total of 245 samples have been taken at a 13 cm sampling interval. On the whole, 13 species referable to 10 genera were collected (Ilyocypris gibba, Candona neglecta, Candona angulata, Cypridopsis vidua, Heterocypris salina, Limnocythere sp.1, Limnocythere stationis, Darwinula stevensoni, Cyprideis sp., Leptocythere spp., Fabaeformiscandona fabaeformis, Cyclocypris ovum). Abrupt changes in the abundance of the assemblages were found along the studied core alternating sections with very abundant ostracod remains with others with scant (or even null) individuals. Moreover, the changes observed in the composition of the ostracod assemblages are interpreted as recording environmental variations. In particular, two intervals are significant for the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of this sedimentary succession: 1) the section from 25.60 m to 23.50 m is characterized by a rich ostracod fauna (dominated by Cyprideis sp., Candona angulata and Leptocythere spp.). These assemblages possibly indicate an increase in salinity or alkalinity of the water body; 2) the interval from 21.05 m to 17.60 m contains Ilyocypris gibba, Candona neglecta, Cypridopsis vidua, Heterocypris salina, Limnocythere sp. 1, Limnocythere stationis and Darwinula stevensoni. Limnocythere stationis is a central European species, until now in Italy only described in the Holocene of